485BPOS
STATEMENT OF ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
January 1, 2023
Columbia Funds Series Trust II
Columbia Integrated Large Cap Growth Fund
Class A: ILGCX Class Adv: ILGFX Class C: ILGDX
Class Inst: ILGGX Class Inst2: ILGHX Class Inst3: ILGJX
Class R: ILGEX    
Columbia Integrated Large Cap Value Fund
Class A: ILVBX Class Adv: ILVEX Class C: ILVCX
Class Inst: ILVFX Class Inst2: ILVGX Class Inst3: ILVHX
Class R: ILVDX    
Columbia Integrated Small Cap Growth Fund
Class A: ISGDX Class Adv: ISGLX Class C: ISGFX
Class Inst: ISGNX Class Inst2: ISGOX Class Inst3: ISGQX
Class R: ISGHX    
Columbia Pyrford International Stock Fund
Class A: PISDX Class Adv: PISKX Class C: PISEX
Class Inst: PISLX Class Inst2: PISOX Class Inst3: PISQX
Class R: PISJX    
Columbia Ultra Short Duration Municipal Bond Fund
Class A: USMBX Class Adv: USMDX Class Inst: USMEX
Class Inst3: USMFX    
Certain share classes in the table above, and throughout this SAI, are referred to using their abbreviated form. These full share class names are as follows: Advisor Class (Class Adv); Institutional Class (Class Inst); Institutional 2 Class (Class Inst2); and Institutional 3 Class (Class Inst3).
Unless the context indicates otherwise, references herein to “each Fund,” “the Fund,” “a Fund,” “the Funds” or “Funds” refer to each Fund listed above.
This Statement of Additional Information (SAI) is not a prospectus, is not a substitute for reading any prospectus and is intended to be read in conjunction with each Fund’s current prospectus (as amended or supplemented), the date of which may be found in the section of this SAI entitled About the Trust. The most recent annual report for each Fund, which includes the Fund’s audited financial statements for its most recent fiscal period, is incorporated herein by reference.
Copies of the Funds’ current prospectuses and annual and semiannual reports may be obtained without charge by writing Columbia Management Investment Services Corp., P.O. Box 219104, Kansas City, MO 64121-9104, by calling Columbia Funds at 800.345.6611 or by visiting the Columbia Funds’ website at columbiathreadneedleus.com.

Table of Contents

2

6

7

11

11

48

81

82

83

84

84

90

91

93

93

94

96

97

98

103

103

105

105

118

121

121

124

125

126

127

127

127

127

132

134

136

136

137

139

139

140

142

157

162

A-1

B-1

S-1
Statement of Additional Information – January 1, 2023 1

Table of Contents
SAI PRIMER
The SAI is a part of the Funds’ registration statement that is filed with the SEC. The registration statement includes the Funds’ prospectuses, the SAI and certain exhibits. The SAI, as supplemented from time to time, can be found online at columbiathreadneedleus.com and/or by accessing the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov.
For purposes of any electronic version of this SAI, all references to websites or universal resource locators (URLs) are intended to be inactive and are not meant to incorporate the contents of any such website or URL into this SAI, with the exception of the most recent annual report for each Fund, as noted on the front cover of this SAI.
The SAI generally provides additional information about the Funds that is not required to be in the Funds’ prospectuses. The SAI expands discussions of certain matters described in the Funds’ prospectuses and provides certain additional information about the Funds that may be of help or interest to some investors. Among other things, the SAI provides information about:
the organization of the Trust (of which the Funds are series);
the Funds’ investments;
the Funds’ investment adviser, investment subadviser(s) (if any) and other service providers, including roles and relationships of Ameriprise Financial and its affiliates, and conflicts of interest;
the governance of the Funds;
the Funds’ brokerage practices;
the share classes offered by the Funds;
the purchase, redemption and pricing of Fund shares; and
the application of U.S. federal income tax laws.
If you have any questions about the Funds, please call Columbia Funds at 800.345.6611 or contact your financial advisor.
Throughout this SAI, the term “financial intermediary” may refer, generally, to one or more of the selling agents and/or servicing agents that are authorized to sell and/or service shares of the Funds, which may include broker-dealers and financial advisors as well as firms that employ such broker-dealers and financial advisors, including, for example, brokerage firms, banks, investment advisers, third party administrators and other financial intermediaries.
Each Fund typically updates its registration statement approximately four months after the end of its fiscal year, although in certain circumstances a Fund may update its registration statement sooner. Some of the information in this SAI is reported for a Fund as of the end of the Fund’s last fiscal year (or period) or during the Fund’s last fiscal year (or period). This is a reference to the fiscal year (or period) ending prior to the Fund’s last annual update, which may be fifteen months or more prior to the date of the SAI. See About the Trust for each Fund’s fiscal year end and most recent prospectus date (i.e., the date of the Fund’s last annual update).
All information provided regarding Columbia Integrated Large Cap Growth Fund, Columbia Integrated Large Cap Value Fund, Columbia Integrated Small Cap Growth Fund, Columbia Pyrford International Stock Fund and Columbia Ultra Short Duration Municipal Bond Fund for periods prior to the closing of the Reorganizations, as defined below, is based on the information for, respectively, BMO Large-Cap Growth Fund, BMO Large-Cap Value Fund, BMO Small-Cap Growth Fund, BMO Pyrford International Stock Fund and BMO Ultra Short Tax-Free Fund, each a series of BMO Funds, Inc.
Before reading the SAI, you should consult the prospectus for the Fund as well as the Glossary below, which defines certain of the terms used in the SAI. Terms not defined in the Glossary below generally have the same meaning as otherwise ascribed in a Fund’s prospectus.
Glossary
1933 Act Securities Act of 1933, as amended
1934 Act Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended
1940 Act Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended
Adaptive Retirement Funds The Funds within the Columbia Funds Complex that include “Adaptive Retirement” within the fund name.
Ameriprise Financial Ameriprise Financial, Inc.
Bank of America Bank of America Corporation
Board The Trust’s Board of Trustees
Statement of Additional Information – January 1, 2023 2

Table of Contents
Business Day Any day on which the NYSE is open for business. A business day typically ends at the close of regular trading on the NYSE, usually at 4:00 p.m. Eastern time. If the NYSE is scheduled to close early, the business day will be considered to end as of the time of the NYSE’s scheduled close. The Fund will not treat an intraday unscheduled disruption in NYSE trading or an intraday unscheduled closing as a close of regular trading on the NYSE for these purposes and will price its shares as of the regularly scheduled closing time for that day (typically, 4:00 p.m. Eastern time). Notwithstanding the foregoing, the NAV of Fund shares may be determined at such other time or times (in addition to or in lieu of the time set forth above) as the Fund’s Board may approve or ratify. On holidays and other days when the NYSE is closed, the Fund's NAV is not calculated and the Fund does not accept buy or sell orders. However, the value of the Fund's assets may still be affected on such days to the extent that the Fund holds foreign securities that trade on days that foreign securities markets are open.
CEA Commodity Exchange Act
CFST Columbia Funds Series Trust
CFST I Columbia Funds Series Trust I
CFST II Columbia Funds Series Trust II
CFTC The United States Commodity Futures Trading Commission
Code Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended
Codes of Ethics The codes of ethics adopted by the Funds, Columbia Management Investment Advisers, LLC (the Investment Manager), Columbia Management Investment Distributors, Inc. and/or any sub-adviser, as applicable, pursuant to Rule 17j-1 under the 1940 Act
Columbia Funds or Columbia Funds Complex The fund complex, including the Funds, that is comprised of the registered investment companies, including traditional mutual funds, closed-end funds, and ETFs, advised by the Investment Manager or its affiliates
Columbia Management Columbia Management Investment Advisers, LLC
Columbia Threadneedle Investments The global brand name of the Columbia and Threadneedle group of companies
Custodian JPMorgan Chase Bank, N.A.
DBRS DBRS Morningstar
Distribution Agreement The Distribution Agreement between the Trust, on behalf of its Funds, and the Distributor
Distribution Plan(s) One or more of the plans adopted by the Board pursuant to Rule 12b-1 under the 1940 Act for the distribution of the Funds’ shares
Distributor Columbia Management Investment Distributors, Inc.
FDIC Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
FHLMC The Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation
Fitch Fitch Ratings, Inc.
FNMA Federal National Mortgage Association
The Fund(s) or a Fund One or more of the open-end management investment companies listed on the front cover of this SAI
GICS The Global Industry Classification Standard (GICS®). GICS was developed by and/or is the exclusive property of MSCI, Inc. (MSCI®) and S&P Global Market Intelligence Inc. (S&P Global Market Intelligence). GICS is a service mark of MSCI and S&P Global Market Intelligence and has been licensed for use by the Investment Manager. Neither GICS, MSCI, nor S&P Global Market Intelligence are affiliated with the Funds, the Investment Manager or any Columbia entity.
GNMA Government National Mortgage Association
Independent Trustees The Trustees of the Board who are not “interested persons” (as defined in the 1940 Act) of the Funds
Statement of Additional Information – January 1, 2023 3

Table of Contents
Interested Trustee A Trustee of the Board who is currently deemed to be an “interested person” (as defined in the 1940 Act) of the Funds
Investment Manager Columbia Management Investment Advisers, LLC
IRS United States Internal Revenue Service
KBRA Kroll Bond Rating Agency
LIBOR London Interbank Offered Rate*
Management Agreement The Management Agreements, as amended, if applicable, between the Trust, on behalf of the Funds, and the Investment Manager
Moody’s Moody’s Investors Service, Inc.
Multi-Manager Strategies Funds Multi-Manager Alternative Strategies Fund, Multi-Manager Directional Alternative Strategies Fund, Multi-Manager Growth Strategies Fund, Multi-Manager International Equity Strategies Fund, Multi-Manager Small Cap Equity Strategies Fund, Multi-Manager Total Return Bond Strategies Fund and Multi-Manager Value Strategies Fund. Shares of the Multi-Manager Strategies Funds are offered only through certain wrap fee programs sponsored and/or managed by Ameriprise Financial, Inc. or its affiliates.
NASDAQ National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotations system
NAV Net asset value per share of a Fund
NRSRO Nationally recognized statistical ratings organization (such as, for example, Moody’s, Fitch or S&P)
NSCC National Securities Clearing Corporation
NYSE New York Stock Exchange
The Predecessor Fund(s) or a Predecessor Fund BMO Large-Cap Growth Fund as predecessor to Columbia Integrated Large Cap Growth Fund, BMO Large-Cap Value Fund as predecessor to Columbia Integrated Large Cap Value Fund, BMO Small-Cap Growth Fund as predecessor to Columbia Integrated Small Cap Growth Fund, BMO Pyrford International Stock Fund as predecessor to Columbia Pyrford International Stock Fund and BMO Ultra Short Tax-Free Fund as predecessor to Columbia Ultra Short Duration Municipal Bond Fund
PwC PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP
Pyrford Pyrford International Ltd
REIT Real estate investment trust
REMIC Real estate mortgage investment conduit
Reorganization Date The date of the applicable Reorganization
RIC A “regulated investment company,” as such term is used in the Code
The Reorganization(s) or a Reorganization The reorganization of BMO Large-Cap Growth Fund, a series of BMO Funds, Inc., into Columbia Integrated Large Cap Growth Fund, a series of Columbia Funds Series Trust II on January 21, 2022; the reorganization of BMO Large-Cap Value Fund, a series of BMO Funds, Inc., into Columbia Integrated Large Cap Value Fund, a series of Columbia Funds Series Trust II on January 21, 2022; the reorganization of BMO Dividend Income Fund a series of BMO Funds, Inc., into Columbia Integrated Large Cap Value Fund, a series of Columbia Funds Series Trust II on January 21, 2022; the reorganization of BMO Low Volatility Equity Fund, a series of BMO Funds, Inc., into Columbia Integrated Large Cap Value Fund, a series of Columbia Funds Series Trust II on January 21, 2022; the reorganization of BMO Pyrford International Stock Fund, a series of BMO Funds, Inc., into Columbia Pyrford International Stock Fund, a series of Columbia Funds Series Trust II on December 10, 2021; the reorganization of BMO Small-Cap Growth Fund, a series of BMO Funds, Inc., into Columbia Integrated Small Cap Growth Fund, a series of Columbia Funds Series Trust II on January 21, 2022, and the reorganization of BMO Ultra Short Tax-Free Fund, a series of BMO Funds, Inc., into Columbia Ultra Short Duration Municipal Bond Fund, a series of Columbia Funds Series Trust II on January 21, 2022
Statement of Additional Information – January 1, 2023 4

Table of Contents
S&P S&P Global Ratings, a division of S&P Global Inc. (“Standard & Poor’s” and “S&P” are trademarks of S&P Global Inc. and have been licensed for use by the Investment Manager. The Columbia Funds are not sponsored, endorsed, sold or promoted by S&P Global Ratings and S&P Global Ratings makes no representation regarding the advisability of investing in the Columbia Funds)
SAI This Statement of Additional Information, as amended and supplemented from time-to-time
SEC United States Securities and Exchange Commission
Shares Shares of a Fund
SOFR Secured Overnight Financing Rate
Solution Series Funds Columbia Solutions Aggressive Portfolio, Columbia Solutions Conservative Portfolio, Multisector Bond SMA Completion Portfolio and Overseas SMA Completion Portfolio
Subadvisory Agreement The Subadvisory Agreement among a Trust on behalf of the Fund(s), the Investment Manager and a Fund’s investment subadviser(s), as the context may require
Threadneedle Threadneedle International Limited
Transfer Agency Agreement The Transfer and Dividend Disbursing Agent Agreement between the Trust, on behalf of its Funds, and the Transfer Agent
Transfer Agent Columbia Management Investment Services Corp.
Trustee(s) One or more members of the Board
Trust Columbia Funds Series Trust II, which is the registered investment company in the Columbia Funds Complex to which this SAI relates
* Please see “LIBOR Replacement Risk” in the Information Regarding Risks section for more information about the phaseout of LIBOR and related reference rates.
Throughout this SAI, the Funds are referred to as follows:
Fund Name:   Referred to as:
Columbia Integrated Large Cap Growth Fund   Integrated Large Cap Growth Fund
Columbia Integrated Large Cap Value Fund   Integrated Large Cap Value Fund
Columbia Integrated Small Cap Growth Fund   Integrated Small Cap Growth Fund
Columbia Pyrford International Stock Fund   Pyrford International Stock Fund
Columbia Ultra Short Duration Municipal Bond Fund   Ultra Short Duration Municipal Bond Fund
Statement of Additional Information – January 1, 2023 5

Table of Contents
ABOUT THE Trust
The Trust is an open-end management investment company registered with the SEC under the 1940 Act with an address at 290 Congress Street, Boston, MA 02210.
CFST II was organized as a Massachusetts business trust on January 27, 2006. On March 7, 2011, CFST II changed its name from RiverSource Series Trust to Columbia Funds Series Trust II and prior to September 11, 2007 was known as RiverSource Retirement Series Trust. The offering of Fund shares is registered under the 1933 Act. Each Fund commenced operations upon the applicable Reorganization Date.
Fund Fiscal Year End Prospectus Date Date Began
Operations*
Diversified** Fund Investment
Category***
Integrated Large Cap Growth Fund August 31 1/1/2023 November 20, 1992 Yes Equity
Integrated Large Cap Value Fund August 31 1/1/2023 September 30, 1993 Yes Equity
Integrated Small Cap Growth Fund August 31 1/1/2023 October 31, 1995 Yes Equity
Pyrford International Stock Fund August 31 1/1/2023 December 29, 2011 Yes Equity
Ultra Short Duration Municipal Bond Fund August 31 1/1/2023 September 30, 2009 Yes Tax-exempt fixed income
* Certain Funds reorganized into series of the Trust. The date of operations for these Funds represents the date on which the Predecessor Funds began operations.
** A “diversified” Fund may not, with respect to 75% of its total assets, invest more than 5% of its total assets in securities of any one issuer or purchase more than 10% of the outstanding voting securities of any one issuer, except obligations issued or guaranteed by the U.S. Government, its agencies or instrumentalities and except securities of other investment companies. A “non-diversified” Fund may invest a greater percentage of its total assets in the securities of fewer issuers than a “diversified” fund, which increases the risk that a change in the value of any one investment held by the Fund could affect the overall value of the Fund more than it would affect that of a “diversified” fund holding a greater number of investments. Accordingly, a “non-diversified” Fund’s value will likely be more volatile than the value of a more diversified fund.
*** The Fund Investment Category is used as a convenient way to describe Funds in this SAI and should not be deemed a description of the Fund’s principal investment strategies, which are described in the Fund’s prospectus.
Name Changes. The table below identifies the Funds whose names have changed in the past five years, the effective date of the name change and the former name. For information on the names of the Predecessor Funds, please refer to the definition of The Reorganization(s) or a Reorganization and The Predecessor Fund(s) or a Predecessor Fund in the Glossary section of SAI Primer.
Fund Effective Date of
Name Change
Previous Fund Name
Ultra Short Duration Municipal Bond Fund September 1, 2022 Columbia Ultra Short Municipal Bond Fund
Statement of Additional Information – January 1, 2023 6

Table of Contents
FUNDAMENTAL AND NON-FUNDAMENTAL INVESTMENT POLICIES
The following discussion of “fundamental” and “non-fundamental” investment policies and limitations for each Fund supplements the discussion of investment policies in the Funds’ prospectuses. A fundamental policy may be changed only with Board and shareholder approval. A non-fundamental policy may be changed only with Board approval and does not require shareholder approval.
Unless otherwise noted in a Fund’s prospectus or this SAI, whenever an investment policy or limitation states a maximum percentage of a Fund’s assets that may be invested in any security or other asset, or sets forth a policy regarding an investment standard, compliance with such percentage limitation or standard will be determined solely at the time of the Fund’s acquisition of such security or asset (Time of Purchase Standard). Thus, a Fund may continue to hold a security, even though it causes the Fund to exceed a percentage limitation or not meet a standard, because of post-acquisition changes, including fluctuation in the value of the Fund’s assets.
Fundamental Policies
The table below shows Fund-specific policies that may be changed only with a “vote of a majority of the outstanding voting securities” of the Fund, which means the affirmative vote of the lesser of (1) more than 50% of the outstanding shares of the Fund, or (2) 67% or more of the shares present at a meeting if more than 50% of the outstanding shares are represented at the meeting in person or by proxy. The table indicates whether or not a fund has a policy on a particular topic. A dash indicates that the Fund does not have a Fundamental policy on a particular topic. The specific policy is stated in the paragraphs that follow the table.
Fund A
Buy or
sell real
estate
B
Buy or sell
commodities
C
Issuer
Diversification
D
Concentrate
in any one
industry
E
Invest
80%
F
Act as an
underwriter
G
Lending
H
Borrow
money
I
Issue
senior
securities
Integrated Large Cap Growth Fund A B C D F G H I
Integrated Large Cap Value Fund A B C D F G H I
Integrated Small Cap Growth Fund A B C D F G H I
Pyrford International Stock Fund A B C D F G H I
Ultra Short Duration Municipal Bond Fund A B C D E F G H I
A. Buy or sell real estate
A – The Fund will not buy or sell real estate, unless acquired as a result of ownership of securities or other instruments, except this shall not prevent the Fund from investing in: (i) securities or other instruments backed by real estate or interests in real estate, (ii) securities or other instruments of issuers or entities that deal in real estate or are engaged in the real estate business, (iii) real estate investment trusts (REITs) or entities similar to REITs formed under the laws of non-U.S. countries or (iv) real estate or interests in real estate acquired through the exercise of its rights as a holder of securities secured by real estate or interests therein.
B. Buy or sell physical commodities
B – The Fund will not purchase or sell commodities, except to the extent permitted by the 1940 Act, the rules and regulations thereunder and any applicable exemptive relief.
C. Issuer Diversification*†
C – The Fund will not purchase securities (except securities issued or guaranteed by the U.S. Government, its agencies or instrumentalities) of any one issuer if, as a result, more than 5% of its total assets will be invested in the securities of such issuer or it would own more than 10% of the voting securities of such issuer, except that: (a) up to 25% of its total assets may be invested without regard to these limitations; and (b) a Fund’s assets may be invested in the securities of one or more management investment companies to the extent permitted by the 1940 Act, the rules and regulations thereunder, or any applicable exemptive relief.

* For purposes of applying the limitation set forth in its issuer diversification policy above, a Fund does not consider futures or swaps central counterparties, where the Fund has exposure to such central counterparties in the course of making investments in futures and securities, to be issuers.
For purposes of applying the limitation set forth in its issuer diversification policy, under certain circumstances, a Fund may treat an investment, if any, in a municipal bond refunded with escrowed U.S. Government securities as an investment in U.S. Government securities.
Statement of Additional Information – January 1, 2023 7

Table of Contents
D. Concentration*
D – The Fund will not purchase any securities which would cause 25% or more of the value of its total assets at the time of purchase to be invested in the securities of one or more issuers conducting their principal business activities in the same industry, provided that: (i) there is no limitation with respect to obligations issued or guaranteed by the U.S. Government, any state or territory of the United States or any of their agencies, instrumentalities or political subdivisions; and (ii) notwithstanding this limitation or any other fundamental investment limitation, assets may be invested in the securities of one or more investment companies or subsidiaries to the extent permitted by the 1940 Act, the rules and regulations thereunder and any applicable exemptive relief.

* For purposes of applying the limitation set forth in its concentration policy above, a Fund will generally use the industry classifications provided by GICS for classification of issuers of equity securities and the classifications provided by the Bloomberg U.S. Aggregate Bond Index for classification of issues of fixed-income securities. A Fund considers the investments of any underlying funds in which it invests, and will consider the portfolio positions applying the Time of Purchase Standard, which in the case of unaffiliated underlying funds is based on portfolio information made publicly available by them. A Fund does not consider futures or swaps clearinghouses or securities clearinghouses, where the Fund has exposure to such clearinghouses in the course of making investments in futures and securities, to be part of any industry.
E. Invest 80%
E – The Fund invests, under normal circumstances, at least 80% of the value of its net assets, plus the amount of any borrowings for investment purposes, in securities the income from which is exempt from federal income tax, including the federal AMT.
F. Act as an underwriter
F – The Fund will not underwrite any issue of securities issued by other persons within the meaning of the 1933 Act except when it might be deemed to be an underwriter either: (i) in connection with the disposition of a portfolio security; or (ii) in connection with the purchase of securities directly from the issuer where the Fund later resells such securities. This restriction shall not limit the Fund’s ability to invest in securities issued by other registered investment companies.
G. Lending
G – The Fund will not make loans, except to the extent permitted by the 1940 Act, the rules and regulations thereunder and any applicable exemptive relief.
H. Borrowing*
H – The Fund will not borrow money except to the extent permitted by the 1940 Act, the rules and regulations thereunder and any applicable exemptive relief.

* For purposes of the policies described herein, this restriction shall not prevent the Funds from engaging in derivatives, short sales or other portfolio transactions that create leverage, as allowed by each Fund’s investment policies.
I. Issue senior securities
I – The Fund will not issue senior securities, except as permitted under the 1940 Act, the rules and regulations thereunder and any applicable exemptive relief.
Non-fundamental Policies
The following non-fundamental policies may be changed by the Board at any time and may be in addition to those described in the Funds’ prospectus.
Investment in Illiquid Investments
For money market funds: No more than 5% of a money market fund’s total assets will be held in securities and other instruments that are classified as illiquid. For purposes of this policy, an illiquid security is a security that cannot be sold or disposed of in the ordinary course of business within seven calendar days at approximately the value ascribed to it by the Fund.
For any other fund: No Fund may acquire any illiquid investment if, immediately after the acquisition, the Fund would have invested more than 15% of its net assets in illiquid investments that are assets. For these purposes, an “illiquid investment” means any investment that the Fund reasonably expects cannot be sold or disposed of in current market conditions in seven calendar days or less without the sale or disposition significantly changing the market value of the investment.
Selling Securities Short
The Funds may not sell securities short, except as permitted by the 1940 Act, the rules and regulations thereunder and any applicable exemptive relief.
Statement of Additional Information – January 1, 2023 8

Table of Contents
Names Rule Policy
To the extent a Fund is subject to Rule 35d-1 under the 1940 Act (the Names Rule) and does not otherwise have a fundamental policy in place to comply with the Names Rule, such Fund has adopted the following non-fundamental policy: Shareholders will receive at least 60 days’ notice of any change to the Fund’s investment objective or principal investment strategies made in order to comply with the Names Rule. The notice will be provided in plain English in a separate written document, and will contain the following prominent statement or similar statement in bold-face type: “Important Notice Regarding Change in Investment Policy.” This statement will appear on both the notice and the envelope in which it is delivered, unless it is delivered separately from other communications to investors, in which case the statement will appear either on the notice or the envelope in which the notice is delivered. A Fund subject to a fundamental policy in place to comply with the Names Rule will disclose in the More Information About the Fund section of its prospectus that its 80% policy cannot be changed without shareholder approval.
To the extent that the Fund counts derivatives towards compliance with its 80% policy, such instruments will be valued based on their market value or fair value (determined in accordance with the Fund’s valuation procedures) or, when the adviser determines that the notional value of such instruments is a more appropriate measure of the Fund’s exposure to economic characteristics of investments that are consistent with the Fund’s 80% policy, at such notional value.
Summary of 1940 Act Restrictions on Certain Activities
Certain of the Fund’s fundamental and, if any, non-fundamental policies set forth above prohibit transactions “except to the extent permitted by the 1940 Act, the rules and regulations thereunder and any applicable exemptive relief.” The following discussion summarizes the flexibility that the Fund currently gains from these exceptions. To the extent the 1940 Act or the rules and regulations thereunder may, in the future, be amended to provide greater flexibility, or to the extent the SEC may in the future grant exemptive relief providing greater flexibility, the Fund will be able to use that flexibility without seeking shareholder approval of its fundamental policies.
Borrowing money – The 1940 Act permits a Fund to borrow up to 33 13% of its total assets (including the amounts borrowed) from banks, plus an additional 5% of its total assets for temporary purposes, which may be borrowed from banks or other sources. The exception in the fundamental policy allows the Funds to borrow money subject to these conditions. Compliance with this limitation is not measured under the Time of Purchase Standard (meaning, a Fund may not exceed these thresholds including if, after borrowing, the Fund’s net assets decrease due to market fluctuations).
Buy or sell physical commodities – The 1940 Act does not directly limit a Fund’s ability to invest directly in physical commodities. However, a Fund’s direct and indirect investments in physical commodities may be limited by the Fund’s intention to qualify as a RIC, and can limit the Fund’s ability to so qualify. One of the requirements for favorable tax treatment as a RIC under the Code is that a Fund derive at least 90 percent of its gross income from certain qualifying sources of income. Income and gains from direct commodities investments, and from certain indirect investments therein, do not constitute qualifying income for this purpose. A Fund that qualifies for an exclusion from the definition of a commodity pool under the CEA and has on file a notice of exclusion under CFTC Rule 4.5 is limited in its ability to use certain financial instruments regulated under the CEA (“commodity interests”).
Investing in other investment companies – The 1940 Act, in summary, provides that a fund generally may not: (i) purchase more than 3% of the outstanding voting stock of another investment company; (ii) purchase securities issued by another investment company in an amount representing more than 5% of the investing fund’s total assets; or (iii) purchase securities issued by investment companies that in the aggregate represent more than 10% of the acquiring fund’s total assets (the Statutory Limits). Affiliated funds-of-funds (i.e., those funds that invest in other funds within the same fund family), with respect to investments in such affiliated underlying funds, are not subject to the Statutory Limits and, therefore, may generally invest in affiliated underlying funds without restriction. If shares of the Fund are purchased by an affiliated fund beyond the Statutory Limits in reliance on Section 12(d)(1)(G) of the 1940 Act, for so long as shares of the Fund are held by such other affiliated fund beyond the Statutory Limits, the Fund will not purchase securities of a registered open-end investment company or registered unit investment trust in reliance on Section 12(d)(1)(F) or Section 12(d)(1)(G) of the 1940 Act. An additional exception to these limitations applies to investments in money market open-end funds. Rule 12d1-4 also permits the Funds to invest in other investment companies beyond the Statutory Limits, subject to certain conditions. In addition, under Rule 12d1-4, if shares of the Fund are purchased by another fund beyond the Statutory Limits, and the Fund purchases shares of another investment company, the Fund generally will not be able to make new investments in other funds, including private funds exempt from the definition of “investment company” under the 1940 Act by Sections 3(c)(1) or 3(c)(7) thereof, if, as a result of such investment, more than 10% of the Fund’s assets would be invested in other funds. In addition, an affiliated fund-of-funds’ investment in unaffiliated funds may be made only pursuant to Rule 12d1-4.
Issuing senior securities – A “senior security” is an obligation with respect to the earnings or assets of a company that takes precedence over the claims of that company’s common stock with respect to the same earnings or assets. The 1940 Act prohibits an open-end fund from issuing senior securities other than certain borrowings from a bank, but SEC staff interpretations allow a Fund to engage in certain types of transactions that otherwise might raise senior security concerns (such as short sales, buying
Statement of Additional Information – January 1, 2023 9

Table of Contents
and selling financial futures contracts and other derivative instruments and selling put and call options), provided that the Fund segregates or designates on the Fund’s books and records liquid assets, or, as permitted in accordance with SEC staff interpretations, otherwise covers the transaction with offsetting portfolio securities, in amounts sufficient to offset any liability associated with the transaction. The exception in the fundamental policy allows the Fund to operate in reliance upon these staff interpretations.
Making loans (Lending) – Under the 1940 Act, an open-end fund may loan money or property to persons who do not control and are not under common control with the Fund, except that a Fund may make loans to a wholly-owned subsidiary. In addition, the SEC staff takes the position that a Fund may not lend portfolio securities representing more than one-third of the Fund’s total value. A Fund must receive from the borrower collateral at least equal in value to the loaned securities, marked to market daily. The exception in the fundamental policy allows the Fund to make loans to third parties, including loans of its portfolio securities, subject to these conditions.
Purchase of securities on margin – A purchase on margin involves a loan from the broker-dealer arranging the transaction. The “margin” is the cash or securities that the buyer/borrower places with the broker-dealer as collateral against the loan. However, the purchase of securities on margin is effectively prohibited by the 1940 Act because the Fund generally may borrow only from banks. Thus, under current law, this exception does not provide any additional flexibility to the Fund.
Selling securities short – A Fund may sell a security short by borrowing the security, then selling it to a third party. The Fund will eventually need to close out the short sale by buying the security and returning it, together with interest, to the party from whom the Fund borrowed the security. The SEC staff takes the position that, as described under “Issuing senior securities” above, a mutual fund must segregate or designate on the Fund’s books and records liquid assets with a value equal to, or otherwise cover the obligation to return, the security. The exception in the fundamental policy allows the Fund to sell securities short provided it designates liquid assets with a value equal to, or otherwise covers the obligation to return, the security.
Statement of Additional Information – January 1, 2023 10

Table of Contents
ABOUT FUND INVESTMENTS
The Fund’s investment objective, principal investment strategies and related principal risks are discussed in each Fund’s prospectus. The Fund’s prospectus identifies the types of securities in which the Fund invests principally and summarizes the principal risks to the Fund’s portfolio as a whole associated with such investments. Unless otherwise indicated in the prospectus or this SAI, the investment objective and policies of a Fund may be changed without shareholder approval.
To the extent that a type of security identified in the table below for a Fund is not described in the Fund’s prospectus (or as a sub-category of such security type in this SAI), the Fund may invest in such security type as part of its non-principal investment strategies.
Information about individual types of securities (including certain of their associated risks) in which the Funds may invest is set forth below. The Fund may invest in securities listed below unless prohibited by its fundamental and non-fundamental investment policies or as otherwise noted in this SAI. The information in the table below does not describe every type of investment, technique or risk to which a Fund may be exposed.
Funds-of-funds invest in a combination of underlying funds, although they may also invest directly in stocks, bonds and other securities. Funds-of-funds may invest directly or indirectly through investments in underlying funds in the securities and other instruments and may engage in the investment strategies indicated in the table below.
Certain Investment Activity Limits. The overall investment and other activities of the Investment Manager and its affiliates may limit the investment opportunities for each Fund in certain markets, industries or transactions or in individual issuers where limitations are imposed upon the aggregate amount of investment by the Funds and other accounts managed by the Investment Manager and accounts of its affiliates (collectively, affiliated investors). From time to time, each Fund’s activities also may be restricted because of regulatory restrictions applicable to the Investment Manager and its affiliates and/or because of their internal policies. See Investment Management and Other Services – Other Roles and Relationships of Ameriprise Financial and its Affiliates – Certain Conflicts of Interest.
Temporary Defensive Positions. A Fund may from time to time take temporary defensive investment positions that may be inconsistent with the Fund’s principal investment strategies in attempting to respond to adverse market, economic, political, social or other conditions, including, without limitation investing some or all of its assets in money market instruments or shares of affiliated or unaffiliated government money market funds or holding some or all of its assets in cash or cash equivalents. The Fund may take such defensive investment positions for as long a period as deemed necessary.
Other Strategic and Investment Measures. A Fund may also from time to time take temporary portfolio positions that may or may not be consistent with the Fund’s principal investment strategies in attempting to respond to adverse market, economic, political, social or other conditions, including, without limitation, investing in derivatives, such as forward contracts, futures contracts, options, structured investments and swaps, for various purposes, including among others, investing in particular derivatives in seeking to reduce investment exposure, or in seeking to achieve indirect investment exposure, to a sector, country, region or currency where the Investment Manager (or Fund subadviser, if applicable) believes such defensive positioning is appropriate. A Fund may do so without limit and for as long a period as deemed necessary, when the Investment Manager or the Fund’s subadviser, if applicable: (i) believes that market conditions are not favorable for profitable investing or to avoid losses, (ii) is unable to locate favorable investment opportunities; or (iii) determines that a temporary defensive position is advisable or necessary in order to meet anticipated redemption requests, or for other reasons. While the Fund is so positioned, derivatives could comprise a substantial portion of the Fund’s investments and the Fund may not achieve its investment objective. Investing in this manner may adversely affect Fund performance. During these times, the portfolio managers may make frequent portfolio holding changes, which could result in increased trading expenses and taxes, and decreased Fund performance.
Types of Investments
A black circle indicates that the investment strategy or type of investment is often employed by a category of Funds. Exceptions are noted following the table. See About the Trust for fund investment categories.
Type of Investment Equity
Tax-Exempt
Fixed
Income
Asset-Backed Securities
Bank Obligations (Domestic and Foreign)
Collateralized Bond Obligations
Commercial Paper
Common Stock
Statement of Additional Information – January 1, 2023 11

Table of Contents
Type of Investment Equity
Tax-Exempt
Fixed
Income
Convertible Securities
Corporate Debt Securities
Custody Receipts and Trust Certificates
Debt Obligations
Depositary Receipts
Derivatives
Dollar Rolls
Exchange-Traded Notes
Foreign Currency Transactions
Foreign Securities
Guaranteed Investment Contracts (Funding Agreements)
High-Yield Securities
Illiquid Securities
Inflation Protected Securities
Initial Public Offerings
Inverse Floaters
Investments in Other Investment Companies (Including ETFs)
Listed Private Equity Funds
Money Market Instruments
Mortgage-Backed Securities
Municipal Securities •A
Participation Interests
Partnership Securities
Preferred Stock
Private Placement and Other Restricted Securities
Real Estate Investment Trusts
Repurchase Agreements
Reverse Repurchase Agreements
Short Sales
Sovereign Debt
Standby Commitments
U.S. Government and Related Obligations
Variable and Floating Rate Obligations
Warrants and Rights
A. Ultra Short Duration Municipal Bond Fund uses effective duration to measure duration for purposes of its principal investment strategies. Effective Duration is a duration calculation for bonds with embedded options and takes into account that expected cash flows will fluctuate as interest rates change. It measures the sensitivity of a bond’s price to a change in interest rates. The higher the duration, the more sensitive a bond’s price will be to interest rate changes.
Asset-Backed Securities
Asset-backed securities represent interests in, or debt instruments that are backed by, pools of various types of assets that generate cash payments generally over fixed periods of time, such as, among others, motor vehicle installment sales, contracts, installment loan contracts, leases of various types of real and personal property, and receivables from revolving (credit card) agreements. Such securities entitle the security holders to receive distributions (i.e., principal and interest) that are tied to the payments made by the borrower on the underlying assets (less fees paid to the originator, servicer, or other parties, and fees paid for credit enhancement), so that the payments made on the underlying assets effectively pass through to such security holders.
Statement of Additional Information – January 1, 2023 12

Table of Contents
Asset-backed securities typically are created by an originator of loans or owner of accounts receivable that sells such underlying assets to a special purpose entity in a process called a securitization. The special purpose entity issues securities that are backed by the payments on the underlying assets, and have a minimum denomination and specific term. Asset-backed securities may be structured as fixed-, variable- or floating-rate obligations or as zero-coupon, pay-in-kind and step-coupon securities and may be privately placed or publicly offered. Collateralized loan obligations (CLOs) and collateralized debt obligations (CDOs) are examples of asset-backed securities. See Types of Investments – Variable- and Floating-Rate Obligations, – Debt Obligations – Zero-Coupon, Pay-in-Kind and Step-Coupon Securities and – Private Placement and Other Restricted Securities for more information.
Although one or more of the other risks described in this SAI may also apply, the risks typically associated with asset-backed securities include: Credit Risk, Interest Rate Risk, Liquidity Risk and Prepayment and Extension Risk.
Bank Obligations (Domestic and Foreign)
Bank obligations include certificates of deposit, bankers’ acceptances, time deposits and promissory notes that earn a specified rate of return and may be issued by (i) a domestic branch of a domestic bank, (ii) a foreign branch of a domestic bank, (iii) a domestic branch of a foreign bank or (iv) a foreign branch of a foreign bank. Bank obligations may be structured as fixed-, variable- or floating-rate obligations. See Types of Investments – Variable- and Floating-Rate Obligations for more information.
Certificates of deposit, or so-called CDs, typically are interest-bearing debt instruments issued by banks and have maturities ranging from a few weeks to several years. Yankee dollar certificates of deposit are negotiable CDs issued in the United States by branches and agencies of foreign banks. Eurodollar certificates of deposit are CDs issued by foreign banks with interest and principal paid in U.S. dollars. Eurodollar and Yankee Dollar CDs typically have maturities of less than two years and have interest rates that typically are pegged to a reference rate, such as LIBOR or SOFR. Bankers’ acceptances are time drafts drawn on and accepted by banks, are a customary means of effecting payment for merchandise sold in import-export transactions and are a general source of financing. A time deposit can be either a savings account or CD that is an obligation of a financial institution for a fixed term. Typically, there are penalties for early withdrawals of time deposits. Promissory notes are written commitments of the maker to pay the payee a specified sum of money either on demand or at a fixed or determinable future date, with or without interest.
Bank investment contracts are issued by banks. Pursuant to such contracts, a Fund may make cash contributions to a deposit fund of a bank. The bank then credits to the Fund payments at floating or fixed interest rates. A Fund also may hold funds on deposit with its custodian for temporary purposes.
Certain bank obligations, such as some CDs, are insured by the FDIC up to certain specified limits. Many other bank obligations, however, are neither guaranteed nor insured by the FDIC or the U.S. Government. These bank obligations are “backed” only by the creditworthiness of the issuing bank or parent financial institution. Domestic and foreign banks are subject to different governmental regulation. Accordingly, certain obligations of foreign banks, including Eurodollar and Yankee dollar obligations, involve different and/or heightened investment risks than those affecting obligations of domestic banks, including, among others, the possibilities that: (i) their liquidity could be impaired because of political or economic developments; (ii) the obligations may be less marketable than comparable obligations of domestic banks; (iii) a foreign jurisdiction might impose withholding and other taxes at high levels on interest income; (iv) foreign deposits may be seized or nationalized; (v) foreign governmental restrictions such as exchange controls may be imposed, which could adversely affect the payment of principal and/or interest on those obligations; (vi) there may be less publicly available information concerning foreign banks issuing the obligations; and (vii) the reserve requirements and accounting, auditing and financial reporting standards, practices and requirements applicable to foreign banks may differ (including, less stringent) from those applicable to domestic banks. Foreign banks generally are not subject to examination by any U.S. Government agency or instrumentality. See Types of Investments – Foreign Securities.
Although one or more of the other risks described in this SAI may also apply, the risks typically associated with bank obligations include: Counterparty Risk, Credit Risk, Interest Rate Risk, Issuer Risk, Liquidity Risk, and Prepayment and Extension Risk.
Collateralized Bond Obligations
Collateralized bond obligations (CBOs) are investment grade bonds backed by a pool of bonds, which may include junk bonds (which are considered speculative investments). CBOs are similar in concept to collateralized mortgage obligations (CMOs), but differ in that CBOs represent different degrees of credit quality rather than different maturities. (See Types of Investments – Mortgage-Backed Securities and – Asset-Backed Securities.) CBOs are often privately offered and sold, and thus not registered under the federal securities laws.
Statement of Additional Information – January 1, 2023 13

Table of Contents
Underwriters of CBOs package a large and diversified pool of high-risk, high-yield junk bonds, which is then structured into “tranches.” Typically, the first tranche represents a senior claim on collateral and pays the lowest interest rate; the second tranche is junior to the first tranche and therefore subject to greater risk and pays a higher rate; the third tranche is junior to both the first and second tranche, represents the lowest credit quality and instead of receiving a fixed interest rate receives the residual interest payments — money that is left over after the higher tranches have been paid. CBOs, like CMOs, are substantially overcollateralized and this, plus the diversification of the pool backing them, may earn certain of the tranches investment-grade bond ratings. Holders of third-tranche CBOs stand to earn higher or lower yields depending on the rate of defaults in the collateral pool. See Types of Investments – High-Yield Securities.
Although one or more of the other risks described in this SAI may also apply, the risks typically associated with CBOs include: Credit Risk, Interest Rate Risk, Liquidity Risk, High-Yield Securities Risk and Prepayment and Extension Risk.
Commercial Paper
Commercial paper is a short-term debt obligation, usually sold on a discount basis, with a maturity ranging from 2 to 270 days issued by banks, corporations and other borrowers. It is sold to investors with temporary idle cash as a way to increase returns on a short-term basis. These instruments are generally unsecured, which increases the credit risk associated with this type of investment. See Types of Investments — Debt Obligations and — Illiquid Investments. See Appendix A for a discussion of securities ratings.
Although one or more of the other risks described in this SAI may also apply, the risks typically associated with commercial paper include: Credit Risk and Liquidity Risk.
Common Stock
Common stock represents a unit of equity ownership of a corporation. Owners typically are entitled to vote on the selection of directors and other important corporate governance matters, and to receive dividend payments, if any, on their holdings. However, ownership of common stock does not entitle owners to participate in the day-to-day operations of the corporation. Common stocks of domestic and foreign public corporations can be listed, and their shares traded, on domestic stock exchanges, such as the NYSE or the NASDAQ Stock Market. Domestic and foreign corporations also may have their shares traded on foreign exchanges, such as the London Stock Exchange or Tokyo Stock Exchange. See Types of Investments – Foreign Securities. Common stock may be privately placed or publicly offered. The price of common stock is generally determined by corporate earnings, type of products or services offered, projected growth rates, experience of management, liquidity, and market conditions generally. In the event that a corporation declares bankruptcy or is liquidated, the claims of secured and unsecured creditors and owners of bonds and preferred stock take precedence over the claims of those who own common stock. See Types of Investments – Private Placement and Other Restricted Securities, – Preferred Stock and – Convertible Securities for more information.
Although one or more of the other risks described in this SAI may also apply, the risks typically associated with common stock include: Issuer Risk and Market Risk.
Convertible Securities
Convertible securities include bonds, debentures, notes, preferred stocks or other securities that may be converted or exchanged (by the holder or by the issuer) into shares of the underlying common stock (or cash or securities of equivalent value) at a stated exchange ratio or predetermined price (the conversion price). As such, convertible securities combine the investment characteristics of debt securities and equity securities. A holder of convertible securities is entitled to receive the income of a bond, debenture or note or the dividend of a preferred stock until the conversion privilege is exercised. The market value of convertible securities generally is a function of, among other factors, interest rates, the rates of return of similar nonconvertible securities and the financial strength of the issuer. The market value of convertible securities tends to decline as interest rates rise and, conversely, to rise as interest rates decline. However, a convertible security’s market value tends to reflect the market price of the common stock of the issuing company when that stock price approaches or is greater than its conversion price. As the market price of the underlying common stock declines, the price of the convertible security tends to be influenced more by the rate of return of the convertible security. Because both interest rate and common stock’s market movements can influence their value, convertible securities generally are not as sensitive to changes in interest rates as similar non-convertible debt securities nor generally as sensitive to changes in share price as the underlying common stock. Convertible securities may be structured as fixed-, variable- or floating-rate obligations or as zero-coupon, pay-in-kind and step-coupon securities and may be privately placed or publicly offered. See Types of Investments — Variable- and Floating-Rate Obligations, — Debt Obligations - Zero-Coupon, Pay-in-Kind and Step-Coupon Securities, — Common Stock, — Corporate Debt Securities and — Private Placement and Other Restricted Securities for more information.
Statement of Additional Information – January 1, 2023 14

Table of Contents
Certain convertible securities may have a mandatory conversion feature, pursuant to which the securities convert automatically into common stock or other equity securities (of the same or a different issuer) at a specified date and at a specified exchange ratio. Certain convertible securities may be convertible at the option of the issuer, which may require a holder to convert the security into the underlying common stock, even at times when the value of the underlying common stock or other equity security has declined substantially. In addition, some convertible securities may be rated below investment grade or may not be rated and, therefore, may be considered speculative investments. Companies that issue convertible securities frequently are small- and mid-capitalization companies and, accordingly, carry the risks associated with such companies. In addition, the credit rating of a company’s convertible securities generally is lower than that of its conventional debt securities. Convertible securities are senior to equity securities and have a claim to the assets of an issuer prior to the holders of the issuer’s common stock in the event of liquidation but generally are subordinate to similar non-convertible debt securities of the same issuer. Some convertible securities are particularly sensitive to changes in interest rates when their predetermined conversion price is much higher than the price for the issuing company’s common stock.
Although one or more of the other risks described in this SAI may also apply, the risks typically associated with convertible securities include: Convertible Securities Risk, Interest Rate Risk, Issuer Risk, Market Risk, Prepayment and Extension Risk, and Reinvestment Risk.
Corporate Debt Securities
Corporate debt securities are long and short term fixed income securities typically issued by businesses to finance their operations. Corporate debt securities are issued by public or private companies, as distinct from debt securities issued by a government or its agencies. The issuer of a corporate debt security often has a contractual obligation to pay interest at a stated rate on specific dates and to repay principal periodically or on a specified maturity date. Corporate debt securities typically have four distinguishing features: (1) they are taxable; (2) they have a par value of $1,000; (3) they have a term maturity, which means they come due at a specified time period; and (4) many are traded on major securities exchanges. Notes, bonds, debentures and commercial paper are the most common types of corporate debt securities, with the primary difference being their interest rates, maturity dates and secured or unsecured status. Commercial paper has the shortest term and usually is unsecured, as are debentures. The broad category of corporate debt securities includes debt issued by domestic or foreign companies of all kinds, including those with small-, mid- and large-capitalizations. The category also includes bank loans, as well as assignments, participations and other interests in bank loans. Corporate debt securities may be rated investment grade or below investment grade and may be structured as fixed-, variable or floating-rate obligations or as zero-coupon, pay-in-kind and step-coupon securities and may be privately placed or publicly offered. They may also be senior or subordinated obligations. See Appendix A for a discussion of securities ratings. See Types of Investments — Variable- and Floating-Rate Obligations, — Private Placement and Other Restricted Securities, — Debt Obligations, — Commercial Paper and — High-Yield Securities for more information.
Extendible commercial notes (ECNs) are very similar to commercial paper except that, with ECNs, the issuer has the option to extend the notes’ maturity. ECNs are issued at a discount rate, with an initial redemption of not more than 90 days from the date of issue. If ECNs are not redeemed by the issuer on the initial redemption date, the issuer will pay a premium (step-up) rate based on the ECN’s credit rating at the time.
Because of the wide range of types and maturities of corporate debt securities, as well as the range of creditworthiness of issuers, corporate debt securities can have widely varying risk/return profiles. For example, commercial paper issued by a large established domestic corporation that is rated by an NRSRO as investment grade may have a relatively modest return on principal but present relatively limited risk. On the other hand, a long-term corporate note issued, for example, by a small foreign corporation from an emerging market country that has not been rated by an NRSRO may have the potential for relatively large returns on principal but carries a relatively high degree of risk.
Although one or more of the other risks described in this SAI may also apply, the risks typically associated with corporate debt securities include: Credit Risk, Interest Rate Risk, Issuer Risk, High-Yield Securities Risk, Prepayment and Extension Risk and Reinvestment Risk.
Custody Receipts and Trust Certificates
Custody receipts and trust certificates are derivative products that evidence direct ownership in a pool of securities. Typically, a sponsor will deposit a pool of securities with a custodian in exchange for custody receipts evidencing interests in those securities. The sponsor generally then will sell the custody receipts or trust certificates in negotiated transactions at varying prices. Each custody receipt or trust certificate evidences the individual securities in the pool and the holder of a custody receipt or trust certificate generally will have all the rights and privileges of owners of those securities.
Although one or more of the other risks described in this SAI may also apply, the risks typically associated with custody receipts and trust certificates include: Liquidity Risk and Counterparty Risk. In addition, custody receipts and trust certificates generally are subject to the same risks as the securities evidenced by the receipts or certificates.
Statement of Additional Information – January 1, 2023 15

Table of Contents
Debt Obligations
Many different types of debt obligations exist (for example, bills, bonds, and notes). Issuers of debt obligations have a contractual obligation to pay interest at a fixed, variable or floating rate on specified dates and to repay principal by a specified maturity date. Certain debt obligations (usually intermediate and long-term bonds) have provisions that allow the issuer to redeem or “call” a bond before its maturity. Issuers are most likely to call these securities during periods of falling interest rates. When this happens, an investor may have to replace these securities with lower yielding securities, which could result in a lower return.
The market value of debt obligations is affected primarily by changes in prevailing interest rates, changes in the economic environment and the issuer’s perceived ability to repay the debt. The market value of a debt obligation generally reacts inversely to interest rate changes. When prevailing interest rates decline, the market value of the bond usually rises, and when prevailing interest rates rise, the market value of the bond usually declines.
In general, the longer the maturity of a debt obligation, the higher its yield and the greater the sensitivity to changes in interest rates. Conversely, the shorter the maturity, the lower the yield and the lower the sensitivity to changes in interest rates.
As noted, the values of debt obligations also may be affected by changes in the credit rating or financial condition of their issuers. Generally, the lower the quality rating of a security, the higher the degree of risk as to the payment of interest and return of principal. To compensate investors for taking on such increased risk, those issuers deemed to be less creditworthy generally must offer their investors higher interest rates than do issuers with better credit ratings. See Types of Investments — Corporate Debt Securities, — High-Yield Securities and — Preferred Stock - Trust-Preferred Securities for more information.
Event-Linked Instruments/Catastrophe Bonds. A Fund may obtain event-linked exposure by investing in “event-linked bonds” or “event-linked swaps” or by implementing “event-linked strategies.” Event-linked exposure results in gains or losses that typically are contingent on, or formulaically related to, defined trigger events. Examples of trigger events include hurricanes, earthquakes, weather-related phenomena or statistics relating to such events. Some event-linked bonds are commonly referred to as “catastrophe bonds.” If a trigger event occurs, the principal amount of the bond is reduced (potentially to zero), and a Fund may lose all or a portion of its entire principal invested in the bond or the entire notional amount on a swap.
Stripped Securities. Stripped securities are the separate income or principal payments of a debt security and evidence ownership in either the future interest or principal payments on an instrument. There are many different types and variations of stripped securities. For example, Separate Trading of Registered Interest and Principal Securities (STRIPS) can be component parts of a U.S. Treasury security where the principal and interest components are traded independently through DTC, a clearing agency registered pursuant to Section 17A of the 1934 Act and created to hold securities for its participants, and to facilitate the clearance and settlement of securities transactions between participants through electronic computerized book-entries, thereby eliminating the need for physical movement of certificates. Treasury Investor Growth Receipts (TIGERs) are U.S. Treasury securities stripped by brokers. Stripped mortgage-backed securities, (SMBS) also can be issued by the U.S. Government or its agencies. Stripped securities may be structured as fixed-, variable- or floating-rate obligations.
SMBS usually are structured with two or more classes that receive different proportions of the interest and principal distributions from a pool of mortgage-backed assets. Common types of SMBS will be structured so that one class receives some of the interest and most of the principal from the mortgage-backed assets, while another class receives most of the interest and the remainder of the principal.
See Types of Investments – Mortgage-Backed Securities, – Variable- and Floating-Rate Obligations and – U.S. Government and Related Obligations for more information.
Although one or more of the other risks described in this SAI may also apply, the risks typically associated with stripped securities include: Credit Risk, Interest Rate Risk, Liquidity Risk, Prepayment and Extension Risk and Stripped Securities Risk
When-Issued, Delayed Delivery and Forward Commitment Transactions. When-issued, delayed delivery and forward commitment transactions involve the purchase or sale of securities by a Fund, with payment and delivery taking place in the future after the customary settlement period for that type of security. Normally, the settlement date occurs within 45 days of the purchase although in some cases settlement may take longer. The investor does not pay for the securities or receive dividends or interest on them until the contractual settlement date. When engaging in when-issued, delayed delivery and forward commitment transactions, a Fund typically will designate liquid assets in an amount equal to or greater than the purchase price. The payment obligation and, if applicable, the interest rate that will be received on the securities, are fixed at the time that a Fund agrees to purchase the securities. A Fund generally will enter into when-issued, delayed delivery and forward commitment transactions only with the intention of completing such transactions.
However, a Fund’s portfolio manager may determine not to complete a transaction if he or she deems it appropriate to close out the transaction prior to its completion. In such cases, a Fund may realize short-term gains or losses. See Types of Investments — Asset-Backed Securities and — Mortgage-Backed Securities for more information.
Statement of Additional Information – January 1, 2023 16

Table of Contents
To Be Announced Securities (TBAs). As with other delayed delivery transactions, a seller agrees to issue a TBA security at a future date. However, the seller does not specify the particular securities to be delivered. Instead, the Fund agrees to accept any security that meets specified terms. For example, in a TBA mortgage-backed security transaction, the Fund and the seller would agree upon the issuer, interest rate and terms of the underlying mortgages. The seller would not identify the specific underlying mortgages until it issues the security. TBA mortgage-backed securities increase market risks because the underlying mortgages may be less favorable than anticipated by the Fund. See Types of Investments — Asset-Backed Securities and — Mortgage-Backed Securities for more information. In order to better define contractual rights and to secure rights that will help a Fund mitigate their counterparty risk, TBA transactions may be entered into by a Fund under Master Securities Forward Transaction Agreements (each, an MSFTA). An MSFTA typically contains, among other things, collateral posting terms and netting provisions in the event of default and/or termination event. The collateral requirements are typically calculated by netting the mark-to-market amount for each transaction under such agreement and comparing that amount to the value of the collateral currently pledged by a fund and the counterparty. To the extent amounts due to a Fund are not fully collateralized, contractually or otherwise, a Fund bears the risk of loss from counterparty non-performance.
Although one or more of the other risks described in this SAI may also apply, the risks typically associated with when-issued, delayed delivery and forward commitment transactions include: Counterparty Risk, Credit Risk and Market Risk.
Zero-Coupon, Pay-in-Kind and Step-Coupon Securities. Zero-coupon, pay-in-kind and step-coupon securities are types of debt instruments that do not necessarily make payments of interest in fixed amounts or at fixed intervals. Asset-backed securities, convertible securities, corporate debt securities, foreign securities, high-yield securities, mortgage-backed securities, municipal securities, participation interests, stripped securities, U.S. Government and related obligations and other types of debt instruments may be structured as zero-coupon, pay-in-kind and step-coupon securities.
Zero-coupon securities do not pay interest on a current basis but instead accrue interest over the life of the security. These securities include, among others, zero-coupon bonds, which either may be issued at a discount by a corporation or government entity or may be created by a brokerage firm when it strips the coupons from a bond or note and then sells the bond or note and the coupon separately. This technique is used frequently with U.S. Treasury bonds, and zero-coupon securities are marketed under such names as CATS (Certificate of Accrual on Treasury Securities), TIGERs or STRIPS. Zero-coupon bonds also are issued by municipalities. Buying a municipal zero-coupon bond frees its purchaser of the obligation to pay regular federal income tax on imputed interest, since the interest is exempt for regular federal income tax purposes. Zero-coupon certificates of deposit and zero-coupon mortgages are generally structured in the same fashion as zero-coupon bonds; the certificate of deposit holder or mortgage holder receives face value at maturity and no payments until then.
Pay-in-kind securities normally give the issuer an option to pay cash at a coupon payment date or to give the holder of the security a similar security with the same coupon rate and a face value equal to the amount of the coupon payment that would have been made.
Step-coupon securities trade at a discount from their face value and pay coupon interest that gradually increases over time. The coupon rate is paid according to a schedule for a series of periods, typically lower for an initial period and then increasing to a higher coupon rate thereafter. The discount from the face amount or par value depends on the time remaining until cash payments begin, prevailing interest rates, liquidity of the security and the perceived credit quality of the issue.
Zero-coupon, pay-in-kind and step-coupon securities holders generally have substantially all the rights and privileges of holders of the underlying coupon obligations or principal obligations. Holders of these securities typically have the right upon default on the underlying coupon obligations or principal obligations to proceed directly and individually against the issuer and are not required to act in concert with other holders of such securities.
See Appendix A for a discussion of securities ratings. See Types of Investments — Asset-Backed Securities and — Mortgage-Backed Securities for more information.
Although one or more of the other risks described in this SAI may also apply, the risks typically associated with zero-coupon, step-coupon, and pay-in-kind securities include: Credit Risk, Interest Rate Risk and Zero-Coupon Bonds Risk.
Determining Investment Grade for Purposes of Investment Policies. Unless otherwise stated in the Fund’s prospectus, when determining, under a Fund’s investment policies, whether a debt instrument is investment grade or below investment grade for purposes of purchase by the Fund, the Fund will apply a particular credit quality rating methodology, as described within the Fund’s shareholder reports, when available. These methodologies typically make use of credit quality ratings assigned by a third-party rating agency or agencies, when available. Credit quality ratings assigned by a rating agency are subjective opinions, not statements of fact, and are subject to change, including daily. Credit quality ratings apply to the Fund’s debt instrument investments and not the Fund itself.
Ratings limitations under a Fund’s investment policies are applied at the time of purchase by a Fund. Subsequent to purchase, a debt instrument may cease to be rated by a rating agency or its rating may be reduced by a rating agency(ies) below the minimum required for purchase by a Fund. Neither event will require the sale of such debt instrument, but it may be a factor in
Statement of Additional Information – January 1, 2023 17

Table of Contents
considering whether to continue to hold the instrument. Unless otherwise stated in a Fund’s prospectus or in this SAI, a Fund may invest in debt instruments that are not rated by a rating agency. When a debt instrument is not rated by a rating agency, the Investment Manager or, as applicable, a Fund subadviser determines, at the time of purchase, whether such debt instrument is of investment grade or below investment grade (e.g., junk bond) quality. A Fund’s debt instrument holdings that are not rated by a rating agency are typically referred to as “Not Rated” within the Fund’s shareholder reports.
See Appendix A for a discussion of securities ratings.
Although one or more of the other risks described in this SAI may also apply, the risks typically associated with debt obligations include: Confidential Information Access Risk, Credit Risk, Highly Leveraged Transactions Risk, Impairment of Collateral Risk, Interest Rate Risk, Issuer Risk, Liquidity Risk, Prepayment and Extension Risk and Reinvestment Risk.
Determining Average Maturity. When determining the average maturity of a Fund's portfolio, the Fund may use the effective maturity of a portfolio security by, among other things, adjusting for interest rate reset dates, call dates or “put” dates.
Depositary Receipts
See Types of Investments – Foreign Securities below.
Derivatives
General
Derivatives are financial instruments whose values are based on (or “derived” from) traditional securities (such as a stock or a bond), assets (such as a commodity, like gold), reference rates (such as LIBOR and SOFR), market indices (such as the S&P 500® Index) or customized baskets of securities or instruments. Some forms of derivatives, such as exchange-traded futures and options on securities, commodities, or indices, are traded on regulated exchanges. These types of derivatives are standardized contracts that can easily be bought and sold, and whose market values are determined and published daily. Non-standardized derivatives, on the other hand, tend to be more specialized or complex, and may be harder to value. Many derivative instruments often require little or no initial payment and therefore often create inherent economic leverage. Derivatives, when used properly, can enhance returns and be useful in hedging portfolios and managing risk. Some common types of derivatives include futures; options; options on futures; forward foreign currency exchange contracts; forward contracts on securities and securities indices; linked securities and structured products; CMOs; swap agreements and swaptions.
A Fund may use derivatives for a variety of reasons, including, for example: (i) to enhance its return; (ii) to attempt to protect against possible unfavorable changes in the market value of securities held in or to be purchased for its portfolio resulting from securities markets or currency exchange rate fluctuations (i.e., to hedge); (iii) to protect its unrealized gains reflected in the value of its portfolio securities; (iv) to facilitate the sale of such securities for investment purposes; (v) to reduce transaction costs; (vi) to manage the effective maturity or duration of its portfolio; and/or (vii) to maintain cash reserves while remaining fully invested.
Certain Funds may employ portfolio margining with respect to derivatives investments, which creates leverage in a Fund’s portfolio (subjecting the Fund to Leverage Risk). Portfolio margining is a methodology that computes margin requirements for an account based on the greatest projected net loss of all positions in a product class or group, and uses computer modeling to perform risk analysis using multiple pricing scenarios. The pricing scenarios are designed to measure the theoretical loss of the positions, given changes in the underlying price and implied volatility inputs to the model. Accordingly, the margin required is based on the greatest loss that would be incurred in a portfolio if the value of its components move up or down by a predetermined amount.
A Fund may use any or all of the above investment techniques and may purchase different types of derivative instruments at any time and in any combination. The use of derivatives is a function of numerous variables, including market conditions. See also Types of Investments — Warrants and Rights and — Debt Obligations - When Issued, Delayed Delivery and Forward Commitment Transactions.
Although one or more of the other risks described in this SAI may also apply, the risks typically associated with transactions in derivatives (including the derivatives instruments discussed below) include: Counterparty Risk, Credit Risk, Interest Rate Risk, Leverage Risk, Liquidity Risk, Market Risk, Derivatives Risk, Derivatives Risk – Forward Contracts Risk, Derivatives Risk – Futures Contracts Risk, Derivatives Risk – Inverse Floaters Risk, Derivatives Risk – Options Risk, Derivatives Risk – Structured Investments Risk and/or Derivatives Risk – Swaps Risk.
Structured Investments (Indexed or Linked Securities)
General. Indexed or linked securities, also often referred to as “structured products,” are instruments that may have varying combinations of equity and debt characteristics. These instruments are structured to recast the investment characteristics of the underlying security or reference asset. If the issuer is a unit investment trust or other special purpose vehicle, the structuring will typically involve the deposit with or purchase by such issuer of specified instruments (such as commercial bank loans or
Statement of Additional Information – January 1, 2023 18

Table of Contents
securities) and/or the execution of various derivative transactions, and the issuance by that entity of one or more classes of securities (structured securities) backed by, or representing interests in, the underlying instruments. The cash flow on the underlying instruments may be apportioned among the newly issued structured securities to create securities with different investment characteristics, such as varying maturities, payment priorities and interest rate provisions, and the extent of such payments made with respect to structured securities is dependent on the extent of the cash flow on the underlying instruments.
Indexed and Inverse Floating Rate Securities. A Fund may invest in securities that provide a potential return based on a particular index or interest rates. For example, a Fund may invest in debt securities that pay interest based on an index of interest rates. The principal amount payable upon maturity of certain securities also may be based on the value of the index. To the extent a Fund invests in these types of securities, a Fund’s return on such securities will rise and fall with the value of the particular index: that is, if the value of the index falls, the value of the indexed securities owned by a Fund will fall. Interest and principal payable on certain securities may also be based on relative changes among particular indices.
A Fund may also invest in so-called “inverse floaters” or “residual interest bonds” on which the interest rates vary inversely with a floating rate (which may be reset periodically by a dutch auction, a remarketing agent, or by reference to a short-term tax-exempt interest rate index). A Fund may purchase synthetically-created inverse floating rate bonds evidenced by custodial or trust receipts. A trust funds the purchase of a bond by issuing two classes of certificates: short-term floating rate notes (typically sold to third parties) and the inverse floaters (also known as residual certificates). No additional income beyond that provided by the trust’s underlying bond is created; rather, that income is merely divided-up between the two classes of certificates. Generally, income on inverse floating rate bonds will decrease when interest rates increase, and will increase when interest rates decrease. Such securities can have the effect of providing a degree of investment leverage, since they may increase or decrease in value in response to changes in market interest rates at a rate that is a multiple of the actual rate at which fixed-rate securities increase or decrease in response to such changes. As a result, the market values of such securities will generally be more volatile than the market values of fixed-rate securities. To seek to limit the volatility of these securities, a Fund may purchase inverse floating obligations that have shorter-term maturities or that contain limitations on the extent to which the interest rate may vary. Certain investments in such obligations may be illiquid. Furthermore, where such a security includes a contingent liability, in the event of an adverse movement in the underlying index or interest rate, a Fund may be required to pay substantial additional margin to maintain the position.
Credit-Linked Securities. Among the income-producing securities in which a Fund may invest are credit linked securities. The issuers of these securities frequently are limited purpose trusts or other special purpose vehicles that, in turn, invest in a derivative instrument or basket of derivative instruments, such as credit default swaps, interest rate swaps and other securities, in order to provide exposure to certain fixed income markets. For instance, a Fund may invest in credit-linked securities as a cash management tool in order to gain exposure to a certain market and/or to remain fully invested when more traditional income-producing securities are not available. Like an investment in a bond, investments in these credit linked securities represent the right to receive periodic income payments (in the form of distributions) and payment of principal at the end of the term of the security. However, these payments are conditioned on or linked to the issuer’s receipt of payments from, and the issuer’s potential obligations to, the counterparties to the derivative instruments and other securities in which the issuer invests. For instance, the issuer may sell one or more credit default swaps, under which the issuer would receive a stream of payments over the term of the swap agreements provided that no event of default has occurred with respect to the referenced debt obligation upon which the swap is based. If a default occurs, the stream of payments may stop and the issuer would be obligated to pay the counterparty the par (or other agreed upon value) of the referenced debt obligation. This, in turn, would reduce the amount of income and/or principal that a Fund would receive. A Fund’s investments in these securities are indirectly subject to the risks associated with derivative instruments. These securities generally are exempt from registration under the 1933 Act. Accordingly, there may be no established trading market for the securities and they may be illiquid.
Equity-Linked Notes. An equity-linked note (ELN) is a debt instrument whose value is based on the value of a single equity security, basket of equity securities or an index of equity securities (each, an Underlying Equity). An ELN typically provides interest income, thereby offering a yield advantage over investing directly in an Underlying Equity. The Fund may purchase ELNs that trade on a securities exchange or those that trade on the over-the-counter markets, including Rule 144A securities. The Fund may also purchase ELNs in a privately negotiated transaction with the issuer of the ELNs (or its broker-dealer affiliate). The Fund may or may not hold an ELN until its maturity.
Equity-linked securities also include issues such as Structured Yield Product Exchangeable for Stock (STRYPES), Trust Automatic Common Exchange Securities (TRACES), Trust Issued Mandatory Exchange Securities (TIMES) and Trust Enhanced Dividend Securities (TRENDS). The issuers of these equity-linked securities generally purchase and hold a portfolio of stripped U.S. Treasury securities maturing on a quarterly basis through the conversion date, and a forward purchase contract with an existing shareholder of the company relating to the common stock. Quarterly distributions on such equity-linked securities generally consist of the cash received from the U.S. Treasury securities and such equity-linked securities generally are not entitled to any dividends that may be declared on the common stock.
Statement of Additional Information – January 1, 2023 19

Table of Contents
ELNs also include participation notes issued by a bank or broker-dealer that entitles the Fund to a return measured by the change in value of an Underlying Equity. Participation notes are typically used when a direct investment in the Underlying Equity is restricted due to country-specific regulations. Investment in a participation note is not the same as investment in the constituent shares of the company (or other issuer type) to which the Underlying Equity is economically tied. A participation note represents only an obligation of the company or other issuer type to provide the Fund the economic performance equivalent to holding shares of the Underlying Equity. A participation note does not provide any beneficial or equitable entitlement or interest in the relevant Underlying Equity. In other words, shares of the Underlying Equity are not in any way owned by the Fund.
Although one or more of the other risks described in this SAI may also apply, the risks typically associated with equity-linked notes include: Counterparty Risk, Credit Risk, Liquidity Risk and Market Risk.
Index-, Commodity- and Currency-Linked Securities. “Index-linked” or “commodity-linked” notes are debt securities of companies that call for interest payments and/or payment at maturity in different terms than the typical note where the borrower agrees to make fixed interest payments and to pay a fixed sum at maturity. Principal and/or interest payments on an index-linked or commodity-linked note depend on the performance of one or more market indices, such as the S&P 500® Index, a weighted index of commodity futures such as crude oil, gasoline and natural gas or the market prices of a particular commodity or basket of commodities or securities. Currency-linked debt securities are short-term or intermediate-term instruments having a value at maturity, and/or an interest rate, determined by reference to one or more foreign currencies. Payment of principal or periodic interest may be calculated as a multiple of the movement of one currency against another currency, or against an index.
Index-, commodity- and currency-linked securities may entail substantial risks. Such instruments may be subject to significant price volatility. The company issuing the instrument may fail to pay the amount due on maturity. The underlying investment may not perform as expected by a Fund’s portfolio manager. Markets and underlying investments and indexes may move in a direction that was not anticipated by a Fund’s portfolio manager. Performance of the derivatives may be influenced by interest rate and other market changes in the United States and abroad, and certain derivative instruments may be illiquid.
Linked securities are often issued by unit investment trusts. Examples of this include such index-linked securities as S&P Depositary Receipts (SPDRs), which is an interest in a unit investment trust holding a portfolio of securities linked to the S&P 500® Index, and a type of exchange-traded fund (ETF). Because a unit investment trust is an investment company under the 1940 Act, a Fund’s investments in SPDRs are subject to the limitations set forth in Section 12(d)(1)(A) of the 1940 Act, although the SEC has issued exemptive relief permitting investment companies such as the Funds to invest beyond the limits of Section 12(d)(1)(A) subject to certain conditions. SPDRs generally closely track the underlying portfolio of securities, trade like a share of common stock and pay periodic dividends proportionate to those paid by the portfolio of stocks that comprise the S&P 500® Index. As a holder of interests in a unit investment trust, a Fund would indirectly bear its ratable share of that unit investment trust’s expenses. At the same time, a Fund would continue to pay its own management and advisory fees and other expenses, as a result of which a Fund and its shareholders in effect would be absorbing levels of fees with respect to investments in such unit investment trusts.
Because linked securities typically involve no credit enhancement, their credit risk generally will be equivalent to that of the underlying instruments. Investments in structured products may be structured as a class that is either subordinated or unsubordinated to the right of payment of another class. Subordinated linked securities typically have higher rates of return and present greater risks than unsubordinated structured products. Structured products sometimes are sold in private placement transactions and often have a limited trading market.
Investments in linked securities have the potential to lead to significant losses because of unexpected movements in the underlying financial asset, index, currency or other investment. The ability of a Fund to utilize linked securities successfully will depend on its ability correctly to predict pertinent market movements, which cannot be assured. Because currency-linked securities usually relate to foreign currencies, some of which may be currencies from emerging market countries, there are certain additional risks associated with such investments.
Futures Contracts and Options on Futures Contracts
Futures Contracts. A futures contract sale creates an obligation by the seller to deliver the type of security or other asset called for in the contract at a specified delivery time for a stated price. A futures contract purchase creates an obligation by the purchaser to take delivery of the type of security or other asset called for in the contract at a specified delivery time for a stated price. The specific security or other asset delivered or taken at the settlement date is not determined until on or near that date. The determination is made in accordance with the rules of the exchange on which the futures contract was made. A Fund may enter into futures contracts which are traded on national or foreign futures exchanges and are standardized as to maturity date and underlying security or other asset. Futures exchanges and trading in the United States are regulated under the CEA by the CFTC, a U.S. Government agency. See CFTC Regulation below for information on CFTC regulation.
Statement of Additional Information – January 1, 2023 20

Table of Contents
Traders in futures contracts may be broadly classified as either “hedgers” or “speculators.” Hedgers use the futures markets primarily to offset unfavorable changes (anticipated or potential) in the value of securities or other assets currently owned or expected to be acquired by them. Speculators less often own the securities or other assets underlying the futures contracts which they trade, and generally use futures contracts with the expectation of realizing profits from fluctuations in the value of the underlying securities or other assets.
Unlike when a Fund purchases or sells a security, no price is paid or received by a Fund upon the purchase or sale of a futures contract, although a Fund is required to deposit with its futures broker an amount of cash and/or U.S. Government securities in order to initiate and maintain open positions in futures contracts. This amount is known as “initial margin.” The nature of initial margin in futures transactions is different from that of margin in security transactions, in that futures contract margin does not involve the borrowing of funds by a Fund to finance the transactions. Rather, initial margin is in the nature of a performance bond or good faith deposit intended to assure completion of the contract (delivery or acceptance of the underlying security or other asset) that is returned to a Fund upon termination of the futures contract, assuming all contractual obligations have been satisfied. Minimum initial margin requirements are established by the relevant futures exchange and may be changed. Brokers may establish deposit requirements which are higher than the exchange minimums. Futures contracts are customarily purchased and sold on margin which may range upward from less than 5% of the value of the contract being traded. Subsequent payments, called “variation margin,” to and from the broker (or the custodian) are made on a daily basis as the price of the underlying security or other asset fluctuates, a process known as “marking to market.” If the futures contract price changes to the extent that the margin on deposit does not satisfy margin requirements, payment of additional variation margin will be required. Conversely, a change in the contract value may reduce the required margin, resulting in a repayment of excess margin to the contract holder. Variation margin payments are made for as long as the contract remains open.
Although futures contracts by their terms call for actual delivery or acceptance of securities or other assets (stock index futures contracts or futures contracts that reference other intangible assets do not permit delivery of the referenced assets), the contracts usually are closed out before the settlement date without the making or taking of delivery. A Fund may elect to close some or all of its futures positions at any time prior to their expiration. The purpose of taking such action would be to reduce or eliminate the position then currently held by a Fund. Closing out an open futures position is done by taking an opposite position (“buying” a contract which has previously been “sold,” “selling” a contract previously “purchased”) in an identical contract (i.e., the same aggregate amount of the specific type of security or other asset with the same delivery date) to terminate the position. Final determinations are made as to whether the price of the initial sale of the futures contract exceeds or is below the price of the offsetting purchase, or whether the purchase price exceeds or is below the offsetting sale price. Final determinations of variation margin are then made, additional cash is required to be paid by or released to a Fund, and a Fund realizes a loss or a gain. Brokerage commissions and transaction fees are incurred when a futures contract is bought or sold.
Successful use of futures contracts by a Fund is subject to its portfolio manager’s ability to predict correctly movements in the direction of interest rates and other factors affecting securities and commodities markets. This requires different skills and techniques than those required to predict changes in the prices of individual securities. A Fund, therefore, bears the risk that future market trends will be incorrectly predicted.
The risk of loss in trading futures contracts in some strategies can be substantial, due both to the relatively low margin deposits required and the potential for an extremely high degree of leverage involved in futures contracts. As a result, a relatively small price movement in a futures contract may result in an immediate and substantial loss to the investor. For example, if at the time of purchase, 10% of the value of the futures contract is deposited as margin, a subsequent 10% decrease in the value of the futures contract would result in a total loss of the margin deposit, before any deduction for the transaction costs, if the account were then closed out. A 15% decrease would result in a loss equal to 150% of the original margin deposit if the contract were closed out. Thus, a purchase or sale of a futures contract may result in losses in excess of the amount posted as initial margin for the contract.
In the event of adverse price movements, a Fund would continue to be required to make daily cash payments in order to maintain its required margin. In such a situation, if a Fund has insufficient cash, it may have to sell portfolio securities in order to meet daily margin requirements at a time when it may be disadvantageous to do so. The inability to close the futures position also could have an adverse impact on the ability to hedge effectively.
To reduce or eliminate a hedge position held by a Fund, a Fund may seek to close out a position. The ability to establish and close out positions will be subject to the development and maintenance of a liquid secondary market. It is not certain that this market will develop or continue to exist for a particular futures contract, which may limit a Fund’s ability to realize its profits or limit its losses. Reasons for the absence of a liquid secondary market on an exchange include the following: (i) there may be insufficient trading interest in certain contracts; (ii) restrictions may be imposed by an exchange on opening transactions, closing transactions or both; (iii) trading halts, suspensions or other restrictions may be imposed with respect to particular classes or series of contracts, or underlying securities; (iv) unusual or unforeseen circumstances, such as volume in excess of trading or clearing capability, may interrupt normal operations on an exchange; (v) the facilities of an exchange or a clearing corporation
Statement of Additional Information – January 1, 2023 21

Table of Contents
may not at all times be adequate to handle current trading volume; or (vi) one or more exchanges could, for economic or other reasons, decide or be compelled at some future date to discontinue the trading of contracts (or a particular class or series of contracts), in which event the secondary market on that exchange (or in the class or series of contracts) would cease to exist, although outstanding contracts on the exchange that had been issued by a clearing corporation as a result of trades on that exchange would continue to be exercisable in accordance with their terms.
Interest Rate Futures Contracts. Bond prices are established in both the cash market and the futures market. In the cash market, bonds are purchased and sold with payment for the full purchase price of the bond being made in cash, generally within five business days after the trade. In the futures market, a contract is made to purchase or sell a bond in the future for a set price on a certain date. Historically, the prices for bonds established in the futures markets have tended to move generally in the aggregate in concert with the cash market prices and have maintained fairly predictable relationships. Accordingly, a Fund may use interest rate futures contracts as a defense, or hedge, against anticipated interest rate changes. A Fund presently could accomplish a similar result to that which it hopes to achieve through the use of interest rate futures contracts by selling bonds with long maturities and investing in bonds with short maturities when interest rates are expected to increase, or conversely, selling bonds with short maturities and investing in bonds with long maturities when interest rates are expected to decline. However, because of the liquidity that is often available in the futures market, the protection is more likely to be achieved, perhaps at a lower cost and without changing the rate of interest being earned by a Fund, through using futures contracts.
Interest rate futures contracts are exchange-traded in an auction environment. Each exchange guarantees performance under contract provisions through a clearing corporation, a nonprofit organization managed by the exchange membership. A public market exists in futures contracts covering various financial instruments including long-term U.S. Treasury Bonds and Notes; GNMA modified pass-through mortgage backed securities; three-month U.S. Treasury Bills; and ninety-day commercial paper. A Fund may also invest in exchange-traded Eurodollar contracts, which are interest rate futures on the forward level of a reference rate. These contracts are generally considered liquid securities and trade on the Chicago Mercantile Exchange. Such Eurodollar contracts are generally used to “lock-in” or hedge the future level of short-term rates. A Fund may trade in any interest rate futures contracts for which there exists a public market, including, without limitation, the foregoing instruments.
Index Futures Contracts. An index futures contract is a contract to buy or sell units of an index at a specified future date at a price agreed upon when the contract is made. Entering into a contract to buy units of an index is commonly referred to as buying or purchasing a contract or holding a long position in the index. Entering into a contract to sell units of an index is commonly referred to as selling a contract or holding a short position in the index. A unit is the current value of the index. A Fund may enter into stock index futures contracts, debt index futures contracts, or other index futures contracts appropriate to its objective(s).
Municipal Bond Index Futures Contracts. Municipal bond index futures contracts may act as a hedge against changes in market conditions. A municipal bond index assigns values daily to the municipal bonds included in the index based on the independent assessment of dealer-to-dealer municipal bond brokers. A municipal bond index futures contract represents a firm commitment by which two parties agree to take or make delivery of an amount equal to a specified dollar amount multiplied by the difference between the municipal bond index value on the last trading date of the contract and the price at which the futures contract is originally struck. No physical delivery of the underlying securities in the index is made.
Commodity-Linked Futures Contracts. Commodity-linked futures contracts are traded on futures exchanges. These futures exchanges offer a central marketplace in which to transact in futures contracts, a clearing corporation to process trades, and standardization of expiration dates and contract sizes. Futures markets also specify the terms and conditions of delivery as well as the maximum permissible price movement during a trading session. Additionally, the commodity futures exchanges may have position limit rules that limit the amount of futures contracts that any one party may hold in a particular commodity at any point in time. These position limit rules are designed to prevent any one participant from controlling a significant portion of the market.
Commodity-linked futures contracts are generally based upon commodities within six main commodity groups: (1) energy, which includes, among others, crude oil, brent crude oil, gas oil, natural gas, gasoline and heating oil; (2) livestock, which includes, among others, feeder cattle, live cattle and hogs; (3) agriculture, which includes, among others, wheat (Kansas wheat and Chicago wheat), corn and soybeans; (4) industrial metals, which includes, among others, aluminum, copper, lead, nickel and zinc; (5) precious metals, which includes, among others, gold and silver; and (6) softs, which includes cotton, coffee, sugar and cocoa. A Fund may purchase commodity futures contracts, swaps on commodity futures contracts, options on futures contracts and options and futures on commodity indices with respect to these six main commodity groups and the individual commodities within each group, as well as other types of commodities.
Statement of Additional Information – January 1, 2023 22

Table of Contents
The price of a commodity futures contract will reflect the storage costs of purchasing the physical commodity. These storage costs include the time value of money invested in the physical commodity plus the actual costs of storing the commodity less any benefits from ownership of the physical commodity that are not obtained by the holder of a futures contract (this is sometimes referred to as the “convenience yield”). To the extent that these storage costs change for an underlying commodity while a Fund is long futures contracts on that commodity, the value of the futures contract may change proportionately.
In the commodity futures markets, if producers of the underlying commodity wish to hedge the price risk of selling the commodity, they will sell futures contracts today to lock in the price of the commodity at delivery tomorrow. In order to induce speculators to take the corresponding long side of the same futures contract, the commodity producer must be willing to sell the futures contract at a price that is below the expected future spot price. Conversely, if the predominant hedgers in the futures market are the purchasers of the underlying commodity who purchase futures contracts to hedge against a rise in prices, then speculators will only take the short side of the futures contract if the futures price is greater than the expected future spot price of the commodity.
The changing nature of the hedgers and speculators in the commodity markets will influence whether futures contract prices are above or below the expected future spot price. This can have significant implications for a Fund when it is time to replace an existing contract with a new contract. If the nature of hedgers and speculators in futures markets has shifted such that commodity purchasers are the predominant hedgers in the market, a Fund might open the new futures position at a higher price or choose other related commodity-linked investments.
The values of commodities which underlie commodity futures contracts are subject to additional variables which may be less significant to the values of traditional securities such as stocks and bonds. Variables such as drought, floods, weather, livestock disease, embargoes and tariffs may have a larger impact on commodity prices and commodity-linked investments, including futures contracts, commodity-linked structured notes, commodity-linked options and commodity-linked swaps, than on traditional securities. These additional variables may create additional investment risks which subject a Fund’s commodity-linked investments to greater volatility than investments in traditional securities.
Options on Futures Contracts. A Fund may purchase and write call and put options on those futures contracts that it is permitted to buy or sell. A Fund may use such options on futures contracts in lieu of writing options directly on the underlying securities or other assets or purchasing and selling the underlying futures contracts. Such options generally operate in the same manner as options purchased or written directly on the underlying investments. A futures option gives the holder, in return for the premium paid, the right, but not the obligation, to buy from (call) or sell to (put) the writer of the option a futures contract at a specified price at any time during the period of the option. Upon exercise, the writer of the option is obligated to pay the difference between the cash value of the futures contract and the exercise price. Like the buyer or seller of a futures contract, the holder or writer of an option has the right to terminate its position prior to the scheduled expiration of the option by selling or purchasing an option of the same series, at which time the person entering into the closing purchase transaction will realize a gain or loss. There is no guarantee that such closing purchase transactions can be effected.
A Fund will be required to deposit initial margin and maintenance margin with respect to put and call options on futures contracts written by it pursuant to brokers’ requirements similar to those described above.
Options on Index Futures Contracts. A Fund may also purchase and sell options on index futures contracts. Options on index futures give the purchaser the right, in return for the premium paid, to assume a position in an index futures contract (a long position if the option is a call and a short position if the option is a put), at a specified exercise price at any time during the period of the option. Upon exercise of the option, the delivery of the futures position by the writer of the option to the holder of the option will be accompanied by delivery of the accumulated balance in the writer’s futures margin account, which represents the amount by which the market price of the index futures contract, at exercise, exceeds (in the case of a call) or is less than (in the case of a put) the exercise price of the option on the index future. If an option is exercised on the last trading day prior to the expiration date of the option, the settlement will be made entirely in cash equal to the difference between the exercise price of the option and the closing level of the index on which the future is based on the expiration date. Purchasers of options who fail to exercise their options prior to the exercise date suffer a loss of the premium paid.
Use by Tax-Exempt Funds of Interest Rate and U.S. Treasury Security Futures Contracts and Options. If a Fund invests in tax-exempt securities, it may purchase and sell futures contracts and related options on interest rate and U.S. Treasury securities when, in the opinion of a Fund’s portfolio manager, price movements in these security futures and related options will correlate closely with price movements in the tax-exempt securities which are the subject of the hedge. Interest rate and U.S. Treasury securities futures contracts require the seller to deliver, or the purchaser to take delivery of, the type of security called for in the contract at a specified date and price. Options on interest rate and U.S. Treasury security futures contracts give the purchaser the right in return for the premium paid to assume a position in a futures contract at the specified option exercise price at any time during the period of the option.
Statement of Additional Information – January 1, 2023 23

Table of Contents
Eurodollar and Yankee Dollar Futures Contracts and Options Thereon. Eurodollar futures contracts enable purchasers to obtain a fixed rate for the lending of funds and sellers to obtain a fixed rate for borrowings. A Fund may use Eurodollar futures contracts and options thereon to hedge against changes in a reference rate, such as LIBOR or SOFR, to which many interest rate swaps and fixed income instruments are linked.
Options
Options on Stocks, Stock Indices and Other Indices. A Fund may purchase and write (i.e., sell) put and call options. Such options may relate to particular stocks or stock indices, and may or may not be listed on a domestic or foreign securities exchange and may or may not be cleared and settled by the Options Clearing Corporation (OCC). Stock index options are put options and call options on various stock indices. In most respects, they are identical to listed options on common stocks.
There is a key difference between stock options and index options in connection with their exercise. In the case of stock options, the underlying security, common stock, is delivered. However, upon the exercise of an index option, settlement does not occur by delivery of the securities comprising the index. The option holder who exercises the index option receives an amount of cash if the closing level of the stock index upon which the option is based is greater than (in the case of a call) or less than (in the case of a put) the exercise price of the option. This amount of cash is equal to the difference between the closing price of the stock index and the exercise price of the option expressed in dollars times a specified multiple. A stock index fluctuates with changes in the market value of the securities included in the index. For example, some stock index options are based on a broad market index, such as the S&P 500® Index or a narrower market index, such as the S&P 100® Index. Indices may also be based on an industry or market segment.
A Fund may, for the purpose of hedging its portfolio, subject to applicable securities regulations, purchase and write put and call options on foreign stock indices listed on foreign and domestic stock exchanges.
As an alternative to purchasing call and put options on index futures, a Fund may purchase call and put options on the underlying indices themselves. Such options could be used in a manner identical to the use of options on index futures. Options involving securities indices provide the holder with the right to make or receive a cash settlement upon exercise of the option based on movements in the relevant index. Such options must be listed on a national securities exchange and issued by the OCC. Such options may relate to particular securities or to various stock indices, except that a Fund may not write covered options on an index.
Writing Covered Options. A Fund may write covered call options and covered put options on securities held in its portfolio. Call options written by a Fund give the purchaser the right to buy the underlying securities from a Fund at the stated exercise price at any time prior to the expiration date of the option, regardless of the security’s market price; put options give the purchaser the right to sell the underlying securities to a Fund at the stated exercise price at any time prior to the expiration date of the option, regardless of the security’s market price.
A Fund may write covered options, which means that, so long as a Fund is obligated as the writer of a call option, it will own the underlying securities subject to the option (or comparable securities satisfying the cover requirements of securities exchanges). In the case of put options, a Fund will hold liquid assets equal to the price to be paid if the option is exercised. In addition, a Fund will be considered to have covered a put or call option if and to the extent that it holds an option that offsets some or all of the risk of the option it has written. A Fund may write combinations of covered puts and calls (straddles) on the same underlying security.
A Fund will receive a premium from writing a put or call option, which increases a Fund’s return on the underlying security if the option expires unexercised or is closed out at a profit. The amount of the premium reflects, among other things, the relationship between the exercise price and the current market value of the underlying security, the volatility of the underlying security, the amount of time remaining until expiration, current interest rates, and the effect of supply and demand in the options market and in the market for the underlying security. By writing a call option, a Fund limits its opportunity to profit from any increase in the market value of the underlying security above the exercise price of the option but continues to bear the risk of a decline in the value of the underlying security. By writing a put option, a Fund assumes the risk that it may be required to purchase the underlying security for an exercise price higher than the security’s then-current market value, resulting in a potential capital loss unless the security subsequently appreciates in value.
A Fund’s obligation to sell an instrument subject to a call option written by it, or to purchase an instrument subject to a put option written by it, may be terminated prior to the expiration date of the option by a Fund’s execution of a closing purchase transaction, which is effected by purchasing on an exchange an offsetting option of the same series (i.e., same underlying instrument, exercise price and expiration date) as the option previously written. A closing purchase transaction will ordinarily be effected in order to realize a profit on an outstanding option, to prevent an underlying instrument from being called, to permit the sale of the underlying instrument or to permit the writing of a new option containing different terms on such underlying instrument. A Fund realizes a profit or loss from a closing purchase transaction if the cost of the transaction (option premium
Statement of Additional Information – January 1, 2023 24

Table of Contents
plus transaction costs) is less or more than the premium received from writing the option. Because increases in the market price of a call option generally reflect increases in the market price of the security underlying the option, any loss resulting from a closing purchase transaction may be offset in whole or in part by unrealized appreciation of the underlying security.
If a Fund writes a call option but does not own the underlying security, and when it writes a put option, a Fund may be required to deposit cash or securities with its broker as “margin” or collateral for its obligation to buy or sell the underlying security. As the value of the underlying security varies, a Fund may also have to deposit additional margin with the broker. Margin requirements are complex and are fixed by individual brokers, subject to minimum requirements currently imposed by the Federal Reserve Board and by stock exchanges and other self-regulatory organizations.
Purchasing Put Options. A Fund may purchase put options to protect its portfolio holdings in an underlying security against a decline in market value. Such hedge protection is provided during the life of the put option since a Fund, as holder of the put option, is able to sell the underlying security at the put exercise price regardless of any decline in the underlying security’s market price. For a put option to be profitable, the market price of the underlying security must decline sufficiently below the exercise price to cover the premium and transaction costs. By using put options in this manner, a Fund will reduce any profit it might otherwise have realized from appreciation of the underlying security by the premium paid for the put option and by transaction costs.
Purchasing Call Options. A Fund may purchase call options, including call options to hedge against an increase in the price of securities that a Fund wants ultimately to buy. Such hedge protection is provided during the life of the call option since a Fund, as holder of the call option, is able to buy the underlying security at the exercise price regardless of any increase in the underlying security’s market price. In order for a call option to be profitable, the market price of the underlying security must rise sufficiently above the exercise price to cover the premium and transaction costs. These costs will reduce any profit a Fund might have realized had it bought the underlying security at the time it purchased the call option.
Over-the-Counter (OTC) Options. OTC options (options not traded on exchanges) are generally established through negotiation with the other party to the options contract.
Swap Agreements
General. Swap agreements are derivative instruments that can be individually negotiated and structured to include exposure to a variety of different types of investments or market factors. Depending on their structure, swap agreements may increase or decrease a Fund’s exposure to long- or short-term interest rates, foreign currency values, mortgage securities, corporate borrowing rates, or other factors such as security prices or inflation rates. A Fund may enter into a variety of swap agreements, including interest rate, index, commodity, commodity futures, equity, equity index, credit default, bond futures, total return, currency exchange rate, and other types of swap agreements such as caps, collars and floors. A Fund also may enter into swaptions, which are options to enter into a swap agreement.
Swap agreements are usually entered into without an upfront payment because the value of each party’s position is the same. The market values of the underlying commitments will change over time, resulting in one of the commitments being worth more than the other and the net market value creating a risk exposure for one party or the other.
In a typical interest rate swap, one party agrees to make regular payments equal to a floating interest rate times a “notional principal amount,” in return for payments equal to a fixed rate times the same amount, for a specified period of time. If a swap agreement provides for payments in different currencies, the parties might agree to exchange notional principal amounts as well. In a total return swap agreement, the non-floating rate side of the swap is based on the total return of an individual security, a basket of securities, an index or another reference asset. Swaps may also depend on other prices or rates, such as the value of an index or mortgage prepayment rates.
In a typical cap or floor agreement, one party agrees to make payments only under specified circumstances, usually in return for payment of a fee by the other party. For example, the buyer of an interest rate cap obtains the right to receive payments to the extent that a specified interest rate exceeds an agreed-upon level, while the seller of an interest rate floor is obligated to make payments to the extent that a specified interest rate falls below an agreed-upon level. Caps and floors have an effect similar to buying or writing options. A collar combines elements of buying a cap and selling a floor. In interest rate collar transactions, one party sells a cap and purchases a floor, or vice versa, in an attempt to protect itself against interest rate movements exceeding given minimum or maximum levels or collar amounts.
Swap agreements will tend to shift a Fund’s investment exposure from one type of investment to another. For example, if a Fund agreed to pay fixed rates in exchange for floating rates while holding fixed-rate bonds, the swap would tend to decrease a Fund’s exposure to long-term interest rates. Another example is if a Fund agreed to exchange payments in dollars for payments in foreign currency. In that case, the swap agreement would tend to decrease a Fund’s exposure to U.S. interest rates and increase its exposure to foreign currency and interest rates.
Statement of Additional Information – January 1, 2023 25

Table of Contents
Because swaps are two-party contracts that may be subject to contractual restrictions on transferability and termination and because they may have terms of greater than seven days, swap agreements may be considered to be illiquid. It may not be possible to initiate a transaction or liquidate a position at an advantageous time or price, which may result in significant losses.
Moreover, a Fund bears the risk of loss of the amount expected to be received under a swap agreement in the event of the default or bankruptcy of a swap agreement counterparty. When a counterparty’s obligations are not fully secured by collateral, then the Fund is essentially an unsecured creditor of the counterparty. If the counterparty defaults, the Fund will have contractual remedies, but there is no assurance that a counterparty will be able to meet its obligations pursuant to such contracts or that, in the event of default, the Fund will succeed in enforcing contractual remedies. Counterparty risk still exists even if a counterparty’s obligations are secured by collateral because the Fund’s interest in collateral may not be perfected or additional collateral may not be promptly posted as required. Counterparty risk also may be more pronounced if a counterparty’s obligations exceed the amount of collateral held by the Fund (if any), the Fund is unable (or delayed in its ability) to exercise its interest in collateral upon default by the counterparty, or the termination value of the instrument varies significantly from the marked-to-market value of the instrument.
Counterparty risk with respect to derivatives will be affected by new rules and regulations affecting the derivatives market. For example, some derivatives transactions are required to be centrally cleared, and a party to a cleared derivatives transaction is subject to the credit risk of the clearing house and the clearing member through which it holds its cleared position, rather than the credit risk of its original counterparty to the derivative transaction. Credit risk of market participants with respect to derivatives that are centrally cleared is concentrated in a few clearing houses, and it is not clear how an insolvency proceeding of a clearing house would be conducted and what impact an insolvency of a clearing house would have on the financial system. A clearing member is obligated by contract and by applicable regulation to segregate all funds received from customers with respect to cleared derivatives transactions from the clearing member’s proprietary assets. However, all funds and other property received by a clearing broker from its customers are generally held by the clearing broker on a commingled basis in an omnibus account, and the clearing member may invest those funds in certain instruments permitted under the applicable regulations. The assets of a Fund might not be fully protected in the event of the bankruptcy of a Fund’s clearing member, because the Fund would be limited to recovering only a pro rata share of all available funds segregated on behalf of the clearing broker’s customers for a relevant account class. Also, the clearing member is required to transfer to the clearing organization the amount of margin required by the clearing organization for cleared derivatives, which amounts are generally held in an omnibus account at the clearing organization for all customers of the clearing member. Regulations promulgated by the CFTC require that the clearing member notify the clearing house of the amount of initial margin provided by the clearing member to the clearing organization that is attributable to each customer. However, if the clearing member does not provide accurate reporting, the Funds are subject to the risk that a clearing organization will use a Fund’s assets held in an omnibus account at the clearing organization to satisfy payment obligations of a defaulting customer of the clearing member to the clearing organization. In addition, clearing members generally provide to the clearing organization the net amount of variation margin required for cleared swaps for all of its customers in the aggregate, rather than the gross amount of each customer. The Funds are therefore subject to the risk that a clearing organization will not make variation margin payments owed to a Fund if another customer of the clearing member has suffered a loss and is in default, and the risk that a Fund will be required to provide additional variation margin to the clearing house before the clearing house will move the Fund’s cleared derivatives transactions to another clearing member. In addition, if a clearing member does not comply with the applicable regulations or its agreement with the Funds, or in the event of fraud or misappropriation of customer assets by a clearing member, a Fund could have only an unsecured creditor claim in an insolvency of the clearing member with respect to the margin held by the clearing member.
Interest Rate Swaps. Interest rate swap agreements are often used to obtain or preserve a desired return or spread at a lower cost than through a direct investment in an instrument that yields the desired return or spread. They are financial instruments that involve the exchange of one type of interest rate cash flow for another type of interest rate cash flow on specified dates in the future. In a standard interest rate swap transaction, two parties agree to exchange their respective commitments to pay fixed or floating interest rates on a predetermined specified (notional) amount. The swap agreement’s notional amount is the predetermined basis for calculating the obligations that the swap counterparties have agreed to exchange. Under most swap agreements, the obligations of the parties are exchanged on a net basis. The two payment streams are netted out, with each party receiving or paying, as the case may be, only the net amount of the two payments. Interest rate swaps can be based on various measures of interest rates, including swap rates, Treasury rates, foreign interest rates and other reference rates.
Municipal Market Data (MMD) Rate Locks. An MMD Rate Lock permits a Fund to lock in a specific municipal interest rate for a portion of its portfolio to preserve a return on a particular investment or a portion of its portfolio, which in turn protects against any increase in the price of securities to be purchased at a later date. By using an MMD Rate Lock, the Fund can create a synthetic long or short duration position. A Fund will ordinarily use these transactions as a hedge or for duration or risk management, which may not be successful. An MMD Rate Lock is a contract between a Fund and an MMD Rate Lock provider pursuant to which the parties agree to make a net settlement payment to each other on a notional and duration amount, contingent upon whether the Municipal Market Data AAA General Obligation Scale is above or below a specified level on the
Statement of Additional Information – January 1, 2023 26

Table of Contents
expiration date of the contract. For example, if a Fund buys an MMD Rate Lock and the Municipal Market Data AAA General Obligation Scale is below the specified level on the expiration date, the counterparty to the contract will make a payment to a Fund equal to the specified level minus the actual level, multiplied by the notional amount of the contract. If the Municipal Market Data AAA General Obligation Scale is above the specified level on the expiration date, a Fund will make a payment to the counterparty equal to the actual level minus the specified level, multiplied by the notional amount of the contract. In connection with investments in MMD Rate Locks, there is a risk that municipal yields will move in the opposite direction than anticipated by a Fund, which would cause the Fund to make payments to its counterparty in the transaction that could adversely affect the Fund’s performance.
Credit Default Swap Agreements. A Fund may enter into credit default swap agreements, which may have as reference obligations one or more securities or a basket of securities that are or are not currently held by a Fund. The protection “buyer” in a credit default contract is generally obligated to pay the protection “seller” an upfront or a periodic stream of payments over the term of the contract provided that no credit event, such as a default, on a reference obligation has occurred. If a credit event occurs, the seller generally must pay the buyer the “par value” (full notional value) of the swap in exchange for an equal face amount of deliverable obligations of the reference entity described in the swap, or the seller may be required to deliver the related net cash amount, if the swap is cash settled. A Fund may be either the buyer or seller in a credit default swap. If a Fund is a buyer and no credit event occurs, a Fund may recover nothing if the swap is held through its termination date. However, if a credit event occurs, the buyer generally may elect to receive the full notional value of the swap in exchange for an equal face amount of deliverable obligations of the reference entity whose value may have significantly decreased. As a seller, a Fund generally receives an upfront payment or a fixed rate of income throughout the term of the swap provided that there is no credit event. As the seller, a Fund would effectively add leverage to its portfolio because, in addition to its total net assets, a Fund would be subject to investment exposure on the notional amount of the swap.
Credit default swap agreements may involve greater risks than if a Fund had invested in the reference obligation directly since, in addition to risks relating to the reference obligation, credit default swaps are subject to liquidity risk, counterparty risk and credit risk. A Fund will enter into credit default swap agreements generally with counterparties that meet certain standards of creditworthiness. A buyer generally will lose its investment and recover nothing if no credit event occurs and the swap is held to its termination date. If a credit event were to occur, the value of any deliverable obligation received by the seller, coupled with the upfront or periodic payments previously received, may be less than the full notional value it pays to the buyer, resulting in a loss of value to the seller. A Fund’s obligations under a credit default swap agreement will be accrued daily (offset against any amounts owing to the Fund).
Equity Swaps. A Fund may engage in equity swaps. Equity swaps allow the parties to the swap agreement to exchange components of return on one equity investment (e.g., a basket of equity securities or an index) for a component of return on another non-equity or equity investment, including an exchange of differential rates of return. Equity swaps may be used to invest in a market without owning or taking physical custody of securities in circumstances where direct investment may be restricted for legal reasons or is otherwise impractical. Equity swaps also may be used for other purposes, such as hedging or seeking to increase total return.
Total Return Swap Agreements. Total return swap agreements are contracts in which one party agrees to make periodic payments to another party based on the change in market value of the assets underlying the contract, which may include a specified security, basket of securities or securities indices during the specified period, in return for periodic payments based on a fixed or variable interest rate or the total return from other underlying assets. Total return swap agreements may be used to obtain exposure to a security or market without owning or taking physical custody of such security or investing directly in such market. Total return swap agreements may effectively add leverage to a Fund’s portfolio because, in addition to its total net assets, a Fund would be subject to investment exposure on the notional amount of the swap.
Total return swap agreements are subject to the risk that a counterparty will default on its payment obligations to a Fund thereunder, and conversely, that a Fund will not be able to meet its obligation to the counterparty. Generally, a Fund will enter into total return swaps on a net basis (i.e., the two payment streams are netted against one another with a Fund receiving or paying, as the case may be, only the net amount of the two payments). The net amount of the excess, if any, of a Fund’s obligations over its entitlements with respect to each total return swap will be accrued on a daily basis. If the total return swap transaction is entered into on other than a net basis, the full amount of a Fund’s obligations will be accrued on a daily basis.
Variance, Volatility and Correlation Swap Agreements. Variance and volatility swaps are contracts that provide exposure to increases or decreases in the volatility of certain referenced assets. Correlation swaps are contracts that provide exposure to increases or decreases in the correlation between the prices of different assets or different market rates.
Commodity-Linked Swaps. Commodity-linked swaps are two-party contracts in which the parties agree to exchange the return or interest rate on one instrument for the return of a particular commodity, commodity index or commodities futures or options contract. The payment streams are calculated by reference to an agreed upon notional amount. A one-period swap contract
Statement of Additional Information – January 1, 2023 27

Table of Contents
operates in a manner similar to a forward or futures contract because there is an agreement to swap a commodity for cash at only one forward date. A Fund may engage in swap transactions that have more than one period and therefore more than one exchange of commodities.
A Fund may invest in total return commodity swaps to gain exposure to the overall commodity markets. In a total return commodity swap, a Fund will receive the price appreciation of a commodity index, a portion of the index, or a single commodity in exchange for paying an agreed-upon fee. If the commodity swap is for one period, the Fund will pay a fixed fee, established at the outset of the swap. However, if the term of the commodity swap is more than one period, with interim swap payments, the Fund will pay an adjustable or floating fee. With a “floating” rate, the fee is pegged to a reference rate such as LIBOR or SOFR, and is adjusted each period. Therefore, if interest rates increase over the term of the swap contract, a Fund may be required to pay a higher fee at each swap reset date.
Cross-Currency Swaps. Cross-currency swaps are similar to interest rate swaps, except that they involve multiple currencies. A Fund may enter into a cross-currency swap when it has exposure to one currency and desires exposure to a different currency. Typically, the interest rates that determine the cross-currency swap payments are fixed, although occasionally one or both parties may pay a floating rate of interest. Unlike an interest rate swap, however, the principal amounts are exchanged at the beginning of the contract and returned at the end of the contract. In addition to paying and receiving amounts at the beginning and termination of the agreements, both sides will have to pay in full periodically based upon the currency they have borrowed. Changes in foreign exchange currency rates and changes in interest rates, as described above, may negatively affect cross-currency swaps.
Contracts for Differences. Contracts for differences are swap arrangements in which the parties agree that their return (or loss) will be based on the relative performance of two different groups or baskets of securities. Often, one or both baskets will be an established securities index. A Fund’s return will be based on changes in value of theoretical long futures positions in the securities comprising one basket (with an aggregate face value equal to the notional amount of the contract for differences) and theoretical short futures positions in the securities comprising the other basket. A Fund also may use actual long and short futures positions and achieve similar market exposure by netting the payment obligations of the two contracts. A Fund typically enters into contracts for differences (and analogous futures positions) when its portfolio manager believes that the basket of securities constituting the long position will outperform the basket constituting the short position. If the short basket outperforms the long basket, a Fund will realize a loss — even in circumstances when the securities in both the long and short baskets appreciate in value.
Swaptions. A swaption is an options contract on a swap agreement. These transactions give a party the right (but not the obligation) to enter into new swap agreements or to shorten, extend, cancel or otherwise modify an existing swap agreement (which are described herein) at some designated future time on specified terms, in return for payment of the purchase price (the “premium”) of the option. A Fund may write (sell) and purchase put and call swaptions to the same extent it may make use of standard options on securities or other instruments. The writer of the contract receives the premium and bears the risk of unfavorable changes in the market value on the underlying swap agreement. Swaptions can be bundled and sold as a package. These are commonly called interest rate caps, floors and collars (which are described herein).
Many swaps are complex and often valued subjectively. Many over-the-counter derivatives are complex and their valuation often requires modeling and judgment, which increases the risk of mispricing or incorrect valuation. The pricing models used may not produce valuations that are consistent with the values the Fund realizes when it closes or sells an over-the-counter derivative. Valuation risk is more pronounced when the Fund enters into over-the-counter derivatives with specialized terms because the market value of those derivatives in some cases is determined in part by reference to similar derivatives with more standardized terms. Incorrect valuations may result in increased cash payment requirements to counterparties, undercollateralization and/or errors in calculation of the Fund’s net asset value.
Title VII of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the “Dodd-Frank Act”) established a framework for the regulation of OTC swap markets; the framework outlined the joint responsibility of the CFTC and the SEC in regulating swaps. The CFTC is responsible for the regulation of swaps, the SEC is responsible for the regulation of security-based swaps and they are both jointly responsible for the regulation of mixed swaps.
Risk of Potential Governmental Regulation of Derivatives
It is possible that government regulation of various types of derivative instruments, including futures and swap agreements, may limit or prevent the Funds from using such instruments as a part of their investment strategy, and could ultimately prevent the Funds from being able to achieve their investment objectives. The effects of present or future legislation and regulation in this area are not known, but the effects could be substantial and adverse.
Statement of Additional Information – January 1, 2023 28

Table of Contents
The futures markets are subject to comprehensive statutes, regulations, and margin requirements. In addition, the SEC, CFTC, exchanges and various self-regulatory organizations are authorized to take extraordinary actions in the event of a market emergency, including, for example, the implementation or reduction of speculative position limits, the implementation of higher margin requirements, the establishment of daily price limits and the suspension of trading.
The regulation of swaps and futures transactions in the U.S. is a rapidly changing area of law and is subject to modification by government and judicial action. Such regulations can change, perhaps to a material extent, the nature of an investment in a Fund or the ability of a Fund to continue to implement its investment strategies. In particular, the Dodd-Frank Act, which was signed into law in July 2010, has changed the way in which the U.S. financial system is supervised and regulated. Title VII of the Dodd-Frank Act sets forth a new legislative framework for OTC derivatives, such as swaps, in which the Funds may invest. Title VII of the Dodd-Frank Act makes broad changes to the OTC derivatives market and grants significant authority to the SEC and the CFTC to regulate OTC derivatives and market participants.
Recent U.S. and non-U.S. legislative and regulatory reforms, including those related to the Dodd-Frank Act, have resulted in, and may in the future result in, new regulation of derivative instruments and the Fund's use of such instruments. Such regulations could, among other things, restrict the Fund's ability to engage in derivative transactions (for example, by making certain types of derivative instruments or transactions no longer available to the Fund) and/or increase the costs of such transactions, and the Fund may as a result be unable to execute its investment strategies in a manner the Investment Manager might otherwise choose.
The U.S. government and the European Union (and some other jurisdictions) have enacted regulations and similar requirements that prescribe clearing, margin, reporting and registration requirements for participants in the derivatives market. These requirements are evolving and their ultimate impact on the Fund remains unclear, but such impact could include restricting and/or imposing significant costs or other burdens upon the Fund’s participation in derivatives transactions.
Additional Risk Factors in Cleared Derivatives Transactions
Under recently adopted rules and regulations, transactions in some types of swaps (including interest rate swaps and credit default swaps on North American and European indices) are required to be centrally cleared. In a transaction involving those swaps (“cleared derivatives”), a Fund’s counterparty is a clearing house, rather than a bank or broker. Since the Funds are not members of clearing houses and only members of a clearing house (“clearing members”) can participate directly in the clearing house, the Funds will hold cleared derivatives through accounts at clearing members. In a cleared derivatives transaction, the Funds will make payments (including margin payments) to and receive payments from a clearing house through their accounts at clearing members. Clearing members guarantee performance of their clients’ obligations to the clearing house.
In many ways, centrally cleared derivative arrangements are less favorable to open-end funds than bilateral arrangements. For example, the Funds may be required to provide greater amounts of margin for cleared derivatives positions than for bilateral derivatives transactions. Also, in contrast to a bilateral derivatives position, following a period of notice to a Fund, a clearing member generally can require termination of an existing cleared derivatives position at any time or increases in margin requirements above the margin that the clearing member required at the beginning of a transaction. Clearing houses also have broad rights to increase margin requirements for existing positions or to terminate those positions at any time. Any increase in margin requirements or termination of existing cleared derivatives positions by the clearing member or the clearing house could interfere with the ability of a Fund to pursue its investment strategy. Further, any increase in margin requirements by a clearing member could also expose a Fund to greater credit risk to its clearing member, because margin for cleared derivatives transactions in excess of clearing house’s margin requirements typically is held by the clearing member. Also, a Fund is subject to risk if it enters into a derivatives transaction that is required to be cleared (or that the Investment Manager expects to be cleared), and no clearing member is willing or able to clear the transaction on the Fund’s behalf. While the documentation in place between the Funds and their clearing members generally provides that the clearing members will accept for clearing all transactions submitted for clearing that are within credit limits (specified in advance) for each Fund, the Funds are still subject to the risk that no clearing member will be willing or able to clear a transaction. In those cases, the position might have to be terminated, and the Fund could lose some or all of the benefit of the position, including loss of an increase in the value of the position and/or loss of hedging protection. In addition, the documentation governing the relationship between the Funds and clearing members is developed by the clearing members and generally is less favorable to the Funds than typical bilateral derivatives documentation. For example, documentation relating to cleared derivatives generally includes a one-way indemnity by the Funds in favor of the clearing member for losses the clearing member incurs as the Funds’ clearing member and typically does not provide the Funds any remedies if the clearing member defaults or becomes insolvent. While futures contracts entail similar risks, the risks likely are more pronounced for cleared swaps due to their more limited liquidity and market history.
Some types of cleared derivatives are required to be executed on an exchange or on a swap execution facility. A swap execution facility is a trading platform where multiple market participants can execute derivatives by accepting bids and offers made by multiple other participants in the platform. While this execution requirement is designed to increase transparency and liquidity in the cleared derivatives market, trading on a swap execution facility can create additional costs and risks for the Funds. For example, swap execution facilities typically charge fees, and if a Fund executes derivatives on a swap execution facility through
Statement of Additional Information – January 1, 2023 29

Table of Contents
a broker intermediary, the intermediary may impose fees as well. Also, a Fund may indemnify a swap execution facility, or a broker intermediary who executes cleared derivatives on a swap execution facility on the Fund’s behalf, against any losses or costs that may be incurred as a result of the Fund’s transactions on the swap execution facility.
These and other new rules and regulations could, among other things, further restrict a Fund’s ability to engage in, or increase the cost to the Fund of, derivatives transactions, for example, by making some types of derivatives no longer available to the Fund, increasing margin or capital requirements, or otherwise limiting liquidity or increasing transaction costs. These regulations are new and evolving, so their potential impact on the Funds and the financial system are not yet known. While the new regulations and the central clearing of some derivatives transactions are designed to reduce systemic risk (i.e., the risk that the interdependence of large derivatives dealers could cause a number of those dealers to suffer liquidity, solvency or other challenges simultaneously), there is no assurance that the new clearing mechanisms will achieve that result, and in the meantime, as noted above, central clearing and related requirements expose the Funds to new kinds of risks and costs.
CFTC Regulation
Each of the Funds listed on the cover of this SAI qualifies for an exclusion from the definition of a commodity pool under the CEA and has on file a notice of exclusion under CFTC Rule 4.5. Accordingly, the Investment Manager is not subject to registration or regulation as a commodity pool operator under the CEA with respect to these Funds, although the Investment Manager is a registered commodity pool operator and “commodity trading advisor”. To remain eligible for the exclusion, each of these Funds is limited in its ability to use certain financial instruments regulated under the CEA (“commodity interests”), including futures and options on futures and certain swaps transactions. In the event that a Fund’s investments in commodity interests are not within the thresholds set forth in the exclusion, one or more Funds not currently registered as a commodity pool may be required to register as such, which could increase Fund expenses, adversely affecting the Fund’s total return.
Dollar Rolls
Dollar rolls involve selling securities (e.g., mortgage-backed securities or U.S. Treasury securities) and simultaneously entering into a commitment to purchase those or similar securities on a specified future date and price from the same party. Mortgage dollar rolls and U.S. Treasury rolls are types of dollar rolls. A Fund foregoes principal and interest paid on the securities during the “roll” period. A Fund is compensated by the difference between the current sales price and the lower forward price for the future purchase of the securities, as well as the interest earned on the cash proceeds of the initial sale. The investor also could be compensated through the receipt of fee income equivalent to a lower forward price. Dollar roll transactions may result in higher transaction costs for a Fund.
Although one or more of the other risks described in this SAI may also apply, the risks typically associated with mortgage dollar rolls include: Counterparty Risk, Credit Risk and Interest Rate Risk.
Exchange-traded notes (ETNs)
ETNs are instruments that combine aspects of bonds and exchange-traded funds (ETFs) and are designed to provide investors with access to the returns, less investor fees and expenses, of various market benchmarks or strategies to which they are usually linked. When an investor buys an ETN, the issuer, typically an underwriting bank, promises to pay upon maturity the amount reflected in the benchmark or strategy (minus fees and expenses). Some ETNs make periodic coupon payments. Like ETFs, ETNs are traded on an exchange, but ETNs have additional risks compared to ETFs, including the risk that if the credit of the ETN issuer becomes suspect, the investment might lose some or all of its value. Though linked to the performance, for example, of a market benchmark, ETNs are not equities or index funds, but they do share several characteristics. Similar to equities, ETNs are traded on an exchange and can be sold short. Similar to index funds, ETNs may be linked to the return of a benchmark or strategy, but ETNs do not have an ownership interest in the instruments underlying the benchmark or strategy the ETN is tracking.
Although one or more of the other risks described in this SAI may also apply, the risks typically associated with exchange-traded notes include: Counterparty Risk, Credit Risk and Market Risk.
Foreign Currency Transactions
Because investments in foreign securities usually involve currencies of foreign countries and because a Fund may hold cash and cash equivalent investments in foreign currencies, the value of a Fund’s assets as measured in U.S. dollars may be affected favorably or unfavorably by changes in currency exchange rates and exchange control regulations. Also, a Fund may incur costs in connection with conversions between various currencies. Currency exchange rates may fluctuate significantly over short periods of time, causing a Fund’s NAV to fluctuate. Currency exchange rates are generally determined by the forces of supply and demand in the foreign exchange markets, actual or anticipated changes in interest rates, and other complex factors. Currency exchange rates also can be affected by the intervention of U.S. or foreign governments or central banks, or the failure to intervene, or by currency controls or political developments.
Statement of Additional Information – January 1, 2023 30

Table of Contents
Spot Rates and Derivative Instruments. A Fund may conduct its foreign currency exchange transactions either at the spot (cash) rate prevailing in the foreign currency exchange market or by entering into forward foreign currency exchange contracts (forward contracts). (See Types of Investments – Derivatives.) These contracts are traded in the interbank market conducted directly between currency traders (usually large commercial banks) and their customers. Because foreign currency transactions occurring in the interbank market might involve substantially larger amounts than those involved in the use of such derivative instruments, a Fund could be disadvantaged by having to deal in the odd lot market for the underlying foreign currencies at prices that are less favorable than for round lots.
A Fund may enter into forward contracts for a variety of reasons, including for risk management (hedging) or for investment purposes.
When a Fund enters into a contract for the purchase or sale of a security denominated in a foreign currency or has been notified of a dividend or interest payment, it may desire to lock in the price of the security or the amount of the payment, usually in U.S. dollars, although it could desire to lock in the price of the security in another currency. By entering into a forward contract, a Fund would be able to protect itself against a possible loss resulting from an adverse change in the relationship between different currencies from the date the security is purchased or sold to the date on which payment is made or received or when the dividend or interest is actually received.
A Fund may enter into forward contracts when management of the Fund believes the currency of a particular foreign country may decline in value relative to another currency. When selling currencies forward in this fashion, a Fund may seek to hedge the value of foreign securities it holds against an adverse move in exchange rates. The precise matching of forward contract amounts and the value of securities involved generally will not be possible since the future value of securities in foreign currencies more than likely will change between the date the forward contract is entered into and the date it matures. The projection of short-term currency market movements is extremely difficult and successful execution of a short-term hedging strategy is highly uncertain.
This method of protecting the value of a Fund’s securities against a decline in the value of a currency does not eliminate fluctuations in the underlying prices of the securities. It simply establishes a rate of exchange that can be achieved at some point in time. Although forward contracts can be used to minimize the risk of loss due to a decline in value of hedged currency, they will also limit any potential gain that might result should the value of such currency increase.
A Fund may also enter into forward contracts when the Fund’s portfolio manager believes the currency of a particular country will increase in value relative to another currency. A Fund may buy currencies forward to gain exposure to a currency without incurring the additional costs of purchasing securities denominated in that currency.
For example, the combination of U.S. dollar-denominated instruments with long forward currency exchange contracts creates a position economically equivalent to a position in the foreign currency, in anticipation of an increase in the value of the foreign currency against the U.S. dollar. Conversely, the combination of U.S. dollar-denominated instruments with short forward currency exchange contracts is economically equivalent to borrowing the foreign currency for delivery at a specified date in the future, in anticipation of a decrease in the value of the foreign currency against the U.S. dollar.
Unanticipated changes in the currency exchange results could result in poorer performance for Funds that enter into these types of transactions.
A Fund may designate cash or securities in an amount equal to the value of the Fund’s total assets committed to consummating forward contracts entered into under the circumstance set forth above. If the value of the securities declines, additional cash or securities will be designated on a daily basis so that the value of the cash or securities will equal the amount of the Fund’s commitments on such contracts.
At maturity of a forward contract, a Fund may either deliver (if a contract to sell) or take delivery of (if a contract to buy) the foreign currency or terminate its contractual obligation by entering into an offsetting contract with the same currency trader, having the same maturity date, and covering the same amount of foreign currency.
If a Fund engages in an offsetting transaction, it will incur a gain or loss to the extent there has been movement in forward contract prices. If a Fund engages in an offsetting transaction, it may subsequently enter into a new forward contract to buy or sell the foreign currency.
Although a Fund values its assets each business day in terms of U.S. dollars, it may not intend to convert its foreign currencies into U.S. dollars on a daily basis. However, it will do so from time to time, and such conversions involve certain currency conversion costs. Although foreign exchange dealers do not charge a fee for conversion, they do realize a profit based on the difference (spread) between the prices at which they buy and sell various currencies. Thus, a dealer may offer to sell a foreign currency to a Fund at one rate, while offering a lesser rate of exchange should a Fund desire to resell that currency to the dealer.
It is possible, under certain circumstances, including entering into forward currency contracts for investment purposes, that a Fund will be required to limit or restructure its forward contract currency transactions to qualify as a “regulated investment company” under the Code.
Statement of Additional Information – January 1, 2023 31

Table of Contents
Options on Foreign Currencies. A Fund may buy put and call options and write covered call and cash-secured put options on foreign currencies for hedging purposes and to gain exposure to foreign currencies. For example, a decline in the dollar value of a foreign currency in which securities are denominated will reduce the dollar value of such securities, even if their value in the foreign currency remains constant. In order to protect against the diminutions in the value of securities, a Fund may buy put options on the foreign currency. If the value of the currency does decline, a Fund would have the right to sell the currency for a fixed amount in dollars and would thereby offset, in whole or in part, the adverse effect on its portfolio that otherwise would have resulted.
Conversely, where a change in the dollar value of a currency would increase the cost of securities a Fund plans to buy, or where a Fund would benefit from increased exposure to the currency, a Fund may buy call options on the foreign currency, giving it the right to purchase the currency for a fixed amount in dollars. The purchase of the options could offset, at least partially, the changes in exchange rates.
As in the case of other types of options, however, the benefit to a Fund derived from purchases of foreign currency options would be reduced by the amount of the premium and related transaction costs. In addition, where currency exchange rates do not move in the direction or to the extent anticipated, a Fund could sustain losses on transactions in foreign currency options that would require it to forego a portion or all of the benefits of advantageous changes in rates.
A Fund may write options on foreign currencies for similar purposes. For example, when a Fund anticipates a decline in the dollar value of foreign-denominated securities due to adverse fluctuations in exchange rates, it could, instead of purchasing a put option, write a call option on the relevant currency, giving the option holder the right to purchase that currency from the Fund for a fixed amount in dollars. If the expected decline occurs, the option would most likely not be exercised and the diminution in value of securities would be offset, at least partially, by the amount of the premium received.
Similarly, instead of purchasing a call option when a foreign currency is expected to appreciate, a Fund could write a put option on the relevant currency, giving the option holder the right to that currency from the Fund for a fixed amount in dollars. If rates move in the manner projected, the put option would expire unexercised and allow the Fund to hedge increased cost up to the amount of the premium.
As in the case of other types of options, however, the writing of a foreign currency option will constitute only a partial hedge up to the amount of the premium, and only if rates move in the expected direction. If this does not occur, the option may be exercised and the Fund would be required to buy or sell the underlying currency at a loss that may not be offset by the amount of the premium. Through the writing of options on foreign currencies, the Fund also may be required to forego all or a portion of the benefits that might otherwise have been obtained from favorable movements on exchange rates.
An option written on foreign currencies is covered if a Fund holds currency sufficient to cover the option or has an absolute and immediate right to acquire that currency without additional cash consideration upon conversion of assets denominated in that currency or exchange of other currency held in its portfolio. An option writer could lose amounts substantially in excess of its initial investments, due to the margin and collateral requirements associated with such positions.
Options on foreign currencies are traded through financial institutions acting as market-makers, although foreign currency options also are traded on certain national securities exchanges, such as the Philadelphia Stock Exchange and the Chicago Board Options Exchange, subject to SEC regulation. In an over-the-counter trading environment, many of the protections afforded to exchange participants will not be available. For example, there are no daily price fluctuation limits, and adverse market movements could therefore continue to an unlimited extent over a period of time. Although the purchaser of an option cannot lose more than the amount of the premium plus related transaction costs, this entire amount could be lost.
Foreign currency option positions entered into on a national securities exchange are cleared and guaranteed by the OCC, thereby reducing the risk of counterparty default. Further, a liquid secondary market in options traded on a national securities exchange may be more readily available than in the over-the-counter market, potentially permitting a Fund to liquidate open positions at a profit prior to exercise or expiration, or to limit losses in the event of adverse market movements.
Foreign Currency Futures and Related Options. A Fund may enter into currency futures contracts to buy or sell currencies. It also may buy put and call options and write covered call and cash-secured put options on currency futures. Currency futures contracts are similar to currency forward contracts, except that they are traded on exchanges (and have margin requirements) and are standardized as to contract size and delivery date. Most currency futures call for payment of delivery in U.S. dollars. A Fund may use currency futures for the same purposes as currency forward contracts, subject to CFTC limitations.
Currency futures and options on futures values can be expected to correlate with exchange rates, but will not reflect other factors that may affect the value of the Fund’s investments. A currency hedge, for example, should protect a Yen-denominated bond against a decline in the Yen, but will not protect a Fund against price decline if the issuer’s creditworthiness deteriorates. Because the value of a Fund’s investments denominated in foreign currency will change in response to many factors other than exchange rates, it may not be possible to match the amount of a forward contract to the value of a Fund’s investments denominated in that currency over time.
Statement of Additional Information – January 1, 2023 32

Table of Contents
Although one or more of the other risks described in this SAI may also apply, the risks typically associated with foreign currency transactions include: Foreign Currency Risk, Derivatives Risk, Interest Rate Risk, and Liquidity Risk.
Foreign Securities
Unless otherwise stated in a Fund’s prospectus, stocks, bonds and other securities or investments are deemed to be “foreign” based primarily on the issuer’s place of organization/incorporation, but the Fund may also consider the issuer’s country of organization, domicile, its principal place of business, its primary stock exchange listing, the source of its revenue or other factors. A Fund’s investments in foreign markets, may include issuers in emerging markets, as well as frontier markets, each of which carry heightened risks as compared with investments in other typical foreign markets. Unless otherwise stated in a Fund’s prospectus, emerging market countries are generally those either defined by World Bank-defined per capita income brackets or determined to be an emerging market based on the Fund portfolio manager’s qualitative judgments about a country’s level of economic and institutional development, among other factors. Frontier market countries generally have smaller economies and even less developed capital markets than typical emerging market countries (which themselves have increased investment risk relative to investing in more developed markets) and, as a result, the risks of investing in emerging market countries are magnified in frontier market countries. Foreign securities may be structured as fixed-, variable- or floating-rate obligations or as zero-coupon, pay-in-kind and step-coupon securities and may be privately placed or publicly offered. See Types of Investments — Variable- and Floating-Rate Obligations, — Debt Obligations - Zero-Coupon, Pay-in-Kind and Step-Coupon Securities and — Private Placement and Other Restricted Securities for more information.
Due to the potential for foreign withholding taxes, MSCI publishes two versions of its indices reflecting the reinvestment of dividends using two different methodologies: gross dividends and net dividends. While both versions reflect reinvested dividends, they differ with respect to the manner in which taxes associated with dividend payments are treated. In calculating the net dividends version, MSCI incorporates reinvested dividends applying the withholding tax rate applicable to foreign non-resident institutional investors that do not benefit from double taxation treaties. The Investment Manager believes that the net dividends version of MSCI indices better reflects the returns U.S. investors might expect were they to invest directly in the component securities of an MSCI index.
There is a practice in certain foreign markets under which an issuer’s securities are blocked from trading at the custodian or sub-custodian level for a specified number of days before and, in certain instances, after a shareholder meeting where such shares are voted. This is referred to as “share blocking.” The blocking period can last up to several weeks. Share blocking may prevent a Fund from buying or selling securities during this period, because during the time shares are blocked, trades in such securities will not settle. It may be difficult or impossible to lift blocking restrictions, with the particular requirements varying widely by country. As a consequence of these restrictions, the Investment Manager, on behalf of a Fund, may abstain from voting proxies in markets that require share blocking.
Foreign securities may include depositary receipts, such as American Depositary Receipts (ADRs), European Depositary Receipts (EDRs) and Global Depositary Receipts (GDRs). ADRs are U.S. dollar-denominated receipts issued in registered form by a domestic bank or trust company that evidence ownership of underlying securities issued by a foreign issuer. EDRs are foreign currency-denominated receipts issued in Europe, typically by foreign banks or trust companies and foreign branches of domestic banks, that evidence ownership of foreign or domestic securities. GDRs are receipts structured similarly to ADRs and EDRs and are marketed globally. Depositary receipts will not necessarily be denominated in the same currency as their underlying securities. In general, ADRs, in registered form, are designed for use in the U.S. securities markets, and EDRs, in bearer form, are designed for use in European securities markets. GDRs are tradable both in the United States and in Europe and are designed for use throughout the world. A Fund may invest in depositary receipts through “sponsored” or “unsponsored” facilities. A sponsored facility is established jointly by the issuer of the underlying security and a depositary, whereas a depositary may establish an unsponsored facility without participation by the issuer of the deposited security. Holders of unsponsored depositary receipts generally bear all the costs of such facilities and the depositary of an unsponsored facility frequently is under no obligation to distribute interest holder communications received from the issuer of the deposited security or to pass through voting rights to the holders of such receipts in respect of the deposited securities. The issuers of unsponsored depositary receipts are not obligated to disclose material information in the United States, and, therefore, there may be limited information available regarding such issuers and/or limited correlation between available information and the market value of the depositary receipts.
Although one or more of the other risks described in this SAI may also apply, the risks typically associated with foreign securities include: Emerging Markets Securities Risk, Foreign Currency Risk, Foreign Securities Risk, Frontier Market Risk, Geographic Focus Risk, Issuer Risk and Market Risk.
Statement of Additional Information – January 1, 2023 33

Table of Contents
Guaranteed Investment Contracts (Funding Agreements)
Guaranteed investment contracts, or funding agreements, are short-term, privately placed debt instruments issued by insurance companies. Pursuant to such contracts, a Fund may make cash contributions to a deposit fund of the insurance company’s general account. The insurance company then credits to a Fund payments at negotiated, floating or fixed interest rates. A Fund will purchase guaranteed investment contracts only from issuers that, at the time of purchase, meet certain credit and quality standards. In general, guaranteed investment contracts are not assignable or transferable without the permission of the issuing insurance companies, and an active secondary market does not exist for these investments. In addition, the issuer may not be able to pay the principal amount to a Fund on seven days’ notice or less, at which time the investment may be considered illiquid. See Types of Investments – Illiquid Investments.
Although one or more of the other risks described in this SAI may also apply, the risks typically associated with guaranteed investment contracts (funding agreements) include: Credit Risk and Liquidity Risk.
High-Yield Securities
High-yield, or low and below investment grade securities (below investment grade securities are also known as “junk bonds”) are debt securities with the lowest investment grade rating (e.g., BBB by S&P and Fitch or Baa by Moody’s), that are below investment grade (e.g., lower than BBB by S&P and Fitch or Baa by Moody’s) or that are unrated but determined by a Fund’s portfolio manager to be of comparable quality. These types of securities may be issued to fund corporate transactions or restructurings, such as leveraged buyouts, mergers, acquisitions, debt reclassifications or similar events, are more speculative in nature than securities with higher ratings and tend to be more sensitive to credit risk, particularly during a downturn in the economy. These types of securities generally are issued by unseasoned companies without long track records of sales and earnings, or by companies or municipalities that have questionable credit strength. High-yield securities and comparable unrated securities: (i) likely will have some quality and protective characteristics that, in the judgment of one or more NRSROs, are outweighed by large uncertainties or major risk exposures to adverse conditions; (ii) are speculative with respect to the issuer’s capacity to pay interest and repay principal in accordance with the terms of the obligation; and (iii) may have a less liquid secondary market, potentially making it difficult to value or sell such securities. Credit ratings issued by credit rating agencies are designed to evaluate the safety of principal and interest payments of rated securities. They do not, however, evaluate the market value risk of lower-quality securities and, therefore, may not fully reflect the true risks of an investment. In addition, credit rating agencies may or may not make timely changes in a rating to reflect changes in the economy or in the condition of the issuer that affect the market value of the securities. Consequently, credit ratings are used only as a preliminary indicator of investment quality. High-yield securities may be structured as fixed-, variable- or floating-rate obligations or as zero-coupon, pay-in-kind and step-coupon securities and may be privately placed or publicly offered. See Types of Investments – Variable- and Floating-Rate Obligations, – Debt Obligations – Zero-Coupon, Pay-in-Kind and Step-Coupon Securities and – Private Placement and Other Restricted Securities for more information.
The rates of return on these types of securities generally are higher than the rates of return available on more highly rated securities, but generally involve greater volatility of price and risk of loss of principal and income, including the possibility of default by or insolvency of the issuers of such securities. Accordingly, a Fund may be more dependent on the Investment Manager’s (or, if applicable, a subadviser’s) credit analysis with respect to these types of securities than is the case for more highly rated securities.
The market values of certain high-yield securities and comparable unrated securities tend to be more sensitive to individual corporate developments and changes in economic conditions than are the market values of more highly rated securities. In addition, issuers of high-yield and comparable unrated securities often are highly leveraged and may not have more traditional methods of financing available to them, so that their ability to service their debt obligations during an economic downturn or during sustained periods of rising interest rates may be impaired.
The risk of loss due to default is greater for high-yield and comparable unrated securities than it is for higher rated securities because high-yield securities and comparable unrated securities generally are unsecured and frequently are subordinated to more senior indebtedness. A Fund may incur additional expenses to the extent that it is required to seek recovery upon a default in the payment of principal or interest on its holdings of such securities. The existence of limited markets for lower-rated debt securities may diminish a Fund’s ability to: (i) obtain accurate market quotations for purposes of valuing such securities and calculating portfolio net asset value; and (ii) sell the securities at fair market value either to meet redemption requests or to respond to changes in the economy or in financial markets.
Many lower-rated securities are not registered for offer and sale to the public under the 1933 Act. Investments in these restricted securities may be determined to be liquid (able to be sold or disposed of in current market conditions in seven days or less without the sales or dispositions significantly changing the market value of the investment) pursuant to the Funds’ liquidity risk management program. A Fund may not purchase or otherwise acquire any illiquid investments if, immediately after the
Statement of Additional Information – January 1, 2023 34

Table of Contents
acquisition, the value of illiquid investments held by the Fund would exceed 15% of the Fund’s net assets. A Fund is not otherwise subject to any limitation on its ability to invest in restricted securities. Restricted securities may be less liquid than other lower-rated securities, potentially making it difficult to value or sell such securities.
Although one or more of the other risks described in this SAI may also apply, the risks typically associated with high-yield securities include: Credit Risk, Interest Rate Risk, High-Yield Securities Risk and Prepayment and Extension Risk.
Illiquid Investments
An illiquid investment is any investment that the Fund reasonably expects cannot be sold or disposed of in current market conditions in seven calendar days or less without the sale or disposition significantly changing the market value of the investment. Some securities, such as those not registered under U.S. securities laws, cannot be sold in public transactions. Some securities are deemed to be illiquid because they are subject to contractual or legal restrictions on resale. Subject to its investment policies, a Fund may invest in illiquid investments and may invest in certain restricted securities that are deemed to be illiquid investments at the time of purchase.
Although one or more of the other risks described in this SAI may also apply, the risk typically associated with illiquid investments include: Liquidity Risk.
Inflation-Protected Securities
Inflation is a general rise in prices of goods and services. Inflation erodes the purchasing power of an investor’s assets. For example, if an investment provides a total return of 7% in a given year and inflation is 3% during that period, the inflation-adjusted, or real, return is 4%. Inflation-protected securities are debt securities whose principal and/or interest payments are adjusted for inflation, unlike debt securities that make fixed principal and interest payments. One type of inflation-protected debt security is issued by the U.S. Treasury. The principal of these securities is adjusted for inflation as indicated by the Consumer Price Index (CPI) for urban consumers and interest is paid on the adjusted amount. The CPI is a measurement of changes in the cost of living, made up of components such as housing, food, transportation and energy.
If the CPI falls, the principal value of inflation-protected securities will be adjusted downward, and consequently the interest payable on these securities (calculated with respect to a smaller principal amount) will be reduced. Conversely, if the CPI rises, the principal value of inflation-protected securities will be adjusted upward, and consequently the interest payable on these securities will be increased. Repayment of the original bond principal upon maturity is guaranteed in the case of U.S. Treasury inflation-protected securities, even during a period of deflation. However, the current market value of the inflation-protected securities is not guaranteed and will fluctuate. Other inflation-indexed securities include inflation-related bonds, which may or may not provide a similar guarantee. If a guarantee of principal is not provided, the adjusted principal value of the bond repaid at maturity may be less than the original principal.
Other issuers of inflation-protected debt securities include other U.S. government agencies or instrumentalities, corporations and foreign governments. There can be no assurance that the CPI or any foreign inflation index will accurately measure the real rate of inflation in the prices of goods and services. Moreover, there can be no assurance that the rate of inflation in a foreign country will be correlated to the rate of inflation in the United States. If interest rates rise due to reasons other than inflation (for example, due to changes in currency exchange rates), investors in these securities may not be protected to the extent that the increase is not reflected in the bond’s inflation measure.
Any increase in principal for an inflation-protected security resulting from inflation adjustments is considered by IRS regulations to be taxable income in the year it occurs. For direct holders of an inflation-protected security, this means that taxes must be paid on principal adjustments even though these amounts are not received until the bond matures. Similarly, a Fund treated as a regulated investment company (RIC) under the Code that holds these securities distributes both interest income and the income attributable to principal adjustments in the form of cash or reinvested shares, which are taxable to shareholders.
Although one or more of the other risks described in this SAI may also apply, the risks typically associated with inflation-protected securities include: Inflation-Protected Securities Risk, Interest Rate Risk and Market Risk. In addition, inflation-protected securities issued by non-U.S. government agencies or instrumentalities are subject to Credit Risk.
Initial Public Offerings
A Fund may invest in initial public offerings (IPOs) of common stock or other primary or secondary syndicated offerings of equity or debt securities issued by a corporate issuer. Fixed income funds frequently invest in these types of offerings of debt securities. A purchase of IPO securities often involves higher transaction costs than those associated with the purchase of securities already traded on exchanges or markets. A Fund may hold IPO securities for a period of time, or may sell them soon after the purchase. Investments in IPOs could have a magnified impact — either positive or negative — on a Fund’s performance while the Fund’s assets are relatively small. The impact of an IPO on a Fund’s performance may tend to diminish as the Fund’s assets grow. In circumstances when investments in IPOs make a significant contribution to a Fund’s performance, there can be no assurance that similar contributions from IPOs will continue in the future.
Statement of Additional Information – January 1, 2023 35

Table of Contents
Although one or more risks described in this SAI may also apply, the risks typically associated with IPOs include: IPO Risk, Issuer Risk, Liquidity Risk, Market Risk and Small Company Securities Risk.
Inverse Floaters
See Types of Investments – Derivatives – Indexed or Linked Securities (Structured Products) above.
Investments in Other Investment Companies (Including ETFs)
Investing in other investment companies may be a means by which a Fund seeks to achieve its investment objective. A Fund may invest in securities issued by other investment companies within the limits prescribed by the 1940 Act, the rules and regulations thereunder and any exemptive relief currently or in the future available to a Fund. These securities include shares of other affiliated or unaffiliated open-end investment companies (i.e., mutual funds), closed-end funds, exchange-traded funds (ETFs), UCITS funds (pooled investment vehicles established in accordance with the Undertaking for Collective Investment in Transferable Securities) and business development companies.
Except with respect to funds structured as funds-of-funds or so-called master/feeder funds or other funds whose strategies otherwise allow such investments, the 1940 Act generally requires that a fund limit its investments in another investment company or series thereof so that, as determined at the time a securities purchase is made: (i) no more than 5% of the value of its total assets will be invested in the securities of any one investment company; (ii) no more than 10% of the value of its total assets will be invested in the aggregate in securities of other investment companies; and (iii) no more than 3% of the outstanding voting stock of any one investment company or series thereof will be owned by a fund or by companies controlled by a fund. Such other investment companies may include ETFs, which are shares of publicly traded unit investment trusts, open-end funds or depositary receipts that may be passively managed (e.g., they seek to track the performance of specific indexes or companies in related industries) or they may be actively managed. The SEC has granted orders for exemptive relief to certain ETFs that permit investments in those ETFs by certain other registered investment companies in excess of these limits.
ETFs are listed on an exchange and trade in the secondary market on a per-share basis, which allows investors to purchase and sell ETF shares at their market price throughout the day. Certain ETFs, such as passively managed ETFs, hold portfolios of securities that are designed to replicate, as closely as possible before expenses, the price and yield of a specified market index. The performance results of these ETFs will not replicate exactly the performance of the pertinent index due to transaction and other expenses, including fees to service providers borne by ETFs. ETF shares are sold and redeemed at net asset value only in large blocks called creation units. The Funds’ ability to redeem creation units may be limited by the 1940 Act, which provides that ETFs will not be obligated to redeem shares held by the Funds in an amount exceeding one percent of their total outstanding securities during any period of less than 30 days.
Although a Fund may derive certain advantages from being able to invest in shares of other investment companies, such as to be fully invested, there may be potential disadvantages. Investing in other investment companies may result in higher fees and expenses for a Fund and its shareholders. A shareholder may be charged fees not only on Fund shares held directly but also on the investment company shares that a Fund purchases. Because these investment companies may invest in other securities, they are also subject to the risks associated with a variety of investment instruments as described in this SAI.
Under the 1940 Act and rules and regulations thereunder, a Fund may purchase shares of affiliated funds, subject to certain conditions. Investing in affiliated funds presents certain actual or potential conflicts of interest. For more information about such actual and potential conflicts of interest, see Investment Management and Other Services – Other Roles and Relationships of Ameriprise Financial and its Affiliates – Certain Conflicts of Interest.
Although one or more of the other risks described in this SAI may also apply, the risks typically associated with the securities of other investment companies include: Exchange-Traded Fund (ETF) Risk, Investing in Other Funds Risk, Issuer Risk and Market Risk.
Listed Private Equity Funds
A Fund may invest directly in listed private equity funds, which may include, among others, business development companies, investment holding companies, publicly traded limited partnership interests (common units), publicly traded venture capital funds, publicly traded venture capital trusts, publicly traded private equity funds, publicly traded private equity investment trusts, publicly traded closed-end funds, publicly traded financial institutions that lend to or invest in privately held companies and any other publicly traded vehicle whose purpose is to invest in privately held companies.
A Fund may invest in listed private equity funds that hold investments in a wide array of businesses and industries at various stages of development, from early stage to later stage to fully mature businesses. A Fund may invest in listed private equity funds that emphasize making equity and equity-like (preferred stock, convertible stock and warrants) investments in later stage to mature businesses, or may invest in listed private equity funds making debt investments or investments in companies at other stages of development. In addition, a Fund may invest in the common stock of closed-end management investment companies, including business development companies that invest in securities of listed private equity companies.
Statement of Additional Information – January 1, 2023 36

Table of Contents
Although one or more of the other risks described in this SAI may also apply, the risks typically associated with investment in listed private equity funds include: Credit Risk, Liquidity Risk, Market Risk, Sector Risk, and Valuation Risk.
Money Market Instruments
Money market instruments include cash equivalents and short-term debt obligations which include: (i) bank obligations, including certificates of deposit (CDs), time deposits and bankers’ acceptances, and letters of credit of banks or savings and loan associations having capital surplus and undivided profits (as of the date of its most recently published annual financial statements) in excess of $100 million (or the equivalent in the instance of a foreign branch of a U.S. bank) at the date of investment; (ii) funding agreements; (iii) repurchase agreements; (iv) obligations of the United States, foreign countries and supranational entities, and each of their subdivisions, agencies and instrumentalities; (v) certain corporate debt securities, such as commercial paper, short-term corporate obligations and extendible commercial notes; (vi) participation interests; and (vii) municipal securities. Money market instruments may be structured as fixed-, variable- or floating-rate obligations and may be privately placed or publicly offered. A Fund may also invest in affiliated and unaffiliated money market mutual funds, which invest primarily in money market instruments. See Types of Investments — Variable- and Floating-Rate Obligations and — Private Placement and Other Restricted Securities for more information.
With respect to money market securities, certain U.S. Government obligations are backed or insured by the U.S. Government, its agencies or its instrumentalities. Other money market securities are backed only by the claims paying ability or creditworthiness of the issuer.
Bankers’ acceptances are marketable short-term credit instruments used to finance the import, export, transfer or storage of goods. They are termed “accepted” when a bank unconditionally guarantees their payment at maturity.
A Fund may invest its daily cash balance in Columbia Short-Term Cash Fund, a money market fund established for the exclusive use of the funds in the Columbia Fund Complex and other institutional clients of the Investment Manager.
Although one or more of the other risks described in this SAI may also apply, the risks typically associated with money market instruments include: Credit Risk, Inflation Risk, Interest Rate Risk, Issuer Risk and Money Market Fund Risk.
Mortgage-Backed Securities
Mortgage-backed securities are a type of asset-backed security that represent interests in, or debt instruments backed by, pools of underlying mortgages. In some cases, these underlying mortgages may be insured or guaranteed by the U.S. Government or its agencies. Mortgage-backed securities entitle the security holders to receive distributions that are tied to the payments made on the underlying mortgage collateral (less fees paid to the originator, servicer, or other parties, and fees paid for credit enhancement), so that the payments made on the underlying mortgage collateral effectively pass through to such security holders. Mortgage-backed securities are created when mortgage originators (or mortgage loan sellers who have purchased mortgage loans from mortgage loan originators) sell the underlying mortgages to a special purpose entity in a process called a securitization. The special purpose entity issues securities that are backed by the payments on the underlying mortgage loans, and have a minimum denomination and specific term. A decline or flattening of housing values may cause delinquencies in mortgages (especially sub-prime or non-prime mortgages) underlying mortgage-backed securities and thereby adversely affect the ability of the mortgage-backed securities issuer to make principal and/or interest payments to mortgage-backed securities holders. Mortgage-backed securities may be structured as fixed-, variable- or floating-rate obligations or as zero-coupon, pay-in-kind and step-coupon securities and may be privately placed or publicly offered. See Types of Investments — Variable- and Floating-Rate Obligations, — Debt Obligations - Zero-Coupon, Pay-in-Kind and Step-Coupon Securities and — Private Placement and Other Restricted Securities for more information.
Mortgage-backed securities may be issued or guaranteed by GNMA (also known as Ginnie Mae), FNMA (also known as Fannie Mae), or FHLMC (also known as Freddie Mac), but also may be issued or guaranteed by other issuers, including private companies. GNMA is a government-owned corporation that is an agency of the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. It guarantees, with the full faith and credit of the United States, full and timely payment of all monthly principal and interest on its mortgage-backed securities. Until recently, FNMA and FHLMC were government-sponsored corporations owned entirely by private stockholders. Both issue mortgage-related securities that contain guarantees as to timely payment of interest and principal but that are not backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Government. The value of the companies’ securities fell sharply in 2008 due to concerns that the firms did not have sufficient capital to offset losses. The U.S. Treasury has historically had the authority to purchase obligations of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. In addition, in 2008, due to capitalization concerns, Congress provided the U.S. Treasury with additional authority to lend Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac emergency funds and to purchase the companies’ stock, as described below. In September 2008, the U.S. Treasury and the Federal Housing Finance Agency (FHFA) announced that Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac had been placed in conservatorship.
Statement of Additional Information – January 1, 2023 37

Table of Contents
In the past Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac have received significant capital support through U.S. Treasury preferred stock purchases and Federal Reserve purchases of their mortgage-backed securities. There can be no assurance that these or other agencies of the government will provide such support in the future. The future status of Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac could be impacted by, among other things, the actions taken and restrictions placed on Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac by the FHFA in its role as conservator, the restrictions placed on Fannie Mae’s or Freddie Mac’s operations and activities under the senior stock purchase agreements, market responses to developments at Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac, and future legislative and regulatory action that alters the operations, ownership structure and/or mission of Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac, each of which may, in turn, impact the value of, and cash flows on, any securities guaranteed by Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac.
The FHFA recently announced plans to consider taking Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac out of conservatorship. Should Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac be taken out of conservatorship, it is unclear whether the U.S. Treasury would continue to enforce its rights or perform its obligations under the senior stock purchase agreements. It is also unclear how the capital structure of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac would be constructed post-conservatorship, and what effects, if any, the privatization of the enterprises will have on their creditworthiness and guarantees of certain mortgage-backed securities. Accordingly, should the FHFA take the enterprises out of conservatorship, there could be an adverse impact on the value of securities guaranteed by Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac which could cause a Fund’s shares to lose value.
Stripped mortgage-backed securities are a type of mortgage-backed security that receives differing proportions of the interest and principal payments from the underlying assets. Generally, there are two classes of stripped mortgage-backed securities: Interest Only (IO) and Principal Only (PO). IOs entitle the holder to receive distributions consisting of all or a portion of the interest on the underlying pool of mortgage loans or mortgage-backed securities. POs entitle the holder to receive distributions consisting of all or a portion of the principal of the underlying pool of mortgage loans or mortgage-backed securities. See Types of Investments — Debt Obligations - Stripped Securities for more information.
Collateralized Mortgage Obligations (CMOs) are hybrid mortgage-related instruments issued by special purpose entities secured by pools of mortgage loans or other mortgage-related securities, such as mortgage pass-through securities or stripped mortgage-backed securities. CMOs may be structured into multiple classes, often referred to as “tranches,” with each class bearing a different stated maturity and entitled to a different schedule for payments of principal and interest, including prepayments. Principal prepayments on collateral underlying a CMO may cause it to be retired substantially earlier than its stated maturity or final distribution dates, resulting in a loss of all or part of the premium if any has been paid. The yield characteristics of mortgage-backed securities differ from those of other debt securities. Among the differences are that interest and principal payments are made more frequently on mortgage-backed securities, usually monthly, and principal may be repaid at any time. These factors may reduce the expected yield. Interest is paid or accrues on all classes of the CMOs on a periodic basis. The principal and interest payments on the underlying mortgage assets may be allocated among the various classes of CMOs in several ways. Typically, payments of principal, including any prepayments, on the underlying mortgage assets are applied to the classes in the order of their respective stated maturities or final distribution dates, so that no payment of principal is made on CMOs of a class until all CMOs of other classes having earlier stated maturities or final distribution dates have been paid in full.
Commercial mortgage-backed securities (CMBS) are a specific type of mortgage-backed security collateralized by a pool of mortgages on commercial real estate.
CMO residuals are mortgage securities issued by agencies or instrumentalities of the U.S. Government or by private originators of, or investors in, mortgage loans, including savings and loan associations, homebuilders, mortgage banks, commercial banks, investment banks and special purpose entities of the foregoing. The cash flow generated by the mortgage assets underlying a series of CMOs is applied first to make required payments of principal and interest on the CMOs and second to pay the related administrative expenses and any management fee of the issuer. The residual in a CMO structure generally represents the interest in any excess cash flow remaining after making the foregoing payments. Each payment of such excess cash flow to a holder of the related CMO residual represents income and/or a return of capital. The amount of residual cash flow resulting from a CMO will depend on, among other things, the characteristics of the mortgage assets, the coupon rate of each class of CMO, prevailing interest rates, the amount of administrative expenses and the pre-payment experience on the mortgage assets. In particular, the yield to maturity on CMO residuals is extremely sensitive to pre-payments on the related underlying mortgage assets, in the same manner as an interest-only (“IO”) class of stripped mortgage-backed securities. In addition, if a series of a CMO includes a class that bears interest at an adjustable rate, the yield to maturity on the related CMO residual will also be extremely sensitive to changes in the level of the index upon which interest rate adjustments are based. As described below with respect to stripped mortgage-backed securities, in certain circumstances an ETF may fail to recoup fully its initial investment in a CMO residual. CMO residuals are generally purchased and sold by institutional investors through several investment banking firms acting as brokers or dealers. Transactions in CMO residuals are generally completed only after careful review of the characteristics of the securities in question. In addition, CMO residuals may or, pursuant to an exemption therefrom, may not have been registered under the 1933 Act. CMO residuals, whether or not registered under the 1933 Act, may be subject to certain restrictions on transferability, and may be deemed “illiquid” and subject to a Fund’s limitations on investment in illiquid investments.
Statement of Additional Information – January 1, 2023 38

Table of Contents
Mortgage pass-through securities are interests in pools of mortgage-related securities that differ from other forms of debt securities, which normally provide for periodic payment of interest in fixed amounts with principal payments at maturity or specified call dates. Instead, these securities provide a monthly payment which consists of both interest and principal payments. In effect, these payments are a “pass-through” of the monthly payments made by the individual borrowers on their residential or commercial mortgage loans, net of any fees paid to the issuer or guarantor of such securities. Additional payments are caused by repayments of principal resulting from the sale of the underlying property, refinancing or foreclosure, net of fees or costs which may be incurred. Some mortgage-related securities (such as securities issued by the GNMA) are described as “modified pass-through.” These securities entitle the holder to receive all interest and principal payments owed on the mortgage pool, net of certain fees, at the scheduled payment dates regardless of whether or not the mortgagor actually makes the payment.
REMICs are entities that own mortgages and elect REMIC status under the Code and, like CMOs, issue debt obligations collateralized by underlying mortgage assets that have characteristics similar to those issued by CMOs.
Although one or more of the other risks described in this SAI may also apply, the risks typically associated with mortgage- and asset-backed securities include: Credit Risk, Interest Rate Risk, Issuer Risk, Liquidity Risk, Mortgage- and Other Asset-Backed Securities Risk, Prepayment and Extension Risk and Reinvestment Risk.
Municipal Securities
Municipal securities include debt obligations issued by governmental entities, including states, political subdivisions, agencies, instrumentalities, and authorities, as well as U.S. territories, commonwealths and possessions (such as Guam, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands) and their political subdivisions, agencies, instrumentalities, and authorities, to obtain funds for various public purposes, including the construction of a wide range of public facilities, the refunding of outstanding obligations, the payment of general operating expenses, and the extension of loans to public institutions and facilities.
Municipal securities may include municipal bonds, municipal notes and municipal leases, which are described below. Municipal bonds are debt obligations of a governmental entity that obligate the municipality to pay the holder a specified sum of money at specified intervals and to repay the principal amount of the loan at maturity. Municipal securities can be classified into two principal categories, including “general obligation” bonds and other securities and “revenue” bonds and other securities. General obligation bonds are secured by the issuer’s full faith, credit and taxing power for the payment of principal and interest. Revenue securities are payable only from the revenues derived from a particular facility or class of facilities or, in some cases, from the proceeds of a special excise tax or other specific revenue source, such as the user of the facility being financed. Municipal securities also may include “moral obligation” securities, which normally are issued by special purpose public authorities. If the issuer of moral obligation securities is unable to meet its debt service obligations from current revenues, it may draw on a reserve fund, the restoration of which is a moral commitment but not a legal obligation of the governmental entity that created the special purpose public authority. Municipal securities may be structured as fixed-, variable- or floating-rate obligations or as zero-coupon, pay-in-kind and step-coupon securities and may be privately placed or publicly offered. See Types of Investments – Variable- and Floating-Rate Obligations, – Debt Obligations – Zero-Coupon, Pay-in-Kind and Step-Coupon Securities and – Private Placement and Other Restricted Securities for more information.
Municipal notes may be issued by governmental entities and other tax-exempt issuers in order to finance short-term cash needs or, occasionally, to finance construction. Most municipal notes are general obligations of the issuing entity payable from taxes or designated revenues expected to be received within the relevant fiscal period. Municipal notes generally have maturities of one year or less. Municipal notes can be subdivided into two sub-categories: (i) municipal commercial paper and (ii) municipal demand obligations.
Municipal commercial paper typically consists of very short-term unsecured negotiable promissory notes that are sold, for example, to meet seasonal working capital or interim construction financing needs of a governmental entity or agency. While these obligations are intended to be paid from general revenues or refinanced with long-term debt, they frequently are backed by letters of credit, lending agreements, note repurchase agreements or other credit facility agreements offered by banks or institutions. See Types of Investments – Commercial Paper for more information.
Municipal demand obligations can be subdivided into two general types: variable rate demand notes and master demand obligations. Variable rate demand notes are tax-exempt municipal obligations or participation interests that provide for a periodic adjustment in the interest rate paid on the notes. They permit the holder to demand payment of the notes, or to demand purchase of the notes at a purchase price equal to the unpaid principal balance, plus accrued interest either directly by the issuer or by drawing on a bank letter of credit or guaranty issued with respect to such note. The issuer of the municipal obligation may have a corresponding right to prepay at its discretion the outstanding principal of the note plus accrued interest upon notice comparable to that required for the holder to demand payment. The variable rate demand notes in which a Fund may invest are payable, or are subject to purchase, on demand, usually on notice of seven calendar days or less. The terms of the notes generally provide that interest rates are adjustable at intervals ranging from daily to six months.
Statement of Additional Information – January 1, 2023 39

Table of Contents
Master demand obligations are tax-exempt municipal obligations that provide for a periodic adjustment in the interest rate paid and permit daily changes in the amount borrowed. The interest on such obligations is, in the opinion of counsel for the borrower, excluded from gross income for U.S. federal income tax purposes (but not necessarily for alternative minimum tax purposes). Although there is no secondary market for master demand obligations, such obligations are considered by a Fund to be liquid because they are payable upon demand.
Municipal lease obligations are participations in privately arranged loans to state or local government borrowers and may take the form of a lease, an installment purchase, or a conditional sales contract. They are issued by state and local governments and authorities to acquire land, equipment, and facilities. An investor may purchase these obligations directly, or it may purchase participation interests in such obligations. In general, municipal lease obligations are unrated, in which case they will be determined by a Fund’s portfolio manager to be of comparable quality at the time of purchase to rated instruments that may be acquired by a Fund. Frequently, privately arranged loans have variable interest rates and may be backed by a bank letter of credit. In other cases, they may be unsecured or may be secured by assets not easily liquidated.
Moreover, such loans in most cases are not backed by the taxing authority of the issuers and may have limited marketability or may be marketable only by virtue of a provision requiring repayment following demand by the lender.
Municipal leases may be subject to greater risks than general obligation or revenue bonds. State constitutions and statutes set forth requirements that states or municipalities must meet in order to issue municipal obligations. Municipal leases may contain a covenant by the state or municipality to budget for and make payments due under the obligation. Certain municipal leases may, however, provide that the issuer is not obligated to make payments on the obligation in future years unless funds have been appropriated for this purpose each year.
Although lease obligations do not constitute general obligations of the municipal issuer to which the government’s taxing power is pledged, a lease obligation ordinarily is backed by the government’s covenant to budget for, appropriate, and make the payments due under the lease obligation. However, certain lease obligations contain “non-appropriation” clauses that provide that the government has no obligation to make lease or installment purchase payments in future years unless money is appropriated for such purpose on a periodic basis. In the case of a “non-appropriation” lease, a Fund’s ability to recover under the lease in the event of non-appropriation or default likely will be limited to the repossession of the leased property in the event that foreclosure proves difficult.
Tender option bonds are municipal securities having relatively long maturities and bearing interest at a fixed interest rate substantially higher than prevailing short-term tax-exempt rates that is coupled with the agreement of a third party, such as a bank, broker-dealer or other financial institution, to grant the security holders the option, at periodic intervals, to tender their securities to the institution and receive the face value thereof. The financial institution receives periodic fees equal to the difference between the municipal security’s coupon rate and the rate that would cause the security to trade at face value on the date of determination.
There are variations in the quality of municipal securities, both within a particular classification and between classifications, and the rates of return on municipal securities can depend on a variety of factors, including general money market conditions, the financial condition of the issuer, general conditions of the municipal bond market, the size of a particular offering, the maturity of the obligation, and the rating of the issue. The ratings of NRSROs represent their opinions as to the quality of municipal securities. It should be emphasized, however, that these ratings are general and are not absolute standards of quality, and municipal securities with the same maturity, interest rate, and rating may have different rates of return while municipal securities of the same maturity and interest rate with different ratings may have the same rate of return. The municipal bond market is characterized by a large number of different issuers, many having smaller sized bond issues, and a wide choice of different maturities within each issue. For these reasons, most municipal bonds do not trade on a daily basis and many trade only rarely. Because many of these bonds trade infrequently, the spread between the bid and offer may be wider and the time needed to develop a bid or an offer may be longer than for other security markets. See Appendix A for a discussion of securities ratings. (See Types of Investments – Debt Obligations.)
Standby Commitments. Standby commitments are securities under which a purchaser, usually a bank or broker-dealer, agrees to purchase, for a fee, an amount of a Fund’s municipal obligations. The amount payable by a bank or broker-dealer to purchase securities subject to a standby commitment typically will be substantially the same as the value of the underlying municipal securities. A Fund may pay for standby commitments either separately in cash or by paying a higher price for portfolio securities that are acquired subject to such a commitment.
Although one or more of the other risks described in this SAI may also apply, the risks typically associated with standby commitments include: Counterparty Risk, Market Risk and Municipal Securities Risk.
Taxable Municipal Obligations. Interest or other investment return is subject to federal income tax for certain types of municipal obligations for a variety of reasons. These municipal obligations do not qualify for the federal income tax exemption because (a) they did not receive necessary authorization for tax-exempt treatment from state or local government authorities,
Statement of Additional Information – January 1, 2023 40

Table of Contents
(b) they exceed certain regulatory limitations on the cost of issuance for tax-exempt financing or (c) they finance public or private activities that do not qualify for the federal income tax exemption. These non-qualifying activities might include, for example, certain types of multi-family housing, certain professional and local sports facilities, refinancing of certain municipal debt, and borrowing to replenish a municipality’s underfunded pension plan.
For more information about the key risks associated with investments in municipal securities of particular states, see Appendix C. See Appendix A for a discussion of securities ratings. (See Types of Investments – Debt Obligations.)
Although one or more of the other risks described in this SAI may also apply, the risks typically associated with municipal securities include: Credit Risk, Inflation Risk, Interest Rate Risk, Market Risk and Municipal Securities Risk.
Participation Interests
Participation interests (also called pass-through certificates or securities) represent an interest in a pool of debt obligations, such as municipal bonds or notes that have been “packaged” by an intermediary, such as a bank or broker-dealer. Participation interests typically are issued by partnerships or trusts through which a Fund receives principal and interest payments that are passed through to the holder of the participation interest from the payments made on the underlying debt obligations. The purchaser of a participation interest receives an undivided interest in the underlying debt obligations. The issuers of the underlying debt obligations make interest and principal payments to the intermediary, as an initial purchaser, which are passed through to purchasers in the secondary market, such as a Fund. Mortgage-backed securities are a common type of participation interest. Participation interests may be structured as fixed-, variable- or floating-rate obligations or as zero-coupon, pay-in- kind and step-coupon securities and may be privately placed or publicly offered. See Types of Investments – Variable- and Floating-Rate Obligations, – Debt Obligations – Zero-Coupon, Pay-in-Kind and Step-Coupon Securities and – Private Placement and Other Restricted Securities for more information.
Loan participations also are a type of participation interest. Loans, loan participations, and interests in securitized loan pools are interests in amounts owed by a corporate, governmental, or other borrower to a lender or consortium of lenders (typically banks, insurance companies, investment banks, government agencies, or international agencies).
Although one or more of the other risks described in this SAI may also apply, the risks typically associated with loan participations include: Confidential Information Access Risk, Credit Risk and Interest Rate Risk.
Partnership Securities
The Fund may invest in securities issued by publicly traded partnerships or master limited partnerships or limited liability companies (together referred to as “PTPs/MLPs”). These entities are limited partnerships or limited liability companies that may be publicly traded on stock exchanges or markets such as the NYSE, the NYSE Alternext US LLC (formerly the American Stock Exchange) and NASDAQ. PTPs/MLPs often own businesses or properties relating to energy, natural resources or real estate, or may be involved in the film industry or research and development activities. Generally PTPs/MLPs are operated under the supervision of one or more managing partners or members. Limited partners, unit holders, or members (such as a fund that invests in a partnership) are not involved in the day-to-day management of the company. Limited partners, unit holders, or members are allocated income and capital gains associated with the partnership project in accordance with the terms of the partnership or limited liability company agreement.
At times PTPs/MLPs may potentially offer relatively high yields compared to common stocks. Because PTPs/MLPs are generally treated as partnerships or similar limited liability “pass-through” entities for tax purposes, they do not ordinarily pay income taxes, but pass their earnings on to unit holders (except in the case of some publicly traded firms that may be taxed as corporations). For tax purposes, unit holders may initially be deemed to receive only a portion of the distributions attributed to them because certain other portions may be attributed to the repayment of initial investments and may thereby lower the cost basis of the units or shares owned by unit holders. As a result, unit holders may effectively defer taxation on the receipt of some distributions until they sell their units. These tax consequences may differ for different types of entities.
Although one or more of the other risks described in this SAI may also apply, the risks typically associated with partnership securities include: Interest Rate Risk, Issuer Risk, Liquidity Risk and Market Risk.
Preferred Stock
Preferred stock represents units of ownership of a corporation that frequently have dividends that are set at a specified rate. Preferred stock has preference over common stock in the payment of dividends and the liquidation of assets. Preferred stock shares some of the characteristics of both debt and equity. Preferred stock ordinarily does not carry voting rights. Most preferred stock is cumulative; if dividends are passed (i.e., not paid for any reason), they accumulate and must be paid before common stock dividends. Participating preferred stock entitles its holders to share in profits above and beyond the declared dividend, along with common shareholders, as distinguished from nonparticipating preferred stock, which is limited to the stipulated dividend. Convertible preferred stock is exchangeable for a given number of shares of common stock and thus tends to be more volatile than nonconvertible preferred stock, which generally behaves more like a fixed income bond. Preferred stock may be
Statement of Additional Information – January 1, 2023 41

Table of Contents
privately placed or publicly offered. The price of a preferred stock is generally determined by earnings, type of products or services, projected growth rates, experience of management, liquidity, and general market conditions of the markets on which the stock trades. See Types of Investments – Private Placement and Other Restricted Securities for more information.
Auction preferred stock (APS) is a type of adjustable-rate preferred stock with a dividend determined periodically in a Dutch auction process by corporate bidders. An APS is distinguished from standard preferred stock because its dividends change from time to time. Shares typically are bought and sold at face values generally ranging from $100,000 to $500,000 per share. Holders of APS may not be able to sell their shares if an auction fails, such as when there are more shares of APS for sale at an auction than there are purchase bids.
Although one or more of the other risks described in this SAI may also apply, the risks typically associated with preferred stock include: Convertible Securities Risk, Issuer Risk, Liquidity Risk and Market Risk.
Trust-Preferred Securities. Trust-preferred securities, also known as trust-issued securities, are securities that have characteristics of both debt and equity instruments and are typically treated by the Funds as debt investments.
Generally, trust-preferred securities are cumulative preferred stocks issued by a trust that is created by a financial institution, such as a bank holding company. The financial institution typically creates the trust with the objective of increasing its capital by issuing subordinated debt to the trust in return for cash proceeds that are reflected on the financial institutions balance sheet.
The primary asset owned by the trust is the subordinated debt issued to the trust by the financial institution. The financial institution makes periodic interest payments on the debt as discussed further below. The financial institution will subsequently own the trust’s common securities, which may typically represent a small percentage of the trust’s capital structure. The remainder of the trust’s capital structure typically consists of trust-preferred securities which are sold to investors. The trust uses the sales proceeds to purchase the subordinated debt issued by the financial institution. The financial institution uses the proceeds from the subordinated debt sale to increase its capital while the trust receives periodic interest payments from the financial institution for holding the subordinated debt.
The trust uses the interest received to make dividend payments to the holders of the trust-preferred securities. The dividends are generally paid on a quarterly basis and are often higher than other dividends potentially available on the financial institution’s common stocks. The interests of the holders of the trust-preferred securities are senior to those of common stockholders in the event that the financial institution is liquidated, although their interests are typically subordinated to those of other holders of other debt issued by the institution.
The primary benefit for the financial institution in using this particular structure is that the trust-preferred securities issued by the trust are treated by the financial institution as debt securities for tax purposes (as a consequence of which the expense of paying interest on the securities is tax deductible), but are treated as more desirable equity securities for purposes of the calculation of capital requirements.
In certain instances, the structure involves more than one financial institution and thus, more than one trust. In such a pooled offering, an additional separate trust may be created. This trust will issue securities to investors and use the proceeds to purchase the trust-preferred securities issued by other trust subsidiaries of the participating financial institutions. In such a structure, the trust-preferred securities held by the investors are backed by other trust-preferred securities issued by the trust subsidiaries.
If a financial institution is financially unsound and defaults on interest payments to the trust, the trust will not be able to make dividend payments to holders of the trust-preferred securities such as the Fund, as the trust typically has no business operations other than holding the subordinated debt issued by the financial institution(s) and issuing the trust-preferred securities and common stock backed by the subordinated debt.
Although one or more of the other risks described in this SAI may also apply, the risks typically associated with trust-preferred securities include: Credit Risk, Interest Rate Risk, Liquidity Risk and Prepayment and Extension Risk.
Private Investments in Public Equity
Private Investments in public equity (or PIPEs) are equity securities purchased in a private placement that are issued by issuers who have outstanding, publicly traded equity securities of the same class. Shares issued in PIPEs are not registered with the SEC and may not be sold unless registered with the SEC or pursuant to an exemption from registration. Generally, an issuer of shares in a PIPE may agree to register the shares after a certain period from the date of the private sale. This restricted period can last many months. Until the public registration process is completed, the resale of the PIPE shares is restricted and the Fund may sell the shares after six months, with certain restrictions, if the Fund is not an affiliate of the issuer (under relevant securities law, a holder of restricted shares may sell the shares after 6 months if the holder is not affiliated to the issuer). Generally, such restrictions cause the PIPE shares to be illiquid during this time. If the issuer does not agree to register the PIPE shares, the shares will remain restricted, not be freely tradable and may only be sold pursuant to an exemption from registration. Even if the PIPE shares are registered for resale, there is no assurance that the registration will be in effect at the time the Fund elects to sell the shares. See also Types of Investments – Private Placement and Other Restricted Securities for more information.
Statement of Additional Information – January 1, 2023 42

Table of Contents
Although one or more of the other risks described in this SAI may also apply, the risks typically associated with PIPEs include: Private Investment in Public Equity (PIPEs) Risk, Counterparty Risk, Issuer Risk, Liquidity Risk, Market Risk, and Rule 144A and Other Exempted Securities Risk.
Private Placement and Other Restricted Securities
Private placement securities are securities that have been privately placed and are not registered under the 1933 Act. They are generally eligible for sale only to certain eligible investors. Private placements often may offer attractive opportunities for investment not otherwise available on the open market. Private placement and other “restricted” securities often cannot be sold to the public without registration under the 1933 Act or the availability of an exemption from registration (such as Rules 144 or 144A), or they are “not readily marketable” because they are subject to other legal or contractual delays in or restrictions on resale. Asset-backed securities, common stock, convertible securities, corporate debt securities, foreign securities, high-yield securities, money market instruments, mortgage-backed securities, municipal securities, participation interests, preferred stock and other types of equity and debt instruments may be privately placed or restricted securities.
Private placements typically may be sold only to qualified institutional buyers or, in the case of the initial sale of certain securities, such as those issued in collateralized debt obligations or collateralized loan obligations, to accredited investors (as defined in Rule 501(a) under the 1933 Act), or in a privately negotiated transaction or to a limited number of qualified purchasers, or in limited quantities after they have been held for a specified period of time and other conditions are met pursuant to an exemption from registration.
Although one or more of the other risks described in this SAI may also apply, the risks typically associated with private placement and other restricted securities include: Issuer Risk, Liquidity Risk, Market Risk and Confidential Information Access Risk.
Real Estate Investment Trusts
Real estate investment trusts (REITs) are pooled investment vehicles that manage a portfolio of real estate or real estate related loans to earn profits for their shareholders. REITs are generally classified as equity REITs, mortgage REITs or a combination of equity and mortgage REITs. Equity REITs invest the majority of their assets directly in real property, such as shopping centers, nursing homes, office buildings, apartment complexes, and hotels, and derive income primarily from the collection of rents. Equity REITs can also realize capital gains by selling properties that have appreciated in value. Mortgage REITs invest the majority of their assets in real estate mortgages and derive income from the collection of interest payments. REITs can be subject to extreme volatility due to fluctuations in the demand for real estate, changes in interest rates, and adverse economic conditions.
Partnership units of real estate and other types of companies sometimes are organized as master limited partnerships in which ownership interests are publicly traded.
Similar to regulated investment companies, REITs are not taxed on income distributed to shareholders provided they comply with certain requirements under the Code. A Fund will indirectly bear its proportionate share of any expenses paid by a REIT in which it invests. REITs often do not provide complete tax information until after the calendar year-end. Consequently, because of the delay, it may be necessary for a Fund investing in REITs to request permission to extend the deadline for issuance of Forms 1099-DIV beyond January 31. In the alternative, amended Forms 1099-DIV may be sent.
Although one or more of the other risks described in this SAI may also apply, the risks typically associated with REITs include: Interest Rate Risk, Issuer Risk, Market Risk and Real Estate-Related Investment Risk.
Repurchase Agreements
Repurchase agreements are agreements under which a Fund acquires a security for a relatively short period of time (usually within seven days) subject to the obligation of a seller to repurchase and a Fund to resell such security at a fixed time and price (representing the Fund’s cost plus interest). The repurchase agreement specifies the yield during the purchaser’s holding period. Repurchase agreements also may be viewed as loans made by a Fund that are collateralized by the securities subject to repurchase, which may consist of a variety of security types. A Fund typically will enter into repurchase agreements only with commercial banks, registered broker-dealers and the Fixed Income Clearing Corporation. Such transactions are monitored to ensure that the value of the underlying securities will be at least equal at all times to the total amount of the repurchase obligation, including any accrued interest.
Although one or more of the other risks described in this SAI may also apply, the risks typically associated with repurchase agreements include: Counterparty Risk, Credit Risk, Issuer Risk, Market Risk and Repurchase Agreements Risk.
Statement of Additional Information – January 1, 2023 43

Table of Contents
Reverse Repurchase Agreements
Reverse repurchase agreements are agreements under which a Fund temporarily transfers possession of a portfolio instrument to another party, such as a bank or broker-dealer, in return for cash. At the same time, the Fund agrees to repurchase the instrument at an agreed-upon time (normally within 7 days) and price which reflects an interest payment. A Fund generally retains the right to interest and principal payments on the security. Reverse repurchase agreements also may be viewed as borrowings made by a Fund.
Although one or more of the other risks described in this SAI may also apply, the risks typically associated with reverse repurchase agreements include: Credit Risk, Interest Rate Risk, Issuer Risk, Leverage Risk, Market Risk and Reverse Repurchase Agreements Risk.
Short Sales
A Fund may sometimes sell securities short when it owns an equal amount of the securities sold short. This is a technique known as selling short “against the box.” If a Fund makes a short sale “against the box,” it would not immediately deliver the securities sold and would not receive the proceeds from the sale. The seller is said to have a short position in the securities sold until it delivers the securities sold, at which time it receives the proceeds of the sale. To secure its obligation to deliver securities sold short, a Fund will deposit in escrow in a separate account with the custodian an equal amount of the securities sold short or securities convertible into or exchangeable for such securities. A Fund can close out its short position by purchasing and delivering an equal amount of the securities sold short, rather than by delivering securities already held by a Fund, because a Fund might want to continue to receive interest and dividend payments on securities in its portfolio that are convertible into the securities sold short.
Short sales “against the box” entail many of the same risks and considerations described below regarding short sales not “against the box.” However, when a Fund sells short “against the box” it typically limits the amount of its effective leverage. A Fund’s decision to make a short sale “against the box” may be a technique to hedge against market risks when a Fund’s portfolio manager believes that the price of a security may decline, causing a decline in the value of a security owned by a Fund or a security convertible into or exchangeable for such security. In such case, any future losses in a Fund’s long position would be reduced by a gain in the short position. The extent to which such gains or losses in the long position are reduced will depend upon the amount of securities sold short relative to the amount of the securities a Fund owns, either directly or indirectly, and, in the case where a Fund owns convertible securities, changes in the investment values or conversion premiums of such securities. Short sales may have adverse tax consequences to a Fund and its shareholders.
Subject to its fundamental and non-fundamental investment policies, a Fund may engage in short sales that are not “against the box,” which are sales by a Fund of securities, contracts or instruments that it does not own in hopes of purchasing the same security, contract or instrument at a later date at a lower price. The technique is also used to protect a profit in a long-term position in a security, commodity futures contract or other instrument. To make delivery to the buyer, a Fund must borrow or purchase the security. If borrowed, a Fund is then obligated to replace the security borrowed from the third party, so a Fund must purchase the security at the market price at a later time. If the price of the security has increased during this time, then a Fund will incur a loss equal to the increase in price of the security from the time of the short sale plus any premiums and interest paid to the third party. (Until the security is replaced, a Fund is required to pay to the lender amounts equal to any dividends or interest which accrue during the period of the loan. To borrow the security, a Fund also may be required to pay a premium, which would increase the cost of the security sold. The proceeds of the short sale will be retained by the broker, to the extent necessary to meet the margin requirements, until the short position is closed out.) Short sales of forward commitments and derivatives do not involve borrowing a security. These types of short sales may include futures, options, contracts for differences, forward contracts on financial instruments and options such as contracts, credit-linked instruments, and swap contracts.
Although one or more of the other risks described in this SAI may also apply, the risks typically associated with short sales include: Leverage Risk, Market Risk and Short Positions Risk.
Sovereign Debt
Sovereign debt obligations are issued or guaranteed by foreign governments or their agencies. It may be in the form of conventional securities or other types of debt instruments such as loans or loan participations. A sovereign debtor’s willingness or ability to repay principal and pay interest in a timely manner may be affected by a variety of factors, including its cash flow situation, the extent of its reserves, the availability of sufficient foreign exchange on the date a payment is due, the relative size of the debt service burden to the economy as a whole, the sovereign debtor’s policy toward international lenders, and the political constraints to which a sovereign debtor may be subject. (See also Types of Investments – Foreign Securities.) In addition, there may be no legal recourse against a sovereign debtor in the event of a default.
Sovereign debt includes Brady Bonds, which are securities issued under the framework of the Brady Plan, an initiative announced by former U.S. Treasury Secretary Nicholas F. Brady in 1989 as a mechanism for debtor nations to restructure their outstanding external commercial bank indebtedness.
Statement of Additional Information – January 1, 2023 44

Table of Contents
Although one or more of the other risks described in this SAI may also apply, the risks typically associated with sovereign debt include: Credit Risk, Emerging Markets Securities Risk, Foreign Securities Risk, Issuer Risk and Market Risk.
Special Purpose Acquisition Company (SPAC)
A SPAC is typically a publicly traded company that raises investment capital via an IPO for the purpose of acquiring one or more existing companies (or interests therein) via merger, combination, acquisition or other similar transactions (each a SPAC Transaction). The shares of a SPAC are issued in “units” that typically include one share of common stock and one warrant (or partial warrant) conveying the right to purchase additional shares. Within 52 days after the closing of the IPO, the shares of common stock and the warrants comprising the units will begin to trade separately and become freely tradeable. After going public, and until a SPAC Transaction is completed, a SPAC generally invests the proceeds of its IPO (less a portion retained to cover expenses) in U.S. Government securities, money market securities and/or cash. If a SPAC does not complete a SPAC Transaction within a specified period of time after going public, the SPAC is typically dissolved, at which point the invested funds are returned to the SPAC’s shareholders (less certain permitted expenses) and any warrants issued by the SPAC expire worthless. In some cases, the Fund will forfeit its right to exercise its warrants to receive additional shares even if a SPAC Transaction occurs if the Fund holding the warrant elects to redeem its shares of common stock and not participate in the SPAC Transaction. See also Types of Investments – Common Stock, – Initial Public Offerings, and – Warrants and Rights for more information.
Although one or more of the other risks described in this SAI may also apply, the risks typically associated with SPACs include: IPO Risk, Issuer Risk, Liquidity Risk, Market Risk, Special Purpose Acquisition Companies (SPAC) Risk and Warrants and Rights Risk.
Standby Commitments
See Types of Investments – Municipal Securities above.
U.S. Government and Related Obligations
U.S. Government obligations include U.S. Treasury obligations and securities issued or guaranteed by various agencies of the U.S. Government or by various agencies or instrumentalities established or sponsored by the U.S. Government. U.S. Treasury obligations and securities issued or guaranteed by various agencies or instrumentalities of the U.S. Government differ in their interest rates, maturities and time of issuance, as well as with respect to whether they are guaranteed by the U.S. Government. U.S. Government and related obligations may be structured as fixed-, variable- or floating-rate obligations. See Types of Investments – Variable- and Floating-Rate Obligations for more information.
Investing in U.S. Government and related obligations is subject to certain risks. While U.S. Treasury obligations are backed by the “full faith and credit” of the U.S. Government, such securities are nonetheless subject to credit risk (i.e., the risk that the U.S. Government may be, or be perceived to be, unable or unwilling to honor its financial obligations, such as making payments). Securities issued or guaranteed by federal agencies and U.S. Government-sponsored instrumentalities may or may not be backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Government. These securities may be supported by the ability to borrow from the U.S. Treasury or only by the credit of the issuing agency or instrumentality and, as a result, may be subject to greater credit risk than securities issued or guaranteed by the U.S. Treasury. Obligations of U.S. Government agencies, authorities, instrumentalities and sponsored enterprises historically have involved limited risk of loss of principal if held to maturity. However, no assurance can be given that the U.S. Government would provide financial support to any of these entities if it is not obligated to do so by law.
Government-sponsored entities issuing securities include privately owned, publicly chartered entities created to reduce borrowing costs for certain sectors of the economy, such as farmers, homeowners, and students. They include the Federal Farm Credit Bank System, Farm Credit Financial Assistance Corporation, Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac, and Student Loan Marketing Association (SLMA). Government-sponsored entities may issue discount notes (with maturities ranging from overnight to 360 days) and bonds. On September 7, 2008, the Federal Housing Finance Agency (FHFA), an agency of the U.S. Government, placed Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac into conservatorship, a statutory process with the objective of returning the entities to normal business operations. FHFA will act as the conservator to operate the enterprises until they are stabilized.
Although one or more of the other risks described in this SAI may also apply, the risks typically associated with U.S. Government and related obligations include: Credit Risk, Inflation Risk, Interest Rate Risk, Prepayment and Extension Risk, Reinvestment Risk and U.S. Government Obligations Risk.
Variable- and Floating-Rate Obligations
Variable- and floating-rate obligations are debt instruments that provide for periodic adjustments in the interest rate and, under certain circumstances, varying principal amounts. Unlike a fixed interest rate, a variable, or floating, rate is one that rises and declines based on the movement of an underlying index of interest rates and may pay interest at rates that are adjusted periodically according to a specified formula. Variable- or floating-rate securities frequently include a demand feature enabling the holder to sell the securities to the issuer at par. In many cases, the demand feature can be exercised at any time. Some
Statement of Additional Information – January 1, 2023 45

Table of Contents
securities that do not have variable or floating interest rates may be accompanied by puts producing similar results and price characteristics. Variable-rate demand notes include master demand notes that are obligations that permit the investor to invest fluctuating amounts, which may change daily without penalty, pursuant to direct arrangements between the investor (as lender), and the borrower. The interest rates on these notes fluctuate. The issuer of such obligations normally has a corresponding right, after a given period, to prepay in its discretion the outstanding principal amount of the obligations plus accrued interest upon a specified number of days’ notice to the holders of such obligations. Because these obligations are direct lending arrangements between the lender and borrower, it is not contemplated that such instruments generally will be traded. There generally is not an established secondary market for these obligations. Accordingly, where these obligations are not secured by letters of credit or other credit support arrangements, the lender’s right to redeem is dependent on the ability of the borrower to pay principal and interest on demand. Such obligations frequently are not rated by credit rating agencies and may involve heightened risk of default by the issuer. Asset-backed securities, bank obligations, convertible securities, corporate debt securities, foreign securities, high-yield securities, money market instruments, mortgage-backed securities, municipal securities, participation interests, stripped securities, U.S. Government and related obligations and other types of debt instruments may be structured as variable- and floating-rate obligations.
Most floating rate loans are acquired directly from the agent bank or from another holder of the loan by assignment. Most such loans are secured, and most impose restrictive covenants on the borrower. These loans are typically made by a syndicate of banks and institutional investors, represented by an agent bank which has negotiated and structured the loan and which is responsible generally for collecting interest, principal, and other amounts from the borrower on its own behalf and on behalf of the other lending institutions in the syndicate, and for enforcing its rights and the rights of the syndicate against the borrower. Each of the lending institutions, including the agent bank, lends to the borrower a portion of the total amount of the loan, and retains the corresponding interest in the loan. Floating rate loans may include delayed draw term loans and prefunded or synthetic letters of credit.
A Fund’s ability to receive payments of principal and interest and other amounts in connection with loans held by it will depend primarily on the financial condition of the borrower. The failure by the Fund to receive scheduled interest or principal payments on a loan would adversely affect the income of the Fund and would likely reduce the value of its assets, which would be reflected in a reduction in the Fund’s NAV. Banks and other lending institutions generally perform a credit analysis of the borrower before originating a loan or purchasing an assignment in a loan. In selecting the loans in which the Fund will invest, however, the Investment Manager will not rely on that credit analysis of the agent bank, but will perform its own investment analysis of the borrowers. The Investment Manager’s analysis may include consideration of the borrower’s financial strength and managerial experience, debt coverage, additional borrowing requirements or debt maturity schedules, changing financial conditions, and responsiveness to changes in business conditions and interest rates. Investments in loans may be of any quality, including “distressed” loans, and will be subject to the Fund’s credit quality policy.
Loans may be structured in different forms, including assignments and participations. In an assignment, a Fund purchases an assignment of a portion of a lender’s interest in a loan. In this case, the Fund may be required generally to rely upon the assigning bank to demand payment and enforce its rights against the borrower, but would otherwise be entitled to all of such bank’s rights in the loan.
The borrower of a loan may, either at its own election or pursuant to terms of the loan documentation, prepay amounts of the loan from time to time. There is no assurance that a Fund will be able to reinvest the proceeds of any loan prepayment at the same interest rate or on the same terms as those of the original loan.
Corporate loans in which a Fund may purchase a loan assignment are made generally to finance internal growth, mergers, acquisitions, recapitalizations, stock repurchases, leveraged buy-outs, dividend payments to sponsors and other corporate activities. The highly leveraged capital structure of certain borrowers may make such loans especially vulnerable to adverse changes in economic or market conditions. The Fund may hold investments in loans for a very short period of time when opportunities to resell the investments that a Fund’s portfolio manager believes are attractive arise.
Certain of the loans acquired by a Fund may involve revolving credit facilities under which a borrower may from time to time borrow and repay amounts up to the maximum amount of the facility. In such cases, the Fund would have an obligation to advance its portion of such additional borrowings upon the terms specified in the loan assignment. To the extent that the Fund is committed to make additional loans under such an assignment, it will at all times designate cash or securities in an amount sufficient to meet such commitments.
Notwithstanding its intention in certain situations to not receive material, non-public information with respect to its management of investments in floating rate loans, the Investment Manager may from time to time come into possession of material, non-public information about the issuers of loans that may be held in a Fund’s portfolio. Possession of such information may in some instances occur despite the Investment Manager’s efforts to avoid such possession, but in other instances the Investment Manager may choose to receive such information (for example, in connection with participation in a creditors’ committee with respect to a financially distressed issuer). As, and to the extent, required by applicable law, the Investment Manager’s ability to trade in these
Statement of Additional Information – January 1, 2023 46

Table of Contents
loans for the account of the Fund could potentially be limited by its possession of such information. Such limitations on the Investment Manager’s ability to trade could have an adverse effect on the Fund by, for example, preventing the Fund from selling a loan that is experiencing a material decline in value. In some instances, these trading restrictions could continue in effect for a substantial period of time.
In some instances, other accounts managed by the Investment Manager may hold other securities issued by borrowers whose floating rate loans may be held in a Fund’s portfolio. These other securities may include, for example, debt securities that are subordinate to the floating rate loans held in the Fund’s portfolio, convertible debt or common or preferred equity securities.
In certain circumstances, such as if the credit quality of the issuer deteriorates, the interests of holders of these other securities may conflict with the interests of the holders of the issuer’s floating rate loans. In such cases, the Investment Manager may owe conflicting fiduciary duties to the Fund and other client accounts. The Investment Manager will endeavor to carry out its obligations to all of its clients to the fullest extent possible, recognizing that in some cases certain clients may achieve a lower economic return, as a result of these conflicting client interests, than if the Investment Manager’s client accounts collectively held only a single category of the issuer’s securities.
Although one or more of the other risks described in this SAI may also apply, the risks typically associated with variable- or floating-rate obligations include: Counterparty Risk, Credit Risk, Interest Rate Risk, Liquidity Risk and Prepayment and Extension Risk.
Warrants and Rights
Warrants and rights are types of securities that give a holder a right to purchase shares of common stock. Warrants usually are issued together with a bond or preferred stock and entitle a holder to purchase a specified amount of common stock at a specified price typically for a period of years. Rights usually have a specified purchase price that is lower than the current market price and entitle a holder to purchase a specified amount of common stock typically for a period of only weeks. Warrants may be used to enhance the marketability of a bond or preferred stock. Warrants do not carry with them the right to dividends or voting rights and they do not represent any rights in the assets of the issuer. Warrants may be considered to have more speculative characteristics than certain other types of investments. In addition, the value of a warrant does not necessarily change with the value of the underlying securities, and a warrant ceases to have value if it is not exercised prior to its expiration date, if any.
The potential exercise price of warrants or rights may exceed their market price, such as when there is no movement in the market price or the market price of the common stock declines.
Although one or more of the other risks described in this SAI may also apply, the risks typically associated with warrants and rights include: Convertible Securities Risk, Counterparty Risk, Credit Risk, Issuer Risk and Market Risk.
Statement of Additional Information – January 1, 2023 47

Table of Contents
Information Regarding Risks
The following is a summary of risks of investing in the Funds and the risk characteristics associated with the various securities, instruments, assets and investments as well as strategies and techniques that may be available to the Funds for investment. A Fund’s risk profile is largely determined by each Fund’s portfolio holdings and principal investment strategies (see the Fund’s most recent annual or semiannual report for portfolio holdings information and see the Fund’s current prospectus for the description of the Fund’s principal investment strategies and principal risks). The Funds are allowed to invest in other securities, instruments, assets and investments, and may engage in strategies and techniques other than those described in the Fund’s current prospectus, subjecting the Fund to the risks associated with these other securities, instruments, assets, investments, strategies and techniques.
An investment in the Funds is not a bank deposit and is not insured or guaranteed by any bank, the FDIC or any other government agency. One or more of the following risks may be associated with an investment in a Fund at any time:
Active Management Risk. The Fund is actively managed and its performance therefore will reflect, in part, the ability of the portfolio managers to make investment decisions that seek to achieve the Fund’s investment objective. Due to its active management, the Fund could underperform its benchmark index and/or other funds with similar investment objectives and/or strategies.
Activist Strategies Risk. The Fund may purchase securities of a company that is the subject of a proxy contest or which activist investors are attempting to influence, in the expectation that new management or a change in business strategies will cause the price of the company’s securities to increase. If the proxy contest, or the new management, is not successful, the market price of the company’s securities will typically fall.
In addition, where an acquisition or restructuring transaction or proxy fight is opposed by the subject company’s management, the transaction often becomes the subject of litigation. Such litigation involves substantial uncertainties and may impose substantial cost and expense on the Fund.
Allocation Risk. For any Fund that uses an asset allocation strategy in pursuit of its investment objective, there is a risk that the Fund's allocation among asset classes, investments, managers, strategies and/or investment styles will cause the Fund's shares to lose value or cause the Fund to underperform other funds with similar investment objectives and/or strategies, or that the investments themselves will not produce the returns expected.
Alternative Strategies Investment Risk. An investment in alternative investment strategies (Alternative Strategies), whether through direct investment or through one or more underlying funds that use Alternative Strategies, involves risks, which may be significant. Alternative Strategies may include strategies, instruments or other assets, such as derivatives, that seek investment returns uncorrelated with the broad equity and fixed income/debt markets, as well as those providing exposure to other markets (such as commodity markets), including but not limited to absolute (positive) return strategies. Alternative Strategies may fail to achieve their desired performance, market or other exposure, or their returns (or lack thereof) may be more correlated with the broad equity and/or fixed income/debt markets than was anticipated, and the Fund may lose money. Some Alternative Strategies may be considered speculative.
To the extent that an underlying fund is charged a performance (or incentive) fee (which would indirectly be borne by the Fund’s shareholders), such fees may create incentives for the underlying fund’s manager to make investments that are riskier or more speculative than in the absence of these fees. Because these fees are often based on both realized and unrealized appreciation, the fee may be greater than if it were based only on realized gains. In addition, underlying fund managers may receive compensation for relative performance of the underlying fund even if the underlying fund’s overall returns are negative.
Arbitrage Strategies Risk. The Fund may purchase securities at prices only slightly below the anticipated value to be paid or exchanged for such securities in a merger, exchange offer or cash tender offer, and substantially above the prices at which such securities traded immediately prior to announcement of the transaction. If there is a perception that the proposed transaction will not be consummated or will be delayed, the market price of the security may decline sharply, which would result in a loss to the Fund. In addition, if the portfolio manager(s) determines that the offer is likely to be increased, either by the original bidder or by another party, the Fund may purchase securities above the offer price; such purchases are subject to a high degree of risk.
The consummation of mergers and tender and exchange offers can be prevented or delayed by a variety of factors, including opposition by the management or shareholders of the target company, private litigation or litigation involving regulatory agencies, and approval or non-action of regulatory agencies. The likelihood of occurrence of these and other factors, and their impact on an investment, can be very difficult to evaluate.
Bankruptcy Process and Trade Claims Risk. The Fund may purchase bankruptcy claims. There are a number of significant risks inherent in the bankruptcy process. The effect of a bankruptcy filing on a company may adversely and permanently affect the company and cause it to be incapable of restoring itself as a viable business. Many events in a bankruptcy are the product of contested matters and adversarial proceedings. The duration of a bankruptcy proceeding is difficult to predict and a creditor’s
Statement of Additional Information – January 1, 2023 48

Table of Contents
return on investment can be adversely affected by delays while the plan of reorganization is being finalized. The administrative costs in connection with a bankruptcy proceeding are frequently high and are paid out of the debtor’s estate before any return to creditors. The Fund may also purchase trade claims against companies, including companies in bankruptcy or reorganization proceedings, which include claims of suppliers for unpaid goods delivered, claims for unpaid services rendered, claims for contract rejection damages and claims related to litigation. An investment in trade claims is very speculative, illiquid, and carries a high degree of risk. The markets in trade claims are generally not regulated by U.S. federal securities laws or the SEC.
Changing Distribution Level Risk. The Fund normally expects to receive income which may include interest, dividends and/or capital gains, depending upon its investments. The distribution amounts paid by the Fund will vary and generally depend on the amount of income the Fund earns (less expenses) on its portfolio holdings, and capital gains or losses it recognizes. A decline in the Fund’s income or net capital gains arising from its investments may reduce its distribution level.
Closed-End Investment Company Risk. Closed-end investment companies frequently trade at a discount to their NAV, which may affect whether the Fund will realize gain or loss upon its sale of the closed-end investment company’s shares. Closed-end investment companies may employ leverage, which also subjects the closed-end investment company to increased risks such as increased volatility.
Commodity-related Investment Risk. The value of commodities investments will generally be affected by overall market movements and factors specific to a particular industry or commodity, which may include demand for the commodity, weather, embargoes, tariffs, and economic health, political, international, regulatory and other developments. Economic and other events (whether real or perceived) can reduce the demand for commodities, which may, in turn, reduce market prices and cause the value of Fund shares to fall. The frequency and magnitude of such changes cannot be predicted. Exposure to commodities and commodities markets may subject the value of the Fund's investments (and therefore the Fund) to greater volatility than other types of investments. No, or limited, active trading market may exist for certain commodities investments, which may impair the ability to sell or to realize the full value of such investments in the event of the need to liquidate such investments. In addition, adverse market conditions may impair the liquidity of actively traded commodities investments thereby subjecting the Fund to increased liquidity risk (the risk that it may not be possible for the Fund to liquidate the instrument at an advantageous time or price). Certain types of commodities instruments are subject to the risk that the counterparty to the transaction may not perform or be unable to perform in accordance with the terms of the instrument. The Fund may make commodity-related investments through, and may invest in one or more underlying funds that make commodity-related investments through, one or more wholly-owned subsidiaries organized outside the U.S. that are generally not subject to U.S. laws (including securities laws) and their protections. However, any such subsidiary is wholly owned and controlled by the Fund and any underlying fund subsidiary is wholly-owned and controlled by the underlying fund, making it unlikely that the subsidiary will take action contrary to the interests of the Fund or the underlying fund and their shareholders. Further, any such subsidiaries will be subject to the laws of a foreign jurisdiction, and can be adversely affected by developments in that jurisdiction.
Concentration Risk. To the extent that the Fund concentrates its investment in particular issuers, countries, geographic regions, industries or sectors, the Fund may be subject to greater risks of adverse developments in such areas of focus than a fund that invests in a wider variety of issuers, countries, geographic regions, industries, sectors or investments.
Confidential Information Access Risk. In many instances, issuers of floating rate loans offer to furnish material, non-public information (Confidential Information) to prospective purchasers or holders of the issuer’s floating rate loans to help potential investors assess the value of the loan. Portfolio managers may avoid the receipt of Confidential Information about the issuers of floating rate loans being considered for acquisition by the Fund, or held in the Fund. A decision not to receive Confidential Information from these issuers may disadvantage the Fund as compared to other floating rate loan investors, and may adversely affect the price the Fund pays for the loans it purchases, or the price at which the Fund sells the loans. Further, in situations when holders of floating rate loans are asked, for example, to grant consents, waivers or amendments, the ability to assess the desirability thereof may be compromised. For these and other reasons, it is possible that the decision not to receive Confidential Information could adversely affect the Fund’s performance.
Convertible Securities Risk. Convertible securities are subject to the usual risks associated with debt instruments, such as interest rate risk (the risk of losses attributable to changes in interest rates) and credit risk (the risk that the issuer of a debt instrument will default or otherwise become unable, or be perceived to be unable or unwilling, to honor a financial obligation, such as making payments to the Fund when due). Convertible securities also react to changes in the value of the common stock into which they convert, and are thus subject to market risk (the risk that the market values of securities or other investments that the Fund holds will fall, sometimes rapidly or unpredictably, or fail to rise). Because the value of a convertible security can be influenced by both interest rates and the common stock's market movements, a convertible security generally is not as sensitive to interest rates as a similar debt instrument, and generally will not vary in value in response to other factors to the same extent
Statement of Additional Information – January 1, 2023 49

Table of Contents
as the underlying common stock. In the event of a liquidation of the issuing company, holders of convertible securities would typically be paid before the company's common stockholders but after holders of any senior debt obligations of the company. The Fund may be forced to convert a convertible security before it otherwise would choose to do so, which may decrease the Fund's return.
Contingent Convertible Securities Risk. Contingent convertible securities, also known as contingent capital securities or “CoCos,” are hybrid securities that are typically issued by non-U.S. banks. CoCos have characteristics of both debt and equity instruments, although they are generally treated by the Funds as debt investments. If certain “trigger events” occur, CoCos either convert into equity or undergo a principal write-down or write-off. Trigger events, which are defined by the documents governing the CoCo, may include a decline in the issuer’s capital ratio below a specified trigger level, the share price of the issuer falling to a particular level for a certain period of time, other events indicating an increase in the issuer’s risk of insolvency, and/or certain regulatory events, including changes in regulatory capital requirements or regulatory actions related to the issuer’s solvency prospects.
  The value of CoCos may be influenced by the creditworthiness of the issuer and/or fluctuations in such issuer’s applicable capital ratios; supply and demand for CoCos; general market conditions and available liquidity; and economic, financial or political events impacting the issuer, its particular market or the financial markets more broadly. Due to the contingent conversion or principal write-down or write-off features, CoCos may have substantially greater risk than other securities in times of financial stress. The occurrence of an automatic conversion or write-down or write-off event may be unpredictable and the potential effects of such event could cause a Fund’s shares to lose value. The coupon payments offered by CoCos are discretionary and may be cancelled or adjusted downward by the issuer or at the request of the relevant regulatory authority at any point, for any reason, and for any length of time. As a result of the uncertainty with respect to coupon payments, the value of CoCos may be volatile and their price may decline rapidly if coupon payments are suspended. CoCos are typically structurally subordinated to traditional convertible bonds in the issuer’s capital structure. There may be circumstances under which investors in CoCos may suffer a capital loss ahead of equity holders or when equity holders do not.
  Although one or more of the other risks described in this SAI may also apply, the risks typically associated with CoCos include: Convertible Securities Risk, Credit Risk, Foreign Securities Risk, High-Yield Investments Risk, Interest Rate Risk, Issuer Risk, and Market Risk.
Counterparty Risk. The risk exists that a counterparty to a transaction in a financial instrument held by the Fund or by a special purpose or structured vehicle in which the Fund invests may become insolvent or otherwise fail to perform its obligations, including making payments to the Fund, due to financial difficulties. The Fund may obtain no or limited recovery in a bankruptcy or other reorganizational proceedings, and any recovery may be significantly delayed. Transactions that the Fund enters into may involve counterparties in the financial services sector and, as a result, events affecting the financial services sector may cause the Fund’s share value to fluctuate.
In the event of a counterparty’s (or its affiliate’s) insolvency, the Fund’s ability to exercise remedies, such as the termination of transactions, netting of obligations and realization on collateral, could be stayed or eliminated under new special resolution regimes adopted in the United States, the European Union and various other jurisdictions. Such regimes generally provide government authorities with broad authority to intervene when a financial institution is experiencing financial difficulty. In particular, the regulatory authorities could reduce, eliminate or convert to equity the liabilities to the Fund of a counterparty subject to such proceedings in the European Union (sometimes referred to as a “bail in”).
Credit Risk. Credit risk is the risk that the value of loans or other debt instruments may decline if the borrower or the issuer thereof defaults or otherwise becomes unable or unwilling, or is perceived to be unable or unwilling, to honor its financial obligations, such as making payments to the Fund when due. Various factors could affect the actual or perceived willingness or ability of the borrower or the issuer to make timely interest or principal payments, including changes in the financial condition of the borrower or the issuer or in general economic conditions. Debt instruments backed by an issuer's taxing authority may be subject to legal limits on the issuer's power to increase taxes or otherwise to raise revenue, or may be dependent on legislative appropriation or government aid. Certain debt instruments are backed only by revenues derived from a particular project or source, rather than by an issuer's taxing authority, and thus may have a greater risk of default. Credit rating agencies, such as S&P Global Ratings, Moody’s, Fitch, DBRS and KBRA, assign credit ratings to certain loans and debt instruments to indicate their credit risk. A rating downgrade by such agencies can negatively impact the value of such instruments. Lower-rated or unrated loans or instruments held by the Fund may present increased credit risk as compared to higher-rated loans or instruments. Non-investment grade loans or debt instruments may be subject to greater price fluctuations and are more likely to experience a default than investment grade loans or debt instruments and therefore may expose the Fund to increased credit risk. If the Fund purchases unrated loans or instruments, or if the ratings of loans or instruments held by the Fund are lowered after purchase, the Fund will depend on analysis of credit risk more heavily than usual. If the issuer of a loan declares bankruptcy or is declared bankrupt, there may be a delay before the Fund can act on the collateral securing the loan, which may adversely affect the Fund. Further, there is a risk that a court could take action with respect to a loan that is adverse to the holders of the loan.
Statement of Additional Information – January 1, 2023 50

Table of Contents
Such actions may include invalidating the loan, the lien on the collateral, the priority status of the loan, or ordering the refund of interest previously paid by the borrower. Any such actions by a court could adversely affect the Fund’s performance. A default or expected default of a loan could also make it difficult for the Fund to sell the loan at a price approximating the value previously placed on it. In order to enforce its rights in the event of a default, bankruptcy or similar situation, the Fund may be required to retain legal or similar counsel. This may increase the Fund’s operating expenses and adversely affect its NAV. Loans that have a lower priority for repayment in an issuer’s capital structure may involve a higher degree of overall risk than more senior loans of the same borrower.
Cybersecurity Breaches, Systems Failure and Other Business Disruptions Risk. The Funds and their service providers, including the Investment Manager and its affiliates (Ameriprise Financial, which is the Investment Manager’s parent company, the Distributor and the Transfer Agent (together with the Investment Manager, referred to herein as we, us and our)), any investment subadvisers, the Custodian and other service providers, as well as all their underlying service providers (collectively, the Service Providers), are heavily dependent on their respective employees, agents and other personnel (Personnel) and proprietary and third-party technology and infrastructure and related business, operational and information systems, networks, computers, devices, programs, applications, data and functions (collectively, Systems) to perform necessary business activities. The Systems and Personnel that the Funds and the Service Providers rely upon may be vulnerable to significant disruptions and failures, including those relating to or arising from cybersecurity breaches (including intentional acts, e.g., cyber-attacks, hacking, phishing scams, unauthorized payment requests and other social engineering techniques aimed at Personnel or Systems, and unintentional events or activity), Systems malfunctions, user error, conduct (or misconduct) of or arising from Personnel, and remote access to Systems (particularly important given the increased use of technologies such as the internet to conduct business). The increased use of mobile and cloud technologies and remote work heighten these and other operational risks. In addition, other events or circumstances – whether foreseeable, unforeseeable, or beyond our control, such as acts of war, other conflicts, terrorism, natural disaster, widespread disease, pandemic or other public health crises may result in, among other things, quarantines and travel restrictions, workforce displacement and loss or reduction in Personnel and other resources. In the above circumstances, the Funds’ and the Service Providers’ operations may be significantly impacted, or even temporarily halted. The Funds’ securities market counterparties or vendors may face the same or similar systems failure, cybersecurity breaches and other business disruptions risks.
Systems and Personnel disruptions and failures, particularly cybersecurity breaches, may result in (i) proprietary or confidential information or data including personal investor information (and that of beneficial owners of investors) being lost, withheld for ransom, misused, destroyed, stolen, released, corrupted or rendered unavailable, (ii) unauthorized access to Systems and loss of operational capacity, including from, but not limited to denial-of-service attacks (i.e., efforts to make network services and other Systems unavailable to intended users), and (iii) the misappropriation of Fund or investor assets or sensitive information. Any such events could negatively impact Service Provider Personnel and Systems and may have significant adverse impacts on the Funds and their shareholders.
Systems and Personnel disruptions and failures such as cybersecurity breaches may cause delays or mistakes in materials provided to shareholders and may also interfere with, or negatively impact, the processing of Fund investor transactions, pricing of Fund investments, calculating Fund NAVs, and trading within a Fund’s portfolio, while causing or subjecting the Funds to potential financial losses as well as additional compliance, legal, and operational costs. Such events could negatively impact the Fund, its shareholders and the business, financial condition and performance or results of operations of the Service Providers.
The trend toward broad consumer and general public notification of Systems failures and cybersecurity breaches could exacerbate the harm to the Fund, its shareholders and Service Provider business, financial condition and performance or results of operations. Even if we and the Service Providers successfully protect our respective Systems from failures or cybersecurity breaches, we may incur significant expenses in connection with our responses to any such events or compliance with evolving laws, as well as the need for adoption, implementation and maintenance of appropriate security measures. We could also suffer harm to our business and reputation if attempted or actual cybersecurity breaches are publicized. We and the Service Providers cannot be certain that evolving threats from cyber-criminals and other cyber-threat actors, exploitation of new vulnerabilities in our respective Systems, data thefts, Systems break-ins or other types of inappropriate access will not compromise or breach the technology or other security measures protecting our respective Systems.
We routinely face and address evolving cybersecurity threats and have been able to detect and respond to these incidents to date without a material loss of client financial assets or information through the use of ongoing monitoring and continual improvement of our security capabilities and incident response manual. We have been threatened by phishing and spear phishing scams, social engineering attacks, account takeovers, introductions of malware, attempts at electronic break-ins, and the submission of fraudulent payment requests. Systems failures and cybersecurity breaches may be difficult to detect, may go undetected for long periods or may never be detected. The impact of such events may be compounded over time. Although we evaluate the materiality of all Systems failures and cybersecurity breaches detected, we may conclude that some such events are not material and may choose not to address them. Such conclusions may not prove to be correct.
Statement of Additional Information – January 1, 2023 51

Table of Contents
Although we have established business continuity/disaster recovery plans (Continuity and Recovery Plans) designed to prevent or mitigate the effects of Systems and Personnel disruptions and failures and cybersecurity breaches, there are inherent limitations in Continuity and Recovery Plans. These limitations include the possibility that certain risks have not been identified, that Continuity and Recovery Plans might not – despite testing and monitoring – operate as designed, that Continuity and Recovery Plans may not be sufficient to stop or mitigate negative impacts, including financial losses, or that Continuity and Recovery Plans may otherwise be unable to achieve their objectives. The Funds and their shareholders could be negatively impacted as a result. The widespread use of work-from-home arrangements, such as during the COVID-19 pandemic, may increase these risks. The Investment Manager and its affiliates have systematically implemented strategies to address the operating environment spurred by the COVID-19 pandemic. The Investment Manager’s operations teams seek to operate without significant disruptions in service. Its Continuity and Recovery Plans take into consideration that a pandemic could be widespread and may occur in multiple waves, affecting different communities at different times with varying levels of severity. The Fund cannot, however, predict the impact that natural or man-made disasters and conditions, including the COVID-19 pandemic (and its variants), may have on the ability of us and the Service Providers to continue ordinary business operations and technology functions over near- or longer-term periods. In addition, the Fund cannot control or dictate the Continuity and Recovery Plans of the Service Providers. As a result, there can be no assurance that the Funds will not suffer financial losses relating to Systems or Personnel disruptions or failures or cybersecurity breaches affecting them or us in the future.
Systems and Personnel disruptions and failures and cybersecurity breaches may necessitate significant investment to repair or replace impacted Systems. In addition, the Funds may incur substantial costs for risk management in connection with failures or interruptions of Systems, Personnel, Continuity and Recovery Plans and cybersecurity defense measures in order to attempt to prevent any such events or incidents in the future, which, if they should occur, may be prolonged and may negatively impact business operations.
Any insurance or other risk-shifting tools available to us in order to manage or mitigate the risks associated with Systems and Personnel disruptions and failures and cybersecurity breaches are generally subject to terms and conditions such as deductibles, coinsurance, limits and policy exclusions, as well as risk of counterparty denial of coverage, default or insolvency. While Ameriprise Financial and its affiliates maintain cyber liability insurance that provides both third-party liability and first-party liability coverages, this insurance may not be sufficient to protect us against all losses. In addition, contractual remedies may not be available with respect to Service Providers or may prove inadequate if available (e.g., because of limits on the liability of the Service Providers) to protect the Funds against all losses.
Stock and other market exchanges, financial intermediaries, issuers of, and counterparties to, the Funds’ investments and, in the case of ETFs, market makers and authorized participants, also may be adversely impacted by Systems and Personnel disruptions and failures and cybersecurity breaches, in their own businesses, subjecting them to the risks described here, as well as other additional or enhanced risks particular to their businesses, which could result in losses to the Funds and their shareholders. Issuers of securities or other instruments in which the Funds invest may also experience Systems and Personnel disruptions and failures and cybersecurity breaches, which could result in material adverse consequences for such issuers, which may cause the Funds’ investment in such issuers to lose money.
Depositary Receipts Risk. Depositary receipts are receipts issued by a bank or trust company reflecting ownership of underlying securities issued by foreign companies. Some foreign securities are traded in the form of American Depositary Receipts and/or Global Depositary Receipts. Depositary receipts involve risks similar to the risks associated with investments in foreign securities, including those associated with an issuer’s (and any of its related companies’) country of organization and places of business operations, which may be related to the particular political, regulatory, economic, social and other conditions or events (including, for example, military confrontations and actions, war, other conflicts, terrorism and disease/virus outbreaks and epidemics) occurring in the country and fluctuations in such country’s currency, as well as market risk tied to the underlying foreign company. In addition, holders of depositary receipts may have limited voting rights, may not have the same rights afforded to stockholders of a typical domestic company in the event of a corporate action, such as an acquisition, merger or rights offering, and may experience difficulty in receiving company stockholder communications. There is no guarantee that a financial institution will continue to sponsor a depositary receipt, or that a depositary receipt will continue to trade on an exchange, either of which could adversely affect the liquidity, availability and pricing of the depositary receipt. Changes in foreign currency exchange rates will affect the value of depositary receipts and, therefore, may affect the value of your investment in the Fund. A potential conflict of interest exists to the extent that the Fund invests in ADRs for which the Fund's custodian serves as depository bank.
Derivatives Risk. Derivatives may involve significant risks. Derivatives are financial instruments, traded on an exchange or in the over-the-counter (OTC) markets, with a value in relation to, or derived from, the value of an underlying asset(s) (such as a security, commodity or currency) or other reference, such as an index, rate or other economic indicator (each an underlying reference). Derivatives may include those that are privately placed or otherwise exempt from SEC registration, including certain Rule 144A eligible securities. Derivatives could result in Fund losses if the underlying reference does not perform as anticipated.
Statement of Additional Information – January 1, 2023 52

Table of Contents
Use of derivatives is a highly specialized activity that can involve investment techniques, risks, and tax planning different from those associated with more traditional investment instruments. The Fund’s derivatives strategy may not be successful and use of certain derivatives could result in substantial, potentially unlimited, losses to the Fund regardless of the Fund’s actual investment. A relatively small movement in the price, rate or other economic indicator associated with the underlying reference may result in substantial losses for the Fund. Derivatives may be more volatile than other types of investments. Derivatives can increase the Fund’s risk exposure to underlying references and their attendant risks, including the risk of an adverse credit event associated with the underlying reference (credit risk), the risk of an adverse movement in the value, price or rate of the underlying reference (market risk), the risk of an adverse movement in the value of underlying currencies (foreign currency risk) and the risk of an adverse movement in underlying interest rates (interest rate risk). Derivatives may expose the Fund to additional risks, including the risk of loss due to a derivative position that is imperfectly correlated with the underlying reference it is intended to hedge or replicate (correlation risk), the risk that a counterparty will fail to perform as agreed (counterparty risk), the risk that a hedging strategy may fail to mitigate losses, and may offset gains (hedging risk), the risk that the return on an investment may not keep pace with inflation (inflation risk), the risk that losses may be greater than the amount invested (leverage risk), the risk that the Fund may be unable to sell an investment at an advantageous time or price (liquidity risk), the risk that the investment may be difficult to value (pricing risk), and the risk that the price or value of the investment fluctuates significantly over short periods of time (volatility risk). The value of derivatives may be influenced by a variety of factors, including national and international political and economic developments. Potential changes to the regulation of the derivatives markets may make derivatives more costly, may limit the market for derivatives, or may otherwise adversely affect the value or performance of derivatives.
Derivatives Risk – Forward Contracts Risk. A forward contract is an over-the-counter derivative transaction between two parties to buy or sell a specified amount of an underlying reference at a specified price (or rate) on a specified date in the future. Forward contracts are negotiated on an individual basis and are not standardized or traded on exchanges. The market for forward contracts is substantially unregulated (there is no limit on daily price movements and speculative position limits are not applicable). The principals who deal in certain forward contract markets are not required to continue to make markets in the underlying references in which they trade and these markets can experience periods of illiquidity, sometimes of significant duration. There have been periods during which certain participants in forward contract markets have refused to quote prices for certain underlying references or have quoted prices with an unusually wide spread between the price at which they were prepared to buy and that at which they were prepared to sell. At or prior to maturity of a forward contract, the Fund may enter into an offsetting contract and may incur a loss to the extent there has been adverse movement in forward contract prices. The liquidity of the markets for forward contracts depends on participants entering into offsetting transactions rather than making or taking delivery. To the extent participants make or take delivery, liquidity in the market for forwards could be reduced. A relatively small price movement in a forward contract may result in substantial losses to the Fund, exceeding the amount of the margin paid. Forward contracts can increase the Fund’s risk exposure to underlying references and their attendant risks, such as credit risk, market risk, foreign currency risk and interest rate risk, while also exposing the Fund to correlation risk, counterparty risk, hedging risk, inflation risk, leverage risk, liquidity risk, pricing risk and volatility risk.
A forward foreign currency contract is a derivative (forward contract) in which the underlying reference is a country's or region’s currency. The Fund may agree to buy or sell a country's or region’s currency at a specific price on a specific date in the future. These instruments may fall in value (sometimes dramatically) due to foreign market downswings or foreign currency value fluctuations, subjecting the Fund to foreign currency risk (the risk that Fund performance may be negatively impacted by foreign currency strength or weakness relative to the U.S. dollar, particularly if the Fund exposes a significant percentage of its assets to currencies other than the U.S. dollar). The effectiveness of any currency hedging strategy by a Fund may be reduced by the Fund’s inability to precisely match forward contract amounts and the value of securities involved. Forward foreign currency contracts used for hedging may also limit any potential gain that might result from an increase or decrease in the value of the currency. The Fund may use these instruments to gain leveraged exposure to currencies, which is a speculative investment practice that increases the Fund's risk exposure and the possibility of losses. Unanticipated changes in the currency markets could result in reduced performance for the Fund. When the Fund converts its foreign currencies into U.S. dollars, it may incur currency conversion costs due to the spread between the prices at which it may buy and sell various currencies in the market.
A forward interest rate agreement is a derivative whereby the buyer locks in an interest rate at a future settlement date. If the interest rate on the settlement date exceeds the lock rate, the buyer pays the seller the difference between the two rates (based on the notional value of the agreement). If the lock rate exceeds the interest rate on the settlement date, the seller pays the buyer the difference between the two rates (based on the notional value of the agreement). The Fund may act as a buyer or a seller.
Derivatives Risk – Futures Contracts Risk. A futures contract is an exchange-traded derivative transaction between two parties in which a buyer (holding the “long” position) agrees to pay a fixed price (or rate) at a specified future date for delivery of an underlying reference from a seller (holding the “short” position). The seller hopes that the market price on the delivery date is less than the agreed upon price, while the buyer hopes for the contrary. Certain futures contract markets are highly volatile, and
Statement of Additional Information – January 1, 2023 53

Table of Contents
futures contracts may be illiquid. Futures exchanges may limit fluctuations in futures contract prices by imposing a maximum permissible daily price movement. The Fund may be disadvantaged if it is prohibited from executing a trade outside the daily permissible price movement. At or prior to maturity of a futures contract, the Fund may enter into an offsetting contract and may incur a loss to the extent there has been adverse movement in futures contract prices. The liquidity of the futures markets depends on participants entering into offsetting transactions rather than making or taking delivery. To the extent participants make or take delivery, liquidity in the futures market could be reduced. Positions in futures contracts may be closed out only on the exchange on which they were entered into or through a linked exchange, and no secondary market exists for such contracts. Futures positions are marked to market each day and variation margin payment must be paid to or by the Fund. Because of the low margin deposits normally required in futures trading, it is possible that the Fund may employ a high degree of leverage in the portfolio. As a result, a relatively small price movement in a futures contract may result in substantial losses to the Fund, exceeding the amount of the margin paid. For certain types of futures contracts, losses are potentially unlimited. Futures markets are highly volatile and the use of futures may increase the volatility of the Fund’s NAV. Futures contracts executed (if any) on foreign exchanges may not provide the same protection as U.S. exchanges. Futures contracts can increase the Fund’s risk exposure to underlying references and their attendant risks, such as credit risk, market risk, foreign currency risk, and interest rate risk, while also exposing the Fund to correlation risk, counterparty risk, hedging risk, inflation risk, leverage risk, liquidity risk, pricing risk and volatility risk.
A bond (or debt instrument) future is a derivative that is an agreement for the contract holder to buy or sell a bond or other debt instrument, a basket of bonds or other debt instrument, or the bonds or other debt instruments in an index on a specified date at a predetermined price. The buyer (long position) of a bond future is obliged to buy the underlying reference at the agreed price on expiry of the future.
A commodity-linked future is a derivative that is an agreement to buy or sell one or more commodities (such as crude oil, gasoline and natural gas), basket of commodities or indices of commodity futures at a specific date in the future at a specific price.
A currency future, also an FX future or foreign exchange future, is a derivative that is an agreement to exchange one currency for another at a specified date in the future at a price (exchange rate) that is fixed on the purchase date.
An equity future is a derivative that is an agreement for the contract holder to buy or sell a specified amount of an individual equity, a basket of equities or the securities in an equity index on a specified date at a predetermined price.
An interest rate future is a derivative that is an agreement whereby the buyer and seller agree to the future delivery of an interest-bearing instrument on a specific date at a pre-determined price. Examples include Treasury-bill futures, Treasury-bond futures and Eurodollar futures.
Derivatives Risk – Inverse Floaters Risk. Inverse variable or floating rate obligations, sometimes referred to as inverse floaters, are a type of over-the-counter derivative debt instrument with a variable or floating coupon rate that moves in the opposite direction of an underlying reference, typically short-term interest rates. As short-term interest rates go down, the holders of the inverse floaters receive more income and, as short-term interest rates go up, the holders of the inverse floaters receive less income. Variable rate securities provide for a specified periodic adjustment in the coupon rate, while floating rate securities have a coupon rate that changes whenever there is a change in a designated benchmark index or the issuer’s credit rating. While inverse floaters tend to provide more income than similar term and credit quality fixed-rate bonds, they also exhibit greater volatility in price movement, which could result in significant losses for the Fund. An inverse floater may have the effect of investment leverage to the extent that its coupon rate varies by a magnitude that exceeds the magnitude of the change in the index or reference rate of interest, which could result in increased losses for the Fund. There is a risk that the current interest rate on variable and floating rate instruments may not accurately reflect current market interest rates or adequately compensate the holder for the current creditworthiness of the issuer. Some inverse floaters are structured with liquidity features and may include market-dependent liquidity features that may expose the Fund to greater liquidity risk. Inverse floaters can increase the Fund’s risk exposure to underlying references and their attendant risks, such as credit risk, market risk, foreign currency risk and interest rate risk, while exposing the Fund to correlation risk, counterparty risk, hedging risk, inflation risk, leverage risk, liquidity risk, pricing risk and volatility risk.
Derivatives Risk – Options Risk. Options are derivatives that give the purchaser the option to buy (call) or sell (put) an underlying reference from or to a counterparty at a specified price (the strike price) on or before an expiration date. The Fund may purchase or write (i.e., sell) put and call options on an underlying reference it is otherwise permitted to invest in. When writing options, the Fund is exposed to the risk that it may be required to buy or sell the underlying reference at a disadvantageous price on or before the expiration date. If the Fund sells a put option, the Fund may be required to buy the underlying reference at a strike price that is above market price, resulting in a loss. If the Fund sells a call option, the Fund may be required to sell the underlying reference at a strike price that is below market price, resulting in a loss. If the Fund sells a call option that is not covered (it does not own the underlying reference), the Fund's losses are potentially unlimited. Options may involve economic leverage, which could result in greater volatility in price movement. Options may be traded on a securities
Statement of Additional Information – January 1, 2023 54

Table of Contents
exchange or in the over-the-counter market. At or prior to maturity of an options contract, the Fund may enter into an offsetting contract and may incur a loss to the extent there has been adverse movement in options prices. Options can increase the Fund’s risk exposure to underlying references and their attendant risks such as credit risk, market risk, foreign currency risk and interest rate risk, while also exposing the Fund to correlation risk, counterparty risk, hedging risk, inflation risk, leverage risk, liquidity risk, pricing risk and volatility risk.
Derivatives Risk – Structured Investments Risk. Structured investments are over-the-counter derivatives that provide principal and/or interest payments based on the value of an underlying reference(s). Structured investments typically provide interest income, thereby offering a potential yield advantage over investing directly in an underlying reference. Structured investments may lack a liquid secondary market and their prices or value can be volatile which could result in significant losses for the Fund. In some cases, depending on its terms, a structured investment may provide that principal and/or interest payments may be adjusted below zero resulting in a potential loss of principal and/or interest payments. Additionally, the particular terms of a structured investment may create economic leverage by requiring payment by the issuer of an amount that is a multiple of the price change of the underlying reference. Economic leverage will increase the volatility of structured investment prices, and could result in increased losses for the Fund. The Fund’s use of structured instruments may not work as intended. If structured investments are used to reduce the duration of the Fund’s portfolio, this may limit the Fund’s return when having a longer duration would be beneficial (for instance, when interest rates decline). Structured investments can increase the Fund’s risk exposure to underlying references and their attendant risks, such as credit risk, market risk, foreign currency risk and interest rate risk, while also exposing the Fund to correlation risk, counterparty risk, hedging risk, inflation risk, leverage risk, liquidity risk, pricing risk and volatility risk.
A commodity-linked structured note is a derivative (structured investment) that has principal and/or interest payments based on the market price of one or more particular commodities (such as crude oil, gasoline and natural gas), a basket of commodities, indices of commodity futures or other economic variable. If payment of interest on a commodity-linked structured note is linked to the value of a particular commodity, basket of commodities, commodity index or other economic variable, the Fund might receive lower interest payments (or not receive any of the interest due) on its investments if there is a loss of value in the underlying reference. Further, to the extent that the amount of principal to be repaid upon maturity is linked to the value of a particular commodity, basket of commodities, commodity index or other economic variable, the Fund might not receive a portion (or any) of the principal at maturity of the investment or upon earlier exchange. At any time, the risk of loss associated with a particular structured note in the Fund’s portfolio may be significantly higher than the value of the note. A liquid secondary market may not exist for the commodity-linked structured notes held in the Fund’s portfolio, which may make it difficult for the notes to be sold at a price acceptable to the portfolio manager(s) or for the Fund to accurately value them.
An equity-linked note (ELN) is a derivative (structured investment) that has principal and/or interest payments based on the value of a single equity security, a basket of equity securities or an index of equity securities, and generally has risks similar to these underlying equity securities. ELNs may be leveraged or unleveraged. An ELN typically provides interest income, thereby offering a yield advantage over investing directly in an underlying equity. The Fund may purchase ELNs that trade on a securities exchange or those that trade on the over-the-counter markets, as well as in privately negotiated transactions with the issuer of the ELN. Investments in ELNs are also subject to liquidity risk, which may make ELNs difficult to sell and value. The liquidity of unlisted ELNs is normally determined by the willingness of the issuer to make a market in the ELN. While the Fund will seek to purchase ELNs only from issuers that it believes to be willing and able to repurchase the ELN at a reasonable price, there can be no assurance that the Fund will be able to sell at such a price. Furthermore, such inability to sell may impair the Fund’s ability to enter into other transactions at a time when doing so might be advantageous. The Fund’s investments in ELNs have the potential to lead to significant losses, including the amount the Fund invested in the ELN, because ELNs are subject to the market and volatility risks associated with their underlying equity. In addition, because ELNs often take the form of unsecured notes of the issuer, the Fund would be subject to the risk that the issuer may default on its obligations under the ELN, thereby subjecting the Fund to the further risk of being too concentrated in the securities (including ELNs) of that issuer. However, the Fund typically considers ELNs alongside other securities of the issuer in its assessment of issuer concentration risk. In addition, ELNs may exhibit price behavior that does not correlate with the underlying securities. ELNs may also be subject to leverage risk. The Fund may or may not hold an ELN until its maturity. ELNs also include participation notes.
Derivatives Risk – Swaps Risk. In a typical swap transaction, two parties agree to exchange the return earned on a specified underlying reference for a fixed return or the return from another underlying reference during a specified period of time. Swaps may be difficult to value and may be illiquid. Swaps could result in Fund losses if the underlying asset or reference does not perform as anticipated. Swaps create significant investment leverage such that a relatively small price movement in a swap may result in immediate and substantial losses to the Fund. The Fund may only close out a swap with its particular counterparty, and may only transfer a position with the consent of that counterparty. Certain swaps, such as short swap transactions and total return swaps, have the potential for unlimited losses, regardless of the size of the initial investment. Swaps can increase the Fund’s risk
Statement of Additional Information – January 1, 2023 55

Table of Contents
exposure to underlying references and their attendant risks, such as credit risk, market risk, foreign currency risk and interest rate risk, while also exposing the Fund to correlation risk, counterparty risk, hedging risk, inflation risk, leverage risk, liquidity risk, pricing risk and volatility risk.
A commodity-linked swap is a derivative (swap) that is an agreement where the underlying reference is the market price of one or more particular commodities (such as crude oil, gasoline and natural gas), basket of commodities or indices of commodity futures.
Contracts for differences are swap arrangements in which the parties agree that their return (or loss) will be based on the relative performance of two different groups or baskets of securities or other instruments. Often, one or both baskets will be an established securities index. The Fund’s return will be based on changes in value of theoretical long futures positions in the securities comprising one basket (with an aggregate face value equal to the notional amount of the contract for differences) and theoretical short futures positions in the securities comprising the other basket. The Fund also may use actual long and short futures positions and achieve similar market exposure by netting the payment obligations of the two contracts. If the short basket outperforms the long basket, the Fund will realize a loss – even in circumstances when the securities in both the long and short baskets appreciate in value.
A credit default swap (including a swap on a credit default index, sometimes referred to as a credit default swap index) is a derivative and special type of swap where one party pays, in effect, an insurance premium through a stream of payments to another party in exchange for the right to receive a specified return upon the occurrence of a particular credit event by one or more third parties, such as bankruptcy, default or a similar event. A credit default swap may be embedded within a structured note or other derivative instrument. Credit default swaps enable an investor to buy or sell protection against such a credit event (such as an issuer’s bankruptcy, restructuring or failure to make timely payments of interest or principal). Credit default swap indices are indices that reflect the performance of a basket of credit default swaps and are subject to the same risks as credit default swaps. If such a default were to occur, any contractual remedies that the Fund may have may be subject to bankruptcy and insolvency laws, which could delay or limit the Fund's recovery. Thus, if the counterparty under a credit default swap defaults on its obligation to make payments thereunder, as a result of its bankruptcy or otherwise, the Fund may lose such payments altogether, or collect only a portion thereof, which collection could involve costs or delays. The Fund’s return from investment in a credit default swap index may not match the return of the referenced index. Further, investment in a credit default swap index could result in losses if the referenced index does not perform as expected. Unexpected changes in the composition of the index may also affect performance of the credit default swap index. If a referenced index has a dramatic intraday move that causes a material decline in the Fund’s net assets, the terms of the Fund’s credit default swap index may permit the counterparty to immediately close out the transaction. In that event, the Fund may be unable to enter into another credit default swap index or otherwise achieve desired exposure, even if the referenced index reverses all or a portion of its intraday move.
An inflation rate swap is a derivative typically used to transfer inflation risk from one party to another through an exchange of cash flows. In an inflation rate swap, one party pays a fixed rate on a notional principal amount, while the other party pays a floating rate linked to an inflation index, such as the Consumer Price Index (CPI).
An interest rate swap is a derivative in which two parties agree to exchange interest rate cash flows, based on a specified notional amount from a fixed rate to a floating rate (or vice versa) or from one floating rate to another. Interest rate swaps can be based on various measures of interest rates, including swap rates, treasury rates, foreign interest rates and other reference rates.
Total return swaps are derivative swap transactions in which one party agrees to pay the other party an amount equal to the total return of a defined underlying reference during a specified period of time. In return, the other party would make periodic payments based on a fixed or variable interest rate or on the total return of a different underlying reference.
Derivatives Risk – Swaptions Risk. A swaption is an options contract on a swap agreement. These transactions give the purchasing party the right (but not the obligation) to enter into new swap agreements or to shorten, extend, cancel or otherwise modify an existing swap agreement at some designated future time on specified terms, in return for payment of the purchase price (the “premium”) of the option. The Fund may write (sell) and purchase put and call swaptions to the same extent it may make use of standard options on securities or other instruments. The writer of the contract receives the premium and bears the risk of unfavorable changes in the market value on the underlying swap agreement. Swaptions can be bundled and sold as a package. These are commonly called interest rate caps, floors and collars.
Distressed Securities Risk. The Fund may purchase distressed securities of business enterprises involved in workouts, liquidations, reorganizations, bankruptcies and similar situations. Since there is typically substantial uncertainty concerning the outcome of transactions involving business enterprises in these situations, there is a high degree of risk of loss, including loss of the entire investment.
Statement of Additional Information – January 1, 2023 56

Table of Contents
In bankruptcy, there can be considerable delay in reaching accord on a restructuring plan acceptable to a bankrupt company’s lenders, bondholders and other creditors and then obtaining the approval of the bankruptcy court. Such delays could result in substantial losses to the investments in such company’s securities or obligations. Moreover, there is no assurance that a plan favorable to the class of securities held by the Fund will be adopted or that the subject company might not eventually be liquidated rather than reorganized.
In liquidations (both in and out of bankruptcy) and other forms of corporate reorganization, there exists the risk that the reorganization either will be unsuccessful, will be delayed or will result in a distribution of cash or a new security, the value of which will be less than the purchase price of the security in respect of which such distribution is received. It may be difficult to obtain accurate information concerning a company in financial distress, with the result that the analysis and valuation are especially difficult. The market for securities of such companies tends to be illiquid and sales may be possible only at substantial discounts.
Emerging Market Securities Risk. Securities issued by foreign governments or companies in emerging market countries, such as China, Russia and certain countries in Eastern Europe, the Middle East, Asia, Latin America or Africa, are more likely to have greater exposure to the risks of investing in foreign securities that are described in Foreign Securities Risk. In addition, emerging market countries are more likely to experience instability resulting, for example, from rapid changes or developments in social, political, economic or other conditions. Their economies are usually less mature and their securities markets are typically less developed with more limited trading activity (i.e., lower trading volumes and less liquidity) than more developed countries. Emerging market securities tend to be more volatile, and may be more susceptible to market manipulation, than securities in more developed markets. Many emerging market countries are heavily dependent on international trade and have fewer trading partners, which makes them more sensitive to world commodity prices and economic downturns in other countries. Some emerging market countries have a higher risk of currency devaluations, and some of these countries may experience periods of high inflation or rapid changes in inflation rates and may have hostile relations with other countries. Due to the differences in the nature and quality of financial information of issuers of emerging market securities, including auditing and financial reporting standards, financial information and disclosures about such issuers may be unavailable or, if made available, may be considerably less reliable than publicly available information about other foreign securities. The Public Company Accounting Oversight Board, which regulates auditors of U.S. public companies, is unable to inspect audit work papers in certain foreign countries. Investors in foreign countries often have limited rights and few practical remedies to pursue shareholder claims, including class actions or fraud claims, and the ability of the SEC, the U.S. Department of Justice and other authorities to bring and enforce actions against foreign issuers or foreign persons is limited.
Operational and Settlement Risks of Securities in Emerging Markets. In addition to having less developed securities markets, banks in emerging markets that are eligible foreign sub-custodians may be recently organized, lack extensive operating experience or lack effective government oversight or regulation. In addition, there may be legal restrictions or limitations on the ability of the Fund to recover assets held in custody by a foreign sub-custodian in the event of the bankruptcy of the sub-custodian. Because settlement systems may be less organized than in developed markets and because delivery versus payment settlement may not be possible or reliable, there may be a greater risk that settlement may be delayed and that cash or securities of the Fund may be lost because of failures of or defects in the system, including fraud or corruption. Settlement systems in emerging markets also have a higher risk of failed trades.
Risks Related to Currencies and Corporate Actions in Emerging Markets. Risks related to currencies and corporate actions are also greater in emerging market countries than in developed countries. For example, some emerging market countries may have fixed or managed currencies that are not free-floating against the U.S. dollar. Further, certain currencies may not have an active trading market internationally, or countries may have varying exchange rates. Some emerging market countries have a higher risk of currency devaluations, and some of these countries may experience sustained periods of high inflation or rapid changes in inflation rates which can have negative effects on a country’s economy and securities markets. Corporate action procedures in emerging market countries may be less reliable and have limited or no involvement by the depositories and central banks. Lack of standard practices and payment systems can lead to significant delays in payment.
Risks Related to Corporate and Securities Laws in Emerging Markets. Securities laws in emerging markets may be relatively new and unsettled and, consequently, there is a risk of rapid and unpredictable change in laws regarding foreign investment, securities regulation, title to securities and shareholder rights. Accordingly, foreign investors may be adversely affected by new or amended laws and regulations. In addition, the systems of corporate governance to which issuers in certain emerging markets are subject may be less advanced than the systems to which issuers located in more developed countries are subject, and therefore, shareholders of such issuers may not receive many of the protections available to shareholders of issuers located in more developed countries. These risks may be heightened in China and Russia.
Risks of Investments in Russia. A Fund may invest a portion of its assets in securities issued by companies located in Russia. The Russian securities market is exposed to a variety of risks described above in “Emerging Market Securities Risk” not encountered in more developed markets. The Russian securities market is relatively new, and a substantial portion of securities transactions
Statement of Additional Information – January 1, 2023 57

Table of Contents
are privately negotiated outside of stock exchanges. The inexperience of the Russian securities market and the limited volume of trading in securities in the market may make obtaining accurate prices on portfolio securities from independent sources more difficult than in more developed markets.
Because of the recent formation of the Russian securities markets, the relatively underdeveloped state of Russia’s banking and telecommunication systems and the legal and regulatory framework in Russia, settlement, clearing and registration of securities transactions are subject to additional risks. Prior to 2013, there was no central registration system for equity share registration in Russia and registration was carried out either by the issuers themselves or by registrars located throughout Russia. These registrars may not have been subject to effective state supervision or licensed with any governmental entity. In 2013, Russia established the National Settlement Depository (“NSD”) as a recognized central securities depository, and title to Russian equities is now based on the records of the NSD and not on the records of the local registrars. The implementation of the NSD is generally expected to decrease the risk of loss in connection with recording and transferring title to securities; however, loss may still occur. Additionally, issuers and registrars remain prominent in the validation and approval of documentation requirements for corporate action processing in Russia, and there remain inconsistent market standards in the Russian market with respect to the completion and submission of corporate action elections. To the extent that the Fund suffers a loss relating to title or corporate actions relating to its portfolio securities, it may be difficult for the Fund to enforce its rights or otherwise remedy the loss.
In addition, Russia also may attempt to assert its influence in the region through economic or military measures, as it did with Georgia in the summer of 2008 and Ukraine in 2014 and 2022. Russia launched a large-scale invasion of Ukraine in February 2022, significantly amplifying already existing geopolitical tensions. The extent and duration of the military action, the resulting sanctions or other punitive actions and the resulting future market disruptions, including declines in its stock markets, the value of Russian sovereign debt and the value of the ruble against the U.S. dollar, are impossible to predict, but have been and could continue to be significant. Any such disruptions caused by Russian military action or other hostile actions (including cyberattacks and espionage) or resulting actual and threatened responses to such activity, including potential widening of the scope of the conflict, purchasing and financing restrictions, potential suspension of trading Russian securities on stock exchanges, boycotts or changes in consumer or purchaser preferences, sanctions, tariffs or cyberattacks on the Russian government, Russian companies or Russian individuals, including politicians, may impact Russia’s economy and Russian issuers of securities in which the Fund invests. Actual and threatened responses to such military action have impacted, and may continue to impact the markets for certain Russian commodities, such as oil and natural gas, as well as other sectors of the Russian economy, and may likely have collateral impacts on such sectors globally. Further, several large corporations and U.S. states have announced plans to divest interests or otherwise curtail business dealings with certain Russian businesses.
Governments in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, the European Union and many other countries (collectively, the “Sanctioning Bodies”) have imposed broad-ranging economic sanctions, including banning Russia from global payments systems that facilitate cross-border payments, prohibiting certain securities trades and certain private transactions in the energy sector, asset freezes and prohibition of all business, against certain Russian individuals (including politicians) both inside Russia and globally, as well as Russian corporate and banking entities. The Sanctioning Bodies, and/or others, could also institute or threaten further sanctions, which may result in the decline of the value and liquidity of Russian securities, further downgrades in the credit ratings of Russia or Russian issuers, a further weakening of the ruble or other adverse consequences for the Russian economy. These sanctions may include the immediate freeze of Russian securities and/or funds invested in prohibited assets, impairing the ability of a Fund to buy, sell, receive or deliver those securities and/or assets. Sanctions may also result in Russia taking counter measures or retaliatory actions which may further impair the value and liquidity of Russian securities. For instance, in response to sanctions, the government of Russia imposed capital controls to restrict movements of capital entering and exiting the country and the Russian Central Bank suspended the sales of Russian securities by non-residents of Russia on its local stock exchange. Any market disruptions caused by Russian military action, resulting sanctions and/or counter measures or actions thereto may magnify the impact of other risks to the Fund. Market events are rapidly evolving and present uncertainty and risk with respect to markets globally and the performance of the Fund and its investments could be negatively impacted.
China Bond Connect Risk. The risks noted here are in addition to the risks described under Emerging Market Securities Risk. Chinese debt instruments trade on the China Interbank Bond Market (“CIBM”) and may be purchased through a market access program that is designed to, among other things, enable foreign investment in the People’s Republic of China (“Bond Connect”). There are significant risks inherent in investing in Chinese debt instruments, similar to the risks of investing in other fixed-income securities in emerging markets. The prices of debt instruments traded on the CIBM may fluctuate significantly due to low trading volume and potential lack of liquidity. The rules to access debt instruments that trade on the CIBM through Bond Connect are relatively new and subject to change, which may adversely affect a Fund’s ability to invest in these instruments and to enforce its rights as a beneficial owner of these instruments. Trading through Bond Connect is subject to a number of restrictions that may affect a Fund’s investments and returns. In addition, securities offered through Bond Connect may lose their
Statement of Additional Information – January 1, 2023 58

Table of Contents
eligibility for trading through the program at any time. If Bond Connect securities lose their eligibility for trading through the program, they may be sold but can no longer be purchased through Bond Connect. There can be no assurance as to the program’s continued existence or whether future developments regarding the program may restrict or adversely affect a Fund’s investments or returns.
Investments made through Bond Connect are subject to order, clearance and settlement procedures that are relatively untested in China, which could pose risks to a Fund. CIBM does not support all trading strategies (such as short selling) and investments in Chinese debt instruments that trade on the CIBM are subject to the risks of suspension of trading without cause or notice, trade failure or trade rejection and default of securities depositories and counterparties. Furthermore, Chinese debt instruments purchased via Bond Connect will be held via a book entry omnibus account in the name of the Hong Kong Monetary Authority Central Moneymarkets Unit (“CMU”) maintained with a China-based depository (either the China Central Depository & Clearing Co. (“CCDC”) or the Shanghai Clearing House (“SCH”)). A Fund’s ownership interest in these Chinese debt instruments will not be reflected directly in book entry with CCDC or SCH and will instead only be reflected on the books of a Fund’s Hong Kong sub-custodian. Therefore, a Fund’s ability to enforce its rights as a bondholder may depend on CMU’s ability or willingness as record-holder of the bonds to enforce a Fund’s rights as a bondholder. Additionally, the omnibus manner in which Chinese debt instruments are held could expose a Fund to the credit risk of the relevant securities depositories and a Fund’s Hong Kong sub-custodian. While a Fund holds a beneficial interest in the instruments it acquires through Bond Connect, the mechanisms that beneficial owners may use to enforce their rights are untested. In addition, courts in China have limited experience in applying the concept of beneficial ownership. Moreover, Chinese debt instruments acquired through Bond Connect generally may not be sold, purchased or otherwise transferred other than through Bond Connect in accordance with applicable rules.
A Fund’s investments in Chinese debt instruments acquired through Bond Connect are generally subject to a number of regulations and restrictions, including Chinese securities regulations and listing rules, loss recovery limitations and disclosure of interest reporting obligations. A Fund will not benefit from access to Hong Kong investor compensation funds, which are set up to protect against defaults of trades, when investing through Bond Connect.
Bond Connect can only operate when both China and Hong Kong markets are open for trading and when banking services are available in both markets on the corresponding settlement days. In addition, the trading, settlement and IT systems required for non-Chinese investors in Bond Connect are relatively new. In the event of systems malfunctions or extreme market conditions, trading via Bond Connect could be disrupted. The rules applicable to taxation of Chinese debt instruments acquired through Bond Connect remain subject to further clarification. Uncertainties in the Chinese tax rules governing taxation of income and gains from investments via Bond Connect could result in unexpected tax liabilities for a Fund, which may negatively affect investment returns for shareholders. Bond Connect trades are settled in Chinese Renminbi (RMB), and investors must have timely access to a reliable supply of RMB in Hong Kong, which cannot be guaranteed.
China Stock Connect Risk. The risks noted here are in addition to the risks described under “Emerging Market Securities Risk”. A Fund may, directly or indirectly (through, for example, participatory notes or other types of equity-linked notes), purchase shares in mainland China-based companies that trade on Chinese stock exchanges such as the Shanghai Stock Exchange and the Shenzhen Stock Exchange (China A-Shares) through the Shanghai and Shenzhen – Hong Kong Stock Connect (China Stock Connect), or that may be available in the future through additional stock connect programs, a mutual market access program designed to, among other things, enable foreign investment in the People’s Republic of China (PRC) via brokers in Hong Kong. There are significant risks inherent in investing in China A-Shares through China Stock Connect. The underdeveloped state of PRC’s investment and banking systems subjects the settlement, clearing, and registration of securities transactions to heightened risks. Specifically, trading can be affected by a number of issues. China Stock Connect can only operate when both PRC and Hong Kong markets are open for trading and when banking services are available in both markets on the corresponding settlement days. As such, if one or both markets are closed on a U.S. trading day, a Fund may not be able to dispose of its shares in a timely manner, which could adversely affect the Fund’s performance. Because China Stock Connect is relatively new, its effects on the market for trading China A-shares are uncertain. In addition, the trading, settlement and information technology (“IT”) systems required to operate China Stock Connect are relatively new and continuing to evolve. In the event that the relevant systems do not function properly, trading through China Stock Connect could be disrupted.
PRC regulations require that, in order to sell its China A-Shares, a Fund must pre-deliver the China A-Shares to a broker. If the China A-Shares are not in the broker’s possession before the market opens on the day of sale, the sell order will be rejected. This requirement could also limit a Fund’s ability to dispose of its China A-Shares purchased through China Stock Connect in a timely manner. Additionally, China Stock Connect is subject to daily quota limitations on purchases in the PRC. Once the daily quota is reached, orders to purchase additional China A-Shares through China Stock Connect will be rejected. A Fund’s investment in China A-Shares may only be traded through China Stock Connect and is not otherwise transferable. China Stock Connect utilizes an omnibus clearing structure, and the Fund’s shares will be registered in its custodian’s name on the Central Clearing and Settlement System. This may limit the ability of the Investment Manager (and/or any subadviser, as the case may
Statement of Additional Information – January 1, 2023 59

Table of Contents
be) to effectively manage a Fund, and may expose the Fund to the credit risk of its custodian or to greater risk of expropriation. Investment in China A-Shares through China Stock Connect may be available only through a single broker that is an affiliate of the Fund’s custodian, which may affect the quality of execution provided by such broker. China Stock Connect restrictions could also limit the ability of a Fund to sell its China A-Shares in a timely manner, or to sell them at all. Further, different fees, costs and taxes are imposed on foreign investors acquiring China A-Shares acquired through China Stock Connect, and these fees, costs and taxes may be higher than comparable fees, costs and taxes imposed on owners of other securities providing similar investment exposure.
Environmental, Social and Governance Investing Risk. The Fund’s consideration of issuer environmental, social and corporate governance data may cause the Fund to invest in, forego investing in, or sell securities of issuers, including issuers within certain sectors, regions and countries, that could negatively impact Fund performance, including relative to a benchmark or other funds that do not consider environmental, social and corporate governance data, or funds that do but make different investment decisions based thereon.
Event-Driven Trading Risk. The Fund may seek to profit from the occurrence of specific corporate or other events. A delay in the timing of these events, or the failure of these events to occur at all, may have a significant negative effect on the Fund’s performance.
Event-driven investing requires the portfolio manager(s) to make predictions about (i) the likelihood that an event will occur and (ii) the impact such event will have on the value of a company’s securities. If the event fails to occur or it does not have the effect foreseen, losses can result. For example, the adoption of new business strategies, a meaningful change in management or the sale of a division or other significant assets by a company may not be valued as highly by the market as the portfolio manager(s) had anticipated, resulting in losses. In addition, a company may announce a plan of restructuring which promises to enhance value and fail to implement it, resulting in losses to investors.
Event-Linked Instruments Risk. The Fund may seek to profit from investment in debt securities whose performance is linked to the occurrence of specific “trigger” events, such as a hurricane, earthquake, or other physical or weather-related phenomena. If a trigger event causes losses exceeding a specific amount in the geographic region and time period specified in a bond, the Fund may lose a portion or all of its principal invested in the bond or suffer a reduction in credited interest. Some event-linked bonds have features that delay the return of capital upon the occurrence of a specified event; in these cases, whether or not there is loss of capital or interest, the return on the investment may be significantly lower during the extension period. Bonds commonly referred to as “catastrophe bonds” are a type of event-linked instrument in which the Fund may invest. Catastrophe bonds may be issued by government agencies, insurance companies, reinsurers, special purpose corporations or other on-shore or off-shore entities (such special purpose entities are created to accomplish a narrow and well-defined objective, such as the issuance of a note in connection with a reinsurance transaction). The return on these securities is tied primarily to property insurance risk and is analogous to underwriting insurance in certain circumstances. By isolating insurance risk, these securities are largely uncorrelated to other more traditional investments. Risks associated with investment in catastrophe bonds would include, for example, a major hurricane or similar catastrophe striking a heavily populated area of the East Coast of the United States or a major earthquake with an epicenter in an urban area on the West Coast of the United States. In addition to specified trigger events, catastrophe bonds may expose the Fund to other risks, such as credit risk (the risk that the issuer of a debt instrument will default or otherwise become unable, or be perceived to be unable or unwilling, to honor a financial obligation, such as making payments to the Fund when due), counterparty risk (the risk that a counterparty to a transaction in a financial instrument held by the Fund may become insolvent or otherwise fail to perform its obligations, including making payments to the Fund), adverse regulatory or jurisdictional interpretations, adverse tax consequences, liquidity risk (the risk that it may not be possible for the Fund to liquidate the instrument at an advantageous time or price), and foreign currency risk (the risk that Fund performance may be negatively impacted by foreign currency strength or weakness relative to the U.S. dollar, particularly if the Fund exposes a significant percentage of its assets to currencies other than the U.S. dollar). Event-linked exposure often provides for an extension of maturity to process and audit loss claims where a trigger event has, or possibly has, occurred. An extension of maturity may increase volatility. From time to time, the volume of catastrophe bonds available in the market may be insufficient to enable the Fund to invest as great a percentage of its assets in catastrophe bonds as it would like.
Exchange-Traded Fund (ETF) Risk. Investments in ETFs have unique characteristics, including, but not limited to, the expense structure and additional expenses associated with investing in ETFs. An ETF’s share price may not track its specified market index (if any) and may trade below its NAV. Certain ETFs use a “passive” investment strategy and do not take defensive positions in volatile or declining markets. Other ETFs in which the Fund may invest are actively managed ETFs (i.e., they do not track a particular benchmark), which indirectly subjects the Fund to active management risk. An active secondary market in an ETF’s shares may not develop or be maintained and may be halted or interrupted due to actions by its listing exchange, unusual market conditions or other reasons. There can be no assurance an ETF’s shares will continue to be listed on an active exchange. In addition, the Fund’s shareholders bear both their proportionate share of the Fund’s expenses and, indirectly, the ETF’s expenses, incurred through the Fund’s ownership of the ETF. Because the expenses and costs of an underlying ETF are shared by
Statement of Additional Information – January 1, 2023 60

Table of Contents
its investors, redemptions by other investors in the ETF could result in decreased economies of scale and increased operating expenses for such ETF. These transactions might also result in higher brokerage, tax or other costs for the ETF. This risk may be particularly important when one investor owns a substantial portion of the ETF.
The Funds generally expect to purchase shares of ETFs through broker-dealers in transactions on a securities exchange, and in such cases the Funds will pay customary brokerage commissions for each purchase and sale. Shares of an ETF may also be acquired by depositing a specified portfolio of the ETF’s underlying securities, as well as a cash payment generally equal to accumulated dividends of the securities (net of expenses) up to the time of deposit, with the ETF’s custodian, in exchange for which the ETF will issue a quantity of new shares sometimes referred to as a “creation unit.” Similarly, shares of an ETF purchased on an exchange may be accumulated until they represent a creation unit, and the creation unit may be redeemed in kind for a portfolio of the underlying securities (based on the ETF’s NAV) together with a cash payment generally equal to accumulated dividends as of the date of redemption. The Funds may redeem creation units for the underlying securities (and any applicable cash), and may assemble a portfolio of the underlying securities (and any required cash) to purchase creation units. The Funds’ ability to redeem creation units may be limited by the 1940 Act, which provides that ETFs, the shares of which are purchased in reliance on Section 12(d)(1)(F) of the 1940 Act, will not be obligated to redeem such shares in an amount exceeding one percent of their total outstanding securities during any period of less than 30 days.
Exchange-Traded Notes Risk. Exchange-traded notes (ETNs) are unsecured, unsubordinated debt securities that expose the Fund to the risk that an ETN’s issuer may be unable to pay, which means that the Fund is subject to issuer credit risk, including that the value of the ETN may drop due to a downgrade in the issuer’s credit rating, despite the underlying benchmark or strategy remaining unchanged. ETNs do not typically offer principal protection, so the Fund may lose some or all of its investment. The returns of ETNs are usually linked to the performance of a market benchmark or strategy, less investor fees and expenses. The Fund will bear its proportionate share of the fees and expenses of the ETN, which may cause the Fund’s returns to be lower. The return on ETNs will typically be lower than the total return on a direct investment in the components of the underlying index or strategy because of the ETN’s investor fees and expenses. The value of an ETN may also be influenced by time to maturity, level of supply and demand for the ETN, volatility and lack of liquidity in the underlying market, changes in the applicable interest rates, and economic, legal, political, or geographic events that affect the referenced underlying benchmark or strategy.
Foreign Currency Risk. The performance of the Fund may be materially affected positively or negatively by foreign currency strength or weakness relative to the U.S. dollar, particularly if the Fund invests a significant percentage of its assets in foreign securities or other assets denominated in currencies other than the U.S. dollar. Currency rates in foreign countries may fluctuate significantly over short or long periods of time for a number of reasons, including changes in interest rates, imposition of currency controls and economic or political developments in the U.S. or abroad. The Fund may also incur currency conversion costs when converting foreign currencies into U.S. dollars and vice versa. Restrictions on currency trading may be imposed by foreign countries, which may adversely affect the value of your investment in the Fund. Even though the currencies of some countries may be pegged to the U.S. dollar, the conversion rate may be controlled by government regulation or intervention at levels significantly different than what would normally prevail in a free market. Significant revaluations of the U.S. dollar exchange rate of these currencies could cause substantial reductions in the Fund’s NAV.
Foreign Currency-Related Tax Risk. As a regulated investment company (RIC), the Fund must derive at least 90% of its gross income for each taxable year from sources treated as “qualifying income” under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended. The Fund may gain exposure to local currency markets through forward currency contracts. Although foreign currency gains currently constitute “qualifying income,” the Internal Revenue Service has the authority to issue regulations excluding from the definition of “qualifying income” a RIC’s foreign currency gains not “directly related” to its “principal business” of investing in stock or securities (or options and futures with respect thereto). Such regulations might treat gains from some of the Fund’s foreign currency-denominated positions as not qualifying income and there is a possibility that such regulations might be applied retroactively, in which case, the Fund might not qualify as a RIC for one or more years. In the event the Internal Revenue Service issues such regulations, the Fund’s Board may authorize a significant change in investment strategy or the Fund’s liquidation.
Foreign Securities Risk. Investments in or exposure to securities of foreign companies may involve heightened risks relative to investments in or exposure to securities of U.S. companies. For example, foreign markets can be extremely volatile. Foreign securities may also be less liquid, making them more difficult to trade, than securities of U.S. companies so that the Fund may, at times, be unable to sell foreign securities at desirable times or prices. Brokerage commissions, custodial costs and other fees are also generally higher for foreign securities. The Fund may have limited or no legal recourse in the event of default with respect to certain foreign securities, including those issued by foreign governments. In addition, foreign governments may impose withholding or other taxes on the Fund’s income, capital gains or proceeds from the disposition of foreign securities, which could reduce the Fund’s return on such securities. In some cases, such withholding or other taxes could potentially be confiscatory. Other risks include: possible delays in the settlement of transactions or in the payment of income; generally less publicly available information about foreign companies; the impact of economic, political, social, diplomatic or other conditions
Statement of Additional Information – January 1, 2023 61

Table of Contents
or events (including, for example, military confrontations and actions, war, other conflicts, terrorism and disease/virus outbreaks and epidemics), possible seizure, expropriation or nationalization of a company or its assets or the assets of a particular investor or category of investors; accounting, auditing and financial reporting standards that may be less comprehensive and stringent than those applicable to domestic companies; the imposition of economic and other sanctions against a particular foreign country, its nationals or industries or businesses within the country; and the generally less stringent standard of care to which local agents may be held in the local markets. In addition, it may be difficult to obtain reliable information about the securities and business operations of certain foreign issuers. Governments or trade groups may compel local agents to hold securities in designated depositories that are not subject to independent evaluation. The less developed a country’s securities market is, the greater the level of risks. Economic sanctions may be, and have been, imposed against certain countries, organizations, companies, entities and/or individuals. Economic sanctions and other similar governmental actions could, among other things, effectively restrict or eliminate the Fund’s ability to purchase or sell securities, and thus may make the Fund’s investments in such securities less liquid or more difficult to value. In addition, as a result of economic sanctions, the Fund may be forced to sell or otherwise dispose of investments at inopportune times or prices, which could result in losses to the Fund and increased transaction costs. These conditions may be in place for a substantial period of time and enacted with limited advance notice to the Fund. The risks posed by sanctions against a particular foreign country, its nationals or industries or businesses within the country may be heightened to the extent the Fund invests significantly in the affected country or region or in issuers from the affected country that depend on global markets. Additionally, investments in certain countries may subject the Fund to a number of tax rules, the application of which may be uncertain. Countries may amend or revise their existing tax laws, regulations and/or procedures in the future, possibly with retroactive effect. Changes in or uncertainties regarding the laws, regulations or procedures of a country could reduce the after-tax profits of the Fund, directly or indirectly, including by reducing the after-tax profits of companies located in such countries in which the Fund invests, or result in unexpected tax liabilities for the Fund. The performance of the Fund may also be negatively affected by fluctuations in a foreign currency's strength or weakness relative to the U.S. dollar, particularly to the extent the Fund invests a significant percentage of its assets in foreign securities or other assets denominated in currencies other than the U.S. dollar. Currency rates in foreign countries may fluctuate significantly over short or long periods of time for a number of reasons, including changes in interest rates, imposition of currency exchange controls and economic or political developments in the U.S. or abroad. The Fund may also incur currency conversion costs when converting foreign currencies into U.S. dollars and vice versa.
Operational and Settlement Risks of Foreign Securities. The Fund’s foreign securities are generally held outside the United States in the primary market for the securities in the custody of certain eligible foreign banks and trust companies (“foreign sub-custodians”), as permitted under the Investment Company Act of 1940 (the 1940 Act). Settlement practices for foreign securities may differ from those in the United States. Some countries have limited governmental oversight and regulation of industry practices, stock exchanges, depositories, registrars, brokers and listed companies, which increases the risk of corruption and fraud and the possibility of losses to the Fund. In particular, under certain circumstances, foreign securities may settle on a delayed delivery basis, meaning that the Fund may be required to make payment for securities before the Fund has actually received delivery of the securities or deliver securities prior to the receipt of payment. Typically, in these cases, the Fund will receive evidence of ownership in accordance with the generally accepted settlement practices in the local market entitling the Fund to delivery or payment at a future date, but there is a risk that the security will not be delivered to the Fund or that payment will not be received, although the Fund and its foreign sub-custodians take reasonable precautions to mitigate this risk. Losses can also result from lost, stolen or counterfeit securities; defaults by brokers and banks; failures or defects of the settlement system; or poor and improper record keeping by registrars and issuers.
Share Blocking. Share blocking refers to a practice in certain foreign markets under which an issuer’s securities are blocked from trading at the custodian or sub-custodian level for a specified number of days before and, in certain instances, after a shareholder meeting where a vote of shareholders takes place. The blocking period can last up to several weeks. Share blocking may prevent the Fund from buying or selling securities during this period, because during the time shares are blocked, trades in such securities will not settle. It may be difficult or impossible to lift blocking restrictions, with the particular requirements varying widely by country. As a consequence of these restrictions, the Investment Manager, on behalf of the Fund, may abstain from voting proxies in markets that require share blocking.
Forward Commitments on Mortgage-Backed Securities (including Dollar Rolls) Risk. When purchasing mortgage-backed securities in the “to be announced” (TBA) market (MBS TBAs), the seller agrees to deliver mortgage-backed securities for an agreed upon price on an agreed upon date, but may make no guarantee as to the specific securities to be delivered. In lieu of taking delivery of mortgage-backed securities, the Fund could enter into dollar rolls, which are transactions in which the Fund sells securities to a counterparty and simultaneously agrees to purchase those or similar securities in the future at a predetermined price. Dollar rolls involve the risk that the market value of the securities the Fund is obligated to repurchase may decline below the repurchase price, or that the counterparty may default on its obligations. These transactions may also increase
Statement of Additional Information – January 1, 2023 62

Table of Contents
the Fund’s portfolio turnover rate. If the Fund reinvests the proceeds of the security sold, the Fund will also be subject to the risk that the investments purchased with such proceeds will decline in value (a form of leverage risk). MBS TBAs and dollar rolls are subject to the risk that the counterparty to the transaction may not perform or be unable to perform in accordance with the terms of the instrument.
Frontier Market Risk. Frontier market countries generally have smaller economies and even less developed capital markets than typical emerging market countries (which themselves have increased investment risk relative to more developed market countries) and, as a result, the Fund’s exposure to risks associated with investing in emerging market countries are magnified when the Fund invests in frontier market countries. The increased risks include: the potential for extreme price volatility and illiquidity in frontier market countries; government ownership or control of parts of the private sector and of certain companies; trade barriers, exchange controls, managed adjustments in relative currency values and other protectionist measures imposed or negotiated by the countries with which frontier market countries trade; and the relatively new and unsettled securities laws in many frontier market countries. In addition, frontier market countries are more likely to experience instability resulting, for example, from rapid changes or developments in social, political and economic conditions. Many frontier market countries are heavily dependent on international trade, which makes them more sensitive to world commodity prices and economic downturns and other conditions in other countries. Some frontier market countries have a higher risk of currency devaluations, and some of these countries may experience periods of high inflation or rapid changes in inflation rates and may have hostile relations with other countries. Securities issued by foreign governments or companies in frontier market countries are even more likely than emerging markets securities to have greater exposure to the risks of investing in foreign securities that are described in Foreign Securities Risk.
Fund-of-Funds Risk. Determinations regarding asset classes or selection of underlying funds and the Fund’s allocations thereto may not successfully achieve the Fund’s investment objective, in whole or in part. The selected underlying funds’ performance may be lower than the performance of the asset class they were selected to represent or may be lower than the performance of alternative funds that could have been selected to represent the asset class. The Fund also is exposed to the same risks as the underlying funds in direct proportion to the allocation of its assets among the underlying funds. Therefore, to the extent that the Fund invests significantly in a particular underlying fund, the Fund’s performance would be significantly impacted by the performance of such underlying fund. Generally, by investing in a combination of underlying funds, the Fund has exposure to the risks of many areas of the market. By concentrating its investments in relatively few underlying funds, the Fund may have more concentrated market exposures, subjecting the Fund to greater risk of loss should those markets decline or fail to rise. The ability of the Fund to realize its investment objective will depend, in large part, on the extent to which the underlying funds realize their investment objectives. There is no guarantee that the underlying funds will achieve their respective investment objectives. The performance of underlying funds could be adversely affected if other entities that invest in the same funds make relatively large investments or redemptions in such funds. The Fund, and its shareholders, indirectly bear a portion of the expenses of any funds in which the Fund invests. Because the expenses and costs of each underlying fund are shared by its investors, redemptions by other investors in an underlying fund could result in decreased economies of scale and increased operating expenses for such underlying fund. These transactions might also result in higher brokerage, tax or other costs for an underlying fund. This risk may be particularly important when one investor owns a substantial portion of an underlying fund. For certain funds-of-funds, the Investment Manager typically selects underlying funds from among the funds for which it, or an affiliate, acts as the investment manager (affiliated funds) and will select an unaffiliated underlying fund only if the desired investment exposure is not available through an affiliated fund. The Investment Manager has a conflict of interest in choosing affiliated funds over unaffiliated funds when selecting and investing in underlying funds because it receives management fees from affiliated funds, and it has a conflict in choosing among affiliated funds when selecting and investing in underlying funds, because the fees paid to it by certain affiliated funds are higher than the fees paid by other affiliated funds. Also, to the extent that the Fund is constrained/restricted from investing (or investing further) in a particular underlying fund for one or more reasons (e.g., underlying fund capacity constraints or regulatory restrictions) or if the Fund chooses to sell its investment in an underlying fund because of poor investment performance or for other reasons, the Fund may have to invest in another fund(s), including less desirable funds – from a strategy or investment performance standpoint – which could have a negative impact on Fund performance. In addition, Fund performance could be negatively impacted if the Investment Manager is unable to identify an appropriate alternate fund(s) in a timely manner or at all.
Geographic Focus Risk. The Fund may be particularly susceptible to risks related to economic, political, regulatory or other events or conditions affecting issuers and countries within the specific geographic regions in which the Fund invests. Currency devaluations could occur in countries that have not yet experienced currency devaluation to date, or could continue to occur in countries that have already experienced such devaluations. As a result, the Fund’s NAV may be more volatile than the NAV of a more geographically diversified fund.
Statement of Additional Information – January 1, 2023 63

Table of Contents
Global Economic Risk. Global economies and financial markets are increasingly interconnected, which increases the possibility that conditions in one country or region might adversely impact issuers in a different country or region or across the globe. The severity or duration of adverse economic conditions may also be affected by policy changes made by governments or quasi-governmental organizations. The imposition of sanctions by the United States or another government on a country could cause disruptions to the country’s financial system and economy, which could negatively impact the value of securities.
EuroZone. A number of countries in the European Union (EU) have experienced, and may continue to experience, severe economic and financial difficulties. Additional EU member countries may also fall subject to such difficulties. These events could negatively affect the value and liquidity of the Fund’s investments in euro-denominated securities and derivatives contracts, securities of issuers located in the EU or with significant exposure to EU issuers or countries. If the euro is dissolved entirely, the legal and contractual consequences for holders of euro-denominated obligations and derivative contracts would be determined by laws in effect at such time. Such investments may continue to be held, or purchased, to the extent consistent with the Fund’s investment objective and permitted under applicable law. These potential developments, or market perceptions concerning these and related issues, could adversely affect the value of your investment in the Fund.
Certain countries in the EU have had to accept assistance from supra-governmental agencies such as the International Monetary Fund, the European Stability Mechanism (the ESM) or other supra-governmental agencies. The European Central Bank has also been intervening to purchase Eurozone debt in an attempt to stabilize markets and reduce borrowing costs.
There can be no assurance that these agencies will continue to intervene or provide further assistance and markets may react adversely to any expected reduction in the financial support provided by these agencies. Responses to the financial problems by European governments, central banks and others including austerity measures and reforms, may not work, may result in social unrest and may limit future growth and economic recovery or have other unintended consequences. In addition, one or more countries may abandon the euro and/or withdraw from the EU. The impact of these actions, especially if they occur in a disorderly fashion, could be significant and far-reaching.
Brexit. Following the withdrawal by the UK from the EU, the UK and the EU entered a Trade and Cooperation Agreement (TCA) in 2021, which governs certain parts of the future relationship between the UK and the EU. The TCA does not provide the UK with the same level of rights or access to all goods and services in the EU as the UK previously maintained as a member of the EU. In particular, the TCA does not include an agreement on financial services. Accordingly, uncertainty remains in certain areas as to the future relationship between the UK and the EU. The uncertainty caused by the UK’s departure from the EU could lead to prolonged political, legal, regulatory, tax and economic uncertainty and wider instability and volatility in the financial markets of the UK and more broadly across Europe. It may also lead to weakening corporate and financial confidence in such markets as the UK renegotiates the regulation of the provision of financial services within and to persons in the EU and potentially lower economic growth in the UK, Europe and globally, which may adversely affect the value of your investment in the Fund.
Growth Securities Risk. Growth securities typically trade at a higher multiple of earnings than other types of equity securities. Accordingly, the market values of growth securities may never reach their expected market value and may decline in price. In addition, growth securities, at times, may not perform as well as value securities or the stock market in general, and may be out of favor with investors for varying periods of time.
Hedging Transactions Risk. The Fund may invest in securities and utilize financial instruments for a variety of hedging purposes. Hedging transactions may limit the opportunity for gain if the value of the portfolio position should increase. There can be no assurance that the Fund will engage in hedging transactions at any given time, even under volatile market conditions, or that any hedging transactions the Fund engages in will be successful. Moreover, it may not be possible for the Fund to enter into a hedging transaction at a price sufficient to protect its assets. The Fund may not anticipate a particular risk so as to hedge against it.
Hedging against a decline in the value of a portfolio position does not eliminate fluctuations in the values of portfolio positions or prevent losses, but establishes other positions designed to gain from those same developments, which moderates the decline in value. Such hedging transactions also limit the opportunity for gain if the value of the portfolio position should increase. Moreover, it may not be possible for the Fund to hedge against an exchange rate, interest rate or security price fluctuation that is generally anticipated, causing it to be unable to enter into a hedging transaction at a price sufficient to protect its assets from the decline in value of the portfolio positions anticipated as a result of such fluctuations.
The Fund is not required to attempt to hedge portfolio positions and, for various reasons, may determine not to do so. Furthermore, the Fund may not anticipate a particular risk so as to hedge against it. While the Fund may enter into hedging transactions to seek to reduce risk, such transactions may result in a poorer overall performance for the Fund than if the Fund had not engaged in any such hedging transaction. In addition, the degree of correlation between price movements of the instruments used in a hedging strategy and price movements in the portfolio position being hedged may vary. For a variety of reasons, the Fund may not seek to establish a perfect correlation between such hedging instruments and the portfolio holdings
Statement of Additional Information – January 1, 2023 64

Table of Contents
being hedged. Such imperfect correlation may prevent the Fund from achieving the intended hedge or expose the Fund to the risk of loss. The successful utilization of hedging and risk management transactions requires skills complementary to those needed in the selection of the Fund’s portfolio holdings. Moreover, it should be noted that a portfolio will always be exposed to certain risks that cannot be hedged, such as credit risk (the risk that the issuer of a debt instrument will default or otherwise become unable, or be perceived to be unable or unwilling, to honor a financial obligation, such as making payments to the Fund when due), counterparty risk (the risk that a counterparty to a transaction in a financial instrument held by the Fund may become insolvent or otherwise fail to perform its obligations, including making payments to the Fund) and liquidity risk (the risk that it may not be possible for the Fund to liquidate the instrument at an advantageous time or price).
High-Yield Investments Risk. Securities and other debt instruments held by the Fund that are rated below investment grade (commonly called “high-yield” or “junk” bonds) and unrated debt instruments of comparable quality tend to be more sensitive to credit risk than higher-rated debt instruments and may experience greater price fluctuations in response to perceived changes in the ability of the issuing entity or obligor to pay interest and principal when due than to changes in interest rates. These investments are generally more likely to experience a default than higher-rated debt instruments. High-yield debt instruments are considered to be predominantly speculative with respect to the issuer’s capacity to pay interest and repay principal. These debt instruments typically pay a premium – a higher interest rate or yield – because of the increased risk of loss, including default. High-yield debt instruments may require a greater degree of judgment to establish a price, may be difficult to sell at the time and price the Fund desires, may carry high transaction costs, and also are generally less liquid than higher-rated debt instruments. The ratings provided by third party rating agencies are based on analyses by these ratings agencies of the credit quality of the debt instruments and may not take into account every risk related to whether interest or principal will be timely repaid. In adverse economic and other circumstances, issuers of lower-rated debt instruments are more likely to have difficulty making principal and interest payments than issuers of higher-rated debt instruments.
Highly Leveraged Transactions Risk. The loans or other debt instruments in which the Fund invests may consist of transactions involving refinancings, recapitalizations, mergers and acquisitions and other financings for general corporate purposes. The Fund’s investments also may include senior obligations of a borrower issued in connection with a restructuring pursuant to Chapter 11 of the U.S. Bankruptcy Code (commonly known as “debtor-in-possession” financings), provided that such senior obligations are determined by the Fund’s portfolio managers to be a suitable investment for the Fund. In such highly leveraged transactions, the borrower assumes large amounts of debt in order to have the financial resources to attempt to achieve its business objectives. Such business objectives may include but are not limited to: management’s taking over control of a company (leveraged buy-out); reorganizing the assets and liabilities of a company (leveraged recapitalization); or acquiring another company. Loans or other debt instruments that are part of highly leveraged transactions involve a greater risk (including default and bankruptcy) than other investments.
Impairment of Collateral Risk. The value of collateral, if any, securing a loan can decline, and may be insufficient to meet the borrower’s obligations or difficult or costly to liquidate. In addition, the Fund’s access to collateral may be limited by bankruptcy or other insolvency laws. Further, certain floating rate and other loans may not be fully collateralized and may decline in value.
Inflation Risk. Inflation risk is the uncertainty over the future real value (after inflation) of an investment. Inflation rates may change frequently and drastically as a result of various factors, including unexpected shifts in the domestic or global economy, and the Fund’s investments may not keep pace with inflation, which may result in losses to Fund investors.
Inflation-Protected Securities Risk. Inflation-protected debt securities tend to react to changes in real interest rates. Real interest rates can be described as nominal interest rates minus the expected impact of inflation. In general, the price of an inflation-protected debt security falls when real interest rates rise, and rises when real interest rates fall. Interest payments on inflation-protected debt securities will vary as the principal and/or interest is adjusted for inflation and may be more volatile than interest paid on ordinary bonds. In periods of deflation, the Fund may have no income at all from such investments. Income earned by a shareholder depends on the amount of principal invested, and that principal will not grow with inflation unless the shareholder reinvests the portion of Fund distributions that comes from inflation adjustments. A Fund’s investment in certain inflation-protected debt securities may generate taxable income in excess of the interest they pay to the Fund, which may cause the Fund to sell investments to obtain cash to make income distributions to shareholders, including at times when it may not be advantageous to do so.
IPO Risk. IPOs are subject to many of the same risks as investing in companies with smaller market capitalizations. To the extent the Fund determines to invest in IPOs, it may not be able to invest to the extent desired, because, for example, only a small portion (if any) of the securities being offered in an IPO are available to the Fund. The investment performance of the Fund during periods when it is unable to invest significantly or at all in IPOs may be lower than during periods when the Fund is able to do so. In addition, as the Fund increases in size, the impact of IPOs on the Fund’s performance will generally decrease. IPOs sold within 12 months of purchase may result in increased short-term capital gains, which will be taxable to the Fund’s shareholders as ordinary income.
Statement of Additional Information – January 1, 2023 65

Table of Contents
Interest Rate Risk. Interest rate risk is the risk of losses attributable to changes in interest rates. In general, if prevailing interest rates rise, the values of loans and other debt instruments tend to fall, and if interest rates fall, the values of loans and other debt instruments tend to rise. Changes in the value of a debt instrument usually will not affect the amount of income the Fund receives from it but will generally affect the value of your investment in the Fund. Changes in interest rates may also affect the liquidity of the Fund’s investments in debt instruments. In general, the longer the maturity or duration of a debt instrument, the greater its sensitivity to changes in interest rates. Interest rate declines also may increase prepayments of debt obligations, which, in turn, would increase prepayment risk (the risk that the Fund will have to reinvest the money received in securities that have lower yields). Very low or negative interest rates may impact the Fund’s yield and may increase the risk that, if followed by rising interest rates, the Fund’s performance will be negatively impacted. The Fund is subject to the risk that the income generated by its investments may not keep pace with inflation. Actions by governments and central banking authorities can result in increases or decreases in interest rates. Higher periods of inflation could lead such authorities to raise interest rates. Such actions may negatively affect the value of debt instruments held by the Fund, resulting in a negative impact on the Fund's performance and NAV. Debt instruments with floating coupon rates are typically less sensitive to interest rate changes, but these debt instruments may decline in value if their coupon rates do not rise as much as, or keep pace with, yields on such types of debt instruments. Because rates on certain floating rate loans and other debt instruments reset only periodically, changes in prevailing interest rates (and particularly sudden and significant changes) can be expected to cause fluctuations in the Fund’s NAV. Any interest rate increases could cause the value of the Fund’s investments in debt instruments to decrease. Rising interest rates may prompt redemptions from the Fund, which may force the Fund to sell investments at a time when it is not advantageous to do so, which could result in losses.
Investing in Other Funds Risk. The Fund’s investment in other funds (affiliated and/or unaffiliated funds, including exchange-traded funds (ETFs)) subjects the Fund to the investment performance (positive or negative) and risks of the underlying funds in direct proportion to the Fund’s investment therein. In addition, investments in ETFs have unique characteristics, including, but not limited to, the expense structure and additional expenses associated with investing in ETFs. The performance of the underlying funds could be adversely affected if other investors in the same underlying funds make relatively large investments or redemptions in such underlying funds. The Fund, and its shareholders, indirectly bear a portion of the expenses of any funds in which the Fund invests. Due to the expenses and costs of an underlying fund being shared by its investors, redemptions by other investors in the underlying funds could result in decreased economies of scale and increased operating expenses for such underlying fund. These transactions might also result in higher brokerage, tax or other costs for the underlying funds. This risk may be particularly important when one investor owns a substantial portion of the underlying funds. The Investment Manager has a conflict of interest in selecting affiliated underlying funds over unaffiliated underlying funds because it receives management fees from affiliated underlying funds, and it has a conflict in selecting among affiliated underlying funds, because the fees paid to it by certain affiliated underlying funds are higher than the fees paid by other affiliated underlying funds. Also, to the extent that the Fund is constrained/restricted from investing (or investing further) in a particular underlying fund for one or more reasons (e.g., underlying fund capacity constraints or regulatory restrictions) or if the Fund chooses to sell its investment in an underlying fund because of poor investment performance or for other reasons, the Fund may have to invest in other underlying funds, including less desirable funds – from a strategy or investment performance standpoint – which could have a negative impact on Fund performance. In addition, Fund performance could be negatively impacted if an appropriate alternate underlying fund is not identified in a timely manner or at all.
Issuer Risk. An issuer in which the Fund invests or to which it has exposure may perform poorly or below expectations, and the value of its loans or securities may therefore decline, which may negatively affect the Fund’s performance. Underperformance of an issuer may be caused by poor management decisions, competitive pressures, breakthroughs in technology, reliance on suppliers, labor problems or shortages, corporate restructurings, fraudulent disclosures, natural disasters, military confrontations and actions, war, other conflicts, terrorism, disease/virus outbreaks, epidemics or other events, conditions and factors which may impair the value of an investment in the Fund.
Large-Cap Stock Risk. Investments in larger, more established companies (larger companies) may involve certain risks associated with their larger size. For instance, larger companies may be less able to respond quickly to new competitive challenges, such as changes in consumer tastes or innovation from smaller competitors. Also, larger companies are sometimes less able to achieve as high growth rates as successful smaller companies, especially during extended periods of economic expansion.
Small- and Mid-Cap Stock Risk. Securities of small- and mid-cap companies can, in certain circumstances, have a higher potential for gains than securities of larger companies but are more likely to have more risk than larger companies. For example, small- and mid-cap companies may be more vulnerable to market downturns and adverse business or economic events than larger companies because they may have more limited financial resources and business operations. Small- and mid-cap companies are also more likely than larger companies to have more limited product lines and operating histories and to depend on smaller and generally less experienced management teams. Securities of small- and mid-cap companies may trade less frequently and in smaller volumes and may be less liquid and fluctuate more sharply in value than securities of
Statement of Additional Information – January 1, 2023 66

Table of Contents
  larger companies. When the Fund takes significant positions in small- and mid-cap companies with limited trading volumes, the liquidation of those positions, particularly in a distressed market, could be prolonged and result in Fund investment losses that would affect the value of your investment in the Fund. In addition, some small- and mid-cap companies may not be widely followed by the investment community, which can lower the demand for their stocks.
Large Purchases and Redemptions of Fund Shares Risk. The timing and magnitude of Fund share purchases and redemptions, including by large Fund shareholders transacting in large amounts of Fund shares, could prevent the Fund from being fully invested, or require the Fund to sell portfolio securities at unfavorable prices or hold ready reserves of uninvested cash in amounts larger than might otherwise be the case to meet shareholder redemptions. Thus, large Fund share purchases and redemptions could adversely impact the Fund’s performance. Such Fund share activity may also increase the Fund’s transaction costs, which would also detract from Fund performance, while also having potentially negative tax consequences for investors. The Fund, because of a large redemption, may be forced to sell its liquid or more liquid positions, resulting in the Fund holding a higher percentage of less liquid or illiquid securities (i.e., investments that a Fund reasonably expects cannot be sold or disposed of in current market conditions in seven calendar days or less without the sale or disposition significantly changing the market value of the instrument). Because the expenses and costs of the Fund are shared by its investors, large redemptions in the Fund could result in decreased economies of scale and increased operating expenses for non-redeeming Fund shareholders. In addition, in the event of a Fund proxy proposal, one or more large investor(s) could dictate with its/their vote the results of the proposal, which may have a less favorable impact on minority-stake shareholders.
Leverage Risk. Leverage occurs when the Fund increases its assets available for investment using borrowings, short sales, derivatives, or similar instruments or techniques. Use of leverage can produce volatility and may exaggerate changes in the Fund’s NAV and in the return on the Fund’s portfolio, which may increase the risk that the Fund will lose more than it has invested. The use of leverage may cause the Fund to liquidate portfolio positions when it may not be advantageous to do so to satisfy its obligations or to meet any applicable regulatory limits. Futures contracts, options on futures contracts, forward contracts and other derivatives can allow the Fund to obtain large investment exposures in return for meeting relatively small margin requirements. As a result, investments in those transactions may be highly leveraged. If the Fund uses leverage, through the purchase of particular instruments such as derivatives, the Fund may experience capital losses that exceed the net assets of the Fund. Because short sales involve borrowing securities and then selling them, the Fund’s short sales effectively leverage the Fund’s assets. The Fund’s assets that are used as collateral to secure the Fund’s obligations to return the securities sold short may decrease in value while the short positions are outstanding, which may force the Fund to use its other assets to increase the collateral. Leverage can create an interest expense that may lower the Fund's overall returns. Leverage presents the opportunity for increased net income and capital gains, but may also exaggerate the Fund's volatility and risk of loss. There can be no guarantee that a leveraging strategy will be successful.
LIBOR Replacement Risk. London Inter-Bank Offered Rate (LIBOR), which is used extensively in the U.S. and globally as a benchmark or reference rate for various commercial and financial contracts, among other “inter-bank offered” reference rates, is in the process of being discontinued as a global reference rate. The elimination of LIBOR may adversely affect the interest rates on, and value of, certain Fund investments that are tied to LIBOR. Such investments may include bank loans, derivatives, floating rate loans, and other assets or liabilities. On July 27, 2017, the U.K. Financial Conduct Authority (FCA) announced that it intended to stop compelling or inducing banks to submit LIBOR rates after 2021. The FCA and the ICE Benchmark Administration have since announced that a majority of U.S. dollar LIBOR settings will cease publication after June 30, 2023. A subset of non-U.S. dollar LIBOR settings is continuing to be published on a “synthetic” basis and it is possible that a subset of U.S. dollar LIBOR settings will also be published after June 30, 2023 on a “synthetic” basis. Any such publications are, or would be considered, non-representative of the underlying market. The U.S. Federal Reserve, based on the recommendations of the New York Federal Reserve’s Alternative Reference Rate Committee (comprised of major derivative market participants and their regulators), has begun publishing and promoting SOFR as the alternative reference rate to U.S. dollar LIBOR. Proposals for alternative reference rates for other currencies have also been announced or have already begun publication. Markets are slowly developing in response to these new reference rates. Uncertainty related to the liquidity impact of the change in rates, and how to appropriately adjust these rates at the time of transition, poses risks for the Fund. The effect of the discontinuation of LIBOR on the Fund will depend on, among other things, (1) existing fallback or termination provisions in individual contracts and (2) whether, how, and when industry participants develop and adopt new reference rates and fallbacks for both legacy and new instruments and contracts. The discontinuation of LIBOR could have a significant impact on the financial markets in general and may also present heightened risk to market participants, including public companies, investment advisers, investment companies, and broker-dealers. The risks associated with this discontinuation and transition will be exacerbated if the work necessary to effect an orderly transition to an alternative reference rate is not completed in a timely manner. For example, current information technology systems may be unable to accommodate new instruments and rates with features that differ from LIBOR. Accordingly, it is difficult to predict the full impact of the transition away from LIBOR on the Fund until new reference rates and fallbacks for both legacy and new products, instruments and contracts are commercially accepted and market practices become more settled.
Statement of Additional Information – January 1, 2023 67

Table of Contents
Liquidity Risk. Liquidity risk is the risk associated with any event, circumstance, or characteristic of an investment or market that negatively impacts the Fund’s ability to sell, or realize the proceeds from the sale of, an investment at a desirable time or price. Liquidity risk may arise because of, for example, a lack of marketability of the investment. Decreases in the number of financial institutions, including banks and broker-dealers willing to make markets (match up sellers and buyers) in the Fund’s investments or decreases in their capacity or willingness to trade such investments may increase the Fund’s exposure to this risk. The debt market has experienced considerable growth, and financial institutions making markets in instruments purchased and sold by the Fund (e.g., bond dealers) have been subject to increased regulation. The impact of that growth and regulation on the ability and willingness of financial institutions to engage in trading or “making a market” in such instruments remains unsettled. As a result, the Fund, when seeking to sell its portfolio investments, could find that selling is more difficult than anticipated, especially during times of high market volatility. Market participants attempting to sell the same or a similar instrument at the same time as the Fund could exacerbate the Fund’s exposure to liquidity risk. The Fund may have to accept a lower selling price for the holding, sell other investments that it might otherwise prefer to hold, or forego another more appealing investment opportunity. The liquidity of Fund investments may change significantly over time and certain investments that were liquid when purchased by the Fund may later become illiquid, particularly in times of overall economic distress. Changing regulatory, market or other conditions or environments (for example, the interest rate or credit environments) may also adversely affect the liquidity and the price of the Fund's investments. Certain types of investments, such as structured notes and non-investment grade debt instruments, as an example, may be especially subject to liquidity risk. Floating rate loans also generally are subject to legal or contractual restrictions on resale and may trade infrequently on the secondary market. The value of the loan to the Fund may be impaired in the event that the Fund needs to liquidate such loans. The inability to purchase or sell floating rate loans and other debt instruments at a fair price may have a negative impact on the Fund’s performance. Securities or other assets in which the Fund invests may be traded in the over-the-counter market rather than on an exchange and therefore may be more difficult to purchase or sell at a fair price. Judgment plays a larger role in valuing illiquid or less liquid investments as compared to valuing liquid or more liquid investments. Price volatility may be higher for illiquid or less liquid investments as a result of, for example, the relatively less frequent pricing of such securities (as compared to liquid or more liquid investments). Generally, the less liquid the market at the time the Fund sells a portfolio investment, the greater the risk of loss or decline of value to the Fund. Overall market liquidity and other factors can lead to an increase in Fund redemptions, which may negatively impact Fund performance and NAV, including, for example, if the Fund is forced to sell investments in a down market.
Governments and their regulatory agencies and self-regulatory organizations may take actions that affect the regulation of the instruments in which the Fund invests, or the issuers of such instruments, in ways that are unforeseeable. Legislation or regulation may also change the way in which the Fund or the Investment Manager or any Fund subadviser, as the case may be, are regulated or supervised. Such legislation or regulation could affect or preclude a Fund’s ability to achieve its investment objective.
Governments and their regulatory agencies and self-regulatory organizations may also acquire distressed assets from financial institutions and acquire ownership interests in those institutions. The implications of government ownership and disposition of these assets are unclear, and such a program may have positive or negative effects on the liquidity, valuation and performance of a Fund’s portfolio holdings. Furthermore, volatile financial markets can expose the Funds to greater market and liquidity risk and potential difficulty in valuing portfolio instruments held by the Funds.
While the Investment Manager and any subadvisers can endeavor to take various preventative measures to address liquidity risk, including conducting periodic portfolio risk analysis/management and stress-testing, such measures may not be successful and may not have fully accounted for the specific circumstances that ultimately impact a Fund and its holdings.
Listed Private Equity Fund Investment Risk. Private equity funds include financial institutions or vehicles whose principal business is to invest in and lend capital to privately held companies. The Fund is subject to the underlying risks that affect private equity funds in which it invests, which may include increased liquidity risk (the risk that it may not be possible for the Fund to liquidate the instrument at an advantageous time or price), pricing risk (the risk that the investment may be difficult to value), sector risk (the risk that a significant portion of Fund assets invested in one or more economic sectors may make the Fund more vulnerable to unfavorable developments in that sector than funds that invest more broadly) and credit risk (the risk that the issuer of a debt instrument will default or otherwise become unable, or be perceived to be unable or unwilling, to honor a financial obligation, such as making payments to the Fund when due). Limited or incomplete information about the companies in which private equity funds invest, and relatively concentrated investment portfolios of private equity funds, may expose the Fund to greater volatility and risk of loss. Fund investment in private equity funds subjects Fund shareholders indirectly to the fees and expenses incurred by private equity funds.
Statement of Additional Information – January 1, 2023 68

Table of Contents
Loan Assignment/Loan Participation Risk. If a bank loan is acquired through an assignment, the Fund may not be able to unilaterally enforce all rights and remedies under the loan and with regard to any associated collateral. If a bank loan is acquired through a participation, the Fund generally will have no right to enforce compliance by the borrower with the terms of the loan agreement, and the Fund may not benefit from the collateral supporting the debt obligation in which it has purchased the participation. As a result, the Fund will be exposed to the credit risk of both the borrower and the institution selling the participation.
Loan Interests Risk. Loan interests may not be considered “securities,” and purchasers, such as the Fund, therefore may not be entitled to rely on the anti-fraud protections of the federal securities laws. Loan interests generally are subject to restrictions on transfer, and the Fund may be unable to sell loan interests at a time when it may otherwise be desirable to do so or may be able to sell them only at prices that are less than what the Fund regards as their fair market value. Accordingly, loan interests may at times be illiquid. Loan interests may be difficult to value and typically have extended settlement periods (generally greater than 7 days). This exposes the Fund to the risk that the receipt of principal and interest payments may be late due to delayed interest settlement. Extended settlement periods during significant Fund redemption activity could potentially cause increased short-term liquidity demands on the Fund. As a result, the Fund may be forced to sell investments at unfavorable prices, or borrow money or effect short settlements where possible (at a cost to the Fund), in an effort to generate sufficient cash to pay redeeming shareholders. The Fund’s actions in this regard may not be successful. Interests in loans created to finance highly leveraged companies or transactions, such as corporate acquisitions, may be especially vulnerable to adverse changes in economic or market conditions.
Interests in secured loans have the benefit of collateral and, typically, of restrictive covenants limiting the ability of the borrower to further encumber its assets, although many covenants may be waived or modified with the consent of a certain percentage of the holders of the loans even if the Fund does not consent. There is a risk that the value of any collateral securing a loan in which the Fund has an interest may decline and that the collateral may not be sufficient to cover the amount owed on the loan. In most loan agreements there is no formal requirement to pledge additional collateral. In the event the borrower defaults, the Fund’s access to the collateral may be limited or delayed by bankruptcy or other insolvency laws. Further, there is a risk that a court could take action with respect to a loan that is adverse to the holders of the loan, including the Fund. Such actions may include invalidating the loan, the lien on the collateral, the priority status of the loan, or ordering the refund of interest previously paid by the borrower. Any such actions by a court could adversely affect the Fund’s performance. A default or expected default of a loan could also make it difficult for the Fund to sell the loan at a price approximating the value previously placed on it. In order to enforce its rights in the event of a default, bankruptcy or similar situation, the Fund may be required to retain legal or similar counsel. This may increase the Fund’s operating expenses and adversely affect its NAV. Loans that have a lower priority for repayment in an issuer’s capital structure may involve a higher degree of overall risk than more senior loans of the same borrower. In the event of a default, second lien secured loans will generally be paid only if the value of the collateral exceeds the amount of the borrower’s obligations to the first lien secured lenders. The remaining collateral may not be sufficient to cover the full amount owed on the loan in which the Fund has an interest. In addition, if a secured loan is foreclosed, the Fund would likely bear the costs and liabilities associated with owning and disposing of the collateral. The collateral may be difficult to sell and the Fund would bear the risk that the collateral may decline in value while the Fund is holding it. From time to time, disagreements may arise amongst the holders of loans and debt in the capital structure of an issuer, which may give rise to litigation risks, including the risk that a court could take action adverse to the holders of the loan, which could negatively impact the Fund’s performance.
The Fund may acquire a loan interest by obtaining an assignment of all or a portion of the interests in a particular loan that are held by an original lender or a prior assignee. As an assignee, the Fund will usually succeed to all rights and obligations of its assignor with respect to the portion of the loan that is being assigned. However, the rights and obligations acquired by the purchaser of a loan assignment may differ from, and be more limited than, those held by the original lenders or the assignor. Alternatively, the Fund may acquire a participation interest in a loan that is held by another party. When the Fund’s loan interest is a participation, the Fund may have less control over the exercise of remedies than the party selling the participation interest, and the Fund normally would not have any direct rights against the borrower. As a participant, the Fund would also be subject to the risk that the party selling the participation interest would not remit the Fund’s pro rata share of loan payments to the Fund. It may also be difficult for the Fund to obtain an accurate picture of a lending bank’s financial condition.
Macro Strategy Risk. The profitability of any macro program depends primarily on the ability of its manager to predict derivative contract price movements to implement investment ideas regarding macroeconomic trends. Price movements for commodity interests are influenced by, among other things: changes in interest rates; governmental, agricultural, trade, fiscal, monetary and exchange control programs and policies; weather and climate conditions; natural disasters, such as hurricanes; changing supply and demand relationships; changes in balances of payments and trade; U.S. and international rates of inflation and deflation; currency devaluations and revaluations; U.S. and international political and economic events; and changes in philosophies and emotions of market participants. The manager’s trading methods may not take all of these factors into account.
Statement of Additional Information – January 1, 2023 69

Table of Contents
The global macro programs to which the Fund’s investments are exposed typically use derivative financial instruments that are actively traded using a variety of strategies and investment techniques that involve significant risks. The derivative financial instruments traded include commodities, currencies, futures, options and forward contracts and other derivative instruments that have inherent leverage and price volatility that result in greater risk than instruments used by typical mutual funds, and the systematic programs used to trade them may rely on proprietary investment strategies that are not fully disclosed, which may in turn result in risks that are not anticipated.
Market Risk. The Fund may incur losses due to declines in the value of one or more securities in which it invests. These declines may be due to factors affecting a particular issuer, or the result of, among other things, political, regulatory, market, economic or social developments affecting the relevant market(s) more generally. In addition, turbulence in financial markets and reduced liquidity in equity, credit and/or fixed income markets may negatively affect many issuers, which could adversely affect the Fund’s ability to price or value hard-to-value assets in thinly traded and closed markets and could cause significant redemptions and operational challenges. Global economies and financial markets are increasingly interconnected, and conditions and events in one country, region or financial market may adversely impact issuers in a different country, region or financial market. These risks may be magnified if certain events or developments adversely interrupt the global supply chain; in these and other circumstances, such risks might affect companies worldwide. As a result, local, regional or global events such as terrorism, war, other conflicts, natural disasters, disease/virus outbreaks and epidemics or other public health issues, recessions, depressions or other events – or the potential for such events – could have a significant negative impact on global economic and market conditions. In addition, as the share of assets invested in passive index-based strategies increases, price correlations among the securities included in an index may increase and the market value of securities, including those included in one or more market indices, may become less correlated with their underlying values. Because index-based strategies generally buy or sell securities based solely on their inclusion in an index, securities prices may rise or fall based on whether money is flowing into or out of these strategies rather than based on an analysis of the securities’ underlying values. This valuation disparity could lead to increased price volatility for individual securities, and the market as a whole, which may result in Fund losses.
The large-scale invasion of Ukraine by Russia in February 2022 has resulted in sanctions and market disruptions, including declines in regional and global stock markets, unusual volatility in global commodity markets and significant devaluations of Russian currency. The extent and duration of the military action are impossible to predict but could be significant. Market disruption caused by the Russian military action, and any counter measures or responses thereto (including international sanctions, a downgrade in a country’s credit rating, purchasing and financing restrictions, boycotts, tariffs, changes in consumer or purchaser preferences, cyberattacks and espionage) could have severe adverse impacts on regional and/or global securities and commodities markets, including markets for oil and natural gas. These impacts may include reduced market liquidity, distress in credit markets, further disruption of global supply chains, increased risk of inflation, and limited access to investments in certain international markets and/or issuers. These developments and other related events could negatively impact Fund performance.
The pandemic caused by coronavirus disease 2019 and its variants (COVID-19) has resulted in, and may continue to result in, significant global economic and societal disruption and market volatility due to disruptions in market access, resource availability, facilities operations, imposition of tariffs, export controls and supply chain disruption, among others. Such disruptions may be caused, or exacerbated by, quarantines and travel restrictions, workforce displacement and loss in human and other resources. The uncertainty surrounding the magnitude, duration, reach, costs and effects of the global pandemic, as well as actions that have been or could be taken by governmental authorities or other third parties, present unknowns that are yet to unfold. The impacts, as well as the uncertainty over impacts to come, of COVID-19 – and any other infectious illness outbreaks, epidemics and pandemics that may arise in the future – could negatively affect global economies and markets in ways that cannot necessarily be foreseen. In addition, the impact of infectious illness outbreaks and epidemics in emerging market countries may be greater due to generally less established healthcare systems, governments and financial markets. Public health crises caused by the COVID-19 outbreak may exacerbate other pre-existing political, social and economic risks in certain countries or globally. The disruptions caused by COVID-19 could prevent the Fund from executing advantageous investment decisions in a timely manner and negatively impact the Fund’s ability to achieve its investment objective. Any such events could have a significant adverse impact on the value and risk profile of the Fund.
Master Limited Partnership Risk. Investments in securities (units) of master limited partnerships involve risks that differ from an investment in common stock. Holders of these units have more limited rights to vote on matters affecting the partnership. These units may be subject to cash flow and dilution risks. There are also certain tax risks associated with such an investment. In particular, the Fund’s investment in master limited partnerships can be limited by the Fund’s intention to qualify as a regulated investment company for U.S. federal income tax purposes, and can limit the Fund’s ability to so qualify. In addition, conflicts of interest may exist between common unit holders, subordinated unit holders and the general partner of a master limited partnership, including a conflict arising as a result of incentive distribution payments. In addition, there are risks related to the general partner’s right to require unit holders to sell their common units at an undesirable time or price.
Statement of Additional Information – January 1, 2023 70

Table of Contents
Money Market Fund Investment Risk. An investment in a money market fund is not a bank deposit and is not insured or guaranteed by any bank, the FDIC or any other government agency. Certain money market funds float their NAV while others seek to preserve the value of investments at a stable NAV (typically $1.00 per share). An investment in a money market fund, even an investment in a fund seeking to maintain a stable NAV per share, is not guaranteed and it is possible for the Fund to lose money by investing in these and other types of money market funds. If the liquidity of a money market fund’s portfolio deteriorates below certain levels, the money market fund may suspend redemptions (i.e., impose a redemption gate) and thereby prevent the Fund from selling its investment in the money market fund or impose a fee of up to 2% on amounts the Fund redeems from the money market fund (i.e., impose a liquidity fee). These measures may result in an investment loss or prohibit the Fund from redeeming shares when the Investment Manager would otherwise redeem shares. In addition to the fees and expenses that the Fund directly bears, the Fund indirectly bears the fees and expenses of any money market funds in which it invests, including affiliated money market funds. To the extent these fees and expenses, along with the fees and expenses of any other funds in which the Fund may invest, are expected to equal or exceed 0.01% of the Fund’s average daily net assets, they will be reflected in the Annual Fund Operating Expenses set forth in the table under “Fees and Expenses of the Fund.” By investing in a money market fund, the Fund will be exposed to the investment risks of the money market fund in direct proportion to such investment. The money market fund may not achieve its investment objective. The Fund, through its investment in the money market fund, may not achieve its investment objective. To the extent the Fund invests in instruments such as derivatives, the Fund may hold investments, which may be significant, in money market fund shares to cover its obligations resulting from the Fund’s investments in such instruments. Money market funds and the securities they invest in are subject to comprehensive regulations. The enactment of new legislation or regulations, as well as changes in interpretation and enforcement of current laws, may affect the manner of operation, performance and/or yield of money market funds.
Because a decision to impose or not impose such liquidity fees and/or redemption gates on an affiliated money market fund may negatively impact any Funds that invest in it, all to which the Investment Manager and Board may also owe a fiduciary duty, any recommendation by the Investment Manager or decision by the Board with respect to such fees or gates on the affiliated money market fund may present conflicts of interest to the Investment Manager and the Board. The Board of the affiliated money market fund, for example, could be conflicted by a determination to not impose such fees and/or gates at a time when, if implemented, the other Columbia Funds could potentially experience negative impacts, while not imposing such fees and/or gates could potentially result in a negative impact to the affiliated money market fund. Any decisions by the Board to favor such fees and/or gates could result in reduced or limited investments in the affiliated money market fund by the other Columbia Funds, which may lead to increased affiliated money market fund expenses (which would be borne by the remaining Fund investors).
If a liquidity fee or redemption gate is imposed, an investing Columbia Fund may have to sell other investments at less than opportune times rather than using the cash invested in the money market fund to meet shareholder redemptions. The Investment Manager, as a result of any such fees and/or gates on an affiliated money market fund (or the potential imposition thereof, recognizing that the Investment Manager will be aware of the affiliated money market fund’s liquid assets position), may determine to not invest the other Columbia Funds’ assets in the affiliated money market fund, and potentially be forced to invest in more expensive, lower-performing investments.
Money Market Fund Risk. Although government money market funds (such as Government Money Market Fund) may seek to preserve the value of shareholders’ investment at $1.00 per share, the NAVs of such money market fund shares can fall, and in infrequent cases in the past have fallen, below $1.00 per share, potentially causing shareholders who redeem their shares at such NAVs to lose money from their original investment.
At times of (i) significant redemption activity by shareholders, including, for example, when a single investor or a few large investors make a significant redemption of Fund shares, (ii) insufficient levels of cash in the Fund's portfolio to satisfy redemption activity, and (iii) disruption in the normal operation of the markets in which the Fund buys and sells portfolio securities, the Fund could be forced to sell portfolio securities at unfavorable prices in order to generate sufficient cash to pay redeeming shareholders. Sales of portfolio securities at such times could result in losses to the Fund and cause the NAV of Fund shares to fall below $1.00 per share. Additionally, in some cases, the default of a single portfolio security could cause the NAV of Fund shares to fall below $1.00 per share. In addition, neither the Investment Manager nor any of its affiliates has a legal obligation to provide financial support to the Fund, and you should not expect that they or any person will provide financial support to the Fund at any time. The Fund may suspend redemptions or the payment of redemption proceeds when permitted by applicable regulations.
It is possible that, during periods of low prevailing interest rates or otherwise, the income from portfolio securities may be less than the amount needed to pay ongoing Fund operating expenses and may prevent payment of any dividends or distributions to Fund shareholders or cause the NAV of Fund shares to fall below $1.00 per share. In such cases, the Fund may reduce or eliminate the payment of such dividends or distributions or seek to reduce certain of its operating expenses. There is no guarantee that such actions would enable the Fund to maintain a constant NAV of $1.00 per share.
Statement of Additional Information – January 1, 2023 71

Table of Contents
Mortgage- and Other Asset-Backed Securities Risk. The value of any mortgage-backed and other asset-backed securities including collateralized debt obligations and collateralized loan obligations, if any, held by the Fund may be affected by, among other things, changes or perceived changes in: interest rates; factors concerning the interests in and structure of the issuer or the originator of the mortgages or other assets; the creditworthiness of the entities that provide any supporting letters of credit, surety bonds or other credit enhancements; or the market's assessment of the quality of underlying assets. Mortgage-backed securities represent interests in, or are backed by, pools of mortgages from which payments of interest and principal (net of fees paid to the issuer or guarantor of the securities) are distributed to the holders of the mortgage-backed securities. Other types of asset-backed securities typically represent interests in, or are backed by, pools of receivables such as credit, automobile, student and home equity loans. Mortgage- and other asset-backed securities can have a fixed or an adjustable rate. Mortgage- and other asset-backed securities are subject to liquidity risk (the risk that it may not be possible for the Fund to liquidate the instrument at an advantageous time or price) and prepayment risk (the risk that the underlying mortgage or other asset may be refinanced or prepaid prior to maturity during periods of declining or low interest rates, causing the Fund to have to reinvest the money received in securities that have lower yields). In addition, the impact of prepayments on the value of mortgage- and other asset-backed securities may be difficult to predict and may result in greater volatility. A decline or flattening of housing values may cause delinquencies in mortgages (especially sub-prime or non-prime mortgages) underlying mortgage-backed securities and thereby adversely affect the ability of the mortgage-backed securities issuer to make principal and/or interest payments to mortgage-backed securities holders, including the Fund. Rising or high interest rates tend to extend the duration of mortgage- and other asset-backed securities, making them more volatile and more sensitive to changes in interest rates. Payment of principal and interest on some mortgage-backed securities (but not the market value of the securities themselves) may be guaranteed (i) by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Government (in the case of securities guaranteed by the Government National Mortgage Association) or (ii) by its agencies, authorities, enterprises or instrumentalities (in the case of securities guaranteed by the Federal National Mortgage Association (FNMA) or the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (FHLMC)), which are not insured or guaranteed by the U.S. Government (although FNMA and FHLMC may be able to access capital from the U.S. Treasury to meet their obligations under such securities). Mortgage-backed securities issued by non-governmental issuers (such as commercial banks, savings and loan institutions, private mortgage insurance companies, mortgage bankers and other secondary market issuers) may be supported by various credit enhancements, such as pool insurance, guarantees issued by governmental entities, letters of credit from a bank or senior/subordinated structures, and may entail greater risk than obligations guaranteed by the U.S. Government, whether or not such obligations are guaranteed by the private issuer. Under the direction of the Federal Housing Finance Agency, FNMA and FHLMC have entered into a joint initiative to develop a common securitization platform for the issuance of a uniform mortgage-backed security (the “Single Security Initiative”) that aligns the characteristics of FNMA and FHLMC certificates. The Single Security Initiative was implemented in June 2019, and the effects it may have on the market for mortgage-backed securities are uncertain.
Multi-Strategy Risk. The multi-strategy approach employed by the Fund involves special risks, which include the risk that investment decisions, at the Fund or the underlying fund level, may conflict with each other; for example, at any particular time, one manager may be purchasing shares of an issuer whose shares are being sold by another manager. Consequently, the Fund could indirectly incur transaction costs without accomplishing any net investment result. Also, managers may use proprietary or licensed investment strategies that are based on considerations and factors that are not fully disclosed to the Fund or other investors.
Moreover, consistent with the Fund’s investment objectives, these proprietary or licensed investment strategies, which may include quantitative mathematical models or systems, may be changed or refined over time. A manager (or the licensor of the strategies used by the manager) may make certain changes to the strategies the manager has previously used, may not use such strategies at all (or the manager’s license may be revoked), or may use additional strategies, where such changes or discretionary decisions, and the reasons for such changes or decisions, are also not disclosed to the Fund or other investors. These strategies may involve risks under some market conditions that are not anticipated by the Investment Manager or the Fund.
Municipal Securities Risk. Municipal securities are debt obligations generally issued to obtain funds for various public purposes, including general financing for state and local governments, or financing for a specific project or public facility, and include obligations of the governments of the U.S. territories, commonwealths and possessions such as Guam, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands to the extent such obligations are exempt from state and U.S. federal income taxes. The value of municipal securities can be significantly affected by actual or expected political and legislative changes at the federal or state level. Municipal securities may be fully or partially backed by the taxing authority of the local government, by the credit of a private issuer, by the current or anticipated revenues from a specific project or specific assets or by domestic or foreign entities providing credit support, such as letters of credit, guarantees or insurance, and are generally classified into general obligation bonds and special revenue obligations. General obligation bonds are backed by an issuer's taxing authority and may be vulnerable to limits on a government's power or ability to raise revenue or increase taxes. They may also depend for payment on legislative appropriation and/or funding or other support from other governmental bodies. Revenue obligations are payable from revenues generated by a particular project or other revenue source, and are typically subject to greater risk of default than
Statement of Additional Information – January 1, 2023 72

Table of Contents
general obligation bonds because investors can look only to the revenue generated by the project or other revenue source backing the project, rather than to the general taxing authority of the state or local government issuer of the obligations. Because many municipal securities are issued to finance projects in sectors such as education, health care, transportation and utilities, conditions in those sectors can affect the overall municipal market. The amount of publicly available information for municipal issuers is generally less than for corporate issuers.
Issuers in a state, territory, commonwealth or possession in which the Fund invests may experience significant financial difficulties for various reasons, including as the result of events that cannot be reasonably anticipated or controlled such as economic downturns or similar periods of economic stress, social conflict or unrest, labor disruption and natural disasters. Such financial difficulties may lead to credit rating downgrades or defaults of such issuers which, in turn, could affect the market values and marketability of many or all municipal obligations of issuers in such state, territory, commonwealth or possession. The value of the Fund’s shares will be negatively impacted to the extent it invests in such securities. The Fund’s annual and semiannual reports show the Fund’s investment exposures at a point in time. The risk of investing in the Fund is directly correlated to the Fund’s investment exposures.
The Fund’s investments in municipal securities may include securities of issuers in the health care sector, which subjects the Fund’s investments to the risks associated with that sector, including the risk of regulatory action or policy changes by numerous governmental agencies and bodies, including federal, state, and local governmental agencies, as well as requirements imposed by private entities, such as insurance companies. A major source of revenue for the health care industry is payments from the Medicare and Medicaid programs. As a result, the industry is sensitive to legislative changes and reductions in governmental spending for such programs. Numerous other factors may affect the industry, such as general and local economic conditions, demand for services, expenses (including, among others, malpractice insurance premiums) and competition among health care providers. Additional factors also may adversely affect health care facility operations, such as adoption of legislation proposing a national health insurance program, other state or local health care reform measures, medical and technological advances that alter the need for or cost of health services or the way in which such services are delivered, changes in medical coverage that alter the traditional fee-for-service revenue stream, and efforts by employers, insurers, and governmental agencies to reduce the costs of health insurance and health care services.
The Fund’s investments in municipal securities may include transportation-related municipal bonds which may be used to finance projects including construction, maintenance and operations of non-toll and toll-backed roads, bridges, tunnels, railways, airports, seaports and other transportation systems. Transportation-related municipal bonds may be fully or partially backed by taxes, fees, tolls, or other sources of revenue. Investment in transportation-related municipal bonds may subject the Fund to the certain risks, including, but not limited to, the risk of insufficient or declining revenues from the sources backing the bonds, contractor non-performance or underperformance and unexpectedly higher construction, fuel or other costs.
Opportunistic Investing Risk. Undervalued securities involve the risk that they may never reach their expected full market value, either because the market fails to recognize the security's intrinsic worth or the expected value was misgauged. Undervalued securities also may decline in price even though the Investment Manager believes they are already undervalued. Turnaround companies may never improve their fundamentals, may take much longer than expected to improve, or may improve much less than expected. Development stage companies could fail to develop and deplete their assets, resulting in large percentage losses.
Preferred Stock Risk. Preferred stock is a type of stock that may pay dividends at a different rate than common stock of the same issuer, if at all, and that has preference over common stock in the payment of dividends and the liquidation of assets. Preferred stock does not ordinarily carry voting rights. The price of a preferred stock is generally determined by earnings, type of products or services, projected growth rates, experience of management, liquidity, and general market conditions of the markets on which the stock trades. The most significant risks associated with investments in preferred stock include issuer risk, market risk and interest rate risk (the risk of losses attributable to changes in interest rates).
Prepayment and Extension Risk. Prepayment and extension risk is the risk that a loan, bond or other security or investment might, in the case of prepayment risk, be called or otherwise converted, prepaid or redeemed before maturity and, in the case of extension risk, that the investment might not be called as expected. In the case of prepayment risk, if the investment is converted, prepaid or redeemed before maturity, the portfolio managers may not be able to invest the proceeds in other investments providing as high a level of income, resulting in a reduced yield to the Fund. In the case of mortgage- or other asset-backed securities, as interest rates decrease or spreads narrow, the likelihood of prepayment increases. Conversely, extension risk is the risk that an unexpected rise in interest rates will extend the life of a mortgage- or other asset-backed security beyond the prepayment time. If the Fund's investments are locked in at a lower interest rate for a longer period of time, the portfolio managers may be unable to capitalize on securities with higher interest rates or wider spreads.
Private Investments in Public Equity (PIPEs) Risk. PIPEs are equity securities purchased in a private placement that are issued by issuers who have outstanding, publicly traded equity securities of the same class. Shares in PIPEs are not registered with the SEC and may not be sold unless registered with the SEC or pursuant to an exemption from registration. This restricted
Statement of Additional Information – January 1, 2023 73

Table of Contents
period can last many months. Until the public registration process is completed, the resale of the PIPE shares is restricted and the Fund may sell the shares after six months, with certain restrictions, if the Fund is not an affiliate of the issuer (under relevant securities law, a holder of restricted shares may sell the shares after 6 months if the holder is not affiliated to the issuer). Generally, such restrictions cause the PIPEs to be illiquid during this time. If the issuer does not agree to register the PIPE shares, the shares will remain restricted, not be freely tradable and may only be sold pursuant to an exemption from registration. Even if the PIPE shares are registered for resale, there is no assurance that the registration will be in effect at the time the Fund elects to sell the shares.
Qualified Financial Contracts Risk. Qualified financial contracts include agreements relating to swaps, currency forwards and other derivatives as well as repurchase agreements and securities lending agreements. Beginning in 2019, regulations adopted by prudential regulators will require certain qualified financial contracts entered into with certain counterparties that are part of a U.S. or foreign banking organization designated as a global-systemically important banking organization to include contractual provisions that delay or restrict the rights of counterparties, such as the Funds, to exercise certain close-out, cross-default and similar rights under certain conditions. Qualified financial contracts are subject to a stay for a specified time period during which counterparties, such as the Funds, will be prevented from closing out a qualified financial contract if the counterparty is subject to resolution proceedings and prohibit the Funds from exercising default rights due to a receivership or similar proceeding of an affiliate of the counterparty. Implementation of these requirements may increase credit and other risks to the Funds.
Quantitative Models Risk. Quantitative models used by the Fund may not effectively identify purchases and sales of Fund investments and may cause the Fund to underperform other investment strategies for short or long periods of time. Performance will depend upon the quality and accuracy of the assumptions, theories and framework upon which a quantitative model is based. The success of a quantitative model will depend upon its accurate reflection of market conditions, with proper adjustments as market conditions change over time. Adjustments, or lack of adjustments, to the quantitative model, including as conditions change, as well as any errors or imperfections in the quantitative model, could adversely affect Fund performance. The performance of a quantitative model depends upon the quality of its design and effective execution under actual market conditions. Even a well-designed quantitative model cannot be expected to perform well in all market conditions or across all time intervals. Quantitative models may underperform in certain market environments including stressed or volatile market conditions. Effective execution may depend, in part, upon subjective selection and application of factors and data inputs used by the quantitative model. Discretion may be used by the portfolio management team when determining the data collected and incorporated into a quantitative model. Shareholders should be aware that there is no guarantee that any specific data or type of data can or will be used in a quantitative model. The portfolio management team may also use discretion when interpreting and applying the results of a quantitative model, including emphasizing, discounting or disregarding its outputs. It is not possible or practicable for a quantitative model to factor in all relevant, available data. There is no guarantee that the data actually utilized in a quantitative model will be the most accurate data available or be free from errors. There can be no assurance that the use of quantitative models will enable the Fund to achieve its objective.
Real Estate-Related Investment Risk. Investments in real estate investment trusts (REITs) and in securities of other companies (wherever organized) principally engaged in the real estate industry subject the Fund to, among other things, risks similar to those of direct investments in real estate and the real estate industry in general. These include risks related to general and local economic conditions, possible lack of availability of financing and changes in interest rates or property values. REITs are entities that either own properties or make construction or mortgage loans, and also may include operating or finance companies. The value of interests in a REIT may be affected by, among other factors, changes in the value of the underlying properties owned by the REIT, changes in the prospect for earnings and/or cash flow growth of the REIT itself, defaults by borrowers or tenants, market saturation, decreases in market rates for rents, and other economic, political, or regulatory matters affecting the real estate industry, including REITs. REITs and similar non-U.S. entities depend upon specialized management skills, may have limited financial resources, may have less trading volume in their securities, and may be subject to more abrupt or erratic price movements than the overall securities markets. REITs are also subject to the risk of failing to qualify for favorable tax treatment under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended. The failure of a REIT to continue to qualify as a REIT for tax purposes can materially and adversely affect its value. Some REITs (especially mortgage REITs) are affected by risks similar to those associated with investments in debt securities including changes in interest rates and the quality of credit extended.
Regulatory Risk — Alternative Investments. Legal, tax, and regulatory developments may adversely affect the Fund and its investments. The regulatory environment for the Fund and certain of its investments is evolving, and changes in the regulation of investment funds, their managers, and their trading activities and capital markets, or a regulator’s disagreement with the Fund’s or others’ interpretation of the application of certain regulations, may adversely affect the ability of the Fund to pursue its investment strategy, its ability to obtain leverage and financing, and the value of investments held by the Fund. There has been an increase in governmental, as well as self-regulatory, scrutiny of the investment industry in general and the alternative investment industry in particular. It is impossible to predict what, if any, changes in regulations may occur, but any regulation that restricts
Statement of Additional Information – January 1, 2023 74

Table of Contents
the ability of the Fund or any underlying funds or other investments to trade in securities or other instruments or the ability of the Fund or underlying funds to employ, or brokers and other counterparties to extend, credit in their trading (as well as other regulatory changes that result) could have a material adverse impact on the Fund’s performance.
Shareholders should understand that the Fund’s business is dynamic and is expected to change over time. Therefore, the Fund and its underlying investments may be subject to new or additional regulatory constraints in the future. Such regulations may have a significant impact on shareholders or the operations of the Fund, including, without limitation, restricting the types of investments the Fund may make, preventing the Fund from exercising its voting rights with regard to certain financial instruments, requiring the Fund to disclose the identity of its investors or otherwise. To the extent the Fund or its underlying investments are subject to such regulation, such regulations may have a detrimental effect on one or more shareholders. Prospective investors are encouraged to consult their own advisors regarding an investment in the Fund.
Regulatory Risk — Money Market Funds. Money market funds and the securities they invest in are subject to comprehensive regulations. The enactment of new legislation or regulations, as well as changes in interpretation and enforcement of current laws, may affect the manner of operation, performance and/or yield of money market funds.
Regulatory Risk — U.S. Banking Law. Following the conversion of Ameriprise National Trust Bank into a federal savings bank in May 2019, Ameriprise Financial continues to be subject to ongoing supervision by the Board of Governors for the Federal Reserve System (“FRB”) as well as applicable U.S. federal banking laws, including the Home Owners Loan Act and certain parts of the Bank Holding Company Act, including Section 13 thereof (commonly referred to as the Volcker Rule). These laws impose limits on the amount and duration of any proprietary capital held in the Fund by the Investment Manager, Ameriprise Financial or certain of their controlled affiliates or products. Failure to comply with those limitations could subject the Fund to limitations on its portfolio investments and/or trading restrictions which could adversely impact the Fund’s ability to execute its investment strategy. Under such circumstances, the Investment Manager and/or its affiliates may be required to reduce their ownership interests in the Fund or the Fund’s Board may liquidate the Fund, which may result in losses, increased transaction costs and/or adverse tax consequences for the Fund, each of which may adversely affect the value of your investment in the Fund.
Reinvestment Risk. Reinvestment risk arises when the Fund is unable to reinvest income or principal at the same or at least the same return it is currently earning.
Repurchase Agreements Risk. Repurchase agreements are agreements in which the seller of a security to the Fund agrees to repurchase that security from the Fund at a mutually agreed upon price and time. Repurchase agreements carry the risk that the counterparty may not fulfill its obligations under the agreement. This could cause the Fund's income and the value of your investment in the Fund to decline.
Reverse Repurchase Agreements Risk. Reverse repurchase agreements are agreements in which a Fund sells a security to a counterparty, such as a bank or broker-dealer, in return for cash and agrees to repurchase that security at a mutually agreed upon price and time. Reverse repurchase agreements carry the risk that the market value of the security sold by the Fund may decline below the price at which the Fund must repurchase the security. Reverse repurchase agreements also may be viewed as a form of borrowing, and borrowed assets used for investment creates leverage risk (the risk that losses may be greater than the amount invested). Leverage can create an interest expense that may lower the Fund's overall returns. Leverage presents the opportunity for increased net income and capital gains, but may also exaggerate the Fund’s volatility and risk of loss. There can be no guarantee that this strategy will be successful.
Rule 144A and Other Exempted Securities Risk. The Fund may invest in privately placed and other securities or instruments exempt from SEC registration (collectively “private placements”), subject to certain regulatory restrictions. In the U.S. market, private placements are typically sold only to qualified institutional buyers, or qualified purchasers, as applicable. An insufficient number of buyers interested in purchasing private placements at a particular time could adversely affect the marketability of such investments and the Fund might be unable to dispose of them promptly or at reasonable prices, subjecting the Fund to liquidity risk (the risk that it may not be possible for the Fund to liquidate the instrument at an advantageous time or price). The Fund’s holdings of private placements may increase the level of Fund illiquidity if eligible buyers are unable or unwilling to purchase them at a particular time. The Fund may also have to bear the expense of registering the securities for resale and the risk of substantial delays in effecting the registration. Additionally, the purchase price and subsequent valuation of private placements typically reflect a discount, which may be significant, from the market price of comparable securities for which a more liquid market exists. Issuers of Rule 144A eligible securities are required to furnish information to potential investors upon request. However, the required disclosure is much less extensive than that required of public companies and is not publicly available since the offering information is not filed with the SEC. Further, issuers of Rule 144A eligible securities can require recipients of the offering information (such as the Fund) to agree contractually to keep the information confidential, which could also adversely affect the Fund’s ability to dispose of the security.
Statement of Additional Information – January 1, 2023 75

Table of Contents
Sector Risk. At times, the Fund may have a significant portion of its assets invested in securities of companies conducting business within one or more economic sectors. Companies in the same sector may be similarly affected by economic, regulatory, political or market events or conditions, which may make the Fund more vulnerable to unfavorable developments in that sector than funds that invest more broadly. Generally, the more broadly the Fund invests, the more it spreads risk and potentially reduces the risks of loss and volatility.
Sector Risk — Communication Services Sector Investment Risk. To the extent a Fund concentrates its investments in companies in the communication services sector, it is more susceptible to the particular risks that may affect companies in that sector than if it were invested in a wider variety of companies in unrelated sectors. Companies in the communication services sector are subject to certain risks, including the risk that new services, equipment or technologies will not be accepted by consumers and businesses or will become rapidly obsolete. Performance of such companies may be affected by factors including obtaining and protecting patents (or the failure to do so) and significant competitive pressures, including aggressive pricing of their products or services, new market entrants, competition for market share and short product cycles due to an accelerated rate of technological developments. Such competitive pressures may lead to limited earnings and/or falling profit margins. As a result, the value of their securities may fall or fail to rise. In addition, many communication services sector companies have limited operating histories and prices of these companies’ securities historically have been more volatile than other securities, especially over the short term.
Sector Risk — Consumer Discretionary/Staples Sector Investments. To the extent a Fund concentrates its investments in companies in the consumer discretionary and staples sectors, it is more susceptible to the particular risks that may affect companies in that sector than if it were invested in a wider variety of companies in unrelated sectors. Companies in the consumer discretionary and staples sectors are subject to certain risks, including fluctuations in the performance of the overall domestic and international economy, interest rate changes, currency exchange rates, increased competition and consumer confidence. Performance of such companies may be affected by factors including reduced disposable household income, reduced consumer spending, and changing demographics and consumer tastes. Companies in these sectors may be subject to competitive forces (including competition brought by an influx of foreign brands), which may also have an adverse impact on their profitability. These sectors may be strongly affected by fads, marketing campaigns, changes in demographics and consumer preferences, and other economic or social factors affecting consumer demand. Governmental regulation, including price controls and regulations on packaging, labeling, competition, and certification, may affect the profitability of certain companies invested in by the Fund. Companies operating in these sectors may also be adversely affected by government and private litigation.
Sector Risk — Energy Sector Investments. To the extent a Fund concentrates its investments in companies in the energy sector, it is more susceptible to the particular risks that may affect companies in that sector than if it were invested in a wider variety of companies in unrelated sectors. Companies in the energy sector are subject to certain risks, including legislative or regulatory changes, adverse market conditions and increased competition. Performance of such companies may be affected by factors including, among others, fluctuations in energy prices, energy fuel supply and demand factors, energy conservation, the success of exploration projects, local and international policies, and events occurring in nature. For instance, natural events (such as earthquakes, hurricanes or fires in prime natural resources areas) and political events (such as government instability or military confrontations and actions) can affect the value of companies involved in business activities in the energy sector. Other risks may include liabilities for environmental damage and general civil liabilities, depletion of resources, and mandated expenditures for safety and pollution control. The energy sector may also be affected by economic cycles, rising interest rates, high inflation, technical progress, labor relations, legislative or regulatory changes, local and international policies, and adverse market conditions.
Sector Risk — Financial Services Sector Investments. To the extent a Fund concentrates its investments in companies in the financial services sector, it is more susceptible to the particular risks that may affect companies in that sector than if it were invested in a wider variety of companies in unrelated sectors. Companies in the financial services sector are subject to certain risks, including the risk of regulatory change, decreased liquidity in credit markets and unstable interest rates. Such companies may have concentrated portfolios, such as a high level of loans to one or more industries or sectors, which makes them vulnerable to economic conditions that affect such industries or sectors. Performance of such companies may be affected by competitive pressures and exposure to investments, agreements and counterparties, including credit products that, under certain circumstances, may lead to losses (e.g., subprime loans). Companies in the financial services sector are subject to extensive governmental regulation that may limit the amount and types of loans and other financial commitments they can make, and the interest rates and fees they may charge. In addition, profitability of such companies is largely dependent upon the availability and the cost of capital.
Sector Risk — Health Care Sector Investments. To the extent a Fund concentrates its investments in companies in the health care sector, it is more susceptible to the particular risks that may affect companies in that sector than if it were invested in a wider variety of companies in unrelated sectors. Companies in the health care sector are subject to certain risks, including restrictions on government reimbursement for medical expenses, government approval of medical products and services,
Statement of Additional Information – January 1, 2023 76

Table of Contents
competitive pricing pressures, and the rising cost of medical products and services (especially for companies dependent upon a relatively limited number of products or services), among others. Performance of such companies may be affected by factors including, government regulation, obtaining and protecting patents (or the failure to do so), product liability and other similar litigation as well as product obsolescence.
Sector Risk — Industrials Sector Investments. To the extent a Fund concentrates its investments in companies in the industrials sector, it is more susceptible to the particular risks that may affect companies in that sector than if it were invested in a wider variety of companies in unrelated sectors. Companies in the industrials sector are subject to certain risks, including changes in supply and demand for their specific product or service and for industrial sector products in general, including decline in demand for such products due to rapid technological developments and frequent new product introduction. Performance of such companies may be affected by factors including government regulation, world events, economic conditions and risks for environmental damage and product liability claims.
Sector Risk — Information Technology Sector Investment Risk. To the extent a Fund concentrates its investments in companies in the information technology sector, it is more susceptible to the particular risks that may affect companies in that sector than if it were invested in a wider variety of companies in unrelated sectors. Companies in the information technology sector are subject to certain risks, including the risk that new services, equipment or technologies will not be accepted by consumers and businesses or will become rapidly obsolete. Performance of such companies may be affected by factors including obtaining and protecting patents (or the failure to do so) and significant competitive pressures, including aggressive pricing of their products or services, new market entrants, competition for market share and short product cycles due to an accelerated rate of technological developments. Such competitive pressures may lead to limited earnings and/or falling profit margins. As a result, the value of their securities may fall or fail to rise. In addition, many information technology sector companies have limited operating histories and prices of these companies’ securities historically have been more volatile than other securities, especially over the short term. Some companies in the information technology sector are facing increased government and regulatory scrutiny and may be subject to adverse government or regulatory action, which could negatively impact the value of their securities.
Sector Risk — Materials Investments. To the extent a Fund concentrates its investments in companies in the materials sector, it is more susceptible to the particular risks that may affect companies in the materials sector than if it were invested in a wider variety of companies in unrelated sectors. Companies in the materials sector are subject to certain risks, including that many materials companies are significantly affected by the level and volatility of commodity prices, exchange rates, import controls, increased competition, environmental policies, consumer demand, and events occurring in nature. For instance, natural events (such as earthquakes, hurricanes or fires in prime natural resource areas) and political events (such as government instability or military confrontations and actions) can affect the value of companies involved in business activities in the materials sector. Performance of such companies may be affected by factors including, among others, that at times worldwide production of industrial materials has exceeded demand as a result of over-building or economic downturns, leading to poor investment returns or losses. Other risks may include liabilities for environmental damage and general civil liabilities, depletion of resources, and mandated expenditures for safety and pollution control. The materials sector may also be affected by economic cycles, rising interest rates, high inflation, technical progress, labor relations, legislative or regulatory changes, local and international policies, and adverse market conditions. In addition, prices of, and thus the Fund’s investments in, precious metals are considered speculative and are affected by a variety of worldwide and economic, financial and political factors. Prices of precious metals may fluctuate sharply.
Sector Risk — Utilities Sector Investments. To the extent a Fund concentrates its investments in companies in the energy sector, it is more susceptible to the particular risks that may affect companies in that sector than if it were invested in a wider variety of companies in unrelated sectors. Companies in the utilities sector are subject to certain risks, including risks associated with government regulation, interest rate changes, financing difficulties, supply and demand for services or products, intense competition, natural resource conservation and commodity price fluctuations.
Short Positions Risk. A Fund that establishes short positions introduces more risk to the Fund than a fund that only takes long positions (where the Fund owns the instrument or other asset) because the maximum sustainable loss on an instrument or other asset purchased (held long) is limited to the amount paid for the instrument or other asset plus the transaction costs, whereas there is no maximum price of the shorted instrument or other asset when purchased in the open market. Therefore, in theory, short positions have unlimited risk. The Fund’s use of short positions in effect “leverages” the Fund. Leverage potentially exposes the Fund to greater risks of loss due to unanticipated market movements, which may magnify losses and increase the volatility of returns. To the extent the Fund takes a short position in a derivative instrument or other asset, this involves the risk of a potentially unlimited increase in the value of the underlying instrument or other asset.
Social Impact Investment Risk. The investment manager’s consideration of social impact may limit the Fund’s investment opportunities and, as a result, the Fund may underperform funds that do not consider social impact or consider it but make different investment decisions based thereon.
Statement of Additional Information – January 1, 2023 77

Table of Contents
Sovereign Debt Risk. The willingness or ability of a sovereign or quasi-sovereign debtor (a company or other entity that has significant government ownership) to repay principal and pay interest in a timely manner may be affected by a variety of factors, including its cash flow situation, the extent of its reserves, the availability of sufficient foreign exchange on the date a payment is due, the relative size of the debt service burden to the economy as a whole, the sovereign or quasi-sovereign debtor’s policy toward international lenders, and the political constraints to which such debtor may be subject. Quasi-sovereign debt obligations are typically less liquid and less standardized than sovereign debt obligations.
With respect to sovereign or quasi-sovereign debt of emerging market issuers, investors should be aware that certain emerging market countries are among the largest debtors to commercial banks and foreign governments. At times, certain emerging market countries have declared moratoria on the payment of principal and interest on external debt. Certain emerging market countries have experienced difficulty in servicing their sovereign or quasi-sovereign debt on a timely basis and that has led to defaults and the restructuring of certain indebtedness to the detriment of debtholders. Sovereign debt risk is increased for emerging market issuers.
Special Purpose Acquisition Company (SPAC) Risk. A SPAC is typically a publicly traded company that raises investment capital via an initial public offering (IPO) for the purpose of acquiring one or more existing companies (or interests therein) via merger, combination, acquisition or other similar transactions (each a SPAC Transaction). The shares of a SPAC are issued in “units” that include one share of common stock and one warrant (or partial warrant) conveying the right to purchase additional shares or partial shares. Within 52 days after the closing of the IPO, the shares of common stock and the warrants comprising the units will begin to trade separately and become freely tradeable. After going public and until a SPAC Transaction is completed, a SPAC generally invests the proceeds of its IPO (less a portion retained to cover expenses) in U.S. Government securities, money market securities and/or cash. To the extent the SPAC is invested in cash or similar securities, this may impact a Fund’s ability to meet its investment objective(s). If a SPAC