SUBJECT TO COMPLETION
Dated November 1, 2022
THE INFORMATION HEREIN IS NOT COMPLETE AND MAY BE CHANGED. WE MAY NOT SELL THESE SECURITIES UNTIL THE REGISTRATION STATEMENT FILED WITH THE U.S. SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION IS EFFECTIVE. THIS PROSPECTUS IS NOT AN OFFER TO SELL THESE SECURITIES AND IS NOT SOLICITING AN OFFER TO BUY THESE SECURITIES IN ANY JURISDICTION IN WHICH THE OFFER OR SALE IS NOT PERMITTED

PROSPECTUS
[December 31, 2022]







Vident Core U.S. Bond Strategy ETF® (VBND)
Vident U.S. Equity Strategy ETF ® (formerly, Vident Core U.S. Equity Fund) (VUSE)
Vident International Equity Fund® (VIDI)

Principal U.S. Listing Exchange: NYSE Arca, Inc.


































THE U.S. SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (“SEC”) HAS NOT APPROVED OR DISAPPROVED OF THESE SECURITIES OR PASSED UPON THE ACCURACY OR ADEQUACY OF THIS PROSPECTUS. ANY REPRESENTATION TO THE CONTRARY IS A CRIMINAL OFFENSE.




Vident Core U.S. Bond Strategy ETF
Vident U.S. Equity Strategy ETF
Vident International Equity Fund
Table of Contents
Vident Core U.S. Bond Strategy ETF Summary 3
Vident U.S. Equity Strategy ETF Summary 8
Vident International Equity Fund Summary 13
Additional Information About the Funds 19
Portfolio Holdings Information 25
Management 25
How to Buy and Sell Shares 27
Dividends, Distributions and Taxes 28
Distribution 30
Premium/Discount Information 30
Additional Notices 30
Financial Highlights 31

 
 
INVESTMENT PRODUCTS: n ARE NOT FDIC INSURED n MAY LOSE VALUE n ARE NOT BANK GUARANTEED
2


 Investment Objective
The Vident Core U.S. Bond Strategy ETF (the “Fund” or the “U.S. Bond Fund”) seeks to track the performance, before fees and expenses, of the Vident Core U.S. Bond IndexTM (the “Index” or the “U.S. Bond Index”).
Fees and Expenses of the Fund
The following table describes the fees and expenses you may pay if you buy, hold, and sell shares of the Fund (“Shares”). You may pay other fees, such as brokerage commissions and other fees to financial intermediaries, which are not reflected in the table and Example below.
Annual Fund Operating Expenses
(expenses that you pay each year as a percentage of the value of your investment)
Management Fees
0.41%
Distribution and/or Service (12b-1) Fees
None
Other Expenses
0.00%
Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses [0.41]%
Expense Example
This Example is intended to help you compare the cost of investing in the Fund with the cost of investing in other funds. The Example assumes that you invest $10,000 in the Fund for the time periods indicated and then continue to hold or redeem all of your Shares at the end of those periods. The Example also assumes that your investment has a 5% return each year and that the Fund’s operating expenses remain the same. The Example does not take into account brokerage commissions that you may pay on your purchases and sales of Shares. Although your actual costs may be higher or lower, based on these assumptions your costs would be:
1 Year
3 Years
5 Years
10 Years
[ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]
Portfolio Turnover
The Fund pays transaction costs, such as commissions, when it buys and sells securities (or “turns over” its portfolio). A higher portfolio turnover rate may indicate higher transaction costs and may result in higher taxes when Shares are held in a taxable account. These costs, which are not reflected in annual fund operating expenses or in the Example, affect the Fund’s performance. For the fiscal year ended August 31, 2022, the Fund’s portfolio turnover rate was [ ]% of the average value of its portfolio.
Principal Investment Strategies of the Fund
The Fund employs a “passive management” – or indexing – investment approach designed to track the performance of the Index.
The Vident Core U.S. Bond IndexTM
The Vident Core U.S. Bond IndexTM (Bloomberg:VUBDX) seeks to improve the overall mix of credit quality, interest rate and yield as compared to traditional U.S. core bond indices. The Index diversifies interest rate and credit risks across all core U.S. bond sectors, including U.S. Treasuries, U.S. agency securities, U.S. agency mortgage backed securities (“MBS”), and investment-grade corporate bonds, as well as non-core fixed income sectors such as high-yield corporate bonds (also known as “junk bonds”) and Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities (“TIPS”). While diversification among sectors is an important factor that will drive the risk/return profile of the strategy, another source of risk management is derived from the rules-based process that systematically over- or under-weights each sector based on valuations of each sector, historical relative valuations across sectors, sector default rates, and other quantitative factors. Within the investment grade and high yield corporate sectors, the strategy seeks to improve corporate bond exposures by screening for companies with relatively stronger leadership, governance, and creditworthiness factors. Within each sector, individual bonds are weighted based on a combination of yield, duration (i.e., interest rate sensitivity), creditworthiness, leadership, and governance factors, rather than amount of debt/bonds outstanding. The Index also seeks to improve liquidity by eliminating small issues and non-U.S. issuers.
The Index limits exposure to each of the high-yield corporate bonds and TIPS sectors to 20% and 15% of the Index, respectively. The Index will generally have an effective duration of three to seven years and will generally have an average credit quality of investment grade.
All rules are systematized and rely on data available at the end of each rebalancing period. The Index is rebalanced monthly and reconstituted quarterly in January, April, July, and October. As of December 1, 2022, the Index was comprised of [ ] component securities.
3


The Index was created on November 30, 2015 by Vident Financial, LLC, the Index Provider, for use by the Fund.
The Fund’s Investment Strategy
The Fund attempts to invest all, or substantially all, of its assets in the bonds that make up the Index. The Fund expects to use a “replication” strategy to achieve its investment objective, meaning it may invest in all of the component securities of the Index, but may, when the sub-adviser believes it is in the best interests of the Fund, use a “representative sampling” strategy, meaning it may invest in a sample of the securities in the Index whose risk, return and other characteristics closely resemble the risk, return and other characteristics of the Index as a whole.
The Fund may utilize the “To Be Announced” (“TBA”) market for MBS investments. The TBA market allows investors to gain exposure to MBS with certain broad characteristics (maturity, coupon, age) without taking delivery of the actual securities until the settlement day which is once every month. In addition, the Fund may utilize the TBA roll market, in which one sells, in the TBA market, the security for current month settlement, while simultaneously committing to buy the same TBA security for next month settlement. The Fund may utilize the TBA roll market for extended periods of time without taking delivery of the physical securities.
Under normal circumstances, at least 80% of the Fund’s total assets (exclusive of collateral held from securities lending) will be invested in the component securities of the Index and TBA securities representing such component securities. Vident Advisory, LLC (“Vident Advisory” or the “Adviser”), the Fund’s investment adviser, believes, over time, the correlation between the Fund’s performance and that of the Index, before fees and expenses, will be 95% or better.
To the extent the Index concentrates (i.e., holds more than 25% of its total assets) in the securities of a particular industry or group of related industries, the Fund will concentrate its investments to approximately the same extent as the Index.
Principal Risks of Investing in the Fund
The principal risks of investing in the Fund are summarized below. The principal risks are presented in alphabetical order to facilitate finding particular risks and comparing them with other funds. Each risk summarized below is considered a “principal risk” of investing in the Fund, regardless of the order in which it appears. As with any investment, there is a risk that you could lose all or a portion of your investment in the Fund. Some or all of these risks may adversely affect the Fund’s net asset value per share (“NAV”), trading price, yield, total return and/or ability to meet its objectives. For more information about the risks of investing in the Fund, see the section in the Fund’s Prospectus titled “Additional Information About the Funds.”
Call Risk. During periods of falling interest rates, an issuer of a callable bond held by the Fund may “call” or repay the security before its stated maturity, and the Fund may have to reinvest the proceeds at lower interest rates, resulting in a decline in the Fund’s income.
Credit Risk. Debt issuers and other counterparties may not honor their obligations or may have their debt downgraded by ratings agencies.
ETF Risks. The Fund is an ETF, and, as a result of an ETF’s structure, it is exposed to the following risks:
Authorized Participants, Market Makers, and Liquidity Providers Concentration Risk. The Fund has a limited number of financial institutions that may act as Authorized Participants (“APs”). In addition, there may be a limited number of market makers and/or liquidity providers in the marketplace. To the extent either of the following events occur, Shares may trade at a material discount to NAV and possibly face delisting: (i) APs exit the business or otherwise become unable to process creation and/or redemption orders and no other APs step forward to perform these services, or (ii) market makers and/or liquidity providers exit the business or significantly reduce their business activities and no other entities step forward to perform their functions.
Cash Redemption Risk. The Fund’s investment strategy may require it to redeem shares for cash or to otherwise include cash as part of its redemption proceeds. The Fund may be required to sell or unwind portfolio investments to obtain the cash needed to distribute redemption proceeds. This may cause the Fund to recognize a capital gain that it might not have recognized if it had made a redemption in-kind. As a result, the Fund may pay out higher annual capital gain distributions than if the in-kind redemption process was used.
Costs of Buying or Selling Shares. Due to the costs of buying or selling Shares, including brokerage commissions imposed by brokers and bid-ask spreads, frequent trading of Shares may significantly reduce investment results and an investment in Shares may not be advisable for investors who anticipate regularly making small investments.
Shares May Trade at Prices Other Than NAV. As with all ETFs, Shares may be bought and sold in the secondary market at market prices. Although it is expected that the market price of Shares will approximate the Fund’s NAV, there may be times when the market price of Shares is more than the NAV intra-day (premium) or less than the NAV intra-day (discount) due to supply and demand of Shares or during periods of market volatility. This risk is heightened in times of market volatility,
4


periods of steep market declines, and periods when there is limited trading activity for Shares in the secondary market, in which case such premiums or discounts may be significant.
Trading. Although Shares are listed for trading on NYSE Arca, Inc. (the “Exchange”) and may be traded on U.S. exchanges other than the Exchange, there can be no assurance that Shares will trade with any volume, or at all, on any stock exchange. In stressed market conditions, the liquidity of Shares may begin to mirror the liquidity of the Fund’s underlying portfolio holdings, which can be significantly less liquid than Shares, and this could lead to differences between the market price of the Shares and the underlying value of those Shares.
Extension Risk. During periods of rising interest rates, certain debt obligations will be paid off substantially more slowly than originally anticipated and the value of those securities may fall sharply, resulting in a decline in the Fund’s income and potentially in the value of the Fund’s investments.
Government Obligations Risk. No assurance can be given that the U.S. government will provide financial support to U.S. government-sponsored agencies or instrumentalities where it is not obligated to do so by law, such as the Federal National Mortgage Association (“Fannie Mae”) and the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (“Freddie Mac”). Securities issued by Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac have historically been supported only by the discretionary authority of the U.S. government. While the U.S. government provides financial support to various U.S. government-sponsored agencies and instrumentalities, such as Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, no assurance can be given that it will always do so. In September 2008, at the direction of the U.S. Department of the Treasury, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac were placed into conservatorship under the Federal Housing Finance Agency (“FHFA”), an independent regulator, and they remain in such status as of the date of this Prospectus. The U.S. government also took steps to provide additional financial support to Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac.
High-Yield Securities Risk. High-yield securities (also known as “junk bonds”) carry a greater degree of risk and are considered speculative by the major credit rating agencies. High-yield securities may be issued by companies that are restructuring, are smaller and less creditworthy, or are more highly indebted than other companies. This means that they may have more difficulty making scheduled payments of principal and interest. Changes in the value of high-yield securities are influenced more by changes in the financial and business position of the issuing company than by changes in interest rates when compared to investment grade securities. High-yield securities have greater volatility because there is less certainty that principal and interest payments will be made as scheduled. The Fund’s investments in high-yield securities expose it to a substantial degree of credit risk. These investments are considered speculative under traditional investment standards. Prices of high-yield securities will rise and fall primarily in response to actual or perceived changes in the issuer's financial health, although changes in market interest rates also will affect prices. High-yield securities may experience reduced liquidity and sudden and substantial decreases in price.
Interest Rate Risk. An increase in interest rates may cause the value of fixed-income securities held by the Fund to decline. The Fund may be subject to a greater risk of rising interest rates due to the current period of historically low rates and the effect of potential government fiscal policy initiatives and resulting market reaction to those initiatives.
Issuer-Specific Risk. Issuer-specific events, including changes in the financial condition of an issuer, can have a negative impact on the value of the Fund.
Liquidity Risk . Liquidity risk exists when particular investments are difficult to purchase or sell. This can reduce the Fund’s returns because the Fund may be unable to transact at advantageous times or prices.
Market Risk. The trading prices of debt securities and other instruments fluctuate in response to a variety of factors. The Fund’s NAV and market price may fluctuate significantly in response to these and other factors. As a result, an investor could lose money over short or long periods of time.
Beginning in the first quarter of 2020, financial markets in the United States and around the world experienced extreme and, in many cases, unprecedented volatility and severe losses due to the global pandemic caused by COVID-19, a novel coronavirus. The pandemic resulted in a wide range of social and economic disruptions, including closed borders, voluntary or compelled quarantines of large populations, stressed healthcare systems, reduced or prohibited domestic or international travel, and supply chain disruptions affecting the United States and many other countries. Some sectors of the economy and individual issuers have experienced particularly large losses as a result of these disruptions, and such disruptions may continue for an extended period of time or reoccur in the future to a similar or greater extent. In response, the U.S. government and the Federal Reserve have taken extraordinary actions to support the domestic economy and financial markets. Many countries, including the U.S., are subject to few restrictions related to the spread of COVID-19. It is unknown how long circumstances related to the pandemic will persist, whether they will reoccur in the future, whether efforts to support the economy and financial markets will be successful, and what additional implications may follow from the pandemic. The impact of these events and other epidemics or pandemics in the future could adversely affect Fund performance.
Mortgage- and Asset-Backed Securities Risk. The Fund may invest in U.S. government agency-backed mortgage- and asset-backed securities. Mortgage- and asset-backed securities are subject to interest rate risk. Modest movements in interest rates (both
5


increases and decreases) may quickly and significantly reduce the value of certain types of these securities. When interest rates fall, mortgage- and asset-backed securities may be subject to prepayment risk. When interest rates rise, certain types of mortgage- and asset-backed securities are subject to extension risk. Mortgage- and asset-backed securities can also be subject to the risk of default on the underlying residential or commercial mortgage(s) or other assets.
Passive Investment Risk. The Fund invests in the securities included in, or representative of, the Index regardless of their investment merit. The Fund does not attempt to outperform the Index or take defensive positions in declining markets. As a result, the Fund’s performance may be adversely affected by a general decline in the market segments relating to the Index.
Portfolio Turnover Risk. The Fund may trade all or a significant portion of the securities in its portfolio in connection with each rebalance and reconstitution of its Index. A high portfolio turnover rate increases transaction costs, which may increase the Fund’s expenses. Frequent trading may also cause adverse tax consequences for investors in the Fund due to an increase in short-term capital gains.
Prepayment Risk. This is the risk that a borrower will prepay some or the entire principal owed to the Fund. If that happens, the Fund may have to replace the security by investing the proceeds in a security with a lower yield. This could reduce the share price and income distributions of the Fund.
Sector Risk. To the extent the Fund invests more heavily in particular sectors of the economy, its performance will be especially sensitive to developments that significantly affect those sectors.
TBA Securities and Rolls Risk. TBA transactions are subject to increased credit risk and increased overall investment exposure. TBA rolls involve the risk that the Fund’s counterparty will be unable to deliver the mortgage-backed securities underlying the TBA roll at the fixed time. If the buyer files for bankruptcy or becomes insolvent, the buyer or its representative may ask for and receive an extension of time to decide whether to enforce the Fund’s repurchase obligation. In addition, the Fund earns interest by investing the transaction proceeds during the roll period. TBA roll transactions may have the effect of creating leverage in the Fund’s portfolio.
Tracking Error Risk. As with all index funds, the performance of the Fund and the Index may differ from each other for a variety of reasons. For example, the Fund incurs operating expenses and portfolio transaction costs not incurred by the Index. In addition, the Fund may not be fully invested in the securities of the Index at all times or may hold securities not included in the Index.
Performance
The following performance information indicates some of the risks of investing in the Fund. The bar chart shows the Fund’s performance for calendar years ended December 31. The table illustrates how the Fund’s average annual returns for the 1-year, 5-year, and since inception periods compare with those of a broad measure of market performance and the indexes tracked by the Fund during the applicable period. The Fund’s past performance, before and after taxes, does not necessarily indicate how it will perform in the future. Updated performance information is available on the Fund’s website at www.videntfunds.com.
Calendar Year Total Returns [to be updated in 485(b) Registration Statement]
chart-ccf64537c84f420b9c7a.jpg
For the year-to-date period ended [ ], the Fund’s total return was [ ]%. During the period of time shown in the bar chart, the Fund’s highest quarterly return was [ ]% for the quarter ended [ ], and the lowest quarterly return was [ ]% for the quarter ended [ ]..
6


Average Annual Total Returns
For the Periods Ended December 31, 2021
Vident Core U.S. Bond Strategy ETF
1 Year
5 Years
Since Inception
(10/15/2014)
Return Before Taxes
[ ] [ ] [ ]
Return After Taxes on Distributions
[ ] [ ] [ ]
Return After Taxes on Distributions and Sale of Shares
[ ] [ ] [ ]
Vident Core U.S. Bond Index/Vident Core U.S. Bond Strategy Index1
(reflects no deduction for fees, expenses, or taxes)
[ ] [ ] [ ]
FTSE Broad Investment Grade Bond Index
(reflects no deduction for fees, expenses, or taxes)
[ ] [ ] [ ]
1 Effective January 6, 2016, the Fund’s investment objective changed to track the performance, before fees and expenses, of the Vident Core U.S. Bond Index. Prior to January 6, 2016, the Fund’s investment objective was to track the price and total return performance, before fees and expenses, of the Vident Core U.S. Bond Strategy Index. Performance shown for periods prior to January 6, 2016 is that of the Vident Core U.S. Bond Strategy Index.
After-tax returns are calculated using the historical highest individual federal marginal income tax rates during the period covered by the table above and do not reflect the impact of state and local taxes. Actual after-tax returns depend on an investor’s tax situation and may differ from those shown. After-tax returns shown are not relevant to investors who hold their Shares through tax-deferred arrangements such as an individual retirement account (“IRA”) or other tax-advantaged accounts.
Management
Adviser: Vident Advisory, LLC
Sub-Adviser: Vident Investment Advisory, LLC (“VIA” or the “Sub-Adviser”)
Portfolio Managers:
Jim Iredale, CFA, Senior Portfolio Manager – Fixed Income for VIA, has been a portfolio manager of the Fund since April 2015.
Jeff Kernagis, CFA, Portfolio Manager for VIA, has been a portfolio manager of the Fund since June 2022.
Purchase and Sale of Shares
Shares are listed on the Exchange, and individual Shares may only be bought and sold in the secondary market through brokers at market prices, rather than NAV. Because Shares trade at market prices rather than NAV, Shares may trade at a price greater than NAV (premium) or less than NAV (discount).
The Fund issues and redeems Shares at NAV only in large blocks known as “Creation Units,” which only APs (typically, broker-dealers) may purchase or redeem. The Fund generally issues and redeems Creation Units in exchange for a portfolio of securities and/or a designated amount of U.S. cash.
Investors may incur costs attributable to the difference between the highest price a buyer is willing to pay to purchase Shares (bid) and the lowest price a seller is willing to accept for Shares (ask) when buying or selling Shares in the secondary market (the “bid-ask spread”). Recent information about the Fund, including its NAV, market price, premiums and discounts, and bid-ask spreads is available on the Fund’s website at www.videntfunds.com.
Tax Information
Fund distributions are generally taxable as ordinary income or capital gains (or a combination), unless your investment is in an IRA or other tax-advantaged account. Distributions on investments made through tax-deferred arrangements may be taxed later upon withdrawal of assets from those accounts.
Financial Intermediary Compensation
If you purchase Shares through a broker-dealer or other financial intermediary (such as a bank) (an “Intermediary”), the Adviser or its affiliates may pay Intermediaries for certain activities related to the Fund, including participation in activities that are designed to make Intermediaries more knowledgeable about exchange traded products, including the Fund, or for other activities, such as marketing, educational training or other initiatives related to the sale or promotion of Shares. These payments may create a conflict of interest by influencing the Intermediary and your salesperson to recommend the Fund over another investment. Any such arrangements do not result in increased Fund expenses. Ask your salesperson or visit the Intermediary’s website for more information.
7


Investment Objective
The Vident U.S. Equity Strategy ETF (formerly, Vident Core U.S. Equity Fund) (the “Fund” or “U.S. Equity Fund”) seeks to track the performance, before fees and expenses, of the Vident U.S. Quality Index TM (the “Index” or the “U.S. Quality Index”).
Fees and Expenses of the Fund
The following table describes the fees and expenses you may pay if you buy, hold, and sell shares of the Fund (“Shares”). You may pay other fees, such as brokerage commissions and other fees to financial intermediaries, which are not reflected in the table and Example below.
Annual Fund Operating Expenses
(expenses that you pay each year as a percentage of the value of your investment)
Management Fees 0.50%
Distribution and/or Service (12b-1) Fees None
Other Expenses 0.00%
Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses [0.50]%
Expense Example
This Example is intended to help you compare the cost of investing in the Fund with the cost of investing in other funds. The Example assumes that you invest $10,000 in the Fund for the time periods indicated and then continue to hold or redeem all of your Shares at the end of those periods. The Example also assumes that your investment has a 5% return each year and that the Fund’s operating expenses remain the same. The Example does not take into account brokerage commissions that you may pay on your purchases and sales of Shares. Although your actual costs may be higher or lower, based on these assumptions your costs would be:
1 Year
3 Years
5 Years
10 Years
[ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]
Portfolio Turnover
The Fund pays transaction costs, such as commissions, when it buys and sells securities (or “turns over” its portfolio). A higher portfolio turnover rate may indicate higher transaction costs and may result in higher taxes when Shares are held in a taxable account. These costs, which are not reflected in annual fund operating expenses or in the Example, affect the Fund’s performance. For the fiscal year ended August 31, 2022, the Fund’s portfolio turnover rate was [ ]% of the average value of its portfolio.
Principal Investment Strategies of the Fund
The Fund employs a “passive management” – or indexing – investment approach designed to track the performance of the Index.
The Vident U.S. Quality Index TM
The Index is a rules-based, systematic strategy index comprised of equity securities principally traded in the U.S. market of issuers domiciled in the United States. The starting universe of eligible companies in the Index consists of U.S.-listed common stock of U.S. companies with market capitalizations of at least $100 million. Companies eligible for inclusion must also meet certain minimum liquidity requirements.
The companies remaining in the Index universe are placed into one of three market capitalization segments: Giant (companies in the top 40% by market capitalization at the time of purchase), Large (companies in the top 40-70% range by market capitalization at the time of purchase) and SMID (also known as small/mid-capitalization companies, which are the remaining companies in the bottom 30% of the Index universe).
Companies are assessed across a variety of proprietary corporate governance criteria with risks flagged. The number of flagged risks are summed to form a company’s Corporate Governance Score. Companies with lower Corporate Governance Scores receive lower potential allocations. The proprietary corporate governance criteria are broadly designed to identify issues relating to board structure, incentives alignment, and shareholder rights.
At the time of each semi-annual reconstitution, the Index employs a multi-factor model for scoring and ranking stocks based on certain quality and momentum factors, and the stocks in the Index are weighted based on these factors and subject to certain adjustments and limitations, including the following constraints:
the maximum allocation to a Giant market-capitalization company is 2%;
8


t he maximum allocation to a Large market-capitalization company is 1%; and
the maximum allocation to a SMID market-capitalization company is 0.5%.
The Index’s allocation and weighting to a company is subject to certain liquidity thresholds. All companies eligible for inclusion receive an initial weight of 0.10%, and then the maximum weighting by market-capitalization segment is applied. Further adjustments are then made based on the company’s Corporate Governance Score and the company’s quality and momentum attributes, as described below.
The Index’s maximum allocation to a company may be adjusted downward by as much as 100% based on the company’s Corporate Governance Score ( i.e. , the Index uses the Corporate Governance Score to reduce potential weightings to companies with less favorable rankings relative to their market segment peers). The Index’s maximum allocation to a company may be increased by 25% if that company ranks in the top 25th percentile within its market-capitalization segment ( e.g. , if a company’s initial allocation is 2%, then the allocation would be 2.5%). The Index’s allocation to a market cap segment, at the time of the semi-annual reconstitution, will be within 5% of the initial cap weighted universe’s allocation to that segment.
A company’s weighting is further adjusted by considering the company’s quality and momentum attributes, based on a proprietary multi-factor model for scoring and ranking stocks. The model combines factors into two distinct factor composites, each seeking to score different stock attributes. These factor composites can be broadly categorized into the following groupings: quality and momentum. For stocks in the Giant and Large market cap segment, quality is defined as profitability and profitability growth. The components account for current and historical gross profits, return on invested capital, cash flows, and margins of companies in each segment. For stocks in SMID market cap segment, two additional composites are utilized: cost of capital and use of capital. These composites account for characteristics such as leverage, credit strength, debt, and equity issuance.
All rules are systematized and rely on data available at the end of each rebalancing period. The Index is reconstituted and rebalanced semi-annually in February and August. As of [ ], 2022, the Index was comprised of [ ] component securities.
The Index was created on [November 30, 2022,] by Vident Financial, LLC, the Index Provider, for use by the Fund.
The Fund’s Investment Strategy
The Fund attempts to invest all, or substantially all, of its assets in the common stocks that make up the Index. The Fund will generally use a “replication” strategy to achieve its investment objective, meaning it may invest in all of the component securities of the Index, but may, when the sub-adviser believes it is in the best interests of the Fund, use a “representative sampling” strategy, meaning it may invest in a sample of the securities in the Index whose risk, return and other characteristics closely resemble the risk, return and other characteristics of the Index as a whole. Vident Advisory, LLC (“Vident Advisory” or the “Adviser”), the Fund’s investment adviser, expects that, over time, the correlation between the Fund’s performance and that of the Index, before fees and expenses, will be 95% or better.
To the extent the Index concentrates (i.e., holds more than 25% of its total assets) in the securities of a particular industry or group of related industries, the Fund will concentrate its investments to approximately the same extent as the Index.
Principal Risks of Investing in the Fund
The principal risks of investing in the Fund are summarized below. The principal risks are presented in alphabetical order to facilitate finding particular risks and comparing them with other funds. Each risk summarized below is considered a “principal risk” of investing in the Fund, regardless of the order in which it appears. As with any investment, there is a risk that you could lose all or a portion of your investment in the Fund. Some or all of these risks may adversely affect the Fund’s net asset value per share (“NAV”), trading price, yield, total return and/or ability to meet its objectives. For more information about the risks of investing in the Fund, see the section in the Fund’s Prospectus titled “Additional Information About the Funds.”
Equity Market Risk. The equity securities held in the Fund’s portfolio may experience sudden, unpredictable drops in value or long periods of decline in value. This may occur because of factors that affect securities markets generally or factors affecting specific issuers, industries, or sectors in which the Fund invests. Common stocks are generally exposed to greater risk than other types of securities, such as preferred stock and debt obligations, because common stockholders generally have inferior rights to receive payment from issuers. In addition, local, regional or global events such as war, including Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, acts of terrorism, spread of infectious diseases or other public health issues, recessions, rising inflation, or other events could have a significant negative impact on the Fund and its investments. For example, the global pandemic caused by COVID-19, a novel coronavirus, and the aggressive responses taken by many governments, including closing borders, restricting international and domestic travel, and the imposition of prolonged quarantines or similar restrictions, has had negative impacts, and in many cases severe impacts, on markets worldwide. The COVID-19 pandemic has caused prolonged disruptions to the normal business operations of companies around the world and the impact of such disruptions is hard to predict. Such events may affect certain geographic regions, countries, sectors and industries more significantly than others. Such events could adversely affect the prices and liquidity of the Fund’s portfolio securities or other instruments and could result in disruptions in the trading markets.
9


ETF Risks. The Fund is an ETF, and, as a result of an ETF’s structure, it is exposed to the following risks:
Authorized Participants, Market Makers, and Liquidity Providers Concentration Risk. The Fund has a limited number of financial institutions that may act as Authorized Participants (“APs”). In addition, there may be a limited number of market makers and/or liquidity providers in the marketplace. To the extent either of the following events occur, Shares may trade at a material discount to NAV and possibly face delisting: (i) APs exit the business or otherwise become unable to process creation and/or redemption orders and no other APs step forward to perform these services, or (ii) market makers and/or liquidity providers exit the business or significantly reduce their business activities and no other entities step forward to perform their functions.
Costs of Buying or Selling Shares. Due to the costs of buying or selling Shares, including brokerage commissions imposed by brokers and bid-ask spreads, frequent trading of Shares may significantly reduce investment results and an investment in Shares may not be advisable for investors who anticipate regularly making small investments.
Shares May Trade at Prices Other Than NAV. As with all ETFs, Shares may be bought and sold in the secondary market at market prices. Although it is expected that the market price of Shares will approximate the Fund’s NAV, there may be times when the market price of Shares is more than the NAV intra-day (premium) or less than the NAV intra-day (discount) due to supply and demand of Shares or during periods of market volatility. This risk is heightened in times of market volatility, periods of steep market declines, and periods when there is limited trading activity for Shares in the secondary market, in which case such premiums or discounts may be significant.
Trading. Although Shares are listed for trading on NYSE Arca, Inc. (the “Exchange”) and may be traded on U.S. exchanges other than the Exchange, there can be no assurance that Shares will trade with any volume, or at all, on any stock exchange. In stressed market conditions, the liquidity of Shares may begin to mirror the liquidity of the Fund’s underlying portfolio holdings, which can be significantly less liquid than Shares, and this could lead to differences between the market price of the Shares and the underlying value of those Shares.
Large-Capitalization Investing. The Fund’s performance may be adversely affected if securities of large cap companies underperform securities of smaller-capitalization companies or the market as a whole. The securities of large cap companies may be relatively mature compared to smaller companies and therefore subject to slower growth during times of economic expansion. Large-capitalization companies may also be unable to respond quickly to new competitive challenges, such as changes in technology and consumer tastes.
Mid-Capitalization Investing. The Fund may invest in the securities of mid-capitalization companies. As a result, the Fund’s performance may be adversely affected if securities of mid-capitalization companies underperform securities of other capitalization ranges or the market as a whole. Securities of smaller companies are often more vulnerable to market volatility than securities of larger companies.
Passive Investment Risk. The Fund invests in the securities included in, or representative of, the Index regardless of their investment merit. The Fund does not attempt to outperform the Index or take defensive positions in declining markets. As a result, the Fund’s performance may be adversely affected by a general decline in the market segments relating to the Index.
Portfolio Turnover Risk. The Fund may trade all or a significant portion of the securities in its portfolio in connection with each rebalance and reconstitution of its Index. A high portfolio turnover rate increases transaction costs, which may increase the Fund’s expenses. Frequent trading may also cause adverse tax consequences for investors in the Fund due to an increase in short-term capital gains.
Sector Risk. To the extent the Fund invests more heavily in particular sectors of the economy, its performance will be especially sensitive to developments that significantly affect those sectors. The Fund may invest a significant portion of its assets in the following sectors and, therefore, the performance of the Fund could be negatively impacted by events affecting each of these sectors.
Consumer Discretionary Sector Risk. The success of consumer product manufacturers and retailers is tied closely to the performance of domestic and international economies, interest rates, exchange rates, competition, consumer confidence, changes in demographics and consumer preferences. Companies in the consumer discretionary sector depend heavily on disposable household income and consumer spending, and such companies may be strongly affected by social trends and marketing campaigns. These companies may be subject to severe competition, which may have an adverse impact on their profitability.
Financial Sector Risk. This sector can be significantly affected by changes in interest rates, government regulation, the rate of defaults on corporate, consumer and government debt, the availability and cost of capital, and fallout from the housing and sub-prime mortgage crisis. Insurance companies, in particular, may be significantly affected by changes in interest rates, catastrophic events, price and market competition, the imposition of premium rate caps, or other changes in government regulation or tax law and/or rate regulation, which may have an adverse impact on their profitability. This sector has
10


experienced significant losses in the recent past, and the impact of more stringent capital requirements and of recent or future regulation on any individual financial company or on the sector as a whole cannot be predicted. In recent years, cyber attacks and technology malfunctions and failures have become increasingly frequent in this sector and have caused significant losses.
Industrial Sector Risk. The industrial sector can be significantly affected by, among other things, worldwide economic growth, supply and demand for specific products and services, rapid technological developments, international political and economic developments, environmental issues, tariffs and trade barriers, and tax and governmental regulatory policies. As the demand for, or prices of, industrials increase, the value of the Fund’s investments generally would be expected to also increase. Conversely, declines in the demand for, or prices of, industrials generally would be expected to contribute to declines in the value of such securities. Such declines may occur quickly and without warning and may negatively impact the value of the Fund and your investment.
Information Technology Sector Risk. Market or economic factors impacting information technology companies and companies that rely heavily on technological advances could have a significant effect on the value of the Fund’s investments. The value of stocks of information technology companies and companies that rely heavily on technology is particularly vulnerable to rapid changes in technology product cycles, rapid product obsolescence, government regulation and competition, both domestically and internationally, including competition from foreign competitors with lower production costs. Stocks of information technology companies and companies that rely heavily on technology, especially those of smaller, less-seasoned companies, tend to be more volatile than the overall market. Information technology companies are heavily dependent on patent and intellectual property rights, the loss or impairment of which may adversely affect profitability.
Small-Capitalization Investing. The Fund may invest in the securities of small-capitalization companies. As a result, the Fund may be more volatile than funds that invest in larger, more established companies. The securities of small-capitalization companies generally trade in lower volumes and are subject to greater and more unpredictable price changes than larger capitalization stocks or the stock market as a whole. Small-capitalization companies may be particularly sensitive to changes in interest rates, government regulation, borrowing costs and earnings.
Tracking Error Risk. As with all index funds, the performance of the Fund and the Index may differ from each other for a variety of reasons. For example, the Fund incurs operating expenses and portfolio transaction costs not incurred by the Index. In addition, the Fund may not be fully invested in the securities of the Index at all times or may hold securities not included in the Index.
Performance
The following performance information indicates some of the risks of investing in the Fund. The bar chart shows the Fund’s performance for calendar years ended December 31. The table illustrates how the Fund’s average annual returns for the 1-year, 5-year, and since inception periods compare with those of indexes that provide a broad measure of market performance and the indexes tracked by the Fund during the applicable period. The Fund’s past performance, before and after taxes, does not necessarily indicate how it will perform in the future. Updated performance information is available on the Fund’s website at www.videntfunds.com.
Calendar Year Total Returns [to be updated in 485(b) Registration Statement]
chart-c73a244b52164c8a8f9a.jpg
For the year-to-date period ended [ ], the Fund’s total return was [ ]%. During the period of time shown in the bar chart, the Fund’s highest quarterly return was [ ]% for the quarter ended [ ], and the lowest quarterly return was [ ]% for the quarter ended [ ].
11


Average Annual Total Returns
For the Periods Ended December 31, 2021
Vident U.S. Equity Strategy ETF
1 Year
5 Years
Since Inception
(1/21/2014)
Return Before Taxes
[ ] [ ] [ ]
Return After Taxes on Distributions
[ ] [ ] [ ]
Return After Taxes on Distributions and Sale of Shares
[ ] [ ] [ ]
Vident Core U.S. Stock Index/Vident Core U.S. Equity Index1
(reflects no deduction for fees, expenses, or taxes)
[ ] [ ] [ ]
Morningstar US Market Total Return Index
(reflects no deduction for fees, expenses, or taxes)
[ ] [ ] [ ]
S&P 500 Index
(reflects no deduction for fees, expenses, or taxes)
[ ] [ ] [ ]
1 [Effective December 31, 2022, the Fund’s investment objective changed to track the performance, before fees and expenses of the Vident U.S. Quality Index. .] Prior to December 31, 2022, the Fund’s investment objective was to track the price and total return performance, before fees and expenses, of the Vident Core U.S. Stock Index. Effective January 6, 2016, the Fund’s investment objective changed to track the performance, before fees and expenses, of the Vident Core U.S. Stock Index. Prior to January 6, 2016, the Fund’s investment objective was to track the price and total return performance, before fees and expenses, of the Vident Core U.S. Equity Index. Performance shown for periods prior to January 6, 2016 is that of the Vident Core U.S. Equity Index.
After-tax returns are calculated using the historical highest individual federal marginal income tax rates during the period covered by the table above and do not reflect the impact of state and local taxes. Actual after-tax returns depend on an investor’s tax situation and may differ from those shown. After-tax returns shown are not relevant to investors who hold their Shares through tax-deferred arrangements such as an individual retirement account (“IRA”) or other tax-advantaged accounts.
Management
Adviser: Vident Advisory, LLC
Sub-Adviser: Vident Investment Advisory, LLC (“VIA” or the “Sub-Adviser”)
Portfolio Managers:
Austin Wen, CFA, Portfolio Manager for VIA, has been a portfolio manager of the Fund since December 2018.
Rafael Zayas, CFA, SVP, Head of Portfolio Management and Trading for VIA, has been a portfolio manager of the Fund since June 2020.
Ryan Dofflemeyer, Senior Portfolio Manager for VIA, has been a portfolio manager of the Fund since December 2020.
Purchase and Sale of Shares
Shares are listed on the Exchange, and individual Shares may only be bought and sold in the secondary market through brokers at market prices, rather than NAV. Because Shares trade at market prices rather than NAV, Shares may trade at a price greater than NAV (premium) or less than NAV (discount).
The Fund issues and redeems Shares at NAV only in large blocks known as “Creation Units,” which only APs (typically, broker-dealers) may purchase or redeem. The Fund generally issues and redeems Creation Units in exchange for a portfolio of securities and/or a designated amount of U.S. cash.
Investors may incur costs attributable to the difference between the highest price a buyer is willing to pay to purchase Shares (bid) and the lowest price a seller is willing to accept for Shares (ask) when buying or selling Shares in the secondary market (the “bid-ask spread”). Recent information about the Fund, including its NAV, market price, premiums and discounts, and bid-ask spreads is available on the Fund’s website at www.videntfunds.com.
Tax Information
Fund distributions are generally taxable as ordinary income, qualified dividend income, or capital gains (or a combination), unless your investment is in an IRA or other tax-advantaged account. Distributions on investments made through tax-deferred arrangements may be taxed later upon withdrawal of assets from those accounts.
Financial Intermediary Compensation
If you purchase Shares through a broker-dealer or other financial intermediary (such as a bank) (an “Intermediary”), the Adviser or its affiliates may pay Intermediaries for certain activities related to the Fund, including participation in activities that are designed to make Intermediaries more knowledgeable about exchange traded products, including the Fund, or for other activities, such as marketing, educational training or other initiatives related to the sale or promotion of Shares. These payments may create a conflict of interest by influencing the Intermediary and your salesperson to recommend the Fund over another investment. Any such arrangements do not result in increased Fund expenses. Ask your salesperson or visit the Intermediary’s website for more information.
12


Investment Objective
The Vident International Equity Fund (the “Fund” or “International Equity Fund”) seeks to track the performance, before fees and expenses, of the Vident Core International Equity Index™ (the “Index” or the “International Equity Index”).
Fees and Expenses of the Fund
The following table describes the fees and expenses you may pay if you buy, hold, and sell shares of the Fund (“Shares”). You may pay other fees, such as brokerage commissions and other fees to financial intermediaries, which are not reflected in the table and Example below.
Annual Fund Operating Expenses
(expenses that you pay each year as a percentage of the value of your investment)
Management Fees 0.61%
Distribution and/or Service (12b-1) Fees None
Other Expenses 0.00%
Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses [0.61]%
Expense Example
This Example is intended to help you compare the cost of investing in the Fund with the cost of investing in other funds. The Example assumes that you invest $10,000 in the Fund for the time periods indicated and then continue to hold or redeem all of your Shares at the end of those periods. The Example also assumes that your investment has a 5% return each year and that the Fund’s operating expenses remain the same. The Example does not take into account brokerage commissions that you may pay on your purchases and sales of Shares. Although your actual costs may be higher or lower, based on these assumptions your costs would be:
1 Year
3 Years
5 Years
10 Years
[ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]
Portfolio Turnover
The Fund pays transaction costs, such as commissions, when it buys and sells securities (or “turns over” its portfolio). A higher portfolio turnover rate may indicate higher transaction costs and may result in higher taxes when Shares are held in a taxable account. These costs, which are not reflected in annual fund operating expenses or in the Example, affect the Fund’s performance. For the fiscal year ended August 31, 2022, the Fund’s portfolio turnover rate was [ ]% of the average value of its portfolio.
Principal Investment Strategies of the Fund
The Fund employs a “passive management” – or indexing – investment approach designed to track the performance of the Index.
The Vident Core International Equity Index™
The Index is a rules-based, systematic strategy index comprised of equity securities of issuers in developed and emerging markets outside of the United States. The strategy seeks to provide a systematic and optimized investment process that addresses the risks and opportunities of allocating capital in and among international equities.
Country Allocation
Index construction begins by identifying a universe of countries that are deemed to represent the bulk of investable and reliable stock opportunities in the largest and most liquid developed and emerging markets countries located outside of the United States. The Index determines a country’s investability based on factors including the country’s liquidity, accessibility to foreign investors, opportunities for efficient transactions, and capital controls. The Index determines a country’s reliability based on factors including governance, regulatory oversight, market operational efficiency, legal protections for minority and foreign investors and institutional stability. While the number of countries represented in the Index may change from time to time (e.g., at Index reconstitution or rebalance), the number of countries represented in the Index is expected to generally be between 25 and 40.
Each country within the investable universe is assigned a Country Principles Score (“CPS”), which is calculated utilizing a proprietary scoring methodology that seeks to weigh the relative resilience of a country to economic and financial shocks and the relative attractiveness of its investment opportunities. A country’s resilience reflects the capacity of a country’s equity markets to absorb and recover from economic and financial shocks and is measured based on a variety of economic metrics related to its financial capital resources (e.g., the country’s deficit as a percentage of gross domestic product (“GDP”), physical capital resources (e.g., total investment as a percentage of GDP), human resources (e.g., productivity, GDP per capital), and institutional and organizational
13


resources (i.e., measures of legal and corporate rights). A country’s investment opportunity is measured based on short- and long-term changes in the country’s business and regulatory environment and equity market valuations. Allocation across countries is based on an optimization model that seeks to maximize the Index’s overall CPS while ensuring the Index portfolio is liquid, well diversified across countries and regions, and transaction cost and turnover efficient.
Stock Selection
The Index employs a multi-factor model for scoring and ranking stocks listed on a securities exchange within each country in the Index universe. The model combines 20 factors into three distinct factor composites, each seeking to score different stock attributes:
Component Examples Weight
Valuation Price-to-book ratio, cash flow to enterprise value 50%
Quality Gross profitability, return on invested capital, margin expansion, leverage, debt & equity issuance 30%
Momentum
Total return for past six months
20%
Stocks are excluded from the Index universe if (i) they trade primarily in China, (ii) the stock’s issuer is domiciled in Russia or India and does not have a depositary receipt that meets the Index’s liquidity guidelines, (iii) the stock’s issuer has a market capitalization of less than US$1 billion (US$800 million for stocks already in the Index), or (iv) the stock does not meet certain minimum liquidity requirements.
At the time of each reconstitution, the optimization model weights the remaining stocks to maximize the attractive factor attributes of the stocks subject to the following constraints: (i) a maximum allocation of 0.5% for any individual stock, (ii) certain liquidity thresholds, (iii) a maximum allocation of 7.5% for any individual country, and (iv) sector allocations constrained to remain close to their sector weights in a traditional market capitalization weighted index.
All rules are systematized and rely on data available at the end of each rebalancing period. The Index is reconstituted and rebalanced semi-annually in January and July. As of December 1, 2022, the Index was comprised of [ ] component securities.
The Index was created on December 31, 2014 by Vident Financial, LLC, the Index Provider, for use by the Fund.
The Fund’s Investment Strategy
The Fund attempts to invest all, or substantially all, of its assets in the common stocks that make up the Index. The Fund expects to use a “replication” strategy to achieve its investment objective, meaning it will invest in all of the component securities of the Index, but may, when the sub-adviser believes it is in the best interests of the Fund, use a “representative sampling” strategy, meaning it may invest in a sample of the securities in the Index whose risk, return and other characteristics closely resemble the risk, return and other characteristics of the Index as a whole.
Under normal circumstances, at least 80% of the Fund’s total assets (exclusive of collateral held from securities lending) will be invested in the component securities of the Index and depositary receipts representing such component securities. Vident Advisory, LLC (“Vident Advisory” or the “Adviser”), the Fund’s investment adviser, expects that, over time, the correlation between the Fund’s performance and that of the Index, before fees and expenses, will be 95% or better.
To the extent the Index concentrates (i.e., holds more than 25% of its total assets) in the securities of a particular industry or group of related industries, the Fund will concentrate its investments to approximately the same extent as the Index.
Principal Risks of Investing in the Fund
The principal risks of investing in the Fund are summarized below. The principal risks are presented in alphabetical order to facilitate finding particular risks and comparing them with other funds. Each risk summarized below is considered a “principal risk” of investing in the Fund, regardless of the order in which it appears. As with any investment, there is a risk that you could lose all or a portion of your investment in the Fund. Some or all of these risks may adversely affect the Fund’s net asset value per share (“NAV”), trading price, yield, total return and/or ability to meet its objectives. For more information about the risks of investing in the Fund, see the section in the Fund’s Prospectus titled “Additional Information About the Funds.”
Capital Controls and Sanctions Risk. Economic conditions, such as volatile currency exchange rates and interest rates, political events, military action and other conditions may, without prior warning, lead to foreign government intervention (including intervention by the U.S. government with respect to foreign governments, economic sectors, foreign companies and related securities and interests) and the imposition of capital controls and/or sanctions, which may also include retaliatory actions of one government against another government, such as seizure of assets. Capital controls and/or sanctions include the prohibition of, or restrictions on, the ability to transfer currency, securities or other assets. Capital controls and/or sanctions may also impact the
14


ability of the Fund to buy, sell or otherwise transfer securities or currency, negatively impact the value and/or liquidity of such instruments, adversely affect the trading market and price for Shares, and cause the Fund to decline in value.
Currency Exchange Rate Risk. The Fund may invest a relatively large percentage of its assets in investments denominated in non-U.S. currencies or in securities that provide exposure to such currencies. Changes in currency exchange rates and the relative value of non-U.S. currencies will affect the value of the Fund’s investment and the value of your Shares. Currency exchange rates can be very volatile and can change quickly and unpredictably. As a result, the value of an investment in the Fund may change quickly and without warning and you may lose money.
Emerging Markets Risk. The Fund may invest in companies organized in emerging market nations. Investments in securities and instruments traded in developing or emerging markets, or that provide exposure to such securities or markets, can involve additional risks relating to political, economic, or regulatory conditions not associated with investments in U.S. securities and instruments or investments in more developed international markets. Such conditions may impact the ability of the Fund to buy, sell or otherwise transfer securities, adversely affect the trading market and price for Shares and cause the Fund to decline in value.
Equity Market Risk. The equity securities held in the Fund’s portfolio may experience sudden, unpredictable drops in value or long periods of decline in value. This may occur because of factors that affect securities markets generally or factors affecting specific issuers, industries, or sectors in which the Fund invests. Common stocks are generally exposed to greater risk than other types of securities, such as preferred stock and debt obligations, because common stockholders generally have inferior rights to receive payment from issuers. In addition, local, regional or global events such as war, including Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, acts of terrorism, spread of infectious diseases or other public health issues, recessions, rising inflation, or other events could have a significant negative impact on the Fund and its investments. For example, the global pandemic caused by COVID-19, a novel coronavirus, and the aggressive responses taken by many governments, including closing borders, restricting international and domestic travel, and the imposition of prolonged quarantines or similar restrictions, has had negative impacts, and in many cases severe impacts, on markets worldwide. The COVID-19 pandemic has caused prolonged disruptions to the normal business operations of companies around the world and the impact of such disruptions is hard to predict. Such events may affect certain geographic regions, countries, sectors and industries more significantly than others. Such events could adversely affect the prices and liquidity of the Fund’s portfolio securities or other instruments and could result in disruptions in the trading markets.
ETF Risks. The Fund is an ETF, and, as a result of an ETF’s structure, it is exposed to the following risks:
Authorized Participants, Market Makers, and Liquidity Providers Concentration Risk. The Fund has a limited number of financial institutions that may act as Authorized Participants (“APs”). In addition, there may be a limited number of market makers and/or liquidity providers in the marketplace. To the extent either of the following events occur, Shares may trade at a material discount to NAV and possibly face delisting: (i) APs exit the business or otherwise become unable to process creation and/or redemption orders and no other APs step forward to perform these services, or (ii) market makers and/or liquidity providers exit the business or significantly reduce their business activities and no other entities step forward to perform their functions.
Costs of Buying or Selling Shares. Due to the costs of buying or selling Shares, including brokerage commissions imposed by brokers and bid-ask spreads, frequent trading of Shares may significantly reduce investment results and an investment in Shares may not be advisable for investors who anticipate regularly making small investments.
Shares May Trade at Prices Other Than NAV. As with all ETFs, Shares may be bought and sold in the secondary market at market prices. Although it is expected that the market price of Shares will approximate the Fund’s NAV, there may be times when the market price of Shares is more than the NAV intra-day (premium) or less than the NAV intra-day (discount) due to supply and demand of Shares or during periods of market volatility. This risk is heightened in times of market volatility, periods of steep market declines, and periods when there is limited trading activity for Shares in the secondary market, in which case such premiums or discounts may be significant.
Trading. Although Shares are listed for trading on NYSE Arca, Inc. (the “Exchange”) and may be traded on U.S. exchanges other than the Exchange, there can be no assurance that Shares will trade with any volume, or at all, on any stock exchange. In stressed market conditions, the liquidity of Shares may begin to mirror the liquidity of the Fund’s underlying portfolio holdings, which can be significantly less liquid than Shares, and this could lead to differences between the market price of the Shares and the underlying value of those Shares.
Foreign Securities Risk. Investments in non-U.S. securities involve certain risks that may not be present with investments in U.S. securities. For example, investments in non-U.S. securities may be subject to risk of loss due to foreign currency fluctuations or to political or economic instability. Investments in non-U.S. securities also may be subject to withholding or other taxes and may be subject to additional trading, settlement, custodial, and operational risks. These and other factors can make investments in the Fund more volatile and potentially less liquid than other types of investments.
15


Geographic Investment Risk. To the extent the Fund invests a significant portion of its assets in the securities of companies of a single country or region, it is more likely to be impacted by events or conditions affecting that country or region.
Geopolitical Risk. Some countries and regions in which the Fund invests have experienced security concerns, war or threats of war and aggression, terrorism, economic uncertainty, natural and environmental disasters and/or systemic market dislocations that have led, and in the future may lead, to increased short-term market volatility and may have adverse long-term effects on the U.S. and world economies and markets generally, each of which may negatively impact the Fund’s investments.
Large-Capitalization Investing. The Fund’s performance may be adversely affected if securities of large cap companies underperform securities of smaller-capitalization companies or the market as a whole. The securities of large cap companies may be relatively mature compared to smaller companies and therefore subject to slower growth during times of economic expansion. Large-capitalization companies may also be unable to respond quickly to new competitive challenges, such as changes in technology and consumer tastes.
Mid-Capitalization Investing. The Fund may invest in the securities of mid-capitalization companies. As a result, the Fund’s performance may be adversely affected if securities of mid-capitalization companies underperform securities of other capitalization ranges or the market as a whole. Securities of smaller companies are often more vulnerable to market volatility than securities of larger companies.
Passive Investment Risk. The Fund invests in the securities included in, or representative of, the Index regardless of their investment merit. The Fund does not attempt to outperform the Index or take defensive positions in declining markets. As a result, the Fund’s performance may be adversely affected by a general decline in the market segments relating to the Index.
Portfolio Turnover Risk. The Fund may trade all or a significant portion of the securities in its portfolio in connection with each rebalance and reconstitution of its Index. A high portfolio turnover rate increases transaction costs, which may increase the Fund’s expenses. Frequent trading may also cause adverse tax consequences for investors in the Fund due to an increase in short-term capital gains.
Sector Risk. To the extent the Fund invests more heavily in particular sectors of the economy, its performance will be especially sensitive to developments that significantly affect those sectors. The Fund may invest a significant portion of its assets in the following sectors and, therefore, the performance of the Fund could be negatively impacted by events affecting each of these sectors.
Financial Sector Risk. This sector can be significantly affected by changes in interest rates, government regulation, the rate of defaults on corporate, consumer and government debt, the availability and cost of capital, and fallout from the housing and sub-prime mortgage crisis. Insurance companies, in particular, may be significantly affected by changes in interest rates, catastrophic events, price and market competition, the imposition of premium rate caps, or other changes in government regulation or tax law and/or rate regulation, which may have an adverse impact on their profitability. This sector has experienced significant losses in the recent past, and the impact of more stringent capital requirements and of recent or future regulation on any individual financial company or on the sector as a whole cannot be predicted. In recent years, cyber attacks and technology malfunctions and failures have become increasingly frequent in this sector and have caused significant losses.
Industrial Sector Risk. The industrial sector can be significantly affected by, among other things, worldwide economic growth, supply and demand for specific products and services, rapid technological developments, international political and economic developments, environmental issues, tariffs and trade barriers, and tax and governmental regulatory policies.
Information Technology Sector Risk. Market or economic factors impacting information technology companies and companies that rely heavily on technological advances could have a significant effect on the value of the Fund’s investments. The value of stocks of information technology companies and companies that rely heavily on technology is particularly vulnerable to rapid changes in technology product cycles, rapid product obsolescence, government regulation and competition, both domestically and internationally, including competition from foreign competitors with lower production costs. Stocks of information technology companies and companies that rely heavily on technology, especially those of smaller, less-seasoned companies, tend to be more volatile than the overall market. Information technology companies are heavily dependent on patent and intellectual property rights, the loss or impairment of which may adversely affect profitability.
Small-Capitalization Investing. The Fund may invest in the securities of small-capitalization companies. As a result, the Fund may be more volatile than funds that invest in larger, more established companies. The securities of small-capitalization companies generally trade in lower volumes and are subject to greater and more unpredictable price changes than larger capitalization stocks or the stock market as a whole. Small-capitalization companies may be particularly sensitive to changes in interest rates, government regulation, borrowing costs and earnings.
Tracking Error Risk. As with all index funds, the performance of the Fund and the Index may differ from each other for a variety of reasons. For example, the Fund incurs operating expenses and portfolio transaction costs not incurred by the Index. In
16


addition, the Fund may not be fully invested in the securities of the Index at all times or may hold securities not included in the Index.
Performance
The following performance information indicates some of the risks of investing in the Fund. The bar chart shows the Fund’s performance for calendar years ended December 31. The table illustrates how the Fund’s average annual returns for the 1-year, 5-year, and since inception periods compare with those of a broad measure of market performance and the Index. The Fund’s past performance, before and after taxes, does not necessarily indicate how it will perform in the future. Updated performance information is available on the Fund’s website at www.videntfunds.com.
Calendar Year Total Returns [to be updated in 485(b) Registration Statement]
chart-146c2b6af6af4a7cbe9a.jpg
For the year-to-date period ended [ ], the Fund’s total return was [ ]%. During the period of time shown in the bar chart, the Fund’s highest quarterly return was [ ]% for the quarter ended [ ], and the lowest quarterly return was [ ]% for the quarter ended [ ].
Average Annual Total Returns
For the Periods Ended December 31, 2021    
Vident International Equity Fund

1 Year
5 Year
Since Inception
(10/29/2013)
Return Before Taxes
Return After Taxes on Distributions
Return After Taxes on Distributions and Sale of Shares
Vident Core International Equity Index/Vident International Equity Index1
(reflects no deduction for fees, expenses, or taxes)
Morningstar Global Markets ex-US Large-Mid Index
(reflects no deduction for fees, expenses, or taxes)
Morningstar Global Markets ex-US Index
(reflects no deduction for fees, expenses, or taxes)
1 Effective January 6, 2016, the Fund’s investment objective changed to track the performance, before fees and expenses, of the Vident Core International Equity Index. Prior to January 6, 2016, the Fund’s investment objective was to track the price and total return performance, before fees and expenses, of the Vident International Equity Index. Performance shown for periods prior to January 6, 2016 is that of the Vident International Equity Index.
After-tax returns are calculated using the historical highest individual federal marginal income tax rates during the period covered by the table above and do not reflect the impact of state and local taxes. Actual after-tax returns depend on an investor’s tax situation and may differ from those shown. After-tax returns shown are not relevant to investors who hold their Shares through tax-deferred arrangements such as an individual retirement account (“IRA”) or other tax-advantaged accounts.
17


Management
Adviser: Vident Advisory, LLC
Sub-Adviser: Vident Investment Advisory, LLC (“VIA” or the “Sub-Adviser”)
Portfolio Managers:
Rafael Zayas, CFA, SVP, Head of Portfolio Management and Trading for VIA, has been a portfolio manager of the Fund since September 2017.
Austin Wen, CFA, Portfolio Manager for VIA, has been a portfolio manager of the Fund since June 2020.
Ryan Dofflemeyer, Senior Portfolio Manager for VIA, has been a portfolio manager of the Fund since December 2020.
Purchase and Sale of Shares
Shares are listed on the Exchange, and individual Shares may only be bought and sold in the secondary market through brokers at market prices, rather than NAV. Because Shares trade at market prices rather than NAV, Shares may trade at a price greater than NAV (premium) or less than NAV (discount).
The Fund issues and redeems Shares at NAV only in large blocks known as “Creation Units,” which only APs (typically, broker-dealers) may purchase or redeem. The Fund generally issues and redeems Creation Units in exchange for a portfolio of securities and/or a designated amount of U.S. cash.
Investors may incur costs attributable to the difference between the highest price a buyer is willing to pay to purchase Shares (bid) and the lowest price a seller is willing to accept for Shares (ask) when buying or selling Shares in the secondary market (the “bid-ask spread”). Recent information about the Fund, including its NAV, market price, premiums and discounts, and bid-ask spreads is available on the Fund’s website at www.videntfunds.com.
Tax Information
Fund distributions are generally taxable as ordinary income, qualified dividend income, or capital gains (or a combination), unless your investment is in an IRA or other tax-advantaged account. Distributions on investments made through tax-deferred arrangements may be taxed later upon withdrawal of assets from those accounts.
Financial Intermediary Compensation
If you purchase Shares through a broker-dealer or other financial intermediary (such as a bank) (an “Intermediary”), the Adviser or its affiliates may pay Intermediaries for certain activities related to the Fund, including participation in activities that are designed to make Intermediaries more knowledgeable about exchange traded products, including the Fund, or for other activities, such as marketing, educational training or other initiatives related to the sale or promotion of Shares. These payments may create a conflict of interest by influencing the Intermediary and your salesperson to recommend the Fund over another investment. Any such arrangements do not result in increased Fund expenses. Ask your salesperson or visit the Intermediary’s website for more information.
18


Additional Information About the Funds
Additional Information About the Funds’ Investment Objectives. Each of the U.S. Bond Fund, U.S. Equity Fund and International Equity Fund (each, a “Fund” and, collectively, the “Funds”) seeks to track the performance, before fees and expenses, of an index developed by Vident Financial, LLC (the “Index Provider”). The Indexes consist of securities in the market suggested by the Fund’s name that meet specific criteria developed by the Index Provider. Each Fund’s investment objective has been adopted as a non-fundamental investment policy and may be changed without shareholder approval upon written notice to shareholders.
Additional Information About the Funds’ Investment Strategies. The Funds have adopted the following policies to comply with Rule 35d-1 under the Investment Company Act of 1940. Such policies have been adopted as non-fundamental investment policies and may be changed without shareholder approval upon 60 days’ written notice to shareholders. With respect to the policies below, the Funds define “equity securities” to mean common and preferred stocks, rights, warrants, depositary receipts, equity interests in real estate investment trusts (“REITs”), and master limited partnerships.
Under normal circumstances, at least 80% of the net assets, plus borrowings for investment purposes, of the U.S. Equity Fund will be invested in equity securities that are principally traded in the United States.
Under normal circumstances, at least 80% of the net assets, plus borrowings for investment purposes, of the U.S. Bond Fund will be invested in debt instruments that are principally traded in the United States.
Under normal circumstances, at least 80% of the net assets, plus borrowings for investment purposes, of the International Equity Fund will be invested in equity securities.
Additionally, each Fund generally may invest up to 20% of its total assets in securities not included in the applicable Index, but which the Fund believes will help it track its Index. For example, a Fund may invest in securities that are not components of its Index to reflect various corporate actions and other changes to the Index (such as reconstitutions, additions and deletions).
Vident Core U.S. Bond Index
Unlike most traditional indices that weight issuers based on market capitalization, the U.S. Bond Index uses a risk-based assessment of issuers, together with factors related to their attractiveness based on evolving economic, market and valuation conditions. The Index also seeks to mitigate some of the risks often associated with market capitalization-weighted indices, including issuer concentration.
Each issuer is determined to be a “U.S. issuer” based primarily on its place of organization or principal place of business. However, issuers with extensive foreign operations may be eliminated from the Index based on a variety of factors, such as the geographic location of the issuer’s assets, revenue sources, manufacturing facilities, employees and customers.
Duration is a measure of the sensitivity of a security's price to changes in interest rates. The longer a security’s duration, the more sensitive it will be to changes in interest rates. Similarly, a portfolio with a longer average duration will be more sensitive to changes in interest rates than a portfolio with a shorter average duration. For example, if interest rates decline by 1%, the market value of a portfolio with a duration of five years would rise by approximately 5%. Conversely, if interest rates increase by 1%, the market value of the portfolio would decline by approximately 5%. For variable and floating rate instruments, the duration calculation incorporates the time to the next coupon reset date.
Vident U.S. Quality Index
The Index seeks to mitigate a number of issues often identified in traditional market capitalization-weighted indices including, but not limited to, owning low quality companies, owning companies with poor governance scores, highly concentrated positions, and illiquid positions.
Each issuer is determined to be a “U.S. issuer” based primarily on its place of organization or principal place of business. However, U.S. issuers with extensive foreign operations may be eliminated from the Index based on a variety of factors, such as the geographic location of the issuer’s assets, revenue sources, manufacturing facilities, employees and customers.
Vident Core International Equity Index
The Index seeks to mitigate some of the risks often associated with market capitalization-weighted indices, including country, currency and issuer concentration, as well as higher weightings in more developed countries that also exhibit lower structural growth and deteriorating fiscal and/or fundamental risk characteristics.
Each issuer is associated with a country based primarily on its place of organization or the location of its primary listing exchange. However, issuers with multi-national operations may be assigned to an alternate country based on a variety of factors, such as the geographic location of the issuer’s assets, revenue sources, manufacturing facilities, employees and customers.
Each country is assigned a CPS semi-annually that identifies its fundamental risk characteristics (such as fiscal characteristics, monetary policy, political stability, demographics and economic freedom characteristics), while balancing those risks with a country’s
19


respective opportunities. The ranking of stocks are also adjusted semi-annually utilizing a multi-factor model ranking stocks based on valuation, quality and momentum characteristics.
Index/Trademark Licenses/Disclaimers. Vident Financial, LLCTM, the Index Provider, is a financial services company that focuses on structuring indices for institutional clients. The Index Provider is an affiliate of each Fund’s Adviser and Sub-Adviser.
Additional Information About the Funds’ Principal Risks. This section provides additional information regarding the principal risks described in each Fund Summary. As in each Fund Summary, the principal risks below are presented in alphabetical order to facilitate finding particular risks and comparing them with other funds. Each risk described below is considered a “principal risk” of investing in the applicable Fund, regardless of the order in which it appears. Each of the factors below could have a negative impact on the applicable Fund’s performance and trading prices.
Call Risk (U.S. Bond Fund only). During periods of falling interest rates, an issuer of a callable bond held by the Fund may “call” or repay the security before its stated maturity, which may result in the Fund having to reinvest the proceeds at lower interest rates, resulting in a decline in the Fund’s income.
Capital Controls and Sanctions Risk (International Equity Fund only). Economic conditions, such as volatile currency exchange rates and interest rates, political events, military action and other conditions, may, without prior warning, lead to government intervention (including intervention by the U.S. government with respect to foreign governments, economic sectors, foreign companies and related securities and interests) and the imposition of capital controls and/or sanctions, which may also include retaliatory actions of one government against another government, such as seizure of assets. Capital controls and/or sanctions include the prohibition of, or restrictions on, the ability to transfer currency, securities or other assets. Levies may be placed on profits repatriated by foreign entities (such as the Fund). Capital controls and/or sanctions may also impact the ability of the Fund to buy, sell or otherwise transfer securities or currency, negatively impact the value and/or liquidity of such instruments, adversely affect the trading market and price for Shares, and cause the Fund to decline in value.
Credit Risk (U.S. Bond Fund only). Credit risk is the risk that an issuer or guarantor of debt instruments or the counterparty to a derivatives contract, repurchase agreement or loan of portfolio securities will be unable or unwilling to make its timely interest and/or principal payments or to otherwise honor its obligations. Debt instruments are subject to varying degrees of credit risk, which may be reflected in their credit ratings. There is the chance that the Fund’s portfolio holdings will have their credit ratings downgraded or will default (i.e., fail to make scheduled interest or principal payments), potentially reducing the Fund’s income level or share price.
Currency Exchange Rate Risk (International Equity Fund only). Changes in currency exchange rates and the relative value of non-U.S. currencies will affect the value of the Fund’s investments and the value of your Shares. Because the Fund’s NAV is determined on the basis of U.S. dollars, the U.S. dollar value of your investment in the Fund may go down if the value of the local currency of the non-U.S. markets in which the Fund invests depreciates against the U.S. dollar. This is true even if the local currency value of securities in the Fund’s holdings goes up. Conversely, the dollar value of your investment in the Fund may go up if the value of the local currency appreciates against the U.S. dollar. The value of the U.S. dollar measured against other currencies is influenced by a variety of factors. These factors include: national debt levels and trade deficits, changes in balances of payments and trade, domestic and foreign interest and inflation rates, global or regional political, economic or financial events, monetary policies of governments, actual or potential government intervention, and global energy prices. Political instability, the possibility of government intervention and restrictive or opaque business and investment policies may also reduce the value of a country’s currency. Government monetary policies and the buying or selling of currency by a country’s government may also influence exchange rates. Currency exchange rates can be very volatile and can change quickly and unpredictably. As a result, the value of an investment in the Fund may change quickly and without warning, and you may lose money.
Emerging Markets Risk (International Equity Fund only). Investments in securities and instruments traded in developing or emerging markets, or that provide exposure to such securities or markets, can involve additional risks relating to political, economic, or regulatory conditions not associated with investments in U.S. securities and instruments. For example, developing and emerging markets may be subject to (i) greater market volatility, (ii) lower trading volume and liquidity, (iii) greater social, political and economic uncertainty, (iv) governmental controls on foreign investments and limitations on repatriation of invested capital, (v) lower disclosure, corporate governance, auditing and financial reporting standards, (vi) fewer protections of property rights, (vii) fewer investor rights and limited legal or practical remedies available to investors against emerging market companies, (viii) restrictions on the transfer of securities or currency, and (ix) settlement and trading practices that differ from those in U.S. markets. Each of these factors may impact the ability of the Fund to buy, sell or otherwise transfer securities, adversely affect the trading market and price for Shares and cause the Fund to decline in value.
Equity Market Risk (U.S. Equity Fund and International Equity Fund only) . Common stocks are susceptible to general stock market fluctuations and to volatile increases and decreases in value as market confidence in and perceptions of their issuers change. These investor perceptions are based on various and unpredictable factors including: expectations regarding government, economic, monetary and fiscal policies; inflation and interest rates; economic expansion or contraction; local, regional or global
20


events such as acts of terrorism or war, including Russia’s invasion of Ukraine; and global or regional political, economic, public health, and banking crises. If you held common stock, or common stock equivalents, of any given issuer, you would generally be exposed to greater risk than if you held preferred stocks and debt obligations of the issuer because common stockholders, or holders of equivalent interests, generally have inferior rights to receive payments from issuers in comparison with the rights of preferred stockholders, bondholders, and other creditors of such issuers.
Beginning in the first quarter of 2020, financial markets in the United States and around the world experienced extreme and, in many cases, unprecedented volatility and severe losses due to the global pandemic caused by COVID-19, a novel coronavirus. The pandemic resulted in a wide range of social and economic disruptions, including closed borders, voluntary or compelled quarantines of large populations, stressed healthcare systems, reduced or prohibited domestic or international travel, and supply chain disruptions affecting the United States and many other countries. Some sectors of the economy and individual issuers have experienced particularly large losses as a result of these disruptions, and such disruptions may continue for an extended period of time or reoccur in the future to a similar or greater extent. In response, the U.S. government and the Federal Reserve have taken extraordinary actions to support the domestic economy and financial markets. Many countries, including the U.S., are subject to few restrictions related to the spread of COVID-19. It is unknown how long circumstances related to the pandemic will persist, whether they will reoccur in the future, whether efforts to support the economy and financial markets will be successful, and what additional implications may follow from the pandemic. The impact of these events and other epidemics or pandemics in the future could adversely affect Fund performance.
ETF Risks. Each Fund is an ETF, and, as a result of an ETF’s structure, is exposed to the following risks:
APs, Market Makers, and Liquidity Providers Concentration Risk. The Fund has a limited number of financial institutions that may act as APs. In addition, there may be a limited number of market makers and/or liquidity providers in the marketplace. To the extent either of the following events occur, Shares may trade at a material discount to NAV and possibly face delisting: (i) APs exit the business or otherwise become unable to process creation and/or redemption orders and no other APs step forward to perform these services, or (ii) market makers and/or liquidity providers exit the business or significantly reduce their business activities and no other entities step forward to perform their functions.
Cash Redemption Risk (U.S. Bond Fund only). When the Fund’s investment strategy requires it to redeem Shares for cash or to otherwise include cash as part of its redemption proceeds, it may be required to sell or unwind portfolio investments in order to obtain the cash needed to distribute redemption proceeds. This may cause the Fund to recognize a capital gain that it might not have recognized if it had made a redemption in-kind (i.e., distribute securities as payment of redemption proceeds). As a result, the Fund may pay out higher annual capital gain distributions than if the in-kind redemption process was used.
Costs of Buying or Selling Shares. Investors buying or selling Shares in the secondary market will pay brokerage commissions or other charges imposed by brokers, as determined by that broker. Brokerage commissions are often a fixed amount and may be a significant proportional cost for investors seeking to buy or sell relatively small amounts of Shares. In addition, secondary market investors will also incur the cost of the difference between the price at which an investor is willing to buy Shares (the “bid” price) and the price at which an investor is willing to sell Shares (the “ask” price). This difference in bid and ask prices is often referred to as the “spread” or “bid-ask spread.” The bid-ask spread varies over time for Shares based on trading volume and market liquidity, and the spread is generally lower if Shares have more trading volume and market liquidity and higher if Shares have little trading volume and market liquidity. Further, a relatively small investor base in the Fund, asset swings in the Fund, and/or increased market volatility may cause increased bid-ask spreads. Due to the costs of buying or selling Shares, including bid-ask spreads, frequent trading of Shares may significantly reduce investment results and an investment in Shares may not be advisable for investors who anticipate regularly making small investments.
Shares May Trade at Prices Other Than NAV. As with all ETFs, Shares may be bought and sold in the secondary market at market prices. Although it is expected that the market price of Shares will approximate the Fund’s NAV, there may be times when the market price of Shares is more than the NAV intra-day (premium) or less than the NAV intra-day (discount) due to supply and demand of Shares or during periods of market volatility. This risk is heightened in times of market volatility, periods of steep market declines, and periods when there is limited trading activity for Shares in the secondary market, in which case such premiums or discounts may be significant.
Trading. Although Shares are listed for trading on the Exchange and may be listed or traded on U.S. and non-U.S. stock exchanges other than the Exchange, there can be no assurance that an active trading market for such Shares will develop or be maintained. Trading in Shares may be halted due to market conditions or for reasons that, in the view of the Exchange, make trading in Shares inadvisable. In addition, trading in Shares on the Exchange is subject to trading halts caused by extraordinary market volatility pursuant to Exchange “circuit breaker” rules, which temporarily halt trading on the Exchange when a decline in the S&P 500® Index during a single day reaches certain thresholds (e.g., 7%, 13%, and 20%). Additional rules applicable to the Exchange may halt trading in Shares when extraordinary volatility causes sudden, significant swings in the market price of Shares. There can be no assurance that Shares will trade with any volume, or at all, on any stock
21


exchange. In stressed market conditions, the liquidity of Shares may begin to mirror the liquidity of the Fund’s underlying portfolio holdings, which can be significantly less liquid than Shares, and this could lead to differences between the market price of the Shares and the underlying value of those Shares.
Extension Risk (U.S. Bond Fund only). During periods of rising interest rates, certain debt obligations will be paid off substantially more slowly than originally anticipated and the value of those securities may fall sharply, resulting in a decline in the Fund’s income and potentially in the value of the Fund’s investments.
Foreign Securities Risk (International Equity Fund only). Investments in non-U.S. securities involve certain risks that may not be present with investments in U.S. securities. For example, investments in non-U.S. securities may be subject to risk of loss due to foreign currency fluctuations or to political or economic instability. There may be less information publicly available about a non-U.S. issuer than a U.S. issuer. Non-U.S. issuers may be subject to different accounting, auditing, financial reporting and investor protection standards than U.S. issuers. Investments in non-U.S. securities may be subject to withholding or other taxes and may be subject to additional trading, settlement, custodial, and operational risks. With respect to certain countries, there is the possibility of government intervention and expropriation or nationalization of assets. Because legal systems differ, there is also the possibility that it will be difficult to obtain or enforce legal judgments in certain countries. Since foreign exchanges may be open on days when the Fund does not price its Shares, the value of the securities in the Fund’s portfolio may change on days when shareholders will not be able to purchase or sell the Shares. Conversely, Shares may trade on days when foreign exchanges are closed. Each of these factors can make investments in the Fund more volatile and potentially less liquid than other types of investments.
Geographic Investment Risk (International Equity Fund only). To the extent that the Fund invests a significant portion of its assets in the securities of companies of a single country or region, it is more likely to be impacted by events or conditions affecting that country or region. For example, political and economic conditions and changes in regulatory, tax, or economic policy in a country could significantly affect the market in that country and in surrounding or related countries and have a negative impact on the Fund’s performance. Currency developments or restrictions, political and social instability, and changing economic conditions have resulted in significant market volatility.
Geopolitical Risk (International Equity Fund only). Some countries and regions in which the Fund invests have experienced security concerns, war or threats of war and aggression, terrorism, economic uncertainty, natural and environmental disasters and/or systemic market dislocations that have led, and in the future may lead, to increased short-term market volatility and may have adverse long-term effects on the U.S. and world economies and markets generally. Such geopolitical and other events may also disrupt securities markets and, during such market disruptions, the Fund’s exposure to the other risks described herein will likely increase. Each of the foregoing may negatively impact the Fund’s investments.
Government Obligations Risk (U.S. Bond Fund only). The Fund may invest in securities issued, sponsored or guaranteed by the U.S. government, its agencies and instrumentalities. However, no assurance can be given that the U.S. government will provide financial support to U.S. government-sponsored agencies or instrumentalities where it is not obligated to do so by law. For instance, securities issued by the Government National Mortgage Association (“Ginnie Mae”) are supported by the full faith and credit of the United States. Securities issued by Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac have historically been supported only by the discretionary authority of the U.S. government. While the U.S. government provides financial support to various U.S. government-sponsored agencies and instrumentalities, such as those listed above, no assurance can be given that it will always do so. In September 2008, at the direction of the U.S. Department of the Treasury, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac were placed into conservatorship under the Federal Housing Finance Agency (“FHFA”), an independent regulator, and they remain in such status as of the date of this Prospectus. The U.S. government also took steps to provide additional financial support to Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac.
The total public debt of the United States as a percentage of gross domestic product has grown rapidly since the beginning of the 2008–2009 financial downturn. Although high debt levels do not necessarily indicate or cause economic problems, they may create certain systemic risks if sound debt management practices are not implemented. A high national debt can raise concerns that the U.S. government will not be able to make principal or interest payments when they are due. This increase has also necessitated the need for the U.S. Congress to negotiate adjustments to the statutory debt ceiling to increase the cap on the amount the U.S. government is permitted to borrow to meet its existing obligations and finance current budget deficits. In August 2011, S&P lowered its long-term sovereign credit rating on the U.S. In explaining the downgrade at that time, S&P cited, among other reasons, controversy over raising the statutory debt limit and growth in public spending. An increase in national debt levels may also necessitate the need for the U.S. Congress to negotiate adjustments to the statutory debt ceiling to increase the cap on the amount the U.S. Government is permitted to borrow to meet its existing obligations and finance current budget deficits. Future downgrades could increase volatility in domestic and foreign financial markets, result in higher interest rates, lower prices of U.S. Treasury securities and increase the costs of different kinds of debt. Any controversy or ongoing uncertainty regarding the statutory debt ceiling negotiations may impact the U.S. long-term sovereign credit rating and may cause market uncertainty. As a
22


result, market prices and yields of securities supported by the full faith and credit of the U.S. government may be adversely affected.
High-Yield Securities Risk (U.S. Bond Fund only). Below investment grade instruments are commonly referred to as “junk” or high-yield instruments and are regarded as predominantly speculative with respect to the issuer’s capacity to pay interest and repay principal. Lower grade instruments may be particularly susceptible to economic downturns. It is likely that a prolonged or deepening economic recession could adversely affect the ability of the issuers of such instruments to repay principal and pay interest thereon, increase the incidence of default for such instruments and severely disrupt the market value of such instruments.
Lower grade instruments, though higher yielding, are characterized by higher risk. They may be subject to certain risks with respect to the issuing entity and to greater market fluctuations than certain lower yielding, higher rated instruments. The retail secondary market for lower grade instruments may be less liquid than that for higher rated instruments. Adverse publicity and investor perceptions, whether or not based on fundamental analysis, may also decrease the value and liquidity of these high-yield securities. Adverse conditions could make it difficult at times for the Fund to sell certain instruments or could result in lower prices than those used in calculating the Fund’s NAV. Because of the substantial risks associated with investments in lower grade instruments, investors could lose money on their investment in the Fund, both in the short-term and the long-term.
The Fund’s investments in distressed and defaulted securities may be considered speculative and involve substantial risks in addition to the risks of investing in junk bonds. The Fund will generally not receive interest payments on the distressed securities and the principal may also be at risk. These securities may present a substantial risk of default or may be in default at the time of investment, requiring the Fund to incur additional costs.
Interest Rate Risk (U.S. Bond Fund only). As interest rates rise, the value of a fixed-income security held by the Fund is likely to decrease. Securities with longer durations tend to be more sensitive to interest rate changes, usually making them more volatile than securities with shorter durations. To the extent the Fund invests a substantial portion of its assets in fixed-income securities with longer-term durations, rising interest rates may cause the value of the Fund’s investments to decline significantly.
Issuer-Specific Risk (U.S. Bond Fund only). Changes in the financial condition of an issuer or counterparty, changes in specific economic or political conditions that affect a particular type of security or issuer, and changes in general economic or political conditions can affect a security’s or instrument’s value. The value of securities of smaller, less well-known issuers can be more volatile than that of larger issuers. Issuer-specific events can have a negative impact on the value of the Fund.
Liquidity Risk (U.S. Bond Fund only). Liquidity risk exists when particular investments are difficult to purchase or sell. To the extent the Fund invests in illiquid securities or securities that become less liquid, such investments may have a negative effect on the returns of the Fund because the Fund may be unable to sell the illiquid securities at an advantageous time or price. To the extent that the Fund’s principal investment strategies involve investing in securities with substantial market and/or credit risk, the Fund will tend to have the greatest exposure to liquidity risk. Liquid investments may become illiquid after purchase by the Fund, particularly during periods of market turmoil. Illiquid investments may be harder to value, especially in changing markets, and if the Fund is forced to sell these investments to meet redemption requests or for other cash needs, the Fund may suffer a loss. There can be no assurance that a security that is deemed to be liquid when purchased will continue to be liquid for as long as it is held by the Fund.
Market Capitalization Risk.
Large-Capitalization Investing (U.S. Equity Fund and International Equity Fund only). The securities of large-capitalization companies may be relatively mature compared to smaller companies and therefore subject to slower growth during times of economic expansion. Large-capitalization companies may also be unable to respond quickly to new competitive challenges, such as changes in technology and consumer tastes.
Mid-Capitalization Investing (U.S. Equity Fund and International Equity Fund only). The securities of mid-capitalization companies may be more vulnerable to adverse issuer, market, political, or economic developments than securities of large-capitalization companies, but they may also be subject to slower growth than small-capitalization companies during times of economic expansion. The securities of mid-capitalization companies generally trade in lower volumes and are subject to greater and more unpredictable price changes than large capitalization stocks or the stock market as a whole, but they may also be nimbler and more responsive to new challenges than large-capitalization companies. Some mid-capitalization companies have limited product lines, markets, financial resources, and management personnel and tend to concentrate on fewer geographical markets relative to large-capitalization companies.
Small-Capitalization Investing (U.S. Equity Fund and International Equity Fund only). The securities of small-capitalization companies may be more vulnerable to adverse issuer, market, political, or economic developments than securities of larger-capitalization companies. The securities of small-capitalization companies generally trade in lower volumes and are subject to greater and more unpredictable price changes than larger capitalization stocks or the stock market as a whole. Some small capitalization companies have limited product lines, markets, and financial and managerial resources and tend to concentrate
23


on fewer geographical markets relative to larger capitalization companies. There is typically less publicly available information concerning smaller-capitalization companies than for larger, more established companies. Small-capitalization companies also may be particularly sensitive to changes in interest rates, government regulation, borrowing costs and earnings.
Market Risk (U.S. Bond Fund only). The trading prices of debt securities and other instruments fluctuate in response to a variety of factors. These factors include events impacting the entire market or specific market segments, such as political, market and economic developments, as well as events that impact specific issuers. A Fund’s NAV and market price, like security and commodity prices generally, may fluctuate significantly in response to these and other factors. As a result, an investor could lose money over short or long periods of time.
Beginning in the first quarter of 2020, financial markets in the United States and around the world experienced extreme and, in many cases, unprecedented volatility and severe losses due to the global pandemic caused by COVID-19, a novel coronavirus. The pandemic resulted in a wide range of social and economic disruptions, including closed borders, voluntary or compelled quarantines of large populations, stressed healthcare systems, reduced or prohibited domestic or international travel, and supply chain disruptions affecting the United States and many other countries. Some sectors of the economy and individual issuers have experienced particularly large losses as a result of these disruptions, and such disruptions may continue for an extended period of time or reoccur in the future to a similar or greater extent. In response, the U.S. government and the Federal Reserve have taken extraordinary actions to support the domestic economy and financial markets. Many countries, including the U.S., are subject to few restrictions related to the spread of COVID-19. It is unknown how long circumstances related to the pandemic will persist, whether they will reoccur in the future, whether efforts to support the economy and financial markets will be successful, and what additional implications may follow from the pandemic. The impact of these events and other epidemics or pandemics in the future could adversely affect Fund performance.
Mortgage- and Asset-Backed Securities Risk (U.S. Bond Fund only). Mortgage- and asset-backed securities are more sensitive to interest rate risk than other types of fixed income securities. Modest movements in interest rates (both increases and decreases) may quickly and significantly reduce the value of certain types of these securities. When interest rates fall, mortgage- and asset-backed securities may be subject to prepayment risk. Prepayment risk is the risk that the borrower will prepay some or the entire principal owed to the investor. If that happens, the Fund may have to replace the security by investing the proceeds in a security with a lower yield. This could reduce the share price and income distributions of the Fund, which invests in mortgage- and asset-backed securities. When interest rates rise, certain types of mortgage- and asset-backed securities are subject to extension risk. Mortgage- and asset-backed securities can also be subject to the risk of default on the underlying residential or commercial mortgage(s) or other assets. Weakening real estate markets may cause default rates to rise, which would result in a decline in the value of mortgage-backed securities.
Passive Investment Risk. Each Fund invests in the securities included in, or representative of, its Index regardless of their investment merit. Each Fund does not attempt to outperform its Index or take defensive positions in declining markets. As a result, a Fund’s performance may be adversely affected by a general decline in the market segments relating to its Index. The returns from the types of securities in which a Fund invests may underperform returns from the various general securities markets or different asset classes. This may cause a Fund to underperform other investment vehicles that invest in different asset classes. Different types of securities (for example, large-, mid- and small-capitalization stocks) tend to go through cycles of doing better – or worse – than the general securities markets. In the past, these periods have lasted for as long as several years.
Portfolio Turnover Risk. Each Fund may trade all or a significant portion of the securities in its portfolio in connection with each rebalance and reconstitution of the Index. A high portfolio turnover rate increases transaction costs, which may increase a Fund’s expenses. Frequent trading may also cause adverse tax consequences for investors in a Fund due to an increase in short-term capital gains.
Prepayment Risk (U.S. Bond Fund only). This is the risk that a borrower will prepay some or the entire principal owed to the Fund. If that happens, the Fund may have to replace the security by investing the proceeds in a security with a lower yield. This could reduce the share price and income distributions of the Fund.
Sector Risk. To the extent the Fund invests more heavily in particular sectors of the economy, its performance will be especially sensitive to developments that significantly affect those sectors.
Consumer Discretionary Sector Risk (U.S. Equity Fund only). The success of consumer product manufacturers and retailers is tied closely to the performance of domestic and international economies, interest rates, exchange rates, competition, consumer confidence, changes in demographics and consumer preferences. Companies in the consumer discretionary sector depend heavily on disposable household income and consumer spending, and such companies may be strongly affected by social trends and marketing campaigns. These companies may be subject to severe competition, which may have an adverse impact on their profitability.
24


Financial Sector Risk (U.S. Equity Fund and International Equity Fund only). Companies in the financial sector of an economy are often subject to extensive governmental regulation and intervention, which may adversely affect the scope of their activities, the prices they can charge and the amount of capital they must maintain. Governmental regulation may change frequently and may have significant adverse consequences for companies in the financial sector, including effects not intended by such regulation. The impact of recent or future regulation in various countries on any individual financial company or on the sector as a whole cannot be predicted.
Certain risks may impact the value of investments in the financial sector more severely than those of investments outside this sector, including the risks associated with companies that operate with substantial financial leverage. Companies in the financial sector may also be adversely affected by increases in interest rates and loan losses, decreases in the availability of money or asset valuations, credit rating downgrades and adverse conditions in other related markets.
Insurance companies, in particular, may be subject to severe price competition and/or rate regulation, which may have an adverse impact on their profitability. Insurance companies are subject to extensive government regulation in some countries and can be significantly affected by changes in interest rates, general economic conditions, price and marketing competition, the imposition of premium rate caps, or other changes in government regulation or tax law. Different segments of the insurance industry can be significantly affected by mortality and morbidity rates, environmental clean-up costs and catastrophic events such as earthquakes, hurricanes and terrorist acts.
The financial sector is also a target for cyber attacks and may experience technology malfunctions and disruptions. In recent years, cyber attacks and technology failures have become increasingly frequent and have caused significant losses.
Industrial Sector Risk (U.S. Equity Fund and International Equity Fund only). The industrial sector can be significantly affected by, among other things, worldwide economic growth, supply and demand for specific products and services, rapid technological developments, international political and economic developments, environmental issues, tariffs and trade barriers, and tax and governmental regulatory policies. As the demand for, or prices of, industrials increase, the value of the Fund’s investments generally would be expected to also increase. Conversely, declines in the demand for, or prices of, industrials generally would be expected to contribute to declines in the value of such securities. Such declines may occur quickly and without warning and may negatively impact the value of the Fund and your investment.
Information Technology Sector Risk (U.S. Equity Fund and International Equity Fund only). Market or economic factors impacting information technology companies and companies that rely heavily on technological advances could have a significant effect on the value of the Fund’s investments. The value of stocks of information technology companies and companies that rely heavily on technology is particularly vulnerable to rapid changes in technology product cycles, rapid product obsolescence, government regulation and competition, both domestically and internationally, including competition from foreign competitors with lower production costs. Stocks of information technology companies and companies that rely heavily on technology, especially those of smaller, less-seasoned companies, tend to be more volatile than the overall market. Information technology companies are heavily dependent on patent and intellectual property rights, the loss or impairment of which may adversely affect profitability. Additionally, companies in the technology sector may face dramatic and often unpredictable changes in growth rates and competition for the services of qualified personnel.
TBA Securities and Rolls Risk (U.S. Bond Fund only). The Fund may invest in TBA securities. In a TBA transaction, a seller agrees to deliver a security at a future date, but does not specify the particular security to be delivered. Instead, the seller agrees to accept any security that meets specified terms. The principal risks of TBA transactions are increased credit risk and increased overall investment exposure.
The Fund may enter into TBA roll transactions, in which the Fund sells mortgage-backed securities for delivery in the current month and simultaneously contracts to purchase substantially similar securities on a specified future date from the same party. The investor may assume some risk because the characteristics of the MBS delivered to the investor may be less favorable than the MBS the investor delivered to the dealer. Because the dealer is not obligated to return the identical MBS collateral that the investor has delivered, both parties usually transact the dollar roll with generic MBS pools that have the same or less value than the average TBA-eligible security.
Tracking Error Risk. As with all index funds, the performance of each Fund and its respective Index may differ from each other for a variety of reasons. For example, the Funds incur operating expenses and portfolio transaction costs not incurred by an Index. In addition, the Funds may not be fully invested in the securities of their respective Index at all times or may hold securities not included in the Index. A Fund may use a representative sampling strategy to achieve its investment objective, if the Fund’s Sub-Adviser believes it is in the best interest of the Fund, which generally can be expected to produce a greater non-correlation risk.
25


Portfolio Holdings Information
Information about the Funds’ daily portfolio holdings is available at www.videntfunds.com. A description of the Funds’ policies and procedures with respect to the disclosure of the Funds’ portfolio holdings is available in the Funds’ Statement of Additional Information (“SAI”).
Management
Investment Adviser
Vident Advisory, LLC (“Vident Advisory”) serves as the investment adviser to the Funds. Vident Advisory is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Vident Financial, LLC, was formed in 2016, and commenced operations and registered with the SEC as an investment adviser in 2019. On October 30, 2018, the SEC issued an exemptive order to Vident Advisory and the Trust permitting Vident Advisory to manage index-based exchange-traded funds. Its principal office is located at 1125 Sanctuary Parkway, Suite 515, Alpharetta, Georgia 30009. Pursuant to the Investment Advisory Agreement, each Fund pays Vident Advisory a unitary management fee, which is calculated daily and paid monthly, at an annual rate based on a percentage of each Fund’s average daily net assets, as shown in the following table:  
Fund
Management Fee
Vident Core U.S. Bond Strategy ETF
0.41%
Vident U.S. Equity Strategy ETF
0.50%
Vident International Equity Fund
0.61%
[From December 21, 2020 through December 31, 2021, the Adviser contractually agreed to waive two basis points (0.02%) of its unified management fee for each Fund. As a result of the fee waiver agreement, for the fiscal year ended August 31, 2021, the Adviser received management fees equal to 0.39% of the U.S. Bond Fund’s average daily net assets, 0.48% of the U.S. Equity Fund’s average daily net assets, and 0.59% of the International Equity Fund’s average daily net assets].
Out of the unitary management fee, Vident Advisory has agreed to pay substantially all expenses of the Funds, including the cost of transfer agency, custody, fund administration, securities lending and other non-distribution related services necessary for the Funds to operate, except for: the fee paid to Vident Advisory pursuant to the Investment Advisory Agreement, interest charges on any borrowings, dividends and other expenses on securities sold short, taxes and related services, brokerage commissions and other expenses incurred in placing orders for the purchase and sale of securities and other investment instruments, acquired fund fees and expenses, accrued deferred tax liability, extraordinary expenses, and distribution (12b‑1) fees and expenses. The Adviser, in turn, compensates the Sub-Adviser from the management fee the Adviser receives.
The basis for the Board’s approval of the Funds’ Investment Advisory Agreement is available in the Funds’ [Semi-Annual Report to Shareholders] for the period ended [February 28, 2022].
Sub-Adviser
The Adviser has retained Vident Investment Advisory, LLC to serve as sub-adviser for the Funds. VIA is responsible for the day-to-day management of the Funds. VIA, a registered investment adviser, is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Vident Financial, LLC. Its principal office is located at 1125 Sanctuary Parkway, Suite 515, Alpharetta, Georgia 30009. VIA was formed in 2014 and provides investment advisory services to ETFs, including the Funds. The Sub-Adviser is responsible for trading portfolio securities for the Funds, including selecting broker-dealers to execute purchase and sale transactions or in connection with any rebalancing or reconstitution of the Indexes, subject to the supervision of the Adviser and the Board. For its services, the Sub-Adviser is paid a fee by the Adviser, which fee is calculated daily and paid monthly, at an annual rate based on the average daily net assets of each Fund and subject to a minimum annual fee as follows:
Fund
Minimum Annual Fee Asset-Based Fee
Vident U.S. Equity Strategy ETF $50,000 4 bps (0.04%)
Vident Core U.S. Bond Strategy ETF $75,000 6 bps (0.06%) on the first $250 million
5 bps (0.05%) on the next $250 million
4 bps (0.04%) on the next $500 million
3 bps (0.03%) on the balance over $1 billion
Vident International Equity Fund $75,000 4 bps (0.04%)
The basis for the Board’s approval of the Funds’ Sub-Advisory Agreement is available in the Funds’ [Annual Report] to Shareholders for the period ended [August 31, 2022.]
26


Portfolio Managers
The Funds are managed by VIA’s portfolio management team. The individual members of the team responsible for the day to day management of the Funds’ portfolios are listed below.
Jim Iredale, CFA, is a portfolio manager for the U.S. Bond Fund. Mr. Iredale became a Senior Portfolio Manager – Fixed Income at VIA in 2015 and has over 15 years of experience managing fixed income products. Prior to joining VIA, Mr. Iredale was a Manager – Fixed Income with Ronald Blue & Co., one of the largest independent wealth management firms in the U.S., where he started in 1999. Mr. Iredale graduated with a BBA from the University of Georgia, Terry College of Business and obtained his JD from the University of Georgia School of Law. He holds the Chartered Financial Analyst designation.
Jeff Kernagis, CFA, is a portfolio manager for the U.S. Bond Fund. Mr. Kernagis has 32 years of investment experience. Prior to joining VIA in 2022, Mr. Kernagis was a Senior Vice President at Northern Trust Asset Management. Before that, Mr. Kernagis spent almost 14 years at Invesco/PowerShares, where as Senior Portfolio Manager he directed the fixed income ETF PM team and helped grow assets to $40 billion in bond ETFs globally. Mr. Kernagis was also a PM at Claymore (Guggenheim) Securities where he managed both equity ETFs and bond Unit Investment Trusts. In addition, he was a senior bond trader at Mid-States (Alloya) Corporate Federal Credit Union. Prior to working in investment management, Mr. Kernagis held institutional derivative sales positions at ABN Amro, Bear Stearns, and Prudential Securities. Mr. Kernagis earned a BBA degree from the University of Notre Dame and an MBA from DePaul University. He also holds the Chartered Financial Analyst designation.
Austin Wen, CFA, is a portfolio manager for the U.S. Equity Fund and International Equity Fund. Mr. Wen has been a Portfolio Manager of the Sub-Adviser since 2016 and has eight years of investment management experience. His focus at VIA is on portfolio management and trading, risk monitoring and investment analysis. Previously, he was an analyst for Vident Financial beginning in 2014, working on the development and review of investment solutions. He began his career in 2011 as a State Examiner for the Georgia Department of Banking and Finance. Mr. Wen obtained a BA in Finance from the University of Georgia and holds the CFA designation.
Rafael Zayas, CFA, is a portfolio manager for the U.S. Equity Fund and International Equity Fund. Mr. Zayas has over 15 years of trading and portfolio management experience in global equity products and ETFs. He is SVP, Head of Portfolio Management and Trading. Mr. Zayas specializes in managing and trading of developed, emerging, and frontier market portfolios. Prior to joining VIA in 2017, he was a Portfolio Manager at Russell Investments for over $5 billion in quantitative strategies across global markets, including emerging, developed, and frontier markets and listed alternatives. Before that, he was an equity Portfolio Manager at BNY Mellon Asset Management, where he was responsible for $150 million in internationally listed global equity ETFs and assisted in managing $3 billion of global ETF assets. Mr. Zayas holds a BS in Electrical Engineering from Cornell University. He also holds the Chartered Financial Analyst designation.
Ryan Dofflemeyer is a portfolio manager for the U.S. Equity Fund and International Equity Fund. Mr. Dofflemeyer has over 16 years of trading and portfolio management experience across various asset classes including both ETFs and mutual funds. He is Senior Portfolio Manager for VIA, specializing in managing and trading of global equity and multi-asset portfolios. Prior to joining VIA in August 2020, he was a Senior Portfolio Manager at ProShare Advisors LLC (“ProShare”) for over $3 billion in ETF assets across global equities, commodities, and volatility strategies. Mr. Dofflemeyer held various positions with ProShare from October 2003 until August 2020. From 2001 to 2003, he was a Research Analyst at the Investment Company Institute in Washington DC. Mr. Dofflemeyer holds a BA from the University of Virginia and an MBA from the University of Maryland.
The Funds’ SAI provides additional information about the Portfolio Managers’ compensation structure, other accounts managed by the Portfolio Managers, and the Portfolio Managers’ ownership of Shares of each Fund.
How to Buy and Sell Shares
Each Fund issues and redeems Shares at NAV only in Creation Units. Only APs may acquire Shares directly from a Fund, and only APs may tender their Shares for redemption directly to a Fund, at NAV. APs must be a member or participant of a clearing agency registered with the SEC and must execute a Participant Agreement that has been agreed to by the Distributor (defined below), and that has been accepted by a Fund’s transfer agent, with respect to purchases and redemptions of Creation Units. Once created, Shares trade in the secondary market in quantities less than a Creation Unit.
Most investors buy and sell Shares in secondary market transactions through brokers. Shares are listed for trading on the secondary market on the Exchange and can be bought and sold throughout the trading day like other publicly traded securities.
When buying or selling Shares through a broker, you will incur customary brokerage commissions and charges, and you may pay some or all of the spread between the bid and the offer price in the secondary market on each leg of a round trip (purchase and sale) transaction. In addition, because secondary market transactions occur at market prices, you may pay more than NAV when you buy Shares and receive less than NAV when you sell those Shares.
27


Book Entry
Shares are held in book-entry form, which means that no stock certificates are issued. The Depository Trust Company (“DTC”) or its nominee is the record owner of all outstanding Shares.
Investors owning Shares are beneficial owners as shown on the records of DTC or its participants. DTC serves as the securities depository for all Shares. DTC’s participants include securities brokers and dealers, banks, trust companies, clearing corporations and other institutions that directly or indirectly maintain a custodial relationship with DTC. As a beneficial owner of Shares, you are not entitled to receive physical delivery of stock certificates or to have Shares registered in your name, and you are not considered a registered owner of Shares. Therefore, to exercise any right as an owner of Shares, you must rely upon the procedures of DTC and its participants. These procedures are the same as those that apply to any other securities that you hold in book entry or “street name” through your brokerage account.
Frequent Purchases and Redemptions of Shares
The Funds impose no restrictions on the frequency of purchases and redemptions of Shares. In determining not to approve a written, established policy, the Board evaluated the risks of market timing activities by Fund shareholders. Purchases and redemptions by APs, who are the only parties that may purchase or redeem Shares directly with a Fund, are an essential part of the ETF process and help keep Share trading prices in line with NAV. As such, the Funds accommodate frequent purchases and redemptions by APs. However, the Board has also determined that frequent purchases and redemptions for cash may increase tracking error and portfolio transaction costs and may lead to the realization of capital gains. To minimize these potential consequences of frequent purchases and redemptions, the Funds employ fair value pricing and may impose transaction fees on purchases and redemptions of Creation Units to cover the custodial and other costs incurred by a Fund in effecting trades. In addition, the Funds and the Adviser reserve the right to reject any purchase order at any time.
Determination of NAV
Each Fund’s NAV is calculated as of the scheduled close of regular trading on the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”), generally 4:00 p.m. Eastern time, each day the NYSE is open for business. The NAV for each Fund is calculated by dividing the Fund’s net assets by its Shares outstanding.
In calculating its NAV, each Fund generally values its assets on the basis of market quotations, last sale prices, or estimates of value furnished by a pricing service or brokers who make markets in such instruments. Debt obligations with maturities of 60 days or less are valued at amortized cost. The values of non-U.S. dollar denominated securities are converted to U.S. dollars using foreign currency exchange rates generally determined as of 4:00 p.m., London time. If the foregoing information is not available for a security held by a Fund or is determined to be unreliable, the security will be valued by the Adviser at fair value pursuant to procedures established by the Adviser and approved by the Board (as described below).
Fair Value Pricing
The Adviser has been designated by the Board as the valuation designee for the Funds pursuant to Rule 2a-5 under the 1940 Act. In its capacity as valuation designee, the Adviser has adopted procedures and methodologies to fair value Fund securities whose market prices are not “readily available” or are deemed to be unreliable. For example, such circumstances may arise when: (i) a security has been de-listed or has had its trading halted or suspended; (ii) a security’s primary pricing source is unable or unwilling to provide a price; (iii) a security’s primary trading market is closed during regular market hours; or (iv) a security’s value is materially affected by events occurring after the close of the security’s primary trading market. The Board has appointed the Adviser as each Fund’s valuation designee to perform all fair valuations of the Funds’ portfolio investments, subject to the Board’s oversight. Accordingly, the Adviser has established procedures for its fair valuation of each Fund’s portfolio investments. Generally, when fair valuing a security held by a Fund, the Adviser will take into account all reasonably available information that may be relevant to a particular valuation including, but not limited to, fundamental analytical data regarding the issuer, information relating to the issuer’s business, recent trades or offers of the security, general and/or specific market conditions and the specific facts giving rise to the need to fair value the security. Fair value determinations are made in good faith and in accordance with the fair value methodologies established by the Adviser. Due to the subjective and variable nature of determining the fair value of a security or other investment, there can be no assurance that the Adviser’s fair value will match or closely correlate to any market quotation that subsequently becomes available or the price quoted or published by other sources. In addition, a Fund may not be able to obtain the fair value assigned to the security upon the sale of such security.
Delivery of Shareholder Documents – Householding
Householding is an option available to certain investors of the Funds. Householding is a method of delivery, based on the preference of the individual investor, in which a single copy of certain shareholder documents can be delivered to investors who share the same address, even if their accounts are registered under different names. Householding for the Funds is available through certain broker-dealers. If you are interested in enrolling in householding and receiving a single copy of prospectuses and other shareholder
28


documents, please contact your broker-dealer. If you are currently enrolled in householding and wish to change your householding status, please contact your broker-dealer.
Investments by Registered Investment Companies
Section 12(d)(1) of the 1940 Act restricts investments by registered investment companies in the securities of other investment companies, including Shares. The SEC has granted an exemptive order to the Trust permitting registered investment companies that enter into an agreement with the Trust (“Investing Funds”) to invest in the Funds, and certain other series of the Trust, beyond the limits of Section 12(d)(1), subject to certain terms and conditions. However, to the extent a Fund invests in securities of another investment company, including other Vident Funds, in excess of the limits contained in section 12(d)(1)(A), such exemptive relief will not be applicable to such Fund. Accordingly, Investing Funds must adhere to the limits set forth in Section 12(d)(1) when investing in such Fund.
Dividends, Distributions and Taxes
Dividends and Distributions
The U.S. Bond Fund intends to pay out dividends, if any, monthly. The U.S. Equity Fund and the International Equity Fund intend to pay out dividends, if any, quarterly. Each Fund intends to distribute any net realized capital gains to its shareholders at least annually. Each Fund will declare and pay capital gain distributions, if any, in cash. Distributions in cash may be reinvested automatically in additional whole Shares only if the broker through whom you purchased Shares makes such option available. Your broker is responsible for distributing the income and capital gain distributions to you.
Taxes
The following discussion is a summary of some important U.S. federal income tax considerations generally applicable to investments in the Funds. Your investment in a Fund may have other tax implications. Please consult your tax advisor about the tax consequences of an investment in Shares, including the possible application of foreign, state, and local tax laws.
Each Fund has elected and intends to qualify each year for treatment as a regulated investment company (a “RIC”) within the meaning of Subchapter M of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”). If it meets certain minimum distribution requirements, a RIC is not subject to tax at the fund level on income and gains from investments that are timely distributed to shareholders. However, a Fund’s failure to qualify as a RIC or to meet minimum distribution requirements would result (if certain relief provisions were not available) in fund-level taxation and, consequently, a reduction in income available for distribution to shareholders.
Unless your investment in Shares is made through a tax-exempt entity or tax-advantaged account, such as an IRA, you need to be aware of the possible tax consequences when a Fund makes distributions, when you sell your Shares listed on the Exchange, and when you purchase or redeem Creation Units (APs only).
Taxes on Distributions
Each Fund intends to distribute, at least annually, substantially all of its net investment income and net capital gains. For federal income tax purposes, distributions of investment income are generally taxable as ordinary income or qualified dividend income. Taxes on distributions of capital gains (if any) are determined by how long a Fund owned the investments that generated them, rather than how long a shareholder has owned his or her Shares. Sales of assets held by a Fund for more than one year generally result in long-term capital gains and losses, and sales of assets held by a Fund for one year or less generally result in short-term capital gains and losses. Distributions of a Fund’s net capital gain (the excess of net long-term capital gains over net short-term capital losses) that are reported by such Fund as capital gain dividends (“Capital Gain Dividends”) will be taxable as long-term capital gains, which for non-corporate shareholders are subject to tax at reduced rates of up to 20% (lower rates apply to individuals in lower tax brackets). Distributions of short-term capital gain will generally be taxable as ordinary income. Dividends and distributions are generally taxable to you whether you receive them in cash or reinvest them in additional Shares.
Distributions reported by a Fund as “qualified dividend income” are generally taxed to non-corporate shareholders at rates applicable to long-term capital gains, provided holding period and other requirements are met. “Qualified dividend income” generally is income derived from dividends paid by U.S. corporations or certain foreign corporations that are either incorporated in a U.S. possession or eligible for tax benefits under certain U.S. income tax treaties. In addition, dividends that the Fund received in respect of stock of certain foreign corporations may be qualified dividend income if that stock is readily tradable on an established U.S. securities market. Corporate shareholders may be entitled to a dividends received deduction for the portion of dividends they receive from a Fund that are attributable to dividends received by the Fund from U.S. corporations, subject to certain limitations. Since the U.S. Bond Fund’s income is derived primarily from interest income, it is not expected that the Fund will distribute qualified dividend income or income that would qualify for the dividends received deduction for corporate shareholders. In addition, since the International Equity Fund invests primarily in securities of non-U.S. issuers, it is not expected that a significant portion of the dividends received from such Fund will qualify for the dividends received deduction for corporations.
29


Under recently issued final Treasury Regulations, a RIC that receives business interest income may pass through its net business interest income for purposes of the tax rules applicable to the interest expense limitations under Section 163(j) of the Code. A RIC’s total “Section 163(j) Interest Dividend” for a tax year is limited to the excess of the RIC’s business interest income over the sum of its business interest expense and its other deductions properly allocable to its business interest income. A RIC may, in its discretion, designate all or a portion of ordinary dividends as Section 163(j) Interest Dividends, which would allow the recipient shareholder to treat the designated portion of such dividends as interest income for purposes of determining such shareholder’s interest expense deduction limitation under Section 163(j). This can potentially increase the amount of a shareholder’s interest expense deductible under Section 163(j). In general, to be eligible to treat a Section 163(j) Interest Dividend as interest income, you must have held your shares in a Fund for more than 180 days during the 361-day period beginning on the date that is 180 days before the date on which the share becomes ex-dividend with respect to such dividend. Section 163(j) Interest Dividends, if so designated by a Fund, will be reported to your financial intermediary or otherwise in accordance with the requirements specified by the Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”).
Shortly after the close of each calendar year, you will be informed of the amount and character of any distributions received from a Fund.
In general, your distributions are subject to federal income tax for the year in which they are paid. Certain distributions paid in January, however, may be treated as paid on December 31 of the prior year. Distributions are generally taxable even if they are paid from income or gains earned by a Fund before your investment (and thus were included in the Shares’ NAV when you purchased your Shares).
You may wish to avoid investing in a Fund shortly before a dividend or other distribution, because such a distribution will generally be taxable even though it may economically represent a return of a portion of your investment.
If you are neither a resident nor a citizen of the United States or if you are a foreign entity, distributions (other than Capital Gain Dividends) paid to you by a Fund will generally be subject to a U.S. withholding tax at the rate of 30%, unless a lower treaty rate applies. Gains from the sale or other disposition of Shares by non-U.S. shareholders generally are not subject to U.S. taxation, unless you are a nonresident alien individual who is physically present in the U.S. for 183 days or more per year. A Fund may, under certain circumstances, report all or a portion of a dividend as an “interest-related dividend” or a “short-term capital gain dividend,” which would generally be exempt from this 30% U.S. withholding tax, provided certain other requirements are met. Different tax consequences may result if you are a foreign shareholder engaged in a trade or business within the United States or if a tax treaty applies.
Each Fund (or a financial intermediary, such as a broker, through which a shareholder owns Shares) generally is required to withhold and remit to the U.S. Treasury a percentage of the taxable distributions and sale or redemption proceeds paid to any shareholder who fails to properly furnish a correct taxpayer identification number, who has underreported dividend or interest income, or who fails to certify that the shareholder is not subject to such withholding.
Taxes When Fund Shares are Sold on the Exchange
Provided that a shareholder holds Shares as capital assets, any capital gain or loss realized upon a sale of Shares generally is treated as a long-term capital gain or loss if Shares have been held for more than one year and as a short-term capital gain or loss if Shares have been held for one year or less. However, any capital loss on a sale of Shares held for six months or less is treated as long-term capital loss to the extent of Capital Gain Dividends paid with respect to such Shares. Any loss realized on a sale will be disallowed to the extent Shares of a Fund are acquired, including through reinvestment of dividends, within a 61-day period beginning 30 days before and ending 30 days after the disposition of Shares. The ability to deduct capital losses may be limited.
The cost basis of Shares of a Fund acquired by purchase will generally be based on the amount paid for the Shares and then may be subsequently adjusted for other applicable transactions as required by the Code. The difference between the selling price and the cost basis of Shares generally determines the amount of the capital gain or loss realized on the sale or exchange of Shares. Contact the broker through whom you purchased your Shares to obtain information with respect to the available cost basis reporting methods and elections for your account.
Taxes on Purchases and Redemptions of Creation Units
An AP having the U.S. dollar as its functional currency for U.S. federal income tax purposes who exchanges securities for Creation Units generally recognizes a gain or a loss. The gain or loss will be equal to the difference between the value of the Creation Units at the time of the exchange and the exchanging AP’s aggregate basis in the securities delivered, plus the amount of any cash paid for the Creation Units. An AP who exchanges Creation Units for securities will generally recognize a gain or loss equal to the difference between the exchanging AP’s basis in the Creation Units and the aggregate U.S. dollar market value of the securities received, plus any cash received for such Creation Units. The IRS may assert, however, that a loss that is realized upon an exchange of securities for Creation Units may not be currently deducted under the rules governing “wash sales” (for an AP who does not mark-to-market their holdings), or on the basis that there has been no significant change in economic position. APs exchanging securities should consult their own tax advisor with respect to whether wash sale rules apply and when a loss might be deductible.
30


Any gain or loss realized upon a creation or redemption of Creation Units will be treated as capital or ordinary gain or loss, depending on the circumstances. Any capital gain or loss realized upon redemption of Creation Units is generally treated as long-term capital gain or loss if Shares have been held for more than one year and as a short-term capital gain or loss if Shares have been held for one year or less.
Each Fund may include a payment of cash in addition to, or in place of, the delivery of a basket of securities upon the redemption of Creation Units. Such Fund may sell portfolio securities to obtain the cash needed to distribute redemption proceeds. This may cause such Fund to recognize investment income and/or capital gains or losses that it might not have recognized if it had completely satisfied the redemption in-kind. As a result, such Fund may be less tax efficient if it includes such a cash payment in the proceeds paid upon the redemption of Creation Units.
Net Investment Income Tax
U.S. individuals with income exceeding specified thresholds are subject to a 3.8% tax on all or a portion of their “net investment income,” which includes interest, dividends, and certain capital gains (generally including capital gains distributions and capital gains realized on the sale of Shares). This 3.8% tax also applies to all or a portion of the undistributed net investment income of certain shareholders that are estates and trusts.
Foreign Investments by the Funds
Interest and other income received by a Fund with respect to foreign securities may give rise to withholding and other taxes imposed by foreign countries. Tax conventions between certain countries and the United States may reduce or eliminate such taxes. If as of the close of a taxable year more than 50% of the value of a Fund’s assets consists of certain foreign stock or securities, each such Fund will be eligible to elect to “pass through” to investors the amount of foreign income and similar taxes (including withholding taxes) paid by such Fund during that taxable year. This means that investors would be considered to have received as additional income their respective Shares of such foreign taxes, but may be entitled to either a corresponding tax deduction in calculating taxable income, or, subject to certain limitations, a credit in calculating federal income tax. If a Fund does not so elect, each such Fund will be entitled to claim a deduction for certain foreign taxes incurred by such Fund. A Fund (or its administrative agent) will notify you if it makes such an election and provide you with the information necessary to reflect foreign taxes paid on your income tax return.
The foregoing discussion summarizes some of the possible consequences under current federal tax law of an investment in each Fund. It is not a substitute for personal tax advice. You also may be subject to state and local tax on Fund distributions and sales of Shares. Consult your personal tax advisor about the potential tax consequences of an investment in Shares under all applicable tax laws. For more information, please see the section entitled “Federal Income Taxes” in the SAI.
Distribution
The Distributor, ALPS Distributors, Inc., is a broker-dealer registered with the SEC. The Distributor distributes Creation Units for the Funds on an agency basis and does not maintain a secondary market in Shares. The Distributor has no role in determining the policies of the Funds or the securities that are purchased or sold by the Funds. The Distributor’s principal address is 1290 Broadway, Suite 1000, Denver, Colorado 80203.
The Board has adopted a Distribution and Service Plan (the “Plan”) pursuant to Rule 12b-1 under the 1940 Act. In accordance with the Plan, each Fund is authorized to pay an amount up to 0.25% of its average daily net assets each year for certain distribution-related activities and shareholder services.
No Rule 12b-1 fees are currently paid by the Funds, and there are no plans to impose these fees. However, in the event Rule 12b-1 fees are charged in the future, because the fees are paid out of Fund assets, over time these fees will increase the cost of your investment and may cost you more than certain other types of sales charges.
Premium/Discount Information
Information regarding how often Shares of each Fund trade on the Exchange at a price above (i.e., at a premium) or below (i.e., at a discount) the NAV of such Fund is available on the Funds’ website at www.videntfunds.com.
Additional Notices
Shares are not sponsored, endorsed, or promoted by the Exchange. The Exchange makes no representation or warranty, express or implied, to the owners of the Shares or any member of the public regarding the ability of the Funds to track the total return performance of their respective Index or the ability of the Indexes identified herein to track the performance of their constituent securities. The Exchange is not responsible for, nor has it participated in, the determination of the compilation or the calculation of the Indexes, nor in the determination of the timing of, prices of, or quantities of the Shares to be issued, nor in the determination or calculation of the equation by which the Shares are redeemable. The Exchange has no obligation or liability to owners of the Shares in connection with the administration, marketing, or trading of the Shares.
31


The Exchange does not guarantee the accuracy and/or the completeness of the Indexes or the data included therein. The Exchange makes no warranty, express or implied, as to results to be obtained by the Funds, owners of the Shares, or any other person or entity from the use of the Indexes or the data included therein. The Exchange makes no express or implied warranties, and hereby expressly disclaims all warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose with respect to the Indexes or the data included therein. Without limiting any of the foregoing, in no event shall the Exchange have any liability for any lost profits or indirect, punitive, special, or consequential damages even if notified of the possibility thereof.
The Adviser, the Sub-Adviser, the Index Provider, and the Funds make no representation or warranty, express or implied, to the owners of Shares or any member of the public regarding the advisability of investing in securities generally or in the Funds particularly. The Index Provider is a licensor of certain trademarks, service marks and trade names of each Fund. The Index Provider has no obligation to take the needs of the Funds or the owners of Shares into consideration in determining, composing, or calculating the Indexes. The Index Provider is not responsible for, and has not participated in, the determination of the timing of, prices of, or quantities of Shares to be issued or in the determination or calculation of the equation by which the Shares are redeemable. Each Fund, the Index Provider and the Adviser do not guarantee the accuracy, completeness, or performance of the Indexes or the data included therein and shall have no liability in connection with the Indexes or Index calculations. The Index Provider owns the Indexes and the Index methodologies and is the licensor of the Indexes to the Adviser, the licensees and the Index receipt agents. The Index Provider has contracted with each Index calculation agent to maintain and calculate the Indexes used by the Funds. Each index calculation agent shall have no liability for any errors or omissions in calculating the Index.
Financial Highlights
The financial highlights tables are intended to help you understand each Fund’s financial performance for the period of the Funds’ operations. Certain information reflects financial results for a single Share. The total returns in the tables represent the rate that an investor would have earned or lost on an investment in a Fund (assuming reinvestment of all dividends and distributions). This information has been audited by [ ], the Funds’ independent registered public accounting firm, whose report, along with the Funds’ financial statements, is included in the Funds’ [annual report], which is available upon request.
[to be updated in 485(b) registration statement]

32


Vident Core U.S. Bond Strategy ETF
Vident U.S. Equity Strategy ETF
Vident International Equity Fund
Adviser
Vident Advisory, LLC
1125 Sanctuary Parkway, Suite 515
Alpharetta, Georgia 30009
Sub-Adviser
Vident Investment Advisory, LLC
1125 Sanctuary Parkway, Suite 515
Alpharetta, Georgia 30009
Custodian
U.S. Bank National Association
1555 N. Rivercenter Drive, Suite 302 
Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53212
Distributor
ALPS Distributors, Inc.
1290 Broadway, Suite 1000
Denver, Colorado 80203
Legal Counsel
Morgan, Lewis & Bockius LLP
1111 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW
Washington, DC 20004-2541
Index Provider
Vident Financial, LLC
1125 Sanctuary Parkway, Suite 515
Alpharetta, Georgia 30009
Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
[ ]
Transfer Agent, Fund Accountant and Administrator
U.S. Bancorp Fund Services, LLC
d/b/a U.S. Bank Global Fund Services
615 East Michigan Street 
Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53202
Investors may find more information about the Funds in the following documents:
Statement of Additional Information: The Funds’ SAI provides additional details about the investments of the Funds and certain other additional information. A current SAI dated [ ] is on file with the SEC and is herein incorporated by reference into this Prospectus. It is legally considered a part of this Prospectus.
Annual/Semi-Annual Reports: Additional information about each Fund’s investments will be available in the Funds’ annual and semi-annual reports to shareholders. In the [annual report] you will find a discussion of the market conditions and investment strategies that significantly affected the Funds’ performance.
To make shareholder inquiries, for more detailed information on the Funds, or to request the SAI or annual or semi-annual shareholder reports (once available) free of charge, please:
Call:
1-800-617-0004
Monday through Friday
8:00 a.m. – 5:00 p.m. (Central time)
Write:
Vident Funds
c/o U.S. Bank Global Fund Services
P.O. Box 701
Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53202
Visit:
www.videntfunds.com
Shareholder reports and other information about the Funds are available, free of charge, on the EDGAR Database on the SEC’s Internet site at www.sec.gov and copies of this information may be obtained, after paying a duplicating fee, by electronic request at the following e-mail address: publicinfo@sec.gov.
No person is authorized to give any information or to make any representations about the Funds and their Shares not contained in this Prospectus and you should not rely on any other information. Read and keep this Prospectus for future reference.

(SEC Investment Company Act File No. 811-22668)
33