AB Bond Fund, Inc.

 

 

AB BOND FUND, INC.

-AB Total Return Bond Portfolio

(Class A–ABQUX; Class C–ABQCX; Advisor Class–ABQYX; Class R–ABQRX; Class K–ABQKX;

Class I–ABQIX; Class Z–ABQZX)

-AB Short Duration High Yield Portfolio

(formerly AB Limited Duration High Income Portfolio)

(Class A–ALHAX; Class C–ALHCX; Advisor Class–ALHYX)

-AB Income Fund

(Class A–AKGAX; Class C–AKGCX; Advisor Class–ACGYX; Class Z–ACGZX)

-AB Short Duration Income Portfolio

(Class A–SHUAX; Class C–SHUCX; Advisor Class–SHUYX)

-AB Tax-Aware Fixed Income Opportunities Portfolio

(Class A–ATTAX; Class C–ATCCX; Advisor Class–ATTYX)

-AB Sustainable Thematic Credit Portfolio

(Class A-STHAX; Advisor Class STHYX)

AB HIGH INCOME FUND, INC.

(Class A–AGDAX; Class C–AGDCX; Advisor Class–AGDYX; Class R–AGDRX; Class K–

AGDKX; Class I–AGDIX; Class Z–AGDZX)

AB GLOBAL BOND FUND, INC.

(Class A–ANAGX; Class C–ANACX; Advisor Class–ANAYX; Class R–ANARX; Class K–ANAKX;

Class I–ANAIX; Class Z–ANAZX)

c/o AllianceBernstein Investor Services, Inc.

P. O. Box 786003, San Antonio, Texas 78278-6003

Toll Free: (800) 221-5672

For Literature: Toll Free (800) 227-4618

STATEMENT OF ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

January 31, 2024

 

This Statement of Additional Information (“SAI”) is not a prospectus but supplements and should be read in conjunction with the current prospectus, dated January 31, 2024, for the AB Short Duration High Yield Portfolio (“Short Duration High Yield”), AB Income Fund (“Income Fund”), AB Total Return Bond Portfolio (“Total Return Bond”), AB Short Duration Income Portfolio (“Short Duration Income”), AB Tax-Aware Fixed Income Opportunities Portfolio (“Tax-Aware”) and AB Sustainable Thematic Credit (“Sustainable Thematic Credit”) of AB Bond Fund, Inc., AB Global Bond Fund, Inc. (“Global Bond”) and AB High Income Fund, Inc. (“High Income”) (each a “Fund”, and collectively, the “Funds”) that offers Class A, Class C, Advisor Class, Class R, Class K, Class I and Class Z shares of the Funds (except Short Duration High Yield, Short Duration Income and Tax-Aware, which offer Class A, Class C and Advisor Class Shares; Income Fund, which offers Class A, Class C, Advisor Class and Class Z Shares; and Sustainable Thematic Credit, which offers Class A and Advisor Class shares in the prospectus) (the “Prospectus”).

Audited financial statements for Total Return Bond, Income Fund, Tax-Aware, Short Duration Income, High Income and Sustainable Thematic Credit for the year ended October 31, 2023, and audited financial statements for Global Bond and Short Duration High Yield for the year ended September 30, 2023, are included in each Fund’s annual report to shareholders and are incorporated into the SAI by reference. Unaudited financial statements for Global Bond and Short Duration High

 

 

 

 

Yield for the period ended March 31, 2023 and unaudited financial statements for Total Return Bond, Income Fund, Tax-Aware, Short Duration, High Income and Sustainable Thematic Credit for the period ended April 30, 2023 are included in each Fund’s semi-annual report to shareholders and are incorporated in the SAI by reference. Copies of the Prospectus and each Fund’s annual report may be obtained by contacting AllianceBernstein Investor Services, Inc. (“ABIS”) at the address or the “For Literature” telephone number shown above or on the Internet at www.abfunds.com.

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

 

INFORMATION ABOUT THE FUNDS AND THEIR INVESTMENTS 1
INVESTMENT RESTRICTIONS 60
MANAGEMENT OF THE FUNDS 62
EXPENSES OF THE FUNDS 104
PURCHASE OF SHARES 113
REDEMPTION AND REPURCHASE OF SHARES 139
SHAREHOLDER SERVICES 142
NET ASSET VALUE 145
DIVIDENDS, DISTRIBUTIONS AND TAXES 148
PORTFOLIO TRANSACTIONS 157
GENERAL INFORMATION 165
FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM 192
APPENDIX A: PROXY VOTING AND GOVERNANCE POLICY STATEMENT A-1

 

 

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The [A/B] Logo is a service mark of AllianceBernstein and AllianceBernstein® is a registered trademark used by permission of the owner, AllianceBernstein L.P.

 

 

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INFORMATION ABOUT THE FUNDS AND THEIR INVESTMENTS

 

Introduction to the Funds

Except as otherwise noted, each Fund’s investment objectives and policies described below are not “fundamental policies” within the meaning of the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “1940 Act”), and may, therefore, be changed by the Fund’s Board of Directors (the “Board”) without shareholder approval. However, no Fund will change its investment objective without at least 60 days’ prior written notice to shareholders. There is no guarantee that a Fund will achieve its investment objective. Whenever any investment policy or restriction states a percentage of a Fund’s assets that may be invested in any security or other asset, it is intended that such percentage limitation be determined immediately after and as a result of a Fund’s acquisition of such securities or other assets. Accordingly, except with respect to borrowing, any later increases or decreases in percentage beyond the specified limitations resulting from a change in values or net assets will not be considered a violation of this percentage limitation.

Income Fund commenced operations on April 22, 2016. Income Fund acquired the assets and liabilities of the AllianceBernstein Income Fund, Inc., a closed-end fund, effective at the close of business on April 21, 2016.

Additional Investment Policies and Practices

The following information about the Funds’ investment policies and practices supplements the information set forth in the Prospectus.

Contingent Value Rights

The Funds may hold contingent value rights (“CVRs”). A CVR gives the holder the right to receive an amount, which may be a fixed amount or a variable amount determined by a formula, in the event that a specified corporate action or other business event or trigger occurs (or does not occur) during the term of the CVR. CVRs are often subject to an expiration date. CVRs may be awarded to investors in the context of a corporate acquisition or major restructuring, such as a reorganization pursuant to Chapter 11 of the U.S. Bankruptcy Code or other bankruptcy reorganization. For example, investors in an acquired or reorganized company may receive CVRs that enable the investor to receive additional shares of the acquiring company in the event that the acquiring company’s share price falls below a certain level by a specified date, or to receive cash payments and/or securities in the event of a future sale or liquidation event involving the company by a specified date. CVRs generally do not entitle a holder to dividends or voting rights with respect to the underlying company and do not represent any rights in the assets of the issuing company. Risks associated with the use of CVRs are generally similar to risks associated with the use of options, such as the risk that the required trigger does not occur prior to a CVR’s expiration, causing the CVR to expire with no value. CVRs also present liquidity risk, as they may not be registered under the federal securities laws or may

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otherwise be non-transferable or difficult to transfer, as well as counterparty risk and credit risk. Further, because CVRs are valued based on the likelihood of the occurrence of a trigger, valuation often requires subjective modeling and judgment, which increases the risk of mispricing or improper valuation.

Convertible Securities

Convertible securities include bonds, debentures, corporate notes and preferred stocks that are convertible at a stated exchange rate into shares of the underlying common stock. Prior to their conversion, convertible securities have the same general characteristics as non-convertible debt securities, which provide a stable stream of income with generally higher yields than those of equity securities of the same or similar issuers. As with debt securities, the market value of convertible securities tends to decline as interest rates increase and, conversely, to increase as interest rates decline. While convertible securities generally offer lower interest or dividend yields than non-convertible debt securities of similar quality, they do enable investors to benefit from any increases in the market price of the underlying common stock.

When the market price of the common stock underlying a convertible security increases, the price of the convertible security increasingly reflects the value of the underlying common stock and may rise accordingly. As the market price of the underlying common stock declines, the convertible security tends to trade increasingly on a yield basis, and thus may not depreciate to the same extent as the underlying common stock. Convertible debt and preferred securities rank senior to common stock, and convertible debt securities rank senior to preferred stock, in an issuer’s capital structure. Convertible securities are consequently of higher quality and entail less risk than the issuer’s common stock, although the extent to which such risk is reduced depends in large measure upon the degree to which the convertible security sells above its value as a fixed-income security.

Derivatives

A Fund may, but is not required to, use derivatives for hedging or other risk management purposes or as part of its investment strategies. Derivatives are financial contracts whose value depends on, or is derived from, the value of an underlying asset, reference rate or index. These assets, rates, and indices may include bonds, stocks, mortgages, commodities, interest rates, currency exchange rates, bond indices and stock indices.

There are four principal types of derivatives – options, futures contracts, forwards and swaps. These principal types of derivative instruments, as well as the ways they may be used by a Fund are described below. Derivatives include listed and cleared transactions where the Fund’s derivative trade counterparty is an exchange or clearinghouse, and non-cleared bilateral “over-the-counter” (“OTC”) transactions that are privately negotiated and where the Fund’s derivative trade counterparty is a financial institution. Exchange-traded or cleared derivatives transactions tend to be subject to less counterparty credit risk than those that are bilateral and privately negotiated. The Funds may use derivatives to earn income and enhance returns, to hedge or adjust the risk profile of a portfolio and either to replace more traditional direct investments or to obtain exposure to otherwise inaccessible markets.

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Forward Contracts. A forward contract, which may be standardized and exchange-traded or customized and privately negotiated, is an agreement for one party to buy, and the other party to sell, a specific quantity of an underlying security, currency, commodity or other asset for an agreed-upon price at a future date. A forward contract generally is settled by physical delivery of the security, commodity or other tangible asset underlying the forward contract to an agreed-upon location at a future date (rather than settled by cash) or is rolled forward into a new forward contract. Non-deliverable forwards (“NDFs”) specify a cash payment upon maturity.

Futures Contracts and Options on Futures Contracts. A futures contract is an agreement that obligates the buyer to buy and the seller to sell a specified quantity of an underlying asset (or settle for cash the value of a contract based on an underlying asset, rate or index) at a specific price on the contract maturity date. Options on futures contracts are options that call for the delivery of futures contracts upon exercise. Futures contracts are standardized, exchange-traded instruments and are fungible (i.e., considered to be perfect substitutes for each other). This fungibility allows futures contracts to be readily offset or canceled through the acquisition of equal but opposite positions, which is the primary method by which futures contracts are liquidated. A cash-settled futures contract does not require physical delivery of the underlying asset but instead is settled for cash equal to the difference between the values of the contract on the date it is entered into and its maturity date.

Options. An option, which may be standardized and exchange-traded, or customized and privately negotiated, is an agreement that, for a premium payment or fee, gives the option holder (the buyer) the right but not the obligation to buy (a “call”) or sell (a “put”) the underlying asset (or settle for cash an amount based on an underlying asset, rate or index) at a specified price (the exercise price) during a period of time or on a specified date. Likewise, when an option is exercised the writer of the option is obligated to sell (in the case of a call option) or to purchase (in the case of a put option) the underlying asset (or settle for cash an amount based on an underlying asset, rate or index).

Swaps. A swap is an agreement that obligates two parties to exchange a series of cash flows at specified intervals (payment dates) based upon or calculated by reference to changes in specified prices or rates (e.g., interest rates in the case of interest rate swaps, currency exchange rates in the case of currency swaps) for a specified amount of an underlying asset (the “notional” principal amount). Most swaps are entered into on a net basis (i.e., the two payment streams are netted out, with the Funds receiving or paying, as the case may be, only the net amount of the two payments). Generally, the notional principal amount is used solely to calculate the payment streams but is not exchanged. Pursuant to CFTC regulations, certain standardized swaps, including certain interest rate swaps and credit default swaps, are subject to mandatory central clearing and are required to be executed through a regulated swap execution facility. Cleared swaps are transacted through futures commission merchants (“FCMs”) that are members of central clearinghouses with the clearinghouse serving as central counterparty, similar to transactions in futures contracts. Funds post initial and variation margin to support their obligations under cleared swaps by making payments to their clearing member FCMs. Central clearing is intended to reduce counterparty credit risks and increase liquidity, but central clearing does not make swap transactions risk free.

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The Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) may adopt similar clearing and execution requirements in respect of certain security-based swaps under its jurisdiction. Privately negotiated swap agreements are two-party contracts entered into primarily by institutional investors and are not cleared through a third party, nor are these required to be executed on a regulated swap execution facility.

Risks of Derivatives and Other Regulatory Issues. Investment techniques employing such derivatives involve risks different from, and, in certain cases, greater than, the risks presented by more traditional investments. Following is a general discussion of important risk factors and issues concerning the use of derivatives.

—     Market Risk. This is the general risk attendant to all investments that the value of a particular investment will change in a way detrimental to a Fund’s interest.

—     Management Risk. Derivative products are highly specialized instruments that require investment techniques and risk analyses different from those associated with stocks and bonds. The use of a derivative requires an understanding not only of the underlying instrument but also of the derivative itself, without the benefit of observing the performance of the derivative under all possible market conditions. In particular, the use and complexity of derivatives require the maintenance of adequate controls to monitor the transactions entered into, the ability to assess the risk that a derivative adds to a Fund’s investment portfolio and the ability to forecast price, interest rate or currency exchange rate movements correctly.

—     Credit Risk. This is the risk that a loss may be sustained by a Fund as a result of the failure of another party to a derivative (usually referred to as a “counterparty”) to comply with the terms of the derivative contract. The credit risk for derivatives traded on an exchange or through a clearinghouse is generally less than for uncleared OTC derivatives, since the performance of the exchange or clearinghouse, which is the issuer or counterparty to each derivative, is supported by all of the members of such exchange or clearinghouse. The performance of an exchange or clearinghouse is further supported by a daily payment system (i.e., margin requirements) operated by the exchange or clearinghouse in order to reduce overall credit risk. There is no similar intermediary support for uncleared OTC derivatives. Therefore, a Fund will effect transactions in uncleared OTC derivatives only with investment dealers and other financial institutions (such as commercial banks) deemed creditworthy by the Adviser, and the Adviser has adopted procedures for monitoring the creditworthiness of such entities.

     Counterparty Risk. The value of an OTC derivative will depend on the ability and willingness of a Fund’s counterparty to perform its

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obligations under the transaction. If the counterparty defaults, a Fund will have contractual remedies but may choose not to enforce them to avoid the cost and unpredictability of legal proceedings. In addition, if a counterparty fails to meet its contractual obligations, a Fund could miss investment opportunities or otherwise be required to retain investments it would prefer to sell, resulting in losses for the Fund. Participants in OTC derivatives markets generally are not subject to the same level of credit evaluation and regulatory oversight as are exchanges or clearinghouses. As a result, OTC derivatives generally expose a Fund to greater counterparty risk than derivatives traded on an exchange or through a clearinghouse.

Recent regulations affecting derivatives transactions require certain standardized derivatives, including many types of swaps, to be subject to mandatory central clearing. Under these requirements, a central clearing organization is substituted as the counterparty to each side of the derivatives transaction. Each party to derivatives transactions is required to maintain its positions with a clearing organization through one or more clearing brokers. Central clearing is intended to reduce, but not eliminate, counterparty risk. A Fund is subject to the risk that its clearing member or clearing organization will itself be unable to perform its obligations. A Fund may also face the indirect risk of the failure of another clearing member customer to meet its obligations to the clearing member, causing a default by the clearing member on its obligations to the clearinghouse.

—     Illiquid Investments Risk. Illiquid investments risk exists when a particular instrument is difficult to purchase, sell or otherwise liquidate. If a derivative transaction is particularly large or if the relevant market is illiquid (as is the case with many privately negotiated derivatives), it may not be possible to initiate a transaction or liquidate a position at an advantageous price.

—     Leverage Risk. Since many derivatives have a leverage component, adverse changes in the value or level of the underlying asset, rate or index can result in a loss substantially greater than the amount invested in the derivative itself. In the case of swaps, the risk of loss generally is related to a notional principal amount, even if the parties have not made any initial investment. Certain derivatives have the potential for unlimited loss, regardless of the size of the initial investment.

—     Regulatory Risk. Various U.S. Government entities, including the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (“CFTC”) and the SEC, are in the process of adopting and implementing additional regulations governing derivatives markets required by, among other things, the Dodd-Frank Act, including clearing as discussed above, margin, reporting and registration requirements. In addition, the SEC has adopted Rule 18f-4

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under the 1940 Act, which governs the use of derivatives and certain other forms of leverage by registered investment companies. Rule 18f-4 requires certain funds, among other things, to adopt a comprehensive derivatives risk management program, appoint a derivatives risk manager and comply with a limit on fund leverage risk based on value-at-risk, or “VaR.” Funds that use derivatives in a limited amount are not subject to the full requirements of Rule 18f-4. In addition, Congress, various exchanges and regulatory and self-regulatory authorities have undertaken reviews of futures, options and swaps markets in light of market volatility. Among the actions that have been taken or proposed to be taken are new limits and reporting requirements for speculative positions, new or more stringent daily price fluctuation limits, and increased margin requirements for various types of futures. These regulations and actions may adversely affect a Fund’s ability to execute its investment strategy.

The CFTC has also issued rules requiring certain OTC derivatives transactions that fall within its jurisdiction to be executed through a regulated securities, futures or swap exchange or execution facility. Such requirements may make it more difficult or costly for a Fund to enter into highly tailored or customized transactions. They may also render certain strategies in which a Fund may otherwise engage impossible or so costly that they will not be economical to implement. If a Fund decides to become a direct member of one or more swap exchange or execution facilities, it will be subject to all of the rules of the exchange or execution facility.

European regulation of the derivatives market is also relevant to the extent a Fund engages in derivatives transactions with a counterparty that is subject to the European Market Infrastructure Regulation (“EMIR”). EMIR introduced uniform requirements in respect of OTC derivative contracts by requiring certain “eligible” OTC derivatives contracts to be submitted for clearing to regulated central clearing counterparties and by mandating the reporting of certain details of OTC derivatives contracts to trade repositories. In addition, EMIR imposes risk mitigation requirements, including requiring appropriate procedures and arrangements to measure, monitor and mitigate operational and counterparty credit risk in respect of OTC derivatives contracts which are not subject to mandatory clearing. These risk mitigation requirements include the exchange, and potentially the segregation, of collateral by the parties, including by a Fund. While many of the obligations under EMIR have come into force, a number of other requirements have not yet come into force or are subject to phase-in periods, and certain key issues have not been resolved. It is therefore not fully clear how the OTC derivatives market will ultimately adapt to the evolving European regulatory regime for OTC derivatives.

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—     Other Risks. Other risks in using derivatives include the risk of mispricing or improper valuation of derivatives and the inability of derivatives to correlate perfectly with underlying assets, rates and indices. Many derivatives, in particular privately-negotiated derivatives, are complex and often valued subjectively. Improper valuations can result in increased cash payment requirements to counterparties or a loss of value to a Fund. Derivatives do not always perfectly or even highly correlate with or track the value of the assets, rates or indices they are designed to closely track. Consequently, a Fund’s use of derivatives may not always be an effective means of, and sometimes could be counterproductive to, furthering the Fund’s investment objective.

Other. A Fund may purchase and sell derivative instruments only to the extent that such activities are consistent with the requirements of the Commodity Exchange Act (“CEA”) and the rules adopted by the CFTC thereunder. Under CFTC rules, a registered investment company that conducts more than a certain amount of trading in futures contracts, commodity options, certain swaps and other commodity interests is a commodity pool and its adviser must register as a commodity pool operator (“CPO”). Under such rules, registered investment companies that are commodity pools are subject to additional recordkeeping, reporting and disclosure requirements. The Adviser, with respect to the Funds, except Income Fund, has claimed an exclusion from the definition of CPO under CFTC Rule 4.5 under the CEA based on the extent of the Funds’ derivatives use and is not currently subject to these recordkeeping, reporting and disclosure requirements under the CEA. The exclusion in Rule 4.5 is not available to Income Fund, and AllianceBernstein L.P., the Funds’ adviser (the “Adviser”), is the registered CPO with respect to this Fund, which must comply with certain recordkeeping, reporting and disclosure requirements but, under rules adopted by the CFTC, compliance with SEC disclosure and filing requirements will, for the most part, constitute compliance with comparable CFTC requirements.

Use of Options, Futures Contracts, Forwards and Swaps by a Fund

Forward Currency Exchange Contracts. A forward currency exchange contract is an obligation by one party to buy, and the other party to sell, a specific amount of a currency for an agreed-upon price at a future date. A forward currency exchange contract may result in the delivery of the underlying asset upon maturity of the contract in return for the agreed-upon payment. NDFs specify a cash payment upon maturity. NDFs are normally used when the market for physical settlement of the currency is underdeveloped, heavily regulated or highly taxed.

A Fund may, for example, enter into forward currency exchange contracts to attempt to minimize the risk to the Fund from adverse changes in the relationship between the U.S. Dollar and other currencies. A Fund may purchase or sell forward currency exchange contracts for hedging purposes similar to those described below in connection with its transactions in foreign currency futures contracts. A Fund may also purchase or sell forward currency exchange contracts for non-hedging purposes as a means of making direct investments in foreign currencies, as described below under “Currency Transactions”.

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If a hedging transaction in forward currency exchange contracts is successful, the decline in the value of portfolio securities or the increase in the cost of securities to be acquired may be offset, at least in part, by profits on the forward currency exchange contract. Nevertheless, by entering into such forward currency exchange contracts, a Fund may be required to forgo all or a portion of the benefits which otherwise could have been obtained from favorable movements in exchange rates.

A Fund may use forward currency exchange contracts to seek to increase total return when the Adviser anticipates that a foreign currency will appreciate or depreciate in value but securities denominated in that currency are not held by the Fund and do not present attractive investment opportunities. For example, a Fund may enter into a foreign currency exchange contract to purchase a currency if the Adviser expects the currency to increase in value. The Fund would recognize a gain if the market value of the currency is more than the contract value of the currency at the time of settlement of the contract. Similarly, a Fund may enter into a foreign currency exchange contract to sell a currency if the Adviser expects the currency to decrease in value. The Fund would recognize a gain if the market value of the currency is less than the contract value of the currency at the time of settlement of the contract.

The cost of engaging in forward currency exchange contracts varies with such factors as the currencies involved, the length of the contract period and the market conditions then prevailing. Since transactions in foreign currencies are usually conducted on a principal basis, no fees or commissions are involved.

Options on Securities. A Fund may write and purchase call and put options on securities, including U.S. Government securities and, particularly in the case of Tax-Aware, municipal securities. In purchasing an option on securities, a Fund would be in a position to realize a gain if, during the option period, the price of the underlying securities increased (in the case of a call) or decreased (in the case of a put) by an amount in excess of the premium paid; otherwise the Fund would experience a loss not greater than the premium paid for the option. Thus, a Fund would realize a loss if the price of the underlying security declined or remained the same (in the case of a call) or increased or remained the same (in the case of a put) or otherwise did not increase (in the case of a put) or decrease (in the case of a call) by more than the amount of the premium. If a put or call option purchased by a Fund were permitted to expire without being sold or exercised, its premium would represent a loss to the Fund.

A Fund may write a put or call option in return for a premium, which is retained by the Fund whether or not the option is exercised. A Fund may write covered options or uncovered options. A call option written by a Fund is “covered” if the Fund owns the underlying security, has an absolute and immediate right to acquire that security upon conversion or exchange of another security it holds, or holds a call option on the underlying security with an exercise price equal to or less than the exercise price of the call option it has written. A put option written by a Fund is covered if the Fund holds a put option on the underlying securities with an exercise price equal to or greater than the exercise price of the put option it has written. Uncovered options or “naked options” are riskier than covered options. For example, if a Fund wrote a naked call option and the price of the underlying security increased, the Fund would

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have to purchase the underlying security for delivery to the call buyer and sustain a loss, which could be substantial, equal to the difference between the option price and the market price of the security.

A Fund may also purchase call options to hedge against an increase in the price of securities that the Fund anticipates purchasing in the future. If such increase occurs, the call option will permit the Fund to purchase the securities at the exercise price, or to close out the options at a profit. The premium paid for the call option plus any transaction costs will reduce the benefit, if any, realized by the Fund upon exercise of the option, and, unless the price of the underlying security rises sufficiently, the option may expire worthless to the Fund and the Fund will suffer a loss on the transaction to the extent of the premium paid.

A Fund may purchase put options to hedge against a decline in the value of portfolio securities. If such decline occurs, the put options will permit the Fund to sell the securities at the exercise price or to close out the options at a profit. By using put options in this way, the Fund will reduce any profit it might otherwise have realized on the underlying security by the amount of the premium paid for the put option and by transaction costs.

A Fund may also, as an example, write combinations of put and call options on the same security, known as “straddles”, with the same exercise and expiration date. By writing a straddle, the Fund undertakes a simultaneous obligation to sell and purchase the same security in the event that one of the options is exercised. If the price of the security subsequently rises above the exercise price, the call will likely be exercised and the Fund will be required to sell the underlying security at or below market price. This loss may be offset, however, in whole or in part, by the premiums received on the writing of the two options. Conversely, if the price of the security declines by a sufficient amount, the put will likely be exercised. The writing of straddles will likely be effective, therefore, only where the price of the security remains stable and neither the call nor the put is exercised. In those instances where one of the options is exercised, the loss on the purchase or sale of the underlying security may exceed the amount of the premiums received.

By writing a call option, a Fund limits its opportunity to profit from any increase in the market value of the underlying security above the exercise price of the option. By writing a put option, a Fund assumes the risk that it may be required to purchase the underlying security for an exercise price above its then current market value, resulting in a capital loss unless the security subsequently appreciates in value. Where options are written for hedging purposes, such transactions constitute only a partial hedge against declines in the value of portfolio securities or against increases in the value of securities to be acquired, up to the amount of the premium.

A Fund may purchase or write options on securities of the types in which it is permitted to invest in privately-negotiated (i.e., OTC) transactions. Options purchased or written in negotiated transactions may be illiquid and it may not be possible for the Fund to effect a closing transaction at a time when the Adviser believes it would be advantageous to do so.

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Options on Securities Indices and Municipal and U.S. Government Securities Indices. An option on a securities index is similar to an option on a security except that, rather than taking or making delivery of a security at a specified price, an option on a securities index gives the holder the right to receive, upon exercise of the option, an amount of cash if the closing level of the chosen index is greater than (in the case of a call) or less than (in the case of a put) the exercise price of the option.

A Fund may write (sell) call and put options and purchase call and put options on securities indices. If a Fund purchases put options on securities indices to hedge its investments against a decline in the value of portfolio securities, it will seek to offset a decline in the value of securities it owns through appreciation of the put option. If the value of the Fund’s investments does not decline as anticipated, or if the value of the option does not increase, the Fund’s loss will be limited to the premium paid for the option. The success of this strategy will largely depend on the accuracy of the correlation between the changes in value of the index and the changes in value of the Fund’s security holdings.

A Fund may also write put or call options on securities indices to, among other things, earn income. If the value of the chosen index declines below the exercise price of the put option, the Fund has the risk of loss of the amount of the difference between the exercise price and the closing level of the chosen index, which it would be required to pay to the buyer of the put option and which may not be offset by the premium it received upon sale of the put option. Similarly, if the value of the index is higher than the exercise price of the call option, the Fund has the risk of loss of the amount of the difference between the exercise price and the closing level of the chosen index, which may not be offset by the premium it received upon sale of the call option. If the value of the securities index is significantly below or above the exercise price of the written option, the Fund could experience a substantial loss.

The purchase of call options on securities indices may be used by a Fund to attempt to reduce the risk of missing a broad market advance, or an advance in an industry or market segment, at a time when the Fund holds uninvested cash or short-term debt securities awaiting investment. When purchasing call options for this purpose, the Fund will also bear the risk of losing all or a portion of the premium paid if the value of the index does not rise. The purchase of call options on stock indices when a Fund is substantially fully invested is a form of leverage, up to the amount of the premium and related transaction costs, and involves risks of loss and of increased volatility similar to those involved in purchasing call options on securities the Fund owns.

— Other Option Strategies. In an effort to earn extra income, to adjust exposure to individual securities or markets, or to protect all or a portion of its portfolio from a decline in value, sometimes within certain ranges, a Fund may use option strategies such as the concurrent purchase of a call or put option, including on individual securities, stock indices, futures contracts (including on individual securities and stock indices) or shares of exchange-traded funds (“ETFs”) at one strike price and the writing of a call or put option on the same individual security, stock index, futures contract or ETF at a higher strike price in the case of a call option or at a lower strike price in the case of a put option. The maximum profit from this strategy would result for the call options from an increase in the value of the individual security, stock

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index, futures contract or ETF above the higher strike price or for the put options the decline in the value of the individual security, stock index, futures contract or ETF below the lower strike price. If the price of the individual security, stock index, futures contract or ETF declines in the case of the call option or increases in the case of the put option, the Fund has the risk of losing the entire amount paid for the call or put options.

— Options on Foreign Currencies. A Fund may purchase and write options on foreign currencies for hedging and non-hedging purposes. For example, a decline in the dollar value of a foreign currency in which portfolio securities are denominated will reduce the dollar value of such securities, even if their value in the foreign currency remains constant. In order to protect against such diminutions in the value of portfolio securities, the Fund may purchase put options on the foreign currency. If the value of the currency does decline, the Fund will have the right to sell such currency for a fixed amount in dollars and could thereby offset, in whole or in part, the adverse effect on its portfolio which otherwise would have resulted.

Conversely, where a rise in the dollar value of a currency in which securities to be acquired are denominated is projected, thereby increasing the cost of such securities, a Fund may purchase call options thereon. The purchase of such options could offset, at least partially, the effects of the adverse movements in exchange rates. As in the case of other types of options, however, the benefit to the Fund from purchases of foreign currency options will be reduced by the amount of the premium and related transaction costs. In addition, where currency exchange rates do not move in the direction or to the extent anticipated, the Fund could sustain losses on transactions in foreign currency options which would require it to forgo a portion or all of the benefits of advantageous changes in such rates.

A Fund may write options on foreign currencies for hedging purposes or in an effort to increase returns. For example, where a Fund anticipates a decline in the dollar value of non-U.S. Dollar-denominated securities due to adverse fluctuations in exchange rates, it could, instead of purchasing a put option, write a call option on the relevant currency. If the expected decline occurs, the option will most likely not be exercised, and the diminution in value of portfolio securities could be offset by the amount of the premium received.

Similarly, instead of purchasing a call option to hedge against an anticipated increase in the dollar cost of securities to be acquired, a Fund could write a put option on the relevant currency, which, if rates move in the manner projected, will expire unexercised and allow the Fund to hedge such increased cost up to the amount of the premium. As in the case of other types of options, however, the writing of a foreign currency option will constitute only a partial hedge up to the amount of the premium, and only if rates move in the expected direction. If this does not occur, the option may be exercised and the Fund will be required to purchase or sell the underlying currency at a loss which may not be offset by the amount of the premium. Through the writing of options on foreign currencies, the Fund also may be required to forgo all or a portion of the benefits that might otherwise have been obtained from favorable movements in exchange rates.

In addition to using options for the hedging purposes described above, a Fund may also invest in options on foreign currencies for non-hedging purposes as a means of making

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direct investments in foreign currencies. A Fund may use options on currency to seek to increase total return when the Adviser anticipates that a foreign currency will appreciate or depreciate in value but securities denominated in that currency are not held by the Fund and do not present attractive investment opportunities. For example, the Fund may purchase call options in anticipation of an increase in the market value of a currency. A Fund would ordinarily realize a gain if, during the option period, the value of such currency exceeded the sum of the exercise price, the premium paid and transaction costs. Otherwise, the Fund would realize no gain or a loss on the purchase of the call option. Put options may be purchased by a Fund for the purpose of benefiting from a decline in the value of a currency that the Fund does not own. A Fund would normally realize a gain if, during the option period, the value of the underlying currency decreased below the exercise price sufficiently to more than cover the premium and transaction costs. Otherwise, the Fund would realize no gain or loss on the purchase of the put option. For additional information on the use of options on foreign currencies for non-hedging purposes, see “Currency Transactions” below.

Special Risks Associated with Options on Currencies. An exchange-traded options position may be closed out only on an options exchange that provides a secondary market for an option of the same series. Although a Fund will generally purchase or sell options for which there appears to be an active secondary market, there is no assurance that a liquid secondary market on an exchange will exist for any particular option, or at any particular time. For some options, no secondary market on an exchange may exist. In such event, it might not be possible to effect closing transactions in particular options, with the result that the Fund would have to exercise its options in order to realize any profit and would incur transaction costs on the sale of the underlying currency.

— Futures Contracts and Options on Futures Contracts. Futures contracts that a Fund may buy and sell may include futures contracts on fixed-income or other securities, and contracts based on interest rates, foreign currencies or financial indices, including any index of U.S. Government securities. A Fund may, for example, purchase or sell futures contracts and options thereon to hedge against changes in interest rates, securities (through index futures or options) or currencies.

Interest rate futures contracts are purchased or sold for hedging purposes to attempt to protect against the effects of interest rate changes on a Fund’s current or intended investments in fixed-income securities. For example, if a Fund owned long-term bonds and interest rates were expected to increase, that Fund might sell interest rate futures contracts. Such a sale would have much the same effect as selling some of the long-term bonds in that Fund’s portfolio. However, since the futures market is generally more liquid than the cash market, the use of interest rate futures contracts as a hedging technique allows a Fund to hedge its interest rate risk without having to sell its portfolio securities. If interest rates were to increase, the value of the debt securities in the portfolio would decline, but the value of that Fund’s interest rate futures contracts would be expected to increase at approximately the same rate, thereby keeping the net asset value (“NAV”) of that Fund from declining as much as it otherwise would have. On the other hand, if interest rates were expected to decline, interest rate futures contracts could be purchased to hedge in anticipation of subsequent purchases of long-term bonds at higher prices. Because the fluctuations in the value of the interest rate futures contracts should be

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similar to those of long-term bonds, a Fund could protect itself against the effects of the anticipated rise in the value of long-term bonds without actually buying them until the necessary cash becomes available or the market has stabilized. At that time, the interest rate futures contracts could be liquidated and that Fund’s cash reserves could then be used to buy long-term bonds on the cash market.

A Fund may purchase and sell foreign currency futures contracts for hedging or risk management purposes in order to protect against fluctuations in currency exchange rates. Such fluctuations could reduce the dollar value of portfolio securities denominated in foreign currencies, or increase the cost of non-U.S. Dollar-denominated securities to be acquired, even if the value of such securities in the currencies in which they are denominated remains constant. A Fund may sell futures contracts on a foreign currency, for example, when it holds securities denominated in such currency and it anticipates a decline in the value of such currency relative to the dollar. If such a decline were to occur, the resulting adverse effect on the value of non-U.S. Dollar-denominated securities may be offset, in whole or in part, by gains on the futures contracts. However, if the value of the foreign currency increases relative to the dollar, a Fund’s loss on the foreign currency futures contract may or may not be offset by an increase in the value of the securities because a decline in the price of the security stated in terms of the foreign currency may be greater than the increase in value as a result of the change in exchange rates.

Conversely, a Fund could protect against a rise in the dollar cost of non-U.S. Dollar-denominated securities to be acquired by purchasing futures contracts on the relevant currency, which could offset, in whole or in part, the increased cost of such securities resulting from a rise in the dollar value of the underlying currencies. When a Fund purchases futures contracts under such circumstances, however, and the price in dollars of securities to be acquired instead declines as a result of appreciation of the dollar, the Fund will sustain losses on its futures position which could reduce or eliminate the benefits of the reduced cost of portfolio securities to be acquired.

A Fund may also engage in currency “cross hedging” when, in the opinion of the Adviser, the historical relationship among foreign currencies suggests that a Fund may achieve protection against fluctuations in currency exchange rates similar to that described above at a reduced cost through the use of a futures contract relating to a currency other than the U.S. Dollar or the currency in which the foreign security is denominated. Such “cross hedging” is subject to the same risks as those described above with respect to an unanticipated increase or decline in the value of the subject currency relative to the U.S. Dollar.

A Fund may also use foreign currency futures contracts and options on such contracts for non-hedging purposes. Similar to options on currencies described above, a Fund may use foreign currency futures contracts and options on such contracts to seek to increase total return when the Adviser anticipates that a foreign currency will appreciate or depreciate in value but securities denominated in that currency are not held by the Fund and do not present attractive investment opportunities. The risks associated with foreign currency futures contracts and options on futures contracts are similar to those associated with options on foreign currencies, as described above. For additional information on the use of options on foreign currencies for non-hedging purposes, see “Currency Transactions” below.

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Purchases or sales of stock or bond index futures contracts may be for investment purposes. They may also be used for hedging or risk management purposes to attempt to protect a Fund's current or intended investments from broad fluctuations in stock or bond prices. For example, a Fund may sell stock or bond index futures contracts in anticipation of or during a market decline to attempt to offset the decrease in market value of the Fund’s portfolio securities that might otherwise result. If such decline occurs, the loss in value of portfolio securities may be offset, in whole or in part, by gains on the futures position. When a Fund is not fully invested in the securities market and anticipates a significant market advance, it may purchase stock or bond index futures contracts in order to gain rapid market exposure that may, in whole or in part, offset increases in the cost of securities that the Fund intends to purchase. As such purchases are made, the corresponding positions in stock or bond index futures contracts may be closed out.

Options on futures contracts are options that call for the delivery of futures contracts upon exercise. Options on futures contracts written or purchased by a Fund will be traded on U.S. exchanges.

The writing of a call option on a futures contract constitutes a partial hedge against declining prices of the securities in a Fund’s portfolio. If the futures price at expiration of the option is below the exercise price, a Fund will retain the full amount of the option premium, which provides a partial hedge against any decline that may have occurred in the Fund’s portfolio holdings. The writing of a put option on a futures contract constitutes a partial hedge against increasing prices of the securities or other instruments required to be delivered under the terms of the futures contract. If the futures price at expiration of the put option is higher than the exercise price, a Fund will retain the full amount of the option premium, which provides a partial hedge against any increase in the price of securities which the Fund intends to purchase. If a put or call option a Fund has written is exercised, the Fund will incur a loss which will be reduced by the amount of the premium it receives. Depending on the degree of correlation between changes in the value of its portfolio securities and changes in the value of its options on futures positions, a Fund’s losses from exercised options on futures may to some extent be reduced or increased by changes in the value of portfolio securities.

A Fund may purchase options on futures contracts for hedging purposes instead of purchasing or selling the underlying futures contracts. For example, where a decrease in the value of portfolio securities is anticipated as a result of a projected market-wide decline or changes in interest or exchange rates, a Fund could, in lieu of selling futures contracts, purchase put options thereon. In the event that such a decrease were to occur, it may be offset, in whole or in part, by a profit on the option. If the anticipated market decline were not to occur, the Fund will suffer a loss equal to the price of the put. Where it is projected that the value of securities to be acquired by a Fund will increase prior to acquisition due to a market advance or changes in interest or exchange rates, a Fund could purchase call options on futures contracts, rather than purchasing the underlying futures contracts. If the market advances, the increased cost of securities to be purchased may be offset by a profit on the call. However, if the market declines, the Fund will suffer a loss equal to the price of the call, but the securities that the Fund intends to purchase may be less expensive.

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— Credit Default Swap Agreements. The “buyer” in a credit default swap contract is obligated to pay the “seller” a periodic stream of payments over the term of the contract in return for a contingent payment upon the occurrence of a credit event with respect to an underlying reference obligation. Generally, a credit event means bankruptcy, failure to pay, obligation acceleration or restructuring. A Fund may be either the buyer or seller in the transaction. As a seller, the Fund receives a fixed rate of income throughout the term of the contract, which typically is between one month and ten years, provided that no credit event occurs. If a credit event occurs, the Fund, as seller, typically must pay the contingent payment to the buyer. The contingent payment will be either (i) the “face amount” of the reference obligation in which case the Fund will receive the reference obligation in return, or (ii) an amount equal to the difference between the face amount and the current market value of the obligation. As a buyer, if a credit event occurs, the Fund would be the receiver of such contingent payments, either delivering the reference obligation in exchange for the full notional (face) value of a reference obligation that may have little or no value, or receiving a payment equal to the difference between the face amount and the current market value of the obligation.

The value of the reference obligation received by the Fund as a seller if a credit event occurs, coupled with the periodic payments previously received, may be less than the full notional value it pays to the buyer, resulting in a loss of value to the Fund.

If the Fund is a buyer and no credit event occurs, the Fund will lose its periodic stream of payments over the term of the contract. However, if a credit event occurs, the buyer typically receives full notional value for a reference obligation that may have little or no value.

Credit default swaps may involve greater risks than if a Fund had invested in the reference obligation directly. Credit default swaps are subject to general market risk and credit risk, and may be illiquid.

— Currency Swaps. A Fund may enter into currency swaps for hedging purposes in an attempt to protect against adverse changes in exchange rates between the U.S. Dollar and other currencies or for non-hedging purposes as a means of making direct investments in foreign currencies, as described below under “Currency Transactions”. Currency swaps involve the exchange by the Fund with another party of a series of payments in specified currencies. Currency swaps may involve the exchange of actual principal amounts of currencies by the counterparties at the initiation and again upon termination of the transaction. Currency swaps may be bilateral and privately negotiated, with the Fund expecting to achieve an acceptable degree of correlation between its portfolio investments and its currency swaps positions. The Funds will not enter into any currency swap unless the credit quality of the unsecured senior debt or the claims-paying ability of the counterparty thereto is rated in the highest short-term rating category of at least one nationally recognized statistical rating organization (“NRSRO”) at the time of entering into the transaction.

— Swaps: Interest Rate Transactions. A Fund may enter into interest rate swap, swaption and cap or floor transactions, which may include preserving a return or spread on a particular investment or portion of its portfolio or protecting against an increase in the price of securities the Fund anticipates purchasing at a later date. Unless there is a counterparty default,

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the risk of loss to a Fund from interest rate transactions is limited to the net amount of interest payments that the Fund is contractually obligated to make. If the counterparty to an interest rate transaction defaults, the Fund’s risk of loss consists of the net amount of interest payments that the Fund is contractually entitled to receive.

Interest rate swaps involve the exchange by a Fund with another party of payments calculated by reference to specified interest rates (e.g., an exchange of floating-rate payments for fixed-rate payments) computed based on a contractually-based principal (or “notional”) amount.

An option on a swap agreement, also called a “swaption”, is an option that gives the buyer the right, but not the obligation, to enter into a swap on a future date in exchange for paying a market-based “premium”. A receiver swaption gives the owner the right to receive the total return of a specified asset, reference rate, or index. A payer swaption gives the owner the right to pay the total return of a specified asset, reference rate, or index. Swaptions also include options that allow an existing swap to be terminated or extended by one of the counterparties.

Interest rate caps and floors are similar to options in that the purchase of an interest rate cap or floor entitles the purchaser, to the extent that a specified index exceeds (in the case of a cap) or falls below (in the case of a floor) a predetermined interest rate, to receive payments of interest on a notional amount from the party selling the interest rate cap or floor. It may be more difficult for a Fund to trade or close out interest rate caps and floors in comparison to other types of swaps.

These transactions do not involve the delivery of securities or other underlying assets or principal. A Fund will enter into bilateral swap agreements, including interest rate swap, swaptions, cap or floor transactions but excluding currency swaps, which are subject to separate counterparty requirements as addressed above, only with counterparties who have credit ratings of at least A- (or the equivalent) from any one NRSRO or counterparties with guarantors with debt securities having such a rating. For cleared swaps, the Adviser will monitor the creditworthiness of each of the central clearing counterparty, clearing broker and executing broker but there will be no prescribed NRSRO rating requirements for these entities.

Inflation (CPI) Swaps. Inflation swap agreements are contracts in which one party agrees to pay the cumulative percentage increase in a price index (the Consumer Price Index with respect to CPI swaps) over the term of the swap (with some lag on the inflation index), and the other pays a compounded fixed rate. Inflation swap agreements may be used to protect the NAV of the Fund against an unexpected change in the rate of inflation measured by an inflation index since the value of these agreements is expected to increase if inflation increases.

Total Return Swaps. A Fund may enter into total return swaps in order to take a “long” or “short” position with respect to an underlying referenced asset. The Fund is subject to market price volatility of the underlying referenced asset. A total return swap involves commitments to pay interest in exchange for a market linked return based on a notional amount. To the extent that the total return of the security group of securities or index underlying the

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transaction exceeds or falls short of the offsetting interest obligation, the Fund will receive a payment from or make a payment to the counterparty. Total return swaps may reflect a leveraged investment and incorporate borrowing costs which are borne by the Fund. There is no guarantee that the Fund’s investment via a total return swap will deliver returns in excess of the embedded borrowing costs and, accordingly, the Fund’s performance may be less than would be achieved by a direct investment in the underlying referenced asset.

Variance and Correlation Swaps. A Fund, except Tax-Aware, may enter into variance or correlation swaps in an attempt to hedge market risk or adjust exposure to the markets. Variance swaps are contracts in which two parties agree to exchange cash payments based on the difference between the stated level of variance and the actual variance realized on an underlying asset or index. Actual “variance” as used here is defined as the sum of the square of the returns on the reference asset or index (which in effect is a measure of its “volatility”) over the length of the contract term. In other words, the parties to a variance swap can be said to exchange actual volatility for a contractually stated rate of volatility. Correlation swaps are contracts in which two parties agree to exchange cash payments based on the differences between the stated and the actual correlation realized on the underlying securities within a given index. “Correlation” as used here is defined as the weighted average of the correlations between the daily returns of each pair of securities within a given index. If two assets are said to be closely correlated, it means that their daily returns vary in similar proportions or along similar trajectories.

Special Risks Associated with Swaps. Risks may arise as a result of the failure of the counterparty to a bilateral swap contract to comply with the terms of the swap contract. The loss incurred by the failure of a counterparty is generally limited to the net interim payment to be received by a Fund, and/or the termination value at the end of the contract. Therefore, the Fund considers the creditworthiness of the counterparty to a bilateral swap contract. The risk is mitigated by having a netting arrangement between the Fund and the counterparty and by the posting of collateral by the counterparty to the Fund to cover the Fund’s exposure to the counterparty.

Additionally, swap values can be highly volatile and expose investors to a high risk of loss. The low initial margin deposits normally required to establish a swap position permit a high degree of leverage. As a result, depending on the type of swap, a relatively small movement in the price of the underlying reference asset or in the market value of the contract may result in a profit or loss which is high in proportion to the amount of funds deposited as initial margin and may result in unquantifiable further loss exceeding any margin deposited. Such risks may arise from unanticipated movements in interest rates or in the value of the underlying securities. The Fund accrues for the changes in value on swap contracts on a daily basis, with the net amount recorded within unrealized appreciation/depreciation of swap contracts on the statement of assets and liabilities. Once the interim payments are settled in cash, the net amount is recorded as realized gain/(loss) on swaps on the statement of operations, in addition to any realized gain/(loss) recorded upon the termination of swap contracts. Fluctuations in the value of swap contracts are recorded as a component of net change in unrealized appreciation/depreciation of swap contracts on the statement of operations.

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Swaps entered into in the OTC market are more likely to be illiquid than exchange-traded instruments as there is no exchange market on which to close out an open OTC swap position. It may therefore be impossible to liquidate an existing position (or to do so at an advantageous price), to assess the value of the position, or to assess the exposure to risk associated with the position.

Eurodollar Contracts. Eurodollars are time deposits denominated in U.S. dollars and are held at banks outside the U.S., which could be foreign banks or overseas branches of U.S. banks. Eurodollar contracts are U.S. Dollar-denominated futures contracts or options thereon that are tied to a reference rate, such as the Secured Overnight Financing Rate (SOFR), paid on such deposits, and are subject to the same limitations and risks as other futures contracts and options. A Fund may use Eurodollar instruments to hedge against changes in the reference rate. LIBOR’s administrator, ICE Benchmark Administration, ceased publishing most LIBOR settings (including some U.S. LIBOR settings) by the end of 2021 and the remaining (and most widely used) U.S. Dollar LIBOR settings after June 30, 2023. See “LIBOR Replacement Risk” in the Funds’ Prospectus for additional information about those instruments that were tied to the London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”).

Currency Transactions. A Fund may invest in non-U.S. Dollar-denominated securities on a currency hedged or un-hedged basis. The Adviser may actively manage the Fund’s currency exposures and may seek investment opportunities by taking long or short positions in currencies through the use of currency-related derivatives, including forward currency exchange contracts, futures contracts and options on futures contracts, swaps and options. The Adviser may enter into transactions for investment opportunities when it anticipates that a foreign currency will appreciate or depreciate in value but securities denominated in that currency are not held by the Fund and do not present attractive investment opportunities. Such transactions may also be used when the Adviser believes that it may be more efficient than a direct investment in a foreign currency-denominated security. The Funds may also conduct currency exchange contracts on a spot basis (i.e., for cash at the spot rate prevailing in the currency exchange market for buying or selling currencies).

Event-Linked Securities

Event-linked securities are variable rate or fixed-rate fixed-income securities or types of equity securities for which the return of principal and payment of interest are contingent on the severity or non-occurrence of various specified catastrophic events, which may be specific trigger events or a diversified group of events, such as hurricanes, typhoons, wind events or earthquakes. The most common type of fixed-income securities are known as “catastrophe” or “CAT” bonds. In some cases, the trigger event(s) will not be deemed to have occurred unless the event(s) happened in a particular geographic area and was of a certain magnitude (based on independent scientific readings) or caused a certain amount of actual or modeled loss. If the trigger event(s) occurs prior to the securities’ maturity, the Fund may lose all or a portion of its principal and forgo additional interest.

These securities may have a special condition that states that if the issuer (i.e., an insurance or reinsurance company) suffers a loss from a particular pre-defined catastrophe, then

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the issuer’s obligation to pay interest and/or repay the principal is either deferred or completely forgiven. For example, if a Fund holds a fixed-income security that covers an insurer’s losses due to a hurricane with a “trigger” at $1 billion and a hurricane hits causing $1 billion or more in losses to such insurer, then the Fund will lose all or a portion of its principal invested in the security and forgo any future interest payments. If the trigger event(s) does not occur, the Fund will recover its principal plus interest. Interest typically accrues and is paid on a quarterly basis. Although principal typically is repaid only on the maturity date, it may be repaid in installments, depending on the terms of the securities.

Event-linked securities may be issued by government agencies, insurance companies, reinsurers, special purpose companies or other on-shore or off-shore entities. Event-linked securities are a relatively new type of financial instrument. As a result, there is no significant trading history of these securities and these securities may be illiquid or the markets for these instruments may not be liquid at all times. These securities may be rated, generally below investment grade by a NRSRO or the unrated equivalent, and have the same or equivalent risks as higher yield debt securities (“junk bonds”). The rating primarily reflects the NRSRO’s calculated probability that a pre-defined trigger event will occur as well as the overall expected loss to the principal of the security.

Forward Commitments and When-Issued and Delayed Delivery Securities

Forward commitments for the purchase or sale of securities may include purchases on a “when-issued” basis or purchases or sales on a “delayed delivery” basis. In some cases, a forward commitment may be conditioned upon the occurrence of a subsequent event, such as approval and consummation of a merger, corporate reorganization or debt restructuring (i.e., a “when, as and if issued” trade). When forward commitment transactions are negotiated, the price is fixed at the time the commitment is made. The Fund assumes the rights and risks of ownership of the security, but the Fund does not pay for the securities until they are received. If a Fund is fully or almost fully invested when forward commitment purchases are outstanding, such purchases may result in a form of leverage. Leveraging the portfolio in this manner may increase the Fund’s volatility of returns.

When-issued securities and forward commitments may be sold prior to the settlement date. If the Fund chooses to dispose of the right to acquire a when-issued security prior to its acquisition or dispose of its right to deliver or receive against a forward commitment, it may incur a gain or loss. Any significant commitment of Fund assets to the purchase of securities on a “when, as and if issued” basis may increase the volatility of the Fund’s NAV.

The use of forward commitments enables a Fund to protect against anticipated changes in exchange rates, interest rates and/or prices. For instance, a Fund may enter into a forward contract when it enters into a contract for the purchase or sale of a security denominated in a foreign currency in order to “lock in” the U.S. Dollar price of the security (“transaction hedge”). In addition, when a Fund believes that a foreign currency may suffer a substantial decline against the U.S. Dollar, it may enter into a forward sale contract to sell an amount of that foreign currency approximating the value of some or all of that Fund’s securities denominated in such foreign currency, or when the Fund believes that the U.S. Dollar may suffer a substantial

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decline against a foreign currency, it may enter into a forward purchase contract to buy that foreign currency for a fixed dollar amount (“position hedge”). If the Adviser were to forecast incorrectly the direction of exchange rate movements, a Fund might be required to complete or settle when-issued or forward transactions at prices inferior to the then current market values.

Forward commitments include “To be announced” (“TBA”) mortgage-backed securities, which are contracts for the purchase or sale of mortgage-backed securities to be delivered at a future agreed-upon date, whereby the specific mortgage pool number or the number of pools that will be delivered to fulfill the trade obligation or terms of the contract are unknown at the time of the trade. Subsequent to the time of the trade, a mortgage pool or pools guaranteed by the Government National Mortgage Association, or GNMA, the Federal National Mortgage Association, or FNMA, or the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation, or FHLMC, (including fixed-rate or variable-rate mortgages) are allocated to the TBA mortgage-backed securities transactions.

At the time a Fund enters into a forward commitment, it will record the transaction and thereafter reflect the value of the security purchased or, if a sale, the proceeds to be received, in determining its NAV. Any unrealized appreciation or depreciation reflected in such valuation of a “when, as and if issued” security would be canceled in the event that the required conditions did not occur and the trade was canceled.

Purchases of securities on a forward commitment or when-issued basis may involve more risk than other types of purchases. For example, by committing to purchase securities in the future, a Fund subjects itself to a risk of loss on such commitments as well as on its portfolio securities. Also, a Fund may have to sell assets which have been set aside in order to meet redemptions. In addition, if a Fund determines it is advisable as a matter of investment strategy to sell the forward commitment or “when-issued” or “delayed delivery” securities before delivery, that Fund may incur a gain or loss because of market fluctuations since the time the commitment to purchase such securities was made. Any such gain or loss would be treated as a capital gain or loss for tax purposes. When the time comes to pay for the securities to be purchased under a forward commitment or on a “when-issued” or “delayed delivery” basis, the Fund will meet its obligations from the then available cash flow or the sale of securities, or, although it would not normally expect to do so, from the sale of the forward commitment or “when-issued” or “delayed delivery” securities themselves (which may have a value greater or less than the Fund’s payment obligation). No interest or dividends accrue to the purchaser prior to the settlement date for securities purchased or sold under a forward commitment. In addition, in the event the other party to the transaction files for bankruptcy, becomes insolvent, or defaults on its obligation, a Fund may be adversely affected.

Illiquid Securities

A Fund will not invest in illiquid securities if immediately after such investment more than 15% of the Fund’s net assets would be invested in such securities. Under Rule 22e-4 under the 1940 Act, the term illiquid securities means any security or investment that a Fund reasonably expects cannot be sold or disposed of in current market conditions in seven calendar

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days or less without the sale or disposition significantly changing the market value of the investment.

Mutual funds do not typically hold a significant amount of restricted securities (securities that are subject to restrictions on resale to the general public) or other illiquid securities because of the potential for delays on resale and uncertainty in valuation. Limitations on resale may have an adverse effect on the marketability of portfolio securities and a mutual fund might be unable to dispose of restricted or other illiquid securities promptly or at reasonable prices and might thereby experience difficulty satisfying redemptions within seven days. A mutual fund may also have to take certain steps or wait a certain amount of time in order to remove the transfer restrictions for such restricted securities in order to dispose of them, resulting in additional expense and delay.

Rule 144A under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”) allows a broader institutional trading market for securities otherwise subject to restriction on resale to the general public. Rule 144A establishes a “safe harbor” from the registration requirements of the Securities Act for resales of certain securities to qualified institutional buyers (“Rule 144A Securities”). An insufficient number of qualified institutional buyers interested in purchasing certain restricted securities held by a Fund, however, could adversely affect the marketability of such portfolio securities and the Fund might be unable to dispose of such securities promptly or at reasonable prices.

The Funds have adopted a liquidity risk management program pursuant to Rule 22e-4 under the 1940 Act and related procedures to categorize each Fund’s investments, including Rule 144A Securities, and identify illiquid investments.

Insurance Feature

The insurance feature is generally described in the Prospectus under “Additional Information about the Funds’ Strategies, Risks and Investments—Insured Securities.”

Tax-Aware may obtain insurance on its municipal bonds or purchase insured municipal bonds covered by policies issued by monoline insurance companies. Currently, Assured Guaranty Municipal Corp. (“AGM”) is the insurer most actively writing policies on newly issued municipal bonds. AGM (formerly, Financial Security Assurance Holdings Ltd.) is an indirect subsidiary of Assured Guaranty Ltd. (“Assured”). In addition, Build America Mutual Assurance Company (“BAM”) insures newly issued municipal bonds. BAM is a New York domiciled mutual insurance company owned by the issuers of municipal bonds who use BAM to insure their debt obligations. Prior to the 2008 financial crisis, there were several other insurers writing policies on municipal bonds, but the ratings of these insurers have been downgraded (in most cases, severely downgraded) and, while they are still insuring municipal bonds under policies written prior to the financial crisis, they generally are no longer writing new policies. As noted above, these insurers have been downgraded and it is possible that additional downgrades may occur. NRSRO ratings reflect the respective NRSRO’s current assessment of the creditworthiness of each insurer and its ability to pay claims on its policies of insurance. Any further explanation as to the significance of the ratings may be obtained only from the applicable NRSRO. The ratings are not recommendations to buy, sell or hold the municipal bonds, and

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such ratings may be subject to revision or withdrawal at any time by the NRSROs. Any downward revision or withdrawal of either or both ratings may have an adverse effect on the market price of the municipal bonds.

It should be noted that insurance is not a substitute for the basic credit of an issuer, but supplements the existing credit and provides additional security therefor. Moreover, while insurance coverage for the municipal securities held by Tax-Aware may reduce credit risk, it does not protect against market fluctuations caused by changes in interest rates and other factors. As a result of declines in the credit quality and associated downgrades of most municipal bond insurers, insurance has less value than it did in the past. The market now values insured municipal securities primarily based on the credit quality of the issuer of the security with little value given to the insurance feature. In purchasing insured municipal securities, the Adviser currently evaluates the risk and return of such securities through its own research.

Investment in Exchange-Traded Funds and Other Investment Companies

The Funds may invest in shares of ETFs, including AB ETFs, subject to the restrictions and limitations of the 1940 Act, or any applicable rules, exemptive orders or regulatory guidance. ETFs are pooled investment vehicles that seek to track the performance of a specific index or implement actively-managed investment strategies. Index ETFs will not track their underlying indices precisely since the ETFs have expenses and may need to hold a portion of their assets in cash, unlike the underlying indices, and the ETFs may not invest in all of the securities in the underlying indices in the same proportion as the indices for various reasons. Unlike index ETFs, actively-managed ETFs generally seek to outperform a benchmark index and typically have higher expenses than index ETFs, which expenses reduce investment returns. There are numerous types of index ETFs and actively managed ETFs, including those offering exposure to broad or narrow segments of the equity, fixed income, commodities and foreign currencies markets. The Funds will incur transaction costs when buying and selling ETF shares, and indirectly bear the expenses of the ETFs. In addition, the market value of an ETF’s shares, which is based on supply and demand in the market for the ETF’s shares, may differ from its NAV. Accordingly, there may be times when an ETF’s shares trade at a discount or premium to its NAV.

The Funds may invest, and have invested from time to time, in investment companies other than ETFs, including AB Mutual Funds, as permitted by the 1940 Act or the rules and regulations or exemptive orders thereunder. The Funds intend to invest uninvested cash balances in an affiliated money market fund as permitted by Rule 12d1-1 under the 1940 Act. As with ETF investments, if the Funds acquire shares in other investment companies, shareholders would bear, indirectly, the expenses of such investment companies (which may include management and advisory fees), which to the extent not waived or reimbursed, would be in addition to the Funds’ expenses. A Fund’s investment in other investment companies, including ETFs, subjects the Fund indirectly to the underlying risks of those investment companies.

To the extent that a Fund is an “acquired fund” for purposes of Rule 12d1-4, the Fund intends to limit its investments in the securities of other investment companies and private funds to no more than 10% of its total assets, subject to certain limited exceptions permitted under the Rule.

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Loans of Portfolio Securities

A Fund may seek to increase income by lending portfolio securities to brokers, dealers, and financial institutions (“borrowers”) to the extent permitted under the 1940 Act or the rules or regulations thereunder (as such statute, rules, or regulations may be amended from time to time) or by guidance regarding, interpretations of, or exemptive orders under, the 1940 Act. Under a Fund’s securities lending program, all securities loans will be secured continuously by cash collateral and/or non-cash collateral. Non-cash collateral will include only securities issued or guaranteed by the U.S. Government or one of its agencies or instrumentalities. Principal risks of lending portfolio securities include that the borrower will fail to return the loaned securities upon termination of the loan and, that the value of the collateral will not be sufficient to replace the loaned securities upon the borrower’s default.

In determining whether to lend securities to a particular borrower, the Adviser (subject to oversight by the Board) will consider all relevant facts and circumstances, including the creditworthiness of the borrower. The loans will be made only to borrowers deemed by the Adviser to be creditworthy and when, in the judgment of the Adviser, the consideration that can be earned currently from securities loans of this type justifies the attendant risk. If a loan is collateralized by cash, a Fund will be compensated for the loan from a portion of the net return from the interest earned on cash collateral after a rebate paid to the borrower (in some cases, this rebate may be a “negative rebate”, or fee paid by the borrower to the Fund in connection with the loan). If the Fund receives non-cash collateral, the Fund will receive a fee from the borrower generally equal to a negotiated percentage of the market value of the loaned securities. For its services, the securities lending agent receives a fee from the Fund.

A Fund will have the right to call a loan and obtain the securities loaned on notice to the borrower within the normal and customary settlement time for the securities. While the securities are on loan, the borrower is obligated to pay the Fund amounts equal to any income or other distribution from the securities.

A Fund will invest any cash collateral in shares of a money market fund approved by the Board and expected to be managed by the Adviser. Any such investment will be at the Fund’s risk. The Fund may pay reasonable finders’, administrative, and custodial fees in connection with a loan.

A Fund will not have the right to vote any securities during the existence of a loan, but will have the right to recall loaned securities in order to exercise voting or other ownership rights. When the Fund lends its securities, its investment performance will continue to reflect changes in the value of securities loaned.

Loan Participations and Assignments

A Fund may invest in direct debt instruments, which are interests in amounts owed to lenders or lending syndicates by corporate, governmental, or other borrowers (“Loans”) either by participating as co-lender at the time the Loan is originated (“Participations”) or by buying an

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interest in the Loan in the secondary market from a financial institution or institutional investor (“Assignments”). A Loan is often administered by a bank or other financial institution that acts as agent for all the holders. The financial status of the agent interposed between a Fund and a borrower may affect the ability of the Fund to receive principal and interest payments.

The success of a Fund’s investment may depend on the skill with which an agent bank administers the terms of the corporate loan agreements, monitors borrower compliance with covenants, collects principal, interest and fee payments from borrowers and, where necessary, enforces creditor remedies against borrowers. Agents typically have broad discretion in enforcing loan agreements.

A Fund’s investment in Participations typically will result in the Fund having a contractual relationship only with the financial institution arranging the Loan with the borrower (the “Lender”) and not with the borrower directly. A Fund will have the right to receive payments of principal, interest and any fees to which it is entitled only from the Lender selling the Participation and only upon receipt by the Lender of the payments from the borrower. In connection with purchasing Participations, the Fund generally will have no right to enforce compliance by the borrower with the terms of the loan agreement relating to the Loan, nor any rights of set-off against the borrower, and the Fund may not directly benefit from any collateral supporting the Loan in which it has purchased the Participation. As a result, the Fund may be subject to the credit risk of both the borrower and the Lender that is selling the Participation. In the event of the insolvency of the Lender selling a Participation, the Fund may be treated as a general creditor of the Lender and may not benefit from any set-off between the Lender and the borrower. Certain Participations may be structured in a manner designed to avoid purchasers of Participations being subject to the credit risk of the Lender with respect to the Participation; but even under such a structure, in the event of the Lender’s insolvency, the Lender’s servicing of the Participation may be delayed and the assignability of the Participation impaired. A Fund will acquire Participations only if the Lender interpositioned between the Fund and the borrower is a Lender having total assets of more than $25 billion and whose senior unsecured debt is rated investment grade by a NRSRO.

When a Fund purchases Assignments from Lenders it will typically acquire direct rights against the borrower on a Loan. Because Assignments are arranged through private negotiations between potential assignees and potential assignors, however, the rights and obligations acquired by the Fund as the purchaser of an assignment may differ from, and be more limited than, those held by the assigning Lender. The assignability of certain obligations is restricted by the governing documentation as to the nature of the assignee such that the only way in which the Fund may acquire an interest in a Loan is through a Participation and not an Assignment.

Loans in which a Fund may invest include participations in “bridge loans”, which are loans taken out by borrowers for a short period (typically less than six months) pending arrangement of more permanent financing through, for example, the issuance of bonds, frequently high-yield bonds issued for the purpose of an acquisition. A Fund may also participate in unfunded loan commitments, which are contractual obligations for future funding, and receive a commitment fee based on the amount of the commitment.

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A Fund may have difficulty disposing of Assignments and Participations because in order to do so it will have to assign such securities to a third party. Because there is no liquid market for such securities, the Fund anticipates that such securities could be sold only to a limited number of institutional investors. The lack of a liquid secondary market may have an adverse impact on the value of such securities and the Fund’s ability to dispose of particular Assignments or Participations when necessary to meet the Fund’s liquidity needs in response to a specific economic event such as a deterioration in the creditworthiness of the borrower. The lack of a liquid secondary market for Assignments and Participations also may make it more difficult for the Fund to assign a value to these securities for purposes of valuing the Fund’s portfolio and calculating its asset value.

Mortgage-Related Securities, Other Asset-Backed Securities and Structured Financings

The mortgage-related securities in which a Fund may invest typically are securities representing interests in pools of mortgage loans made by lenders such as savings and loan associations, mortgage bankers and commercial banks and are assembled for sale to investors (such as the Funds) by governmental, government-related or private organizations. Private organizations include commercial banks, savings associations, mortgage companies, investment banking firms, finance companies, special purpose finance entities (called special purpose vehicles or SPVs) and other entities that acquire and package loans for resales as mortgage-related securities. Specifically, these securities may include pass-through mortgage-related securities, collateralized mortgage obligations (“CMOs”), CMO residuals, adjustable-rate mortgage securities (“ARMS”), stripped mortgage-backed securities (“SMBSs”), commercial mortgage-backed securities (“CMBS”), TBA mortgage-backed securities, mortgage dollar rolls, collateralized obligations and other securities that directly or indirectly represent a participation in or are secured by and payable from mortgage loans on real property and other assets.

Pass-Through Mortgage-Related Securities. Interests in pools of mortgage-related securities differ from other forms of debt securities, which normally provide for periodic payment of interest in fixed amounts with principal payments at maturity or specified call dates. Instead, these securities provide a monthly payment consisting of both interest and principal payments. In effect, these payments are a “pass-through” of the monthly payments made by the individual borrowers on their residential mortgage loans, net of any fees paid to the issuer or guarantor of such securities. Additional payments are caused by repayments of principal resulting from the sale of the underlying residential property, refinancing or foreclosure, net of fees or costs that may be incurred. Some mortgage-related securities, such as securities issued by GNMA, are described as “modified pass-through”. These securities entitle the holder to receive all interest and principal payments owed on the mortgage pool, net of certain fees, regardless of whether or not the mortgagor actually makes the payment.

The average life of pass-through pools varies with the maturities of the underlying mortgage instruments. In addition, a pool’s term may be shortened by unscheduled or early payments of principal and interest on the underlying mortgages. The occurrence of mortgage prepayments is affected by factors including the level of interest rates, general economic conditions, the location and age of the mortgage and other social and demographic conditions.

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As prepayment rates of individual pools vary widely, it is not possible to accurately predict the average life of a particular pool.

Yields on pass-through securities are typically quoted by investment dealers and vendors based on the maturity of the underlying instruments and the associated average life assumption. In periods of falling interest rates, the rate of prepayment tends to increase, thereby shortening the actual average life of a pool of mortgage-related securities. Conversely, in periods of rising interest rates the rate of prepayment tends to decrease, thereby lengthening the actual average life of the pool. Actual prepayment experience may cause the yield to differ from the assumed average life yield. Reinvestment of prepayments may occur at higher or lower interest rates than the original investment, thus affecting the yield of the Fund. The compounding effect from reinvestment of monthly payments received by the Fund will increase the yield to shareholders compared with bonds that pay interest semi-annually.

The principal governmental (i.e., backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Government) guarantor of mortgage-related securities is GNMA. GNMA is a wholly-owned U.S. Government corporation within the Department of Housing and Urban Development. GNMA is authorized to guarantee, with the full faith and credit of the U.S. Government, the timely payment of principal and interest on securities issued by institutions approved by GNMA (such as savings and loan institutions, commercial banks and mortgage bankers) and backed by pools of Federal Housing Administration-insured or U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs-guaranteed mortgages.

Government-related (i.e., not backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Government) guarantors include FNMA and FHLMC. FNMA and FHLMC are government-sponsored corporations or corporate instrumentalities of the U.S. Government respectively (government-sponsored entities or “GSEs”), which were owned entirely by private stockholders until 2008 when they were placed in conservatorship by the U.S. Government in an effort to provide stability in the financial markets and put the GSEs in a sound and solvent condition. After being placed in conservatorship, the GSEs issued senior preferred stock and common stock to the U.S. Department of the Treasury (“U.S. Treasury”) in an amount equal to 79.9% of each GSE in return for certain funding and liquidity arrangements. The GSEs continue to operate as going concerns while in conservatorship and each remains liable for all of its obligations associated with its mortgage-backed securities. The U.S. Treasury provided additional funding to the GSEs, but the GSEs have paid dividends to the U.S. Treasury in a cumulative amount that exceeds the payments made to the GSEs by the U.S. Treasury since 2008. The future of the GSEs is unclear as Congress has considered proposals to wind down or restructure the operations of the GSEs. It is uncertain what legislation, if any, may be proposed in the future in Congress or which proposals, if any, might be enacted. The passage of any such proposal has the potential to impact the value of securities issued by a GSE, which could adversely affect the liquidity and value of a Fund’s portfolio. FNMA purchases residential mortgages from a list of approved seller/servicers which include state and federally-chartered savings and loan associations, mutual savings banks, commercial banks and credit unions and mortgage bankers. Pass-through securities issued by FNMA are guaranteed as to timely payment of principal and interest by FNMA. Participation certificates issued by FHLMC, which represent interests in mortgages

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from FHLMC’s national portfolio, are guaranteed by FHLMC as to the timely payment of interest and ultimate collection of principal.

Commercial banks, savings and loan associations, private mortgage insurance companies, mortgage bankers and other secondary market issuers create pass-through pools of conventional residential mortgage loans. Securities representing interests in pools created by non-governmental private issuers generally offer a higher rate of interest than securities representing interests in pools created by governmental issuers because there are no direct or indirect governmental guarantees of the underlying mortgage payments. However, private issuers sometimes obtain committed loan facilities, lines of credit, letters of credit, surety bonds or other forms of liquidity and credit enhancement to support the timely payment of interest and principal with respect to their securities if the borrowers on the underlying mortgages fail to make their mortgage payments. The ratings of such non-governmental securities are generally dependent upon the ratings of the providers of such liquidity and credit support and would be adversely affected if the rating of such an enhancer were downgraded.

The structuring of the pass-through pool may also provide credit enhancement. Examples of such credit support arising out of the structure of the transaction include the issue of senior and subordinated securities (e.g., the issuance of securities by a SPV in multiple classes or “tranches”, with one or more classes being senior to other subordinated classes as to payment of principal and interest, with the result that defaults on the underlying mortgage loans are borne first by the holders of the subordinated class); creation of “reserve funds” (in which case cash or investments sometimes funded from a portion of the payments on the underlying mortgage loans, are held in reserve against future losses); and “overcollateralization” (in which case the scheduled payments on, or the principal amount of, the underlying mortgage loans exceeds that required to make payment of the securities and pay any servicing or other fees). There can be no guarantee that the credit enhancements, if any will be sufficient to prevent losses in the event of defaults on the underlying mortgage loans.

In addition, mortgage-related securities that are issued by private issuers are not subject to the underwriting requirements for the underlying mortgages that are applicable to those mortgage-related securities that have a government or GSE guarantee. As a result, the mortgage loans underlying private mortgage-related securities may, and frequently do, have less favorable collateral, credit risk or other underwriting characteristics than government or government-sponsored, mortgage-related securities and have wider variances in a number of terms, including interest rate, term, size, purposes and borrower characteristics. Privately-issued pools more frequently include second mortgages, high loan-to-value mortgages and manufactured housing loans. The coupon rates and maturities of the underlying mortgage loans in a private-label, mortgage-related pool may vary to a greater extent than those included in a government guaranteed pool, and the pool may include subprime mortgage loans. Subprime loans refer to loans made to borrowers with weakened credit histories or with a lower capacity to make timely payments on their loans. For these reasons, the loans underlying these securities have had in many cases higher default rates than those loans that meet government underwriting requirements.

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Collateralized Mortgage Obligations. Another form of mortgage-related security is a “pay-through” security, which is a debt obligation of the issuer secured by a pool of mortgage loans pledged as collateral that is legally required to be paid by the issuer, regardless of whether payments are actually made on the underlying mortgages. CMOs are the predominant type of “pay-through” mortgage-related security. In a CMO, a series of bonds or certificates is issued in multiple classes. Each class of a CMO, often referred to as a “tranche”, is issued at a specific coupon rate and has a stated maturity or final distribution date. Principal prepayments on collateral underlying a CMO may cause one or more tranches of the CMO to be retired substantially earlier than the stated maturities or final distribution dates of the collateral. Although payment of the principal of, and interest on, the underlying collateral securing privately issued CMOs may be guaranteed by GNMA, FNMA or FHLMC, these CMOs represent obligations solely of the private issuer and are not insured or guaranteed by GNMA, FNMA, FHLMC, any other governmental agency or any other person or entity.

Adjustable-Rate Mortgage Securities. ARMS bear interest at a rate determined by reference to a predetermined interest rate or index. ARMS may be secured by fixed-rate mortgages or adjustable-rate mortgages. ARMS secured by fixed-rate mortgages generally have lifetime caps on the coupon rates of the securities. To the extent that general interest rates increase faster than the interest rates on the ARMS, these ARMS will decline in value. The adjustable-rate mortgages that secure ARMS will frequently have caps that limit the maximum amount by which the interest rate or the monthly principal and interest payments on the mortgages may increase. These payment caps can result in negative amortization (i.e., an increase in the balance of the mortgage loan). Furthermore, since many adjustable-rate mortgages only reset on an annual basis, the values of ARMS tend to fluctuate to the extent that changes in prevailing interest rates are not immediately reflected in the interest rates payable on the underlying adjustable-rate mortgages.

Stripped Mortgage-Related Securities. SMRS are mortgage-related securities that are usually structured with separate classes of securities collateralized by a pool of mortgages or a pool of mortgage-backed bonds or pass-through securities, with each class receiving different proportions of the principal and interest payments from the underlying assets. A common type of SMRS has one class of interest-only securities (IOs) receiving all of the interest payments from the underlying assets and one class of principal-only securities (Pos) receiving all of the principal payments from the underlying assets. IOs and POs are extremely sensitive to interest rate changes and are more volatile than mortgage-related securities that are not stripped. IOs tend to decrease in value as interest rates decrease and are extremely sensitive to the rate of principal payments (including prepayments) on the related underlying mortgage assets, and a rapid rate of principal prepayments may have a material adverse effect on the yield to maturity of the IO class. POs generally increase in value as interest rates decrease. If prepayments of the underlying mortgages are greater than anticipated, the amount of interest earned on the overall pool will decrease due to the decreasing principal balance of the assets. Due to their structure and underlying cash flows, SMRS may be more volatile than mortgage-related securities that are not stripped. Changes in the values of IOs and POs can be substantial and occur quickly, such as occurred in the first half of 1994 when the value of many POs dropped precipitously due to increases in interest rates.

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With respect to residential SMRS, a Fund will only invest in such SMRS that are issued by the U.S. Government, its agencies or instrumentalities and supported by the full faith and credit of the United States or by other U.S. Government sponsored entities. Although SMRS are purchased and sold by institutional investors through several investment banking firms acting as brokers or dealers, the complexity of these instruments and the smaller number of investors in the sector can lend to illiquid markets in the sector.

Commercial Mortgage-Backed Securities. CMBS are securities that represent an interest in, or are secured by, mortgage loans secured by multifamily or commercial properties, such as industrial and warehouse properties, office buildings, retail space and shopping malls, and cooperative apartments, hotels and motels, nursing homes, hospitals and senior living centers. CMBS have been issued in public and private transactions by a variety of public and private issuers using a variety of structures, some of which were developed in the residential mortgage context, including multi-class structures featuring senior and subordinated classes. CMBS may pay fixed or floating rates of interest. The commercial mortgage loans that underlie commercial mortgage-related securities have certain distinct risk characteristics. Commercial mortgage loans generally lack standardized terms, which may complicate their structure, tend to have shorter maturities than residential mortgage loans and may not be fully amortizing. Commercial properties themselves tend to be unique and are more difficult to value than single-family residential properties. CMBS are subject to heightened risks due to the significant economic impacts of COVID-19 on commercial real estate. In addition, commercial properties, particularly industrial and warehouse properties, are subject to environmental risks and the burdens and costs of compliance with environmental laws and regulations. Global climate change may also have an adverse effect on property and security values.

Certain Risks. The value of mortgage-related securities is affected by a number of factors. Unlike traditional debt securities, which have fixed maturity dates, mortgage-related securities may be paid earlier than expected as a result of prepayments of underlying mortgages. Such prepayments generally occur during periods of falling mortgage interest rates. If property owners make unscheduled prepayments of their mortgage loans, these prepayments will result in the early payment of the applicable mortgage-related securities. In that event, the Fund may be unable to invest the proceeds from the early payment of the mortgage-related securities in investments that provide as high a yield as the mortgage-related securities. Early payments associated with mortgage-related securities cause these securities to experience significantly greater price and yield volatility than is experienced by traditional fixed-income securities. The level of general interest rates, general economic conditions and other social and demographic factors affect the occurrence of mortgage prepayments. During periods of falling interest rates, the rate of mortgage prepayments tends to increase, thereby tending to decrease the life of mortgage-related securities. Conversely, during periods of rising interest rates, a reduction in prepayments may increase the effective life of mortgage-related securities, subjecting them to greater risk of decline in market value in response to rising interest rates. If the life of a mortgage-related security is inaccurately predicted, the Fund may not be able to realize the rate of return it expected.

As with other fixed-income securities, there is also the risk of nonpayment of mortgage-related securities, particularly for those securities that are backed by mortgage pools that

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contain subprime loans. Market factors adversely affecting mortgage loan repayments include a general economic downturn, high unemployment, a general slowdown in the real estate market, a drop in the market prices of real estate, or higher mortgage payments required to be made by holders of adjustable rate mortgages due to scheduled increases or increases due to higher interest rates. To the extent a Fund invests in mortgage-related securities whose underlying mortgages include subprime or non-performing loans, the risk of default is generally greater.

Subordinated mortgage-related securities may have additional risks. The subordinated mortgage-related security may serve as credit support for the senior securities purchased by other investors. In addition, the payments of principal and interest on these subordinated securities generally will be made only after payments are made to the holders of securities senior to the subordinated securities. Therefore, if there are defaults on the underlying mortgage loans, the holders of subordinated mortgage-related securities will be less likely to receive payments of principal and interest and will be more likely to suffer a loss.

Commercial mortgage-related securities, like all fixed-income securities, generally decline in value as interest rates rise. Moreover, although generally the value of fixed-income securities increases during periods of falling interest rates, this inverse relationship is not as marked in the case of single-family residential mortgage-related securities, due to the increased likelihood of prepayments during periods of falling interest rates, and may not be as marked in the case of commercial mortgage-related securities. The process used to rate commercial mortgage-related securities may focus on, among other factors, the structure of the security, the quality and adequacy of collateral and insurance, and the creditworthiness of the originators, servicing companies and providers of credit support.

Although the market for mortgage-related securities is becoming increasingly liquid, those issued by certain private organizations may not be readily marketable and there may be a limited market for these securities, especially when there is a perceived weakness in the mortgage and real estate market sectors. In particular, the secondary markets for CMOs, IOs and POs may be more volatile and less liquid than those for other mortgage-related securities, thereby potentially limiting a Fund’s ability to buy or sell those securities at any particular time. Without an active trading market, mortgage-related securities held in a Fund’s portfolio may be particularly difficult to value because of the complexities involved in the value of the underlying mortgages. In addition, NRSROs may have difficulties in rating commercial mortgage-related securities through different economic cycles and in monitoring such ratings on a longer-term basis.

As with fixed-income securities generally, the value of mortgage-related securities can also be adversely affected by increases in general interest rates relative to the yield provided by such securities. Such an adverse effect is especially possible with fixed-rate mortgage securities. If the yield available on other investments rises above the yield of the fixed-rate mortgage securities as a result of general increases in interest rate levels, the value of the mortgage-related securities will decline.

GSE Risk-Sharing Bonds. Another type of mortgage-related security, known as GSE Risk-Sharing Bonds or Credit Risk Transfer securities ("CRTs"), transfers a portion of the risk of borrower defaults from the issuing GSE to investors through the issuance of a bond whose

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return of principal is linked to the performance of a selected pool of mortgages. CRTs are issued by GSEs (and sometimes banks or mortgage insurers) and structured without any government or GSE guarantee in respect of borrower defaults or underlying collateral. Typically, CRTs are issued at par and have stated final maturities. CRTs are structured so that: (i) interest is paid directly by the issuing GSE and (ii) principal is paid by the issuing GSE in accordance with the principal payments and default performance of a certain pool of residential mortgage loans acquired by the GSE.

The risks associated with an investment in CRTs differ from the risks associated with an investment in mortgage-backed securities issued by GSEs because, in CRTs, some or all of the credit risk associated with the underlying mortgage loans is transferred to the end-investor. As a result, in the event that a GSE fails to pay principal or interest on a CRT or goes through bankruptcy, insolvency or similar proceeding, holders of such CRT have no direct recourse to the underlying mortgage loans.

Other Asset-Backed Securities. A Fund may invest in other asset-backed securities, including interests in pools of lower-rated debt securities and corporate and consumer loans (including non-performing loans), among other things. Like mortgage-backed securities, these securities are pass-through, and the collateral supporting these securities generally is of short maturities.

The securitization techniques used to develop mortgage-related securities are being applied to a broad range of financial assets. Through the use of trusts and special purpose corporations, various types of assets, including automobile loans and leases, credit card receivables, home equity loans, equipment leases and trade receivables, are being securitized in structures similar to the structures used in mortgage securitizations. For example, the Fund may invest in collateralized debt obligations (“CDOs”), which include collateralized bond obligations (“CBOs”), collateralized loan obligations (“CLOs”), and other similarly structured securities. CBOs and CLOs are types of asset-backed securities. A CBO is a trust, which is backed by a diversified pool of high-risk, below investment grade fixed-income securities. A CLO is a trust typically collateralized by a pool of loans, which may include, among others, domestic and foreign senior secured loans, senior unsecured loans, and subordinate corporate loans, including loans that may be rated below investment grade by a NRSRO or equivalent unrated loans. These asset-backed securities are subject to risks associated with changes in interest rates, prepayment of underlying obligations and defaults similar to the risks of investment in mortgage-related securities discussed above.

Each type of asset-backed security also entails unique risks depending on the type of assets involved and the legal structure used. For example, credit card receivables are generally unsecured obligations of the credit card holder and the debtors are entitled to the protection of a number of state and federal consumer credit laws, many of which give such debtors the right to set off certain amounts owed on the credit cards, thereby reducing the balance due. There have also been proposals to cap the interest rate that a credit card issuer may charge. In some transactions, the value of the asset-backed security is dependent on the performance of a third party acting as credit enhancer or servicer. Furthermore, in some transactions (such as those involving the securitization of vehicle loans or leases) it may be

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administratively burdensome to perfect the interest of the security issuer in the underlying collateral and the underlying collateral may become damaged or stolen.

Structured Financings. A Fund may invest in fixed-income securities issued in structured financing transactions, which generally involve aggregating types of debt assets in a pool or special purpose entity and then issuing new securities. Types of structured financings include, for example, mortgage-related real estate and other asset-backed securities. These securities may be privately-negotiated and are generally not publicly traded and are illiquid. A Fund’s investments includes investments in structured securities that represent interests in entities organized and operated solely for the purpose of restructuring the investment characteristics of debt obligations. This type of restructuring involves the deposit with or purchase by an entity, such as a corporation or trust, of specified instruments (such as commercial bank loans) and the issuance by that entity of one or more classes of securities (“Structured Securities”) backed by, or representing interests in, the underlying instruments. The cash flow on the underlying instruments may be apportioned among the newly issued Structured Securities to create securities with different investment characteristics such as varying maturities, payment priorities and interest rate provisions, and the extent of the payments made with respect to Structured Securities is dependent on the extent of the cash flow on the underlying instruments. Because Structured Securities of the type in which the Fund anticipates it will invest typically involve no credit enhancement, their credit risk generally will be equivalent to that of the underlying instruments.

A Fund is permitted to invest in a class of Structured Securities that is either subordinated or unsubordinated to the right of payment of another class. Subordinated Structured Securities typically have higher yields and present greater risks than unsubordinated Structured Securities.

Under the terms of subordinated securities, payments that would be made to their holders may be required to be made to the holders of more senior securities and/or the subordinated or junior securities may have junior liens, if they have any rights at all, in any collateral (meaning proceeds of the collateral are required to be paid first to holders of more senior securities). As a result, subordinated or junior securities will be disproportionately affected by a default or even a perceived decline in the creditworthiness of the issuer.

Municipal Securities

Tax-Aware will invest in municipal securities. Municipal securities include municipal bonds as well as short-term (i.e., maturing in under one year to as much as three years) municipal notes, demand notes and tax-exempt commercial paper. In the event Tax-Aware invests in demand notes, the Adviser will continually monitor the ability of the obligor under such notes to meet its obligations. Typically, municipal bonds are issued to obtain funds used to construct a wide range of public facilities, such as schools, hospitals, housing, mass transportation, airports, highways and bridges. The funds may also be used for general operating expenses, refunding of outstanding obligations and loans to other public institutions and facilities.

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Municipal bonds have two principal classifications: general obligation bonds and revenue or special obligation bonds. General obligation bonds are secured by the issuer’s pledge of its faith, credit and taxing power for the payment of principal and interest. Revenue or special obligation bonds are payable only from the revenues derived from a particular facility or class of facilities or, in some cases, from the proceeds of a special excise tax or other specific revenue source but not from general tax and other unrestricted revenues of the issuer. The term “issuer” means the agency, authority, instrumentality or other political subdivision whose assets and revenues are available for the payment of principal and interest on the bonds. Certain types of private activity bonds are also considered municipal bonds if the interest thereon is exempt from federal income tax.

Private activity bonds are in most cases revenue bonds and do not generally constitute the pledge of the credit or taxing power of the issuer of such bonds. The payment of the principal and interest on such private activity bonds depends solely on the ability of the user of the facilities financed by the bonds to meet its financial obligations and the pledge, if any, of real and personal property so financed as security for such payment.

Tax-Aware may invest a portion of its assets in municipal securities that pay interest at a coupon rate equal to a base rate plus additional interest for a certain period of time if short-term interest rates rise above a predetermined level or “cap”. Although the specific terms of these municipal securities may differ, the amount of any additional interest payment typically is calculated pursuant to a formula based upon an applicable short-term interest rate index multiplied by a designated factor. The additional interest component of the coupon rate of these municipal securities generally expires before the maturity of the underlying instrument. These municipal securities may also contain provisions that provide for conversion at the option of the issuer to constant interest rates in addition to standard call features.

Tax-Aware may invest in zero-coupon municipal securities, which are debt obligations that do not entitle the holder to any periodic payments prior to maturity and are issued and traded at a discount from their face amounts. The discount varies depending on the time remaining until maturity, prevailing interest rates, liquidity of the security and perceived credit quality of the issuer. The market prices of zero-coupon municipal securities are generally more volatile than the market prices of securities that pay interest periodically and are likely to respond to changes in interest rates to a greater degree than do securities having similar maturities and credit quality that do pay periodic interest.

Tax-Aware may also invest in municipal securities, the interest rate on which has been divided into two different and variable components, which together result in a fixed interest rate. Typically, the first of the components (the “Auction Component”) pays an interest rate that is reset periodically through an auction process, whereas the second of the components (the “Residual Component”) pays a current residual interest rate based on the difference between the total interest paid by the issuer on the municipal securities and the auction rate paid on the Auction Component. Tax-Aware may purchase both Auction and Residual Components.

Because the interest rate paid to holders of Residual Components is generally determined by subtracting the interest rate paid to the holders of Auction Components from a fixed amount, the interest rate paid to Residual Component holders will decrease the Auction

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Component’s rate increases and increase as the Auction Component’s rate decreases. Moreover, the extent of the increases and decreases in market value of Residual Components may be larger than comparable changes in the market value of an equal principal amount of a fixed rate municipal security having similar credit quality, redemption provisions and maturity.

Tax-Aware may also invest in (i) asset-backed securities, which are securities issued by special purpose entities whose primary assets consist of, for the purposes of Tax-Aware’s investment, a pool of municipal securities, or (ii) partnership and grantor trust-type derivative securities, whose ownership allows the purchaser to receive principal and interest payments on underlying municipal securities. The securities may be in the form of a beneficial interest in a special purpose trust, limited partnership interest, or other debt securities issued by a special purpose corporation. Although the securities may have some form of credit or liquidity enhancement, payments on the securities depend predominately upon the municipal securities held by the issuer. There are many types of these securities, including securities in which the tax-exempt interest rate is determined by an index, a swap agreement, or some other formula, for example, the interest rate payable on the security may adjust either at pre-designated periodic intervals or whenever there is a change in the market rate to which the security’s interest rate is tied. Other features may include the right of Tax-Aware to tender the security prior to its stated maturity. Tax-Aware will not purchase an asset-backed or derivatives security of the type discussed in this paragraph unless it has opinion of counsel in connection with the purchase that interest earned by the Fund from the securities is exempt from, as applicable, federal and state income taxes.

Municipal notes in which Tax-Aware may invest include demand notes, which are tax-exempt obligations that have stated maturities in excess of one year, but permit the holder to sell back the security (at par) to the issuer within one to seven days’ notice. The payment of principal and interest by the issuer of these obligations will ordinarily be guaranteed by letters of credit offered by banks. The interest rate on a demand note may be based upon a known lending rate, such as a bank’s prime rate, and may be adjusted when such rate changes, or the interest rate on a demand note may be a market rate that is adjusted at specified intervals.

Other short-term obligations constituting municipal notes include tax anticipation notes, revenue anticipation notes, bond anticipation notes and tax-exempt commercial paper.

Tax anticipation notes are issued to finance working capital needs of municipalities. Generally, they are issued in anticipation of various seasonal tax revenues, such as ad valorem, income, sales, use and business taxes. Revenue anticipation notes are issued in expectation of receipt of other types of revenues, such as federal revenues available under the Federal Revenue Sharing Programs. Bond anticipation notes are issued to provide interim financing until long-term financing can be arranged. In most such cases, the long-term bonds provide the money for the repayment of the notes.

Tax-exempt commercial paper is a short-term obligation with a stated maturity of 365 days or less (however, issuers typically do not issue such obligations with maturities longer than seven days). Such obligations are issued by state and local municipalities to finance seasonal working capital needs or as short-term financing in anticipation of longer-term financing.

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There are, of course, variations in the terms of, and the security underlying, municipal securities, both within a particular rating classification and between such classifications, depending on many factors. The ratings of NRSROs represent their opinions of the quality of the municipal securities rated by them. It should be emphasized that such ratings are general and are not absolute standards of quality. Consequently, municipal securities with the same maturity, coupon and rating may have different yields, while the municipal securities of the same maturity and coupon, but with different ratings, may have the same yield. The Adviser appraises independently the fundamental quality of the securities included in Tax-Aware’s portfolio.

Yields on municipal securities are dependent on a variety of factors, including the general conditions of the municipal securities market, the size of a particular offering, the maturity of the obligation and the rating of the issue. An increase in interest rates generally will reduce the market value of portfolio investments, and a decline in interest rates generally will increase the value of portfolio investments. Municipal securities with longer maturities tend to produce higher yields and are generally subject to greater price movements than obligations with shorter maturities. However, Tax-Aware does not have any restrictions on the maturity of municipal securities in which it may invest. Tax-Aware will seek to invest in municipal securities of such maturities that, in the judgment of the Adviser, will provide a high level of current income consistent with liquidity requirements and market conditions. The achievement of Tax-Aware’s investment objective depends in part on the continuing ability of the issuers of municipal securities in which the Fund invests to meet their obligations for the payment of principal and interest when due. Municipal securities historically have not been subject to registration with the SEC, although from time to time there have been proposals which would require registration in the future.

Tax-Aware may invest in municipal securities rated below investment grade or unrated municipal securities. These securities may present a substantial risk of default or may be in default at the time of purchase. See “Certain Risk and Other Considerations – Investments in Lower-Rated and Unrated Instruments” below.

After purchase by Tax-Aware, a municipal security may cease to be rated or it may default. These events do not require sales of such securities by Tax-Aware, but the Adviser will consider such event in its determination of whether the Fund should continue to hold the security. To the extent that the ratings given by NRSROs may change as a result of changes in such organizations or their rating systems, the Adviser will attempt to use such changed ratings in a manner consistent with Tax-Aware’s quality criteria as described in the Prospectus.

Obligations of issuers of municipal securities are subject to the provisions of bankruptcy, insolvency, and other laws affecting the rights and remedies of creditors, such as the Federal Bankruptcy Code. In addition, the obligations of such issuers may become subject to laws enacted in the future by Congress, state legislatures, or referenda extending the time for payment of principal and/or interest, or imposing other constraints upon enforcement of such obligations or upon the ability of municipalities to levy taxes. There is also the possibility that, as a result of litigation or other conditions, the ability of any issuer to pay, when due, the principal or the interest on its municipal bonds may be materially affected.

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From time to time, proposals have been introduced before Congress for the purpose of restricting or eliminating the federal income tax exemption for interest on municipal securities. It can be expected that similar proposals may be introduced in the future. If such a proposal were enacted, the availability of municipal securities for investment by Tax-Aware and the value of the Fund would be affected. Additionally, Tax-Aware’s investment objective and policies would be reevaluated.

Preferred Stock

A Fund may invest in preferred stock. Preferred stock is an equity security that has features of debt because it generally entitles the holder to periodic payments at a fixed rate of return. Preferred stock is subordinated to any debt the issuer has outstanding but has liquidation preference over common stock. Accordingly, preferred stock dividends are not paid until all debt obligations are first met. Preferred stock may be subject to more fluctuations in market value, due to changes in market participants’ perceptions of the issuer’s ability to continue to pay dividends, than debt of the same issuer.

Repurchase Agreements and Buy/Sell Back Transactions

A repurchase agreement is an agreement by which a Fund purchases a security and obtains a simultaneous commitment from the seller to repurchase the security at an agreed-upon price and date, normally one day or a week later. The purchase and repurchase obligations are transacted under one document. The resale price is greater than the purchase price, reflecting an agreed-upon “interest rate” that is effective for the period of time the buyer’s money is invested in the security, and which is related to the current market rate of the purchased security rather than its coupon rate. During the term of the repurchase agreement, the Fund monitors on a daily basis the market value of the securities subject to the agreement and, if the market value of the securities falls below the resale amount provided under the repurchase agreement, the seller under the repurchase agreement is required to provide additional securities or cash equal to the amount by which the market value of the securities falls below the resale amount. Because a repurchase agreement permits a Fund to invest temporarily available cash on a fully-collateralized basis, repurchase agreements permit the Fund to earn a return on temporarily available cash while retaining “overnight” flexibility in pursuit of investments of a longer-term nature. Repurchase agreements may exhibit the characteristics of loans by a Fund.

The obligation of the seller under the repurchase agreement is not guaranteed, and there is a risk that the seller may fail to repurchase the underlying security, whether because of the seller’s bankruptcy or otherwise. In such event, the Fund would attempt to exercise its rights with respect to the underlying security, including possible sale of the securities. A Fund may incur various expenses in connection with the exercise of its rights and may be subject to various delays and risks of loss, including (a) possible declines in the value of the underlying securities, (b) possible reduction in levels of income and (c) lack of access to the securities (if they are held through a third-party custodian) and possible inability to enforce the Fund’s rights. The Fund’s Board has established procedures, which are periodically reviewed by the Board, pursuant to which the Adviser monitors the creditworthiness of the dealers with which the Fund enters into repurchase agreement transactions.

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A Fund may enter into buy/sell back transactions, which are similar to repurchase agreements. In this type of transaction, a Fund enters a trade to buy securities at one price and simultaneously enters a trade to sell the same securities at another price on a specified date. Similar to a repurchase agreement, the repurchase price is higher than the sale price and reflects current interest rates. Unlike a repurchase agreement, however, the buy/sell back transaction, though done simultaneously, constitutes two separate legal agreements. A buy/sell back transaction also differs from a repurchase agreement in that the seller is not required to provide margin payments if the value of the securities falls below the repurchase price because the transaction constitutes two separate transactions. Each Fund has the risk of changes in the value of the purchased security during the term of the buy/sell back agreement although these agreements typically provide for the repricing of the original transaction at a new market price if the value of the security changes by a specific amount.

Reverse Repurchase Agreements and Dollar Rolls

Reverse repurchase agreements are identical to repurchase agreements except that rather than buying securities for cash subject to their repurchase by the seller, a Fund sells portfolio assets concurrently with an agreement by the Fund to repurchase the same assets at a later date at a fixed price slightly higher than the sale price. During the reverse repurchase agreement period, the Fund continues to receive principal and interest payments on these securities. Generally, the effect of a reverse repurchase agreement is that the Fund can recover all or most of the cash invested in the portfolio securities involved during the term of the reverse repurchase agreement, while it will be able to keep the interest income associated with those portfolio securities. Such transactions are advantageous only if the “interest cost” to the Fund of the reverse repurchase transaction, i.e., the difference between the sale and repurchase price for the securities, is less than the cost of otherwise obtaining the cash invested in portfolio securities.

Reverse repurchase agreements are considered to be a loan to the Fund by the counterparty, collateralized by the assets subject to repurchase because the incidents of ownership are retained by the Fund. By entering into reverse repurchase agreements, the Fund obtains additional cash to invest in other securities. The Funds may use reverse repurchase agreements for borrowing purposes if it believes that the cost of this form of borrowing will be lower than the cost of bank borrowing. Reverse repurchase agreements create leverage and are speculative transactions because they allow a Fund to achieve a return on a larger capital base relative to its NAV. The use of leverage creates the opportunity for increased income for the Fund’s shareholders when the Fund achieves a higher rate of return on the investment of the reverse repurchase agreement proceeds than it pays in interest on the reverse repurchase transactions. However, there is the risk that returns could be reduced if the rates of interest on the investment proceeds do not exceed the interest paid by a Fund on the reverse repurchase transactions.

Dollar rolls involve sales by a Fund of securities for delivery in the current month and the Fund’s simultaneously contracting to repurchase substantially similar (same type and coupon) securities on a specified future date. During the roll period, the Fund forgoes principal and interest paid on the securities. The Fund is compensated by the difference between the

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current sales price and the lower forward price for the future purchase (often referred to as the “drop”) as well as by the interest earned on the cash proceeds of the initial sale.

Reverse repurchase agreements and dollar rolls involve the risk that the market value of the securities the Fund is obligated to repurchase under the agreement may decline below the repurchase price. In the event the buyer of securities under a reverse repurchase agreement or dollar roll files for bankruptcy or becomes insolvent, the Fund’s use of the proceeds of the agreement may be restricted pending a determination by the other party, or its trustee or receiver, whether to enforce the Fund’s obligation to repurchase the securities. In addition, the use of these investments results in leveraging the Fund’s common stocks because the Fund uses the proceeds to make investments in other securities. See “Borrowing and Use of Leverage” below.

Rights and Warrants

Tax-Aware and Sustainable Thematic Credit may invest in rights and warrants, which entitle the holder to buy equity securities at a specific price for a specific period of time, but will do so only if the equity securities themselves are deemed appropriate by the Adviser for inclusion in the Fund’s portfolio. Rights and warrants may be considered more speculative than certain other types of investments in that they do not entitle a holder to dividends or voting rights with respect to the securities that may be purchased, nor do they represent any rights in the assets of the issuing company. Also, the value of a right or warrant does not necessarily change with the value of the underlying securities and a right or warrant ceases to have value if it is not exercised prior to the expiration date.

Securities Ratings

The ratings of fixed-income securities by NRSROs such as Moody’s Investors Service, Inc. (“Moody’s”), S&P Global Ratings (“S&P”), Fitch Ratings (“Fitch”), Kroll Bond Rating Agency, LLC (“Kroll”) and DBRS Morningstar are widely accepted barometers of credit risk. They are, however, subject to certain limitations from an investor’s standpoint. The rating of an issuer is heavily weighted by past developments and does not necessarily reflect probable future conditions. There is frequently a lag between the time a rating is assigned and the time it is updated. In addition, there may be varying degrees of difference in credit risk of securities within each rating category.

Securities that are rated Ba or lower by Moody’s, BB or lower by S&P or Fitch, or are equivalently rated by other NRSROs are considered to have speculative characteristics. Sustained periods of deteriorating economic conditions or rising interest rates are more likely to lead to a weakening in the issuer’s capacity to pay interest and repay principal than in the case of higher-rated securities.

Non-rated securities will also be considered for investment by a Fund when the Adviser believes that the financial condition of the issuers of such securities, or the protection afforded by the terms of the securities themselves, limits the risk to the Fund to a degree comparable to that of rated securities which are consistent with the Fund's objectives and policies.

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The Adviser generally uses ratings issued by NRSROs such as S&P, Moody’s, Fitch, Kroll and DBRS Morningstar but may rely on ratings from other NRSROs, depending on the security in question. Some securities are rated by more than one NRSRO, and the ratings assigned to the security by the NRSROs may differ. In such an event and for purposes of determining compliance with restrictions on investments for the Fund, if the Adviser considers ratings issued by two or more NRSROs, the Adviser will deem the security to be rated at the highest rating. For example, if a security is rated by Moody’s and S&P only, with Moody’s rating the security as Ba and S&P as BBB, the Adviser will deem the security to be rated as the equivalent of BBB (i.e., Baa by Moody’s and BBB by S&P). Or, if a security is rated by Moody’s, S&P and Fitch, with Moody’s rating the security as Ba, S&P as BBB and Fitch as BB, the Adviser will deem the security to be rated as the equivalent of BBB (i.e., Ba1 by Moody’s, BBB by S&P and BBB by Fitch). However, for Short Duration High Yield (which invests primarily in “junk bonds”), if the Adviser considers ratings issued by two or more NRSROs, the Adviser will apply the lowest rating.

The Adviser will try to reduce the risk inherent in the Fund’s investment approach through credit analysis, diversification and attention to current developments and trends in interest rates and economic conditions. However, there can be no assurance that losses will not occur. In considering investments for Funds that invest in high-yielding securities, the Adviser will attempt to identify those high-yielding securities whose financial condition is adequate to meet future obligations, has improved, or is expected to improve in the future. The Adviser’s analysis focuses on relative values based on such factors as interest or dividend coverage, asset coverage, earnings prospects, and the experience and managerial strength of the issuer.

In the event that the credit rating of a security held by the Fund is downgraded, the credit quality deteriorates after purchase, or the security defaults, the Fund will not be obligated to dispose of that security and may continue to hold the security if, in the opinion of the Adviser, such investment is appropriate in the circumstances.

Unless otherwise indicated, references to securities ratings by one NRSRO in this SAI shall include the equivalent rating by another NRSRO.

Short Sales

A Fund may make short sales of securities or maintain a short position. A short sale is effected by selling a security that a Fund does not own, or if the Fund does own such security, it is not to be delivered upon consummation of the sale. Among other reasons, a Fund may make short sales of securities or maintain a short position for the purpose of deferring realization of gain or loss for U.S. federal income tax purposes. The Fund may not make a short sale if more than 10% of the Fund’s net assets (taken at market value) is held as collateral for short sales at any one time. A short sale of a security involves the risk that, instead of declining, the price of the security sold short will rise. If the price of the securities sold short increases between the time of a short sale and the time a Fund replaces the borrowed security, the Fund will incur a loss; conversely, if the price declines, the Fund will realize a gain. The potential for the price of a fixed-income security sold short to rise is a function of both the remaining maturity of the obligation, its creditworthiness and its yield. Unlike short sales of equities or other

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instruments, the potential for the price of a fixed-income security to rise may be limited due to the fact that the security will be no more than par at maturity. However, the short sale of other instruments or securities generally, including fixed-income securities convertible into equities or other instruments, a fixed-income security trading at a deep discount from par or which pays a coupon that is high in relative or absolute terms, or which is denominated in a currency other than the U.S. Dollar, involves the possibility of a theoretically unlimited loss since there is a theoretically unlimited potential for the market price of the security sold short to increase. See “Dividends, Distributions and Taxes-Tax Straddles” for a discussion of certain special federal income tax considerations that may apply to short sales which are entered into by the Fund.

Standby Commitment Agreements

Tax-Aware may, from time to time, enter into standby commitment agreements. Such agreements commit Tax-Aware, for a stated period of time, to purchase a stated amount of a security that may be issued and sold to the Fund at the option of the issuer. The price and coupon of the security are fixed at the time of the commitment. At the time of entering into the agreement the Fund is paid a commitment fee, regardless of whether or not the security is ultimately issued. Tax-Aware will enter into such agreements only for the purpose of investing in the security underlying the commitment at a yield and price which are considered advantageous to the Fund and which are unavailable on a firm commitment basis.

There can be no assurance that the securities subject to a standby commitment will be issued, and the value of the security, if issued, on the delivery date may be more or less than its purchase price. Since the issuance of the security underlying the commitment is at the option of the issuer, Tax-Aware will bear the risk of capital loss in the event the value of the security declines and may not benefit from an appreciation in the value of the security during the commitment period if the issuer decides not to issue and sell the security to the Fund.

The purchase of a security subject to a standby commitment agreement and the related commitment fee will be recorded on the date on which the security can reasonably be expected to be issued and the value of the security will thereafter be reflected in the calculation of Tax-Aware’s NAV. The cost basis of the security will be adjusted by the amount of the commitment fee. In the event the security is not issued, the commitment fee will be recorded as income on the expiration date of the standby commitment.

Structured Products

A Fund may invest in structured products. Structured products, including indexed or structured securities, combine the elements of futures contracts or options with those of debt, preferred equity or a depositary instrument. Generally, the principal amount, amount payable upon maturity or redemption, or interest rate of a structured product is tied (either positively or negatively) to prices, changes in prices, or differences between prices, of underlying assets, such as securities, currencies, intangibles, goods, articles or commodities, or by reference to an unrelated benchmark related to an objective index, economic factor or other measure such as interest rates, currency exchange rates, commodity indices, and securities indices. The interest rate or (unlike most fixed-income securities) the principal amount payable at maturity of a

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structured product may be increased or decreased depending on changes in the value of the underlying asset or benchmark.

Structured products may take a variety of forms. Most commonly, they are in the form of debt instruments with interest or principal payments or redemption terms determined by reference to the value of a currency or commodity or securities index at a future point in time, but may also be issued as preferred stock with dividend rates determined by reference to the value of a currency or convertible securities with the conversion terms related to a particular commodity.

Investing in structured products may be more efficient and less expensive for a Fund than investing in the underlying assets or benchmarks and the related derivative. These investments can be used as a means of pursuing a variety of investment goals, including currency hedging, duration management and increased total return. In addition, structured products may be a tax-advantaged investment in that they generate income that may be distributed to shareholders as income rather than short-term capital gains that may otherwise result from a derivatives transaction.

Structured products, however, have more risk than traditional types of debt or other securities. These products may not bear interest or pay dividends. The value of a structured product or its interest rate may be a multiple of a benchmark and, as a result, may be leveraged and move (up or down) more steeply and rapidly than the benchmark. Under certain conditions, the redemption value of a structured product could be zero. Structured products are potentially more volatile and carry greater market risks than traditional debt instruments. The prices of the structured instrument and the benchmark or underlying asset may not move in the same direction or at the same time. Structured products may carry greater trading risk and be more difficult to price than less complex securities or instruments or more traditional debt securities. The risk of these investments can be substantial with the possibility that the entire principal amount is at risk. The purchase of structured products also exposes a Fund to the credit risk of the issuer of the structured product.

Structured Notes and Indexed Securities: A Fund may invest in a particular type of structured instrument sometimes referred to as a “structured note”. The terms of these notes may be structured by the issuer and the purchaser of the note. Structured notes are derivative debt instruments, the interest rate or principal of which is determined by an unrelated indicator (for example, a currency, security, commodity or index thereof). Indexed securities may include structured notes as well as securities other than debt securities, the interest rate or principal of which is determined by an unrelated indicator. The terms of structured notes and indexed securities may provide that in certain circumstances no principal is due at maturity, which may result in a total loss of invested capital. Structured notes and indexed securities may be positively or negatively indexed, so that appreciation of the unrelated indicator may produce an increase or a decrease in the interest rate or the value of the structured note or indexed security at maturity may be calculated as a specified multiple of the change in the value of the unrelated indicator. Therefore, the value of such notes and securities may be very volatile. Structured notes and indexed securities may entail a greater degree of market risk than other types of debt securities because the investor bears the risk of the unrelated indicator. Structured notes or

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indexed securities also may be more volatile, carry greater trading risk and be more difficult to accurately price than less complex securities and instruments or more traditional debt securities.

Commodity Index-Linked Notes and Commodity-Linked Notes: Structured products may provide exposure to the commodities markets. These structured notes may include leveraged or unleveraged commodity index-linked notes, which are derivative debt instruments with principal and/or coupon payments linked to the performance of commodity indices. They also include commodity-linked notes with principal and/or coupon payments linked to the value of particular commodities or commodities futures contracts, or a subset of commodities and commodities future contracts. The value of these notes will rise or fall in response to changes in the underlying commodity, commodity futures contract, subset of commodities or commodities futures contracts or commodity index. These notes expose the Fund economically to movements in commodity prices. These notes also are subject to risks, such as credit, market and interest rate risks, that in general affect the values of debt securities. In addition, these notes are often leveraged, increasing the volatility of each note’s market value relative to changes in the underlying commodity, commodity futures contract or commodity index. Therefore, the Fund might receive interest or principal payments on the note that are determined based on a specified multiple of the change in value of the underlying commodity, commodity futures contract or index.

Credit-Linked Securities: Credit-linked securities are issued by a limited purpose trust or other vehicle that, in turn, invests in a basket of derivative instruments, such as credit default swaps, interest rate swaps and other securities, in order to provide exposure to certain high-yield or other fixed-income markets. For example, a Fund may invest in credit-linked securities as a cash management tool in order to gain exposure to certain high-yield markets and/or to remain fully invested when more traditional income-producing securities are not available. Like an investment in a bond, investments in credit-linked securities represent the right to receive periodic income payments (in the form of distributions) and payment of principal at the end of the term of the security. However, these payments are conditioned on the trust’s receipt of payments from, and the trust’s potential obligations to, the counterparties to the derivative instruments and other securities in which the trust invests. For instance, the trust may sell one or more credit default swaps, under which the trust would receive a stream of payments over the term of the swap agreements provided that no event of default has occurred with respect to the referenced debt obligation upon which the swap is based. If a default occurs, the stream of payments may stop and the trust would be obligated to pay the counterparty the par value (or other agreed-upon value) of the referenced debt obligation. This, in turn, would reduce the amount of income and principal that a Fund would receive as an investor in the trust. A Fund’s investments in these instruments are indirectly subject to the risks associated with derivative instruments, including, among others, credit risk, default or similar event risk, counterparty risk, interest rate risk, leverage risk and management risk. These securities are generally Rule 144A Securities and therefore may be freely traded among qualified institutional buyers. However, changes in the market for credit-linked securities or the availability of willing buyers may result in reduced liquidity for the securities.

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Tender Option Bond (“TOB”) Transactions

Tax-Aware may enter into and has, from time to time, entered into TOB transactions in which the Fund transfers municipal securities into a special purpose entity (the “Trust”). The Fund receives cash and a residual interest security (sometimes referred to as “inverse floaters”) issued by the Trust in return. The Trust simultaneously issues securities, which pay an interest rate that is reset each week based on an index of high-grade short-term demand notes. These securities, sometimes referred to as “floaters”, are bought by third parties, including tax-exempt money market funds, and can be tendered by these holders to a liquidity provider at par, unless certain events occur. The floaters typically have first priority on the cash flow from the underlying municipal securities held by the Trust, and the remaining cash flow, less certain expenses, is paid to holders of the inverse floaters. The interest rate payable on the inverse floaters bears an inverse relationship to the interest rate on the floaters. Under certain circumstances, the Trust may be terminated or collapsed, either by the Fund or upon the occurrence of certain events, such as a downgrade in the credit quality of the underlying municipal securities or in the event holders of the floaters tender their securities to the liquidity provider. The Fund continues to earn all the interest from the transferred municipal securities less the amount of interest paid on the floaters and the expenses of the Trust, which may include payments to the trustee and the liquidity provider and organizational costs. The Fund receives cash proceeds from the Trust’s sale of the floaters as consideration for the transferred municipal securities and uses the cash proceeds for investment purposes (e.g., the purchase of longer-term municipal securities), which involves leverage risk.

The Fund, as the holder of the residual inverse floaters, has full exposure to any increase or decrease in the value of the Trust’s underlying municipal securities. Inverse floaters generally will underperform the market of fixed-rate debt securities in a rising interest rate environment (i.e., when bond values are falling), but will tend to outperform the market of fixed-rate debt securities when interest rates decline or remain relatively stable. The price of the inverse floaters will be more volatile than that of the underlying municipal securities because the interest rate is dependent on not only the fixed coupon rate of the underlying municipal securities, but also on the short-term interest rate paid on the floaters. Although volatile in value and return, inverse floaters typically offer the potential for yields higher than those available on fixed-rate debt securities with comparable credit quality, call provisions and maturity.

Service providers are often engaged to assist with establishing, structuring and sponsoring TOB trusts. The service providers, such as administrators, liquidity providers, trustees and remarketing agents, may act at the direction, and as agent, of a fund holding residual interests of the TOB trust. To the extent a Portfolio, rather than a third-party bank or financial institution serves as the sponsor of a TOB trust, the Portfolio’s responsibilities under such an arrangement may give rise to certain risks including compliance, securities laws and operational risks.

U.S. Government Securities

U.S. Government securities may be backed by the full faith and credit of the United States, supported only by the right of the issuer to borrow from the U.S. Treasury or backed only by the credit of the issuing agency itself. These securities include: (i) the following

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U.S. Treasury securities, which are backed by the full faith and credit of the United States and differ only in their interest rates, maturities and times of issuance: U.S. Treasury bills (maturities of one year or less with no interest paid and hence issued at a discount and repaid at full face value upon maturity), U.S. Treasury notes (maturities of one to ten years with interest payable every six months) and U.S. Treasury bonds (generally maturities of greater than ten years with interest payable every six months); (ii) obligations issued or guaranteed by U.S. Government agencies and instrumentalities that are supported by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Government, such as securities issued by GNMA, the Department of Housing and Urban Development, the Export-Import Bank, the General Services Administration and the Small Business Administration and including obligations that are issued by private issuers that are guaranteed as to principal or interest by the U.S. Government, its agencies or institutions; and (iii) obligations issued or guaranteed by U.S. Government agencies and instrumentalities that were historically not supported by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Government or a right to borrow from the U.S. Treasury, such as securities issued by the FNMA and FHLMC, and governmental CMOs. The maturities of the U.S. Government securities listed in paragraphs (i) and (ii) above usually range from three months to 30 years. Such securities, except GNMA certificates, normally provide for periodic payments of interest in fixed amounts with principal payments at maturity or specified call dates.

U.S. Government securities also include zero-coupon securities and principal-only securities and certain SMRS. Zero-coupon securities are described in more detail in “Zero-Coupon Securities” below, and SMRS and principal-only securities are described in more detail in “Mortgage-Related Securities, Other Asset-Backed Securities and Structured Financings – Stripped Mortgage-Related Securities” above. In addition, other U.S. Government agencies and instrumentalities have issued stripped securities that are similar to SMRS.

Inflation-indexed securities such as Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities, or TIPS, are fixed-income securities whose principal value is periodically adjusted according to the rate of inflation. If the index measuring inflation falls, the principal value of these securities will be adjusted downward, and consequently the interest payable on these securities (calculated with respect to a smaller principal amount) will be reduced. Repayment of the original bond principal upon maturity (as adjusted for inflation) is guaranteed in the case of TIPS. For bonds that do not provide a similar guarantee, the adjusted principal value of the bond repaid at maturity may be less than the original principal.

Inflation-indexed securities tend to react to changes in real interest rates. In general, the price of these securities can fall when real interest rates rise, and can rise when real interest rates fall. In addition, the value of these securities may be vulnerable to changes in expectations of inflation. Interest payments on these securities can be unpredictable and will vary as the principal and/or interest is adjusted for inflation.

TIPS, which are issued by the U.S Treasury, use the Consumer Price Index for Urban Consumers, or the CPI, as the inflation measure. The principal of a TIPS increases with inflation and decreases with deflation, as measured by the CPI. When a TIPS matures, the holder is paid the adjusted principal or original principal, whichever is greater. TIPS pay interest twice a year, at a fixed rate, which is determined by auction at the time the TIPS are issued. The rate is

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applied to the adjusted principal; so, like the principal, interest payments rise with inflation and fall with deflation. TIPS are issued in terms of 5, 10, and 30 years.

Guarantees of securities by the U.S. Government or its agencies or instrumentalities guarantee only the payment of principal and interest on the securities, and do not guarantee the securities’ yield or value or the yield or value of the shares of the Fund that holds the securities.

U.S. Government securities are considered among the safest of fixed-income investments. As a result, however, their yields are generally lower than the yields available from other fixed-income securities.

Variable, Floating and Inverse Floating Rate Securities

These securities have interest rates that are reset at periodic intervals, usually by reference to some interest rate index or market interest rate. Some of these securities are backed by pools of mortgage loans. Although the rate adjustment feature may act as a buffer to reduce sharp changes in the value of these securities, they are still subject to changes in value based on changes in market interest rates or changes in the issuer’s creditworthiness. Because the interest rate is reset only periodically, changes in the interest rate on these securities may lag behind changes in prevailing market interest rates. Also, some of these securities (or the underlying mortgages) are subject to caps or floors that limit the maximum change in the interest rate during a specified period or over the life of the security.

Zero-Coupon Securities

A zero-coupon security pays no interest to its holder during its life. An investor acquires a zero-coupon security at a discounted price from the face value of the security, which is generally based upon its present value, and which, depending upon the time remaining until maturity, may be significantly less than its face value (sometimes referred to as a “deep discount” price). Upon maturity of the zero-coupon security, the investor receives the face value of the security.

A Fund may invest in zero-coupon Treasury securities, which consist of Treasury bills or the principal components of U.S. Treasury bonds or notes. A Fund may also invest in zero-coupon securities issued by U.S. Government agencies or instrumentalities that are supported by the full faith and credit of the United States, which consist of the principal components of securities of U.S. Government agencies or instrumentalities.

Currently, the only U.S. Treasury security issued without coupons is the Treasury bill. The zero-coupon securities purchased by the Funds may consist of principal components held in STRIPS form issued through the U.S. Treasury’s STRIPS program, which permits the beneficial ownership of the component to be recorded directly in the Treasury book-entry system. In addition, a number of banks and brokerage firms have separated (“stripped”) the principal portion (“corpus”) from the coupon portion of U.S. Treasury bonds and notes and sold

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them separately in the form of receipts or certificates representing undivided interests in these instruments (which instruments are generally held by a bank in a custodial or trust account).

Because zero-coupon securities trade at a discount from their face or par value but pay no periodic interest, they are subject to greater fluctuations of market value in response to changing interest rates than debt obligations of comparable maturities which make periodic distributions of interest.

Current federal tax law requires that a holder (such as the Funds) of a zero-coupon security accrue a portion of the discount at which the security was purchased as income each year even though the holder receives no interest payment in cash on the security during the year (generally referred to as “original issue discount” or “OID”). As a result, in order to make the distributions necessary for a Fund not to be subject to federal income or excise taxes, a Fund may be required to pay out as an income distribution each year an amount greater than the total amount of cash that the Fund has actually received as interest during the year, and this distribution of “phantom income” may be taxable to shareholders. A Fund’s obligation to make such distributions could require it to liquidate other investments at times when the Adviser would not otherwise deem it advisable to do so (potentially resulting in taxable gain), or borrow money, and either of these options could reduce fund assets available to purchase other income-producing securities. The Funds believe, however, that it is highly unlikely that it would be necessary to liquidate portfolio securities or borrow money in order to make such required distributions or to meet their investment objectives.

Payment-in-Kind Bonds

The Funds may at times invest in “payment-in-kind” bonds (“PIK Bonds”). PIK Bonds allow the issuer, at its option, to make current interest payments on the bonds either in cash or in additional bonds, which allows an issuer to avoid the need to generate cash to meet current interest payments. PIK Bonds have different credit risks than some other types of instruments, specifically because (1) the higher yields and interest rates on certain PIK Bonds reflect the payment deferral and increased credit risk associated with such instruments and such investments may represent a significantly higher credit risk than coupon bonds; (2) PIK Bonds may have higher price volatility because their continuing accruals require continuing judgments about the collectability of the deferred payments and the value of any associated collateral; (3) interest on PIK Bonds has the effect of generating investment income; and (4) the deferral of interest on PIK Bonds may also reduce the loan-to-value ratio of the bonds at a compounding rate. Accordingly, such bonds may involve greater credit risks than bonds paying interest currently. PIK Bonds may be susceptible to greater fluctuations in market value and may become less liquid under adverse market conditions, including market volatility and rising interest rate markets, than comparably-rated securities that pay income periodically and in cash.

Even though PIK Bonds do not pay current interest in cash, the Funds are nonetheless required to accrue interest income on such investments and to distribute such “phantom income” amounts at least annually to shareholders (and this “phantom income” will normally be taxable to fund shareholders). A Fund’s obligation to make this distribution could require it to liquidate other investments at times when the Adviser would not otherwise deem it

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advisable to do so, and this could reduce fund assets available to purchase other income-producing securities.

Custodial Receipts

Custodial receipts, which may be underwritten by securities dealers or banks, represent the right to receive certain future principal and/or interest payments on the underlying securities held by the custodian, or, in some cases, the payment obligation of a third party that has entered into an interest rate swap or other arrangement with the custodian. Underlying securities may include municipal securities, U.S. Government securities or other types of securities consistent with a Fund’s investment objective and principal investment strategy. Custodial receipts may be issued in connection with the restructuring of insured municipal bonds deposited with a custodian. The value of a custodial receipt may fluctuate more than the value of a municipal bond of comparable quality and maturity.

In a typical custodial receipt arrangement, an issuer or a third-party owner of securities deposits such securities obligations with a custodian in exchange for custodial receipts. These custodial receipts are typically sold in private placements and are designed to provide investors with pro rata ownership of a portfolio of underlying securities. For certain securities law purposes, custodial receipts may not be considered obligations of the issuers of the underlying securities held by the custodian. As a holder of custodial receipts, a Fund will bear its proportionate share of the fees and expenses charged to the custodial account. Although under the terms of a custodial receipt a Fund typically would be authorized to assert its rights directly against the issuer of the underlying obligation, the Fund could be required to assert through the custodian bank those rights as may exist against the underlying issuers. Thus, in the event an underlying issuer fails to pay principal and/or interest when due, the Fund may be subject to delays, expenses and risks that are greater than those that would have been involved if the Fund had purchased a direct obligation of the issuer. In addition, if for tax purposes a Fund is not considered to be the owner of the underlying securities held in the custodial account, the Fund may suffer adverse tax consequences.

Certain custodial receipts may be synthetic or derivative instruments that have interest rates that reset inversely to changing short-term rates and/or have embedded interest rate floors and caps that require the issuer to pay an adjusted interest rate if market rates fall below or rise above a specified rate. Because some of these instruments represent relatively recent innovations, and the trading market for these instruments is less developed than the markets for more traditional types of instruments, it is uncertain how these instruments will perform under different economic and interest-rate scenarios. In addition, because these instruments may be leveraged, their market values may be more volatile than other types of fixed-income instruments and may present greater potential for capital gain or loss. The possibility of default by an issuer or the issuer's credit provider may be greater for these derivative instruments than for other types of instruments. In some cases, it may be difficult to determine the fair value of a derivative instrument because of a lack of reliable objective information and an established secondary market for some instruments may not exist.

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Certain Risk and Other Considerations

Borrowing and Use of Leverage. A Fund may use borrowings for investment purposes subject to the restrictions of the 1940 Act. A Fund may also use leverage for investment purposes by entering into transactions such as reverse repurchase agreements, forward contracts and dollar rolls and, with respect to Tax-Aware, TOBs. This means that the Fund uses the cash proceeds made available during the term of these transactions to make investments in other securities.

Borrowings by a Fund result in leveraging of the Fund’s shares of common stock. The proceeds of such borrowings will be invested in accordance with the Fund’s investment objective and policies. The Adviser anticipates that the difference between the interest expense paid by the Fund on borrowings and the returns on the Fund’s investment securities will provide the Fund’s shareholders with a potentially higher yield.

Utilization of leverage, which is usually considered speculative, however, involves certain risks to a Fund’s shareholders. These include a higher volatility of the NAV of the Fund’s shares of common stock and the relatively greater effect on the NAV of the shares caused by favorable or adverse changes in market conditions or interest rates. So long as the Fund is able to realize a net return on the portion of its investment portfolio resulting from leverage that is higher than the interest expense paid on borrowings or the carrying costs of leveraged transactions, the effect of leverage will be to cause the Fund’s shareholders to realize a higher net return than if the Fund were not leveraged. However, to the extent that the interest expense on borrowings or the carrying costs of leveraged transactions approaches the net return on the leveraged portion of the Fund’s investment portfolio, the benefit of leverage to the Fund’s shareholders will be reduced, and if the interest expense on borrowings or carrying costs of leveraged transactions were to exceed the net return to shareholders, the Fund’s use of leverage would result in a lower rate of net return than if the Fund were not leveraged. Similarly, the effect of leverage in a declining market could be a greater decrease in NAV per share than if the Fund were not leveraged. In an extreme case, if the Fund’s current investment income were not sufficient to meet the interest expense on borrowings or the carrying costs of leveraged transactions, it could be necessary for the Fund to liquidate certain of its investments in adverse circumstances, potentially significantly reducing its NAV.

During periods of rising short-term interest rates, the interest paid on floaters in TOB transactions would increase, which may adversely affect Tax-Aware’s net returns. If rising interest rates coincide with a period of rising long-term rates, the value of long-term municipal bonds purchased with the proceeds of leverage would decline, adversely affecting the Fund’s NAV. The value of an inverse floater can be more volatile than the value of other debt securities of comparable maturity and quality. During periods of rising interest rates, the prices of inverse floaters will tend to decline more quickly than those of conventional fixed-rate debt securities. In certain circumstances, adverse changes in interest rates or other events could cause a TOB trust to terminate or collapse, potentially requiring Tax-Aware to liquidate longer-term municipal securities at unfavorable prices to meet the Trust’s outstanding obligations.

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Certain transactions, such as derivatives transactions, forward commitments, reverse repurchase agreements and short sales involve leverage and may expose a Fund to potential losses that, in some cases, may exceed the amount originally invested by the Fund.

Rule 18f-4, among other things, permits a fund to treat reverse repurchase transactions (and other similar financing transactions) either as borrowings (subject to asset coverage requirements under the 1940 Act) or as “derivatives transactions” subject to the risk-based limits of Rule 18f-4.

Management Risk – Quantitative Models. The Adviser may use investment techniques that incorporate, or rely upon, quantitative models. These models may not work as intended and may not enable a Fund to achieve its investment objective. In addition, certain models may be constructed using data from external providers, and these inputs may be incorrect or incomplete, thus potentially limiting the effectiveness of the models. Finally, the Adviser may change, enhance and update its models and its usage of existing models at its discretion.

Portfolio Turnover. The portfolio turnover rates for the Funds are included in the Financial Highlights section of the Prospectus. The Funds are actively managed and, in some cases in response to market conditions or other considerations, a Fund's portfolio turnover rate may exceed 100%. A higher rate of portfolio turnover increases brokerage and other expenses, which are borne by the Fund and its shareholders.

For the fiscal years ended October 31, 2022 and 2021, Short Duration Income had portfolio turnover rates of 60% and 163%, respectively. The portfolio turnover rate decreased in 2022 due to the Fund’s decreased participation in TBA mortgage-backed securities transactions in 2022.

Investments in Lower-Rated and Unrated Instruments. A Fund may invest in lower-rated securities, in some cases, substantially (High Income), which may include securities having the lowest rating for non-subordinated debt securities by a NRSRO and unrated securities of equivalent investment quality (commonly referred to as “junk bonds”). Debt securities with such a rating are considered by NRSROs to be subject to greater risk of loss of principal and interest than higher-rated securities and are considered to be predominantly speculative with respect to the issuer’s capacity to pay interest and repay principal, which may in any case decline during sustained periods of deteriorating economic conditions or rising interest rates. These securities are considered to have extremely poor prospects of ever attaining any real investment standing, to have a current identifiable vulnerability to default, to be unlikely to have the capacity to pay interest and repay principal when due in the event of adverse business, financial or economic conditions, and/or to be in default or not current in the payment of interest or principal.

Lower-rated securities generally are considered to be subject to greater market risk than higher-rated securities in times of deteriorating economic conditions. In addition, lower-rated securities may be more susceptible to real or perceived adverse economic and competitive industry conditions than investment grade securities, although the market values of securities rated below investment grade and comparable unrated securities tend to react less to fluctuations in interest rate levels than do those of higher-rated securities. The market for lower-

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rated securities may be thinner and less active than that for higher-quality securities, which can adversely affect the prices at which these securities can be sold. To the extent that there is no established secondary market for lower-rated securities, the Adviser may experience difficulty in valuing such securities and, in turn, a Fund’s assets. In addition, adverse publicity and investor perceptions about lower-rated securities, whether or not based on fundamental analysis, may tend to decrease the market value and liquidity of such lower-rated securities. Transaction costs with respect to lower-rated securities may be higher, and in some cases information may be less available, than is the case with investment grade securities.

Many fixed-income securities, including certain U.S. corporate fixed-income securities in which a Fund may invest, contain call or buy-back features that permit the issuer of the security to call or repurchase it. Such securities may present risks based on payment expectations. If an issuer exercises such a “call option” and redeems the security, the Fund may have to replace the called security with a lower yielding security, resulting in a decreased rate of return for the Fund.

Non-rated municipal or other fixed-income securities will also be considered for investment by Tax-Aware when the Adviser believes that the financial condition of the issuers of such obligations and the protection afforded by the terms of the obligations themselves limit the risk to the Fund to a degree comparable to that of rated securities which are consistent with the Fund’s objective and policies.

In seeking to achieve a Fund’s investment objectives, there will be times, such as during periods of rising interest rates, when depreciation and realization of capital losses on securities in the Fund’s portfolio will be unavoidable. Moreover, medium- and lower-rated securities and non-rated securities of comparable quality may be subject to wider fluctuations in yield and market values than higher-rated securities under certain market conditions. Such fluctuations after a security is acquired do not affect the cash income received from that security but are reflected in the NAV of the Fund.

U.S. Corporate Fixed-Income Securities. A Fund may invest in U.S. corporate fixed-income securities that may include securities issued in connection with corporate restructurings such as takeovers or leveraged buyouts, which may pose particular risks. Securities issued to finance corporate restructurings may have special credit risks due to the highly leveraged conditions of the issuer. In addition, such issuers may lose experienced management as a result of the restructuring. Finally, the market price of such securities may be more volatile to the extent that expected benefits from the restructuring do not materialize. A Fund may also invest in U.S. corporate fixed-income securities that are not current in the payment of interest or principal or are in default, so long as the Adviser believes such investment is consistent with the Fund’s investment objectives. A Fund’s rights with respect to defaults on such securities will be subject to applicable U.S. bankruptcy, moratorium and other similar laws.

Risks of Investments in Foreign Securities. Investors should understand and consider carefully the substantial risks involved in securities of foreign companies and governments of foreign nations, some of which are referred to below, and which are in addition to the usual risks inherent in domestic investments. Investing in securities of non-U.S.

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companies which are generally denominated in foreign currencies, and utilization of derivative investment products denominated in, or the value of which is dependent upon movements in the relative value of, a foreign currency, involve certain considerations comprising both risk and opportunity not typically associated with investing in U.S. companies. These considerations include changes in exchange rates and exchange control regulations, imposition of sanctions or capital controls, political and social instability, expropriation, imposition of foreign taxes, less liquid markets and less available information than are generally the case in the United States, higher transaction costs, less government supervision of exchanges, brokers and issuers, difficulty in enforcing contractual obligations, lack of uniform accounting and auditing standards and greater price volatility.

There is generally less publicly available information about foreign companies comparable to reports and ratings that are published about companies in the United States. Foreign issuers are subject to accounting and financial standards and requirements that differ, in some cases significantly, from those applicable to U.S. issuers. In particular, the assets and profits appearing on the financial statements of a foreign issuer may not reflect its financial position or results of operations in the way they would be reflected had the financial statement been prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles. In addition, for an issuer that keeps accounting records in local currency, inflation accounting rules in some of the countries in which the Fund may invest require, for both tax and accounting purposes, that certain assets and liabilities be restated on the issuer’s balance sheet in order to express items in terms of currency of constant purchasing power. Inflation accounting may indirectly generate losses or profits. Consequently, financial data may be materially affected by restatements for inflation and may not accurately reflect the real condition of those issuers and securities markets. Substantially less information is publicly available about certain non-U.S. issuers than is available about U.S. issuers.

It is contemplated that foreign securities will be purchased in OTC markets or on stock exchanges located in the countries in which the respective principal offices of the issuers of the various securities are located, if that is the best available market. Foreign securities markets are generally not as developed or efficient as those in the United States and may close for extended periods or for local holidays. While growing in volume, such markets usually have substantially less volume than the United States securities markets, and securities of some foreign companies are more difficult to trade or dispose of and more volatile than securities of comparable U.S. companies. Similarly, volume and liquidity in most foreign bond markets are less than in the United States and, at times, volatility of price can be greater than in the United States. There is generally less government supervision and regulation of foreign stock exchanges, brokers and listed companies than in the United States.

Expropriation, confiscatory taxation, nationalization, political, economic or social instability or other similar developments, such as military coups and regional and global conflicts, have occurred in the past in countries in which a Fund may invest and could adversely affect a Fund’s assets should these conditions or events recur.

The United Kingdom (“U.K.”) formally withdrew from the European Union (“EU”) on January 31, 2020. The U.K. and the EU negotiated an agreement governing their

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future trading and security relationships. This agreement became effective on a provisional basis on January 1, 2021 and entered into full force on May 1, 2021. The U.K. and the EU also negotiated a Memorandum of Understanding (“MoU”), which creates a framework for voluntary regulatory cooperation in financial services between the U.K. and the EU. The impact on the U.K. and European economies and the broader global economy of the uncertainties associated with implementing the agreement and MoU are significant and could have an adverse effect on the value of a Fund’s investments and its NAV. These uncertainties include an increase in the regulatory and customs requirements imposed on cross-border trade between the U.K. and the EU, the negotiation and implementation of additional arrangements between the U.K. and the EU affecting important parts of the economy (such as financial services), volatility and illiquidity in markets, currency fluctuations, the renegotiation of other existing trading and cross-border cooperation arrangements (whether economic, tax, fiscal, legal, regulatory or otherwise) of the U.K. and the EU, and potentially lower growth for companies in the U.K., Europe and globally.

In addition, military conflicts and wars, such as Russia’s large-scale invasion of Ukraine and the war between Israel and Hamas, and responses to such conflicts by governments and intergovernmental organizations have resulted, and may continue to result, in market disruptions in the regions and globally. Future market disruptions are impossible to predict, but could be significant and have a severe adverse effect on the regions and beyond, including significant negative impacts on the economy and the markets for certain securities and commodities, such as oil and natural gas.

Foreign investment in the securities of certain companies in certain countries is restricted or controlled to varying degrees. These restrictions or controls may at times limit or preclude Fund investment in certain foreign securities and increase the costs and expenses of a Fund. Certain countries in which the Fund may invest require governmental approval prior to investments by foreign persons, limit the amount of investment by foreign persons in a particular issuer, limit the investment by foreign persons only to a specific class of securities of an issuer that may have less advantageous rights than the classes available for purchase by domiciliaries of the countries and/or impose additional taxes on foreign investors.

Certain countries may require governmental approval for the repatriation of investment income, capital or the proceeds of sales of securities by foreign investors. In addition, if a deterioration occurs in a country’s balance of payments, the country could impose temporary restrictions on foreign capital remittances.

Income from certain investments held by a Fund could be reduced by foreign income taxes, including withholding taxes. It is impossible to determine the effective rate of foreign tax in advance. A Fund’s NAV may also be affected by changes in the rates or methods of taxation applicable to that Fund or to entities in which that Fund has invested. The Adviser can provide no assurance that the tax treatment of investments held by the Fund will not be subject to change. A shareholder otherwise subject to U.S. federal income taxes may, subject to certain limitations, be entitled to claim a credit or deduction for U.S. federal income tax purposes for his or her proportionate share of such foreign taxes paid by the Fund. See “U.S. Federal Income Taxation of Dividends and Distributions” below.

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Investors should understand that the expenses of a fund investing in foreign securities may be higher than investment companies investing only in domestic securities since, among other things, the cost of maintaining the custody of foreign securities is higher and the purchase and sale of portfolio securities may be subject to higher transaction charges, such as stamp duties and turnover taxes.

Investments in China. Risks of investments in securities of companies economically tied to China may include the volatility of the Chinese securities markets; the Chinese economy’s heavy dependence on exports, which may decrease, sometimes significantly, when the world economy weakens; the continuing importance of the role of the Chinese Government, which may take legal or regulatory actions that affect the contractual arrangements of a company or economic and market practices, and cause the value of the securities of an issuer held by a Fund to decrease significantly; and political unrest. While the Chinese economy has grown rapidly in recent years, the rate of growth has generally been declining, and there can be no assurance that China’s economy will continue to grow in the future. In addition, trade disputes between China and its trading counterparties, including the United States, have arisen and may continue to arise. Such disputes have resulted in trade tariffs and may potentially result in future trade tariffs, as well as embargoes, trade limitations, trade wars and other negative consequences. These consequences could trigger, among other things, a substantial reduction in international trade and adverse effects on, and potential failure of, individual companies and/or large segments of China’s export industry, which could have potentially significant negative effects on the Chinese economy as well as the global economy. U.S. or other sanctions imposed on the Chinese Government or certain Chinese companies may adversely impact the Chinese economy and Chinese issuers in which a Fund invests, and may prohibit or limit the Fund’s ability to invest in securities of certain Chinese issuers or require the Fund’s sale of such securities, potentially on an accelerated schedule or at disadvantageous prices. Risks of investments in companies based in Hong Kong, a special administrative region of China, include heavy reliance on the Chinese economy, plus regional Asian and global economies such as the U.S. economy, which makes these investments vulnerable to changes in these economies, and political unrest. These and related factors may result in adverse effects on investments in China and Hong Kong and have a negative impact on a Fund’s performance. In addition, China’s recent aggression towards Taiwan may impact companies economically tied to Taiwan, including those in supply chain channels.

A Fund may obtain economic exposure to Chinese companies through a special structure known as a variable interest entity (“VIE”), which is designed to provide foreign investors, such as a Fund, with exposure to Chinese companies that operate in certain sectors in which China restricts or prohibits foreign investments. In this structure, the Chinese-based operating company is the VIE and establishes a shell company in a foreign jurisdiction, such as the Cayman Islands. The shell company lists on a non-Chinese (such as the New York Stock Exchange (the “Exchange”) or the Nasdaq Stock Exchange (“NASDAQ”)) and enters into contractual arrangements with the VIE through one or more wholly-owned special purpose vehicles. This structure allows Chinese companies in which the government restricts foreign ownership to raise capital from foreign investors. While the shell company has no equity ownership of the VIE, these contractual arrangements permit the shell company to consolidate the VIE’s financial statements with its own for accounting purposes and provide for economic exposure to the performance of the underlying Chinese operating company. Therefore, an

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investor in the listed shell company, such as a Fund, will have exposure to the Chinese-based operating company only through contractual arrangements and has no ownership interest in the Chinese-based operating company. The contractual arrangements between the shell company and the VIE do not provide investors in the shell company with the rights they would have through direct equity ownership, and a foreign investor’s rights may be limited, including by actions of the Chinese government which could determine that the underlying contractual arrangements are invalid. While VIEs are a longstanding industry practice and are well known by Chinese officials and regulators, the structure has not been formally recognized under Chinese law and it is uncertain whether Chinese officials or regulators will withdraw their implicit acceptance of the structure.

It is also uncertain whether the contractual arrangements, which may be subject to conflicts of interest between the legal owners of the VIE and foreign investors, would be enforced by Chinese courts or arbitration bodies. Non-recognition of these structures by the Chinese government, or the inability to enforce such contracts, from which the shell company derives its value, would likely cause the VIE-structured holding(s) to suffer significant and possibly complete and permanent loss, and in turn, adversely affect a Fund’s returns and NAV.

Sustainable Thematic Credit may invest in China A shares of certain Chinese companies listed and traded through the Shanghai-Hong Kong Stock Connect and Shenzhen-Hong Kong Stock Connect programs (“Stock Connect”). Stock Connect is a securities trading and clearing program established by Hong Kong Exchanges and Clearing Limited, the Shanghai Stock Exchange, the Shenzhen Stock Exchange and China Securities Depository and Clearing Corporation Limited, which seeks to provide mutual stock market access between Mainland China and Hong Kong.

Trading through Stock Connect is subject to a number of restrictions and risks that could impair the Fund’s ability to invest in or sell China A shares and affect investment returns, including limitations on trading and possible imposition of trading suspensions. For example, Stock Connect is subject to quotas that limit aggregate net purchases on an exchange on a particular day, and an investor cannot purchase and sell the same security through Stock Connect on the same trading day. In addition, Stock Connect is generally only available on business days when both the relevant Chinese and Hong Kong markets are open. Furthermore, uncertainties in China’s tax rules related to the taxation of income and gains from investments in China A shares could result in unexpected tax liabilities for the Fund. Investing in China A shares is also subject to the clearance and settlement procedures associated with Stock Connect, which could pose risks to the Fund.

All transactions in Stock Connect securities will be made in renminbi, and accordingly the Fund will be exposed to renminbi currency risks. The ability to hedge renminbi currency risks is limited.  In addition, given the renminbi is subject to exchange control restrictions, the Fund could be adversely affected by delays in converting other currencies into renminbi and vice versa, including at times when there are unfavorable market conditions.

Stock Connect is subject to regulations promulgated by regulatory authorities and implementation rules made by the stock exchanges in China and Hong Kong. Furthermore, new

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regulations may be promulgated from time to time by the regulators in connection with operations and cross-border legal enforcement under Stock Connect.

A Fund may invest in renminbi-denominated bonds issued in China (“RMB Bonds”). RMB Bonds, including government and corporate bonds, are available in the China Interbank Bond Market (“CIBM”) to eligible foreign investors through the CIBM Direct Access Program and through the China-Hong Kong Bond Connect program (“Bond Connect”). Both programs are relatively new. Laws, rules, regulations, policies and guidelines relating to each program are untested and subject to change.

The CIBM Direct Access Program, established by the People’s Bank of China, allows eligible foreign institutional investors to conduct trading in the CIBM, subject to other rules and regulations as promulgated by Chinese authorities. Eligible foreign institutional investors who wish to invest directly in the CIBM through the CIBM Direct Access Program may do so through an onshore settlement agent, who would be responsible for making the relevant filings and account opening with the relevant authorities. The Funds are therefore subject to the risk of default or errors on the part of such agent.

Bond Connect provides a channel for overseas investors to invest in the Chinese bond market through investment links between Hong Kong and mainland China. In China, the Hong Kong Monetary Authority Central Money Markets Unit holds Bond Connect securities on behalf of the ultimate investors (such as a Fund) in accounts maintained with a China-based custodian (either the China Central Depository & Clearing Co. or the Shanghai Clearing House). This recordkeeping system subjects a Fund to numerous risks, including the risk that the Fund may have a limited ability to enforce its rights as a bondholder and the risks of settlement delays and counterparty default of the Hong Kong sub-custodian. Trading through Bond Connect is subject to other restrictions and risks. For example, Bond Connect is generally only available on business days when both the China and Hong Kong markets are open, which may limit a Fund’s ability to trade when it would be otherwise attractive to do so. Investing through Bond Connect also subjects the Fund to the clearance and settlement procedures associated with Bond Connect, which could pose risks to the Fund. Furthermore, securities purchased through Bond Connect generally may not be sold, purchased or otherwise transferred other than through Bond Connect in accordance with applicable rules.

Uncertainties in China’s tax rules related to the taxation of income and gains from investments in Chinese interbank bonds could result in unexpected tax liabilities for a Fund. Investing in the CIBM will also expose the Fund to renminbi currency risks. The ability to hedge renminbi currency risks may be limited.  In addition, given the renminbi is subject to exchange control restrictions, a Fund could be adversely affected by delays in converting other currencies into renminbi and vice versa and at times when there are unfavorable market conditions.

Foreign Currency Transactions. A Fund may invest in securities denominated in foreign currencies and a corresponding portion of the Fund’s revenues will be received in such currencies. In addition, a Fund may conduct foreign currency transactions for hedging and non-hedging purposes on a spot (i.e., cash) basis or through the use of derivatives transactions, such as forward currency exchange contracts, currency futures and options thereon, and options on

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currencies as described above. The dollar equivalent of a Fund’s net assets and distributions will be adversely affected by reductions in the value of certain foreign currencies relative to the U.S. Dollar. Such changes will also affect a Fund’s income. A Fund will, however, have the ability to attempt to protect itself against adverse changes in the values of foreign currencies by engaging in certain of the investment practices listed above. While a Fund has this ability, there is no certainty as to whether and to what extent the Fund will engage in these practices.

Currency exchange rates may fluctuate significantly over short periods of time causing, along with other factors, a Fund’s NAV to fluctuate. Currency exchange rates generally are determined by the forces of supply and demand in the foreign exchange markets and the relative merits of investments in different countries, actual or anticipated changes in interest rates and other complex factors, as seen from an international perspective. Currency exchange rates also can be affected unpredictably by the intervention of U.S. or foreign governments or central banks, or the failure to intervene, or by currency controls or political developments in the United States or abroad. To the extent a Fund’s total assets adjusted to reflect the Fund’s net position after giving effect to currency transactions is denominated or quoted in the currencies of foreign countries, the Fund will be more susceptible to the risk of adverse economic and political developments within those countries.

A Fund will incur costs in connection with conversions between various currencies. A Fund may hold foreign currency received in connection with investments when, in the judgment of the Adviser, it would be beneficial to convert such currency into U.S. Dollars at a later date, based on anticipated changes in the relevant exchange rate. If the value of the foreign currencies in which a Fund receives income falls relative to the U.S. Dollar between receipt of the income and the making of Fund distributions, the Fund may be required to liquidate securities in order to make distributions if the Fund has insufficient cash in U.S. Dollars to meet the distribution requirements that the Fund must satisfy to qualify as a regulated investment company for federal income tax purposes. Similarly, if the value of a particular foreign currency declines between the time a Fund incurs expenses in U.S. Dollars and the time cash expenses are paid, the amount of the currency required to be converted into U.S. Dollars in order to pay expenses in U.S. Dollars could be greater than the equivalent amount of such expenses in the currency at the time they were incurred. In light of these risks, a Fund may engage in certain currency hedging transactions, which themselves, involve certain special risks. See “Additional Investment Policies and Practices”, above.

Additional Risks of Options on Forward Currency Exchange Contracts, Options on Foreign Currencies, Swaps and Other Options. Unlike transactions entered into by a Fund in futures contracts and exchange-traded options, options on foreign currencies and forward currency exchange contracts may not be traded on contract markets regulated by the CFTC or (with the exception of certain foreign currency options) by the SEC. Such instruments may instead be traded through financial institutions acting as market-makers, although foreign currency options are also traded on certain national securities exchanges, such as the Nasdaq PHLX and the Cboe Options Exchange, subject to SEC regulation. Similarly, options on currencies may be traded OTC. In an OTC trading environment, many of the protections afforded to exchange participants will not be available. For example, there are no daily price fluctuation limits, and adverse market movements could therefore continue to an unlimited

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extent over a period of time. Although the purchaser of an option cannot lose more than the amount of the premium plus related transaction costs, this entire amount could be lost. Moreover, the option writer and a trader of forward currency exchange contracts could lose amounts substantially in excess of their initial investments, due to the margin and collateral requirements associated with such positions.

OTC transactions can be entered into only with a financial institution willing to take the opposite side, as principal, of a Fund’s position unless the institution acts as broker and is able to find another counterparty willing to enter into the transaction with the Fund. Where no such counterparty is available, it will not be possible to enter into a desired transaction. There also may be no liquid secondary market in the trading of OTC contracts, and a Fund could be required to retain options purchased or written, or forward currency exchange contracts entered into, until exercise, expiration or maturity. This in turn could limit the Fund’s ability to profit from open positions or to reduce losses experienced, and could result in greater losses.

Further, OTC transactions are not subject to the guarantee of an exchange clearinghouse, and a Fund will therefore be subject to the risk of default by, or the bankruptcy of, the financial institution serving as its counterparty. A Fund will enter into an OTC transaction only with parties whose creditworthiness has been reviewed and found to be satisfactory by the Adviser.

Transactions in OTC options on foreign currencies are subject to a number of conditions regarding the commercial purpose of the purchaser of such option. A Fund is not able to determine at this time whether or to what extent additional restrictions on the trading of OTC options on foreign currencies may be imposed at some point in the future, or the effect that any such restrictions may have on the hedging strategies to be implemented by the Fund.

Options on foreign currencies traded on national securities exchanges are within the jurisdiction of the SEC, as are other securities traded on such exchanges. As a result, many of the protections provided to traders on organized exchanges will be available with respect to such transactions. In particular, all foreign currency option positions entered into on a national securities exchange are cleared and guaranteed by the Options Clearing Corporation (“OCC”), thereby reducing the risk of counterparty default. Further, a liquid secondary market in options traded on a national securities exchange may be more readily available than in the OTC market, potentially permitting the Fund to liquidate open positions at a profit prior to exercise or expiration, or to limit losses in the event of adverse market movements.

The purchase and sale of exchange-traded foreign currency options, however, is subject to the risks of the availability of a liquid secondary market described above, as well as the risks regarding adverse market movements, margining of options written, the nature of the foreign currency market, possible intervention by governmental authorities and the effects of other political and economic events. In addition, exchange-traded options on foreign currencies involve certain risks not presented by the OTC market. For example, exercise and settlement of such options must be made exclusively through the OCC, which has established banking relationships in applicable foreign countries for this purpose. As a result, the OCC may, if it determines that foreign governmental restrictions or taxes would prevent the orderly settlement

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of foreign currency option exercises, or would result in undue burdens on the OCC or its clearing member, impose special procedures on exercise and settlement, such as technical changes in the mechanics of delivery of currency, the fixing of dollar settlement prices or prohibitions, on exercise.

Options on U.S. Government securities, futures contracts, options on futures contracts, forward currency exchange contracts and options on foreign currencies may be traded on foreign exchanges. Such transactions are subject to the risk of governmental actions affecting trading in or the prices of foreign currencies or securities. The value of such positions also could be adversely affected by (i) other complex foreign political and economic factors, (ii) lesser availability than in the United States of data on which to make trading decisions, (iii) delays in the Fund’s ability to act upon economic events occurring in foreign markets during nonbusiness hours in the United States, (iv) the imposition of different exercise and settlement terms and procedures and margin requirements than in the United States, and (v) lesser trading volume period.

Merger, Reorganization or Liquidation of a Fund. To the extent permitted by law, a Board may determine to merge or reorganize a Fund or a share class, or to close and liquidate a Fund or a share class at any time, which may have adverse consequences for shareholders. In the case of a liquidation, shareholders are expected to receive a liquidating distribution in cash or in-kind equal to their proportionate interest in the Fund or the class, as applicable. In the event the Board determines to liquidate a Fund or a share class, the timing of the liquidation might not be the most favorable to certain shareholders. A liquidating distribution may be a taxable event to certain shareholders, resulting in a taxable gain or loss for tax purposes, depending upon a shareholder’s basis in the shareholder’s shares of the Fund. A shareholder may receive an amount in liquidation less than the shareholder’s original investment.

Sovereign Debt Obligations. No established secondary markets may exist for many of the sovereign debt obligations in which a Fund may invest. Reduced secondary market liquidity may have an adverse effect on the market price and the Fund’s ability to dispose of particular instruments when necessary to meet its liquidity requirements or in response to specific economic events such as a deterioration in the creditworthiness of the issuer. Reduced secondary market liquidity for certain sovereign debt obligations may also make it more difficult for a Fund to obtain accurate market quotations for the purpose of valuing its portfolio. Market quotations are generally available on many sovereign debt obligations only from a limited number of dealers and may not represent firm bids of those dealers or prices for actual sales.

By investing in sovereign debt obligations, a Fund will be exposed to the direct or indirect consequences of political, social and economic changes in various countries. Political changes in a country may affect the willingness of a foreign government to make or provide for timely payments of its obligations. The country’s economic status, as reflected, among other things, in its inflation rate, the amount of its external debt and its gross domestic product, will also affect the government’s ability to honor its obligations. In addition, countries that issue debt obligations denominated in a currency other than their local currency, and countries that do not have their own currency (e.g., Eurozone countries) may have a higher risk of default than other countries, because such countries cannot issue local currency to pay such obligations.

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Many countries providing investment opportunities for a Fund have experienced substantial, and in some periods extremely high, rates of inflation for many years. Inflation and rapid fluctuations in inflation rates have had and may continue to have adverse effects on the economies and securities markets of certain of these countries. In an attempt to control inflation, wage and price controls have been imposed in certain countries.

Investing in sovereign debt obligations involves economic and political risks. The sovereign debt obligations in which a Fund may invest in most cases pertain to countries that are among the world’s largest debtors to commercial banks, foreign governments, international financial organizations and other financial institutions. In recent years, the governments of some of these countries have encountered difficulties in servicing their external debt obligations, which led to defaults on certain obligations and the restructuring of certain indebtedness. Restructuring arrangements have included, among other things, obtaining new credit to finance interest payments. Certain governments have not been able to make payments of interest on or principal of sovereign debt obligations as those payments have come due. Obligations arising from past restructuring agreements may affect the economic performance and political and social stability of those issuers.

Central banks and other governmental authorities which control the servicing of sovereign debt obligations may not be willing or able to permit the payment of the principal or interest when due in accordance with the terms of the obligations. As a result, the issuers of sovereign debt obligations may default on their obligations. Defaults on certain sovereign debt obligations have occurred in the past. Holders of certain sovereign debt obligations may be requested to participate in the restructuring and rescheduling of these obligations and to extend further loans to the issuers. The interests of holders of sovereign debt obligations could be adversely affected in the course of restructuring arrangements or by certain other factors referred to below. Furthermore, some of the participants in the secondary market for sovereign debt obligations may also be directly involved in negotiating the terms of these arrangements and may therefore have access to information not available to other market participants.

The ability of governments to make timely payments on their obligations is likely to be influenced strongly by the issuer’s balance of payments, including export performance, and its access to international credits and investments. A country whose exports are concentrated in a few commodities could be vulnerable to a decline in the international prices of one or more of those commodities. Increased protectionism on the part of a country’s trading partners could also adversely affect the country’s exports and diminish its trade account surplus, if any.

To the extent that a country receives payment for its exports in currencies other than dollars, its ability to make debt payments denominated in dollars could be adversely affected. To the extent that a country develops a trade deficit, it will need to depend on continuing loans from foreign governments, multilateral organizations or private commercial banks, aid payments from foreign governments and on inflows of foreign investment. The access of a country to these forms of external funding may not be certain, and a withdrawal of external funding could adversely affect the capacity of a government to make payments on its obligations. In addition, the cost of servicing debt obligations can be affected by a change in

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international interest rates since the majority of these obligations carry interest rates that are adjusted periodically based upon international rates.

Another factor bearing on the ability of a country to repay sovereign debt obligations is the level of the country’s international reserves. Fluctuations in the level of these reserves can affect the amount of foreign exchange readily available for external debt payments and, thus, could have a bearing on the capacity of the country to make payments on its sovereign debt obligations.

A Fund, except Tax-Aware, is permitted to invest in sovereign debt obligations of issuers that are not current in the payment of interest or principal or are in default, so long as the Adviser believes it to be consistent with the Fund’s investment objectives. A Fund may have limited legal recourse in the event of a default with respect to certain sovereign debt obligations it holds. For example, remedies from defaults on certain sovereign debt obligations, unlike those on private debt, must, in some cases, be pursued in the courts of the defaulting party itself. Legal recourse therefore may be significantly diminished. Bankruptcy, moratorium and other similar laws applicable to issuers of sovereign debt obligations may be substantially different from those applicable to issuers of private debt obligations. The political context, expressed as the willingness of an issuer of sovereign debt obligations to meet the terms of the debt obligation, for example, is of considerable importance. In addition, no assurance can be given that the holders of commercial bank debt will not contest payments to the holders of securities issued by foreign governments in the event of default under commercial bank loan agreements.

Total Return Bond, Global Bond and High Income each no longer offer Class R or Class K shares to new investors. Class R shares and Class K shares of each Fund will be liquidated on or about May 21, 2024.

INVESTMENT RESTRICTIONS

 

Fundamental Investment Policies

The following fundamental investment policies may not be changed without approval by the vote of a majority of a Fund’s outstanding voting securities, which means the affirmative vote of the holders of (i) 67% or more of the shares of the Fund represented at a meeting at which more than 50% of the outstanding shares are present in person or by proxy or (ii) more than 50% of the outstanding shares of the Fund, whichever is less.

As a matter of fundamental policy, a Fund:

(a) may not concentrate investments in an industry, as concentration may be defined under the 1940 Act or the rules and regulations thereunder (as such statute, rules or regulations may be amended from time to time) or by guidance regarding, interpretations of, or exemptive orders under, the

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1940 Act or the rules or regulations thereunder published by appropriate regulatory authorities;

(b) may not issue any senior security (as that term is defined in the 1940 Act) or borrow money, except to the extent permitted by the 1940 Act or the rules and regulations thereunder (as such statute, rules or regulations may be amended from time to time) or by guidance regarding, or interpretations of, or exemptive orders under, the 1940 Act or the rules or regulations thereunder published by appropriate regulatory authorities. For the purposes of this restriction, margin and collateral arrangements, including, for example, with respect to permitted borrowings, options, futures contracts, options on futures contracts and other derivatives such as swaps, are not deemed to be the issuance of a senior security;
(c) may not make loans except through (i) the purchase of debt obligations in accordance with its investment objective and policies; (ii) the lending of portfolio securities; (iii) the use of repurchase agreements; or (iv) the making of loans to affiliated funds as permitted under the 1940 Act, the rules and regulations thereunder (as such statutes, rules or regulations may be amended from time to time), or by guidance regarding, and interpretations of, or exemptive orders under, the 1940 Act;
(d) may not purchase or sell real estate except that it may dispose of real estate acquired as a result of the ownership of securities or other instruments. This restriction does not prohibit the Fund from investing in securities or other instruments backed by real estate or in securities of companies engaged in the real estate business;
(e) with respect to High Income and Global Bond, may not purchase or sell commodities regulated by the CFTC under the CEA or commodities contracts except for futures contracts and options on futures contracts, and, with respect to Total Return Bond, Income Fund, Short Duration Income and Tax-Aware, may purchase or sell commodities or options thereon to the extent permitted by applicable law; or
(f) may not act as an underwriter of securities, except that the Fund may acquire restricted securities under circumstances in which, if such securities were sold, the Fund might be deemed to be an underwriter for purposes of the Securities Act.

As a matter of fundamental policy, each of Global Bond, Total Return Bond, Short Duration High Yield, High Income, Income Fund, Short Duration Income and Tax-Aware is diversified (as that term is defined in the 1940 Act). This means that at least 75% of the Fund’s assets consist of:

· Cash or cash items;
· Government securities;

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· Securities of other investment companies; and
· Securities of any one issuer that represent not more than 10% of the outstanding voting securities of the issuer of the securities and not more than 5% of the total assets of the Fund.

Sustainable Thematic Credit is a “non-diversified” investment company, which means it is not limited in the proportion of its assets that may be invested in the securities of a single issuer. This policy may be changed without a shareholder vote. Because Sustainable Thematic Credit is a non-diversified investment company, it may invest in a smaller number of issuers than a diversified investment company, and an investment in the Fund may, under certain circumstances, present greater risk to an investor than an investment in a diversified investment company.

Non-Fundamental Investment Policies

As a matter of non-fundamental policy, each Fund has adopted a policy that provides that the Fund may not purchase securities on margin, except (i) as otherwise provided under rules adopted by the SEC under the 1940 Act or by guidance regarding the 1940 Act, or interpretations thereof, and (ii) that the Fund may obtain such short-term credits as are necessary for the clearance of portfolio transactions, and the Fund may make margin payments in connection with futures contracts, options, forward contracts, swaps, caps, floors, collars and other financial instruments.

As a matter of non-fundamental policy, High Income has adopted a policy that provides that the Fund may not purchase shares of any registered open-end investment company or registered unit investment trust in reliance on Section 12(d)(1)(F) or (G) of the 1940 Act at any time the Fund has knowledge that its shares are purchased by another investment company investor in reliance on the provisions of subparagraph (G) of Section 12(d)(1).

MANAGEMENT OF THE FUNDS

 

The Adviser

The Adviser, a Delaware limited partnership with principal offices at 501 Commerce Street, Nashville, TN 37203, has been retained under an investment advisory agreement (the “Advisory Agreement”) to provide investment advice and, in general, to conduct the management and investment program of each of the Funds under the supervision of each Fund’s Board (see “Management of the Funds” in the Prospectus). The Adviser is an investment adviser registered under the Investment Advisers Act of 1940, as amended.

The Adviser is a leading global investment management firm supervising client accounts with assets as of September 30, 2023, totaling approximately $669 billion. The Adviser provides management services for many of the largest U.S. public and private employee benefit

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plans, endowments, foundations, public employee retirement funds, banks, insurance companies and high net worth individuals worldwide.

As of September 30, 2023, the ownership structure of the Adviser, expressed as a percentage of general and limited partnership interests, was as follows:

  Equitable Holdings and its subsidiaries 60.3 %  
  AllianceBernstein Holding L.P. 39.0    
  Unaffiliated holders 0.7    
    100.0 %  

 

Equitable Holdings, Inc. (formerly named AXA Equitable Holdings, Inc.) (“EQH”) is a leading financial services company in the U.S. and consists of two well-established principal franchises, Equitable Financial Life Insurance Company and AllianceBernstein.

As of September 30, 2023, EQH owned approximately 3.6% of the issued and outstanding units representing assignments of beneficial ownership of limited partnership interests in AllianceBernstein Holding L.P. (“AB Holding”). AllianceBernstein Corporation (an indirect wholly-owned subsidiary of EQH, “GP”) is the general partner of both AB Holding and the Adviser. The GP owns 100,000 general partnership units in AB Holding and a 1% general partnership interest in the Adviser.

Including both the general partnership and limited partnership interests in AB Holding and the Adviser, EQH and its subsidiaries have an approximate 61.7% economic interest in the Adviser as of September 30, 2023.

During the second quarter of 2018, AXA S.A. (“AXA”), a French holding company for the AXA Group, completed the sale of a minority stake in EQH through an initial public offering. Since the initial sale, AXA has completed additional offerings (and related transactions). As a result, as of May 20, 2021, AXA no longer owns shares of EQH.

Sales that were completed on November 13, 2019 resulted in the indirect transfer of a “controlling block” of voting securities of the Adviser (a “Change of Control Event”) and may have been deemed to have been an “assignment” causing a termination of the Funds’ investment advisory agreements. In order to ensure that investment advisory services could continue uninterrupted in the event of a Change of Control Event, the Boards previously approved new investment advisory agreements with the Adviser, and shareholders of the Funds subsequently approved the new investment advisory agreements. These agreements became effective on November 13, 2019.

Advisory Agreements and Expenses

The Adviser serves as investment manager and adviser of each of the Funds, continuously furnishes an investment program for each Fund, and manages, supervises and conducts the affairs of each Fund, subject to supervision of each Fund’s Board.

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Under the Advisory Agreements for the Funds, the Adviser furnishes advice and recommendations with respect to the Funds’ portfolio of securities and investments and provides persons satisfactory to the Board to act as officers of the Funds. Such officers and employees may be employees of the Adviser or its affiliates.

The Adviser is, under each Fund’s Advisory Agreement, responsible for certain expenses incurred by the Fund, including, for example, office facilities, and any expenses incurred in promoting the sale of Fund shares (other than the portion of the promotional expenses borne by the Fund in accordance with an effective plan pursuant to Rule 12b-1 under the 1940 Act, and the costs of printing Fund prospectuses and other reports to shareholders and fees related to registration with the SEC and with state regulatory authorities).

The Funds have under the Advisory Agreements assumed the obligation for payment of all of their other expenses. As to the obtaining of services other than those specifically provided to the Funds by the Adviser, each Fund may employ its own personnel. The Advisory Agreements provide for reimbursement to the Adviser of the costs of certain non-advisory services provided to the Funds. Costs currently reimbursed include the costs of the Adviser’s personnel performing certain administrative services for the Funds, including clerical, accounting, legal and other services (“administrative services”), and associated overhead costs, such as office space, supplies and information technology. The administrative services are provided to the Funds on a fully-costed basis (i.e., includes each person’s total compensation and a factor reflecting the Adviser’s total cost relating to that person, including all related overhead expenses). The reimbursement of these costs to the Adviser will be specifically approved by the Fund’s Board. For the fiscal year ended October 31, 2023, for Total Return Bond, High Income, Income Fund, Tax-Aware and Sustainable Thematic Credit, the Funds paid the Adviser a total of $89,990, $87,350, $93,875, $90,979 and $105,758, respectively, for these services. For the fiscal year ended October 31, 2023 for Short Duration Income, the Adviser agreed to voluntarily waive such reimbursements in the amount of $102,346. For the fiscal year ended September 30, 2023 for Short Duration High Yield and Global Bond, the Funds paid the Adviser a total of $92,915 and $104,635, respectively, for these services.

The Advisory Agreements continue in effect from year to year provided that such continuance is specifically approved at least annually by a vote of a majority of the outstanding voting securities of each Fund or by the Directors including, in either case, by a vote of a majority of the Directors who are not parties to the Advisory Agreements or interested persons of any such party. Most recently, continuance of the Advisory Agreements was approved for an additional annual term by a vote of the Board at its meetings held on August 1-2, 2023.

Any material amendments to the Advisory Agreements must be approved by a vote of the outstanding securities of the relevant Fund and by a vote of a majority of the Directors who are not interested persons of the Fund or the Adviser. The Advisory Agreements are terminable without penalty on 60 days’ written notice by a vote of a majority of the Funds’ outstanding voting securities or by a vote of a majority of the Directors or by the Adviser, and will automatically terminate in the event of assignment. Each Advisory Agreement provides that in the absence of willful misfeasance, bad faith or gross negligence on the part of the Adviser, or of reckless disregard of its obligations thereunder, the Adviser shall not be liable for any action or failure to act in accordance with its duties thereunder.

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The Adviser is compensated for its services at the following annual rates:

Fund Annual Percentage Rate
Total Return Bond .45 of 1% of the first $2.5 billion of average net assets
.40 of 1% of the excess of $2.5 billion up to $5 billion of average net assets
.35 of 1% of the excess over $5 billion up to $8 billion of average net assets
.30 of 1% of the excess over $8 billion of average net assets
 
Short Duration High Yield .55 of 1% of the first $2.5 billion of average net assets
.50 of 1% of the excess of $2.5 billion up to $5 billion of average net assets
.45 of 1% of the excess over $5 billion of average net assets
   
Short Duration Income .35 of 1% of the first $2.5 billion of average net assets
.30 of 1% of the excess over $2.5 billion of average net assets
 
Global Bond .50 of 1% of the first $2.5 billion of average daily adjusted total assets
.45 of 1% of the excess of $2.5 billion up to $5 billion of average daily adjusted total assets
.40 of 1% of the excess over $5 billion of average daily adjusted total assets (i.e., the average daily value of total assets, minus the sum of accrued liabilities (other than the principal amount of money borrowed))
 
High Income .50 of 1% of the first $2.5 billion of average daily adjusted total assets
.45 of 1% of the excess of $2.5 billion up to $5 billion of average daily adjusted total assets
.40 of 1% of the excess over $5 billion of average daily adjusted total assets (i.e., the average daily value of total assets, minus the sum of accrued liabilities (other than the principal amount of money borrowed))
 
Income Fund .45 of 1% of the first $2.5 billion of average net assets
.40 of 1% of the excess of $2.5 billion up to $5 billion of average net assets
.35 of 1% of the excess over $5 billion of average net assets
 
Tax-Aware .45 of 1% of the first $2.5 billion of average net assets
.40 of 1% of the excess of $2.5 billion up to $5 billion of average net assets
.35 of 1% of the excess over $5 billion of average net assets
 

 

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Fund Annual Percentage Rate
Sustainable Thematic Credit* .45 of 1% of the first $2.5 billion of average net assets
.40 of 1% of the excess of $2.5 billion up to $5 billion of average net assets
.35 of 1% of the excess of $5 billion of average net assets

 

*       Effective May 3, 2021. The Fund was launched on May 10, 2021.

The fee is accrued daily and paid monthly.

With respect to Short Duration High Yield, the Adviser has agreed to waive its management fee and/or bear certain expenses of the Fund until January 31, 2025 to the extent necessary to prevent total Fund operating expenses, on an annual basis, from exceeding .95%, 1.70% and .70% of average daily net assets, respectively, for Class A, Class C and Advisor Class shares (excluding acquired fund fees and expenses of any AB Mutual Funds in which the Fund may invest, interest expense, taxes, extraordinary expenses, and brokerage commissions and other transaction costs).

With respect to Income Fund, the Adviser has contractually agreed to waive its fee and bear certain expenses until January 31, 2025 so that total expenses (excluding acquired fund fees and expenses other than the advisory fees of any AB Mutual Funds in which the Fund may invest, interest expense, expenses on securities sold short, brokerage commissions and other transaction costs, taxes and extraordinary expenses) do not exceed on an annual basis .77%, 1.52%, .52% and .52% of average daily net assets, respectively, for Class A, Class C, Advisor Class and Class Z shares (“expense limitations”). The expense limitations will remain in effect until January 31, 2025 and may only be terminated or changed with the consent of the Fund’s Directors. In addition, the expense limitations will continue thereafter from year to year unless the Adviser provides notice of termination to the Fund at least 60 days prior to the end of the period.

With respect to Sustainable Thematic Credit, the Adviser has contractually agreed to waive its fee and bear certain expenses of the Fund for the period through January 31, 2025 so that total Fund operating expenses (excluding expenses associated with acquired fund fees and expenses other than the advisory fees of any AB Mutual Funds in which the Fund may invest, interest expense, taxes, extraordinary expenses, and brokerage commissions and other transaction costs) do not exceed on an annual basis .85% and .60% of average daily net assets, respectively, for Class A and Advisor Class shares. This fee waiver and/or expense reimbursement agreement automatically extends each year unless the Adviser provides notice 60 days prior to the end of the Period.

The Adviser has contractually agreed, with respect to Total Return Bond, Short Duration Income, and Tax-Aware, for the period from the effective date of the registration statement of that Fund to the effective date of the subsequent registration statement of that Fund incorporating the Fund’s annual financial statements (the “Period”) to waive its fee and bear certain expenses so that total operating expenses, excluding interest expense (or for Short Duration Income and Tax-Aware, excluding expenses associated with securities sold short, acquired fund fees and expenses other than the advisory fees of any AB Mutual Funds in which

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the Fund may invest, interest expense, taxes, extraordinary expenses and brokerage commissions and other transaction costs), do not, on an annual basis, exceed the amounts noted for the Funds listed in the table below. These fee waiver and/or expense reimbursement agreements may only be terminated or changed with the consent of the Fund’s Directors and automatically extend each year unless the Adviser provides notice 60 days prior to the end of the Period.

  Fund   Expense Caps
  Total Return Bond Class A .77% of average net assets
    Class C 1.52% of average net assets
    Advisor Class .52% of average net assets
    Class R 1.02% of average net assets
    Class K .77% of average net assets
    Class I .52% of average net assets
    Class Z .52% of average net assets
       
  Short Duration Income Class A .65 of average daily net assets
    Class C 1.45% of average daily net assets
    Advisor Class .45% of average daily net assets
       
  Tax-Aware Class A .75% of aggregate daily net assets
    Class C 1.50% of aggregate daily net assets
    Advisor Class .50% of aggregate daily net assets

 

For the three most recent fiscal years or since inception of the Funds, the Funds paid the Adviser advisory fees as follows:

  Fund Advisory Fees

Amounts Waived or

Reimbursed under Expense

Limitation Undertaking

  Total Return Bond    
  2023 $854,250 $752,408
  2022 $1,177,405 $744,489
  2021 $1,630,465 $789,694
       
  Short Duration High Yield    
  2023 $2,282,325 $308,606
  2022 $1,897,929 $173,132
  2021 $1,812,958 $222,778
  Global Bond    
  2023 $25,513,700 $0
  2022 $29,349,394 $0
  2021 $31,997,070 $0

 

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  Fund Advisory Fees

Amounts Waived or

Reimbursed under Expense

Limitation Undertaking

  High Income    
  2023 $15,007,488 $0
  2022 $17,961,866 $0
  2021 $23,160,488 $0
       
  Income Fund    
  2023 $11,640,452 $1,466,009
  2022 $15,974,539 $1,066,679
  2021 $20,199,894 $599,105
       
  Short Duration Income    
  2023 $301,837 $372,547
  2022 $209,903 $331,467
  2021 $181,078 $278,066
       
  Tax-Aware    
  2023 $1,874,367 $502,848
  2022 $1,274,893 $425,288
  2021 $559,536 $293,407
       
  Sustainable Thematic Credit*    
  2023 $915,584 $146,423
  2022 $830,670 $222,462
  2021 $241,036 $176,642

* The Fund was launched on May 10, 2021.

In addition, to the extent that a Fund invests in AB Government Money Market Portfolio (except for the investment of any cash collateral from securities lending), the Adviser has contractually agreed to waive its management fee from the Fund in an amount equal to the Fund’s pro rata share of the AB Government Money Market Portfolio’s effective management fee. This agreement will remain in effect until January 31, 2024 and will continue thereafter from year to year unless the Adviser provides notice of termination to the Fund at least 60 days prior to the end of the period. To the extent that a Fund invests securities lending cash collateral in the AB Government Money Market Portfolio, the Adviser has also agreed to waive a portion of the Fund’s share of the advisory fees of AB Government Money Market Portfolio. In connection with the investment by the Funds in the AB Government Money Market Portfolio, the Adviser waived its investment management fee from Total Return Bond, High Income, Income Fund and Tax-Aware in the amount of, $2,928, $48,351, $26,939 and $3,202, respectively, for the fiscal year ended October 31, 2021, $2,643, $24,341, $26,463 and $7,443, respectively, for the fiscal year ended October 31, 2022, and $1,537, $48,983, $16,846 and $7,567 for the fiscal year ended October 31, 2023, from Short Duration High Yield and Global Bond in the amount of $10,081 and $91,089, respectively, for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2021, $7,738 and $91,125, respectively, for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2022 and $14,858 and $100,396, respectively, for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2023. In connection with the investment by Short Duration Income in the AB Government Money Market Portfolio, the Adviser waived its

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investment management fee in the amount of $424, $775 and $671, respectively, for the fiscal year ended October 31, 2021, the fiscal year ended October 31, 2022 and the fiscal year ended October 31, 2023. In connection with the investment by Sustainable Thematic Credit in the AB Government Money Market Portfolio, the Adviser waived its management fee in the amount of $2,736, $4,848 and $1,426, respectively, for the fiscal year ended October 31, 2023, the fiscal year ended October 31, 2022 and the fiscal period ended October 31, 2021.

The Adviser acts as an investment adviser to other persons, firms or corporations, including investment companies, and is the investment adviser to AB Active ETFs, Inc., AB Cap Fund, Inc., AB Core Opportunities Fund, Inc., AB Corporate Shares, AB Discovery Growth Fund, Inc., AB Equity Income Fund, Inc., AB Fixed-Income Shares, Inc., AB Global Real Estate Investment Fund, Inc., AB Global Risk Allocation Fund, Inc., AB Institutional Funds, Inc., AB Large Cap Growth Fund, Inc., AB Municipal Income Fund, Inc., AB Municipal Income Fund II, AB Relative Value Fund, Inc., AB Sustainable Global Thematic Fund, Inc., AB Sustainable International Thematic Fund, Inc., AB Trust, AB Variable Products Series Fund, Inc., Bernstein Fund, Inc., Sanford C. Bernstein Fund, Inc., Sanford C. Bernstein Fund II, Inc. and The AB Portfolios, all registered open-end investment companies; and to AllianceBernstein Global High Income Fund, Inc., AB Multi-Manager Alternative Fund and AllianceBernstein National Municipal Income Fund, Inc, all registered closed-end investment companies. The registered investment companies for which the Adviser serves as investment adviser are referred to collectively below as the “AB Fund Complex”, while all of these investment companies, except Bernstein Fund, Inc., Sanford C. Bernstein Fund, Inc. and AB Multi-Manager Alternative Fund, are referred to collectively below as the “AB Funds”.

Board of Directors Information

Certain information concerning the Funds’ Directors and Advisory Board member is set forth below.

NAME, ADDRESS*, AGE AND (YEAR FIRST ELECTED**)   PRINCIPAL OCCUPATION(S) DURING PAST FIVE YEARS AND OTHER INFORMATION   PORTFOLIOS IN AB FUND COMPLEX OVERSEEN   OTHER PUBLIC COMPANY DIRECTORSHIPS CURRENTLY HELD
             
INDEPENDENT DIRECTORS            
             

Garry L. Moody,#

Chairman of the Board

72

(2008 – Total Return Bond)

(2008 – Global Bond)

(2008 – High Income)

(2011 – Short Duration High Yield)

 

  Private Investor since prior to 2019. Formerly, Partner, Deloitte & Touche LLP (1995-2008) where he held a number of senior positions, including Vice Chairman, and U.S. and Global Investment Management Practice Managing Partner; President,   82   None

 

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NAME, ADDRESS*, AGE AND (YEAR FIRST ELECTED**)   PRINCIPAL OCCUPATION(S) DURING PAST FIVE YEARS AND OTHER INFORMATION   PORTFOLIOS IN AB FUND COMPLEX OVERSEEN   OTHER PUBLIC COMPANY DIRECTORSHIPS CURRENTLY HELD
             

(2013 – Tax-Aware)

(2015 – Income Fund)

(2018 – Short Duration Income)

(2021 – Sustainable Thematic Credit)

  Fidelity Accounting and Custody Services Company (1993-1995), where he was responsible for accounting, pricing, custody and reporting for the Fidelity mutual funds; and Partner, Ernst & Young LLP (1975-1993), where he served as the National Director of Mutual Fund Tax Services and Managing Partner of its Chicago Office Tax department. He served as a member of the Investment Company Institute’s Board of Governors and the Independent Directors Council’s Governing Council, from October 2019 through September 2023, where he also served as Chairman of its Governance Committee, from October 2021 through September 2023. He is Chairman of the AB Funds and Chairman of the Independent Directors Committees since January 2023; he has served as a director or trustee since 2008, and as Chairman of the Audit Committees of such Funds from 2008 to February 2023.        
             

Jorge A. Bermudez,#

73

(2020)

(2021 – Sustainable Thematic Credit)

 

  Private Investor since prior to 2019. Formerly, Chief Risk Officer of Citigroup, Inc., a global financial services company, from November 2007 to March 2008; Chief Executive Officer of Citigroup’s Commercial Business Group in North America and Citibank Texas from 2005 to 2007; and a variety of other executive and leadership roles at various businesses within Citigroup prior to then; Chairman (2017-2018) of the Texas A&M Foundation Board of Trustees (Trustee 2014-2021) and Chairman of the Smart Grid Center   82   Moody’s Corporation since April 2011

 

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NAME, ADDRESS*, AGE AND (YEAR FIRST ELECTED**)   PRINCIPAL OCCUPATION(S) DURING PAST FIVE YEARS AND OTHER INFORMATION   PORTFOLIOS IN AB FUND COMPLEX OVERSEEN   OTHER PUBLIC COMPANY DIRECTORSHIPS CURRENTLY HELD
             
    Board at Texas A&M University since 2012; director of, among others, Citibank N.A. from 2005 to 2008, the Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas, Houston Branch from 2009 to 2011, the Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas from 2011 to 2017, and the Electric Reliability Council of Texas from 2010 to 2016; and Chair of the Audit Committee of the Board of Directors of Moody’s Corporation since December 2022. He has served as director or trustee of the AB Funds since January 2020.        
             

Michael J. Downey,#

80

(2005 – Total Return Bond)

(2005 – Global Bond)

(2005 – High Income)

(2011 – Short Duration High Yield)

(2013 – Tax-Aware)

(2015 – Income Fund)

(2018 – Short Duration Income)

(2021 – Sustainable Thematic Credit)

 

  Private Investor since prior to 2019. Formerly, Chairman of The Asia Pacific Fund, Inc. (registered investment company) from 2002 until January 2019. From 1987 until 1993, Chairman and CEO of Prudential Mutual Fund Management, director of the Prudential mutual funds and member of the Executive Committee of Prudential Securities Inc. He has served as a director or trustee of the AB Funds since 2005.   82   None
             

Nancy P. Jacklin,#

75

(2006 – Total Return Bond)

(2006 – Global Bond)

(2006 – High Income)

(2011 – Short Duration High Yield)

(2013 – Tax-Aware)

(2015 – Income Fund)

(2018 – Short Duration Income)

(2021 – Sustainable Thematic Credit)

  Private Investor since prior to 2019. Professorial Lecturer at the Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies (2008-2015). U.S. Executive Director of the International Monetary Fund (which is responsible for ensuring the stability of the international monetary system), (December 2002-May 2006); Partner, Clifford Chance (1992-2002); Sector Counsel, International Banking and Finance, and Associate General Counsel, Citicorp (1985-1992); Assistant General Counsel    82    None

 

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NAME, ADDRESS*, AGE AND (YEAR FIRST ELECTED**)   PRINCIPAL OCCUPATION(S) DURING PAST FIVE YEARS AND OTHER INFORMATION   PORTFOLIOS IN AB FUND COMPLEX OVERSEEN   OTHER PUBLIC COMPANY DIRECTORSHIPS CURRENTLY HELD
             

 

 

 

  (International), Federal Reserve Board of Governors (1982-1985); and Attorney Advisor, U.S. Department of the Treasury (1973-1982). Member of the Bar of the District of Columbia and of New York; and member of the Council on Foreign Relations. She has served as a director or trustee of the AB Funds since 2006 and served as Chair of the Governance and Nominating Committees of the AB Funds from August 2014 until August 2023.    
             

Jeanette W. Loeb,#

72

(2020)

(2021 – Sustainable Thematic Credit)

 

  Private Investor since prior to 2019. Director of New York City Center since 2005. Formerly, Chief Executive Officer of PetCareRx (e-commerce pet pharmacy) from 2002 to 2011 and 2015 to April 2023. She was a director of MidCap Financial Investment Corporation (business development company) from August 2011 to July 2023 and a director of AB Multi-Manager Alternative Fund (fund of hedge funds) from 2012 to 2018. Formerly, affiliated with Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. (financial services) from 1977 to 1994, including as a partner thereof from 1986 to 1994. She has served as director or trustee of the AB Funds since April 2020 and serves as the Chair of the Governance and Nominating Committees of the AB Funds since August 2023.   82   None
             

Carol C. McMullen,#

68

(2016)

(2018 – Short Duration Income)

  Private investor and a member of the Advisory Board of Butcher Box (since 2018) and serves as Advisory Board Chair since June 2023. Formerly, Managing Director of Slalom Consulting   82   None

 

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NAME, ADDRESS*, AGE AND (YEAR FIRST ELECTED**)   PRINCIPAL OCCUPATION(S) DURING PAST FIVE YEARS AND OTHER INFORMATION   PORTFOLIOS IN AB FUND COMPLEX OVERSEEN   OTHER PUBLIC COMPANY DIRECTORSHIPS CURRENTLY HELD
             
(2021 – Sustainable Thematic Credit)   (consulting) from 2014 until July 2023; Member, Mass General Brigham (formerly, Partners Healthcare) Investment Committee (2010-2019); Director of Norfolk & Dedham Group (mutual property and casualty insurance) from 2011 until November 2016; Director of Partners Community Physicians Organization (healthcare) from 2014 until December 2016; and Managing Director of The Crossland Group (consulting) from 2012 until 2013. She has held a number of senior positions in the asset and wealth management industries, including at Eastern Bank (where her roles included President of Eastern Wealth Management), Thomson Financial (Global Head of Sales for Investment Management), and Putnam Investments (where her roles included Chief Investment Officer, Core and Growth and Head of Global Investment Research). She has served on a number of private company and non-profit boards, and as a director or trustee of the AB Funds since June 2016 and serves as Chair of the Audit Committees of such Funds since February 2023.        
             

Marshall C. Turner, Jr.,#

82

(2005 – Total Return Bond)

(2005 – Global Bond)

(2005 – High Income)

(2011 – Short Duration High Yield)

(2013 – Tax-Aware)

(2015 – Income Fund)

(2018 – Short Duration Income)

 

  Private Investor since prior to 2019. He was a Director of Xilinx, Inc. (programmable logic semi-conductors and adaptable, intelligent computing) from 2007 through August 2020, and is a former director of 33 other companies and organizations. Former Chairman and CEO of Dupont Photomasks, Inc. (semi-conductor manufacturing   82   None

 

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NAME, ADDRESS*, AGE AND (YEAR FIRST ELECTED**)   PRINCIPAL OCCUPATION(S) DURING PAST FIVE YEARS AND OTHER INFORMATION   PORTFOLIOS IN AB FUND COMPLEX OVERSEEN   OTHER PUBLIC COMPANY DIRECTORSHIPS CURRENTLY HELD
             
(2021 – Sustainable Thematic Credit)   equipment) from 2003 through 2006. He has extensive operating leadership and venture capital investing experience, including five interim or full-time CEO roles, and prior service as general partner of institutional venture capital partnerships. He also has extensive non-profit board leadership experience, and currently serves on the board of the George Lucas Educational Foundation. He has served as a director of one AB Fund since 1992, and director or trustee of all the AB Funds since 2005. He has served as both Chairman of the AB Funds and Chairman of the Independent Directors Committees from 2014 through December 2022.        
             
INTERESTED DIRECTOR            
             

Onur Erzan,+

48

(2021)

 

  Senior Vice President of the Adviser++, Head of Global Client Group and Head of Private Wealth. He oversees AB’s entire private wealth management business and third-party institutional and retail franchise, where he is responsible for all client services, sales and marketing, as well as product strategy, management and development worldwide. Director, President and Chief Executive Officer of the AB Mutual Funds as of April 1, 2021. He is also a member of the Equitable Holdings Management Committee. Prior to joining the firm in January 2021, he spent over 19 years with McKinsey (management and consulting firm), most recently as a senior partner and co-leader of its Wealth & Asset Management   82   None

 

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NAME, ADDRESS*, AGE AND (YEAR FIRST ELECTED**)   PRINCIPAL OCCUPATION(S) DURING PAST FIVE YEARS AND OTHER INFORMATION   PORTFOLIOS IN AB FUND COMPLEX OVERSEEN   OTHER PUBLIC COMPANY DIRECTORSHIPS CURRENTLY HELD
             
    practice. In addition, he co-led McKinsey’s Banking & Securities Solutions (a portfolio of data, analytics, and digital assets and capabilities) globally.        
             
ADVISORY BOARD MEMBER            
             

Emilie D. Wrapp,+

68

(Appointed January 2024)

  Former Senior Vice President, Counsel, Assistant Secretary & Senior Mutual Fund Legal Advisor of the Adviser (January 2023 – June 2023). Prior thereto, Senior Vice President, Assistant Secretary, Counsel, and Head of Mutual Fund & Retail Legal of the Adviser; Assistant General Counsel and Assistant Secretary of ABI since prior to 2019 until June 2023.   82   None
__________________________________
* The address for each of the Fund’s Directors and the Advisory Board member is c/o AllianceBernstein L.P., Attention: Legal and Compliance Department – Mutual Fund Legal, 1345 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10105.
** There is no stated term of office for the Funds’ Directors or Advisory Board member.
# Member of the Audit Committee, the Governance and Nominating Committee and the Independent Directors Committee.
+ Mr. Erzan is an “interested person”, as defined in Section 2(a)(19) of the 1940 Act, of the Funds because of his affiliation with the Adviser. Ms. Wrapp is an “interested person”, as defined in Section 2(a)(19) of the 1940 Act, of the Funds because of her former role with the Adviser.
++ The Adviser is an affiliate of the Funds.
^ Mr. Moody became Chairman of the Board effective January 1, 2023.

 

The business and affairs of each Fund are overseen by the Board. The Board has also established an Advisory Board, whose member assists the Board in a non-voting capacity in its oversight of the management of the Funds. The Board remains solely responsible for the oversight of management of the Funds. Directors who are not “interested persons” of the Fund as defined in the 1940 Act, are referred to as “Independent Directors”, and Directors who are “interested persons” of the Fund are referred to as “Interested Directors”. Certain information concerning the Fund’s governance structure and each Director is set forth below.

Experience, Skills, Attributes and Qualifications of the Funds’ Directors. The Governance and Nominating Committee of each Fund’s Board, which is composed of Independent Directors, reviews the experience, qualifications, attributes and skills of potential

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candidates for nomination or election by the Board, and conducts a similar review in connection with the proposed nomination of current Directors for re-election by shareholders at any annual or special meeting of shareholders. In evaluating a candidate for nomination or election as a Director, the Governance and Nominating Committee considers the contribution that the candidate would be expected to make to the diverse mix of experience, qualifications, attributes and skills that the Board believes contributes to good governance for the Fund. In assessing diversity of experience, the Governance and Nominating Committee takes account of a candidate’s educational and professional background, but also the diversity of experience a candidate derives from race, gender, ethnicity, religion, nationality, disability, sexual orientation, or cultural background. Additional information concerning the Governance and Nominating Committee’s consideration of nominees appears in the description of the Committee below.

Each Fund’s Board believes that, collectively, the Directors have balanced and diverse experience, qualifications, attributes and skills, which allow the Board to operate effectively in governing the Fund and protecting the interests of shareholders. The Board of each Fund has concluded that, based on each Director’s experience, qualifications, attributes or skills on an individual basis and in combination with those of the other Directors, each Director is qualified and should continue to serve as such.

In determining that a particular Director was and continues to be qualified to serve as a Director, each Board has considered a variety of criteria, none of which, in isolation, was controlling. In addition, each Board has taken into account the actual service and commitment of each Director during his or her tenure (including the Director’s commitment and participation in Board and committee meetings, as well as his or her current and prior leadership of standing and ad hoc committees) in concluding that each should continue to serve. Additional information about the specific experience, skills, attributes and qualifications of each Director, which in each case led to the Board’s conclusion that the Director should serve (or continue to serve) as trustee or director of the Funds, is provided in the table above and in the next paragraph.

Among other attributes and qualifications common to all Directors are their ability to review critically, evaluate, question and discuss information provided to them (including information requested by the Directors), to interact effectively with the Adviser, other service providers, counsel and the Funds’ independent registered public accounting firm, and to exercise effective business judgment in the performance of their duties as Directors. In addition to his or her service as a Director of the Funds and other AB Funds as noted in the table above: Mr. Bermudez has extensive experience in the financial services industry, including risk management, from his service in various senior executive positions, including as Chief Risk Officer, of a large global financial services company, as a director and Audit Chair of a Federal Reserve Bank and a director of a large public company, and as Chairman or director or trustee of numerous non-profit organizations; Mr. Downey has experience in the investment advisory business including as Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of a large fund complex and as director of a number of non-AB funds and as Chairman of a non-AB closed-end fund; Mr. Erzan has experience as an executive of the Adviser with responsibility for, among other things, the AB Funds and at a management consulting firm; Ms. Jacklin has experience as a financial services regulator, as U.S. Executive Director of the International Monetary Fund (which is responsible for ensuring the stability of the international monetary system), as a financial services lawyer in private practice, and served as Chair of the Governance and Nominating Committees of the AB

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Funds from August 2014 until August 2023; Ms. Loeb has extensive experience in the financial services industry and in business more generally, including as a former executive and partner of a large global financial services company and as Chief Executive Officer of a private e-commerce company, a director and audit committee member of a large publicly traded business development company and former director of a fund of hedge funds, and a director or trustee of numerous non-profit organizations including the United Nations Development Corporation and New York City Center and has served as Chair of the Governance and Nominating Committees of the AB Funds since August 2023; Ms. McMullen has experience in talent management for a global technology consulting firm, serves on the advisory board of a privately held e-commerce company, has served as director of a variety of privately held firms and non-profit boards (including as director of one of the 10 largest healthcare systems in the US and Chair of a top US community hospital), has extensive asset management industry experience including as Director of Global Investment Research for a major fund company and President of Wealth Management for a regional bank and has served as Chair of the Audit Committees of the AB Funds since February 2023; Mr. Moody, a certified public accountant, has extensive experience in the asset management industry as a senior executive of a large fund complex and as Vice Chairman and U.S. and Global Investment Management Practice Managing Partner for a major accounting firm, and served as a member of the Board of Governors of the Investment Company Institute, the leading association representing regulated funds, including mutual funds, exchange-traded funds and closed-end funds, from October 2019 through September 2023 and also the Governing Council of the Independent Directors Council, a group created by the Investment Company Institute that aims to advance the education, communication and policy positions of investment company independent directors, where he also served as the Chairman of the Governance Committee from October 2021 through September 2023, has served as a director or trustee since 2008 and served as Chairman of the Audit Committees of the AB Funds from 2008 to February 2023, and has served as Chairman of the AB Funds and the Independent Directors Committees of the AB Funds since 2023;and Mr. Turner has experience as a director (including Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of a number of companies) and as a venture capital investor including prior service as general partner of three institutional venture capital partnerships, and served as both Chairman of the AB Funds and Chairman of the Independent Directors Committees from February 2014 through December 2022. The disclosure herein of a director’s experience, qualifications, attributes and skills does not impose on such director any duties, obligations, or liability that are greater than the duties, obligations, and liability imposed on such director as a member of the Board and any committee thereof in the absence of such experience, qualifications, attributes and skills.

Experience, Skills, Attributes, and Qualifications of Advisory Board Member. In addition to her service as an Advisory Board member of the Fund and other AB Funds as noted in the table above, Ms. Wrapp has extensive experience in the investment management industry, including formerly serving as Senior Vice President, Assistant Secretary, Counsel and Head of Mutual Fund & Retail Legal of the Adviser, and Assistant General Counsel and Assistant Secretary of ABI. She also served as Chief Legal Officer and Secretary of the AB Funds and other registered investment companies advised by the Adviser and had extensive involvement in fund industry organizations including committees and working groups of the Investment Company Institute. The disclosure herein of the Advisory Board member’s experience, qualifications, attributes and skills does not impose on such member any duties, obligations or liability that are greater than

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the duties, obligations and liability imposed on such member as a member of the Advisory Board in the absence of such experience, qualifications, attributes and skills.

Board Structure and Oversight Function. Each Fund’s Board is responsible for oversight of the management of that Fund. Each Fund has engaged the Adviser to manage the Fund on a day-to-day basis. Each Board is responsible for overseeing the management of the Adviser and the Fund’s other service providers in the operations of that Fund in accordance with the Fund’s investment objective and policies and otherwise in accordance with its prospectus, the requirements of the 1940 Act and other applicable Federal, state and other securities and other laws, and the Fund’s charter and bylaws. Each Board meets at regularly scheduled meetings four times throughout the year. In addition, the Directors may meet at special meetings or on an informal basis at other times. The Independent Directors also regularly meet without the presence of any representatives of management. As described below, each Board has established three standing committees – the Audit, Governance and Nominating and Independent Directors Committees – and may establish ad hoc committees or working groups from time to time to assist the Board in fulfilling its oversight responsibilities. Each committee is composed exclusively of Independent Directors. The responsibilities of each committee, including its oversight responsibilities, are described further below. The Independent Directors have also engaged independent legal counsel, and may from time to time engage consultants and other advisors, to assist them in performing their oversight responsibilities.

An Independent Director serves as Chairman of each Board. The Chairman’s duties include setting the agenda for each Board meeting in consultation with management, presiding at each Board meeting, meeting with management between Board meetings, and facilitating communication and coordination between the Independent Directors and management. The Directors have determined that a Board’s leadership by an Independent Director and its committees composed exclusively of Independent Directors is appropriate because they believe it sets the proper tone to the relationships between the Fund, on the one hand, and the Adviser and other service providers, on the other, and facilitates the exercise of the Board’s independent judgment in evaluating and managing the relationships. In addition, each Fund is required to have an Independent Director as Chairman pursuant to certain 2003 regulatory settlements involving the Adviser.

Risk Oversight. Each Fund is subject to a number of risks, including investment, compliance and operational risks, including cyber risks. Day-to-day risk management with respect to a Fund resides with the Adviser or other service providers (depending on the nature of the risk), subject to supervision by the Adviser. Each Board has charged the Adviser and its affiliates with (i) identifying events or circumstances, the occurrence of which could have demonstrable and material adverse effects on the Fund; (ii) to the extent appropriate, reasonable or practicable, implementing processes and controls reasonably designed to lessen the possibility that such events or circumstances occur or to mitigate the effects of such events or circumstances if they do occur; and (iii) creating and maintaining a system designed to evaluate continuously, and to revise as appropriate, the processes and controls described in (i) and (ii) above.

Risk oversight forms part of a Board’s general oversight of a Fund’s investment program and operations and is addressed as part of various regular Board and committee

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activities. Each Fund’s investment management and business affairs are carried out by or through the Adviser and other service providers. Each of these persons has an independent interest in risk management but the policies and the methods by which one or more risk management functions are carried out may differ from the Fund’s and each other’s in the setting of priorities, the resources available or the effectiveness of relevant controls. Oversight of risk management is provided by the Board and the Audit Committee. The Directors regularly receive reports from, among others, management (including the Chief Risk Officer of the Adviser), the Fund’s Chief Compliance Officer, the Fund’s independent registered public accounting firm, the Adviser’s internal legal counsel, the Adviser’s Chief Compliance Officer and internal auditors for the Adviser, as appropriate, regarding risks faced by the Fund and the Adviser’s risk management programs. In addition, the Directors receive regular updates on cyber security matters from the Adviser.

Not all risks that may affect a Fund can be identified, nor can controls be developed to eliminate or mitigate their occurrence or effects. It may not be practical or cost-effective to eliminate or mitigate certain risks, the processes and controls employed to address certain risks may be limited in their effectiveness, and some risks are simply beyond the reasonable control of the Fund or the Adviser, its affiliates or other service providers. Moreover, it is necessary to bear certain risks (such as investment-related risks) to achieve a Fund’s goals. As a result of the foregoing and other factors a Fund’s ability to manage risk is subject to substantial limitations.

Board Committees. Each Fund’s Board has three standing committees – an Audit Committee, a Governance and Nominating Committee and an Independent Directors Committee. The members of the Audit, Governance and Nominating and Independent Directors Committees are identified above. The Advisory Board member is generally invited to attend all or portions of meetings of the committees.

The function of the Audit Committee is to assist the Boards in their oversight of each Fund’s accounting and financial reporting policies and practices. The Audit Committee of Total Return Bond, Short Duration High Yield, Global Bond, High Income, Income Fund, Short Duration Income, Tax-Aware and Sustainable Thematic Credit met three times during the Funds’ most recently completed fiscal year.

The function of the Governance and Nominating Committee includes the nomination of persons to fill any vacancies or newly created positions on the Boards. The Governance and Nominating Committee of Total Return Bond, High Income, Income Fund, Short Duration Income, Tax-Aware and Sustainable Thematic Credit met four times during the Funds’ most recently completed fiscal year. The Governance and Nominating Committee of Short Duration High Yield and Global Bond met three times during the Funds’ most recently completed fiscal year.

The Board has adopted a charter for its Governance and Nominating Committee. Pursuant to the charter, the Committee assists the Board in carrying out its responsibilities with respect to governance of the Fund and identifies, evaluates, selects and nominates candidates for the Board. The Committee may also set standards or qualifications for Directors and reviews at least annually the performance of each Director, taking into account factors such as attendance at

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meetings, adherence to Board policies, preparation for and participation at meetings, commitment and contribution to the overall work of the Board and its committees, and whether there are health or other reasons that might affect the Director’s ability to perform his or her duties. The Committee may consider candidates for nomination as Directors submitted by the Fund’s current Board members, officers, the Adviser, shareholders and other appropriate sources.

Pursuant to the charter, the Governance and Nominating Committee will consider candidates for nomination as a Director submitted by a shareholder or group of shareholders who have beneficially owned at least 5% of the Fund’s common stock or shares of beneficial interest for at least two years prior to the time of submission and who timely provide specified information about the candidates and the nominating shareholder or group. To be timely for consideration by the Governance and Nominating Committee, the submission, including all required information, must be submitted in writing to the attention of the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the Funds not less than 120 days before the date of the proxy statement for the previous year’s annual meeting of shareholders. If the Funds did not hold an annual meeting of shareholders in the previous year, the submission must be delivered or mailed and received within a reasonable amount of time before the Funds begin to print and mail their proxy materials. Public notice of such upcoming annual meeting of shareholders may be given in a shareholder report or other mailing to shareholders or by other means deemed by the Governance and Nominating Committee or the Board to be reasonably calculated to inform shareholders.

Shareholders submitting a candidate for consideration by the Governance and Nominating Committee must provide the following information to the Governance and Nominating Committee: (i) a statement in writing setting forth (A) the name, date of birth, business address and residence address of the candidate; (B) any position or business relationship of the candidate, currently or within the preceding five years, with the shareholder or an associated person of the shareholder as defined below; (C) the class or series and number of all shares of a Fund owned of record or beneficially by the candidate; (D) any other information regarding the candidate that is required to be disclosed about a nominee in a proxy statement or other filing required to be made in connection with the solicitation of proxies for election of Directors pursuant to Section 20 of the 1940 Act and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder; (E) whether the shareholder believes that the candidate is or will be an “interested person” of the Funds (as defined in the 1940 Act) and, if believed not to be an “interested person”, information regarding the candidate that will be sufficient for the Funds to make such determination; and (F) information as to the candidate’s knowledge of the investment company industry, experience as a director or senior officer of public companies, directorships on the boards of other registered investment companies and educational background; (ii) the written and signed consent of the candidate to be named as a nominee and to serve as a Director if elected; (iii) the written and signed agreement of the candidate to complete a directors’ and officers’ questionnaire if elected; (iv) the shareholder’s consent to be named as such by the Funds; (v) the class or series and number of all shares of the Funds owned beneficially and of record by the shareholder and any associated person of the shareholder and the dates on which such shares were acquired, specifying the number of shares owned beneficially but not of record by each, and stating the names of each as they appear on the Funds’ record books and the names of any nominee holders for each; and (vi) a description of all arrangements or understandings between

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the shareholder, the candidate and/or any other person or persons (including their names) pursuant to which the recommendation is being made by the shareholder. “Associated person of the shareholder” means any person who is required to be identified under clause (vi) of this paragraph and any other person controlling, controlled by or under common control with, directly or indirectly, (a) the shareholder or (b) the associated person of the shareholder.

The Governance and Nominating Committee may require the shareholder to furnish such other information as it may reasonably require or deem necessary to verify any information furnished pursuant to the nominating procedures described above or to determine the qualifications and eligibility of the candidate proposed by the shareholder to serve on the Board. If the shareholder fails to provide such other information in writing within seven days of receipt of written request from the Governance and Nominating Committee, the recommendation of such candidate as a nominee will be deemed not properly submitted for consideration, and will not be considered, by the Committee.

The Governance and Nominating Committee will consider only one candidate submitted by such a shareholder or group for nomination for election at an annual meeting of shareholders. The Governance and Nominating Committee will not consider self-nominated candidates. The Governance and Nominating Committee will consider and evaluate candidates submitted by shareholders on the basis of the same criteria as those used to consider and evaluate candidates submitted from other sources. These criteria include the candidate’s relevant knowledge, experience, and expertise, the candidate’s ability to carry out his or her duties in the best interests of the Funds, and the candidate’s ability to qualify as an Independent Director. When assessing a candidate for nomination, the Committee considers whether the individual’s background, skills, and experience will complement the background, skills, and experience of other nominees and will contribute to the diversity of the Board.

The function of the Independent Directors Committee is to consider and take action on matters that the Board or Committee believes should be addressed in executive session of the Independent Directors, such as review and approval of the Advisory and Distribution Services Agreements. The Independent Directors Committee of Total Return Bond, Short Duration High Yield, Global Bond, High Income, Income Fund, Short Duration Income, Tax-Aware and Sustainable Thematic Credit met nine times during the Funds’ most recently completed fiscal year.

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The dollar range of each Fund’s securities owned by each Director and the aggregate dollar range of securities of funds in the AB Fund Complex owned by each Director are set forth below.

  Dollar Range of Equity Securities in the Funds
  As of December 31, 2023
   
Name of Director Total Return Bond Global Bond High Income
Jorge A. Bermudez $50,001-$100,000 None None
Michael J. Downey None None $10,001-$50,000
Onur Erzan None None None
Nancy P. Jacklin None None None
Jeanette W. Loeb None None $10,001-$50,000
Carol C. McMullen $10,001-$50,000 None None
Garry L. Moody None None None
Marshall C. Turner, Jr. None None None
       
Name of Advisory Board Member      
       
Emilie D. Wrapp None None None
       

 

  Dollar Range of Equity Securities in the Funds
  As of December 31, 2023
       
Name of Director Short Duration High Yield Income Fund Short Duration Income
Jorge A. Bermudez None None None
Michael J. Downey None $1-$10,000 None
Onur Erzan None None None
Nancy P. Jacklin None $50,001-$100,000 None
Jeanette W. Loeb None None None
Carol C. McMullen None None None
Garry L. Moody None None None
Marshall C. Turner, Jr. None Over $100,000 None
       
Name of Advisory Board Member      
       
Emilie D. Wrapp None None None

 

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Dollar Range of Equity Securities in the Funds

As of December 31, 2023

     
Name of Director Tax-Aware Sustainable Thematic Credit
     
Jorge A. Bermudez None None
Michael J. Downey None None
Onur Erzan None None
Nancy P. Jacklin None None
Jeanette W. Loeb $10,001-$50,000 None
Carol C. McMullen None None
Garry L. Moody None None
Marshall C. Turner, Jr. None None
     
Name of Advisory Board Member    
     
Emilie D. Wrapp None None
     

 

Name of Director Aggregate Dollar Range of Equity Securities
in the AB Fund Complex
As of December 31, 2023
   
Jorge A. Bermudez Over $100,000
Michael J. Downey Over $100,000
Onur Erzan Over $100,000
Nancy P. Jacklin Over $100,000
Jeanette W. Loeb Over $100,000
Carol C. McMullen Over $100,000
Garry L. Moody Over $100,000
Marshall C. Turner, Jr. Over $100,000
   
Name of Advisory Board Member  
   
Emilie D. Wrapp* None

 

 

________

* Ms. Wrapp was appointed an Advisory Board member of the Funds effective January 1, 2024.

 

Officer Information

Certain information concerning each Fund’s officers is set forth below.

NAME, ADDRESS,*AND AGE   POSITION(S) HELD WITH FUND   PRINCIPAL OCCUPATION DURING PAST FIVE YEARS
         

Onur Erzan,

48

  President and Chief Executive Officer   See biography above.
         

Nancy E. Hay,

52

  Secretary   Senior Vice President and Counsel of the Adviser**, with which she has been associated since prior to 2019 and Assistant Secretary of ABI**.

 

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NAME, ADDRESS,*AND AGE   POSITION(S) HELD WITH FUND   PRINCIPAL OCCUPATION DURING PAST FIVE YEARS
         

Michael B. Reyes,

47

  Senior Vice President   Vice President of the Adviser**, with which he has been associated since prior to 2019.
         

Jennifer Friedland,

50

  Chief Compliance Officer   Vice President of the Adviser** since 2020 and Mutual Fund Chief Compliance Officer (of all Funds since January 2023 and of the ETF Funds since 2022).  Before joining the Adviser** in 2020, she was Chief Compliance Officer at WestEnd Advisors, LLC from 2013 to 2019.
         

Stephen M. Woetzel,

52

  Treasurer and Chief Financial Officer   Senior Vice President of ABIS**, with which he has been associated since prior to 2019.
         

Phyllis J. Clarke,

63

  Controller   Vice President of ABIS**, with which she has been associated since prior to 2019.
         
Total Return Bond        
         

Michael Canter,

54

  Vice President   Senior Vice President of the Adviser**, with which he has been associated since prior to 2019. He is also Director and Chief Investment Officer of Securitized Assets.
         

Matthew S. Sheridan,

47

  Vice President   Senior Vice President of the Adviser**, with which he has been associated since prior to 2019.  He is also Director of US Multi-Sector Fixed Income.
         

Serena Zhou,

37

  Vice President   Senior Vice President of the Adviser**, with which she has been associated since prior to 2019.
         
Short Duration High Yield        
         

Gershon M. Distenfeld,

48

  Vice President  

Senior Vice President of the Adviser**, with which he has been associated since prior to 2019. He is also Director of Income Strategies.

 

Robert Schwartz,

51

  Vice President   Senior Vice President of the Adviser**, with which he has been associated since prior to 2019.
         

William Smith,

36

  Vice President   Senior Vice President of the Adviser**, with which he has been associated since prior to 2019. He is Director of US High Yield Credit.

 

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NAME, ADDRESS,*AND AGE   POSITION(S) HELD WITH FUND   PRINCIPAL OCCUPATION DURING PAST FIVE YEARS
         
Global Bond        
         

Christian DiClementi,

42

  Vice President   Senior Vice President of the Adviser**, with which he has been associated since prior to 2019.
         

Scott A. DiMaggio,

52

  Vice President   Senior Vice President of the Adviser**, with which he has been associated since prior to 2019. He is also Head of Fixed-Income.
         

Matthew S. Sheridan,

48

  Vice President   See above.
         

John Taylor,

46

  Vice President   Senior Vice President of the Adviser**, with which he has been associated since prior to 2019. He is also Director of Global Multi-Sector.
         
High Income        
         

Christian DiClementi,

42

  Vice President   See above.
         

Gershon M. Distenfeld,

48

  Vice President   See above.
         

Fahd Malik,

39

  Vice President   Senior Vice President of the Adviser**, with which he has been associated since prior to 2019.  
         

Matthew S. Sheridan,

48

  Vice President   See above.
         

William Smith,

37

  Vice President   See above.
         
Income Fund        
         

Scott A. DiMaggio,

52

  Vice President   See above.
         

Gershon M. Distenfeld,

48

  Vice President   See above.
         

Fahd Malik,

39

  Vice President   See above.
         

Matthew S. Sheridan,

48

  Vice President   See above.

 

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NAME, ADDRESS,*AND AGE   POSITION(S) HELD WITH FUND   PRINCIPAL OCCUPATION DURING PAST FIVE YEARS
         

William Smith,

37

  Vice President   See above.
         
Short Duration Income        
         

Gershon M. Distenfeld,

48

  Vice President   See above.
         

Fahd Malik,

39

  Vice President   See above.
         

Matthew S. Sheridan,

48

  Vice President   See above.
         

William Smith,

37

  Vice President   See above.
         
Tax-Aware        
         

Daryl Clements,

56

  Vice President   Senior Vice President of the Adviser**, with which he has been associated since prior to 2019.
         

Matthew J. Norton,

41

  Vice President   Senior Vice President of the Adviser**, with which he has been associated since prior to 2019. He is also Chief Investment Officer of Municipal Bonds.
         

Andrew D. Potter,

38

  Vice President   Vice President of the Adviser**, with which he has been associated since prior to 2019.
         
Sustainable Thematic Credit        
         

Gershon M. Distenfeld,

48

  Vice President  

See above.

 

         

Tiffanie Wong,

38

  Vice President   Senior Vice President of the Adviser**, with which she has been associated since prior to 2019. She is also Director of Fixed Income Responsible Investing Portfolio Management; and Director of US Investment-Grade Credit.
         

Timothy Kurpis,

35

  Vice President   Senior Vice President of the Adviser**, with which he has been associated in a substantially similar capacity and as a trader since prior to 2019.

___________________

* The address for each of the Fund’s Officers is 1345 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10105.

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** The Adviser, ABI and ABIS are affiliates of each Fund.

 The Funds do not pay any fees to, or reimburse expenses of, their Directors who are considered “interested persons” (as defined in Section 2(a)(19) of the 1940 Act) of the Funds. The aggregate compensation paid by a Fund to each of the Directors and to the Advisory Board member during the Fund’s most recent fiscal year, the aggregate compensation paid to each of the Directors and the Advisory Board member during the calendar year 2023 by the AB Fund Complex and the total number of registered investment companies (and separate investment portfolios within those companies) in the AB Fund Complex with respect to which each of the Directors or the Advisory Board member serves as a director, trustee or advisory board member, are set forth below. Neither the Funds nor any other registered investment company in the AB Fund Complex provides compensation in the form of pension or retirement benefits to any of its directors, trustees or advisory board members. Each of the Directors and the Advisory Board member is a director, trustee or advisory board member of one or more other registered investment companies in the AB Fund Complex.

Name of Director

Aggregate Compensation from Total Return Bond

Aggregate Compensation from Short Duration High Yield

Aggregate Compensation from Global Bond

Aggregate Compensation from High Income

Jorge A. Bermudez $2,506 $2,850 $11,151 $7,253
Michael J. Downey $2,506 $2,850 $11,151 $7,253
Onur Erzan $0 $0 $0 $0  
Nancy P. Jacklin $2,881 $3,278 $12,823 $8,341
Jeanette W. Loeb $2,506 $2,850 $11,151 $7,253  
Carol C. McMullen $2,752 $3,140 $12,231 $7,945  
Garry L. Moody $3,473 $3,959 $15,436 $10,037
Marshall C. Turner, Jr. $2,794 $3,163 $12,469 $8,116
         

Name of Advisory Board Member of the Fund      

       
Emilie D. Wrapp* $0 $0 $0 $0

 

Name of Director

Aggregate Compensation from Income Fund

Aggregate Compensation from Short Duration Income

Aggregate Compensation from Tax-Aware

Aggregate Compensation from Sustainable Thematic Credit

Jorge A. Bermudez $6,524   $2,316 $2,840 $2,515
Michael J. Downey $6,524 $2,316 $2,840 $2,515
Onur Erzan $0 $0 $0 $0
Nancy P. Jacklin $7,502   $2,664 $3,266 $2,892
Jeanette W. Loeb $6,524   $2,316 $2,840 $2,515
Carol C. McMullen $7,146   $2,547 $3,127 $2,765
Garry L. Moody $9,027 $3,213 $3,946 $3,489
Marshall C. Turner, Jr. $7,303 $2,578 $3,150 $2,798
         

 

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Name of Advisory Board Member of the Fund

       
Emilie D. Wrapp* $0 $0 $0 $0

 

Name of Director

Total Compensation from the AB Fund Complex, including the Funds

Total Number of Registered Investment Companies in the AB Fund Complex, including the Funds, as to which the Director is a Director or Trustee

Total Number of Investment Portfolios within the AB Fund Complex, including the Funds, as to which the Director is a Director or Trustee

Jorge A. Bermudez $330,000 28 82
Michael J. Downey $330,000 28 82
Onur Erzan None 28 82
Nancy P. Jacklin $358,875 28 82
Jeanette W. Loeb $350,625 28 82
Carol C. McMullen $379,500 28 82
Garry L. Moody $478,500 28 82
Marshall C. Turner, Jr. $330,000 28 82

 

Name of Advisory Board Member of the Fund

Total Compensation from the AB Fund Complex, Including the Funds 

Total Number of Registered Investment Companies in the AB Fund Complex, Including the Funds, as to which the Advisory Board Member is an Advisory Board Member 

Total Number of Investment Portfolios within the AB Fund Complex, Including the Funds, as to which the Advisory Board Member is an Advisory Board Member  

Emilie D. Wrapp* $0 28 82
       

____________________

* As Ms. Wrapp was appointed an Advisory Board member of the Funds effective January 1, 2024, she did not receive compensation during the last fiscal year ended September 30, 2023 for Global Bond and Short Duration High Yield nor during the last fiscal year ended October 31, 2023 for Total Return Bond, High Income, Income Fund, Short Duration Income, Tax-Aware and Sustainable Thematic Credit. Since January 1, 2024, she receives the same compensation from the Fund as an Independent Director.

As of January 2, 2024, the Directors, the Advisory Board member and officers of each Fund as a group owned less than 1% of the shares of each Fund.

Additional Information About the Funds’ Portfolio Managers

TOTAL RETURN BOND

The management of, and investment decisions for, the Fund’s portfolio are made by the U.S. Investment Grade Core Fixed Income Investment Team. Michael Canter, Matthew

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S. Sheridan and Serena Zhou are the investment professionals1 with the most significant responsibility for the day-to-day management of the Fund’s portfolio. For additional information about the portfolio management of the Fund, see “Management of the Funds – Portfolio Managers” in the Fund’s Prospectus.

As of October 31, 2023, the Fund’s portfolio managers owned none of the Fund’s equity securities directly or beneficially.

As of October 31, 2023, employees of the Adviser had approximately $24,896 invested in shares of the Fund and $25,160,075 invested in shares of all AB Mutual Funds (excluding AB Government Money Market Portfolio) through their interests in certain deferred compensation plans, including the Partners Compensation Plan, including both vested and unvested amounts.

The following tables provide information regarding registered investment companies other than the Fund, other pooled investment vehicles and other accounts over which the Fund’s portfolio managers also have day-to-day management responsibilities. The tables provide the numbers of such accounts, the total assets in such accounts and the number of accounts and total assets whose fees are based on performance. The information is provided as of October 31, 2023.

REGISTERED INVESTMENT COMPANIES

(excluding the Fund)

Portfolio Manager Total Number of Registered Investment Companies Managed Total Assets of Registered Investment Companies Managed Number of Registered Investment Companies Managed with Performance-based Fees Total Assets of Registered Investment Companies Managed with Performance-based Fees
Michael Canter 21 $8,684,000,000 None None
Matthew S. Sheridan 16 $12,539,000,000 None None
Serena Zhou 21 $8,684,000,000 None None

 

 

 

_____________________

1 Investment professionals at the Adviser include portfolio managers and research analysts. Investment professionals are part of investment groups (or teams) that service individual fund portfolios. The number of investment professionals assigned to a particular fund will vary from fund to fund.

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OTHER POOLED INVESTMENT VEHICLES
Portfolio Manager Total Number of Other Pooled Investment Vehicles Managed Total Assets of Other Pooled Investment Vehicles Managed Number of Other Pooled Investment Vehicles Managed with Performance-based Fees Total Assets of Other Pooled Investment Vehicles Managed with Performance-based Fees
Michael Canter 24 $2,316,000,000 None None
Matthew S. Sheridan 104 $37,401,000,000 None None
Serena Zhou 18 $334,000,000 None None

 

OTHER ACCOUNTS
Portfolio Manager Total Number of Other Accounts Managed Total Assets of Other Accounts Managed Number of Other Accounts Managed with Performance-based Fees Total Assets of Other Accounts Managed with Performance-based Fees
Michael Canter 224 $4,958,000,000 3 $703,000,000
Matthew S. Sheridan 29 $9,748,000,000 None None
Serena Zhou 223 $4,516,000,000 2 $261,000,000

 

SHORT DURATION HIGH YIELD

The management of, and investment decisions for, the Fund’s portfolio are made by the Short Duration High Yield Investment Team. Gershon M. Distenfeld, Robert Schwartz and William Smith are the investment professionals primarily responsible for the day-to-day management of the Fund’s portfolio (the “Portfolio Managers”). For additional information about the portfolio management of the Fund, see “Management of the Funds – Portfolio Managers” in the Fund’s Prospectus.

As of September 30, 2023, the Fund’s portfolio managers owned none of the Fund’s equity securities directly or beneficially.

As of September 30, 2023, employees of the Adviser had approximately $25,921,639 in shares of all AB Mutual Funds (excluding AB Government Money Market Portfolio) through their interests in certain deferred compensation plans, including the Partners Compensation Plan, including both vested and unvested amounts.

The following tables provide information regarding registered investment companies other than the Fund, other pooled investment vehicles and other accounts over which each Portfolio Manager also has day-to-day management responsibilities. The tables provide the numbers of such accounts, the total assets in such accounts and the number of accounts and total assets whose fees are based on performance. The information is provided as of September 30, 2023.

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REGISTERED INVESTMENT COMPANIES
(excluding the Fund)
Portfolio Manager Total Number of Registered Investment Companies Managed Total Assets of Registered Investment Companies Managed Number of Registered Investment Companies Managed with Performance-based Fees Total Assets of Registered Investment Companies Managed with Performance- based Fees
Gershon M. Distenfeld 7 $6,666,000,000 None None
Robert Schwartz 1 $69,000,000 None None
William Smith 2 $287,000,000 None None

 

OTHER POOLED INVESTMENT VEHICLES
Portfolio Manager Total Number of Other Pooled Investment Vehicles Managed Total Assets of Other Pooled Investment Vehicles Managed Number of Other Pooled Investment Vehicles Managed with Performance-based Fees Total Assets of Other Pooled Investment Vehicles Managed with Performance- based Fees
Gershon M. Distenfeld 90 $46,606,000,000 1 $712,000,000
Robert Schwartz 37 $3,878,000,000 None None
William Smith 58 $11,069,000,000 1 $712,000,000

 

OTHER ACCOUNTS
Portfolio Manager Total Number of Other Accounts Managed Total Assets of Other Accounts Managed Number of Other Accounts Managed with Performance-based Fees Total Assets of Other Accounts Managed with Performance- based Fees
Gershon M. Distenfeld 471 $65,819,000,000 None None
Robert Schwartz 29 $2,072,000,000 None None
William Smith 468 $65,717,000,000 None None

 

GLOBAL BOND

The management of, and investment decisions for, the Fund’s portfolio are made by the Global Fixed Income Investment Team. Christian DiClementi, Scott A. DiMaggio, Matthew S. Sheridan and John Taylor are the investment professionals with the most significant responsibility for the day-to-day management of the Fund’s portfolio. For additional information about the portfolio management of the Fund, see “Management of the Funds – Portfolio Managers” in the Fund’s Prospectus.

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As of September 30, 2023, the Fund’s portfolio managers owned none of the Fund’s equity securities directly or beneficially.

As of September 30, 2023, employees of the Adviser had approximately $25,921,639 invested in shares of all AB Mutual Funds (excluding AB Government Money Market Portfolio) through their interests in certain deferred compensation plans, including the Partners Compensation Plan, including both vested and unvested amounts.

The following tables provide information regarding registered investment companies other than the Fund, other pooled investment vehicles and other accounts over which the Fund’s portfolio managers also have day-to-day management responsibilities. The tables provide the numbers of such accounts, the total assets in such accounts and the number of accounts and total assets whose fees are based on performance. The information is provided as of September 30, 2023.

REGISTERED INVESTMENT COMPANIES
(excluding the Fund)
Portfolio Manager Total Number of Registered Investment Companies Managed Total Assets of Registered Investment Companies Managed Number of Registered Investment Companies Managed with Performance-based Fees Total Assets of Registered Investment Companies Managed with Performance-based Fees
Christian DiClementi 15 $1,707,000,000 None None
Scott A. DiMaggio 15 $3,501,000,000 None None
Matthew S. Sheridan 16 $7,464,000,000 None None
John Taylor 12 $1,304,000,000 None None

 

OTHER POOLED INVESTMENT VEHICLES
Portfolio Manager Total Number of Other Pooled Investment Vehicles Managed Total Assets of Other Pooled Investment Vehicles Managed Number of Other Pooled Investment Vehicles Managed with Performance-based Fees Total Assets of Other Pooled Investment
Vehicles Managed with Performance-based Fees
Christian DiClementi 83 $4,777,000,000 None None
Scott A. DiMaggio 66 $2,600,000,000 None None
Matthew S. Sheridan 98 $38,137,000,000 None None
John Taylor 74 $4,141,000,000 None None

 

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OTHER ACCOUNTS
Portfolio Manager Total Number of Other Accounts Managed Total Assets of Other Accounts Managed Number of Other Accounts Managed with Performance-based Fees Total Assets of Other Accounts Managed with Performance-based Fees
Christian DiClementi 65 $18,507,000,000 1 $1,591,000,000
Scott A. DiMaggio 37 $11,407,000,000 None None
Matthew S. Sheridan 30 $9,850,000,000 None None
John Taylor 39 $11,468,000,000 None None

 

HIGH INCOME

The management of, and investment decisions for, the Fund’s portfolio are made by the Global High Income Team and Global Credit Investment Team. Christian DiClementi, Gershon M. Distenfeld, Fahd Malik, Matthew S. Sheridan and William Smith are the investment professionals with the most significant responsibility for the day-to-day management of the Fund’s portfolio. For additional information about the portfolio management of the Fund, see “Management of the Funds – Portfolio Managers” in the Fund’s Prospectus.

The dollar ranges of the Fund’s equity securities owned directly or beneficially by the Fund’s portfolio managers as of October 31, 2023 are set forth below:

DOLLAR RANGE OF EQUITY SECURITIES IN THE FUND2
Christian DiClementi $10,001-$50,000
Gershon M. Distenfeld Over $1,000,000
Fahd Malik None
Matthew S. Sheridan None
William Smith None

 

As of October 31, 2023, employees of the Adviser had approximately $967,970 invested in shares of the Fund and approximately $25,160,075 invested in shares of all AB Mutual Funds (excluding AB Government Money Market Portfolio) through their interests in certain deferred compensation plans, including the Partners Compensation Plan, including both vested and unvested amounts.

The following tables provide information regarding registered investment companies other than the Fund, other pooled investment vehicles and other accounts over which the Fund’s portfolio managers also have day-to-day management responsibilities. The tables provide the numbers of such accounts, the total assets in such accounts and the number of

_____________________

2 The dollar ranges presented above include any vested shares awarded under the Adviser’s Partners Compensation Plan.

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accounts and total assets whose fees are based on performance. The information is provided as of October 31, 2023.

REGISTERED INVESTMENT COMPANIES
(excluding the Fund)
Portfolio Manager Total Number of Registered Investment Companies Managed Total Assets of Registered Investment Companies Managed Number of Registered Investment Companies Managed with Performance-based Fees Total Assets of Registered Investment Companies Managed with Performance- based Fees
Christian DiClementi 3 $391,000,000 None None
Gershon M. Distenfeld 7 $4,145,000,000 None None
Fahd Malik 15 $9,707,000,000 None None
Matthew S. Sheridan 15 $9,707,000,000 None None
William Smith 3 $806,000,000 None None

 

OTHER POOLED INVESTMENT VEHICLES
Portfolio Manager Total Number of Other Pooled  Investment Vehicles  Managed Total Assets of Other Pooled Investment  Vehicles Managed Number of Other Pooled Investment Vehicles Managed with Performance -based Fees Total Assets of Other Pooled Investment  Vehicles Managed with Performance based Fees
Christian DiClementi 16 $1,831,000,000 None None
Gershon M. Distenfeld 96 $45,739,000,000 1 $712,000,000
Fahd Malik 104 $37,401,000,000 None None
Matthew S. Sheridan 104 $37,401,000,000 None None
William Smith 58 $10,931,000,000 1 $712,000,000

 

OTHER ACCOUNTS
Portfolio Manager Total Number of Other Accounts Managed Total Assets of  Other Accounts Managed Number of Other  Accounts Managed with Performance -based Fees Total Assets of Other Accounts Managed with Performance-based Fees
Christian DiClementi 39 $8,499,000,000 1 $1,572,000,000
Gershon M. Distenfeld 474 $64,654,000,000 None None
Fahd Malik 29 $9,748,000,000 None None
Matthew S. Sheridan 29 $9,748,000,000 None None
William Smith 472 $64,557,000,000 None None

 

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INCOME FUND

The management of, and investment decisions for, the Fund’s portfolio are made by the U.S. Investment Grade Core Fixed Income Investment Team. Scott A. DiMaggio, Gershon M. Distenfeld, Fahd Malik, Matthew S. Sheridan and William Smith are the investment professionals with the most significant responsibility for the day-to-day management of the Fund’s portfolio. For additional information about the portfolio management of the Fund, see “Management of the Funds – Portfolio Managers” in the Fund’s Prospectus.

The dollar ranges of the Fund’s equity securities owned directly or beneficially by the Fund’s portfolio managers as of October 31, 2023 are set forth below:

DOLLAR RANGE OF EQUITY SECURITIES IN THE FUND
Scott A. DiMaggio $50,001-$100,000
Gershon M. Distenfeld $50,001-$100,000
Fahd Malik None
Matthew S. Sheridan $100,001-$500,000
William Smith None

 

As of October 31, 2023, employees of the Adviser had approximately $25,610,075 invested in shares of all AB Mutual Funds (excluding AB Government Money Market Portfolio) through their interests in certain deferred compensation plans, including the Partners Compensation Plan, including both vested and unvested amounts.

The following tables provide information regarding registered investment companies other than the Fund, other pooled investment vehicles and other accounts over which the Fund’s portfolio managers also have day-to-day management responsibilities. The tables provide the numbers of such accounts, the total assets in such accounts and the number of accounts and total assets whose fees are based on performance. The information is provided as of October 31, 2023.

REGISTERED INVESTMENT COMPANIES

(excluding the Fund)

Portfolio Manager Total Number of Registered Investment Companies Managed Total Assets of Registered Investment Companies Managed Number of  Registered Investment Companies Managed with Performance-based Fees Total Assets of Registered Investment Companies Managed with Performance-based Fees
Scott A. DiMaggio 3 $806,000,000 None None
Gershon M. Distenfeld 7 $4,640,000,000 None None
Fahd Malik 15 $10,201,000,000 None None
Matthew S. Sheridan 15 $10,201,000,000 None None
William Smith 3 $806,000,000 None None

 

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OTHER POOLED INVESTMENT VEHICLES
Portfolio Manager Total Number of Other Pooled Investment Vehicles Managed Total Assets of Other Pooled Investment Vehicles Managed Number of Other Pooled Investment Vehicles Managed with Performance-based Fees Total Assets of Other Pooled Investment Vehicles Managed with Performance-based Fees
Scott A. DiMaggio 58 $10,931,000,000 1 $712,000,000
Gershon M. Distenfeld 96 $45,739,000,000 1 $712,000,000
Fahd Malik 104 $37,401,000,000 None None
Matthew S. Sheridan 104 $37,401,000,000 None None
William Smith 58 $10,931,000,000 1 $712,000,000

 

OTHER ACCOUNTS
Portfolio Manager Total Number of Other Accounts Managed Total Assets of Other Accounts Managed Number of Other Accounts Managed with Performance-based Fees Total Assets of Other Accounts Managed with Performance-based Fees
Scott A. DiMaggio 472 $64,557,000,000 None None
Gershon M. Distenfeld 474 $64,654,000,000 None None
Fahd Malik 29 $9,748,000,000 None None
Matthew S. Sheridan 29 $9,748,000,000 None None
William Smith 472 $64,557,000,000 None None

 

SHORT DURATION INCOME

The management of, and investment decisions for, the Fund’s portfolio are made by the Short Duration Income Investment Team. Gershon M. Distenfeld, Fahd Malik, Matthew S. Sheridan and William Smith are the investment professionals with the most significant responsibility for the day-to-day management of the Fund’s portfolio. For additional information about the portfolio management of the Fund, see “Management of the Funds – Portfolio Managers” in the Fund’s Prospectus.

The dollar ranges of the Fund’s equity securities owned directly or beneficially by the Fund’s portfolio managers as of October 31, 2023 are set forth below:

DOLLAR RANGE OF EQUITY SECURITIES IN THE FUND
Gershon M. Distenfeld $50,001-$100,000
Fahd Malik None
Matthew S. Sheridan $50,001-$100,000
William Smith None

 

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As of October 31, 2023, employees of the Adviser had approximately $25,160,075 invested in shares of all AB Mutual Funds (excluding AB Government Money Market Portfolio) through their interests in certain deferred compensation plans, including the Partners Compensation Plan, including both vested and unvested amounts.

The following tables provide information regarding registered investment companies other than the Fund, other pooled investment vehicles and other accounts over which the Fund’s portfolio managers also have day-to-day management responsibilities. The tables provide the numbers of such accounts, the total assets in such accounts and the number of accounts and total assets whose fees are based on performance. The information is provided as of October 31, 2023.

REGISTERED INVESTMENT COMPANIES
(excluding the Fund)
Portfolio Manager Total Number of Registered Investment Companies Managed Total Assets of Registered Investment Companies Managed Number of Registered Investment Companies Managed with Performance-based Fees Total Assets of Registered Investment Companies Managed with Performance-based Fees
Gershon M. Distenfeld 8 $6,977,000,000 None None
Fahd Malik 16 $12,539,000,000 None None
Matthew S. Sheridan 16 $12,539,000,000 None None
William Smith 3 $806,000,000 None None

 

OTHER POOLED INVESTMENT VEHICLES
Portfolio Manager Total Number of Other Pooled Investment Vehicles Managed Total Assets of Other Pooled Investment Vehicles Managed Number of Other Pooled Investment Vehicles Managed with Performance-based Fees Total Assets of Other Pooled Investment
Vehicles Managed with Performance-based Fees
Gershon M. Distenfeld 96 $45,739,000,000 1 $712,000,000
Fahd Malik 104 $37,401,000,000 None None
Matthew S. Sheridan 104 $37,401,000,000 None None
William Smith 58 $10,931,000,000 1 $712,000,000

 

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OTHER ACCOUNTS
Portfolio Manager Total Number of Other Accounts  Managed Total Assets of Other Accounts Managed Number of Other Accounts  Managed with Performance-based Fees Total Assets of Other Accounts Managed with Performance-based Fees
Gershon M. Distenfeld 474 $64,654,000,000 None None
Fahd Malik 29 $9,748,000,000 None None
Matthew S. Sheridan 29 $9,748,000,000 None None
William Smith 472 $64,557,000,000 None None

 

TAX-AWARE

The management of, and investment decisions for, the Fund’s portfolio are made by the Tax-Aware Investment Team. Daryl Clements, Matthew J. Norton and Andrew D. Potter are the investment professionals with the most significant responsibility for the day-to-day management of the Fund’s portfolio. For additional information about the portfolio management of the Fund, see “Management of the Funds – Portfolio Managers” in the Fund’s Prospectus.

The dollar ranges of the Fund’s equity securities owned directly or beneficially by the Fund’s portfolio managers as of October 31, 2023 are set forth below:

DOLLAR RANGE OF EQUITY SECURITIES IN THE FUND3
Daryl Clements $100,001-$500,000
Matthew J. Norton $50,001-$100,000
Andrew D. Potter $10,001-$50,000

As of October 31, 2023, employees of the Adviser had approximately $25,160,075 invested in shares of all AB Mutual Funds (excluding AB Government Money Market Portfolio) through their interests in certain deferred compensation plans, including the Partners Compensation Plan, including both vested and unvested amounts.

The following tables provide information regarding registered investment companies other than the Fund, other pooled investment vehicles and other accounts over which the Fund’s portfolio managers also have day-to-day management responsibilities. The tables provide the numbers of such accounts, the total assets in such accounts and the number of accounts and total assets whose fees are based on performance. The information is provided as of October 31, 2023.

_____________________

3 The dollar ranges presented above include any vested shares awarded under the Adviser’s Partners Compensation Plan.

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REGISTERED INVESTMENT COMPANIES
(excluding the Fund)
Portfolio Manager Total Number of Registered Investment Companies Managed Total Assets of Registered Investment Companies Managed Number of Registered Investment Companies Managed with Performance-based Fees Total Assets of Registered Investment Companies Managed with Performance-based Fees
Daryl Clements 29 $19,742,000,000 None None
Matthew J. Norton 29 $19,742,000,000 None None
Andrew D. Potter 29 $19,742,000,000 None None

 

OTHER POOLED INVESTMENT VEHICLES
Portfolio Manager Total Number of Other Pooled Investment Vehicles Managed Total Assets of Other Pooled Investment Vehicles Managed Number of Other Pooled Investment Vehicles Managed with Performance-based Fees Total Assets of Other Pooled Investment Vehicles Managed with Performance-based Fees
Daryl Clements 14 $7,146,000,000 None None
Matthew J. Norton 14 $7,146,000,000 None None
Andrew D. Potter 14 $7,146,000,000 None None

 

OTHER ACCOUNTS
Portfolio Manager Total Number of Other Accounts Managed Total Assets of Other Accounts Managed Number of Other Accounts Managed with Performance-based Fees Total Assets of Other Accounts Managed with Performance-based Fees
Daryl Clements 10,537 $27,512,000,000 3 $149,000,000
Matthew J. Norton 10,537 $27,512,000,000 3 $149,000,000
Andrew D. Potter 10,537 $27,512,000,000 3 $149,000,000

 

SUSTAINABLE THEMATIC CREDIT

The management of, and investment decisions for, the Fund’s portfolio are made by the Adviser’s Sustainable Thematic Credit Team. The Sustainable Thematic Credit Team relies heavily on the fundamental analysis and research of the Adviser’s internal research staff. No one person is principally responsible for coordinating the Fund’s investments. Gershon M. Distenfeld, Timothy Kurpis, and Tiffanie Wong are the investment professionals primarily responsible for the day-to-day management of the Fund’s portfolio (the “Portfolio Managers”). For additional information about the portfolio management of the Fund, see “Management of the Fund – Portfolio Managers” in the Fund’s Prospectus.

As of October 31, 2023, the Fund’s portfolio managers owned none of the Fund’s equity securities directly or beneficially.

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As of October 31, 2023, employees of the Adviser had approximately $25,640,075 in shares of all AB Mutual Funds (excluding AB money market funds) through their interests in certain deferred compensation plans, including the Incentive Compensation Award Plan, including both vested and unvested amounts.

The following tables provide information regarding registered investment companies other than the Fund, other pooled investment vehicles and other accounts over which each Portfolio Manager also has day-to-day management responsibilities. The tables provide the numbers of such accounts, the total assets in such accounts and the number of accounts and total assets whose fees are based on performance. The information is provided as of October 31, 2023.

REGISTERED INVESTMENT COMPANIES
(excluding the Fund)
Portfolio Manager Total Number of Registered Investment Companies Managed Total Assets of Registered Investment Companies Managed Number of Registered Investment Companies Managed with Performance-based Fees Total Assets of Registered Investment Companies Managed with Performance- based Fees
Gershon M. Distenfeld 7 $6,764,000,000 None None
Timothy Kurpis None None None None
Tiffanie Wong None None None None

 

 

 

OTHER POOLED INVESTMENT VEHICLES
Portfolio Manager Total Number of Other Pooled Investment Vehicles Managed Total Assets of Other Pooled Investment Vehicles Managed Number of Other Pooled Investment Vehicles Managed with Performance-based Fees Total Assets of Other Pooled Investment Vehicles Managed with Performance- based Fees
Gershon M. Distenfeld 96 $45,739,000,000 1 $712
Timothy Kurpis None None None None
Tiffanie Wong 21 $7,137,000,000 1 $712,000,000

 

OTHER ACCOUNTS
Portfolio Manager Total Number of Other Accounts Managed Total Assets of Other Accounts Managed Number of Other Accounts Managed with Performance-based Fees Total Assets of Other Accounts Managed with Performance- based Fees
Gershon M. Distenfeld 474 $64,654,000,000 None None
Timothy Kurpis None None None None
Tiffanie Wong 443 $62,531,000,000 None None

 

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Investment Professional Conflict of Interest Disclosure

As an investment adviser and fiduciary, the Adviser owes its clients and shareholders an undivided duty of loyalty. The Adviser recognizes that conflicts of interest are inherent in its business and accordingly has developed policies and procedures (including oversight monitoring) reasonably designed to detect, manage and mitigate the effects of actual or potential conflicts of interest in the area of employee personal trading, managing multiple accounts for multiple clients, including AB Mutual Funds, and allocating investment opportunities. Investment professionals, including portfolio managers and research analysts, are subject to the above-mentioned policies and oversight monitoring to ensure that all clients are treated equitably. The Adviser places the interests of its clients first and expects all of its employees to meet their fiduciary duties.

Employee Personal Trading. The Adviser has adopted a Code of Business Conduct and Ethics that is designed to detect and prevent conflicts of interest when investment professionals and other personnel of the Adviser own, buy or sell securities which may be owned by, or bought or sold for, clients. Personal securities transactions by an employee may raise a potential conflict of interest when an employee owns or trades in a security that is owned or considered for purchase or sale by a client, or recommended for purchase or sale by an employee to a client. Subject to the reporting requirements and other limitations of its Code of Business Conduct and Ethics, the Adviser permits its employees to engage in personal securities transactions, and also allows them to acquire investments in certain funds managed by the Adviser. The Adviser’s Code of Business Conduct and Ethics requires disclosure of all personal accounts and maintenance of brokerage accounts with designated broker-dealers approved by the Adviser. The Code of Business Conduct and Ethics also requires preclearance of all securities transactions (except transactions in U.S. Treasuries and open-end mutual funds other than funds advised by the Adviser) and imposes a 60-day holding period for securities purchased by employees to discourage short-term trading.

Managing Multiple Accounts for Multiple Clients. The Adviser has compliance policies and oversight monitoring in place to address conflicts of interest relating to the management of multiple accounts for multiple clients. Conflicts of interest may arise when an investment professional has responsibilities for the investments of more than one account because the investment professional may be unable to devote equal time and attention to each account. The investment professional or investment professional teams for each client may have responsibilities for managing all or a portion of the investments of multiple accounts with a common investment strategy, including other registered investment companies, unregistered investment vehicles, such as hedge funds, pension plans, separate accounts, collective trusts and charitable foundations. Among other things, the Adviser’s policies and procedures provide for the prompt dissemination to investment professionals of initial or changed investment recommendations by analysts so that investment professionals are better able to develop investment strategies for all accounts they manage. In addition, investment decisions by investment professionals are reviewed for the purpose of maintaining uniformity among similar accounts and ensuring that accounts are treated equitably. Investment professional compensation reflects a broad contribution in multiple dimensions to long-term investment success for clients of the Adviser and is generally not tied specifically to the performance of any particular client’s account, nor is it generally tied directly to the level or change in level of assets under management.

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Allocating Investment Opportunities and Order Aggregation. The investment professionals at the Adviser routinely are required to select and allocate investment opportunities among accounts. The Adviser has adopted policies and procedures intended to address conflicts of interest relating to the allocation of investment opportunities. These policies and procedures are designed to ensure that information relevant to investment decisions is disseminated promptly within its portfolio management teams and investment opportunities are allocated equitably among different clients, subject to the exceptions noted below. The policies and procedures require, among other things, objective allocation for limited investment opportunities (e.g., on a rotational basis), and documentation and review of justifications for any decisions to make investments only for select accounts or in a manner disproportionate to the size of the account. Portfolio holdings, position sizes, and industry and sector exposures tend to be similar across similar accounts, which minimizes the potential for conflicts of interest relating to the allocation of investment opportunities. Nevertheless, access to portfolio funds or other investment opportunities (including IPOs) may be allocated differently among accounts due to the particular characteristics of an account, such as size of the account, cash position, tax status, risk tolerance and investment restrictions or for other reasons. Additional information about the Adviser’s policy relating to the allocation of investment opportunities may be found in the Adviser’s Form ADV, which is updated from time to time.

Generally, all orders in the same security are aggregated in each trading system by the Adviser to facilitate best execution and to reduce overall trading costs. Executions for aggregated orders with the same executing broker are combined to determine one average price. The securities are then allocated to participating accounts using automated algorithms designed to achieve a fair, equitable and objective distribution of the securities over time. When the liquidity in a market is not sufficient to fill all client orders, the Adviser may give priority to certain orders over others. This prioritization is based on objective factors driving the order. Under such circumstances, the Adviser aggregates orders by these factors and subjects each aggregated order to the trade allocation algorithms discussed above. The factors used, in order of priority, are (1) correction of guideline breaches; (2) avoidance of guideline breaches; (3) investing significant new funding and completing tax strategy implementations; (4) investing in services that focus on specific financial instruments or market sectors; (5) avoidance of tracking error on the service/product level; and (6) portfolio rebalancing and optimization. Separate orders with the same priority may be traded using a rotational process that is fair and objective.

The Adviser may not require orders in the same security from different managers to be aggregated where one manager’s investment strategy requires rapid trade execution, provided the Adviser believes that disaggregation will not materially impact other client orders. Certain other clients of the Adviser have investment objectives and policies similar to those of the Funds. The Adviser may, from time to time, make recommendations that result in the purchase or sale of a particular security by its other clients simultaneously with a purchase or sale thereof by one or more Funds. If transactions on behalf of more than one client during the same period increase the demand for securities being purchased or the supply of securities being sold, there may be an adverse effect on price or the quantity of securities available at a particular price. It is the policy of the Adviser to allocate advisory recommendations and the placing of orders in a manner that is deemed equitable by the Adviser to the accounts involved, including the Funds. When two or more clients of the Adviser (including a Fund) are purchasing or selling the same security on a given day through the same broker or dealer, such transactions are

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averaged as to price. The securities are then allocated to participating accounts using automated algorithms designed to achieve a fair, equitable and objective distribution of the securities over time.

The Adviser’s procedures are also designed to address potential conflicts of interest that may arise when the Adviser has a particular financial incentive, such as a performance-based management fee, relating to an account. The Adviser is conscious of these potential conflicts. When the Adviser is providing fiduciary services, the goal of the Adviser’s policies and procedures is to act in good faith and to treat all client accounts in a fair and equitable manner over time, regardless of their strategy, fee arrangements or the influence of their owners or beneficiaries.

Portfolio Manager Compensation

The Adviser’s compensation program for portfolio managers is designed to align with clients’ interests, emphasizing each portfolio manager’s ability to generate long-term investment success for the Adviser’s clients, including the Funds. The Adviser also strives to ensure that compensation is competitive and effective in attracting and retaining the highest caliber employees.

Portfolio managers receive a base salary, incentive compensation and contributions to AllianceBernstein’s 401(k) plan. Part of the annual incentive compensation is generally paid in the form of a cash bonus, and part through an award under the firm’s Incentive Compensation Award Plan (ICAP). The ICAP awards vest over a three-year period. Deferred awards are paid in the form of restricted grants of the firm’s Master Limited Partnership Units, and award recipients have the ability to receive a portion of their awards in deferred cash. The amount of contributions to the 401(k) plan is determined at the sole discretion of the Adviser. On an annual basis, the Adviser endeavors to combine all of the foregoing elements into a total compensation package that considers industry compensation trends and is designed to retain its best talent.

The incentive portion of total compensation is determined by quantitative and qualitative factors. Quantitative factors, which are weighted more heavily, are driven by investment performance. Qualitative factors are driven by contributions to the investment process and client success.

The quantitative component includes measures of absolute, relative and risk-adjusted investment performance. Relative and risk-adjusted returns are determined based on the benchmark in the Fund’s prospectus and versus peers over one-, three- and five-year calendar periods, with more weight given to longer-time periods. Peer groups are chosen by Chief Investment Officers, who consult with the product management team to identify products most similar to our investment style and most relevant within the asset class. Portfolio managers of the Funds do not receive any direct compensation based upon the investment returns of any individual client account, and compensation is not tied directly to the level or change in level of assets under management.

Among the qualitative components considered, the most important include thought leadership, collaboration with other investment colleagues, contributions to risk-adjusted

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returns of other portfolios in the firm, efforts in mentoring and building a strong talent pool and being a good corporate citizen. Other factors can play a role in determining portfolio managers’ compensation, such as the complexity of investment strategies managed, volume of assets managed and experience.

The Adviser emphasizes four behavioral competencies—relentlessness, ingenuity, team orientation and accountability—that support its mission to be the most trusted advisor to its clients. Assessments of investment professionals are formalized in a year-end review process that includes 360-degree feedback from other professionals from across the investment teams and the Adviser.

EXPENSES OF THE FUNDS

 

Distribution Services Agreement

Each Fund has entered into a Distribution Services Agreement (the “Agreement”) with ABI, the Fund’s principal underwriter, to permit ABI to distribute the Fund’s shares and to permit the Fund to pay distribution services fees to defray expenses associated with distribution of its Class A shares, Class C shares, Class R shares and Class K shares in accordance with a plan of distribution that is included in the Agreement and that has been duly adopted and approved in accordance with Rule 12b-1 adopted by the SEC under the 1940 Act (the “Plan”).

In approving the Plan, the Directors of each Fund determined that there was a reasonable likelihood that the Plan would benefit the Funds and its shareholders. The distribution services fee of a particular class will not be used to subsidize the provision of distribution services with respect to any other class.

The Adviser, from time to time, and from its own funds or such other resources as may be permitted by rules of the SEC, make payments for distribution services to ABI; the latter may in turn pay part or all of such compensation to brokers or other persons for their distribution assistance.

The Plan continues in effect with respect to each Fund and each class of shares thereof for successive one-year periods provided that each such continuance is specifically approved at least annually by a majority of the Independent Directors of the Funds who have no direct or indirect financial interest in the operation of the Plan or any agreement related thereto (the “Qualified Directors”) and by a vote of a majority of the entire Board at a meeting called for that purpose. Most recently, the Directors approved the continuance of the Plan for Total Return Bond, Short Duration High Yield, Income Fund, Short Duration Income, Sustainable Thematic Credit, Global Bond and High Income at their meetings held on August 1-2, 2023.

All material amendments to the Agreement will become effective only upon approval as provided in the preceding paragraph, and the Plan may not be amended in order to increase materially the costs that the Fund may bear pursuant to the Agreement without the approval of a majority of the holders of the outstanding voting shares of the Fund or the class or

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classes of the Fund affected. The Agreement may be terminated (a) by the Fund without penalty at any time by a majority vote of the holders of the Fund’s outstanding voting securities, voting separately by class or by a majority vote of the Qualified Directors or (b) by ABI. To terminate the Agreement, any party must give the other parties 60 days’ written notice; to terminate the Plan only, the Fund is not required to give prior notice to ABI. The Agreement will terminate automatically in the event of its assignment. The Plan is of a type known as a “reimbursement plan”, which means that it reimburses the distributor for the actual costs of services rendered.

In the event that the Plan is terminated by either party or not continued with respect to the Class A, Class C, Class R or Class K shares, (i) no distribution services fees (other than current amounts accrued but not yet paid) would be owed by the Fund to ABI with respect to that class and (ii) the Fund would not be obligated to pay ABI for any amounts expended under the Agreement not previously recovered by ABI from distribution services fees in respect of shares of such class or through deferred sales charges.

During the fiscal year ended October 31, 2023 for Total Return Bond, High Income, Income Fund, Short Duration Income, Tax-Aware and Sustainable Thematic Credit and during the fiscal year ended September 30, 2023 for Short Duration High Yield and Global Bond, with respect to Class A shares, the distribution services fees for expenditures payable to ABI were as follows:

Fund Distribution services
fees for expenditures
payable to ABI
Percentage per annum of the
aggregate average daily net assets
attributable to Class A shares*
Total Return Bond $358,717 .25%
Short Duration High Yield $56,661 .25%
High Income $2,105,105 .25%
Global Bond $926,885 .25%
Income Fund $377,542 .25%
Short Duration Income $5,812 .20%
Tax-Aware $105,591 .25%
Sustainable Thematic Credit $154 .25%

_______________________

* The maximum fee allowed under the Rule 12b-1 Plan for the Class A shares is .30% (.25% for Short Duration Income, Income Fund and Sustainable Thematic Credit) of the aggregate average daily net assets. The Board currently limits the payments for Class A shares to .25% (.20% for Short Duration Income).

For the fiscal year ended October 31, 2023 for Total Return Bond, High Income, Income Fund, Short Duration Income, Tax-Aware and Sustainable Thematic Credit, during the fiscal year ended September 30, 2023 for Short Duration High Yield and Global Bond, expenses incurred by each Fund and costs allocated to each Fund in connection with activities primarily intended to result in the sale of Class A shares were as follows:

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Category of Expense Total Return Bond Short Duration High Yield High Income Sustainable Thematic Credit
         
Advertising $5,954 $1,050 $5,954 $2
         
Printing and Mailing of Prospectuses to Persons Other Than Current Shareholders $539 $106 $539 $0
         
Compensation to Broker-Dealers and Other Financial Intermediaries (excluding ABI) $81,342 $14,650 $81,343 $34
         
Compensation to ABI $334,176 $69,043 $334,175 $134
         
         
         
Compensation to Sales Personnel $39,152 $6,996 $39,152 $16
         
Interest on Financing $0 $0 $0 $0
         
Other (includes printing of sales literature, travel, entertainment, due diligence and other promotional expenses) $14,623 $2,524 $14,623 $6
         
Totals $475,786 $94,369 $475,786 $193

 

Category of Expense Global Bond Income Fund Short Duration Income Tax-Aware
         
Advertising $17,817 $6,275 $117 $1,626
         
Printing and Mailing of Prospectuses to Persons Other Than Current Shareholders $1,841 $565 $11 $148
         

 

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Category of Expense Global Bond Income Fund Short Duration Income Tax-Aware
         
Compensation to Broker-Dealers and Other Financial Intermediaries (excluding ABI) $221,866 $83,133 $1,629 $54,249
         
Compensation to ABI $930,888 $425,838 $14,061 $171,006
         
Compensation to Sales Personnel $107,317 $39,898 $808 $11,172
         
Interest on Financing $0 $0 $0 $0
         
Other (includes printing of sales literature, travel, entertainment, due diligence and other promotional expenses) $40,598 $15,193 $290 $4,104
         
Totals $1,320,327 $570,902 $16,916 $242,305

During the fiscal year ended October 31, 2023 for Total Return Bond, High Income, Income Fund, Short Duration Income and Tax-Aware, and during the fiscal year ended September 30, 2023 for Short Duration High Yield and Global Bond, with respect to Class C shares, the distribution services fees for expenditures payable to ABI were as follows:

Fund Distribution services fees for
expenditures payable to ABI
Percentage per annum of the
aggregate average daily net assets
attributable to Class C shares
Total Return Bond $24,111 1.00%
Short Duration High Yield $94,452 1.00%
High Income $1,842,965 1.00%
Global Bond $181,876 1.00%
Income Fund $1,033,893 1.00%
Short Duration Income $2,448 1.00%
Tax-Aware $75,628 1.00%

 

For the fiscal year ended October 31, 2023 for Total Return Bond, High Income, Income Fund, Short Duration Income and Tax-Aware, and during the fiscal year ended September 30, 2023 for Short Duration High Yield and Global Bond, expenses incurred by each Fund and costs allocated to each Fund in connection with activities primarily intended to result in the sale of Class C shares were as follows:

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Category of Expense Total Return Bond Short Duration High Yield High Income
       
Advertising $100 $378 $100
       
Printing and Mailing of Prospectuses to Persons Other Than Current Shareholders $9 $38 $9
       
Compensation to Broker-Dealers and Other Financial Intermediaries (excluding ABI) $1,365 $5,331 $1,365
       
Compensation to ABI $24,691 $101,464 $24,692
       
Compensation to Sales Personnel $656 $2,488 $655
       
Interest on Financing $0 $0 $0
       
Other (includes printing of sales literature, travel, entertainment, due diligence and other promotional expenses) $244 $924 $244
       
Totals $27,065 $110,623 $27,065

 

Category of Expense Global Bond Income Fund Short Duration Income Tax-Aware
         
Advertising $797 $4,065 $10 $289
         
Printing and Mailing of Prospectuses to Persons Other Than Current Shareholders $83 $367 $1 $26
         
Compensation to Broker-Dealers and Other Financial Intermediaries (excluding ABI) $10,494 $57,428 $134 $4,179
         
Compensation to ABI $182,369 $1,051,698 $2,441 $86,783

 

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Category of Expense Global Bond Income Fund Short Duration Income Tax-Aware
         
Compensation to Sales Personnel $5,126 $27,665 $70 $2,012
         
         
Interest on Financing $0 $0 $0 $0
         
Other (includes printing of sales literature, travel, entertainment, due diligence and other promotional expenses) $1,846 $10,097 $24 $737
         
Totals $200,716 $1,151,320 $2,679 $94,025

 

During the fiscal year ended October 31, 2023 for Total Return Bond and High Income, and during the fiscal year ended September 30, 2023 for Global Bond, with respect to Class R shares, the distribution services fees for expenditures payable to ABI were as follows:

Fund

Distribution services

fees for expenditures

payable to ABI

Percentage per annum
of the aggregate
average daily net assets
attributable
to Class R shares
Total Return Bond $2,109 .50%
High Income $94,973 .50%
Global Bond $171,148 .50%

 

For the fiscal year ended October 31, 2023 for Total Return Bond and High Income, and during the fiscal year ended September 30, 2023 for Global Bond, expenses incurred by each Fund and costs allocated to each Fund in connection with activities primarily intended to result in the sale of Class R shares were as follows:

Category of Expense Total Return Bond High Income Global Bond
       
Advertising $32 $32 $2,777
       
Printing and Mailing of Prospectuses to Persons Other Than Current Shareholders $3 $3 $286
       
Compensation to Broker-Dealers and Other Financial Intermediaries (excluding ABI) $312 $312 $25,721
       

 

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Category of Expense Total Return Bond High Income Global Bond
       
Compensation to ABI $2,087 $2,087 $170,304
       
Compensation to Sales Personnel $148 $148 $12,495
       
Interest on Financing $0 $0 $0
       
Other (includes printing of sales literature, travel, entertainment, due diligence and other promotional expenses) $69 $69 $5,649
       
Totals $2,651 $2,651 $217,232

 

During the fiscal year ended October 31, 2023 for Total Return Bond and High Income, and during the fiscal year ended September 30, 2023 for Global Bond, with respect to Class K shares, the distribution services fees for expenditures payable to ABI were as follows:

Fund Distribution services fees
for expenditures
payable to ABI
Percentage per annum
of the aggregate
average daily net
assets attributable
to Class K shares
Total Return Bond $6,101 .25%
High Income $13,209 .25%
Global Bond $21,550 .25%
     

 

For the fiscal year ended October 31, 2023 for Total Return Bond and High Income, and during the fiscal year ended September 30, 2023 for Global Bond, expenses incurred by each Fund and costs allocated to each Fund in connection with activities primarily intended to result in the sale of Class K shares were as follows:

Category of Expense Total Return Bond High Income Global Bond
       
Advertising $85 $85 $228
       
Printing and Mailing of Prospectuses to Persons Other Than Current Shareholders $8 $7 $23

 

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Category of Expense Total Return Bond High Income Global Bond
       
Compensation to Broker-Dealers and Other Financial Intermediaries (excluding ABI) $803 $803 $2,132
       
Compensation to ABI $6,104 $6,105 $21,809
       
Compensation to Sales Personnel $381 $381 $1,019
       
Interest on Financing $0 $0 $0
       
Other (includes printing of sales literature, travel, entertainment, due diligence and other promotional expenses) $179 $179 $471
       
Totals $7,560 $7,560 $25,682

 

Distribution services fees are accrued daily and paid monthly and charged as expenses of each Fund as accrued. The distribution services fees attributable to the Class C, Class R and Class K shares are designed to permit an investor to purchase such shares through broker-dealers without the assessment of an initial sales charge and at the same time to permit ABI to compensate broker-dealers in connection with the sale of such shares. In this regard the purpose and function of the combined contingent deferred sales charge (“CDSC”) and respective distribution services fee on the Class C shares and distribution services fees on the Class R shares and the Class K shares are the same as those of the initial sales charge and distribution services fee with respect to the Class A shares in that in each case the sales charge and/or distribution services fee provide for the financing of the distribution of the relevant class of the Fund’s shares.

With respect to Class A shares of each Fund, distribution expenses accrued by ABI in one fiscal year may not be paid from distribution services fees received from the Fund in subsequent fiscal years. ABI’s compensation with respect to Class C, Class R and Class K shares under the Plan is directly tied to the expenses incurred by ABI. Actual distribution expenses for Class C, Class R and Class K shares for any given year, however, will probably exceed the distribution services fees payable under the Plan with respect to the class involved and, in the case of Class C shares, payments received from CDSCs. The excess will be carried forward by ABI and reimbursed from distribution services fees payable under the Plan with respect to the class involved and, in the case of Class C shares, payments subsequently received through CDSCs, so long as the Plan is in effect.

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For the fiscal year ended October 31, 2023 for Total Return Bond, High Income, Income Fund, Short Duration Income and Tax-Aware, and during the fiscal year ended September 30, 2023 for Global Bond and Short Duration High Yield, cumulative unreimbursed distribution expenses incurred and carried over of reimbursement in future years in respect of the Class C, Class R and Class K shares of each Fund were as follows:

Class Total Return Bond Short Duration High Yield High Income
       
Class C $1,213,952 $324,629 $20,064,507
(% of the net assets of Class C) 65.45% 3.36% 12.48%
       
Class R $149,965 $0 $1,358,117
(% of the net assets of Class R) 34.77% 0.00% 8.21%
       
Class K $70,565 0% $1,440,590
(% of the net assets of Class K) 2.95% 0.00% 32.73%

 

Class Global Bond Income Fund Short Duration Income Tax-Aware
         
Class C $15,602,788 $1,127,225 $1,196 $46,250
(% of the net assets of Class C) 110.67% 1.32% 0.27% 0.58%
         
Class R $1,463,434 N/A N/A N/A
(% of the net assets of Class R) 4.70% N/A N/A N/A
         
Class K $324,424 N/A N/A N/A
(% of the net assets of Class K) 4.01% N/A N/A N/A

 

Transfer Agency Agreement

ABIS, an indirect wholly-owned subsidiary of the Adviser, located principally at 8000 IH 10 W, 13th Floor, San Antonio, Texas 78230, acts as the transfer agent for the Funds. ABIS registers the transfer, issuance and redemption of Fund shares and disburses dividends and other distributions to Fund shareholders.

ABIS receives a transfer agency fee per account holder of each of the Class A, Class C, Class R, Class K, Class I, Class Z and Advisor Class shares of the Funds plus reimbursement for out-of-pocket expenses. For the fiscal year ended October 31, 2023 for Total

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Return Bond, High Income, Income Fund, Short Duration Income, Tax-Aware and Sustainable Thematic Credit, and for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2023 for Short Duration High Yield and Global Bond, the Fund paid ABIS $122,757, $716,965, $553,942, $18,004, $36,564, $18,000, $69,771 and $1,024,458, respectively, for transfer agency services.

Many Fund shares are owned by selected dealers or selected agents (as defined below), financial intermediaries or other financial representatives (“financial intermediaries”) for the benefit of their customers. In those cases, the Funds often do not maintain an account for the beneficial owner of the Fund’s shares. Thus, some or all of the transfer agency functions for these accounts are performed by the financial intermediaries. Retirement plans may also hold Fund shares in the name of the plan, rather than the participant. Financial intermediaries and recordkeepers, which may have affiliated financial intermediaries that sell shares of the AB Mutual Funds, may be paid by a Fund, the Adviser, ABI and ABIS (i) account fees in amounts up to $19 per account per annum, (ii) asset-based fees of up to 0.25% (except in respect of a limited number of intermediaries) per annum of the average daily assets held through the intermediary, or (iii) a combination of both. These amounts include fees for shareholder servicing, sub-transfer agency, sub-accounting and recordkeeping services. These amounts do not include fees for shareholder servicing that may be paid separately by the Fund pursuant to its Rule 12b-1 plan. Amounts paid by a Fund for these services are included in “Other Expenses” under “Fees and Expenses of the Fund” in the Summary Information section of the Prospectus. In addition, financial intermediaries may be affiliates of entities that receive compensation from the Adviser or ABI for maintaining retirement plan “platforms” that facilitate trading by affiliated and non-affiliated financial intermediaries and recordkeeping for retirement plans.

Because financial intermediaries and plan recordkeepers may be paid varying amounts per class for sub-transfer agency and related recordkeeping services, the service requirements of which may also vary by class, this may create an additional incentive for financial intermediaries and their financial advisors to favor one fund complex over another or one class of shares over another.

PURCHASE OF SHARES

 

The following information supplements that set forth in your Prospectus under the heading “Investing in the Funds”.

General

Shares of the Funds are offered on a continuous basis at a price equal to their NAV plus an initial sales charge at the time of purchase (“Class A shares”), without any initial sales charge and, as long as the shares are held for one year or more, without any CDSC (“Class C shares”), to Group Retirement Plans, as defined below, eligible to purchase Class R shares, without any initial sales charge or CDSC (“Class R shares”), to Group Retirement Plans eligible to purchase Class K shares, without any initial sales charge or CDSC (“Class K shares”), to

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Group Retirement Plans and certain investment advisory clients of, and certain other persons associated with, the Adviser and its affiliates eligible to purchase Class I shares, without any initial sales charge or CDSC (“Class I shares”), with respect to Total Return Bond, High Income, Income Fund and Global Bond, to investors, eligible to purchase Class Z shares, without any initial sales charge or CDSC (“Class Z shares”), or to investors eligible to purchase Advisor Class shares, without any initial sales charge or CDSC (“Advisor Class shares”), in each case as described below. “Group Retirement Plans” are defined as 401(k) plans, 457 plans, employer-sponsored 403(b) plans, profit sharing and money purchase pension plans, defined benefit plans, and non-qualified deferred compensation plans where plan level or omnibus accounts are held on the books of the Fund. All of the classes of shares of the Funds, except the Class I, Class Z and Advisor Class shares, are subject to Rule 12b-1 asset-based sales charges. Shares of the Funds that are offered subject to a sales charge are offered through (i) investment dealers that are members of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority and have entered into selected dealer agreements with ABI (“selected dealers”), (ii) depository institutions and other financial intermediaries or their affiliates, that have entered into selected agent agreements with ABI (“selected agents”) and (iii) ABI.

Investors may purchase shares of the Funds either through financial intermediaries or directly through ABI. A transaction, service, administrative or other similar fee may be charged by your financial intermediary with respect to the purchase, sale or exchange of shares made through the financial intermediary. Such financial intermediary may also impose requirements with respect to the purchase, sale or exchange of shares that are different from, or in addition to, those imposed by the Funds, including requirements as to the classes of shares available through that financial intermediary and the minimum initial and subsequent investment amounts. A Fund is not responsible for, and has no control over, the decision of any financial intermediary to impose such differing requirements. Sales personnel of financial intermediaries distributing the Fund’s shares may receive differing compensation for selling different classes of shares.

In order to open your account, a Fund or your financial intermediary is required to obtain certain information from you for identification purposes. This information may include name, date of birth, physical address, social security/taxpayer identification number, and ownership/control information (for certain legal entities). Ownership/control information for legal entities may include the name, date of birth, physical address, and identification number (generally a social security or taxpayer identification number) of owners/controlling persons. It will not be possible to establish your account without this information. If the Fund or your financial intermediary is unable to verify the information provided, your account may be closed, and other appropriate action may be taken as permitted by law.

Frequent Purchases and Sales of Fund Shares

Each Fund’s Board has adopted policies and procedures designed to detect and deter frequent purchases and redemptions of Fund shares or excessive or short-term trading that may disadvantage long-term Fund shareholders. These policies are described below. There is no guarantee that the Funds will be able to detect excessive or short-term trading or to identify shareholders engaged in such practices, particularly with respect to transactions in omnibus

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accounts. Shareholders should be aware that application of these policies may have adverse consequences, as described below, and should avoid frequent trading in Fund shares through purchases, sales and exchanges of shares. Each Fund reserves the right to restrict, reject or cancel, without any prior notice, any purchase or exchange order for any reason, including any purchase or exchange order accepted by any shareholder’s financial intermediary.

Risks Associated With Excessive or Short-Term Trading Generally. While the Funds will try to prevent market timing by utilizing the procedures described below, these procedures may not be successful in identifying or stopping excessive or short-term trading in all circumstances. By realizing profits through short-term trading, shareholders that engage in rapid purchases and sales or exchanges of a Fund’s shares dilute the value of shares held by long-term shareholders. Volatility resulting from excessive purchases and sales or exchanges of Fund shares, especially involving large dollar amounts, may disrupt efficient portfolio management and cause a Fund to sell shares at inopportune times to raise cash to accommodate redemptions relating to short-term trading. In particular, a Fund may have difficulty implementing its long-term investment strategies if it is forced to maintain a higher level of its assets in cash to accommodate significant short-term trading activity. In addition, a Fund may incur increased administrative and other expenses due to excessive or short-term trading, including increased brokerage costs and realization of taxable capital gains.

Funds that may invest significantly in securities of foreign issuers may be particularly susceptible to short-term trading strategies. This is because securities of foreign issuers are typically traded on markets that close well before the time a Fund ordinarily calculates its NAV at 4:00 p.m., Eastern time, which gives rise to the possibility that developments may have occurred in the interim that would affect the value of these securities. The time zone differences among international stock markets can allow a shareholder engaging in a short-term trading strategy to exploit differences in Fund share prices that are based on closing prices of securities of foreign issuers established some time before the Fund calculates its own share price (referred to as “time zone arbitrage”). The Funds have procedures, referred to as fair value pricing, designed to adjust closing market prices of securities of foreign issuers to reflect what is believed to be the fair value of those securities at the time a Fund calculates its NAV. While there is no assurance, the Funds expect that the use of fair value pricing, in addition to the short-term trading policies discussed below, will significantly reduce a shareholder’s ability to engage in time zone arbitrage to the detriment of other Fund shareholders.

A shareholder engaging in a short-term trading strategy may also target a Fund that does not invest primarily in securities of foreign issuers. Any Fund that invests in securities that are, among other things, thinly traded or traded infrequently or that have a limited public float has the risk that the current market price for the securities may not accurately reflect current market values. A shareholder may seek to engage in short-term trading to take advantage of these pricing differences (referred to as “price arbitrage”). All Funds may be adversely affected by price arbitrage.

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Policy Regarding Short-Term Trading. Purchases and exchanges of shares of the Fund should be made for investment purposes only. The Funds seek to prevent patterns of excessive purchases and sales or exchanges of Fund shares to the extent they are detected by the procedures described below, subject to the Funds’ ability to monitor purchase, sale and exchange activity. The Funds reserve the right to modify this policy, including any surveillance or account blocking procedures established from time to time to effectuate this policy, at any time without notice.

· Transaction Surveillance Procedures. The Funds, through their agents, ABI and ABIS, maintain surveillance procedures to detect excessive or short-term trading in Fund shares. This surveillance process involves several factors, which include scrutinizing transactions in Fund shares that exceed certain monetary thresholds or numerical limits within a specified period of time. Generally, more than two exchanges of Fund shares during any 60-day period or purchases of shares followed by a sale within 60 days will be identified by these surveillance procedures. For purposes of these transaction surveillance procedures, the Funds may consider trading activity in multiple accounts under common ownership, control or influence. Trading activity identified by either, or a combination, of these factors, or as a result of any other information available at the time, will be evaluated to determine whether such activity might constitute excessive or short-term trading. With respect to managed or discretionary accounts for which the account owner gives his/her broker, investment adviser or other third party authority to buy and sell Fund shares, the Funds may consider trades initiated by the account owner, such as trades initiated in connection with bona fide cash management purposes, separately in their analysis. These surveillance procedures may be modified from time to time, as necessary or appropriate to improve the detection of excessive or short-term trading or to address specific circumstances.
· Account Blocking Procedures. If the Funds determine, in their sole discretion, that a particular transaction or pattern of transactions identified by the transaction surveillance procedures described above is excessive or short-term trading in nature, the Funds will take remedial action that may include issuing a warning, revoking certain account-related privileges (such as the ability to place purchase, sale and exchange orders over the internet or by phone) or prohibiting or “blocking” future purchase or exchange activity. However, sales of Fund shares back to a Fund or redemptions will continue to be permitted in accordance with the terms of the Fund’s current Prospectus. As a result, unless the shareholder redeems his or her shares, which may have consequences if the shares have declined in value, a CDSC is applicable or adverse tax consequences may result, the shareholder may be “locked” into an unsuitable investment. A blocked account will generally remain blocked for 90 days. Subsequent detections of excessive or short-term trading may result in an indefinite account block or an account block until the account holder or the associated broker, dealer or other financial intermediary provides evidence or assurance acceptable to the Fund that the account holder did not or will not in the future engage in excessive or short-term trading.

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· Applications of Surveillance Procedures and Restrictions to Omnibus Accounts. Omnibus account arrangements are common forms of holding shares of the Funds, particularly among certain brokers, dealers and other financial intermediaries, including sponsors of retirement plans and variable insurance products. The Funds apply their surveillance procedures to these omnibus account arrangements. As required by SEC rules, the Funds have entered into agreements with all of their financial intermediaries that require the financial intermediaries to provide the Funds, upon the request of the Funds or their agents, with individual account level information about their transactions. If the Funds detect excessive trading through their monitoring of omnibus accounts, including trading at the individual account level, the financial intermediaries will also execute instructions from the Funds to take actions to curtail the activity, which may include applying blocks to accounts to prohibit future purchases and exchanges of Fund shares. For certain retirement plan accounts, the Funds may request that the retirement plan or other intermediary revoke the relevant participant’s privilege to effect transactions in Fund shares via the internet or telephone, in which case the relevant participant must submit future transaction orders via the U.S. Postal Service (i.e., regular mail).

Purchase of Shares

A Fund reserves the right to suspend the sale of its shares to the public in response to conditions in the securities markets or for other reasons. If the Fund suspends the sale of its shares, shareholders will not be able to acquire its shares, including through an exchange.

In addition, to the extent permitted by law, a Fund reserves the right to merge or reorganize itself or a share class, or to close and liquidate itself or a share class at any time.

The public offering price of shares of a Fund is its NAV, plus, in the case of Class A shares of the Fund, a sales charge. On each Fund business day on which a purchase or redemption order is received by the Fund and trading in the types of securities in which the Fund invests might materially affect the value of the Fund’s shares, the NAV per share is computed at the Fund Closing Time, which is the close of regular trading on any day the Exchange is open (ordinarily 4:00 p.m., Eastern time, but sometimes earlier, as in the case of scheduled half-day trading or unscheduled suspensions of trading) by dividing the value of the total assets attributable to a class, less its liabilities, by the total number of its shares then outstanding. A Fund business day is any day on which the Exchange is open for trading.

The respective NAVs of the various classes of shares of a Fund are expected to be substantially the same. However, the NAVs of the Class C and Class R shares of the Fund will generally be slightly lower than the NAVs of the Class A, Class K, Class I, Class Z and Advisor Class shares of the Fund, as a result of the differential daily expense accruals of the higher distribution and, in some cases, transfer agency fees applicable with respect to those classes of shares.

A Fund will accept unconditional orders for its shares to be executed at the public offering price equal to its NAV next determined (plus applicable Class A sales charges), as

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described below. Orders received by ABIS prior to the Fund Closing Time on each day the Exchange is open are priced at the NAV next computed on that day (plus applicable Class A sales charges). In the case of orders for purchases of shares placed through financial intermediaries, the applicable public offering price will be the NAV as so determined, but only if the financial intermediary receives the order prior to the Fund Closing Time. The financial intermediary is responsible for transmitting such orders by a prescribed time to the Fund or its transfer agent. If the financial intermediary receives the order after the Fund Closing Time, the price received by the investor will be based on the NAV determined as of the Fund Closing Time on the next business day. Each Fund has authorized one or more brokers to receive on its behalf purchase orders. Such brokers are authorized to designate other intermediaries to receive purchase orders on the Fund’s behalf. In such cases, orders will receive the NAV next computed after such order is properly received by the authorized broker or designee and accepted by the Fund.

A Fund may, at its sole option, accept securities as payment for shares of the Fund, including from certain affiliates of the Fund in accordance with the Fund’s procedures, if the Adviser believes that the securities are appropriate investments for the Fund. The securities are valued by the method described under “Net Asset Value” below as of the date the Fund receives the securities and corresponding documentation necessary to transfer the securities to the Fund. This is a taxable transaction to the shareholder.

Following the initial purchase of the Fund’s shares, a shareholder may place orders to purchase additional shares by telephone if the shareholder has completed the appropriate portion of the Mutual Fund Application or an “Autobuy” application, both of which may be obtained by calling the “For Literature” telephone number shown on the cover of this SAI. Except with respect to certain omnibus accounts, telephone purchase orders with payment by electronic funds transfer may not exceed $500,000. Payment for shares purchased by telephone can be made only by electronic funds transfer from a bank account maintained by the shareholder at a bank that is a member of the National Automated Clearing House Association (“NACHA”). Telephone purchase requests must be received before the Fund Closing Time to receive that day’s public offering price. Telephone purchase requests received after the Fund Closing Time, are automatically placed the following Fund business day, and the applicable public offering price will be the public offering price determined as of the Fund Closing Time on the following day.

Full and fractional shares are credited to a shareholder’s account in the amount of his or her subscription. As a convenience to the subscriber, and to avoid unnecessary expense to the Fund, the Fund will not issue share certificates representing shares of the Fund. Ownership of the Fund’s shares will be shown on the books of the Fund’s transfer agent.

Each class of shares of a Fund represents an interest in the same portfolio of investments of the Fund, has the same rights and is identical in all respects, except that (i) Class A shares bear the expense of the initial sales charge (or CDSC, when applicable) and Class C shares bear the expense of the CDSC, (ii) depending on the Fund, Class C shares and Class R shares typically each bear the expense of a higher distribution services fee than that borne by Class A shares and Class K shares, and Class I shares, Class Z shares and Advisor Class shares do not bear such a fee, (iii)  Class C shares are subject to a conversion feature and

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will convert to Class A shares under certain circumstances, and (iv) each of Class A, Class C, Class R and Class K shares has exclusive voting rights with respect to provisions of the Plan pursuant to which its distribution services fee is paid and other matters for which separate class voting is appropriate under applicable law, provided that, if the Fund submits to a vote of the Class A shareholders, an amendment to the Plan that would materially increase the amount to be paid thereunder with respect to the Class A shares, then such amendment will also be submitted to the Class C shareholders because the Class C shares convert to Class A shares under certain circumstances, and the Class A shareholders and the Class C shareholders will vote separately by class. Each class has different exchange privileges and certain different shareholder service options available.

The Directors of the Funds have determined that currently no conflict of interest exists between or among the classes of shares of the Funds. On an ongoing basis, the Directors of the Funds, pursuant to their fiduciary duties under the 1940 Act and state law, will seek to ensure that no such conflict arises.

Alternative Purchase Arrangements

Classes A and C Shares. Class A and Class C shares have the following alternative purchase arrangements: Class A shares are generally offered with an initial sales charge and Class C shares are sold to investors choosing the asset-based sales charge alternative. Special purchase arrangements are available for Group Retirement Plans. See “Alternative Purchase Arrangements – Group Retirement Plans and Tax-Deferred Accounts” below. These alternative purchase arrangements permit an investor to choose the method of purchasing shares that is most beneficial given the amount of the purchase, the length of time the investor expects to hold the shares and other circumstances. Investors should consider whether, during the anticipated life of their investment in the Fund, the accumulated distribution services fee and CDSC on Class C shares prior to conversion would be less than the initial sales charge and accumulated distribution services fee on Class A shares purchased at the same time, and to what extent such differential would be offset by the higher return of Class A shares. Class C shares will normally not be suitable for the investor who qualifies to purchase Class A shares at NAV. For this reason, ABI will reject any order for more than $1,000,000 for Class C shares of all Funds except Tax-Aware and Short Duration Income; for more than $500,000 for Class C shares of Tax-Aware and Short Duration Income.

Class A shares are subject to a lower distribution services fee and, accordingly, pay correspondingly higher dividends per share than Class C shares. However, because initial sales charges are deducted at the time of purchase, most investors purchasing Class A shares would not have all of their funds invested initially and, therefore, would initially own fewer shares. Investors not qualifying for reduced initial sales charges who expect to maintain their investment for an extended period of time might consider purchasing Class A shares because the accumulated continuing distribution charges on Class C shares may exceed the initial sales charge on Class A shares during the life of the investment. Again, however, such investors must weigh this consideration against the fact that, because of such initial sales charges, not all of their funds will be invested initially.

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Other investors might determine, however, that it would be more advantageous to purchase Class C shares in order to have all of their funds invested initially, although remaining subject to higher continuing distribution charges and being subject to a CDSC for a one-year period. For example, based on current fees and expenses, an investor subject to the 4.25% initial sales charge on Class A shares would have to hold his or her investment approximately seven years for the Class C distribution services fee to exceed the initial sales charge plus the accumulated distribution services fee of Class A shares. In this example, an investor intending to maintain his or her investment for a longer period might consider purchasing Class A shares. This example does not take into account the time value of money, which further reduces the impact of the Class C distribution services fees on the investment, fluctuations in NAV or the effect of different performance assumptions.

The following table shows the aggregate amount of underwriting commissions payable with respect to the Funds’ shares and the amounts ABI received from such commissions payable over the Funds’ last three fiscal years or since inception.

Fiscal Year/Period
Ended October 31/
September 30
Fund Aggregate Amount
of Underwriting
Commissions
Payable
Amounts ABI
Received from
Aggregate Amount of
Underwriting
Commissions Payable*
       
2023 Total Return Bond $28,304 $1,122
2022   32,057 2,015
2021   44,964 2,748
       
2023 Short Duration High Yield $75,151 $4,091
2022   91,986 1,879
2021   80,959 4,508
       
2023 Global Bond $87,858 $3,221
2022   41,231 2,262
2021   105,961 4,682
       
2023 High Income $531,849 $32,021
2022   754,501 34,929
2021   807,179 48,835
       
2023 Income Fund $143,806 $6,319
2022   140,426 7,592
2021   559,646 27,325
       
2023 Short Duration Income $16,369 $1,513
2022   2,946 1
2021   20,557 0
       
2023 Tax-Aware $109,405 $0
2022   148,423 39
2021   150,417 309

 

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Fiscal Year/Period
Ended October 31/
September 30
Fund Aggregate Amount
of Underwriting
Commissions
Payable
Amounts ABI
Received from
Aggregate Amount of
Underwriting
Commissions Payable*
       
2023 Sustainable Thematic Credit $0 $0
2022   0 0
2021   1,504 175
       

___________________________

* The amount received by ABI represents that portion of the sales charges paid on shares of the Fund sold during the year which was not re-allowed to selected dealers (and was, accordingly, retained by ABI).

The following table shows the CDSCs received by ABI from each share class during the Funds’ last three fiscal years or since inception.

Fiscal Year/Period

Ended

October 31/

September 30

Fund

Amounts

ABI Received

in CDSCs

from

Class A Shares

Amounts

ABI Received

in CDSCs

from

Class C Shares 

           
2023 Total Return Bond $455   $1,300  
2022   390   176  
2021   1,117   404  
           
2023 Short Duration High Yield $37,023   $130  
2022   23,951   4,429  
2021   0   1,238  
           
2023 Global Bond $397   $998  
2022   474   2,935  
2021   4,295   6,021  
           
2023 High Income $3,616   $4,978  
2022   5,791   19,506  
2021   23,265   21,402  
           
2023 Income Fund $11   $6,473  
2022   15,053   9,359  
2021   63,572   19,974  
           
2023 Short Duration Income $0   $0  
2022   0   18  
2021   101   24  

 

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Fiscal Year/Period

Ended

October 31/

September 30

Fund

Amounts

ABI Received

in CDSCs

from

Class A Shares

Amounts

ABI Received

in CDSCs

from

Class C Shares 

           
2023 Tax-Aware $2,410   $1,039  
2022   11,982   5,466  
2021   0   1,221  
           
2023 Sustainable Thematic Credit $0   N/A  
2022   0   N/A  
2021   0   N/A  

 

Class A Shares

The public offering price of Class A shares is the NAV plus a sales charge, as set forth below.

Sales Charge for All Funds except Short Duration Income and Tax-Aware

Amount of Purchase

As % of Net

Amount Invested

As % of the Public
Offering Price
Discount or
Commission to
Dealers or Agents
of up to % of
Offering Price
Up to $100,000………………………....   4.44%   4.25%   4.00%
$100,000 up to $250,000……………....   3.36   3.25   3.00
$250,000 up to $500,000………………   2.30   2.25   2.00
$500,000 up to $1,000,000*…………...   1.78   1.75   1.50

_________________________

*       There is no initial sales charge on transactions of $1,000,000 or more.

Sales Charge for Short Duration Income

Amount of Purchase As % of Net
Amount Invested
As % of the Public
Offering Price
Discount or
Commission to
Dealers or Agents
of up to % of
Offering Price
Up to $100,000……………………………   2.30%   2.25%   2.00%
$100,000 up to $250,000…………………   2.04   2.00   1.75
$250,000 up to $500,000*………………..   1.27   1.25   1.00

__________________________________________________________

*       There is no initial sales charge on transactions of $500,000 or more.

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Sales Charge for Tax-Aware

Amount of Purchase As % of Net
Amount Invested
As % of the Public
Offering Price
Discount or
Commission to
Dealers or Agents
of up to % of
Offering Price
Up to $100,000…………………….   3.09%   3.00%   3.00%
$100,000 up to $250,000…………..   2.04   2.00   2.00
$250,000 up to $500,000…………..   1.01   1.00   1.00
$500,000 and above………………..   0.00   0.00   0.00

 

All or a portion of the initial sales charge may be paid to your financial representative. With respect to purchases of $1,000,000 or more for all Funds except Tax-Aware and Short Duration Income, Class A shares redeemed within one year of purchase may be subject to a CDSC of up to 1%. For Tax-Aware, with respect to purchases of $500,000 or more, Class A shares redeemed within one year of purchase may be subject to a CDSC of up to 1%. For Short Duration Income, with respect to purchases of $500,000 or more, Class A shares redeemed within eighteen months of purchase may be subject to a CDSC of up to 1%. The CDSC on Class A shares will be waived on certain redemptions, as described below under “Contingent Deferred Sales Charge”.

A Fund receives the entire NAV of its Class A shares sold to investors. ABI’s commission is the sales charge shown in the Prospectus less any applicable discount or commission re-allowed to selected dealers and agents. ABI will re-allow discounts to selected dealers and agents in the amounts indicated in the table above. In this regard, ABI may elect to re-allow the entire sales charge to selected dealers and agents for all sales with respect to which orders are placed with ABI. A selected dealer who receives reallowance in excess of 90% of such a sales charge may be deemed to be an “underwriter” under the Securities Act.

No initial sales charge is imposed on Class A shares issued (i) pursuant to the automatic reinvestment of income dividends or capital gains distributions or (ii) in exchange for Class A shares of other AB Mutual Funds (as that term is defined under “Combined Purchase Privilege” below), except that an initial sales charge will be imposed on Class A shares issued in exchange for Class A shares of AB Government Money Market Portfolio that were purchased for cash without the payment of an initial sales charge and without being subject to a CDSC.

For all Funds except Tax-Aware and Short Duration Income, commissions may be paid to selected dealers or agents who initiate or are responsible for Class A share purchases by a single shareholder of $1,000,000 or more that are not subject to an initial sales charge at up to the following rates: 1.00% on purchase amounts up to $5,000,000; plus 0.50% on purchase amounts over $5,000,000. Commissions are paid based on cumulative purchases by a shareholder over the life of an account with no adjustments for redemptions, transfers or market declines.

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For Tax-Aware, commissions may be paid to selected dealers or agents who initiate or are responsible for Class A share purchases by a single shareholder of $500,000 or more that are not subject to an initial sales charge at up to the following rates: 1.00% on purchase amounts up to $5,000,000; plus 0.50% on purchase amounts over $5,000,000. Commissions are paid based on cumulative purchases by a shareholder over the life of an account with no adjustments for redemptions, transfers or market declines.

For Short Duration Income, commissions may be paid to selected dealers or agents who initiate or are responsible for Class A share purchases by a single shareholder of $500,000 or more that are not subject to an initial sales charge at up to the following rates: 1.00% on purchase amounts up to $5,000,000; plus 0.50% on purchase amounts over $5,000,000. Commissions are paid based on cumulative purchases by a shareholder over the life of an account with no adjustments for redemptions, transfers or market declines.

In addition to the circumstances described above, certain types of investors may be entitled to pay no initial sales charge in certain circumstances described below.

Class A Shares -- Sales at NAV. A Fund may sell its Class A shares at NAV (i.e., without any initial sales charge) to certain categories of investors including:

(i) investment management clients of the Adviser or its affiliates, including clients and prospective clients of the Adviser’s Institutional Investment Management Division;
(ii) officers and present or former Directors of the Funds or other investment companies managed by the Adviser, officers, directors and present or retired full-time employees and former employees (for subsequent investment accounts established during the course of their employment) of the Adviser, ABI, ABIS and their affiliates; officers, directors and present and full-time employees of selected dealers or agents; or the spouse or domestic partner, sibling, direct ancestor or direct descendant (collectively, “relatives”) of any such person; or any trust, individual retirement account or retirement plan account for the benefit of any such person;
(iii) the Adviser, ABI, ABIS and their affiliates; certain employee benefit plans for employees of the Adviser, ABI, ABIS and their affiliates;
(iv) persons participating in a fee-based program, sponsored and maintained by a registered broker-dealer or other financial intermediary, under which such persons pay an asset-based fee for services in the nature of investment advisory or administrative services, or clients of broker-dealers or other financial intermediaries who purchase Class A shares for their own accounts through self-directed and/or non-discretionary brokerage accounts with the

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broker-dealers or financial intermediaries that may or may not charge a transaction fee to its clients;

(v) plan participants who roll over amounts distributed from employer maintained retirement plans to AllianceBernstein-sponsored IRAs where the plan is a client of or serviced by the Adviser’s Institutional Investment Management Division or Bernstein Global Wealth Management Division, including subsequent contributions to those IRAs;
(vi) persons participating in a “Mutual Fund Only” brokerage program, sponsored and maintained by a registered broker-dealer or other financial intermediary;
(vii) certain retirement plan accounts as described under “Alternative Purchase Arrangements – Group Retirement Plans and Tax-Deferred Accounts”;
(viii) current Class A shareholders of AB Mutual Funds and investors who receive a “Fair Funds Distribution” (a “Distribution”) resulting from an SEC enforcement action against the Adviser and current Class A shareholders of AB Mutual Funds who receive a Distribution resulting from any SEC enforcement action related to trading in shares of AB Mutual Funds who, in each case, purchase shares of an AB Mutual Fund from ABI through deposit with ABI of the Distribution check; and
(ix) certain firm-specific waivers as disclosed in Appendix C of the Prospectus.

Class C Shares

Investors may purchase Class C shares at the public offering price equal to the NAV per share of the Class C shares on the date of purchase without the imposition of a sales charge either at the time of purchase or, as long as the shares are held for one year or more, upon redemption. Class C shares are sold without an initial sales charge so that the Fund will receive the full amount of the investor’s purchase payment and, as long as the shares are held for one year or more, without a CDSC so that the investor will receive as proceeds upon redemption the entire NAV of his or her Class C shares. The Class C distribution services fee enables the Fund to sell Class C shares without either an initial sales charge or CDSC, as long as the shares are held for one year or more. Class C shares incur higher distribution services fees than other classes of the Fund’s shares, and will thus have a higher expense ratio and pay correspondingly lower dividends than the other classes.

Eight years after the end of the calendar month in which the shareholder’s purchase order was accepted Class C shares will automatically convert to Class A shares and will no longer be subject to a higher distribution services fee. Such conversion will occur on the basis of the relative NAVs of the two classes, without the imposition of any sales load, fee or

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other charge. The purpose of the conversion feature is to reduce the distribution services fee paid by holders of Class C shares that have been outstanding long enough for ABI to have been compensated for distribution expenses incurred in the sale of the shares.

Conversion Feature for Class C Shares

For purposes of conversion to Class A shares, Class C shares purchased through the reinvestment of dividends and distributions paid in respect of such shares in a shareholder’s account will be considered to be held in a separate sub-account. Each time any Class C shares in the shareholder’s account (other than those in the sub-account) convert to Class A shares, an equal pro-rata portion of such shares in the sub-account will also convert to Class A shares.

The conversion to Class A shares is subject to the continuing availability of an opinion of counsel to the effect that the conversion of Class C shares to Class A shares does not constitute a taxable event under federal income tax law. The conversion of Class C shares to Class A shares may be suspended if such an opinion is no longer available at the time such conversion is to occur. In that event, no further conversions of Class C shares would occur, and shares might continue to be subject to the higher distribution services fee for an indefinite period which may extend beyond the period ending eight years after the end of the calendar month in which the shareholder’s purchase order was accepted.

Contingent Deferred Sales Charge. Class A share purchases of $1,000,000 or more with respect to all Funds except Tax-Aware and Short Duration Income; Class A share purchases of $500,000 or more with respect to Tax-Aware and Short Duration Income; and all purchases of Class C shares that, in either case, are redeemed within one year of purchase (18 months for Class A share purchases of Short Duration Income) are subject to a CDSC of 1%, as will Class A share purchases by certain Group Retirement Plans (see “Alternative Purchase Arrangements -- Group Retirement Plans and Tax-Deferred Accounts” below). The charge will be assessed on an amount equal to the lesser of the cost of the shares being redeemed or their NAV at the time of redemption. Accordingly, no sales charge will be imposed on increases in NAV above the initial purchase price. In addition, no charge will be assessed on shares derived from reinvestment of dividends or capital gains distributions.

In determining the CDSC applicable to a redemption of Class C shares, it will be assumed that the redemption is, first, of any shares that are not subject to a CDSC (for example, because the shares were acquired upon the reinvestment of dividends or distributions) and, second, of shares held longest during the time they are subject to the sales charge. When shares acquired in an exchange are redeemed, the applicable CDSC and conversion schedules will be the schedules that applied at the time of the purchase of shares of the corresponding class of the AB Mutual Fund originally purchased by the shareholder. The CDSC period begins with the date of your original purchase, not the date of exchange for the other Class C shares.

Proceeds from the CDSC are paid to ABI and are used by ABI to defray the expenses of ABI related to providing distribution-related services to the Fund in connection with the sale of Fund shares, such as the payment of compensation to selected dealers and agents for

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selling Fund shares. The combination of the CDSC and the distribution services fee enables the Fund to sell shares without a sales charge being deducted at the time of purchase.

The CDSC is waived on redemptions of shares (i) following the death or disability, as defined in the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), of a shareholder, (ii) to the extent that the redemption represents a minimum required distribution from an individual retirement account or other retirement plan to a shareholder who has attained the age of 73, (iii) that had been purchased by present or former Directors of the Funds, by a relative of any such person, by any trust, individual retirement account or retirement plan account for the benefit of any such person or relative or by the estate of any such person or relative, (iv) pursuant to, and in accordance with, a systematic withdrawal plan (see “Sales Charge Reduction Programs for Class A Shares--Systematic Withdrawal Plan” below), (v) to the extent that the redemption is necessary to meet a plan participant’s or beneficiary’s request for a distribution or loan from a Group Retirement Plan or to accommodate a plan participant’s or beneficiary’s direction to reallocate his or her plan account among other investment alternatives available under a Group Retirement Plan, (vi) due to the complete termination of a trust upon the death of the trustor/grantor, beneficiary or trustee, but only if the trust termination is specifically provided for in the trust document or (vii) that had been purchased with proceeds from a Distribution resulting from any SEC enforcement action related to trading in shares of AB Mutual Funds through deposit with ABI of the Distribution check. The CDSC is also waived for (i) permitted exchanges of shares, (ii) holders of Class A shares who purchased $1,000,000 or more of Class A shares where the participating broker or dealer involved in the sale of such shares waived the commission it would normally receive from ABI or (iii) Class C shares sold through programs offered by financial intermediaries and approved by ABI where such programs offer only shares that are not subject to a CDSC, where the financial intermediary establishes a single omnibus account for the Fund or in the case of a Group Retirement Plan, a single account for each plan and where no advance commission is paid to any financial intermediary in connection with the purchase of such shares.

Class I Shares

Class I shares are available at NAV to Group Retirement Plans. Class I shares are also available to certain institutional investment advisory clients of, and certain other persons associated with, the Adviser and its affiliates who invest at least $2 million in the Fund. Class I shares generally are not available to retail non-retirement accounts, traditional and Roth IRAs, Coverdell Education Savings Accounts, SEPs, SAR-SEPs, SIMPLE IRAs, individual 403(b) plans and AllianceBernstein-sponsored retirement programs known as the “Informed Choice” programs. Class I shares are not subject to an initial sales charge, CDSC or distribution services fee, and thus have a lower expense ratio and pay correspondingly higher dividends than Class R and Class K shares.

Class Z Shares

Class Z shares are available at NAV to certain Group Retirement Plans. Class Z shares generally are not available to traditional and Roth IRAs, Coverdell Education Savings Accounts, SEPs, SAR-SEPs, SIMPLE IRAs and individual 403(b) plans. Class Z shares are not

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currently available to Group Retirement Plans in the AllianceBernstein-sponsored retirement programs known as the “Informed Choice” programs. Class Z shares are also available to certain institutional investment advisory clients of, and certain other persons associated with, the Adviser and its affiliates who invest at least $2 million in the Fund. Class Z shares are also available to persons participating in certain fee-based programs sponsored and maintained by registered broker-dealers or other financial intermediaries with omnibus account arrangements with a Fund.

Class Z shares are not subject to an initial sales charge, CDSC or distribution services fee, and thus have a lower expense ratio and pay correspondingly higher dividends than Class R and Class K shares.

Advisor Class Shares

Advisor Class shares may be purchased and held solely (i) through accounts established under fee-based programs, sponsored and maintained by registered broker-dealers or other financial intermediaries and approved by ABI; (ii) through self-directed defined contribution employee benefit plans (e.g., 401(k) plans) that purchase shares directly without the involvement of a financial intermediary; (iii) by officers and present or former Directors of the Funds or other investment companies managed by the Adviser, officers, directors and present or retired full-time employees and former employees (for subsequent investments in accounts established during the course of their employment) of the Adviser, ABI, ABIS and their affiliates; Relatives of any such person; or any trust, individual retirement account or retirement plan for the benefit of any such person; (iv) by the categories of investors described in clauses (i), (iii) and (iv) under “Class A Shares -- Sales at NAV”; or (v) through brokerage platforms of firms that have agreements with ABI to offer such shares when acting solely on an agency basis for the purchase or sale of such shares. Generally, a fee-based program must charge an asset-based or other similar fee and must invest at least $250,000 in Advisor Class shares of the Fund in order to be approved by ABI for investment in Advisor Class shares. A commission or other transaction fee may be charged by your financial intermediary with respect to the purchase, sale or exchange of Advisor Class shares made through such financial intermediary. Advisor Class shares are not subject to an initial sales charge, CDSC or distribution services fees, and thus have a lower expense ratio and pay correspondingly higher dividends than Class A, Class C, Class R, or Class K shares.

Alternative Purchase Arrangements - Group Retirement Plans and Tax-Deferred Accounts

Each Fund offers special distribution arrangements for Group Retirement Plans. However, plan sponsors, plan fiduciaries and other financial intermediaries may establish requirements as to the purchase, sale or exchange of shares of the Fund, including maximum and minimum initial investment requirements, that are different from those described in this SAI. Group Retirement Plans also may not offer all classes of shares of the Fund. In addition, the Class A CDSC may be waived for investments made through certain Group Retirement Plans. Therefore, plan sponsors or fiduciaries may not adhere to these share class eligibility standards as set forth in the Prospectus and this SAI. A Fund is not responsible for, and has no control over, the decision of any plan sponsor or fiduciary to impose such differing requirements.

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Class A Shares. Class A shares are available at NAV to Group Retirement Plans, regardless of size, and to the AllianceBernstein Link, AllianceBernstein Individual 401(k) and AllianceBernstein SIMPLE IRA plans with at least $250,000 in plan assets or 100 or more employees. ABI measures the asset levels and number of employees in these plans once monthly. Therefore, if a plan that is not eligible at the beginning of a month for purchases of Class A shares at NAV meets the asset level or number of employees required for such eligibility, later in that month, all purchases by the plan will be subject to a sales charge until the monthly measurement of assets and employees. If the plan terminates the Fund as an investment option within one year (18 months for Short Duration Income), then all plan purchases of Class A shares will be subject to a 1%, 1-year or 18-month CDSC on redemption.

Class A shares are also available at NAV to Group Retirement Plans. The 1%, 1-year or 18-month CDSC also generally applies. However, the 1%, 1-year or 18-month CDSC may be waived if the financial intermediary agrees to waive all commissions or other compensation paid in connection with the sale of such shares (typically up to a 1% advance payment for sales of Class A shares at NAV) other than the service fee paid pursuant to the Fund’s distribution service plan.

Class C Shares. Class C shares are available to AllianceBernstein Link, AllianceBernstein Individual 401(k) and AllianceBernstein SIMPLE IRA plans with less than $250,000 in plan assets and less than 100 employees. If an AllianceBernstein Link, AllianceBernstein Individual 401(k) or AllianceBernstein SIMPLE IRA plan holding Class C shares becomes eligible to purchase Class A shares at NAV, the plan sponsor or other appropriate fiduciary of such plan may request ABI in writing to liquidate the Class C shares and purchase Class A shares with the liquidation proceeds. Any such liquidation and repurchase may not occur before the expiration of the 1-year period that begins on the date of the plan’s last purchase of Class C shares.

Class R Shares. Class R shares are available to certain Group Retirement Plans. Class R shares are not subject to an initial sales charge or CDSC, but are subject to a .50% distribution services fee.

Class K Shares. Class K shares are available to certain Group Retirement Plans. Class K shares are not subject to an initial sales charge or CDSC, but are subject to a .25% distribution services fee.

Class I Shares. Class I shares are available to certain Group Retirement Plans. Class I shares generally are not available to retail non-retirement accounts, traditional and Roth IRAs, Coverdell Education Savings Accounts, SEPs, SAR-SEPs, SIMPLE IRAs, individual 403(b) plans and AllianceBernstein-sponsored retirement programs known as the “Informed Choice” programs. Class I shares are not subject to an initial sales charge, CDSC or a distribution services fee.

Class Z Shares. Class Z shares are available to certain Group Retirement Plans. Class Z shares generally are not available to traditional and Roth IRAs, Coverdell Education Savings Accounts, SEPs, SAR-SEPs, SIMPLE IRAs and individual 403(b) plans. Class Z shares

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are not currently available to Group Retirement Plans in the AllianceBernstein-sponsored programs known as the “Informed Choice” programs. Class Z shares are not subject to an initial sales charge, CDSC or distribution services fee.

Choosing a Class of Shares for Group Retirement Plans. Plan sponsors, plan fiduciaries and other financial intermediaries may establish requirements as to the purchase, sale or exchange of shares of the Fund, including maximum and minimum initial investment requirements, that are different from those described in this SAI. Plan fiduciaries should consider how these requirements differ from the Fund’s share class eligibility criteria before determining whether to invest.

Currently, the Funds make their Class A shares available at NAV to Group Retirement Plans. Unless waived under the circumstances described above, a 1%, 1-year CDSC applies to the sale of Class A shares by a plan. Because Class K shares have no CDSC and lower Rule 12b-1 distribution services fees and Class I and Class Z shares have no CDSC or Rule 12b-1 distribution services fees, plans should consider purchasing Class K, Class I or Class Z shares, if eligible, rather than Class A shares.

In selecting among the Class A, Class K and Class R shares, plans purchasing shares through a financial intermediary that is not willing to waive advance commission payments (and therefore are not eligible for the waiver of the 1%, 1-year CDSC applicable to Class A shares) should weigh the following:

· the Rule 12b-1 distribution services fees (0.30%) (currently limited to 0.25%) and the 1%, 1-year CDSC with respect to Class A shares;
· the higher Rule 12b-1 distribution services fees (0.50%) and the absence of a CDSC with respect to Class R shares; and
· the lower Rule 12b-1 distribution services fees (0.25%) and the absence of a CDSC with respect to Class K shares.

Because Class A and Class K shares have lower Rule 12b-1 distribution services fees than Class R shares, plans should consider purchasing Class A or Class K shares, if eligible, rather than Class R shares.

Sales Charge Reduction Programs for Class A Shares

The AB Mutual Funds offer shareholders various programs through which shareholders may obtain reduced sales charges or reductions in CDSC through participation in such programs. In order for shareholders to take advantage of the reductions available through the combined purchase privilege, rights of accumulation and letters of intent, the Fund must be notified by the shareholder or his or her financial intermediary that they qualify for such a reduction. If the Fund is not notified that a shareholder is eligible for these reductions, the Fund will be unable to ensure that the reduction is applied to the shareholder’s account.

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Combined Purchase Privilege. Shareholders may qualify for the sales charge reductions by combining purchases of shares of a Fund (and/or any other AB Mutual Fund) into a single “purchase”. By combining such purchases, shareholders may be able to take advantage of the quantity discounts described under “Alternative Purchase Arrangements”. A “purchase” means a single purchase or concurrent purchases of shares of a Fund or any other AB Mutual Fund, by (i) an individual, his or her spouse or domestic partner or the individual’s children under the age of 21 years purchasing shares for his, her or their own account(s); (ii) a trustee or other fiduciary purchasing shares for a single trust, estate or single fiduciary account with one or more beneficiaries involved; or (iii) the employee benefit plans of a single employer. The term “purchase” also includes purchases by any “company”, as the term is defined in the 1940 Act, but does not include purchases by any such company that has not been in existence for at least six months or that has no purpose other than the purchase of shares of the Fund or shares of other registered investment companies at a discount. The term “purchase” does not include purchases by any group of individuals whose sole organizational nexus is that the participants therein are credit card holders of a company, policy holders of an insurance company, customers of either a bank or broker-dealer or clients of an investment adviser.

Currently, the AB Mutual Funds include:

AB Bond Fund, Inc.

- AB All Market Real Return Portfolio

- AB Bond Inflation Strategy

- AB Income Fund

- AB Municipal Bond Inflation Strategy

- AB Short Duration High Yield Portfolio

- AB Short Duration Income Portfolio

- AB Sustainable Thematic Credit Portfolio

- AB Tax-Aware Fixed Income Opportunities Portfolio

- AB Total Return Bond Portfolio

AB Cap Fund, Inc.

- AB All China Equity Portfolio

- AB Concentrated Growth Fund

- AB Concentrated International Growth Portfolio

- AB Emerging Markets Multi-Asset Portfolio

- AB Global Core Equity Portfolio

- AB International Low Volatility Equity Portfolio

- AB Select US Equity Portfolio

- AB Select US Long/Short Portfolio

- AB Small Cap Growth Portfolio

- AB Small Cap Value Portfolio

- AB Sustainable US Thematic Portfolio

AB Core Opportunities Fund, Inc.

AB Discovery Growth Fund, Inc.

AB Equity Income Fund, Inc.

AB Fixed-Income Shares, Inc.

- AB Government Money Market Portfolio

AB Global Bond Fund, Inc.

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AB Global Real Estate Investment Fund, Inc.

AB Global Risk Allocation Fund, Inc.

AB High Income Fund, Inc.

AB Large Cap Growth Fund, Inc.

AB Municipal Income Fund, Inc.

- AB California Portfolio

- AB High Income Municipal Portfolio

- AB National Portfolio

- AB New York Portfolio

AB Municipal Income Fund II

- AB Arizona Portfolio

- AB Massachusetts Portfolio

- AB Minnesota Portfolio

- AB New Jersey Portfolio

- AB Ohio Portfolio

- AB Pennsylvania Portfolio

- AB Virginia Portfolio

AB Relative Value Fund, Inc.

AB Sustainable Global Thematic Fund, Inc.

AB Sustainable International Thematic Fund, Inc.

AB Trust

- AB Discovery Value Fund

- AB International Value Fund

- AB Value Fund

The AB Portfolios

- AB All Market Total Return Portfolio

- AB Growth Fund

- AB Sustainable Thematic Balanced Portfolio

- AB Tax-Managed Wealth Appreciation Strategy

- AB Wealth Appreciation Strategy

Sanford C. Bernstein Fund, Inc.

- Intermediate California Municipal Portfolio

- Intermediate Diversified Municipal Portfolio

- Intermediate Duration Portfolio

- Intermediate New York Municipal Portfolio

Prospectuses for the AB Mutual Funds may be obtained without charge by contacting ABIS at the address or the “For Literature” telephone number shown on the front cover of this SAI or on the Internet at www.abfunds.com.

Cumulative Quantity Discount (Right of Accumulation). An investor’s purchase of additional Class A shares of a Fund may be combined with the value of the shareholder’s existing accounts, thereby enabling the shareholder to take advantage of the quantity discounts described under “Alternative Purchase Arrangements”. In such cases, the applicable sales charge on the newly purchased shares will be based on the total of:

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(i) the investor’s current purchase;
(ii) the higher of cost or NAV (at the close of business on the previous day) of (a) all shares of the relevant Fund held by the investor and (b) all shares held by the investor of any other AB Mutual Fund; and