Prospectus - Investment Objective
Fund
Ticker
Strategic Advisers® Fidelity® International Fund
FUSIX
Fund of Fidelity Rutland Square Trust II
STATEMENT OF ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
April 29, 2023
Offered exclusively to certain clients of Strategic Advisers LLC (Strategic Advisers) or its affiliates - not available for sale to the general public. 
This Statement of Additional Information (SAI) is not a prospectus. Portions of the fund's annual report are incorporated herein. The annual report(s) are supplied with this SAI.
To obtain a free additional copy of a prospectus or SAI, dated April 29, 2023, or an annual report, please call Fidelity at 1-800-544-3455 or visit Fidelity's web site at www.fidelity.com. 
For more information on any Fidelity ® fund, including charges and expenses, call Fidelity at the number indicated above for a free prospectus. Read it carefully before investing or sending money.
245 Summer Street, Boston, MA 02210  
SIL-PTB-0423
1.912846.118

TABLE OF CONTENTS

INVESTMENT POLICIES AND LIMITATIONS

SPECIAL GEOGRAPHIC CONSIDERATIONS

PORTFOLIO TRANSACTIONS

VALUATION

BUYING AND SELLING INFORMATION

DISTRIBUTIONS AND TAXES

TRUSTEES AND OFFICERS

CONTROL OF INVESTMENT ADVISERS

MANAGEMENT CONTRACT

PROXY VOTING GUIDELINES

DISTRIBUTION SERVICES

TRANSFER AND SERVICE AGENT AGREEMENTS

SECURITIES LENDING

DESCRIPTION OF THE TRUST

FUND HOLDINGS INFORMATION

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

APPENDIX

INVESTMENT POLICIES AND LIMITATIONS 
The following policies and limitations supplement those set forth in the prospectus. Unless otherwise noted, whenever an investment policy or limitation states a maximum percentage of the fund's assets that may be invested in any security or other asset, or sets forth a policy regarding quality standards, such standard or percentage limitation will be determined immediately after and as a result of the fund's acquisition of such security or other asset. Accordingly, any subsequent change in values, net assets, or other circumstances will not be considered when determining whether the investment complies with the fund's investment policies and limitations.
The fund's fundamental investment policies and limitations cannot be changed without approval by a "majority of the outstanding voting securities" (as defined in the Investment Company Act of 1940 (1940 Act)) of the fund. However, except for the fundamental investment limitations listed below, the investment policies and limitations described in this Statement of Additional Information (SAI) are not fundamental and may be changed without shareholder approval.
The following are the fund's fundamental investment limitations set forth in their entirety.
Diversification
The fund may not with respect to 75% of the fund's total assets, purchase the securities of any issuer (other than securities issued or guaranteed by the U.S. Government or any of its agencies or instrumentalities, or securities of other investment companies) if, as a result, (a) more than 5% of the fund's total assets would be invested in the securities of that issuer, or (b) the fund would hold more than 10% of the outstanding voting securities of that issuer.
Senior Securities
The fund may not issue senior securities, except in connection with the insurance program established by the fund pursuant to an exemptive order issued by the Securities and Exchange Commission or as otherwise permitted under the Investment Company Act of 1940.
Borrowing
The fund may not borrow money, except that the fund may borrow money for temporary or emergency purposes (not for leveraging or investment) in an amount not exceeding 33 1/3% of its total assets (including the amount borrowed) less liabilities (other than borrowings). Any borrowings that come to exceed this amount will be reduced within three days (not including Sundays and holidays) to the extent necessary to comply with the 33 1/3% limitation.
Underwriting
The fund may not underwrite securities issued by others, except to the extent that the fund may be considered an underwriter within the meaning of the Securities Act of 1933 in the disposition of restricted securities or in connection with investments in other investment companies.
Concentration
The fund may not purchase the securities of any issuer (other than securities issued or guaranteed by the U.S. Government or any of its agencies or instrumentalities) if, as a result, more than 25% of the fund's total assets would be invested in the securities of companies whose principal business activities are in the same industry (provided that investments in other investment companies shall not be considered an investment in any particular industry for purposes of this investment limitation).
For purposes of the fund's concentration limitation discussed above, with respect to any investment in repurchase agreements collateralized by U.S. Government securities, Strategic Advisers LLC (Strategic Advisers) looks through to the U.S. Government securities.
Real Estate
The fund may not purchase or sell real estate unless acquired as a result of ownership of securities or other instruments (but this shall not prevent the fund from investing in securities or other instruments backed by real estate or securities of companies engaged in the real estate business).
Commodities
The fund may not purchase or sell physical commodities unless acquired as a result of ownership of securities or other instruments (but this shall not prevent the fund from purchasing or selling options and futures contracts or from investing in securities or other instruments backed by physical commodities).
Loans
The fund may not lend any security or make any other loan if, as a result, more than 33 1/3% of its total assets would be lent to other parties, but this limitation does not apply to purchases of debt securities or to repurchase agreements, or to acquisitions of loans, loan participations or other forms of debt instruments.
The acquisitions of loans and loan participations excluded from the fund's lending limitation discussed above are only those loans and loan participations considered securities within the meaning of the 1940 Act.
The following investment limitations are not fundamental and may be changed without shareholder approval.
Short Sales
The fund does not currently intend to sell securities short, unless it owns or has the right to obtain securities equivalent in kind and amount to the securities sold short, and provided that transactions in futures contracts and options are not deemed to constitute selling securities short.
Margin Purchases
The fund does not currently intend to purchase securities on margin, except that the fund may obtain such short-term credits as are necessary for the clearance of transactions, and provided that margin payments in connection with futures contracts and options on futures contracts shall not constitute purchasing securities on margin.
Borrowing
The fund may borrow money only (a) from a bank or from a registered investment company or portfolio for which Strategic Advisers or an affiliate serves as investment adviser or (b) by engaging in reverse repurchase agreements with any party (reverse repurchase agreements are treated as borrowings for purposes of the fundamental borrowing investment limitation).
Illiquid Securities
The fund does not currently intend to purchase any security if, as a result, more than 15% of its net assets would be invested in securities that are deemed to be illiquid because they are subject to legal or contractual restrictions on resale or because they cannot be sold or disposed of in the ordinary course of business at approximately the prices at which they are valued.
For purposes of the fund's illiquid securities limitation discussed above, if through a change in values, net assets, or other circumstances, the fund were in a position where more than 15% of its net assets were invested in illiquid securities, it would consider appropriate steps to protect liquidity.
To the extent that the fund acquires the shares of an underlying fund in accordance with Section 12(d)(1)(F) of the 1940 Act, the underlying fund is not obligated to redeem its shares in an amount exceeding 1% of its shares outstanding during any period of less than 30 days. Those underlying fund shares will not be treated as illiquid securities for purposes of the fund's illiquid securities limitation described above to the extent that the fund is able to dispose of such securities by distributing them in kind to redeeming shareholders. (See "Investment Policies and Limitations - Securities of Other Investment Companies.")
Loans
The fund does not currently intend to lend assets other than securities to other parties, except by (a) lending money (up to 15% of the fund's net assets) to a registered investment company or portfolio for which Strategic Advisers or an affiliate serves as investment adviser or (b) assuming any unfunded commitments in connection with the acquisition of loans, loan participations, or other forms of debt instruments. (This limitation does not apply to purchases of debt securities, to repurchase agreements, or to acquisitions of loans, loan participations or other forms of debt instruments.)
In addition to the fund's fundamental and non-fundamental investment limitations discussed above:
In order to qualify as a "regulated investment company" under Subchapter M of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, the fund currently intends to comply with certain diversification limits imposed by Subchapter M.
For the fund's policies and limitations on futures and options transactions, see "Investment Policies and Limitations - Futures, Options, and Swaps."
Notwithstanding the foregoing investment limitations, the underlying funds in which the fund may invest have adopted certain investment limitations that may be more or less restrictive than those listed above, thereby permitting the fund to engage indirectly in investment strategies that are prohibited under the investment limitations listed above. The investment limitations of each underlying fund are set forth in its registration statement.
In accordance with its investment program as set forth in the prospectus, the fund may invest more than 25% of its assets in any one underlying Fidelity ® fund. Although the fund does not intend to concentrate its investments in a particular industry, the fund may indirectly concentrate in a particular industry or group of industries through its investments in one or more underlying funds.
The following pages contain more detailed information about types of instruments in which the fund may invest, techniques the fund's adviser (or a sub-adviser) may employ in pursuit of the fund's investment objective, and a summary of related risks. The fund's adviser (or a sub-adviser) may not buy all of these instruments or use all of these techniques unless it believes that doing so will help the fund achieve its goal. However, the fund's adviser (or a sub-adviser) is not required to buy any particular instrument or use any particular technique even if to do so might benefit the fund.
Strategic Advisers® Fidelity® International Fund may have exposure to instruments, techniques, and risks either directly or indirectly through an investment in an underlying fund. An underlying fund may invest in the same or other types of instruments and its adviser may employ the same or other types of techniques. Strategic Advisers® Fidelity® International Fund's performance will be affected by the instruments, techniques, and risks associated with an underlying fund, in proportion to the amount of assets that the fund allocates to that underlying fund.
On the following pages in this section titled "Investment Policies and Limitations," and except as otherwise indicated, references to "a fund" or "the fund" may relate to Strategic Advisers® Fidelity® International Fund or an underlying fund, and references to "an adviser" or "the adviser" may relate to Strategic Advisers (or its affiliates) or a sub-adviser of Strategic Advisers® Fidelity® International Fund, or an adviser of an underlying fund.
Borrowing. If a fund borrows money, its share price may be subject to greater fluctuation until the borrowing is paid off. If a fund makes additional investments while borrowings are outstanding, this may be considered a form of leverage.
Cash Management. A fund may hold uninvested cash or may invest it in cash equivalents such as money market securities, repurchase agreements, or shares of short-term bond or money market funds, including (for Fidelity ® funds and other advisory clients only) shares of Fidelity ® Central funds. Generally, these securities offer less potential for gains than other types of securities.
Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) Notice of Exclusion. The Adviser, on behalf of the Fidelity® fund to which this SAI relates, has filed with the National Futures Association a notice claiming an exclusion from the definition of the term "commodity pool operator" (CPO) under the Commodity Exchange Act, as amended, and the rules of the CFTC promulgated thereunder, with respect to the fund's operation. Accordingly, neither a fund nor its adviser is subject to registration or regulation as a commodity pool or a CPO. As of the date of this SAI, the adviser does not expect to register as a CPO of the fund. However, there is no certainty that a fund or its adviser will be able to rely on an exclusion in the future as the fund's investments change over time. A fund may determine not to use investment strategies that trigger additional CFTC regulation or may determine to operate subject to CFTC regulation, if applicable. If a fund or its adviser operates subject to CFTC regulation, it may incur additional expenses.
Common Stock represents an equity or ownership interest in an issuer. In the event an issuer is liquidated or declares bankruptcy, the claims of owners of bonds and preferred stock take precedence over the claims of those who own common stock, although related proceedings can take time to resolve and results can be unpredictable. For purposes of a Fidelity ® fund's policies related to investment in common stock Fidelity considers depositary receipts evidencing ownership of common stock to be common stock.
Convertible Securities are bonds, debentures, notes, or other securities that may be converted or exchanged (by the holder or by the issuer) into shares of the underlying common stock (or cash or securities of equivalent value) at a stated exchange ratio. A convertible security may also be called for redemption or conversion by the issuer after a particular date and under certain circumstances (including a specified price) established upon issue. If a convertible security held by a fund is called for redemption or conversion, the fund could be required to tender it for redemption, convert it into the underlying common stock, or sell it to a third party.
Convertible securities generally have less potential for gain or loss than common stocks. Convertible securities generally provide yields higher than the underlying common stocks, but generally lower than comparable non-convertible securities. Because of this higher yield, convertible securities generally sell at prices above their "conversion value," which is the current market value of the stock to be received upon conversion. The difference between this conversion value and the price of convertible securities will vary over time depending on changes in the value of the underlying common stocks and interest rates. When the underlying common stocks decline in value, convertible securities will tend not to decline to the same extent because of the interest or dividend payments and the repayment of principal at maturity for certain types of convertible securities. However, securities that are convertible other than at the option of the holder generally do not limit the potential for loss to the same extent as securities convertible at the option of the holder. When the underlying common stocks rise in value, the value of convertible securities may also be expected to increase. At the same time, however, the difference between the market value of convertible securities and their conversion value will narrow, which means that the value of convertible securities will generally not increase to the same extent as the value of the underlying common stocks. Because convertible securities may also be interest-rate sensitive, their value may increase as interest rates fall and decrease as interest rates rise. Convertible securities are also subject to credit risk, and are often lower-quality securities.
Country or Geographic Region. Various factors may be considered in determining whether an investment is tied economically to a particular country or region, including: whether the investment is issued or guaranteed by a particular government or any of its agencies, political subdivisions, or instrumentalities; whether the investment has its primary trading market in a particular country or region; whether the issuer is organized under the laws of, derives at least 50% of its revenues from, or has at least 50% of its assets in a particular country or region; whether the investment is included in an index representative of a particular country or region; and whether the investment is exposed to the economic fortunes and risks of a particular country or region.
Debt Securities are used by issuers to borrow money. The issuer usually pays a fixed, variable, or floating rate of interest, and must repay the amount borrowed, usually at the maturity of the security. Some debt securities, such as zero coupon bonds, do not pay interest but are sold at a deep discount from their face values. Debt securities include corporate bonds, government securities, repurchase agreements, and mortgage and other asset-backed securities.
Disruption to Financial Markets and Related Government Intervention. Economic downturns can trigger various economic, legal, budgetary, tax, and regulatory reforms across the globe. Instability in the financial markets in the wake of events such as the 2008 economic downturn led the U.S. Government and other governments to take a number of then-unprecedented actions designed to support certain financial institutions and segments of the financial markets that experienced extreme volatility, and in some cases, a lack of liquidity. Federal, state, local, foreign, and other governments, their regulatory agencies, or self-regulatory organizations may take actions that affect the regulation of the instruments in which a fund invests, or the issuers of such instruments, in ways that are unforeseeable. Reforms may also change the way in which a fund is regulated and could limit or preclude a fund's ability to achieve its investment objective or engage in certain strategies. Also, while reforms generally are intended to strengthen markets, systems, and public finances, they could affect fund expenses and the value of fund investments in unpredictable ways.
Similarly, widespread disease including pandemics and epidemics, and natural or environmental disasters, such as earthquakes, droughts, fires, floods, hurricanes, tsunamis and climate-related phenomena generally, have been and can be highly disruptive to economies and markets, adversely impacting individual companies, sectors, industries, markets, currencies, interest and inflation rates, credit ratings, investor sentiment, and other factors affecting the value of a fund's investments. Economies and financial markets throughout the world have become increasingly interconnected, which increases the likelihood that events or conditions in one region or country will adversely affect markets or issuers in other regions or countries, including the United States. Additionally, market disruptions may result in increased market volatility; regulatory trading halts; closure of domestic or foreign exchanges, markets, or governments; or market participants operating pursuant to business continuity plans for indeterminate periods of time. Further, market disruptions can (i) prevent a fund from executing advantageous investment decisions in a timely manner, (ii) negatively impact a fund's ability to achieve its investment objective, and (iii) may exacerbate the risks discussed elsewhere in a fund's registration statement, including political, social, and economic risks.
The value of a fund's portfolio is also generally subject to the risk of future local, national, or global economic or natural disturbances based on unknown weaknesses in the markets in which a fund invests. In the event of such a disturbance, the issuers of securities held by a fund may experience significant declines in the value of their assets and even cease operations, or may receive government assistance accompanied by increased restrictions on their business operations or other government intervention. In addition, it remains uncertain that the U.S. Government or foreign governments will intervene in response to current or future market disturbances and the effect of any such future intervention cannot be predicted.
Exchange Traded Funds (ETFs) are shares of other investment companies, commodity pools, or other entities that are traded on an exchange. Typically, assets underlying the ETF shares are stocks, though they may also be commodities or other instruments. An ETF may seek to replicate the performance of a specific index or may be actively managed.
Typically, shares of an ETF that tracks an index are expected to increase in value as the value of the underlying benchmark increases. However, in the case of inverse ETFs (also called "short ETFs" or "bear ETFs"), ETF shares are expected to increase in value as the value of the underlying benchmark decreases. Inverse ETFs seek to deliver the opposite of the performance of the benchmark they track and are often marketed as a way for investors to profit from, or at least hedge their exposure to, downward moving markets. Investments in inverse ETFs are similar to holding short positions in the underlying benchmark.
ETF shares are redeemable only in large blocks of shares often called "creation units" by persons other than a fund, and are redeemed principally in-kind at each day's next calculated net asset value per share (NAV). ETFs typically incur fees that are separate from those fees incurred directly by a fund. A fund's purchase of ETFs results in the layering of expenses, such that the fund would indirectly bear a proportionate share of any ETF's operating expenses. Further, while traditional investment companies are continuously offered at NAV, ETFs are traded in the secondary market (e.g., on a stock exchange) on an intra-day basis at prices that may be above or below the value of their underlying portfolios.
Some of the risks of investing in an ETF that tracks an index are similar to those of investing in an indexed mutual fund, including tracking error risk (the risk of errors in matching the ETF's underlying assets to the index or other benchmark); and the risk that because an ETF that tracks an index is not actively managed, it cannot sell stocks or other assets as long as they are represented in the index or other benchmark. Other ETF risks include the risk that ETFs may trade in the secondary market at a discount from their NAV and the risk that the ETFs may not be liquid. ETFs also may be leveraged. Leveraged ETFs seek to deliver multiples of the performance of the index or other benchmark they track and use derivatives in an effort to amplify the returns (or decline, in the case of inverse ETFs) of the underlying index or benchmark. While leveraged ETFs may offer the potential for greater return, the potential for loss and the speed at which losses can be realized also are greater. Most leveraged and inverse ETFs "reset" daily, meaning they are designed to achieve their stated objectives on a daily basis. Leveraged and inverse ETFs can deviate substantially from the performance of their underlying benchmark over longer periods of time, particularly in volatile periods.
Exchange Traded Notes (ETNs) are a type of senior, unsecured, unsubordinated debt security issued by financial institutions that combines aspects of both bonds and ETFs. An ETN's returns are based on the performance of a market index or other reference asset minus fees and expenses. Similar to ETFs, ETNs are listed on an exchange and traded in the secondary market. However, unlike an ETF, an ETN can be held until the ETN's maturity, at which time the issuer will pay a return linked to the performance of the market index or other reference asset to which the ETN is linked minus certain fees. Unlike regular bonds, ETNs typically do not make periodic interest payments and principal typically is not protected.
ETNs also incur certain expenses not incurred by their applicable index. The market value of an ETN is determined by supply and demand, the current performance of the index or other reference asset, and the credit rating of the ETN issuer. The market value of ETN shares may differ from their intraday indicative value. The value of an ETN may also change due to a change in the issuer's credit rating. As a result, there may be times when an ETN's share trades at a premium or discount to its NAV. Some ETNs that use leverage in an effort to amplify the returns of an underlying index or other reference asset can, at times, be relatively illiquid and, thus, they may be difficult to purchase or sell at a fair price. Leveraged ETNs may offer the potential for greater return, but the potential for loss and speed at which losses can be realized also are greater.
Exposure to Foreign and Emerging Markets. Foreign securities, foreign currencies, and securities issued by U.S. entities with substantial foreign operations may involve significant risks in addition to the risks inherent in U.S. investments.
Foreign investments involve risks relating to local political, economic, regulatory, or social instability, military action or unrest, or adverse diplomatic developments, and may be affected by actions of foreign governments adverse to the interests of U.S. investors. Such actions may include expropriation or nationalization of assets, confiscatory taxation, restrictions on U.S. investment or on the ability to repatriate assets or convert currency into U.S. dollars, or other government intervention. From time to time, a fund's adviser and/or its affiliates may determine that, as a result of regulatory requirements that may apply to the adviser and/or its affiliates due to investments in a particular country, investments in the securities of issuers domiciled or listed on trading markets in that country above certain thresholds (which may apply at the account level or in the aggregate across all accounts managed by the adviser and its affiliates) may be impractical or undesirable. In such instances, the adviser may limit or exclude investment in a particular issuer, and investment flexibility may be restricted. Additionally, governmental issuers of foreign debt securities may be unwilling to pay interest and repay principal when due and may require that the conditions for payment be renegotiated. There is no assurance that a fund's adviser will be able to anticipate these potential events or counter their effects. In addition, the value of securities denominated in foreign currencies and of dividends and interest paid with respect to such securities will fluctuate based on the relative strength of the U.S. dollar.
From time to time, a fund may invest a large portion of its assets in the securities of issuers located in a single country or a limited number of countries. If a fund invests in this manner, there is a higher risk that social, political, economic, tax (such as a tax on foreign investments), or regulatory developments in those countries may have a significant impact on the fund's investment performance.
It is anticipated that in most cases the best available market for foreign securities will be on an exchange or in over-the-counter (OTC) markets located outside of the United States. Foreign stock markets, while growing in volume and sophistication, are generally not as developed as those in the United States, and securities of some foreign issuers may be less liquid and more volatile than securities of comparable U.S. issuers. Foreign security trading, settlement and custodial practices (including those involving securities settlement where fund assets may be released prior to receipt of payment) are often less developed than those in U.S. markets, and may result in increased investment or valuation risk or substantial delays in the event of a failed trade or the insolvency of, or breach of duty by, a foreign broker-dealer, securities depository, or foreign subcustodian. In addition, the costs associated with foreign investments, including withholding taxes, brokerage commissions, and custodial costs, are generally higher than with U.S. investments.
Foreign markets may offer less protection to investors than U.S. markets. Foreign issuers are generally not bound by uniform accounting, auditing, and financial reporting requirements and standards of practice comparable to those applicable to U.S. issuers. Adequate public information on foreign issuers may not be available, and it may be difficult to secure dividends and information regarding corporate actions on a timely basis. In general, there is less overall governmental supervision and regulation of securities exchanges, brokers, and listed companies than in the United States. OTC markets tend to be less regulated than stock exchange markets and, in certain countries, may be totally unregulated. Regulatory enforcement may be influenced by economic or political concerns, and investors may have difficulty enforcing their legal rights in foreign countries.
Some foreign securities impose restrictions on transfer within the United States or to U.S. persons. Although securities subject to such transfer restrictions may be marketable abroad, they may be less liquid than foreign securities of the same class that are not subject to such restrictions.
American Depositary Receipts (ADRs) as well as other "hybrid" forms of ADRs, including European Depositary Receipts (EDRs) and Global Depositary Receipts (GDRs), are certificates evidencing ownership of shares of a foreign issuer. These certificates are issued by depository banks and generally trade on an established market in the United States or elsewhere. The underlying shares are held in trust by a custodian bank or similar financial institution in the issuer's home country. The depository bank may not have physical custody of the underlying securities at all times and may charge fees for various services, including forwarding dividends and interest and corporate actions. ADRs are alternatives to directly purchasing the underlying foreign securities in their national markets and currencies. However, ADRs continue to be subject to many of the risks associated with investing directly in foreign securities. These risks include foreign exchange risk as well as the political and economic risks of the underlying issuer's country.
The risks of foreign investing may be magnified for investments in emerging markets. Security prices in emerging markets can be significantly more volatile than those in more developed markets, reflecting the greater uncertainties of investing in less established markets and economies. In particular, countries with emerging markets may have relatively unstable governments, may present the risks of nationalization of businesses, restrictions on foreign ownership and prohibitions on the repatriation of assets, and may have less protection of property rights than more developed countries. The economies of countries with emerging markets may be based on only a few industries, may be highly vulnerable to changes in local or global trade conditions, and may suffer from extreme and volatile debt burdens or inflation rates. Local securities markets may trade a small number of securities and may be unable to respond effectively to increases in trading volume, potentially making prompt liquidation of holdings difficult or impossible at times.
Foreign Currency Transactions. A fund may conduct foreign currency transactions on a spot (i.e., cash) or forward basis (i.e., by entering into forward contracts to purchase or sell foreign currencies). Although foreign exchange dealers generally do not charge a fee for such conversions, they do realize a profit based on the difference between the prices at which they are buying and selling various currencies. Thus, a dealer may offer to sell a foreign currency at one rate, while offering a lesser rate of exchange should the counterparty desire to resell that currency to the dealer. Forward contracts are customized transactions that require a specific amount of a currency to be delivered at a specific exchange rate on a specific date or range of dates in the future. Forward contracts are generally traded in an interbank market directly between currency traders (usually large commercial banks) and their customers. The parties to a forward contract may agree to offset or terminate the contract before its maturity, or may hold the contract to maturity and complete the contemplated currency exchange.
The following discussion summarizes the principal currency management strategies involving forward contracts that could be used by a fund. A fund may also use swap agreements, indexed securities, and options and futures contracts relating to foreign currencies for the same purposes. Forward contracts not calling for physical delivery of the underlying instrument will be settled through cash payments rather than through delivery of the underlying currency. All of these instruments and transactions are subject to the risk that the counterparty will default.
A "settlement hedge" or "transaction hedge" is designed to protect a fund against an adverse change in foreign currency values between the date a security denominated in a foreign currency is purchased or sold and the date on which payment is made or received. Entering into a forward contract for the purchase or sale of the amount of foreign currency involved in an underlying security transaction for a fixed amount of U.S. dollars "locks in" the U.S. dollar price of the security. Forward contracts to purchase or sell a foreign currency may also be used to protect a fund in anticipation of future purchases or sales of securities denominated in foreign currency, even if the specific investments have not yet been selected.
A fund may also use forward contracts to hedge against a decline in the value of existing investments denominated in a foreign currency. For example, if a fund owned securities denominated in pounds sterling, it could enter into a forward contract to sell pounds sterling in return for U.S. dollars to hedge against possible declines in the pound's value. Such a hedge, sometimes referred to as a "position hedge," would tend to offset both positive and negative currency fluctuations, but would not offset changes in security values caused by other factors. A fund could also attempt to hedge the position by selling another currency expected to perform similarly to the pound sterling. This type of hedge, sometimes referred to as a "proxy hedge," could offer advantages in terms of cost, yield, or efficiency, but generally would not hedge currency exposure as effectively as a direct hedge into U.S. dollars. Proxy hedges may result in losses if the currency used to hedge does not perform similarly to the currency in which the hedged securities are denominated.
A fund may enter into forward contracts to shift its investment exposure from one currency into another. This may include shifting exposure from U.S. dollars to a foreign currency, or from one foreign currency to another foreign currency. This type of strategy, sometimes known as a "cross-hedge," will tend to reduce or eliminate exposure to the currency that is sold, and increase exposure to the currency that is purchased, much as if a fund had sold a security denominated in one currency and purchased an equivalent security denominated in another. A fund may cross-hedge its U.S. dollar exposure in order to achieve a representative weighted mix of the major currencies in its benchmark index and/or to cover an underweight country or region exposure in its portfolio. Cross-hedges protect against losses resulting from a decline in the hedged currency, but will cause a fund to assume the risk of fluctuations in the value of the currency it purchases.
Successful use of currency management strategies will depend on an adviser's skill in analyzing currency values. Currency management strategies may substantially change a fund's investment exposure to changes in currency exchange rates and could result in losses to a fund if currencies do not perform as an adviser anticipates. For example, if a currency's value rose at a time when a fund had hedged its position by selling that currency in exchange for dollars, the fund would not participate in the currency's appreciation. If a fund hedges currency exposure through proxy hedges, the fund could realize currency losses from both the hedge and the security position if the two currencies do not move in tandem. Similarly, if a fund increases its exposure to a foreign currency and that currency's value declines, the fund will realize a loss. Foreign currency transactions involve the risk that anticipated currency movements will not be accurately predicted and that a fund's hedging strategies will be ineffective. Moreover, it is impossible to precisely forecast the market value of portfolio securities at the expiration of a foreign currency forward contract. Accordingly, a fund may be required to buy or sell additional currency on the spot market (and bear the expenses of such transaction), if an adviser's predictions regarding the movement of foreign currency or securities markets prove inaccurate.
A fund may be required to limit its hedging transactions in foreign currency forwards, futures, and options in order to maintain its classification as a "regulated investment company" under the Internal Revenue Code (Code). Hedging transactions could result in the application of the mark-to-market provisions of the Code, which may cause an increase (or decrease) in the amount of taxable dividends paid by a fund and could affect whether dividends paid by a fund are classified as capital gains or ordinary income. There is no assurance that an adviser's use of currency management strategies will be advantageous to a fund or that it will employ currency management strategies at appropriate times.
Options and Futures Relating to Foreign Currencies. Currency futures contracts are similar to forward currency exchange contracts, except that they are traded on exchanges (and have margin requirements) and are standardized as to contract size and delivery date. Most currency futures contracts call for payment or delivery in U.S. dollars. The underlying instrument of a currency option may be a foreign currency, which generally is purchased or delivered in exchange for U.S. dollars, or may be a futures contract. The purchaser of a currency call obtains the right to purchase the underlying currency, and the purchaser of a currency put obtains the right to sell the underlying currency.
The uses and risks of currency options and futures are similar to options and futures relating to securities or indexes, as discussed below. A fund may purchase and sell currency futures and may purchase and write currency options to increase or decrease its exposure to different foreign currencies. Currency options may also be purchased or written in conjunction with each other or with currency futures or forward contracts. Currency futures and options values can be expected to correlate with exchange rates, but may not reflect other factors that affect the value of a fund's investments. A currency hedge, for example, should protect a Yen-denominated security from a decline in the Yen, but will not protect a fund against a price decline resulting from deterioration in the issuer's creditworthiness. Because the value of a fund's foreign-denominated investments changes in response to many factors other than exchange rates, it may not be possible to match the amount of currency options and futures to the value of the fund's investments exactly over time.
Currency options traded on U.S. or other exchanges may be subject to position limits which may limit the ability of the fund to reduce foreign currency risk using such options.
Foreign Repurchase Agreements. Foreign repurchase agreements involve an agreement to purchase a foreign security and to sell that security back to the original seller at an agreed-upon price in either U.S. dollars or foreign currency. Unlike typical U.S. repurchase agreements, foreign repurchase agreements may not be fully collateralized at all times. The value of a security purchased by a fund may be more or less than the price at which the counterparty has agreed to repurchase the security. In the event of default by the counterparty, a fund may suffer a loss if the value of the security purchased is less than the agreed-upon repurchase price, or if the fund is unable to successfully assert a claim to the collateral under foreign laws. As a result, foreign repurchase agreements may involve higher credit risks than repurchase agreements in U.S. markets, as well as risks associated with currency fluctuations. In addition, as with other emerging markets investments, repurchase agreements with counterparties located in emerging markets or relating to emerging markets may involve issuers or counterparties with lower credit ratings than typical U.S. repurchase agreements.
Funds of Funds and Other Large Shareholders. Certain Fidelity ® funds and accounts (including funds of funds) invest in other funds ("underlying funds") and, as a result, may at times have substantial investments in one or more underlying funds.
An underlying fund may experience large redemptions or investments due to transactions in its shares by funds of funds, other large shareholders, or similarly managed accounts. While it is impossible to predict the overall effect of these transactions over time, there could be an adverse impact on an underlying fund's performance. In the event of such redemptions or investments, an underlying fund could be required to sell securities or to invest cash at a time when it may not otherwise desire to do so. Such transactions may increase an underlying fund's brokerage and/or other transaction costs and affect the liquidity of a fund's portfolio. In addition, when funds of funds or other investors own a substantial portion of an underlying fund's shares, a large redemption by such an investor could cause actual expenses to increase, or could result in the underlying fund's current expenses being allocated over a smaller asset base, leading to an increase in the underlying fund's expense ratio. Redemptions of underlying fund shares could also accelerate the realization of taxable capital gains in the fund if sales of securities result in capital gains. The impact of these transactions is likely to be greater when a fund of funds or other significant investor purchases, redeems, or owns a substantial portion of the underlying fund's shares.
When possible, Fidelity will consider how to minimize these potential adverse effects, and may take such actions as it deems appropriate to address potential adverse effects, including redemption of shares in-kind rather than in cash or carrying out the transactions over a period of time, although there can be no assurance that such actions will be successful. A high volume of redemption requests can impact an underlying fund the same way as the transactions of a single shareholder with substantial investments. As an additional safeguard, Fidelity ® fund of funds may manage the placement of their redemption requests in a manner designed to minimize the impact of such requests on the day-to-day operations of the underlying funds in which they invest. This may involve, for example, redeeming its shares of an underlying fund gradually over time.
Fund's Rights as an Investor. Fidelity ® funds do not intend to direct or administer the day-to-day operations of any company. A fund may, however, exercise its rights as a shareholder or lender and may communicate its views on important matters of policy to a company's management, board of directors, and shareholders, and holders of a company's other securities when such matters could have a significant effect on the value of the fund's investment in the company. The activities in which a fund may engage, either individually or in conjunction with others, may include, among others, supporting or opposing proposed changes in a company's corporate structure or business activities; seeking changes in a company's directors or management; seeking changes in a company's direction or policies; seeking the sale or reorganization of the company or a portion of its assets; supporting or opposing third-party takeover efforts; supporting the filing of a bankruptcy petition; or foreclosing on collateral securing a security. This area of corporate activity is increasingly prone to litigation and it is possible that a fund could be involved in lawsuits related to such activities. Such activities will be monitored with a view to mitigating, to the extent possible, the risk of litigation against a fund and the risk of actual liability if a fund is involved in litigation. No guarantee can be made, however, that litigation against a fund will not be undertaken or liabilities incurred. A fund's proxy voting guidelines are included in its SAI.
Futures, Options, and Swaps. The success of any strategy involving futures, options, and swaps depends on an adviser's analysis of many economic and mathematical factors and a fund's return may be higher if it never invested in such instruments. Additionally, some of the contracts discussed below are new instruments without a trading history and there can be no assurance that a market for the instruments will continue to exist. Government legislation or regulation could affect the use of such instruments and could limit a fund's ability to pursue its investment strategies. If a fund invests a significant portion of its assets in derivatives, its investment exposure could far exceed the value of its portfolio securities and its investment performance could be primarily dependent upon securities it does not own.
Strategic Advisers® Fidelity® International Fund will not: (a) sell futures contracts, purchase put options, or write call options if, as a result, more than 25% of the fund's total assets would be hedged with futures and options under normal conditions; (b) purchase futures contracts or write put options if, as a result, the fund's total obligations upon settlement or exercise of purchased futures contracts and written put options would exceed 25% of its total assets under normal conditions; or (c) purchase call options if, as a result, the current value of option premiums for call options purchased by the fund would exceed 5% of the fund's total assets. These limitations do not apply to options attached to or acquired or traded together with their underlying securities, and do not apply to structured notes.
The policies and limitations regarding the fund's investments in futures contracts, options, and swaps may be changed as regulatory agencies permit.
The requirements for qualification as a regulated investment company may limit the extent to which a fund may enter into futures, options on futures, and forward contracts.
Futures Contracts. In purchasing a futures contract, the buyer agrees to purchase a specified underlying instrument at a specified future date. In selling a futures contract, the seller agrees to sell a specified underlying instrument at a specified date. Futures contracts are standardized, exchange-traded contracts and the price at which the purchase and sale will take place is fixed when the buyer and seller enter into the contract. Some currently available futures contracts are based on specific securities or baskets of securities, some are based on commodities or commodities indexes (for funds that seek commodities exposure), and some are based on indexes of securities prices (including foreign indexes for funds that seek foreign exposure). Futures on indexes and futures not calling for physical delivery of the underlying instrument will be settled through cash payments rather than through delivery of the underlying instrument. Futures can be held until their delivery dates, or can be closed out by offsetting purchases or sales of futures contracts before then if a liquid market is available. A fund may realize a gain or loss by closing out its futures contracts.
The value of a futures contract tends to increase and decrease in tandem with the value of its underlying instrument. Therefore, purchasing futures contracts will tend to increase a fund's exposure to positive and negative price fluctuations in the underlying instrument, much as if it had purchased the underlying instrument directly. When a fund sells a futures contract, by contrast, the value of its futures position will tend to move in a direction contrary to the market for the underlying instrument. Selling futures contracts, therefore, will tend to offset both positive and negative market price changes, much as if the underlying instrument had been sold.
The purchaser or seller of a futures contract or an option for a futures contract is not required to deliver or pay for the underlying instrument or the final cash settlement price, as applicable, unless the contract is held until the delivery date. However, both the purchaser and seller are required to deposit "initial margin" with a futures broker, known as a futures commission merchant, when the contract is entered into. If the value of either party's position declines, that party will be required to make additional "variation margin" payments to settle the change in value on a daily basis. This process of "marking to market" will be reflected in the daily calculation of open positions computed in a fund's NAV. The party that has a gain is entitled to receive all or a portion of this amount. Initial and variation margin payments do not constitute purchasing securities on margin for purposes of a fund's investment limitations. Variation margin does not represent a borrowing or loan by a fund, but is instead a settlement between a fund and the futures commission merchant of the amount one would owe the other if the fund's contract expired. In the event of the bankruptcy or insolvency of a futures commission merchant that holds margin on behalf of a fund, the fund may be entitled to return of margin owed to it only in proportion to the amount received by the futures commission merchant's other customers, potentially resulting in losses to the fund.
Although futures exchanges generally operate similarly in the United States and abroad, foreign futures exchanges may follow trading, settlement, and margin procedures that are different from those for U.S. exchanges. Futures contracts traded outside the United States may not involve a clearing mechanism or related guarantees and may involve greater risk of loss than U.S.-traded contracts, including potentially greater risk of losses due to insolvency of a futures broker, exchange member, or other party that may owe initial or variation margin to a fund. Because initial and variation margin payments may be measured in foreign currency, a futures contract traded outside the United States may also involve the risk of foreign currency fluctuation.
There is no assurance a liquid market will exist for any particular futures contract at any particular time. Exchanges may establish daily price fluctuation limits for futures contracts, and may halt trading if a contract's price moves upward or downward more than the limit in a given day. On volatile trading days when the price fluctuation limit is reached or a trading halt is imposed, it may be impossible to enter into new positions or close out existing positions. The daily limit governs only price movements during a particular trading day and therefore does not limit potential losses because the limit may work to prevent the liquidation of unfavorable positions. For example, futures prices have occasionally moved to the daily limit for several consecutive trading days with little or no trading, thereby preventing prompt liquidation of positions and subjecting some holders of futures contracts to substantial losses.
If the market for a contract is not liquid because of price fluctuation limits or other market conditions, it could prevent prompt liquidation of unfavorable positions, and potentially could require a fund to continue to hold a position until delivery or expiration regardless of changes in its value. These risks may be heightened for commodity futures contracts, which have historically been subject to greater price volatility than exists for instruments such as stocks and bonds.
Because there are a limited number of types of exchange-traded futures contracts, it is likely that the standardized contracts available will not match a fund's current or anticipated investments exactly. A fund may invest in futures contracts based on securities with different issuers, maturities, or other characteristics from the securities in which the fund typically invests, which involves a risk that the futures position will not track the performance of the fund's other investments.
Futures prices can also diverge from the prices of their underlying instruments, even if the underlying instruments match a fund's investments well. Futures prices are affected by such factors as current and anticipated short-term interest rates, changes in volatility of the underlying instrument, and the time remaining until expiration of the contract, which may not affect security prices the same way. Imperfect correlation may also result from differing levels of demand in the futures markets and the securities markets, from structural differences in how futures and securities are traded, or from imposition of daily price fluctuation limits or trading halts. A fund may purchase or sell futures contracts with a greater or lesser value than the securities it wishes to hedge or intends to purchase in order to attempt to compensate for differences in volatility between the contract and the securities, although this may not be successful in all cases. If price changes in a fund's futures positions are poorly correlated with its other investments, the positions may fail to produce anticipated gains or result in losses that are not offset by gains in other investments. In addition, the price of a commodity futures contract can reflect the storage costs associated with the purchase of the physical commodity.
Futures contracts on U.S. Government securities historically have reacted to an increase or decrease in interest rates in a manner similar to the manner in which the underlying U.S. Government securities reacted. To the extent, however, that a fund enters into such futures contracts, the value of these futures contracts will not vary in direct proportion to the value of the fund's holdings of U.S. Government securities. Thus, the anticipated spread between the price of the futures contract and the hedged security may be distorted due to differences in the nature of the markets. The spread also may be distorted by differences in initial and variation margin requirements, the liquidity of such markets and the participation of speculators in such markets.
Options. By purchasing a put option, the purchaser obtains the right (but not the obligation) to sell the option's underlying instrument at a fixed strike price. In return for this right, the purchaser pays the current market price for the option (known as the option premium). Options have various types of underlying instruments, including specific assets or securities, baskets of assets or securities, indexes of securities or commodities prices, and futures contracts (including commodity futures contracts). Options may be traded on an exchange or OTC. The purchaser may terminate its position in a put option by allowing it to expire or by exercising the option. If the option is allowed to expire, the purchaser will lose the entire premium. If the option is exercised, the purchaser completes the sale of the underlying instrument at the strike price. Depending on the terms of the contract, upon exercise, an option may require physical delivery of the underlying instrument or may be settled through cash payments. A purchaser may also terminate a put option position by closing it out in the secondary market at its current price, if a liquid secondary market exists.
The buyer of a typical put option can expect to realize a gain if the underlying instrument's price falls substantially. However, if the underlying instrument's price does not fall enough to offset the cost of purchasing the option, a put buyer can expect to suffer a loss (limited to the amount of the premium, plus related transaction costs).
The features of call options are essentially the same as those of put options, except that the purchaser of a call option obtains the right (but not the obligation) to purchase, rather than sell, the underlying instrument at the option's strike price. A call buyer typically attempts to participate in potential price increases of the underlying instrument with risk limited to the cost of the option if the underlying instrument's price falls. At the same time, the buyer can expect to suffer a loss if the underlying instrument's price does not rise sufficiently to offset the cost of the option.
The writer of a put or call option takes the opposite side of the transaction from the option's purchaser. In return for receipt of the premium, the writer assumes the obligation to pay or receive the strike price for the option's underlying instrument if the other party to the option chooses to exercise it. The writer may seek to terminate a position in a put option before exercise by closing out the option in the secondary market at its current price. If the secondary market is not liquid for a put option, however, the writer must continue to be prepared to pay the strike price while the option is outstanding, regardless of price changes. When writing an option on a futures contract, a fund will be required to make margin payments to a futures commission merchant as described above for futures contracts.
If the underlying instrument's price rises, a put writer would generally expect to profit, although its gain would be limited to the amount of the premium it received. If the underlying instrument's price remains the same over time, it is likely that the writer will also profit, because it should be able to close out the option at a lower price. If the underlying instrument's price falls, the put writer would expect to suffer a loss. This loss should be less than the loss from purchasing the underlying instrument directly, however, because the premium received for writing the option should mitigate the effects of the decline.
Writing a call option obligates the writer to sell or deliver the option's underlying instrument or make a net cash settlement payment, as applicable, in return for the strike price, upon exercise of the option. The characteristics of writing call options are similar to those of writing put options, except that writing calls generally is a profitable strategy if prices remain the same or fall. Through receipt of the option premium, a call writer should mitigate the effects of a price increase. At the same time, because a call writer must be prepared to deliver the underlying instrument or make a net cash settlement payment, as applicable, in return for the strike price, even if its current value is greater, a call writer gives up some ability to participate in price increases and, if a call writer does not hold the underlying instrument, a call writer's loss is theoretically unlimited.
Where a put or call option on a particular security is purchased to hedge against price movements in a related security, the price to close out the put or call option on the secondary market may move more or less than the price of the related security.
There is no assurance a liquid market will exist for any particular options contract at any particular time. Options may have relatively low trading volume and liquidity if their strike prices are not close to the underlying instrument's current price. In addition, exchanges may establish daily price fluctuation limits for exchange-traded options contracts, and may halt trading if a contract's price moves upward or downward more than the limit in a given day. On volatile trading days when the price fluctuation limit is reached or a trading halt is imposed, it may be impossible to enter into new positions or close out existing positions. If the market for a contract is not liquid because of price fluctuation limits or otherwise, it could prevent prompt liquidation of unfavorable positions, and potentially could require a fund to continue to hold a position until delivery or expiration regardless of changes in its value.
Unlike exchange-traded options, which are standardized with respect to the underlying instrument, expiration date, contract size, and strike price, the terms of OTC options (options not traded on exchanges) generally are established through negotiation with the other party to the option contract. While this type of arrangement allows the purchaser or writer greater flexibility to tailor an option to its needs, OTC options generally are less liquid and involve greater credit risk than exchange-traded options, which are backed by the clearing organization of the exchanges where they are traded.
Combined positions involve purchasing and writing options in combination with each other, or in combination with futures or forward contracts, to adjust the risk and return characteristics of the overall position. For example, purchasing a put option and writing a call option on the same underlying instrument would construct a combined position whose risk and return characteristics are similar to selling a futures contract. Another possible combined position would involve writing a call option at one strike price and buying a call option at a lower price, to reduce the risk of the written call option in the event of a substantial price increase. Because combined options positions involve multiple trades, they result in higher transaction costs and may be more difficult to open and close out.
A fund may also buy and sell options on swaps (swaptions), which are generally options on interest rate swaps. An option on a swap gives a party the right (but not the obligation) to enter into a new swap agreement or to extend, shorten, cancel or modify an existing contract at a specific date in the future in exchange for a premium. Depending on the terms of the particular option agreement, a fund will generally incur a greater degree of risk when it writes (sells) an option on a swap than it will incur when it purchases an option on a swap. When a fund purchases an option on a swap, it risks losing only the amount of the premium it has paid should it decide to let the option expire unexercised. However, when a fund writes an option on a swap, upon exercise of the option the fund will become obligated according to the terms of the underlying agreement. A fund that writes an option on a swap receives the premium and bears the risk of unfavorable changes in the preset rate on the underlying interest rate swap. Whether a fund's use of options on swaps will be successful in furthering its investment objective will depend on the adviser's ability to predict correctly whether certain types of investments are likely to produce greater returns than other investments. Options on swaps may involve risks similar to those discussed below in "Swap Agreements."
Because there are a limited number of types of exchange-traded options contracts, it is likely that the standardized contracts available will not match a fund's current or anticipated investments exactly. A fund may invest in options contracts based on securities with different issuers, maturities, or other characteristics from the securities in which the fund typically invests, which involves a risk that the options position will not track the performance of the fund's other investments.
Options prices can also diverge from the prices of their underlying instruments, even if the underlying instruments match a fund's investments well. Options prices are affected by such factors as current and anticipated short-term interest rates, changes in volatility of the underlying instrument, and the time remaining until expiration of the contract, which may not affect security prices the same way. Imperfect correlation may also result from differing levels of demand in the options and futures markets and the securities markets, from structural differences in how options and futures and securities are traded, or from imposition of daily price fluctuation limits or trading halts. A fund may purchase or sell options contracts with a greater or lesser value than the securities it wishes to hedge or intends to purchase in order to attempt to compensate for differences in volatility between the contract and the securities, although this may not be successful in all cases. If price changes in a fund's options positions are poorly correlated with its other investments, the positions may fail to produce anticipated gains or result in losses that are not offset by gains in other investments.
Swap Agreements. Swap agreements are two-party contracts entered into primarily by institutional investors. Cleared swaps are transacted through futures commission merchants that are members of central clearinghouses with the clearinghouse serving as a central counterparty similar to transactions in futures contracts. In a standard "swap" transaction, two parties agree to exchange one or more payments based, for example, on the returns (or differentials in rates of return) earned or realized on particular predetermined investments or instruments (such as securities, commodities, indexes, or other financial or economic interests). The gross payments to be exchanged between the parties are calculated with respect to a notional amount, which is the predetermined dollar principal of the trade representing the hypothetical underlying quantity upon which payment obligations are computed.
Swap agreements can take many different forms and are known by a variety of names. Depending on how they are used, swap agreements may increase or decrease the overall volatility of a fund's investments and its share price and, if applicable, its yield. Swap agreements are subject to liquidity risk, meaning that a fund may be unable to sell a swap contract to a third party at a favorable price. Certain standardized swap transactions are currently subject to mandatory central clearing or may be eligible for voluntary central clearing. Central clearing is expected to decrease counterparty risk and increase liquidity compared to uncleared swaps because central clearing interposes the central clearinghouse as the counterpart to each participant's swap. However, central clearing does not eliminate counterparty risk or illiquidity risk entirely. In addition depending on the size of a fund and other factors, the margin required under the rules of a clearinghouse and by a clearing member futures commission merchant may be in excess of the collateral required to be posted by a fund to support its obligations under a similar uncleared swap. However, regulators have adopted rules imposing certain margin requirements, including minimums, on certain uncleared swaps which could reduce the distinction.
A total return swap is a contract whereby one party agrees to make a series of payments to another party based on the change in the market value of the assets underlying such contract (which can include a security or other instrument, commodity, index or baskets thereof) during the specified period. In exchange, the other party to the contract agrees to make a series of payments calculated by reference to an interest rate and/or some other agreed-upon amount (including the change in market value of other underlying assets). A fund may use total return swaps to gain exposure to an asset without owning it or taking physical custody of it. For example, a fund investing in total return commodity swaps will receive the price appreciation of a commodity, commodity index or portion thereof in exchange for payment of an agreed-upon fee.
In a credit default swap, the credit default protection buyer makes periodic payments, known as premiums, to the credit default protection seller. In return the credit default protection seller will make a payment to the credit default protection buyer upon the occurrence of a specified credit event. A credit default swap can refer to a single issuer or asset, a basket of issuers or assets or index of assets, each known as the reference entity or underlying asset. A fund may act as either the buyer or the seller of a credit default swap. A fund may buy or sell credit default protection on a basket of issuers or assets, even if a number of the underlying assets referenced in the basket are lower-quality debt securities. In an unhedged credit default swap, a fund buys credit default protection on a single issuer or asset, a basket of issuers or assets or index of assets without owning the underlying asset or debt issued by the reference entity. Credit default swaps involve greater and different risks than investing directly in the referenced asset, because, in addition to market risk, credit default swaps include liquidity, counterparty and operational risk.
Credit default swaps allow a fund to acquire or reduce credit exposure to a particular issuer, asset or basket of assets. If a swap agreement calls for payments by a fund, the fund must be prepared to make such payments when due. If a fund is the credit default protection seller, the fund will experience a loss if a credit event occurs and the credit of the reference entity or underlying asset has deteriorated. If a fund is the credit default protection buyer, the fund will be required to pay premiums to the credit default protection seller.
If the creditworthiness of a fund's swap counterparty declines, the risk that the counterparty may not perform could increase, potentially resulting in a loss to the fund. To limit the counterparty risk involved in swap agreements, a Fidelity ® fund will enter into swap agreements only with counterparties that meet certain standards of creditworthiness. This risk for cleared swaps is generally lower than for uncleared swaps since the counterparty is a clearinghouse, but there can be no assurance that a clearinghouse or its members will satisfy its obligations.
A fund bears the risk of loss of the amount expected to be received under a swap agreement in the event of the default or bankruptcy of a swap agreement counterparty. A fund would generally be required to provide margin or collateral for the benefit of that counterparty. If a counterparty to a swap transaction becomes insolvent, the fund may be limited temporarily or permanently in exercising its right to the return of related fund assets designated as margin or collateral in an action against the counterparty.
Swap agreements are subject to the risk that the market value of the instrument will change in a way detrimental to a fund's interest. A fund bears the risk that an adviser will not accurately forecast market trends or the values of assets, reference rates, indexes, or other economic factors in establishing swap positions for a fund. If an adviser attempts to use a swap as a hedge against, or as a substitute for, a portfolio investment, a fund may be exposed to the risk that the swap will have or will develop imperfect or no correlation with the portfolio investment, which could cause substantial losses for a fund. While hedging strategies involving swap instruments can reduce the risk of loss, they can also reduce the opportunity for gain or even result in losses by offsetting favorable price movements in other fund investments. Swaps are complex and often valued subjectively.
Hybrid and Preferred Securities. A hybrid security may be a debt security, warrant, convertible security, certificate of deposit or other evidence of indebtedness on which the value of the interest on or principal of which is determined by reference to changes in the value of a reference instrument or financial strength of a reference entity (e.g., a security or other financial instrument, asset, currency, interest rate, commodity, index, or business entity such as a financial institution). Another example is contingent convertible securities, which are fixed income securities that, under certain circumstances, either convert into common stock of the issuer or undergo a principal write-down by a predetermined percentage if the issuer's capital ratio falls below a predetermined trigger level. The liquidation value of such a security may be reduced upon a regulatory action and without the need for a bankruptcy proceeding. Preferred securities may take the form of preferred stock and represent an equity or ownership interest in an issuer that pays dividends at a specified rate and that has precedence over common stock in the payment of dividends. In the event an issuer is liquidated or declares bankruptcy, the claims of owners of bonds generally take precedence over the claims of those who own preferred and common stock.
The risks of investing in hybrid and preferred securities reflect a combination of the risks of investing in securities, options, futures and currencies. An investment in a hybrid or preferred security may entail significant risks that are not associated with a similar investment in a traditional debt or equity security. The risks of a particular hybrid or preferred security will depend upon the terms of the instrument, but may include the possibility of significant changes in the value of any applicable reference instrument. Such risks may depend upon factors unrelated to the operations or credit quality of the issuer of the hybrid or preferred security. Hybrid and preferred securities are potentially more volatile and carry greater market and liquidity risks than traditional debt or equity securities. Also, the price of the hybrid or preferred security and any applicable reference instrument may not move in the same direction or at the same time. In addition, because hybrid and preferred securities may be traded over-the-counter or in bilateral transactions with the issuer of the security, hybrid and preferred securities may be subject to the creditworthiness of the counterparty of the security and their values may decline substantially if the counterparty's creditworthiness deteriorates. In addition, uncertainty regarding the tax and regulatory treatment of hybrid and preferred securities may reduce demand for such securities and tax and regulatory considerations may limit the extent of a fund's investments in certain hybrid and preferred securities.
Illiquid Investments means any investment that cannot be sold or disposed of in current market conditions in seven calendar days or less without the sale or disposition significantly changing the market value of the investment. Difficulty in selling or disposing of illiquid investments may result in a loss or may be costly to a fund. Illiquid securities may include (1) repurchase agreements maturing in more than seven days without demand/redemption features, (2) OTC options and certain other derivatives, (3) private placements, (4) securities traded on markets and exchanges with structural constraints, and (5) loan participations.
Under the supervision of the Board of Trustees, a Fidelity ® fund's adviser classifies the liquidity of a fund's investments and monitors the extent of a fund's illiquid investments.
Various market, trading and investment-specific factors may be considered in determining the liquidity of a fund's investments including, but not limited to (1) the existence of an active trading market, (2) the nature of the security and the market in which it trades, (3) the number, diversity, and quality of dealers and prospective purchasers in the marketplace, (4) the frequency, volume, and volatility of trade and price quotations, (5) bid-ask spreads, (6) dates of issuance and maturity, (7) demand, put or tender features, and (8) restrictions on trading or transferring the investment.
Fidelity classifies certain investments as illiquid based upon these criteria. Fidelity also monitors for certain market, trading and investment-specific events that may cause Fidelity to re-evaluate an investment's liquidity status and may lead to an investment being classified as illiquid. In addition, Fidelity uses a third-party to assist with the liquidity classifications of the fund's investments, which includes calculating the time to sell and settle a specified size position in a particular investment without the sale significantly changing the market value of the investment.
Increasing Government Debt. The total public debt of the United States and other countries around the globe as a percent of gross domestic product has grown rapidly since the beginning of the 2008 financial downturn. Although high debt levels do not necessarily indicate or cause economic problems, they may create certain systemic risks if sound debt management practices are not implemented.
A high national debt level may increase market pressures to meet government funding needs, which may drive debt cost higher and cause a country to sell additional debt, thereby increasing refinancing risk. A high national debt also raises concerns that a government will not be able to make principal or interest payments when they are due. In the worst case, unsustainable debt levels can decline the valuation of currencies, and can prevent a government from implementing effective counter-cyclical fiscal policy in economic downturns.
Standard & Poor's Ratings Services has, in the past, lowered its long-term sovereign credit rating on the United States. The market prices and yields of securities supported by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Government may be adversely affected by Standard & Poor's Ratings Services decisions to downgrade the long-term sovereign credit rating of the United States.
Indexed Securities are instruments whose prices are indexed to the prices of other securities, securities indexes, or other financial indicators. Indexed securities typically, but not always, are debt securities or deposits whose values at maturity or coupon rates are determined by reference to a specific instrument, statistic, or measure.
Indexed securities also include commercial paper, certificates of deposit, and other fixed-income securities whose values at maturity or coupon interest rates are determined by reference to the returns of particular stock indexes. Indexed securities can be affected by stock prices as well as changes in interest rates and the creditworthiness of their issuers and may not track the indexes as accurately as direct investments in the indexes.
Indexed securities may have principal payments as well as coupon payments that depend on the performance of one or more interest rates. Their coupon rates or principal payments may change by several percentage points for every 1% interest rate change.
Mortgage-indexed securities, for example, could be structured to replicate the performance of mortgage securities and the characteristics of direct ownership.
Inflation-protected securities, for example, can be indexed to a measure of inflation, such as the Consumer Price Index (CPI).
Commodity-indexed securities, for example, can be indexed to a commodities index such as the Bloomberg Commodity Index.
Gold-indexed securities typically provide for a maturity value that depends on the price of gold, resulting in a security whose price tends to rise and fall together with gold prices.
Currency-indexed securities typically are short-term to intermediate-term debt securities whose maturity values or interest rates are determined by reference to the values of one or more specified foreign currencies, and may offer higher yields than U.S. dollar-denominated securities. Currency-indexed securities may be positively or negatively indexed; that is, their maturity value may increase when the specified currency value increases, resulting in a security that performs similarly to a foreign-denominated instrument, or their maturity value may decline when foreign currencies increase, resulting in a security whose price characteristics are similar to a put on the underlying currency. Currency-indexed securities may also have prices that depend on the values of a number of different foreign currencies relative to each other.
The performance of indexed securities depends to a great extent on the performance of the instrument or measure to which they are indexed, and may also be influenced by interest rate changes in the United States and abroad. Indexed securities may be more volatile than the underlying instruments or measures. Indexed securities are also subject to the credit risks associated with the issuer of the security, and their values may decline substantially if the issuer's creditworthiness deteriorates. Recent issuers of indexed securities have included banks, corporations, and certain U.S. Government agencies.
Insolvency of Issuers, Counterparties, and Intermediaries. Issuers of fund portfolio securities or counterparties to fund transactions that become insolvent or declare bankruptcy can pose special investment risks. In each circumstance, risk of loss, valuation uncertainty, increased illiquidity, and other unpredictable occurrences may negatively impact an investment. Each of these risks may be amplified in foreign markets, where security trading, settlement, and custodial practices can be less developed than those in the U.S. markets, and bankruptcy laws differ from those of the U.S.
As a general matter, if the issuer of a fund portfolio security is liquidated or declares bankruptcy, the claims of owners of bonds and preferred stock have priority over the claims of common stock owners. These events can negatively impact the value of the issuer's securities and the results of related proceedings can be unpredictable.
If a counterparty to a fund transaction, such as a swap transaction, a short sale, a borrowing, or other complex transaction becomes insolvent, the fund may be limited in its ability to exercise rights to obtain the return of related fund assets or in exercising other rights against the counterparty. Uncertainty may also arise upon the insolvency of a securities or commodities intermediary such as a broker-dealer or futures commission merchant with which a fund has pending transactions. In addition, insolvency and liquidation proceedings take time to resolve, which can limit or preclude a fund's ability to terminate a transaction or obtain related assets or collateral in a timely fashion. If an intermediary becomes insolvent, while securities positions and other holdings may be protected by U.S. or foreign laws, it is sometimes difficult to determine whether these protections are available to specific trades based on the circumstances. Receiving the benefit of these protections can also take time to resolve, which may result in illiquid positions.
Interfund Borrowing and Lending Program. Pursuant to an exemptive order issued by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), a Fidelity ® fund may lend money to, and borrow money from, other funds advised by Fidelity Management & Research Company LLC (FMR) or its affiliates. A Fidelity ® fund will borrow through the program only when the costs are equal to or lower than the costs of bank loans. A Fidelity ® fund will lend through the program only when the returns are higher than those available from an investment in repurchase agreements. Interfund loans and borrowings normally extend overnight, but can have a maximum duration of seven days. Loans may be called on one day's notice. A Fidelity ® fund may have to borrow from a bank at a higher interest rate if an interfund loan is called or not renewed. Any delay in repayment to a lending fund could result in a lost investment opportunity or additional borrowing costs.
Investment-Grade Debt Securities. Investment-grade debt securities include all types of debt instruments that are of medium and high-quality. Investment-grade debt securities include repurchase agreements collateralized by U.S. Government securities as well as repurchase agreements collateralized by equity securities, non-investment-grade debt, and all other instruments in which a fund can perfect a security interest, provided the repurchase agreement counterparty has an investment-grade rating. Some investment-grade debt securities may possess speculative characteristics and may be more sensitive to economic changes and to changes in the financial conditions of issuers. An investment-grade rating means the security or issuer is rated investment-grade by a credit rating agency registered as a nationally recognized statistical rating organization (NRSRO) with the SEC (for example, Moody's Investors Service, Inc.), or is unrated but considered to be of equivalent quality by a fund's adviser. For purposes of determining the maximum maturity of an investment-grade debt security, an adviser may take into account normal settlement periods.
Loans and Other Direct Debt Instruments. Direct debt instruments are interests in amounts owed by a corporate, governmental, or other borrower to lenders or lending syndicates (loans and loan participations), to suppliers of goods or services (trade claims or other receivables), or to other parties. Direct debt instruments involve a risk of loss in case of default or insolvency of the borrower and may offer less legal protection to the purchaser in the event of fraud or misrepresentation, or there may be a requirement that a fund supply additional cash to a borrower on demand. A fund may acquire loans by buying an assignment of all or a portion of the loan from a lender or by purchasing a loan participation from a lender or other purchaser of a participation.
Lenders and purchasers of loans and other forms of direct indebtedness depend primarily upon the creditworthiness of the borrower and/or any collateral for payment of interest and repayment of principal. If scheduled interest or principal payments are not made, the value of the instrument may be adversely affected. Loans that are fully secured provide more protections than an unsecured loan in the event of failure to make scheduled interest or principal payments. However, there is no assurance that the liquidation of collateral from a secured loan would satisfy the borrower's obligation, or that the collateral could be liquidated. Indebtedness of borrowers whose creditworthiness is poor involves substantially greater risks and may be highly speculative. Different types of assets may be used as collateral for a fund's loans and there can be no assurance that a fund will correctly evaluate the value of the assets collateralizing the fund's loans. Borrowers that are in bankruptcy or restructuring may never pay off their indebtedness, or may pay only a small fraction of the amount owed. In any restructuring or bankruptcy proceedings relating to a borrower funded by a fund, a fund may be required to accept collateral with less value than the amount of the loan made by the fund to the borrower. Direct indebtedness of foreign countries also involves a risk that the governmental entities responsible for the repayment of the debt may be unable, or unwilling, to pay interest and repay principal when due.
Loans and other types of direct indebtedness (which a fund may originate, acquire or otherwise gain exposure to) may not be readily marketable and may be subject to restrictions on resale. Some indebtedness may be difficult to dispose of readily at what the Adviser believes to be a fair price. In addition, valuation of illiquid indebtedness involves a greater degree of judgment in determining a fund's net asset value than if that value were based on readily available market quotations, and could result in significant variations in a fund's daily share price. Some loan interests are traded among certain financial institutions and accordingly may be deemed liquid. As the market for different types of indebtedness develops, the liquidity of these instruments is expected to improve.
Direct lending and investments in loans through direct assignment of a financial institution's interests with respect to a loan may involve additional risks. For example, if a loan is foreclosed, the lender/purchaser could become part owner of any collateral, and would bear the costs and liabilities associated with owning and disposing of the collateral. In the event of a default by the borrower, a fund may have difficulty disposing of the assets used as collateral for a loan. In addition, a purchaser could be held liable as a co-lender. Direct debt instruments may also involve a risk of insolvency of the lending bank or other intermediary.
A loan is often administered by a bank or other financial institution that acts as agent for all holders. The agent administers the terms of the loan, as specified in the loan agreement. Unless, under the terms of the loan or other indebtedness, the purchaser has direct recourse against the borrower, the purchaser may have to rely on the agent to apply appropriate credit remedies against a borrower. If assets held by the agent for the benefit of a purchaser were determined to be subject to the claims of the agent's general creditors, the purchaser might incur certain costs and delays in realizing payment on the loan or loan participation and could suffer a loss of principal or interest. Direct loans are typically not administered by an underwriter or agent bank. The terms of direct loans are negotiated with borrowers in private transactions. Direct loans are not publicly traded and may not have a secondary market.
A fund may seek to dispose of loans in certain cases, to the extent possible, through selling participations in the loan. In that case, a fund would remain subject to certain obligations, which may result in expenses for a fund and certain additional risks.
Direct indebtedness may include letters of credit, revolving credit facilities, or other standby financing commitments that obligate lenders/purchasers, including a fund, to make additional cash payments on demand. These commitments may have the effect of requiring a lender/purchaser to increase its investment in a borrower at a time when it would not otherwise have done so, even if the borrower's condition makes it unlikely that the amount will ever be repaid.
In the process of originating, buying, selling and holding loans, a fund may receive and/or pay certain fees. These fees are in addition to the interest payments received and may include facility, closing or upfront fees, commitment fees and commissions. A fund may receive or pay a facility, closing or upfront fee when it buys or sells a loan. A fund may receive a commitment fee throughout the life of the loan or as long as the fund remains invested in the loan (in addition to interest payments) for any unused portion of a committed line of credit. Other fees received by the fund may include prepayment fees, covenant waiver fees, ticking fees and/or modification fees. Legal fees related to the originating, buying, selling and holding loans may also be borne by the fund (including legal fees to assess conformity of a loan investment with 1940 Act provisions).
When engaging in direct lending, if permitted by its investment policies, a fund's performance may depend, in part, on the ability of the fund to originate loans on advantageous terms. A fund may compete with other lenders in originating and purchasing loans. Increased competition for, or a diminished available supply of, qualifying loans could result in lower yields on and/or less advantageous terms for such loans, which could reduce fund performance.
For a Fidelity ® fund that limits the amount of total assets that it will invest in any one issuer or in issuers within the same industry, the fund generally will treat the borrower as the "issuer" of indebtedness held by the fund. In the case of loan participations where a bank or other lending institution serves as financial intermediary between a fund and the borrower, if the participation does not shift to the fund the direct debtor-creditor relationship with the borrower, SEC interpretations require a fund, in appropriate circumstances, to treat both the lending bank or other lending institution and the borrower as "issuers" for these purposes. Treating a financial intermediary as an issuer of indebtedness may restrict a fund's ability to invest in indebtedness related to a single financial intermediary, or a group of intermediaries engaged in the same industry, even if the underlying borrowers represent many different companies and industries.
A fund may choose, at its expense or in conjunction with others, to pursue litigation or otherwise to exercise its rights as a security holder to seek to protect the interests of security holders if it determines this to be in the best interest of the fund's shareholders.
If permitted by its investment policies, a fund may also obtain exposure to the lending activities described above indirectly through its investments in underlying Fidelity ® funds or other vehicles that may engage in such activities directly.
Lower-Quality Debt Securities. Lower-quality debt securities include all types of debt instruments that have poor protection with respect to the payment of interest and repayment of principal, or may be in default. These securities are often considered to be speculative and involve greater risk of loss or price changes due to changes in the issuer's capacity to pay. The market prices of lower-quality debt securities may fluctuate more than those of higher-quality debt securities and may decline significantly in periods of general economic difficulty, which may follow periods of rising interest rates.
The market for lower-quality debt securities may be thinner and less active than that for higher-quality debt securities, which can adversely affect the prices at which the former are sold. Adverse publicity and changing investor perceptions may affect the liquidity of lower-quality debt securities and the ability of outside pricing services to value lower-quality debt securities.
Because the risk of default is higher for lower-quality debt securities, research and credit analysis are an especially important part of managing securities of this type. Such analysis may focus on relative values based on factors such as interest or dividend coverage, asset coverage, earnings prospects, and the experience and managerial strength of the issuer, in an attempt to identify those issuers of high-yielding securities whose financial condition is adequate to meet future obligations, has improved, or is expected to improve in the future.
A fund may choose, at its expense or in conjunction with others, to pursue litigation or otherwise to exercise its rights as a security holder to seek to protect the interests of security holders if it determines this to be in the best interest of the fund's shareholders.
Low or Negative Yielding Securities. During periods of very low or negative interest rates, a fund may be unable to maintain positive returns. Interest rates in the U.S. and many parts of the world, including Japan and some European countries, are at or near historically low levels. Japan and those European countries have, from time to time, experienced negative interest rates on certain fixed income instruments. Very low or negative interest rates may magnify interest rate risk for the markets as a whole and for the funds. Changing interest rates, including rates that fall below zero, may have unpredictable effects on markets, may result in heightened market volatility and may detract from fund performance to the extent a fund is exposed to such interest rates.
Precious Metals. Precious metals, such as gold, silver, platinum, and palladium, at times have been subject to substantial price fluctuations over short periods of time and may be affected by unpredictable monetary and political policies such as currency devaluations or revaluations, economic and social conditions within a country, trade imbalances, or trade or currency restrictions between countries. The prices of gold and other precious metals, however, are less subject to local and company-specific factors than securities of individual companies. As a result, precious metals may be more or less volatile in price than securities of companies engaged in precious metals-related businesses. Investments in precious metals can present concerns such as delivery, storage and maintenance, possible illiquidity, and the unavailability of accurate market valuations. Although precious metals can be purchased in any form, including bullion and coins, a Fidelity ® fund intends to purchase only those forms of precious metals that are readily marketable and that can be stored in accordance with custody regulations applicable to mutual funds. A fund may incur higher custody and transaction costs for precious metals than for securities. Also, precious metals investments do not pay income.
For a fund to qualify as a regulated investment company under current federal tax law, gains from selling precious metals may not exceed 10% of the fund's gross income for its taxable year. This tax requirement could cause a fund to hold or sell precious metals or securities when it would not otherwise do so.
Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs). Equity REITs own real estate properties, while mortgage REITs make construction, development, and long-term mortgage loans. Their value may be affected by changes in the value of the underlying property of the trusts, the creditworthiness of the issuer, property taxes, interest rates, and tax and regulatory requirements, such as those relating to the environment. Both types of trusts are dependent upon management skill, are not diversified, and are subject to heavy cash flow dependency, defaults by borrowers, self-liquidation, and the possibility of failing to qualify for tax-free status of income under the Internal Revenue Code and failing to maintain exemption from the 1940 Act.
Repurchase Agreements involve an agreement to purchase a security and to sell that security back to the original seller at an agreed-upon price. The resale price reflects the purchase price plus an agreed-upon incremental amount which is unrelated to the coupon rate or maturity of the purchased security. As protection against the risk that the original seller will not fulfill its obligation, the securities are held in a separate account at a bank, marked-to-market daily, and maintained at a value at least equal to the sale price plus the accrued incremental amount. The value of the security purchased may be more or less than the price at which the counterparty has agreed to purchase the security. In addition, delays or losses could result if the other party to the agreement defaults or becomes insolvent. A fund may be limited in its ability to exercise its right to liquidate assets related to a repurchase agreement with an insolvent counterparty. A Fidelity ® fund may engage in repurchase agreement transactions with parties whose creditworthiness has been reviewed and found satisfactory by the fund's adviser.
Restricted Securities (including Private Placements) are subject to legal restrictions on their sale. Difficulty in selling securities may result in a loss or be costly to a fund. Restricted securities, including private placements of private and public companies, generally can be sold in privately negotiated transactions, pursuant to an exemption from registration under the Securities Act of 1933 (1933 Act), or in a registered public offering. Where registration is required, the holder of a registered security may be obligated to pay all or part of the registration expense and a considerable period may elapse between the time it decides to seek registration and the time it may be permitted to sell a security under an effective registration statement. If, during such a period, adverse market conditions were to develop, the holder might obtain a less favorable price than prevailed when it decided to seek registration of the security.
Reverse Repurchase Agreements. In a reverse repurchase agreement, a fund sells a security to another party, such as a bank or broker-dealer, in return for cash and agrees to repurchase that security at an agreed-upon price and time. A Fidelity ® fund may enter into reverse repurchase agreements with parties whose creditworthiness has been reviewed and found satisfactory by the fund's adviser. Such transactions may increase fluctuations in the market value of a fund's assets and, if applicable, a fund's yield, and may be viewed as a form of leverage. Under SEC requirements, a fund needs to aggregate the amount of indebtedness associated with its reverse repurchase agreements and similar financing transactions with the aggregate amount of any other senior securities representing indebtedness (e.g., borrowings, if applicable) when calculating the fund's asset coverage ratio or treat all such transactions as derivatives transactions.
SEC Rule 18f-4.   In October 2020, the SEC adopted a final rule related to the use of derivatives, short sales, reverse repurchase agreements and certain other transactions by registered investment companies (the "rule"). Subject to certain exceptions, the rule requires the funds to trade derivatives and certain other transactions that create future payment or delivery obligations subject to a value-at-risk (VaR) leverage limit and to certain derivatives risk management program, reporting and board oversight requirements. Generally, these requirements apply to any fund engaging in derivatives transactions unless a fund satisfies a "limited derivatives users" exception, which requires the fund to limit its gross notional derivatives exposure (with certain exceptions) to 10% of its net assets and to adopt derivatives risk management procedures. Under the rule, when a fund trades reverse repurchase agreements or similar financing transactions, it needs to aggregate the amount of indebtedness associated with the reverse repurchase agreements or similar financing transactions with the aggregate amount of any other senior securities representing indebtedness (e.g., borrowings, if applicable) when calculating the fund's asset coverage ratio or treat all such transactions as derivatives transactions. The SEC also provided guidance in connection with the final rule regarding the use of securities lending collateral that may limit securities lending activities. In addition, under the rule, a fund may invest in a security on a when-issued or forward-settling basis, or with a non-standard settlement cycle, and the transaction will be deemed not to involve a senior security (as defined under Section 18(g) of the 1940 Act), provided that (i) the fund intends to physically settle the transaction and (ii) the transaction will settle within 35 days of its trade date (the "Delayed-Settlement Securities Provision"). A fund may otherwise engage in when-issued, forward-settling and non-standard settlement cycle securities transactions that do not meet the conditions of the Delayed-Settlement Securities Provision so long as the fund treats any such transaction as a derivatives transaction for purposes of compliance with the rule. Furthermore, under the rule, a fund will be permitted to enter into an unfunded commitment agreement, and such unfunded commitment agreement will not be subject to the asset coverage requirements under the 1940 Act, if the fund reasonably believes, at the time it enters into such agreement, that it will have sufficient cash and cash equivalents to meet its obligations with respect to all such agreements as they come due. These requirements may limit the ability of the funds to use derivatives, short sales, reverse repurchase agreements and similar financing transactions, and the other relevant transactions as part of its investment strategies. These requirements also may increase the cost of the fund's investments and cost of doing business, which could adversely affect investors.
Securities Lending. A Fidelity ® fund may lend securities to parties such as broker-dealers or other institutions, including an affiliate, National Financial Services LLC (NFS). Fidelity ® funds for which Geode Capital Management, LLC (Geode) serves as sub-adviser will not lend securities to Geode or its affiliates. Securities lending allows a fund to retain ownership of the securities loaned and, at the same time, earn additional income. The borrower provides the fund with collateral in an amount at least equal to the value of the securities loaned. The fund seeks to maintain the ability to obtain the right to vote or consent on proxy proposals involving material events affecting securities loaned. If the borrower defaults on its obligation to return the securities loaned because of insolvency or other reasons, a fund could experience delays and costs in recovering the securities loaned or in gaining access to the collateral. These delays and costs could be greater for foreign securities. If a fund is not able to recover the securities loaned, the fund may sell the collateral and purchase a replacement investment in the market. The value of the collateral could decrease below the value of the replacement investment by the time the replacement investment is purchased. For a Fidelity ® fund, loans will be made only to parties deemed by the fund's adviser to be in good standing and when, in the adviser's judgment, the income earned would justify the risks.
The Fidelity ® funds have retained agents, including NFS, an affiliate of the funds, to act as securities lending agent. If NFS acts as securities lending agent for a fund, it is subject to the overall supervision of the fund's adviser, and NFS will administer the lending program in accordance with guidelines approved by the fund's Trustees.
Cash received as collateral through loan transactions may be invested in other eligible securities, including shares of a money market fund. Investing this cash subjects that investment, as well as the securities loaned, to market appreciation or depreciation.
Securities of Other Investment Companies , including shares of closed-end investment companies (which include business development companies (BDCs)), unit investment trusts, and open-end investment companies, represent interests in professionally managed portfolios that may invest in any type of instrument. Investing in other investment companies involves substantially the same risks as investing directly in the underlying instruments, but may involve additional expenses at the underlying investment company-level, such as portfolio management fees and operating expenses. Fees and expenses incurred indirectly by a fund as a result of its investment in shares of one or more other investment companies generally are referred to as "acquired fund fees and expenses" and may appear as a separate line item in a fund's prospectus fee table. For certain investment companies, such as BDCs, these expenses may be significant. Certain types of investment companies, such as closed-end investment companies, issue a fixed number of shares that trade on a stock exchange or over-the-counter at a premium or a discount to their NAV. Others are continuously offered at NAV, but may also be traded in the secondary market.
The securities of closed-end funds may be leveraged. As a result, a fund may be indirectly exposed to leverage through an investment in such securities. An investment in securities of closed-end funds that use leverage may expose a fund to higher volatility in the market value of such securities and the possibility that the fund's long-term returns on such securities will be diminished.
A fund's ability to invest in securities of other investment companies may be limited by federal securities laws. To the extent a fund acquires securities issued by unaffiliated investment companies, the Adviser's access to information regarding such underlying fund's portfolio may be limited and subject to such fund's policies regarding disclosure of fund holdings.
Short Sales . Short sales involve the market sale of a security a fund has borrowed from a prime broker with which it has a contractual relationship, with the expectation that the security will underperform either the market or the securities that the fund holds long. A fund closes a short sale by purchasing the same security at the current market price and delivering it to the prime broker.
Until a fund closes out a short position, the fund is obligated to pay the prime broker (from which it borrowed the security sold short) interest as well as any dividends that accrue during the period of the loan. While a short position is outstanding, a fund must also pledge a portion of its assets to the prime broker as collateral for the borrowed security. The collateral will be marked to market daily.
Short positions create a risk that a fund will be required to cover them by buying the security at a time when the security has appreciated in value, thus resulting in a loss to the fund. A short position in a security poses more risk than holding the same security long. Because a short position loses value as the security's price increases, the loss on a short sale is theoretically unlimited. The loss on a long position is limited to what a fund originally paid for the security together with any transaction costs. A fund may not always be able to borrow a security the fund seeks to sell short at a particular time or at an acceptable price. As a result, a fund may be unable to fully implement its investment strategy due to a lack of available stocks or for other reasons. It is possible that the market value of the securities a fund holds in long positions will decline at the same time that the market value of the securities the fund has sold short increases, thereby increasing the fund's potential volatility. Because a fund may be required to pay dividends, interest, premiums and other expenses in connection with a short sale, any benefit for the fund resulting from the short sale will be decreased, and the amount of any ultimate gain will be decreased or of any loss will be increased, by the amount of such expenses.
A fund may also enter into short sales against the box. Short sales "against the box" are short sales of securities that a fund owns or has the right to obtain (equivalent in kind or amount to the securities sold short). If a fund enters into a short sale against the box, it will be required to set aside securities equivalent in kind and amount to the securities sold short (or securities convertible or exchangeable into such securities) and will be required to hold such securities while the short sale is outstanding. A fund will incur transaction costs, including interest expenses, in connection with opening, maintaining, and closing short sales against the box.
Sources of Liquidity or Credit Support. Issuers may employ various forms of credit and liquidity enhancements, including letters of credit, guarantees, swaps, puts, and demand features, and insurance provided by domestic or foreign entities such as banks and other financial institutions. An adviser and its affiliates may rely on their evaluation of the credit of the issuer or the credit of the liquidity or credit enhancement provider in determining whether to purchase or hold a security supported by such enhancement. In evaluating the credit of a foreign bank or other foreign entities, factors considered may include whether adequate public information about the entity is available and whether the entity may be subject to unfavorable political or economic developments, currency controls, or other government restrictions that might affect its ability to honor its commitment. Changes in the credit quality of the issuer and/or entity providing the enhancement could affect the value of the security or a fund's share price.
Sovereign Debt Obligations are issued or guaranteed by foreign governments or their agencies, including debt of Latin American nations or other developing countries. Sovereign debt may be in the form of conventional securities or other types of debt instruments such as loans or loan participations. Sovereign debt of developing countries may involve a high degree of risk, and may be in default or present the risk of default. Governmental entities responsible for repayment of the debt may be unable or unwilling to repay principal and pay interest when due, and may require renegotiation or rescheduling of debt payments. In addition, prospects for repayment of principal and payment of interest may depend on political as well as economic factors. Although some sovereign debt, such as Brady Bonds, is collateralized by U.S. Government securities, repayment of principal and payment of interest is not guaranteed by the U.S. Government.
Special Purpose Acquisition Companies ("SPACs"). A fund may invest in stock, warrants, and other securities of SPACs or similar special purpose entities that pool money to seek potential acquisition opportunities. SPACs are collective investment structures formed to raise money in an initial public offering for the purpose of merging with or acquiring one or more operating companies (the "de-SPAC Transaction"). Until an acquisition is completed, a SPAC generally invests its assets in US government securities, money market securities and cash. In connection with a de-SPAC Transaction, the SPAC may complete a PIPE (private investment in public equity) offering with certain investors. A fund may enter into a contingent commitment with a SPAC to purchase PIPE shares if and when the SPAC completes its de-SPAC Transaction.
Because SPACs do not have an operating history or ongoing business other than seeking acquisitions, the value of their securities is particularly dependent on the ability of the SPAC's management to identify and complete a profitable acquisition. Some SPACs may pursue acquisitions only within certain industries or regions, which may increase the volatility of their prices. An investment in a SPAC is subject to a variety of risks, including that (i) an attractive acquisition or merger target may not be identified at all and the SPAC will be required to return any remaining monies to shareholders; (ii) an acquisition or merger once effected may prove unsuccessful and an investment in the SPAC may lose value; (iii) the values of investments in SPACs may be highly volatile and may depreciate significantly over time; (iv) no or only a thinly traded market for shares of or interests in a SPAC may develop, leaving a fund unable to sell its interest in a SPAC or to sell its interest only at a price below what the fund believes is the SPAC interest's intrinsic value; (v) any proposed merger or acquisition may be unable to obtain the requisite approval, if any, of shareholders; (vi) an investment in a SPAC may be diluted by additional later offerings of interests in the SPAC or by other investors exercising existing rights to purchase shares of the SPAC; (vii) the warrants or other rights with respect to the SPAC held by a fund may expire worthless or may be repurchased or retired by the SPAC at an unfavorable price; (viii) a fund may be delayed in receiving any redemption or liquidation proceeds from a SPAC to which it is entitled; and (ix) a significant portion of the monies raised by the SPAC for the purpose of identifying and effecting an acquisition or merger may be expended during the search for a target transaction.
Purchased PIPE shares will be restricted from trading until the registration statement for the shares is declared effective. Upon registration, the shares can be freely sold, but only pursuant to an effective registration statement or other exemption from registration. The securities issued by a SPAC, which are typically traded either in the over-the-counter market or on an exchange, may be considered illiquid, more difficult to value, and/or be subject to restrictions on resale.
Structured Securities (also called "structured notes") are derivative debt securities, the interest rate on or principal of which is determined by an unrelated indicator. The value of the interest rate on and/or the principal of structured securities is determined by reference to changes in the value of a reference instrument (e.g., a security or other financial instrument, asset, currency, interest rate, commodity, or index) or the relative change in two or more reference instruments. A structured security may be positively, negatively, or both positively and negatively indexed; that is, its value or interest rate may increase or decrease if the value of the reference instrument increases. Similarly, its value or interest rate may increase or decrease if the value of the reference instrument decreases. Further, the change in the principal amount payable with respect to, or the interest rate of, a structured security may be calculated as a multiple of the percentage change (positive or negative) in the value of the underlying reference instrument(s); therefore, the value of such structured security may be very volatile. Structured securities may entail a greater degree of market risk than other types of debt securities because the investor bears the risk of the reference instrument. Structured securities may also be more volatile, less liquid, and more difficult to accurately price than less complex securities or more traditional debt securities. In addition, because structured securities generally are traded over-the-counter, structured securities are subject to the creditworthiness of the counterparty of the structured security, and their values may decline substantially if the counterparty's creditworthiness deteriorates.
Temporary Defensive Policies. In response to market, economic, political, or other conditions, a fund may temporarily use a different investment strategy for defensive purposes. If a fund does so, different factors could affect the fund's performance and the fund may not achieve its investment objective.
Strategic Advisers® Fidelity® International Fund reserves the right to invest without limitation in preferred stocks and investment-grade debt instruments for temporary, defensive purposes.
Transfer Agent Bank Accounts. Proceeds from shareholder purchases of a Fidelity ® fund may pass through a series of demand deposit bank accounts before being held at the fund's custodian. Redemption proceeds may pass from the custodian to the shareholder through a similar series of bank accounts.
If a bank account is registered to the transfer agent or an affiliate, who acts as an agent for the fund when opening, closing, and conducting business in the bank account, the transfer agent or an affiliate may invest overnight balances in the account in repurchase agreements. Any balances that are not invested in repurchase agreements remain in the bank account overnight. Any risks associated with such an account are investment risks of the fund. The fund faces the risk of loss of these balances if the bank becomes insolvent.
Warrants. Warrants are instruments which entitle the holder to buy an equity security at a specific price for a specific period of time. Changes in the value of a warrant do not necessarily correspond to changes in the value of its underlying security. The price of a warrant may be more volatile than the price of its underlying security, and a warrant may offer greater potential for capital appreciation as well as capital loss.
Warrants do not entitle a holder to dividends or voting rights with respect to the underlying security and do not represent any rights in the assets of the issuing company. A warrant ceases to have value if it is not exercised prior to its expiration date. These factors can make warrants more speculative than other types of investments.
Zero Coupon Bonds do not make interest payments; instead, they are sold at a discount from their face value and are redeemed at face value when they mature. Because zero coupon bonds do not pay current income, their prices can be more volatile than other types of fixed-income securities when interest rates change. In calculating a fund's dividend, a portion of the difference between a zero coupon bond's purchase price and its face value is considered income.
In addition to the investment policies and limitations discussed above, a fund is subject to the additional operational risk discussed below.
Considerations Regarding Cybersecurity. With the increased use of technologies such as the Internet to conduct business, a fund's service providers are susceptible to operational, information security and related risks. In general, cyber incidents can result from deliberate attacks or unintentional events and may arise from external or internal sources. Cyber attacks include, but are not limited to, gaining unauthorized access to digital systems (e.g., through "hacking" or malicious software coding) for purposes of misappropriating assets or sensitive information; corrupting data, equipment or systems; or causing operational disruption. Cyber attacks may also be carried out in a manner that does not require gaining unauthorized access, such as causing denial-of-service attacks on websites (i.e., efforts to make network services unavailable to intended users). Cyber incidents affecting a fund's manager, any sub-adviser and other service providers (including, but not limited to, fund accountants, custodians, transfer agents and financial intermediaries) have the ability to cause disruptions and impact business operations, potentially resulting in financial losses, interference with a fund's ability to calculate its NAV, impediments to trading, the inability of fund shareholders to transact business, destruction to equipment and systems, violations of applicable privacy and other laws, regulatory fines, penalties, reputational damage, reimbursement or other compensation costs, or additional compliance costs. Similar adverse consequences could result from cyber incidents affecting issuers of securities in which a fund invests, counterparties with which a fund engages in transactions, governmental and other regulatory authorities, exchange and other financial market operators, banks, brokers, dealers, insurance companies and other financial institutions (including financial intermediaries and service providers for fund shareholders) and other parties. In addition, substantial costs may be incurred in order to prevent any cyber incidents in the future.
While a fund's service providers have established business continuity plans in the event of, and risk management systems to prevent, such cyber incidents, there are inherent limitations in such plans and systems including the possibility that certain risks have not been identified. Furthermore, a fund cannot control the cyber security plans and systems put in place by its service providers or any other third parties whose operations may affect a fund or its shareholders. A fund and its shareholders could be negatively impacted as a result.
SPECIAL GEOGRAPHIC CONSIDERATIONS
Emerging Markets. Emerging markets include countries that have an emerging stock market as defined by MSCI, countries or markets with low- to middle-income economies as classified by the World Bank, and other countries or markets that the Adviser identifies as having similar emerging markets characteristics. Emerging markets tend to have relatively low gross national product per capita compared to the world's major economies and may have the potential for rapid economic growth.
Investments in companies domiciled in emerging market countries may be subject to potentially higher risks than investments in developed countries. These risks include less social, political, and economic stability and greater illiquidity and price volatility due to smaller or limited local capital markets for such securities, or low or non-existent trading volumes. Foreign exchanges and broker-dealers may be subject to less oversight and regulation by local authorities. Local governments may decide to seize or confiscate securities held by foreign investors, restrict an investor's ability to sell or redeem securities, suspend or limit an issuer's ability to make dividend or interest payments, and/or limit or entirely restrict repatriation of invested capital, profits, and dividends. Capital gains may be subject to local taxation, including on a retroactive basis. Issuers facing restrictions on dollar or euro payments imposed by local governments may attempt to make dividend or interest payments to foreign investors in the local currency. Investors may experience difficulty in enforcing legal claims related to the securities and shareholder claims common in the United States may not exist in emerging markets. Additionally, local judges may favor the interests of the issuer over those of foreign investors. U.S. authorities may be unable to investigate, bring, or enforce actions against non-U.S. companies and non-U.S. persons. Bankruptcy judgments may only be permitted to be paid in the local currency. Infrequent financial reporting, substandard disclosure, and differences in financial reporting, audit and accounting requirements and standards may make it difficult to ascertain the financial health of an issuer. Moreover, limited public information regarding an issuer may result in greater difficulty in determining market valuations of the securities.
In addition, unlike developed countries, many emerging countries' economic growth highly depends on exports and inflows of external capital, making them more vulnerable to the downturns of the world economy. The enduring low growth in the global economy has weakened the global demand for emerging market exports and tightened international credit supplies, highlighting the sensitivity of emerging economies to the performance of their trading partners. Developing countries may also face disproportionately large exposure to the negative effects of climate change, due to both geography and a lack of access to technology to adapt to its effects, which could include increased frequency and severity of natural disasters as well as extreme weather events such as droughts, rising sea levels, decreased crop yields, and increased spread of disease, all of which could harm performance of affected economies. Given the particular vulnerability of emerging market countries to the effects of climate change, disruptions in international efforts to address climate-related issues may have a disproportionate impact on developing countries.
Many emerging market countries suffer from uncertainty and corruption in their legal frameworks. Legislation may be difficult to interpret or laws may be too new to provide any precedential value. Laws regarding foreign investment and private property may be weak, not enforced consistently, or non-existent. Sudden changes in governments or the transition of regimes may result in policies that are less favorable to investors such as the imposition of price controls or policies designed to expropriate or nationalize "sovereign" assets. Certain emerging market countries in the past have expropriated large amounts of private property, in many cases with little or no compensation, and there can be no assurance that such expropriation will not occur in the future.
The United States, other nations, or other governmental entities (including supranational entities) could impose sanctions on a country that limits or restricts foreign investment, the movement of assets or other economic activity. In addition, an imposition of sanctions upon certain issuers in a country could have a materially adverse effect on the value of such companies' securities, delay a fund's ability to exercise certain rights as security holder, and/or impair a fund's ability to meet its investment objectives. A fund may be prohibited from investing in securities issued by companies subject to such sanctions and may be required to freeze its existing investments in those companies, prohibiting the fund from selling or otherwise transacting in these investments. Such sanctions, or other intergovernmental actions that may be taken in the future, may result in the devaluation of the country's currency, a downgrade in the country's credit rating, and/or a decline in the value and liquidity of impacted company stocks.
Many emerging market countries in which a fund may invest lack the social, political, and economic stability characteristic exhibited by developed countries. Political instability among emerging market countries can be common and may be caused by an uneven distribution of wealth, governmental corruption, social unrest, labor strikes, civil wars, and religious oppression. Economic instability in emerging market countries may take the form of: (i) high interest rates; (ii) high levels of inflation, including hyperinflation; (iii) high levels of unemployment or underemployment; (iv) changes in government economic and tax policies, including confiscatory taxation (or taxes on foreign investments); and (v) imposition of trade barriers.
Currencies of emerging market countries are subject to significantly greater risks than currencies of developed countries. Some emerging market currencies may not be internationally traded or may be subject to strict controls by local governments, resulting in undervalued or overvalued currencies. Some emerging market countries have experienced balance of payment deficits and shortages in foreign exchange reserves, which has resulted in some governments restricting currency conversions. Future restrictive exchange controls could prevent or restrict a company's ability to make dividend or interest payments in the original currency of the obligation (usually U.S. dollars). In addition, even though the currencies of some emerging market countries may be convertible into U.S. dollars, the conversion rates may be artificial relative to their actual market values.
Governments of many emerging market countries have become overly reliant on the international capital markets and other forms of foreign credit to finance large public spending programs that cause huge budget deficits. Often, interest payments have become too overwhelming for these governments to meet, as these payments may represent a large percentage of a country's total GDP. Accordingly, these foreign obligations have become the subject of political debate within emerging market countries, which has resulted in internal pressure for such governments to not make payments to foreign creditors, but instead to use these funds for social programs. As a result of either an inability to pay or submission to political pressure, the governments have sought to restructure their loan and/or bond obligations, have declared a temporary suspension of interest payments, or have defaulted (in part or full) on their outstanding debt obligations. These events have adversely affected the values of securities issued by the governments and corporations domiciled in these emerging market countries and have negatively affected not only their cost of borrowing but also their ability to borrow in the future. Emerging markets have also benefited from continued monetary policies adopted by the central banks of developed countries. Recently, however, the U.S. Federal Reserve and other countries' central banks have increased interest rates numerous times in response to global inflation. It is unclear whether interest rates will continue to rise in the future. These increases may have a disproportionately adverse effect on emerging market economies. 
In addition to their continued reliance on international capital markets, many emerging economies are also highly dependent on international trade and exports, including exports of oil and other commodities. As a result, these economies are particularly vulnerable to downturns of the world economy. In recent years, emerging market economies have been subject to tightened international credit supplies and weakened global demand for their exports and, as a result, certain of these economies faced significant difficulties and some economies face recessionary concerns. Over the last decade, emerging market countries, and companies domiciled in such countries, have acquired significant debt levels. Any additional increases in U.S. interest rates may further restrict the access to credit supplies and jeopardize the ability of emerging market countries to pay their respective debt service obligations. Although certain emerging market economies have shown signs of growth and recovery, continued growth is dependent on the uncertain economic outlook of China, Japan, the European Union, and the United States. The reduced demand for exports and lack of available capital for investment resulting from the European debt crisis, a slowdown in China, the continued effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, and persistent low growth in the global economy may inhibit growth for emerging market countries.
The COVID-19 pandemic has presented significant challenges to the economies of emerging markets, including, among others, rising inflation, food insecurity, subdued employment growth, and economic setback caused by supply chain disruption and the reduction in exports. Limited supplies of effective vaccination and medical resources have undermined the productive activities in emerging markets. The continually evolving variants of the COVID-19 virus have constantly challenged the existing containment strategy, causing significant human capital loss and social disturbances. The future direction of the pandemic is difficult to predict, and emerging markets are more likely to suffer more heavily from new developments in the virus due to their lack of sufficient access to medical resources.
All these economic setbacks have been exacerbated by the ongoing conflict in Ukraine stemming from Russia's invasion into the country in early 2022, which is causing higher global inflation and the significant rise in energy and food prices. These problems may worsen if the war escalates or spreads into neighboring countries or other regions.
Canada.  Canada is generally politically stable; its banking system is relatively robust and its financial market relatively transparent. Meanwhile, Canada is sensitive to commodity price changes. It is a major producer of commodities such as forest products, metals, agricultural products, and energy related products like oil, gas, and hydroelectricity. Accordingly, events affecting the supply and demand of base commodity resources and industrial and precious metals and materials, both domestically and internationally, can have a significant effect on Canadian market performance.
The United States is Canada's largest trading partner and developments in economic policy and U.S. market conditions have a significant impact on the Canadian economy. The economic and financial integration of the United States, Canada, and Mexico through the United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA) may make the Canadian economy and securities market more sensitive to North American trade patterns. Any disruption in the continued operation of USMCA may have a significant and adverse impact on Canada's economic outlook and the value of a fund's investments in Canada. 
Growth has continued to slow in recent years for certain sectors of the Canadian economy, particularly energy extraction and manufacturing. Forecasts on growth remain modest. Oil prices have fluctuated greatly over time and the enduring volatility in the strength of the Canadian dollar may also negatively impact Canada's ability to export, which could limit Canada's economic growth. The global pandemic and the conflict in Ukraine continue to negatively impact the world economy including the Canadian market. 
Europe. The European Union (EU) is an intergovernmental and supranational union of European countries spanning the continent, each known as a member state. One of the key activities of the EU is the establishment and administration of a common single market consisting of, among other things, a common trade policy. In order to further the integration of the economies of member states, member states established, among other things, the European Economic and Monetary Union (EMU), a collection of policies that set out different stages and commitments that member states need to follow to achieve greater economic policy coordination and monetary cooperation, including the adoption of a single currency, the euro. While all EU member states participate in the economic union, only certain EU member states have adopted the euro as their currency. When a member state adopts the euro as its currency, the member state no longer controls its own monetary policies. Instead, the authority to direct monetary policy is exercised by the European Central Bank (ECB). 
While economic and monetary convergence in the EU may offer opportunities for those investing in the region, investors should be aware that the success of the EU is not wholly assured. European countries can be significantly affected by the tight fiscal and monetary controls that the EU governing institutions may impose on its members or with which candidates for EMU membership are required to comply. Europe must grapple with a number of challenges, any one of which could threaten the sustained economic growth, regulatory efficiency, or political survival of the political and economic union. Countries adopting the euro must adjust to a unified monetary system which has resulted in the loss of exchange rate flexibility and, to some degree, the loss of economic sovereignty. Europe's economies are diverse, governance is decentralized, and its cultures differ widely. Unemployment in some European countries has historically been higher than in the United States, and a number of countries continue to face abnormally high unemployment levels, particularly for younger workers, which could pose a political risk. Many EU nations are susceptible to the economic risks associated with high levels of debt. The EU continues to face major issues involving its membership, structure, procedures and policies, including the successful political, economic and social integration of new member states, the EU's resettlement and distribution of refugees, and the resolution of the EU's problematic fiscal and democratic accountability. Efforts of the member states to continue to unify their economic and monetary policies may increase the potential for similarities in the movements of European markets and reduce the benefit of diversification within the region. 
Political. From the 2000s through the early 2010s, the EU extended its membership to Eastern European countries. It has accepted several Eastern European countries as new members and has engaged with several other countries regarding future enlargement. Membership for these states is intended to, among other things, cement economic and political stability across the region. For these countries, membership serves as a strong political impetus to engage in regulatory and political reforms and to employ tight fiscal and monetary policies. Nevertheless, certain new member states, particularly former satellites of the former Soviet Union, remain burdened to various extents by certain infrastructural, bureaucratic, and business inefficiencies inherited from their history of economic central planning. Further expansion of the EU has long-term economic benefits for both member states and potential expansion candidates. However, certain European countries are not viewed as currently suitable for membership, especially countries further east with less developed economies. The current and future status of the EU therefore continues to be the subject of political controversy, with widely differing views both within and between member states. The growth of nationalist and populist parties in both national legislatures and the European Parliament may further threaten enlargement as well as impede both national and supranational governance. 
An increasingly assertive Russia poses its own set of risks for the EU, as evidenced by the Russian invasion of Ukraine in February 2022 and the ongoing Russia-Ukraine conflict. Opposition to EU expansion to members of the former Soviet bloc may prompt more intervention by Russia in the affairs of its neighbors. This interventionist stance may carry various negative consequences, including direct effects, such as export restrictions on Russia's natural resources, Russian support for separatist groups or pro-Russian parties located in EU countries, Russian interference in the internal political affairs of current or potential EU members or of the EU itself, externalities of ongoing conflict, such as an influx of refugees from Ukraine and Syria, or collateral damage to foreign assets in conflict zones, all of which could negatively impact EU economic activity.
It is possible that, as wealth and income inequality grow both within and between individual member states, socioeconomic and political tensions may be exacerbated. The potential direct and indirect consequences of this growing gap may be substantial. 
The transition to a more unified economic system also brings uncertainty. Significant political decisions will be made that may affect market regulation, subsidization, and privatization across all industries, from agricultural products to telecommunications, that may have unpredictable effects on member states and companies within those states. 
The influx of migrants and refugees seeking resettlement in the EU as a result of ongoing conflicts around the world also poses certain risks to the EU. Additionally, the conflict in Ukraine has caused significant humanitarian and economic concerns for Europe. A protracted conflict would increase the number of refugees coming into Europe, cause increase in commodity prices and supply-chain disruptions, add pressure to inflation, and deepen output losses. Furthermore, there is the risk that the conflict in Ukraine may spread to other areas of Europe. All of these would adversely impact a fund's investment in Europe.
 The COVID-19 pandemic has served to exacerbate need in unstable regions, leading to increased numbers of refugees. Resettlement itself may be costly for individual member states, particularly those border countries on the periphery of the EU where migrants first enter. In addition, pressing questions over accepting, processing and distributing migrants have been a significant source of intergovernmental disagreements and could pose significant dangers to the integrity of the EU.
Economic. As economic conditions across member states may vary widely, there is continued concern about national-level support for the euro and the accompanying coordination of fiscal and wage policy among EMU member states. Member states must maintain tight control over inflation, public debt, and budget deficits in order to qualify for participation in the euro. These requirements severely limit EMU member states' ability to implement fiscal policy to address regional economic conditions. Moreover, member states that use the euro cannot devalue their currencies in the face of economic downturn, precluding them from stoking inflation to reduce their real debt burden and potentially rendering their exports less competitive. 
The United Kingdom (UK) left the European Union (EU) on January 31, 2020 under the terms of a negotiated departure deal. A transition period, which kept most pre-departure arrangements in place, ended on December 31, 2020, and the UK entered into a new trading relationship with the EU under the terms of the EU-UK Trade and Cooperation Agreement (TCA) which reflected the long-term, post-transition landscape. Further discussions are to be held between the UK and the EU in relation to matters not covered by the trade agreement, such as financial services. Notwithstanding the TCA, significant uncertainty remains in the market regarding the ramifications of the United Kingdom's withdrawal from the European Union. Significant economic and regulatory uncertainty caused by the UK's exit from the EU has resulted in volatile markets for the UK and broader international financial markets. While the long-term effects of Brexit remain unclear, in the short term, financial markets may experience, among other things, greater volatility and/or illiquidity, currency fluctuations, and a decline in cross-border investment between the UK and the EU. The effects of Brexit are also being shaped by new trade deals that the UK is negotiating with several other countries, including the United States. Brexit could lead to legal and tax uncertainty and potentially divergent national laws and regulations as the UK determines which EU laws to replicate or replace. The impact of Brexit, and these new trade agreements, on the UK and in global markets as well as any associated adverse consequences remains unclear, and the uncertainty may have a significant negative effect on the value of a fund's investments. In addition to managing the effects of Brexit, the United Kingdom is currently grappling with financial crises. Uncertainty regarding the UK government's economic and financial policies may have a negative effect on investors and the impact of these crises may have a significant adverse effect on the value of a fund's investments. 
The global financial crisis of 2008-2009 brought several small countries in Europe to the brink of sovereign default. Many other economies fell into recession, decreasing tax receipts and widening budget deficits. In response, many countries of Europe have implemented fiscal austerity, decreasing discretionary spending in an attempt to decrease their budget deficits. However, many European governments continue to face high levels of public debt and substantial budget deficits, some with shrinking government expenditures, which hinder economic growth in the region and may still threaten the continued viability of the EMU. Due to these large public deficits, some European issuers may continue to have difficulty accessing capital and may be dependent on emergency assistance from European governments and institutions to avoid defaulting on their outstanding debt obligations. The availability of such assistance, however, may be contingent on an issuer's implementation of certain reforms or reaching a required level of performance, which may increase the possibility of default. Such prospects could inject significant volatility into European markets, which may reduce the liquidity or value of a fund's investments in the region. Likewise, the high levels of public debt raise the possibility that certain European issuers may be forced to restructure their debt obligations, which could cause a fund to lose the value of its investments in any such issuer. 
The legacy of the global financial crisis of 2008-2009, the European sovereign debt crisis, and the ongoing recession in parts of Europe have left the banking and financial sectors of many European countries weakened and, in some cases, fragile. Many institutions remain saddled with high default rates on loans, still hold assets of indeterminate value, and have been forced to maintain higher capital reserves under new regulations. This has led to decreased returns from finance and banking directly and has constricted the sector's ability to lend, thus potentially reducing future returns and constricting economic growth. The ECB has sought to spur economic growth and ward off deflation by engaging in quantitative easing, lowering the ECB's benchmark rate into negative territory, and opening a liquidity channel to encourage bank lending. Most recently, in September 2019, the ECB announced a new bond-buying program and changed its targeted long-term refinancing rate to provide more favorable bank lending conditions. In response to the economic consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic, the ECB significantly increased bond purchases, and only began slowing their purchasing strategy in September 2021.  
Ongoing regulatory uncertainty could have a negative effect on the value of a fund's investments in the region. Governments across the EMU are facing increasing opposition to certain measures taken in response to the recent economic crises. In light of such uncertainty, the risk that certain member states will abandon the euro persists and any such occurrence would likely have wide-ranging effects on global markets that are difficult to predict. These effects, however, would likely have a negative impact on a fund's investments in the region. 
Although some European economies have begun to show more sustained economic growth, the ongoing debt crisis, political and regulatory responses to the financial crisis, the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, and uncertainty over the future of the EMU and the EU itself may continue to limit short-term growth and economic recovery in the region. Some countries have experienced prolonged stagnation or returns to recession, raising the possibility that other European economies could follow suit. Economic challenges facing the region include high levels of public debt, significant rates of unemployment, aging populations, heavy regulation of non-financial businesses, persistent trade deficits, rigid labor markets, and inability to access credit. Although certain of these challenges may weigh more heavily on some European economies than others, the economic integration of the region increases the likelihood that an economic downturn in one country may spread to others. Should Europe fall into another recession, the value of a fund's investments in the region may be affected. 
Currency. Investing in euro-denominated securities (or securities denominated in other European currencies) entails risk of being exposed to a currency that may not fully reflect the strengths and weaknesses of the disparate European economies. In addition, many European countries rely heavily upon export-dependent businesses and significant change in the exchange rate between the euro and the U.S. dollar can have either a positive or a negative effect upon corporate profits and the performance of EU investments. If one or more countries abandon the use of the euro as a currency, the value of investments tied to those countries or to the euro could decline significantly. In addition, foreign exchange markets have recently experienced sustained periods of high volatility, subjecting a fund's foreign investments to additional risks.
Nordic Countries. The Nordic countries - Iceland, Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden - relate to European integration in different ways. Norway and Iceland are outside the EU, although they are members of the European Economic Area. Denmark, Finland, and Sweden are EU members, but only Finland has adopted the euro as its currency, whereas Denmark has pegged its currency to the euro. Generally, Nordic countries have strong business environments, highly educated workforces, and relatively stable financial markets and political systems. Faced with stronger global competition in recent years, however, some Nordic countries have had to scale down their historically generous welfare programs, resulting in drops in domestic demand and increased unemployment. Economic growth in many Nordic countries continues to be constrained by tight labor markets and adverse European and global economic conditions, particularly the volatility in global commodity demand. The Nordic countries' manufacturing sector has experienced continued contraction due to outsourcing and flagging demand, spurring increasing unemployment. Furthermore, the protracted recovery due to the ongoing European debt crisis and persistent low growth in the global economy may limit the growth prospects of the Nordic economies. The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and the conflict in Ukraine continue to pose economic risks to Nordic countries.
Eastern Europe. Investing in the securities of Eastern European issuers may be highly speculative and involves risks not usually associated with investing in the more developed markets of Western Europe. Eastern European countries have different levels of political and economic stability. Some countries have more integrated economies and relatively robust banking and financial sectors while other countries continue to be burdened by regional, political, and military conflicts. In many countries in Eastern Europe, political and economic reforms are too recent to establish a definite trend away from centrally planned economies and state-owned industries. Investments in Eastern European countries may involve risks of nationalization, expropriation, and confiscatory taxation. The ongoing conflict in Ukraine poses great risk to Eastern European countries' economic stability and the continued effects of the COVID-19 pandemic have an adverse impact on the overall region.
Eastern European countries continue to move towards market economies at different paces with varying characteristics. Many Eastern European markets suffer from thin trading activity, dubious investor protections, and often a lack of reliable corporate information. Information and transaction costs, differential taxes, and sometimes political, regulatory, or transfer risk may give a comparative advantage to the domestic investor rather than the foreign investor. In addition, these markets are particularly sensitive to social, political, economic, and currency events in Western Europe and Russia and may suffer heavy losses as a result of their trading and investment links to these economies and their currencies. In particular, the disruption to the Russian economy as a result of sanctions imposed by the United States and EU in connection with Russia's invasion of Ukraine may hurt Eastern European economies with close trade links to Russia. Russia may also attempt to directly assert its influence in the region through coercive use of its economic, military, and natural resources. 
In some of the countries of Eastern Europe, there is no stock exchange or formal market for securities. Such countries may also have government exchange controls, currencies with no recognizable market value relative to the established currencies of Western market economies, little or no experience in trading in securities, weak or nonexistent accounting or financial reporting standards, a lack of banking and securities infrastructure to handle such trading and a legal tradition without strongly defined property rights. Due to the value of trade and investment between Western Europe and Eastern Europe, credit and debt issues and other economic difficulties affecting Western Europe and its financial institutions can negatively affect Eastern European countries.
Eastern European economies may also be particularly susceptible to the volatility of the international credit market due to their reliance on bank related inflows of foreign capital. Although many Eastern European economies have experienced modest growth for several periods due, in part, to external demand, tighter labor markets, and the attraction of foreign investment, major challenges persist as a result of their continued dependence on Western European countries for credit and trade. Accordingly, the European crisis may present serious risks for Eastern European economies, which may have a negative effect on a fund's investments in the region. 
Several Eastern European countries on the periphery of the EU have recently been the destination for a surge of refugees and migrants fleeing global conflict zones, particularly the civil wars in Syria and Afghanistan, the economic hardship across Africa and the developing world, and the Russia-Ukraine conflict. While these countries have borne many of the direct costs of managing the flow of refugees and migrants seeking resettlement in Europe, they have also faced significant international criticism over their treatment of migrants and refugees which may affect foreign investor confidence in the attractiveness of such markets. 
Japan. Japan continues to recover from recurring recessionary forces that have negatively impacted Japan's economic growth over the last decade. Japan's economic strengths-low public external debt, relatively consistent currency, and highly innovative industries-have helped combat these recurring recessionary forces. Despite signs of economic growth in recent years, Japan is still vulnerable to persistent underlying systemic risks, including massive government debt, an aging and shrinking of the population, an uncertain financial sector, low domestic consumption, and certain corporate structural weaknesses. Furthermore, Japan's economic growth rate could be impacted by the Bank of Japan's monetary policies, rising interest rates and global inflation, tax increases, budget deficits, and volatility in the Japanese yen.
Overseas trade is important to Japan's economy and its economic growth is significantly driven by its exports. Meanwhile, Japan's aging and shrinking population increases the cost of the country's pension and public welfare system and lowers domestic demand, making Japan more dependent on exports to sustain its economy. Therefore, any developments that negatively affect Japan's exports could present risks to a fund's investments in Japan. For example, domestic or foreign trade sanctions or other protectionist measures could harm Japan's economy. In addition, currency fluctuations may also significantly affect Japan's economy, as a stronger yen would negatively impact Japan's ability to export. Likewise, any escalation of tensions in the region, including disruptions caused by political tensions with North Korea or territorial disputes with Japan's major trading partners, may adversely impact Japan's economic outlook. In particular, Japan is heavily dependent on oil imports, and higher commodity prices could have a negative impact on its economy. Japan is also particularly susceptible to the effects of declining growth rates in China, Japan's largest export market. Given that China is a large importer of Japanese goods and is a significant source of global economic growth, a continued Chinese slowdown may negatively impact Japanese economic growth both directly and indirectly. Moreover, the animosity between Japan and other Asian countries, such as China and Korea, may affect the trading relations between these countries. China's territorial ambition over Taiwan may negatively impact Japan's relationship with China given Japan's historical and economic interests in Taiwan. Similarly, the European debt crisis, the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, and persistent low growth in the global economy could present additional risks to a fund's investments in Japan. 
Japan's economic recovery has been affected by stress resulting from a number of natural disasters, including disasters that caused damage to nuclear power plants in the region, which have introduced volatility into Japan's financial markets. In response to these events, the government has injected capital into the economy and reconstruction efforts in disaster-affected areas in order to stimulate economic growth. The risks of natural disasters of varying degrees, such as earthquakes and tsunamis, continue to persist. The full extent of the impact of recurring natural disasters on Japan's economy and foreign investment in Japan is difficult to estimate. 
Although Japanese banks are stable, maintaining large capital bases, they continue to face difficulties generating profits. In recent years, Japan has employed a program of monetary loosening, fiscal stimulus, and growth-oriented structural reform, which has generated limited success in raising growth rates. Although Japan's central bank has continued its quantitative easing program, there is no guarantee such efforts will be sufficient or that additional stimulus policies will not be necessary in the future. Furthermore, the long-term potential of this strategy remains uncertain, as the first of two planned increases in Japan's consumption tax resulted in a decline in consumption and the effect of the second increase remains to be seen. While Japan has historically kept inflation in the country relatively low, global economic challenges such as rising inflation and commodity shortages, worsened by the ongoing effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and the conflict in Ukraine, may have a negative impact on Japan's economy.
Asia Pacific Region (ex Japan). While the Asia Pacific region has substantial potential for economic growth, many countries in the region have historically faced political uncertainty, corruption, military intervention, and social unrest. Examples include military threats on the Korean peninsula and along the Taiwan Strait, the ethnic, sectarian, extremist, and/or separatist violence found in Indonesia and the Philippines, and the nuclear arms threats between India and Pakistan. To the extent that such events continue in the future, they can be expected to have a negative effect on economic and securities market conditions in the region. In addition to the regional military threats and conflicts, the effects of the conflict in Ukraine may adversely impact the economies of countries in the region. The recent global supply chain disruptions and rising inflation have stressed the economies of countries in the region that rely substantially on international trade. In addition, the Asia Pacific geographic region has historically been prone to natural disasters. The occurrence of a natural disaster in the region could negatively impact any country's economy in the region. Natural disasters may become more frequent and severe as a result of global climate change. Given the particular vulnerability of the region to the effects of climate change, disruptions in international efforts to address climate-related issues may have a disproportionate impact on a fund's investments in the region. 
Economic. The economies of many countries in the region are heavily dependent on international trade and are accordingly affected by protective trade barriers and the economic conditions of their trading partners, principally, the United States, Japan, China, and the European Union. The countries in this region are also heavily dependent on exports and are thus particularly vulnerable to any weakening in global demand for these products. Many countries in the region are economically reliant on a wide range of commodity exports. Consequently, countries in this region have been adversely affected by the persistent volatility in global commodity prices and are particularly susceptible to declines in growth rates in China. The Australian and New Zealand economies are also heavily dependent on the economies of China and other Asian countries. Countries in this region have experienced high debt levels, an issue that is being compounded by weakened local currencies. Although the economies of many countries in the region have exhibited signs of growth, such improvements, if sustained, may be gradual. Significantly, the Australian economy has declined in recent years and, in 2019, the Reserve Bank of Australia cut interest rates to an all-time low in response to a reduction in consumption brought on, in part, by a downturn in the property market and rising levels in unemployment. The Reserve Bank of Australia cut rates further in response to the economic effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. However, rising global inflation in 2022 forced the Reserve Bank to raise interest rates to combat the effects of the tightening of monetary policies in most countries, Russia's invasion of Ukraine, and the COVID-19 containment measures and other policy challenges in China. Furthermore, any future growth experienced in the region may be limited or hindered by the reduced demand for exports due to a continued economic slowdown in China, which could significantly lower demand for the natural resources many Asia Pacific economies export. Since China has been such a major source of demand for raw materials and a supplier of foreign direct investment to exporting economies, the slowdown of the Chinese economy could significantly affect regional growth. In addition, the trading relationship between China and several Asia Pacific countries has been strained by the geopolitical conflict created by competing territorial claims in the South China Sea, which has created diplomatic tension in the region that may adversely impact the economies of the affected countries. Regional growth may also be limited by the lack of available capital for investment resulting from the European debt crisis and by persistent low growth in the global economy, as well as increases in interest rates and the tapering of other monetary policies adopted by the central banks of developed countries. 
The Republic of Korea (South Korea) . Investing in South Korea involves risks not typically associated with investing in the U.S. securities markets. Investments in South Korea are, in part, dependent on the maintenance of peaceful relations with North Korea, on both a bilateral and global basis. Relations between the two countries remain tense, as exemplified in periodic acts of hostility, and the possibility of serious military engagement still exists. Any escalation in hostility, initiation of military conflict, or collateral consequences of internal instability within North Korea would likely cause a substantial disruption in South Korea's economy, as well as in the region overall. 
South Korea has one of the more advanced economies and established democratic political systems in the Asia-Pacific region with a relatively sound financial sector and solid external position. South Korea's economic reliance on international trade, however, makes it highly sensitive to fluctuations in international commodity prices, currency exchange rates and government regulation, and makes it vulnerable to downturns of the world economy. South Korea has experienced modest economic growth in recent years. Such continued growth may slow, in part, due to a continued economic slowdown in China. South Korea is particularly sensitive to the economic volatility of its four largest export markets (the European Union, Japan, United States, and China), which all face varying degrees of economic uncertainty, including persistent low growth rates. The economic weakness of South Korea's most important trading partners could stifle demand for South Korean exports and damage its own economic growth outlook. Notably, given that China is both a large importer of South Korean goods and a significant source of global demand, a continued Chinese slowdown may, directly or indirectly, negatively impact South Korean economic growth. The South Korean economy's long-term challenges include a rapidly aging population, inflexible labor market, dominance of large conglomerates, and overdependence on exports to drive economic growth. 
China Region. The China Region encompasses the People's Republic of China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong. The region is highly interconnected and interdependent, with relationships and tensions built on trade, finance, culture, and politics. The economic success of China will continue to have an outsized influence on the growth and prosperity of both Taiwan and Hong Kong. 
Although the People's Republic of China has experienced three decades of unprecedented growth, it now faces a slowing economy that is due, in part, to China's effort to shift away from an export-driven economy. Other contributing factors to the slowdown include lower-than-expected industrial output growth, reductions in consumer spending, a decline in the real estate market, which many observers believed to be inflated, and most recently, the COVID-19 pandemic and China's containment strategy. Further, local governments, which had borrowed heavily to bolster growth, face high debt burdens and limited revenue sources. Demand for Chinese exports by Western countries, including the United States and Europe, may diminish because of weakened economic growth in those countries, resulting from the European debt crisis and persistent low growth in the global economy. Additionally, Chinese land reclamation projects, actions to lay claim to disputed islands, and China's attempt to assert territorial claims in the South China Sea have caused strains in China's relationship with various regional trading partners and could cause further disruption to regional trade. In the long term, China's ability to develop and sustain a credible legal, regulatory, monetary, and socioeconomic system could influence the course of foreign investment in China. 
Hong Kong is closely tied to China, economically and politically, following the United Kingdom's 1997 handover of the former colony to China to be governed as a Special Administrative Region. Changes to Hong Kong's legal, financial, and monetary system could negatively impact its economic prospects. Hong Kong's evolving relationship with the central government in Beijing has been a source of political unrest and may result in economic disruption. 
Although many Taiwanese companies heavily invest in China, a state of hostility continues to exist between China and Taiwan. Taiwan's political stability and ability to sustain its economic growth could be significantly affected by its political and economic relationship with China. Although economic and political relations have both improved, Taiwan remains vulnerable to both Chinese territorial ambitions and economic downturns. 
In addition to the risks inherent in investing in the emerging markets, the risks of investing in China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan merit special consideration. 
People's Republic of China. China's economy has transitioned from a rigidly central-planned state-run economy to one that has been only partially reformed by more market-oriented policies. Although the Chinese government has implemented economic reform measures, reduced state ownership of companies and established better corporate governance practices, a substantial portion of productive assets in China are still owned or controlled by the Chinese government. The government continues to exercise significant control over the regulation of industrial development and, ultimately, over China's economic growth, both through direct involvement in the market through state owned enterprises, and indirectly by allocating resources, controlling access to credit, controlling payment of foreign currency-denominated obligations, setting monetary policy and providing preferential treatment to particular industries or companies. China's continued hold on its economy, coupled with a legal system less consistent and less comprehensive than developed markets, poses a risk to foreign investors.
After many years of steady growth, the growth rate of China's economy has declined relative to prior years. Although this slowdown may have been influenced by the government's desire to stop certain sectors from overheating, and to shift the economy from one based on low-cost export manufacturing to a model driven more by domestic consumption, it holds significant economic, social and political risks. For one, the real estate market, once rapidly growing in major cities, has slowed down and may prompt government intervention to prevent collapse. Additionally, local government debt is still very high, and local governments have few viable means to raise revenue, especially with continued declines in demand for housing. Moreover, although China has tried to restructure its economy towards consumption, it remains heavily dependent on exports and is, therefore, susceptible to downturns abroad which may weaken demand for its exports and reduce foreign investments in the country. The reduction in spending on Chinese products and services, the institution of tariffs or other trade barriers, or a downturn in any of the economies of China's key trading partners may have an adverse impact on the securities of Chinese issuers. In particular, the economy faces the prospect of prolonged weakness in demand for Chinese exports as its major trading partners, such as the United States, Japan, and Europe, continue to experience economic uncertainty stemming from the European debt crisis, the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, and persistent low growth in the global economy, among other things. After a period of intensified concerns about trade tariffs and the continued escalation of the trade war between China and the United States, the two countries reached a trade agreement in January 2020. If the countries reinstitute tariffs, it may trigger a significant reduction in international trade, the oversupply of certain manufactured goods, substantial price reductions of goods and possible failure of individual companies and/or large segments of China's export industry with a potentially negative impact to a fund. These kinds of events and their consequences are difficult to foresee, and it is unclear whether future tariffs may be imposed or other escalating actions may be taken in the future. Over the long term, China's aging infrastructure, worsening environmental conditions, rapid and inequitable urbanization, and quickly widening urban and rural income gap, which all carry political and economic implications, are among the country's major challenges. China also faces problems of domestic unrest and provincial separatism. Additionally, the Chinese economy may be adversely affected by diplomatic developments, the imposition of economic sanctions, changes in international trading patterns, trade barriers, and other protectionist or retaliatory measures. 
Chinese territorial claims are another source of tension and present risks to diplomatic and trade relations with certain of China's regional trade partners. Actions by the Chinese government, such as its land reclamation projects, assertion of territorial claims in the South China Sea, and the establishment of an Air Defense Identification Zone over disputed islands, raise the fear of both accidental military conflict and that Chinese territorial claims may result in international reprisal. Such a reprisal may reduce international demand for Chinese goods and services or cause a decline in foreign direct investment, both of which could have a negative effect on a fund's investments in the securities of Chinese issuers. 
As with all transition economies, China's ability to develop and sustain a credible legal, regulatory, monetary, and socioeconomic system could influence the course of outside investment. The Chinese legal system, in particular, constitutes a significant risk factor for investors. Since the late 1970s, Chinese legislative bodies have promulgated laws and regulations dealing with various economic matters such as foreign investment, corporate organization and governance, commerce, taxation, and trade. Despite the expanding body of law in China, however, legal precedent and published court decisions based on these laws are limited and non-binding. The interpretation and enforcement of these laws and regulations are uncertain, and investments in China may not be subject to the same degree of legal protection as in other developed countries. 
China continues to limit direct foreign investments generally in industries deemed important to national interests. Foreign investment in domestic securities is also subject to substantial restrictions, although Chinese regulators have begun to introduce new programs through which foreign investors can gain direct access to certain Chinese securities markets. For instance, Chinese regulators have implemented a program that will permit direct foreign investment in permissible products (which include cash bonds) traded on the China inter-bank bond market (CIBM) in compliance with the relevant rules established by applicable Chinese regulators. While CIBM is relatively large and trading volumes are generally high, the market remains subject to similar risks as fixed income securities markets in other developing countries. As foreign investment access to CIBM is relatively new and its rules may be materially amended as the program continues to develop, it is uncertain how this program will impact economic growth within China. 
Securities listed on China's two main stock exchanges are divided into two classes. One of the two classes is limited to domestic investors (and a small group of qualified international investors), while the other is available to both international and domestic investors (A-shares). Although the Chinese government has announced plans to merge the two markets, it is uncertain whether, and to what extent, such a merger will take place. The existing bifurcated system raises liquidity and stability concerns. 
Investments in securities listed and traded through the Shanghai-Hong Kong Stock Connect and Shenzhen-Hong Kong Stock Connect programs (Stock Connect Programs) involve unique risks. The Stock Connect Programs are relatively new and there is no guarantee that they will continue. Trading through Stock Connect Programs is subject to daily quotas limiting the maximum daily net purchases as well as daily limits on permitted price fluctuations. Trading suspensions are more likely in these markets than in many other global equity markets. There can be no assurance that a liquid market on an exchange will exist. In addition, investments made through Stock Connect Programs are subject to comparatively untested trading, clearance and settlement procedures. Stock Connect Programs are available only on days when markets in both China and Hong Kong are open. A fund's ownership interest in securities traded through the Stock Connect Programs will not be reflected directly, and thus a fund may have to rely on the ability or willingness of a third party to enforce its rights. Investments in Stock Connect Program A-shares are generally subject to Chinese securities regulations and listing rules, among other restrictions. Hong Kong investor compensation funds, which protect against trade defaults, are unavailable when investing through Stock Connect Programs. Uncertainties in Chinese tax rules could also result in unexpected tax liabilities for the fund. 
Currency fluctuations could significantly affect China and its trading partners. China continues to exercise control over the value of its currency, rather than allowing the value of the currency to be determined by market forces. This type of currency regime may experience sudden and significant currency adjustments, which may adversely impact investment returns. One such currency adjustment occurred in 2015, in which China purposefully devalued the yuan in an effort to bolster economic growth. More recently, however, the government has taken steps to internationalize its currency. This policy change is driven, in part, by the government's desire for the yuan's continued inclusion in the basket of currencies that comprise the International Monetary Fund's (IMF) Special Drawing Rights. 
Chinese companies, particularly those located in China, may be smaller and less seasoned. China may lack, or have different, accounting and financial reporting standards, which may result in the unavailability of material information about Chinese issuers. Moreover, the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (PCAOB) has warned that it lacks the ability to inspect audit work and practices of PCAOB-registered auditing firms within China. The Chinese government has taken positions that prevent PCAOB from inspecting the audit work and practices of accounting firms in mainland China and Hong Kong for compliance with U.S. law and professional standards. As such, under amendments to the Sarbanes-Oxley Act enacted in December 2020, which requires that the PCAOB be permitted to inspect the accounting firm of a U.S.-listed Chinese issuer, Chinese companies with securities listed on U.S. exchanges may be delisted if the PCAOB is unable to inspect the accounting firm. PCAOB's limited ability to oversee the operations of auditing firms within China may result in inaccurate or incomplete financial records of an issuer's operations within China, which may negatively impact a fund's investments in such companies.  
Additionally, China's stock market has experienced tumult and high volatility, which has prompted the Chinese government to implement several policies and restrictions with regards to the securities market. While China may take actions aimed at maintaining growth and stability in the stock market, investors in Chinese securities may be negatively affected by, among other things, disruptions in the ability to sell securities to comply with investment objectives or when most advantageous given market conditions. It is not clear what the long-term effect of such policies would be on the securities market in China or whether additional actions by the government will occur in the future. 
Hong Kong. In 1997, the United Kingdom handed over control of Hong Kong to the People's Republic of China. Since that time, Hong Kong has been governed by a quasi-constitution known as the Basic Law, while defense and foreign affairs are the responsibility of the central government in Beijing. The chief executive of Hong Kong is appointed by the Chinese government. Hong Kong, however, is able to participate in international organizations and agreements and continues to function as an international financial center, with no exchange controls, free convertibility of the Hong Kong dollar and free inward and outward movement of capital. The Basic Law also guarantees existing freedoms, including the freedom of speech, assembly, press, and religion, as well as the right to strike and travel. Business ownership, private property, the right of inheritance and foreign investment are also protected by law.
By treaty, China has committed to preserve Hong Kong's high degree of autonomy in certain matters until 2047. Despite this treaty, political uncertainty continues to exist within Hong Kong, as demonstrated by Hong Kong protests in recent years over political, economic, and legal freedoms, and the Chinese government's response to them. For example, in June 2020, China adopted the Law of the PRC on Safeguarding National Security, which severely limits freedom of speech in Hong Kong and expands police powers to seize electronic devices and intercept communications of suspects. Widespread protests were held in Hong Kong in response to the new law, and the United States imposed sanctions on 11 Hong Kong officials for cracking down on pro-democracy protests. Pro-democracy protests, which have become increasingly violent over time, continued into 2021, although the Hong Kong government's crackdown and the COVID-19 pandemic have contributed to the reduction of large-scale protests. There is no guarantee, however, that additional protests will not arise in the future, and it is uncertain whether the United States will respond to such protests with additional sanctions.
Hong Kong has experienced strong economic growth in recent years in part due to its close ties with China and a strong service sector, but Hong Kong still faces concerns over overheating in certain sectors of its economy, such as its real estate market, which could limit Hong Kong's future growth. In addition, due to Hong Kong's heavy reliance on international trade and global financial markets, Hong Kong remains exposed to significant risks as a result of the European debt crisis and persistent low growth in the global economy. Likewise, due to Hong Kong's close political and economic ties with China, a continued economic slowdown on the mainland could continue to have a negative impact on Hong Kong's economy. 
Taiwan. For decades, a state of hostility has existed between Taiwan and the People's Republic of China. China has long deemed Taiwan a part of the "one China" and has made a nationalist cause of reuniting Taiwan with mainland China. In the past, China has staged frequent military provocations off the coast of Taiwan and made threats of full-scale military action. Tensions have lowered, however, exemplified by improved relations, including the first official contacts between the governments' leaders of China and Taiwan in 2015. Despite closer relations in recent years, the relationship with China remains a divisive political issue within Taiwan. Foreign trade has been the engine of rapid growth in Taiwan and has transformed the island into one of Asia's great exporting nations. As an export-oriented economy, Taiwan depends on a free-trade trade regime and remains vulnerable to downturns in the world economy. Taiwanese companies continue to compete mostly on price, producing generic products or branded merchandise on behalf of multinational companies. Accordingly, these businesses can be particularly vulnerable to currency volatility and increasing competition from neighboring lower-cost countries. Moreover, many Taiwanese companies are heavily invested in mainland China and other countries throughout Southeast Asia, making them susceptible to political events and economic crises in the region. Significantly, Taiwan and China have entered into agreements covering banking, securities, and insurance. Closer economic links with mainland China may bring greater opportunities for the Taiwanese economy but such arrangements also pose new challenges. For example, foreign direct investment in China has resulted in Chinese import substitution away from Taiwan's exports and a constriction of potential job creation in Taiwan. Likewise, the Taiwanese economy has experienced slow economic growth as demand for Taiwan's exports has weakened due, in part, to declines in growth rates in China. Taiwan has sought to diversify its export markets and reduce its dependence on the Chinese market by increasing exports to the United States, Japan, Europe, and other Asian countries by, in part, entering into free-trade agreements. In addition, the lasting effects of the European debt crisis and persistent low growth in the global economy may reduce global demand for Taiwan's exports. The Taiwanese economy's long-term challenges include a rapidly aging population, low birth rate, and the lingering effects of Taiwan's diplomatic isolation. 
India. The value of a fund's investments in Indian securities may be affected by, among other things, political developments, rapid changes in government regulation, state intervention in private enterprise, nationalization or expropriation of foreign assets, legal uncertainty, high rates of inflation or interest rates, currency volatility, potential new, disruptive COVID-19 variants, uncertain global economic conditions, possible additional increases in commodity prices, and civil unrest. Moreover, the Indian economy remains vulnerable to natural disasters, such as droughts and monsoons. Natural disasters may become more frequent and severe as a result of global climate change. Given the particular vulnerability of India to the effects of climate change, disruptions in international efforts to address climate-related issues may have a disproportionate impact on a fund's investments in the country. In addition, any escalation of tensions with Pakistan may have a negative impact on India's economy and foreign investments in India. Likewise, political, social and economic disruptions caused by domestic sectarian violence or terrorist attacks may also present risks to a fund's investments in India. 
The Indian economy is heavily dependent on exports and services provided to U.S. and European companies and is vulnerable to any weakening in global demand for these products and services. In recent years, rising wages have chipped away at India's competitive advantage in certain service sectors. A large fiscal deficit and persistent inflation have contributed to modest economic growth in India in recent years. Increases in global oil and commodity prices due to the COVID-19 pandemic and the conflict in Ukraine have further contributed to India's rising inflation and a widening of the current account deficit. While the economic growth rate has risen more recently, the Indian economy continues to be susceptible to a slowdown in the manufacturing sector, and it is uncertain whether higher growth rates are sustainable without more fundamental governance reforms. 
India's market has less developed clearance and settlement procedures and there have been times when settlements have not kept pace with the volume of securities and have been significantly delayed. The Indian stock exchanges have, in the past, been subject to closure, broker defaults and broker strikes, and there can be no certainty that these will not recur. In addition, significant delays are common in registering transfers of securities and a fund may be unable to sell securities until the registration process is completed and may experience delays in the receipt of dividends and other entitlements. Furthermore, restrictions or controls applicable to foreign investment in the securities of issuers in India may also adversely affect a fund's investments within the country. The availability of financial instruments with exposure to Indian financial markets may be substantially limited by restrictions on foreign investors and subject to regulatory authorizations. Foreign investors are required to observe certain investment restrictions, including limits on shareholdings, which may impede a fund's ability to invest in certain issuers or to fully pursue its investment objective. These restrictions may also have the effect of reducing demand for, or limiting the liquidity of, such investments. There can be no assurance that the Indian government will not impose restrictions on foreign capital remittances abroad or otherwise modify the exchange control regime applicable to foreign investors in such a way that may adversely affect the ability of a fund to repatriate their income and capital. 
Shares of many Indian issuers are held by a limited number of persons and financial institutions, which may limit the number of shares available for investment. Sales of securities by such issuer's major shareholders may also significantly and adversely affect other shareholders. Moreover, a limited number of issuers represent a disproportionately large percentage of market capitalization and trading value in India. As a result, major shareholders' actions may cause significant fluctuations in the prices of securities. Additionally, insider trading may undermine both the market price accuracy of securities and investors' confidence in the market. The illiquidity in the market may make it difficult for a fund to dispose of securities at certain times.
Furthermore, securities laws or other areas of laws may not be fully developed in India and accounting and audit standards may not be as rigorous as those in the U.S. market. Additionally, information about issuers may be less transparent, all of which increases risk to foreign investors and makes it potentially difficult to obtain and enforce court orders. The legal system may also favor domestic investors over foreign investors.
The Indian government has sought to implement numerous reforms to the economy, including efforts to bolster the Indian manufacturing sector and entice foreign direct investment. Such reformation efforts, however, have proven difficult and there is no guarantee that such reforms will be implemented or that they will be fully implemented in a manner that benefits investors. 
Indonesia. Over the last decade, Indonesia has applied prudent macroeconomic efforts and policy reforms that have led to modest growth in recent years, however many economic development problems remain, including poverty and unemployment, corruption, inadequate infrastructure, a complex regulatory environment, and unequal resource distribution among regions. Although Indonesia's government has taken steps in recent years to improve the country's infrastructure and investment climate, these problems may limit the country's ability to maintain such economic growth as Indonesia has begun to experience slowing growth rates in recent years. Indonesia is prone to natural disasters such as typhoons, tsunamis, earthquakes and flooding, which may also present risks to a fund's investments in Indonesia. Natural disasters may become more frequent and severe as a result of global climate change. Given the particular vulnerability of Indonesia to the effects of climate change, disruptions in international efforts to address climate-related issues may have a disproportionate impact on a fund's investments in the country. In addition, Indonesia continues to be at risk of ethnic, sectarian, and separatist violence. 
In recent periods, Indonesia has employed a program of monetary loosening through reductions in interest rates and implemented a number of reforms to encourage investment. Although Indonesia's central bank has continued to utilize monetary policies to promote growth, there can be no guarantee such efforts will be sufficient or that additional stimulus policies will not be necessary in the future. Despite these efforts, Indonesia's relatively weak legal system poses a risk to foreign investors. Indonesia's tax administration can be inefficient, and a persistent informal market exists. Moreover, global inflation and the shortage of certain commodities caused by the COVID-19 pandemic and the conflict in Ukraine may continue to adversely affect Indonesia's economic recovery.
Indonesia's dependence on resource extraction and exports leaves it vulnerable to a slowdown of the economies of its trading partners and a decline in commodity prices more generally. Commodity prices have experienced significant volatility in recent years, which has adversely affected the exports of Indonesia's economy. Indonesia is particularly vulnerable to the effects of a continued slowdown in China, which has been a major source of demand growth for Indonesia's commodity exports. Indonesia is also vulnerable to further weakness in Japan, which remains one of Indonesia's largest single export markets. Indonesia has recently reversed several policies that restricted foreign investment by permitting increased foreign ownership in several sectors and opening up sectors previously closed to foreign investors. Failure to pursue internal reform, peacefully resolve internal conflicts, bolster the confidence of international and domestic investors, and weak global economic growth could limit Indonesia's economic growth in the future. 
Thailand. Thailand has well-developed infrastructure and a free-enterprise economy, which is both conducive and enticing to certain foreign investment. Thailand's manageable public and external debt burden as well as the country's acceptable fiscal and monetary policy are also positive factors for foreign investors. While Thailand experienced an increase in exports in recent years, the rate of export growth has since slowed, in part due to domestic political turmoil, weakness in commodity prices, and declines in growth rates in China. Moreover, Thailand has pursued preferential trade agreements with a variety of partners in an effort to boost exports and maintain high growth. Weakening fiscal discipline, separatist violence in the south, the intervention by the military in civilian spheres, and continued political instability, however, may cause additional risks for investments in Thailand. The risk of political instability has proven substantial as the protests, disputed election, government collapse, and coup of 2014 have led to short term declines in GDP, a collapse of tourism, and a decrease in foreign direct investment. Following the coup, the military junta formally controlled the government from 2014 until July 2019.  Parliamentary elections were held in May 2019 in which pro-military parties won a slim majority and the former military junta leader became Prime Minister. International watchdog groups, however, claimed the election was not free and fair. Since the election there have been a number of attempts to unseat the Prime Minister and protests challenging his leadership and the monarchy. An election is due to take place before May 2023. Uncertainty regarding the upcoming election could have a negative impact on economic growth.  
In the long term, Thailand's economy faces challenges including an aging population, outdated infrastructure, and an inadequate education system. Thailand's cost of labor has risen rapidly in recent years, threatening its status as a low-cost manufacturing hub. In addition, natural disasters may affect economic growth in the country. Natural disasters may become more frequent and severe as a result of global climate change. Given the particular vulnerability of Thailand to the effects of climate change, disruptions in international efforts to address climate-related issues may have a disproportionate impact on a fund's investments in the country. Thailand continues to be vulnerable to weak economic growth of its major trading partners, particularly China and Japan. Additionally, Thailand's economy may be limited by lack of available capital for investment resulting from the European debt crisis and persistent slow growth in the global economy. 
Philippines. The economy of the Philippines has benefitted from its relatively low dependence on exports and high domestic rates of consumption, as well as substantial remittances received from large overseas populations. Additionally, the Philippines' solid monetary and fiscal policies, relatively low external debt, and foreign exchange reserves support the country's economic stability. Although the economy of the Philippines has grown quickly in recent years, there can be no assurances that such growth will continue. Like other countries in the Asia Pacific region, the Philippines' growth in recent years has been reliant, in part, on exports to larger economies, notably the United States, Japan and China. Given that China is a large importer and source of global demand, a continued Chinese slowdown may, directly or indirectly, negatively impact Philippine economic growth. Additionally, lower global economic growth may lead to lower remittances from Filipino emigrants abroad, negatively impacting economic growth in the Philippines. Furthermore, certain weaknesses in the economy, such as inadequate infrastructure, high poverty rates, uneven wealth distribution, low fiscal revenues, endemic corruption, inconsistent regulation, unpredictable taxation, unreliable judicial processes, high-risk security environment, high dependency on electronic exports and the tourism sector, and the appropriation of foreign assets may present risks to a fund's investments in the Philippines. In more recent years, poverty rates have declined; however, there is no guarantee that this trend will continue. In addition, investments in the Philippines are subject to risks arising from political or social unrest, including governmental actions that strain relations with the country's major trading partners, threats from military coups, terrorist groups and separatist movements. Likewise, the Philippines is prone to natural disasters such as typhoons, tsunamis, earthquakes and flooding, which may also present risks to a fund's investments in the Philippines. Natural disasters may become more frequent and severe as a result of global climate change. Given the particular vulnerability of the Philippines to the effects of climate change, disruptions in international efforts to address climate-related issues may have a disproportionate impact on a fund's investments in the country.  
Latin America. Latin American countries have historically suffered from social, political, and economic instability. For investors, this has meant additional risk caused by periods of regional conflict, political corruption, totalitarianism, protectionist measures, nationalization, hyperinflation, debt crises, sudden and large currency devaluation, and intervention by the military in civilian and economic spheres. In recent decades, certain Latin American economies have experienced prolonged, significant economic growth, and many countries have developed sustainable democracies and a more mature and accountable political environment. Additionally, some Latin American countries have a growing middle class and an increasingly diversified economy. In recent periods, however, many Latin American countries have experienced persistent low growth rates and certain countries have fallen into recessions. Specifically, the region has recently suffered from the effects of Argentina's economic crisis. While the region is experiencing an economic recovery, there can be no guarantee that such recovery will continue or that Latin American countries will not face further recessionary pressures. Furthermore, economic recovery efforts continue to be weighed down by the costs of the COVID-19 pandemic. Rising global inflation, supply chain disruptions, the tightening of monetary policies in other countries, and high energy and food prices caused by the COVID-19 pandemic and the conflict in Ukraine pose significant challenges to Latin American countries' economies.
The region's economies represent a spectrum of different levels of political and economic development. In many Latin American countries, domestic economies have been deregulated, privatization of state-owned companies had been undertaken and foreign trade restrictions have been relaxed. There can be no guarantee, however, that such trends in economic liberalization will continue or that the desired outcomes of these developments will be successful. Nonetheless, to the extent that the risks identified above continue or re-emerge in the future, such developments could reverse favorable trends toward market and economic reform, privatization, and removal of trade barriers, and result in significant disruption in securities markets in the region. In addition, recent favorable economic performance in much of the region has led to a concern regarding government overspending in certain Latin American countries. Investors in the region continue to face a number of potential risks. Certain Latin American countries depend heavily on exports to the United States and investments from a small number of countries. Accordingly, these countries may be sensitive to fluctuations in demand, exchange rates and changes in market conditions associated with those countries. The economic growth of most Latin American countries is highly dependent on commodity exports and the economies of certain Latin American countries, particularly Mexico and Venezuela, are highly dependent on oil exports. These economies are particularly susceptible to fluctuations in the price of oil and other commodities and currency fluctuations. The prices of oil and other commodities are in the midst of a period of high volatility driven, in part, by a continued slowdown in growth in China, the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, and the conflict in Ukraine. If growth in China remains slow, or if global economic conditions worsen, Latin American countries may face significant economic difficulties.
Certain Latin American countries may experience significant and unexpected adjustments to their currencies which may have an adverse effect on foreign investors. Furthermore, some Latin American currencies have recently experienced steady devaluations relative to the U.S. dollar and have had to make significant adjustments in their currencies. Continued adjustments and devaluations of currencies in certain countries may undermine a fund's investment there. 
Although certain Latin American countries have recently shown signs of improved economic growth, such improvements, if sustained, may be gradual. In addition, prolonged economic difficulties may have negative effects on the transition to a more stable democracy in some Latin American countries. Political risks remain prevalent throughout the region, including the risk of nationalization of foreign assets. Certain economies in the region may rely heavily on particular industries or foreign capital and are more vulnerable to diplomatic developments, the imposition of economic sanctions against a particular country or countries, changes in international trading patterns, trade barriers, and other protectionist or retaliatory measures. 
A number of Latin American countries are among the largest debtors of developing countries and have a long history of reliance on foreign debt and default. The majority of the region's economies have become highly dependent upon foreign credit and loans from external sources to fuel their state-sponsored economic plans. Most countries have been forced to restructure their loans or risk default on their debt obligations. In addition, interest on the debt is subject to market conditions and may reach levels that would impair economic activity and create a difficult and costly environment for borrowers. Accordingly, these governments may be forced to reschedule or freeze their debt repayment, which could negatively affect local markets. Most recently, Argentina defaulted on its debt after a U.S. court ruled in 2014 that payments to a majority of bondholders (who had settled for lower rates of repayment) could not be made so long as holdout bondholders were not paid the full value of their bonds. The ruling increases the risk of default on all sovereign debt containing similar clauses. Although Argentina settled with its bondholders following the 2014 court ruling, the country defaulted on its debt obligations again in May 2020. While Argentina emerged from its 2020 default after negotiation with its bondholders, analysts and investors are concerned that another default is inevitable given the troubles with Argentina's bond market and soaring inflation.
As a result of their dependence on foreign credit and loans, a number of Latin American economies may be adversely affected by the increases in interest rates by the U.S. Federal Reserve in recent months and by the rising global inflation. While the region has recently had mixed levels of economic growth, recovery from past economic downturns in Latin America has historically been slow, and such growth, if sustained, may be gradual. The ongoing effects of the European debt crisis, the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, and persistent low growth in the global economy may reduce demand for exports from Latin America and limit the availability of foreign credit for some countries in the region. As a result, a fund's investments in Latin American securities could be harmed if economic recovery in the region is limited. 
Russia. Investing in Russian securities is highly speculative and involves significant risks and special considerations not typically associated with investing in the securities markets of the United States and most other developed countries. 
Political. Over the past century, Russia has experienced political and economic turbulence and has endured decades of communist rule under which tens of millions of its citizens were collectivized into state agricultural and industrial enterprises. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, Russia's government has been faced with the daunting task of stabilizing its domestic economy, while transforming it into a modern and efficient structure able to compete in international markets and to respond to the needs of its citizens. To date, however, many of the country's economic reform initiatives have floundered or been retrenched. In this environment, political and economic policies could shift suddenly in ways detrimental to the interest of foreign and private investors. 
In the last several years, as significant income from oil and commodity exports boosted Russia's economic growth, the Russian government began to re-assert its regional geopolitical influence, including most recently its military actions in Ukraine and Syria. The conflict with Ukraine has increased tensions between Russia and its neighbors and the West, resulting in the United States and EU placing sanctions on the Russian financial, energy, and defense sectors, as well as targeting top Russian officials. These sanctions, which include banning Russia from global payments systems that facilitate cross-border payments, combined with a collapse in energy and commodity prices, have slowed the Russian economy, which has continued to experience recessionary trends. Economic sanctions include, among others, prohibiting certain securities trades, prohibiting certain private transactions in the energy sector, certain asset freezes of Russian businesses and officials, and certain freezes of Russian securities. As a result, Russian securities declined significantly in value, and the Russian currency, ruble, has experienced great fluctuations. These sanctions may also result in a downgrade in Russia's credit rating and/or a decline in the value and liquidity of Russian securities, property, or interests. Furthermore, these sanctions may impair the ability of a fund to buy, sell, hold, receive, or deliver the affected securities. Further possible actions by Russia could lead to greater consequences for the Russian economy. 
Economic. Many Russian businesses are inefficient and uncompetitive by global standards due to systemic corruption, regulatory favoritism for government-affiliated enterprises, or the legacy of old management teams and techniques left over from the command economy of the Soviet Union. Poor accounting standards, inept management, pervasive corruption, insider trading and crime, and inadequate regulatory protection for the rights of investors all pose a significant risk, particularly to foreign investors. In addition, enforcement of the Russian tax system is prone to inconsistent, arbitrary, retroactive, confiscatory, and/or exorbitant taxation. 
Compared to most national stock markets, the Russian securities market suffers from a variety of problems not encountered in more developed markets. There is little long-term historical data on the Russian securities market because it is relatively new and a substantial proportion of securities transactions in Russia are privately negotiated outside of stock exchanges. The inexperience of the Russian securities market and the limited volume of trading in securities in the market may make obtaining accurate prices on portfolio securities from independent sources more difficult than in more developed markets. Additionally, there is little solid corporate information available to investors because of less stringent auditing and financial reporting standards that apply to companies operating in Russia. As a result, it may be difficult to assess the value or prospects of an investment in Russian companies. 
Because of the recent formation of the Russian securities market as well as the underdeveloped state of the banking and telecommunications systems, settlement, clearing and registration of securities transactions are subject to significant risks. Ownership of shares (except where shares are held through depositories that meet the requirements of the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (1940 Act) is defined according to entries in the company's share register and normally evidenced by extracts from the register or by formal share certificates. These services, however, are carried out by the companies themselves or by registrars located throughout Russia. These registrars are not necessarily subject to effective state supervision nor are they licensed with any governmental entity, and it is possible for a fund to lose its registration through fraud, negligence, or even mere oversight. While a fund will endeavor to ensure that its interest continues to be appropriately recorded either itself or through a custodian or other agent inspecting the share register and by obtaining extracts of share registers through regular confirmations, these extracts have no legal enforceability, and it is possible that subsequent illegal amendment or other fraudulent act may deprive a fund of its ownership rights or improperly dilute its interests. In addition, while applicable Russian regulations impose liability on registrars for losses resulting from their errors, it may be difficult for a fund to enforce any rights it may have against the registrar or issuer of the securities in the event of loss of share registration. Furthermore, significant delays or problems may occur in registering the transfer of securities, which could cause a fund to incur losses due to either a counterparty's failure to pay for securities the fund has delivered or the fund's inability to complete its contractual obligations. The designation of the National Settlement Depository (NSD) as the exclusive settlement organization for all publicly traded Russian companies and investment funds has enhanced the efficiency and transparency of the Russian securities market. Additionally, agreements between the NSD and foreign central securities depositories and settlement organizations have allowed for simpler and more secure access for foreign investors as well. 
The Russian economy is heavily dependent upon the export of a range of commodities including industrial metals, forestry products, oil, and gas. Accordingly, it is strongly affected by international commodity prices and is particularly vulnerable to any weakening in global demand for these products. Furthermore, the sale and use of certain strategically important commodities, such as gas, may be dictated by political, rather than economic, considerations. 
Over the long-term, Russia faces challenges including a shrinking workforce, high levels of corruption, difficulty in accessing capital for smaller, non-energy companies, and poor infrastructure in need of large investments. 
The sanctions imposed on Russia by the United States and the European Union, as well as the threat of additional sanctions, could have further adverse consequences for the Russian economy, including continued weakening of the ruble, additional downgrades in the country's credit rating, and a significant decline in the value and liquidity of securities issued by Russian companies or the Russian government. The imposition of broader sanctions targeting specific issuers or sectors could prohibit a fund from investing in any securities issued by companies subject to such sanctions. In addition, these sanctions and/or retaliatory action by Russia could require a fund to freeze its existing investments in Russian companies. This could prohibit a fund from selling or transacting in these investments and potentially impact a fund's liquidity. 
Currency. Foreign investors also face a high degree of currency risk when investing in Russian securities and a lack of available currency hedging instruments. The Russian ruble has recently been subject to significant fluctuations due to the conflict in Ukraine and the sanctions imposed by the West. The Russian Central Bank has spent significant foreign exchange reserves to maintain the value of the ruble. Such reserves, however, are finite and, as exemplified by the recent rise in inflation, the Russian Central Bank may be unable to properly manage competing demands of supporting the ruble, managing inflation, and stimulating a struggling Russian economy. Russia's foreign exchange reserves may be spent to stabilize Russia's currency and/or economy in the future. Therefore, any investment denominated in rubles may be subject to significant devaluation in the future. Although official sovereign debt to GDP figures are low for a developed economy, sovereign default remains a risk. Even absent a sovereign default, foreign investors could face the possibility of further devaluations. There is the risk that the government may impose capital controls on foreign portfolio investments in the event of extreme financial or political crisis. Such capital controls could prevent the sale of a portfolio of foreign assets and the repatriation of investment income and capital. Such risks have led to heightened scrutiny of Russian liquidity conditions which, in turn, creates a heightened risk of the repatriation of ruble assets by concerned foreign investors. The persistent economic turmoil in Russia caused the Russian ruble to depreciate as unemployment levels increased and global demand for oil exports decreased. In particular, the recent collapse in energy prices has shrunk the value of Russian exports and further weakened both the value of the ruble and the finances of the Russian state. The Russian economy has also suffered following the conflict in Ukraine, due to significant capital flight from the country. The pressure put on the ruble caused by this divestment has been compounded by the sanctions from the United States and EU, leading to further depreciation, a limitation of the ruble's convertibility, and an increase in inflation. 
The Middle East and Africa. Investing in Middle Eastern and African securities is highly speculative and involves significant risks and special considerations not typically associated with investing in the securities markets of the United States and most other developed countries. For instance, changes in investment policies or shifts in political climates in the region could result in changes to government regulations such as price controls, export and import controls, income and other taxes, foreign ownership restrictions, foreign exchange and currency controls, and labor and welfare benefit policies. Any unexpected changes to these policies or regulations may result in increased investment, operating or compliance expenses for a fund and may have an adverse effect on a fund's business and financial condition.
Political. Many Middle Eastern and African countries historically have suffered from political instability. Despite the trend towards democratization in recent years, especially in Africa, significant political risks continue to affect some Middle Eastern and African countries. These risks may include substantial government intervention in and control over the private sector, corrupt leaders, civil unrest, suppression of opposition parties that can lead to further dissidence and militancy, fixed elections, terrorism, coups, and war. In recent years, several countries in the Middle East and North Africa have experienced pro-democracy movements that resulted in swift regime changes. In some instances where pro-democracy movements successfully toppled regimes, the stability of successor regimes has proven weak, as evidenced by the political situation in Egypt. In other instances, these changes have devolved into armed conflict involving local factions, regional allies or international forces, and even protracted civil wars, such as in Libya and Syria. 
The protracted civil war in Syria has given rise to numerous militias, terrorist groups and, most notably, the proto-state of ISIS. The conflict has disrupted oil production across Syria and Iraq, effectively destroying the economic value of large portions of the region and has caused a massive exodus of refugees into neighboring states, which further threatens government infrastructure of the refuge countries.
Regional instability has not been confined to the Middle East. In Nigeria, Africa's largest economy, continued conflicts between the government and various insurgent groups have caused grave humanitarian and economic consequences. In addition, Africa has experienced a number of regional health crises in recent years, which have demonstrated the vulnerabilities of political institutions and health care systems in the face of crisis. African countries, particularly in Eastern and sub-Saharan Africa, have struggled to access sufficient quantities of COVID-19 vaccines to support their populations.
Continued instability may slow the adoption of economic and political reforms and could damage trade, investment, and economic growth going forward. Further, because many Middle East and African nations have a history of dictatorship, military intervention, and corruption, any successful reforms may prove impermanent. In addition, there is an increasing risk that historical animosities, border disputes, or defense concerns may lead to further armed conflict in the region. Across the Middle East and Africa, such developments could have a negative effect on economic growth and reverse favorable trends toward economic and market reform, privatization, and the removal of trade barriers. Such developments could also result in significant disruptions in securities markets.
Although geographically remote from the conflict in Ukraine, Middle Eastern and African countries are subject to the adverse effect Russia's invasion of Ukraine brought to the global economy. Surging oil and food prices are straining the external and fiscal balances of commodity-importing countries and have increased food security problems in these regions. These economic disruptions may undermine a fund's investment in these countries. 
Economic. Middle Eastern and African countries historically have suffered from underdeveloped infrastructure, high unemployment rates, a comparatively unskilled labor force, and inconsistent access to capital, which have contributed to economic instability and stifled economic growth in the region. Furthermore, certain Middle Eastern and African markets may face a higher concentration of market capitalization, greater illiquidity and greater price volatility compared to those found in more developed markets of Western Europe or the United States. Additionally, certain countries in the region have a history of nationalizing or expropriating foreign assets, which could cause a fund to lose the value of its investments in those countries or could negatively affect foreign investor confidence in the region. Despite a growing trend towards economic diversification, many Middle Eastern and African economies remain heavily dependent upon a limited range of commodities. These include gold, silver, copper, cocoa, diamonds, natural gas and petroleum. These economies are greatly affected by international commodity prices and are particularly vulnerable to any weakening in global demand for these products. As a result, many countries have been forced to scale down their infrastructure investment and the size of their public welfare systems, which could have long-term economic, social, and political implications. 
South Africa, Africa's second largest economy, is the largest destination for foreign direct investment on the continent. The country has a two-tiered, developing economy with one tier similar to that of a developed country and the second tier having only the most basic infrastructure. Although South Africa has experienced modest economic growth in recent years, such growth has been sluggish, hampered by endemic corruption, ethnic and civil conflicts, labor unrest, the effects of the HIV health crisis, and political instability. In addition, reduced demand for South African exports due to the lasting effects of the European debt crisis and persistent low growth in the global economy may limit any such recovery. These problems have been compounded by worries over South African sovereign debt prompted by an increasing deficit and rising level of sovereign debt. These conditions led to tremendous downgrades in South Africa's credit ratings in recent years. Although the ratings are slowly recovering, such downgrades in South African sovereign debt and the likelihood of an issuer default could have serious consequences for investments in South Africa.
The securities markets in these countries are generally less developed. Financial information about the issuers is not always publicly available, and these issuers are not subjected to uniform accounting, auditing, and financial reporting rules. Market volatility, lower trading volume, illiquidity, and rising global inflation all create risks for a fund investing in these countries. These shortcomings may undermine a fund's investment in these countries. 
Currency. Certain Middle Eastern and African countries have currencies pegged to the U.S. dollar or euro rather than free-floating exchange rates determined by market forces. Although intended to stabilize the currencies, these pegs, if abandoned, may cause sudden and significant currency adjustments, which may adversely impact investment returns. There is no significant foreign exchange market for certain currencies, and it would be difficult for a fund to engage in foreign currency transactions designed to protect the value of a fund's interests in securities denominated in such currencies. 
PORTFOLIO TRANSACTIONS
To the extent that Strategic Advisers grants investment management authority over an allocated portion of the fund's assets to a sub-adviser (see the section entitled "Management Contract"), that sub-adviser is authorized to provide the services described in the respective sub-advisory agreement, and in accordance with the policies described in this section.
Orders for the purchase or sale of portfolio securities are placed on behalf of the fund by Strategic Advisers (either directly or through its affiliates) or a sub-adviser, pursuant to authority contained in the management contract and the respective sub-advisory agreement.
Strategic Advisers or a sub-adviser may be responsible for the placement of portfolio securities transactions for other investment companies and investment accounts for which it has or its affiliates have investment discretion.
The fund will not incur any commissions or sales charges when it invests in affiliated mutual funds, but it may incur such costs when it invests directly in other types of securities, including ETFs.
Purchases and sales of equity securities on a securities exchange or OTC are effected through brokers who receive compensation for their services. Generally, compensation relating to securities traded on foreign exchanges will be higher than compensation relating to securities traded on U.S. exchanges and may not be subject to negotiation. Compensation may also be paid in connection with principal transactions (in both OTC securities and securities listed on an exchange) and agency OTC transactions executed with an electronic communications network (ECN) or an alternative trading system. Equity securities may be purchased from underwriters at prices that include underwriting fees.
Purchases and sales of fixed-income securities are generally made with an issuer or a primary market-maker acting as principal. Although there is no stated brokerage commission paid by the fund for any fixed-income security, the price paid by the fund to an underwriter includes the disclosed underwriting fee and prices in secondary trades usually include an undisclosed dealer commission or markup reflecting the spread between the bid and ask prices of the fixed-income security. New issues of equity and fixed-income securities may also be purchased in underwritten fixed price offerings. 
The Trustees of the  fund periodically review Strategic Advisers' and its affiliates' and each sub-adviser's performance of their respective responsibilities in connection with the placement of portfolio securities transactions on behalf of the fund. The Trustees also review the compensation paid by the fund over representative periods of time to determine if it was reasonable in relation to the benefits to the fund.
Strategic Advisers.
The Selection of Securities Brokers and Dealers
Strategic Advisers or its affiliates generally have authority to select brokers (whether acting as a broker or a dealer) to place or execute the fund's portfolio securities transactions. In selecting brokers, including affiliates of Strategic Advisers, to execute the fund's portfolio securities transactions, Strategic Advisers or its affiliates consider the factors they deem relevant in the context of a particular trade and in regard to Strategic Advisers' or its affiliates' overall responsibilities with respect to the fund and other investment accounts, including any instructions from the fund's portfolio manager, which may emphasize, for example, speed of execution over other factors. Based on the factors considered, Strategic Advisers or its affiliates may choose to execute an order using ECNs including broker-sponsored algorithmics, internal crossing, or by verbally working an order with one or more brokers. Other possibly relevant factors include, but are not limited to, the following: price; costs; the size, nature and type of order; the speed of executions; financial condition and reputation of the broker; broker specific considerations (e.g., not all brokers are able to execute all types of trades); broker willingness to commit capital; the nature and characteristics of the markets in which the security is traded; the trader's assessment of whether and how closely the broker likely will follow the trader's instructions to the broker; and the potential for information leakage; the nature or existence of post-trade clearing, settlement, custody and currency convertibility mechanisms; and the provision of additional brokerage and research products and services, if applicable and where allowed by law.
The trading desks through which Strategic Advisers or its affiliates may execute trades are instructed to execute portfolio transactions on behalf of the fund based on the quality of execution without any consideration of brokerage and research products and services the broker or dealer may provide. The administration of brokerage and research products and services is managed separately from the trading desks, which means that traders have no responsibility for administering soft dollar activities.
In seeking best execution for portfolio securities transactions, Strategic Advisers or its affiliates may from time to time select a broker that uses a trading method, including algorithmic trading, for which the broker charges a higher commission than its lowest available commission rate. Strategic Advisers or its affiliates also may select a broker that charges more than the lowest commission rate available from another broker. Occasionally, Strategic Advisers or its affiliates execute an entire securities transaction with a broker and allocate all or a portion of the transaction and/or related commissions to a second broker where a client does not permit trading with an affiliate of Strategic Advisers or in other limited situations. In those situations, the commission rate paid to the second broker may be higher than the commission rate paid to the executing broker. For futures transactions, the selection of a futures commission merchant is generally based on the overall quality of execution and other services provided by the futures commission merchant. Strategic Advisers or its affiliates execute futures transactions electronically.
The Acquisition of Brokerage and Research Products and Services
Strategic Advisers does not maintain a soft dollar program. Some sub-advisers to the fund use soft dollar or other commission-sharing arrangements in connection with transactions effected for the fund. In those cases, sub-advisers could, pursuant to their policies and procedures, allocate brokerage transactions of the fund to brokers in exchange for research-related or brokerage-related goods or services, provided that such arrangements meet the requirements of Section 28(e) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. Strategic Advisers does not obtain products, research, or services in connection with directing brokerage business to any broker or dealer.
Commission Recapture
Strategic Advisers  does not consider, in selecting or recommending brokers, whether Strategic Advisers or a related person to Strategic Advisers receives client referrals from a broker or third party. Strategic Advisers and its affiliates are authorized to allocate brokerage transactions to brokers who are not affiliates of Strategic Advisers who have entered into arrangements with Strategic Advisers or its affiliates under which the broker, using predetermined methodology, rebates a portion of the compensation paid by the fund to offset that fund's expenses, which is paid to Strategic Advisers or its affiliates. Not all brokers with whom the fund trades have agreed to participate in brokerage commission recapture. Strategic Advisers expects that brokers from whom Strategic Advisers or its affiliates purchase research products and services with their own resources (referred to as "hard dollars") are unlikely to participate in commission recapture.
Affiliated Transactions
In certain cases, Strategic Advisers and its delegates are authorized to place portfolio transactions with affiliated registered brokers or transfer agents. In particular, Strategic Advisers can place trades with NFS, through its Fidelity Capital Markets (FCM) division, and Luminex Trading & Analytics LLC (Luminex). Strategic Advisers will arrange for the execution of transactions through those brokers or dealers if Strategic Advisers reasonably believes that the quality of the execution of the transaction is comparable to what could be obtained through other qualified brokers or dealers. In determining the ability of a broker or dealer to obtain best execution, Strategic Advisers will consider a number of factors, including the broker's or dealer's execution capabilities, reputation, and access to the markets for the securities being traded. Sub-advisers of the fund are authorized to place portfolio transactions with Strategic Advisers' affiliated brokers in accordance with regulatory guidelines. For certain funds trades are facilitated through FMR's trading desk and then allocated to affiliated or unaffiliated executing brokers. In addition, from time to time, Strategic Advisers or its affiliates may place trades with brokers that use NFS or Fidelity Clearing Canada ULC (FCC) as a clearing agent and/or use Level ATS, an alternative trading system that is deemed to be affiliated with the Adviser, for execution services.
The Trustees of the fund have approved procedures whereby a fund is permitted to purchase securities that are offered in underwritings in which an affiliate of the adviser or certain other affiliates participate. In addition, for underwritings where such an affiliate participates as a principal underwriter, certain restrictions may apply that could, among other things, limit the amount of securities that the fund could purchase in the underwritings.
Non-U.S. Transactions
To facilitate trade settlement and related activities in non-United States securities transactions, Strategic Advisers or its affiliates may effect spot foreign currency transactions with foreign currency dealers. In certain circumstances, due to local law and regulation, logistical or operational challenges, or the process for settling securities transactions in certain markets (e.g., short settlement periods), spot currency transactions may be effected on behalf of funds by parties other than Strategic Advisers or its affiliates, including funds' custodian banks (working through sub-custodians or agents in the relevant non-U.S. jurisdiction) or broker-dealers that executed the related securities transaction.
Trade Allocation
Although the Trustees and officers of the fund are substantially the same as those of certain other funds managed by Strategic Advisers or its affiliates, investment decisions for the fund are made independently from those of other funds or investment accounts (including proprietary accounts) managed by Strategic Advisers or its affiliates. The same security is often held in the portfolio of more than one of these funds or investment accounts. Simultaneous transactions are inevitable when several funds and investment accounts are managed by the same investment adviser, or an affiliate thereof, particularly when the same security is suitable for the investment objective of more than one fund or investment account.
When two or more funds or investment accounts are simultaneously engaged in the purchase or sale of the same security or instrument, the prices and amounts are allocated in accordance with procedures believed by Strategic Advisers to be appropriate and equitable to each fund or investment account. In some cases this could have a detrimental effect on the price or value of the security or instrument as far as the fund is concerned. In other cases, however, the ability of the fund to participate in volume transactions will produce better executions and prices for the fund.
FIAM LLC (FIAM).
The Selection of Securities Brokers and Dealers
FIAM or its affiliates generally have authority to select brokers (whether acting as a broker or a dealer) with which to place the fund's portfolio securities transactions. In selecting brokers, including affiliates of FIAM, to execute the fund's portfolio securities transactions, FIAM or its affiliates consider the factors they deem relevant in the context of a particular trade and in regard to FIAM's or its affiliates' overall responsibilities with respect to the fund and other investment accounts, including any instructions from the fund's portfolio manager, which may emphasize, for example, speed of execution or use of specific brokers over other factors. Based on the factors considered, FIAM or its affiliates may choose to execute an order using electronic channels, including broker-sponsored algorithms, internal crossing, or by verbally working an order with one or more brokers. Other possibly relevant factors may include, but are not limited to the following: price; costs; the size, nature and type of the order; speed of execution, financial condition and reputation of the broker; broker-specific considerations (e.g., not all brokers are able to execute all types of trades); broker willingness to commit capital; the nature and characteristics of the markets in which the security is traded; the trader's assessment of whether and how closely the broker likely will follow the trader's instructions to the broker; confidentiality and the potential for information leakage; the nature of existence of post-trade clearing, settlement, custody and currency convertibility mechanisms; and the provision of brokerage and research products and services, if applicable and where allowed by law.
In seeking best execution for portfolio securities transactions, FIAM and/or its affiliates from time to time select a broker that uses a trading method, including algorithmic trading, for which the broker charges a higher commission than its lowest available commission rate. FIAM and/or its affiliates may also select brokers that charge more than the lowest commission rate available from another broker. Occasionally FIAM and/or its affiliates execute an entire securities transaction with a broker and allocate ("step out") all or a portion of the transaction and/or related commissions to a second broker where a client does not permit trading with an affiliate of FIAM or in other limited situations. In those situations, the commission rate paid to the second broker may be higher than the commission rate paid to the executing broker. For futures transactions, the selection of a futures commission merchant is generally based on the overall quality of execution and other services provided by the futures commission merchant. FIAM and/or its affiliates execute futures transactions verbally and electronically.
The Acquisition of Brokerage and Research Products and Services
To the extent permitted by applicable law, brokers (who are not affiliates of FIAM) that execute transactions for the fund managed outside of the European Union may receive higher compensation from the fund than other brokers might have charged the fund, in recognition of the value of the brokerage or research products and services they provide to FIAM or its affiliates.
Research Products and Services.   Products and services that FIAM or its affiliates have received during the last fiscal year include, when permissible under applicable law, but are not limited to: economic, industry, company, municipal, sovereign (U.S. and non-U.S.), legal, or political research reports; market color; company meeting facilitation; compilation of securities prices, earnings, dividends and similar data; quotation services, data, information and other services; analytical computer software and services; and investment recommendations. In addition to receiving brokerage and research products and services via written reports and computer-delivered services, such reports may also be provided by telephone, video and in-person meetings with securities analysts, corporate and industry spokespersons, economists, academicians and government representatives and others with relevant professional expertise. Brokers also provide brokerage and research products and services in the form of a specific proprietary or third-party product or service, upon request by FIAM or its affiliates. Some of these brokerage and research products and services supplement FIAM's or its affiliates' own research activities in providing investment advice to the fund.
Execution Services. In addition, when permissible under applicable law, brokerage and research products and services include those that assist in the execution, clearing, and settlement of securities transactions, as well as other incidental functions (including, but not limited to, communication services related to trade execution, order routing and algorithmic trading, post-trade matching, exchange of messages among brokers or dealers, custodians and institutions, and the use of electronic confirmation and affirmation of institutional trades).
Mixed-Use Products and Services. Although FIAM or its affiliates do not use fund commissions to pay for products or services that do not qualify as brokerage and research products and services or eligible external research under MiFID II and FCA regulations (as defined below), where allowed by applicable law, they may use commission dollars to obtain certain products or services that are not used exclusively in their investment decision-making process (mixed-use products or services). In those circumstances, FIAM or its affiliates will make a good faith effort to evaluate the various benefits and uses to which they intend to put the mixed-use product or service, and will pay for that portion of the mixed-use product or service that does not qualify as brokerage and research products and services or eligible external research with their own resources (referred to as "hard dollars").
Benefits to FIAM. FIAM's or its affiliates' expenses likely would be increased if they attempted to generate these additional brokerage and research products and services through their own efforts, or if they paid for these products or services with their own resources. Therefore, an economic incentive exists for FIAM or its affiliates to select or recommend a broker-dealer based on its interest in receiving the brokerage and research products and services, rather than on FIAM's or its affiliates' clients interest in receiving most favorable execution. FIAM and its affiliates manage the receipt of brokerage and research products and services and the potential conflicts through their Commission Uses Program. The Commission Uses Program effectively "unbundles" commissions paid to brokers who provide brokerage and research products and services, i.e., commissions consist of an execution commission, which covers the execution of the trade (including clearance and settlement), and a research charge, which is used to cover brokerage and research products and services. Those brokers have client commission arrangements (each a CCA) in place with FIAM and its affiliates (each of those brokers is referred to as CCA brokers). In selecting brokers for executing transactions on behalf of the fund, the trading desks through which FIAM or its affiliates may execute trades are instructed to execute portfolio transactions on behalf of the fund based on the brokers' quality of execution and without any consideration of brokerage and research products and services the CCA broker provides. Commissions paid to a CCA broker include both an execution commission and either credits or transmits the research portion (also known as "soft dollars") to a CCA pool maintained by each CCA broker. Soft dollar credits ("credits") accumulated in CCA pools are used to pay research expenses. In some cases, FIAM or its affiliates request that a broker that is not a party to any particular transaction provide a specific proprietary or third-party product or service, which would be paid with credits from the CCA pool. The administration of brokerage and research products and services is managed separately from the trading desks, and the traders have no responsibility for administering the research program, including the payment for research. FIAM or its affiliates, at times, use a third-party aggregator to facilitate payments to research providers. Where an aggregator is involved, the aggregator would maintain credits in an account that is segregated from the aggregator's proprietary assets and the assets of its other clients ("segregated account") and use those credits to pay research providers as instructed by FIAM or its affiliates. Furthermore, where permissible under applicable law, certain of the brokerage and research products and services that FIAM or its affiliates receive are furnished by brokers on their own initiative, either in connection with a particular transaction or as part of their overall services. Some of these brokerage and research products or services are provided at no additional cost to FIAM or its affiliates or might not have an explicit cost associated with them.
FIAM's Decision-Making Process. In connection with the allocation of fund brokerage, FIAM or its affiliates make a good faith determination that the compensation paid to brokers and dealers is reasonable in relation to the value of the brokerage and/ or research products and services provided to FIAM or its affiliates, viewed in terms of the particular transaction for the fund or FIAM's or its affiliates' overall responsibilities to that fund or other clients for which FIAM or its affiliates have investment discretion; however, each brokerage and research product or service received in connection with the fund's brokerage does not benefit the fund and certain clients will receive the benefit of the brokerage and research product or service obtained with other clients' commissions. As required under applicable laws or client policy, commissions generated by certain clients may only be used to obtain certain brokerage and research products and services. As a result, certain client accounts will pay more proportionately of certain types of brokerage and research products and services than others, while the overall amount of brokerage and research products and services paid by each client continues to be allocated equitably. Certain non-equity accounts that on rare occasion may receive an equity security through an issuer restructuring or other event and are required or determine to dispose of such equity security, subject to applicable law and client policy, may trade at execution only rates outside of the Commission Usage Program. While FIAM or its affiliates take into account the brokerage and/or research products and services provided by a broker or dealer in determining whether compensation paid is reasonable, neither FIAM, its affiliates, nor the fund incur an obligation to any broker, dealer, or third party to pay for any brokerage and research product or service (or portion thereof) by generating a specific amount of compensation or otherwise. Typically, these brokerage and research products and services assist FIAM or its affiliates in terms of their overall investment responsibilities to the fund or any other client accounts for which FIAM or its affiliates may have investment discretion. Certain client accounts use brokerage commissions to acquire brokerage and research products and services that also benefit other client accounts managed by FIAM or its affiliates, and not every client account uses the brokerage and research products and services that have been acquired through that account's commissions.
Research Contracts. FIAM or its affiliates have arrangements with certain third-party research providers and brokers through whom FIAM or its affiliates effect fund trades, whereby FIAM or its affiliates pay with fund commissions or hard dollars for all or a portion of the cost of research products and services purchased from such research providers or brokers. If hard dollar payments are used, FIAM or its affiliates, at times, will cause the fund to pay more for execution than the lowest commission rate available from the broker providing research products and services to FIAM or its affiliates, or that may be available from another broker. FIAM's or its affiliates' potential determination to pay for research products and services separately (e.g., with hard dollars) is wholly voluntary on FIAM's or its affiliates' part and may be extended to additional brokers or discontinued with any broker participating in this arrangement.
Funds Managed within the European Union. FIAM and its affiliates have established policies and procedures relating to brokerage commission uses in compliance with the revised Markets in Financial Instruments Directive in the European Union, commonly referred to as "MiFID II", as implemented in the United Kingdom through the Conduct of Business Sourcebook Rules of the UK Financial Conduct Authority (the "FCA"), where applicable.
For accounts that are managed within the United Kingdom, FIAM's affiliate FMR Investment Management (UK) Limited (FMRIM (UK)) uses research payment accounts (RPAs) to cover costs associated with equity and high income external research that is consumed by those accounts in accordance with MiFID II and FCA regulations. With RPAs, clients pay for external research through a separate research charge that is generally assessed and collected alongside the execution commission1. For clients that use an RPA, FMRIM (UK) establishes a research budget. The budget is set by first grouping accounts by strategy (e.g., asset allocation, blend, growth, etc.), and then determining what external research is consumed to support the strategies and portfolio management services provided within the European Union or the United Kingdom. In this regard, research budgets are set by research needs and are not otherwise linked to the volume or value of transactions executed on behalf of the account. For clients where portions are managed both within and outside of the United Kingdom, external research is paid using both a CCA and an RPA. Determinations of what is eligible research and how costs are allocated are made in accordance with FIAM's and its affiliates' policies and procedures. Costs for research consumed by accounts that use an RPA are allocated among the accounts within defined strategies pro rata based on the assets under management for each account. While the research charge paid on behalf of any one client that uses an RPA varies over time, the overall research charge determined at the client level on an annual basis will not be exceeded.
FMRIM (UK) is responsible for managing the RPA and may delegate its administration to a third-party administrator for the facilitation of the purchase of external research and payments to research providers. RPA assets are maintained in accounts at a third-party depository institution, held in the name of FMRIM (UK). FMRIM (UK) provides to client accounts, on request, a summary of: (i) the providers paid from the RPA; (ii) the total amount they were paid over a defined period; (iii) the benefits and services received by FMRIM (UK); and (iv) how the total amount spent from the RPA compares to the research budget set for that period, noting any rebate or carryover if residual funds remain in the RPA.
Impacted accounts, like those accounts that participate in CCA pools, at times, will make payments to a broker that include both an execution commission and a research charge, but unlike CCAs (for which research charges may be retained by the CCA broker and credited to the CCA, as described above), the broker will receive separate payments for the execution commission and the research charge and will promptly remit the research charge to the RPA. Assets in the RPA are used to satisfy external research costs consumed by the accounts.
If the costs of paying for external research exceed the amount initially agreed in relation to accounts in a given strategy, FIAM or its affiliates may continue to charge those accounts beyond the initially agreed amount in accordance with MiFID II, continue to acquire external research for the accounts using its own resources, or cease to purchase external research for those accounts until the next annual research budget. If assets for specific accounts remain in the RPA at the end of a period, they may be rolled over to the next period to offset next year's research charges for those accounts or rebated to those accounts.
Accounts managed by FIAM or its affiliates that trade only fixed income securities will not participate in RPAs because fixed income securities trade based on spreads rather than commissions, and thus unbundling the execution commission and research charge is impractical. Therefore, FIAM and its affiliates have established policies and procedures to ensure that external research that is paid for through RPAs is not made available to FMRIM (UK) portfolio managers that manage fixed income accounts in any manner inconsistent with MiFID II and FCA regulations.
1 The staff of the SEC addressed concerns that reliance on an RPA mechanism to pay for research would be permissible under Section 28(e) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 by indicating that they would not recommend enforcement against investment advisers who used an RPA to pay for brokerage and research products and services so long as certain conditions were met. Therefore, references to "research charges" as part of the RPA mechanism to satisfy MiFID II requirements can be considered "commissions" for Section 28(e) purposes.
Commission Recapture
From time to time, FIAM or its affiliates engage in brokerage transactions with brokers who are not affiliates of FIAM who have entered into arrangements with FIAM or its affiliates under which the broker will, at times, rebate a portion of the compensation paid by a fund ("commission recapture"). Not all brokers with whom the fund trades have been asked to participate in brokerage commission recapture.
Affiliated Transactions
FIAM or its affiliates place trades with certain brokers, including NFS and Luminex, with whom they are under common control or otherwise affiliated, provided FIAM or its affiliates determine that these affiliates' trade execution abilities and costs are comparable to those of non-affiliated, qualified brokerage firms, and that such transactions be executed in accordance with applicable rules under the 1940 Act and procedures adopted by the Board of Trustees of the fund and subject to other applicable law. In addition, from time to time, FIAM or its affiliates place trades with brokers that use NFS or Fidelity Clearing Canada ULC (FCC) as a clearing agent and/or use Level ATS, an alternative trading system that is deemed to be affiliated with the Adviser, for execution services. Similarly, equity trades may be executed through national securities exchanges in which FIAM or its affiliates have an interest. Any decision to execute a trade through an alternative trading system or exchange in which FIAM or its affiliates have an interest are made in accordance with applicable law, including their obligation to seek best execution. For trades placed on such a system or exchange, FIAM or its affiliates may benefit in the form of increased valuations(s) of its equity interest, or other renumeration, but it is not possible to predict the likelihood of that occurring or quantify the amount of any such benefit in advance.
The Trustees of the fund have approved procedures whereby a fund is permitted to purchase securities that are offered in underwritings in which an affiliate of the adviser or certain other affiliates participate. In addition, for underwritings where such an affiliate participates as a principal underwriter, certain restrictions may apply that could, among other things, limit the amount of securities that the fund could purchase in the underwritings.
Non-U.S. Securities Transactions
To facilitate trade settlement and related activities in non-U.S. securities transactions, FIAM or its affiliates effect spot foreign currency transactions with foreign currency dealers or may engage a third party to do so. Due to local law and regulation, logistical or operational challenges, or the process for settling securities transactions in certain markets (e.g., short settlement periods), spot currency transactions are effected on behalf of funds by parties other than FIAM or its affiliates, including funds' custodian banks (working through sub-custodians or agents in the relevant non-U.S. jurisdiction) or broker-dealers that executed the related securities transaction.
Trade Allocation
Although the Trustees and officers of the fund are substantially the same as those of certain other Fidelity® funds, investment decisions for the fund are made independently from those of other Fidelity® funds or investment accounts (including proprietary accounts). The same security is often held in the portfolio of more than one of these funds or investment accounts. Simultaneous transactions are inevitable when several funds and investment accounts are managed by the same investment adviser, or an affiliate thereof, particularly when the same security is suitable for the investment objective of more than one fund or investment account.
When two or more funds or investment accounts are simultaneously engaged in the purchase or sale of the same security or instrument, the prices and amounts are allocated in accordance with procedures believed by FIAM to be appropriate and equitable to each fund or investment account. In some cases this could have a detrimental effect on the price or value of the security or instrument as far as the fund is concerned. In other cases, however, the ability of the fund to participate in volume transactions will produce better executions and prices for the fund.
FIL Investment Advisors (FIA) and FIL Investment Advisors (UK) Limited (FIA(UK)).
The Selection of Securities Brokers and Dealers  
FIA and FIA(UK) (together, for purposes of this section, "FIL") generally have authority to select broker-dealers to place or execute portfolio securities transactions for the fund. FIL has retained FIL Investments International ("FII"), FIL Investment Management (Hong Kong) Limited ("FIMHK"), FIL Investments (Japan) Limited ("FIJ"), FIL (Luxembourg) Limited ("FILUX"), and Fidelity Investments Canada ULC ("FIC"), affiliates of FIL, to make these selections. In selecting a broker-dealer for a specific transaction, FIL or its affiliates evaluate a variety of criteria and use their good faith judgment to obtain execution of portfolio transactions at prices that they believe are reasonable in relation to the benefits received.
When executing securities transactions on behalf of the fund, FIL or its affiliates will seek to obtain best execution. FIL and its relevant affiliates have in place policies and supporting procedures which are designed to help them obtain achieve this obligation. In selecting broker-dealers, including affiliates of FIL, to execute the fund's portfolio securities transactions, FIL or its affiliates consider the factors they deem relevant in the context of a particular trade and in regard to FIL's overall responsibilities with respect to the fund and its other client accounts, including any instructions from the fund's portfolio manager. Relevant factors may include the context of a particular trade, the nature of the order, the priorities associated with the order and the nature and conditions of the market in question. The diversity of markets, instruments and the kind of orders placed mean that relevant factors will be assessed differently depending upon the circumstances of execution.
In selecting the most appropriate venue or approved counterparty for a portfolio transaction, FIL or its affiliates generally consider a range of quantitative and qualitative factors, including, but not limited to, price, transaction costs, speed and certainty of execution, availability of liquidity, ease of connectivity, size and nature of the transaction, nature and characteristics of the other venues in which the security may be traded, nature of post-trade settlement, and custody and foreign exchange structures. FIL or its affiliates also consider other factors, as deemed relevant, such as the ability of the venue or counterparty to manage complex orders, the speed of execution, the financial condition of the counterparty, and the creditworthiness and the quality of any related clearing and settlement facilities.
In seeking best qualitative execution for portfolio transactions, FIL or its affiliates may select a broker using a trading method for which the broker may charge a higher commission than its lowest available commission rate. FIL or its affiliates also may select a broker that charges more than the lowest available commission rate available from another broker. FIL or its affiliates may execute an entire transaction with a broker and allocate all or a portion of the transaction and/or related commissions to a second broker where a client does not permit trading with an affiliate of FIL or in other limited situations. In those situations, the commission rate paid to the second broker may be higher than the commission rate paid to the executing broker.
The Acquisition of Brokerage and Research Products and Services  
FIL or its affiliates may execute portfolio transactions with broker-dealers that provide brokerage or research products and services that assist FIL or its affiliates in fulfilling their investment management responsibilities in accordance with applicable law. These products and services may include, but are not limited to: economic, industry, company, municipal, sovereign (U.S. and non-U.S.), legal and political research reports or investment recommendations. In addition to receiving these products and services via written reports and computer-delivered services, they may also be provided by telephone and in-person meetings with securities analysts, corporate and industry spokespersons, economists, academicians and government representatives and others with relevant professional expertise. FIL or its affiliates may request that a broker provide a specific proprietary or third-party product or service. Some of these brokerage and research products and services supplement FIL's or its affiliates' own research activities in providing investment advice to the fund.
Brokerage and research products and services may also include those that assist in the execution, clearing, and settlement of securities transactions, as well as other incidental functions (including, but not limited to, communication services related to trade execution, order routing and algorithmic trading, post-trade matching, exchange of messages among brokers or dealers, custodians and institutions, and the use of electronic confirmation and affirmation of institutional trades). In addition, FIL or its affiliates may obtain from broker-dealers certain products or services that are not used exclusively in FIL's or its affiliates' investment decision-making process (mixed-use products or services).
For trades placed by FII, FIJ, FILUX, or FIMHK, no commissions on fund portfolio transactions are used by FIL or its affiliates to pay for brokerage or research products and services. All such products and services received from broker-dealers are paid for by FIL or its affiliates from their own resources (referred to as "hard dollars").
For trades placed by FIC, subject to the requirements of Section 28(e) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, brokers that execute transactions may receive higher compensation from the fund than other brokers might have charged the fund, in recognition of the value of the brokerage or research products and services they provide to FIC or its affiliates. In those circumstances where the products or services are mixed-use items, FIC will make a good faith judgment to evaluate the various benefits and uses to which they intend to put the mixed-use product or service, and FIC or its affiliates will pay for that portion of the mixed-use product or service that does not qualify as brokerage and research products and services or eligible external research with their own resources. FIC may use the fund's brokerage commissions to acquire brokerage and research products and services that may also benefit other funds or accounts managed by FIC or its affiliates. In an effort to minimize the potential for conflicts of interest, the trading desks through which FIC may execute trades are instructed to execute portfolio transactions on behalf of the fund based on the quality of execution without any consideration of brokerage and research products and services the broker or dealer may provide.
Affiliated Transactions  
FIL or its affiliates may place trades with certain brokers, including National Financial Services LLC, through its Fidelity Capital Markets (FCM) division, with whom they or FMR are affiliated, provided FIL or the applicable affiliate determines that these affiliates' trade-execution abilities and costs are comparable to those of non-affiliated, qualified brokerage firms, and that such transactions be executed in accordance with applicable rules under the 1940 Act and procedures adopted by the Trustees of the fund and subject to other applicable law. In addition, FIL or its affiliates may place trades with brokers that use a clearing agent in whom FIL or its affiliates have a financial interest.
FIL or its affiliates may execute transactions between the fund and other mutual funds or other client accounts FIL manages or sub-advises, as well as with certain funds or client accounts managed by the fund's manager. All cross trade transactions may only be executed in accordance with applicable rules under the Investment Company Act and the procedures approved by the Trustees of the fund.
The Trustees of the fund have approved procedures whereby the fund may purchase securities that are offered in underwritings in which an affiliate of the adviser, sub-adviser or certain other affiliates participate. In addition, for underwritings where such an affiliate participates as a principal underwriter, certain restrictions may apply that could, among other things, limit the amount of securities that the fund could purchase in the underwritings.
Trade Allocation  
FIL or its relevant affiliates have established policies designed to ensure that trade allocations are fair and appropriate, taking into account the investment objectives of the relevant clients and other considerations. These policies apply to initial public and secondary offerings and secondary market trades.
For fixed income and equity trades, when, in FIL's or its affiliates' opinion, the supply/demand is insufficient under the circumstances to satisfy all outstanding trade orders, the amount executed generally is distributed among participating client accounts based on order size. For both fixed income and equity trades, trades are executed by traders based on orders or indications of interest for clients, which are established prior to or at the time of a transaction.
The trade allocation policies generally provide for minimum allocations. If a standard allocation would result in an account receiving a very small allocation (for example, because of its small asset size), depending upon the circumstances, the account may receive an increased allocation to achieve a more meaningful allocation or the account may receive no allocation. The policies also provide for the execution of short sales, provided that consideration is given to whether the short sale might have a material effect on other active orders on the trading desk.
The trading systems used by FIL and its applicable affiliates contain rules that allocate trades on an automated basis, in accordance with the trade allocation policies. Generally, any exceptions to the trade allocation policies (for example, a special allocation) must be approved by senior trading and compliance personnel and documented. The trade allocation policies identify certain circumstances under which it may be appropriate to deviate from the general allocation criteria, and describe the alternative procedures in those circumstances.
Geode.
The Selection of Brokers
In selecting brokers or dealers (including affiliates of Strategic Advisers) to execute the fund's portfolio transactions, Geode considers factors deemed relevant in the context of a particular trade and in regard to Geode's overall responsibilities with respect to the fund and other investment accounts, including any instructions from the fund's portfolio manager, which may emphasize, for example, speed of execution over other factors. The factors considered will influence whether it is appropriate to execute an order using ECNs, electronic channels including algorithmic trading, or by actively working an order. Other factors deemed relevant may include, but are not limited to: price; the size and type of the transaction; the reasonableness of compensation to be paid, including spreads and commission rates; the speed and certainty of trade executions; the nature and characteristics of the markets for the security to be purchased or sold, including the degree of specialization of the broker in such markets or securities; the availability of liquidity in the security, including the liquidity and depth afforded by a market center or market-maker; the reliability of a market center or broker; the degree of anonymity that a particular broker or market can provide; the potential for avoiding market impact; the execution services rendered on a continuing basis; the execution efficiency, settlement capability, and financial condition of the firm; arrangements for payment of fund expenses, if applicable; and the provision of additional brokerage and research products and services, if applicable. In seeking best qualitative execution, Geode may select a broker using a trading method for which the broker may charge a higher commission than its lowest available commission rate. Geode also may select a broker that charges more than the lowest commission rate available from another broker. For futures transactions, the selection of a futures commission merchant is generally based on the overall quality of execution and other services provided by the futures commission merchant.
The Acquisition of Brokerage and Research Products and Services
Brokers (who are not affiliates of Strategic Advisers) that execute transactions for the fund may receive higher compensation from the fund than other brokers might have charged the fund, in recognition of the value of the brokerage or research products and services they provide to Geode.
Research Products and Services. These products and services may include, when permissible under applicable law: economic, industry, company, municipal, sovereign (U.S. and non-U.S.), legal, or political research reports; market color; company meeting facilitation; compilation of securities prices, earnings, dividends and similar data; quotation services, data, information and other services; analytical computer software and services; and investment recommendations. In addition to receiving brokerage and research products and services via written reports and computer-delivered services, such reports may also be provided by telephone and in person meetings with securities analysts, corporate and industry spokespersons, economists, academicians and government representatives and others with relevant professional expertise. Geode may request that a broker provide a specific proprietary or third-party product or service. Some of these products and services supplement Geode's own research activities in providing investment advice to the fund.
Execution Services. In addition, products and services may include, when permissible under applicable law, those that assist in the execution, clearing, and settlement of securities transactions, as well as other incidental functions (including, but not limited to, communication services related to trade execution, order routing and algorithmic trading, post-trade matching, exchange of messages among brokers or dealers, custodians and institutions, and the use of electronic confirmation and affirmation of institutional trades).
Mixed-Use Products and Services. Geode may use commission dollars to obtain certain products or services that are not used exclusively in Geode's investment decision-making process (mixed-use products or services). In those circumstances, Geode will make a good faith judgment to evaluate the various benefits and uses to which they intend to put the mixed-use product or service, and will pay for that portion of the mixed-use product or service that does not qualify as brokerage and research products and services with their own resources (referred to as "hard dollars").
Benefit to Geode. Geode's expenses would likely be increased if it attempted to generate these additional products and services through its own efforts, or if it paid for these products or services itself. Certain of the brokerage and research products and services Geode receives are furnished by brokers on their own initiative, either in connection with a particular transaction or as part of their overall services. Some of these products or services may not have an explicit cost associated with such product or service.
Geode's Decision-Making Process. Before causing the fund to pay a particular level of compensation, Geode will make a good faith determination that the compensation is reasonable in relation to the value of the brokerage and/or research products and services provided to Geode, viewed in terms of the particular transaction for the fund or Geode's overall responsibilities to the fund or other investment companies and investment accounts. While Geode may take into account the brokerage and/or research products and services provided by a broker in determining whether compensation paid is reasonable, neither Geode nor the fund incur an obligation to any broker, dealer, or third party to pay for any product or service (or portion thereof) by generating a specific amount of compensation or otherwise. Typically, these products and services assist Geode in terms of its overall investment responsibilities to the fund and other investment companies and investment accounts; however, each product or service received may not benefit the fund. Certain funds or investment accounts may use brokerage commissions to acquire brokerage and research products and services that may also benefit other funds or accounts managed by Geode.
Affiliated Transactions
Geode may place trades with certain brokers, including NFS, through its Fidelity Capital Markets (FCM) division, and Luminex, with whom Strategic Advisers is under common control, provided it determines that these affiliates' trade execution abilities and costs are comparable to those of non-affiliated, qualified brokerage firms.
The Trustees of the fund have approved procedures whereby a fund is permitted to purchase securities that are offered in underwritings in which an affiliate of the adviser or certain other affiliates participate. In addition, for underwritings where such an affiliate participates as a principal underwriter, certain restrictions may apply that could, among other things, limit the amount of securities that the fund could purchase in the underwritings.
Trade Allocation
Although the Trustees and officers of the fund are substantially the same as those of certain other Fidelity ® funds, investment decisions for the fund are made independently from those of other Fidelity ® funds or investment accounts (including proprietary accounts).The same security is often held in the portfolio of more than one of these funds or investment accounts. Simultaneous transactions are inevitable when several funds and investment accounts are managed by the same investment adviser, particularly when the same security is suitable for the investment objective of more than one fund or investment account.
When two or more funds or investment accounts are simultaneously engaged in the purchase or sale of the same security or instrument, the prices and amounts are allocated in accordance with procedures believed to be appropriate and equitable to each fund or investment account. In some cases this could have a detrimental effect on the price or value of the security or instrument as far as the fund is concerned. In other cases, however, the ability of the fund to participate in volume transactions will produce better executions and prices for the fund.
Orders for funds and investment accounts are not typically combined or "blocked". However, Geode may, when feasible and when consistent with the fair and equitable treatment of all funds and investment accounts and best execution, block orders of various funds and investment accounts for order entry and execution.
Geode has established allocation policies for its various funds and investment accounts to ensure allocations are appropriate given its clients' differing investment objectives and other considerations. When the supply/demand is insufficient to satisfy all outstanding trade orders, generally the amount executed is distributed among participating funds and investment accounts based on account asset size (for purchases and short sales), and security position size (for sales and covers), or otherwise according to the allocation policies. These policies also apply to initial public and secondary offerings. Generally, allocations are determined by traders, independent of portfolio managers, in accordance with these policies. Allocations are determined and documented on trade date.
Geode's trade allocation policies identify circumstances under which it is appropriate to deviate from the general allocation criteria and describe the alternative procedures. For example, if a standard allocation would result in a fund or investment account receiving a very small allocation (e.g., because of its small asset size), the fund or investment account may receive an increased allocation to achieve a more meaningful allocation, or it may receive no allocation. Generally, any exceptions to Geode's policies (i.e., special allocations) must be approved by senior investment or trading personnel, reviewed by the compliance department, and documented.
Commissions Paid
A fund may pay compensation including both commissions and spreads in connection with the placement of portfolio transactions. The amount of brokerage commissions paid by a fund may change from year to year because of, among other things, changing asset levels, shareholder activity, and/or portfolio turnover.
The following table shows the fund's portfolio turnover rate for the fiscal period(s) ended February 28, 2023 and 2022. Variations in turnover rate may be due to a fluctuating volume of shareholder purchase and redemption orders, market conditions, and/or changes in Strategic Advisers' investment outlook.
Turnover Rates
2023
2022
Strategic Advisers® Fidelity® International Fund
16%
17%
 
 
 
During the fiscal year ended February 28, 2023, the following fund(s) held securities issued by one or more of its regular brokers or dealers or a parent company of its regular brokers or dealers. The following table shows the aggregate value of the securities of the regular broker or dealer or parent company held by the fund as of the fiscal year ended February 28, 2023.
 
Fund
 
Regular Broker or Dealer
 
Aggregate Value of
Securities Held
Strategic Advisers® Fidelity® International Fund
Macquarie Group Ltd.
 $
58,559,458
 
UBS AG
 $
63,306,616
The following table shows the total amount of brokerage commissions paid by the following fund(s), comprising commissions paid on securities and/or futures transactions, as applicable, for the fiscal year(s) ended February 28, 2023, 2022, and 2021. The total amount of brokerage commissions paid is stated as a dollar amount and a percentage of the fund's average net assets.
Fund
Fiscal Year
Ended
 
Dollar
Amount
Percentage
of
Average
Net Assets
Strategic Advisers® Fidelity® International Fund
2023
$
4,381,362
0.02%
 
2022
$
5,100,738
0.02%
 
2021
$
1,951,249
0.02%
Brokerage commissions may vary significantly from year to year due to a variety of factors, including the types of investments selected by the sub-adviser(s), changes in transaction costs, and market conditions. During the fiscal year(s) ended February 28, 2023, 2022, and 2021, the following brokerage commissions were paid to affiliated brokers: 
Fiscal
Year End
Broker
Affiliated With
Transaction
Initiated By
 
Commissions
Percentage
of
Aggregate
Brokerage
Commissions
Percentage
of
Aggregate
Dollar
Amount
of
Brokerage
Transactions
2023
FCM
FMR LLC / Strategic Advisers
FIAM LLC
$
1,004
0.02%
0.05%
2023
Luminex
FMR LLC / Strategic Advisers
FIAM LLC
$
110
0.00%
0.01%
2022
FCM
FMR LLC / Strategic Advisers
FIAM LLC
$
755
 
 
2022
Luminex
FMR LLC / Strategic Advisers
FIAM LLC
$
0
 
 
2021
FCM
FMR LLC / Strategic Advisers
FIAM LLC
$
0
 
 
2021
Luminex
FMR LLC / Strategic Advisers
FIAM LLC
$
0
 
 
The following table shows the dollar amount of brokerage commissions paid to firms that may have provided research or brokerage services and the approximate dollar amount of the transactions involved for the fiscal year ended February 28, 2023. 
Fund
Fiscal Year
Ended
 
$ Amount of
Commissions
Paid to Firms
for Providing
Research or
Brokerage
Services
 
$ Amount of
Brokerage
Transactions
Involved
Strategic Advisers® Fidelity® International Fund
2023
$
4,064,379
$
4,775,247,367
VALUATION
The NAV is the value of a single share. NAV is computed by adding the value of a fund's investments, cash, and other assets, subtracting its liabilities, and dividing the result by the number of shares outstanding.
The Board of Trustees has designated the fund's investment adviser as the valuation designee responsible for the fair valuation function and performing fair value determinations as needed. The adviser has established a Fair Value Committee (the Committee) to carry out the day-to-day fair valuation responsibilities and has adopted policies and procedures to govern the fair valuation process and the activities of the Committee. The Committee may rely on information and recommendations provided by affiliates of Strategic Advisers in fulfilling its responsibilities, including the fair valuation of securities.
Shares of underlying funds held by a fund are valued at their respective NAVs. The Board of Trustees of each underlying Fidelity ® fund has designated the underlying fund's investment adviser as the valuation designee responsible for that fund's fair valuation function and performing fair value determinations as needed. References below to the Committee refer to the Fair Value Committee of the fund's adviser or an underlying Fidelity ® fund's adviser, as applicable. 
Generally, other portfolio securities and assets held by a fund, as well as portfolio securities and assets held by an underlying Fidelity ® non-money market fund, are valued as follows:
Most equity securities are valued at the official closing price or the last reported sale price or, if no sale has occurred, at the last quoted bid price on the primary market or exchange on which they are traded.
Debt securities and other assets for which market quotations are readily available may be valued at market values in the principal market in which they normally are traded, as furnished by recognized dealers in such securities or assets. Or, debt securities and convertible securities may be valued on the basis of information furnished by a pricing service that uses a valuation matrix which incorporates both dealer-supplied valuations and electronic data processing techniques.
Short-term securities with remaining maturities of sixty days or less for which market quotations and information furnished by a pricing service are not readily available may be valued at amortized cost, which approximates current value.
Futures contracts are valued at the settlement or closing price. Options are valued at their market quotations, if available. Swaps are valued daily using quotations received from independent pricing services or recognized dealers.
Prices described above are obtained from pricing services that have been approved by the Committee. A number of pricing services are available and a fund may use more than one of these services. A fund may also discontinue the use of any pricing service at any time. Strategic Advisers through the Committee engages in oversight activities with respect to the fund's pricing services, which includes, among other things, testing the prices provided by pricing services prior to calculation of a fund's NAV, conducting periodic due diligence meetings, and periodically reviewing the methodologies and inputs used by these services.
Foreign securities and instruments are valued in their local currency following the methodologies described above. Foreign securities, instruments and currencies are translated to U.S. dollars, based on foreign currency exchange rate quotations supplied by a pricing service as of the close of the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), which uses a proprietary model to determine the exchange rate. Forward foreign currency exchange contracts are valued at an interpolated rate based on days to maturity between the closest preceding and subsequent settlement period reported by the third party pricing service.
Other portfolio securities and assets for which market quotations, official closing prices, or information furnished by a pricing service are not readily available or, in the opinion of the Committee, are deemed unreliable will be fair valued in good faith by the Committee in accordance with applicable fair value pricing policies. For example, if, in the opinion of the Committee, a security's value has been materially affected by events occurring before a fund's pricing time but after the close of the exchange or market on which the security is principally traded, that security will be fair valued in good faith by the Committee in accordance with applicable fair value pricing policies. In fair valuing a security, the Committee may consider factors including, but not limited to, price movements in futures contracts and ADRs, market and trading trends, the bid/ask quotes of brokers, and off-exchange institutional trading. The frequency that portfolio securities or assets are fair valued cannot be predicted and may be significant.
Portfolio securities and assets held by an underlying Fidelity ® money market fund are valued on the basis of amortized cost. This technique involves initially valuing an instrument at its cost as adjusted for amortization of premium or accretion of discount rather than its current market value. The amortized cost value of an instrument may be higher or lower than the price a money market fund would receive if it sold the instrument.
At such intervals as they deem appropriate, the Trustees of an underlying Fidelity ® money market fund consider the extent to which NAV calculated using market valuations would deviate from the $1.00 per share calculated using amortized cost valuation. If the Trustees believe that a deviation from a money market fund's amortized cost per share may result in material dilution or other unfair results to shareholders, the Trustees have agreed to take such corrective action, if any, as they deem appropriate to eliminate or reduce, to the extent reasonably practicable, the dilution or unfair results. Such corrective action could include selling portfolio instruments prior to maturity to realize capital gains or losses or to shorten average portfolio maturity; withholding dividends; redeeming shares in kind; establishing NAV by using available market quotations; and such other measures as the Trustees may deem appropriate.
In determining the fair value of a private placement security for which market quotations are not available, the Committee generally applies one or more valuation methods including the market approach, income approach and cost approach. The market approach considers factors including the price of recent investments in the same or a similar security or financial metrics of comparable securities. The income approach considers factors including expected future cash flows, security specific risks and corresponding discount rates. The cost approach considers factors including the value of the security's underlying assets and liabilities.
The fund's adviser reports to the Board information regarding the fair valuation process and related material matters.
BUYING AND SELLING INFORMATION
Shares of the fund are offered only to certain clients of Strategic Advisers or its affiliates that have granted Strategic Advisers discretionary investment authority. If you are not currently a client in a discretionary investment program offered by Strategic Advisers or its affiliates, please call 1-800-544-3455 for more information.     
Investors participating in a discretionary investment program are charged an annual advisory fee based on a percentage of the average market value of assets in their account. The stated fee is then reduced by a credit reflecting the amount of fees, if any, received by Strategic Advisers LLC or its affiliates from mutual funds for investment management or certain other services.
The fund may make redemption payments in whole or in part in readily marketable securities or other property pursuant to procedures approved by the Trustees if Strategic Advisers determines it is in the best interests of the fund. Such securities or other property will be valued for this purpose as they are valued in computing the NAV of a fund or class, as applicable. Shareholders that receive securities or other property will realize, upon receipt, a gain or loss for tax purposes, and will incur additional costs and be exposed to market risk prior to and upon the sale of such securities or other property.
The fund, in its discretion, may determine to issue its shares in kind in exchange for securities held by the purchaser having a value, determined in accordance with the fund's policies for valuation of portfolio securities, equal to the purchase price of the fund shares issued. The fund will accept for in-kind purchases only securities or other instruments that are appropriate under its investment objective and policies. In addition, the fund generally will not accept securities of any issuer unless they are liquid, have a readily ascertainable market value, and are not subject to restrictions on resale. All dividends, distributions, and subscription or other rights associated with the securities become the property of the fund, along with the securities. Shares purchased in exchange for securities in kind generally cannot be redeemed for fifteen days following the exchange to allow time for the transfer to settle.
DISTRIBUTIONS AND TAXES
Dividends. Because the fund may invest significantly in foreign securities and/or in underlying funds that invest significantly in foreign securities, corporate shareholders should not expect fund dividends to qualify for the dividends-received deduction. However, a portion of the fund's dividends, when distributed to individual shareholders, may qualify for taxation at long-term capital gains rates (provided certain holding period requirements are met). Short-term capital gains are taxable at ordinary income tax rates. Distributions by the fund to tax-advantaged retirement plan accounts are not taxable currently (but you may be taxed later, upon withdrawal of your investment from such account).
Capital Gain Distributions. Unless your shares of the fund are held in a tax-advantaged retirement plan, the fund's long-term capital gain distributions, including amounts attributable to an underlying fund's long-term capital gain distributions, are federally taxable to shareholders generally as capital gains.
The following table shows the fund's aggregate capital loss carryforward as of February 28, 2023, which is available to offset future capital gains. A fund's ability to utilize its capital loss carryforwards in a given year or in total may be limited.
Fund
 
Capital Loss Carryforward (CLC)
Strategic Advisers® Fidelity® International Fund
$
1,011,741,848
Returns of Capital. If the fund's distributions exceed its taxable income and capital gains realized during a taxable year, all or a portion of the distributions made in the same taxable year may be recharacterized as a return of capital to shareholders. A return of capital distribution will generally not be taxable, but will reduce each shareholder's cost basis in the fund and result in a higher reported capital gain or lower reported capital loss when those shares on which the distribution was received are sold in taxable accounts.
Foreign Tax Credit or Deduction. Foreign governments may impose withholding taxes on dividends and interest earned by the fund with respect to foreign securities held directly by the fund. Foreign governments may also impose taxes on other payments or gains with respect to foreign securities held directly by the fund. As a general matter, if, at the close of its fiscal year, more than 50% of the fund's total assets is invested in securities of foreign issuers, the fund may elect to pass through eligible foreign taxes paid and thereby allow shareholders to take a deduction or, if they meet certain holding period requirements with respect to fund shares, a credit on their individual tax returns. In addition, if at the close of each quarter of its fiscal year at least 50% of the fund's total assets is represented by interests in other regulated investment companies, the same rules will apply to any foreign tax credits that underlying funds pass through to the fund. Special rules may apply to the credit for individuals who receive dividends qualifying for the long-term capital gains tax rate.
Tax Status of the Fund. The fund intends to qualify each year as a "regulated investment company" under Subchapter M of the Internal Revenue Code so that it will not be liable for federal tax on income and capital gains distributed to shareholders. In order to qualify as a regulated investment company, and avoid being subject to federal income or excise taxes at the fund level, the fund intends to distribute substantially all of its net investment income and net realized capital gains within each calendar year as well as on a fiscal year basis (if the fiscal year is other than the calendar year), and intends to comply with other tax rules applicable to regulated investment companies.
Fund of Funds. Because the fund is expected to invest in underlying funds in a fund of funds structure, the fund's realized losses on sales of shares of an underlying fund may be indefinitely or permanently deferred as "wash sales." Distributions of short-term capital gains by an underlying fund will be recognized as ordinary income by the upper-tier fund and would not be offset by the upper-tier fund's capital loss carryforwards, if any. Capital loss carryforwards of an underlying fund, if any, would not offset net capital gains of the upper-tier fund or of any other underlying fund.
Other Tax Information. The information above is only a summary of some of the tax consequences generally affecting the fund and its shareholders, and no attempt has been made to discuss individual tax consequences. It is up to you or your tax preparer to determine whether the sale of shares of the fund resulted in a capital gain or loss or other tax consequence to you. In addition to federal income taxes, shareholders may be subject to state and local taxes on fund distributions, and shares may be subject to state and local personal property taxes. Investors should consult their tax advisers to determine whether the fund is suitable to their particular tax situation.
TRUSTEES AND OFFICERS
The Trustees, Members of the Advisory Board (if any), and officers of the trust and fund, as applicable, are listed below. The Board of Trustees governs the fund and is responsible for protecting the interests of shareholders. The Trustees are experienced executives who meet periodically throughout the year to oversee the fund's activities, review contractual arrangements with companies that provide services to the fund, oversee management of the risks associated with such activities and contractual arrangements, and review the fund's performance. If the interests of the fund and an underlying Fidelity ® fund were to diverge, a conflict of interest could arise and affect how the Trustees and Members of the Advisory Board fulfill their fiduciary duties to the affected funds. Strategic Advisers has structured the fund to avoid these potential conflicts, although there may be situations where a conflict of interest is unavoidable. In such instances, Strategic Advisers, the Trustees, and Members of the Advisory Board would take reasonable steps to minimize and, if possible, eliminate the conflict. Each of the Trustees oversees 14 funds.
The Trustees hold office without limit in time except that (a) any Trustee may resign; (b) any Trustee may be removed by written instrument, signed by at least two-thirds of the number of Trustees prior to such removal; (c) any Trustee who requests to be retired or who has become incapacitated by illness or injury may be retired by written instrument signed by a majority of the other Trustees; and (d) any Trustee may be removed at any special meeting of shareholders by a two-thirds vote of the outstanding voting securities of the trust. Each Trustee who is not an interested person (as defined in the 1940 Act) of the trust and the fund is referred to herein as an Independent Trustee. Each Independent Trustee shall retire not later than the last day of the calendar year in which his or her 75th birthday occurs. The Independent Trustees may waive this mandatory retirement age policy with respect to individual Trustees. Officers and Advisory Board Members hold office without limit in time, except that any officer or Advisory Board Member may resign or may be removed by a vote of a majority of the Trustees at any regular meeting or any special meeting of the Trustees. Except as indicated, each individual has held the office shown or other offices in the same company for the past five years.
Experience, Skills, Attributes, and Qualifications of the Trustees. The Governance and Nominating Committee has adopted a statement of policy that describes the experience, qualifications, attributes, and skills that are necessary and desirable for potential Independent Trustee candidates (Statement of Policy). The Board believes that each Trustee satisfied at the time he or she was initially elected or appointed a Trustee, and continues to satisfy, the standards contemplated by the Statement of Policy. The Governance and Nominating Committee may also engage professional search firms to help identify potential Independent Trustee candidates with experience, qualifications, attributes, and skills consistent with the Statement of Policy. Additional criteria based on the composition and skills of the current Independent Trustees, as well as experience or skills that may be appropriate in light of future changes to board composition, business conditions, and regulatory or other developments, may be considered by the professional search firms and the Governance and Nominating Committee. In addition, the Board takes into account the Trustees' commitment and participation in Board and committee meetings, as well as their leadership of standing and ad hoc committees throughout their tenure.
In determining that a particular Trustee was and continues to be qualified to serve as a Trustee, the Board has considered a variety of criteria, none of which, in isolation, was controlling. The Board believes that, collectively, the Trustees have balanced and diverse experience, qualifications, attributes, and skills, which allow the Board to operate effectively in governing the fund and protecting the interests of shareholders. Information about the specific experience, skills, attributes, and qualifications of each Trustee, which in each case led to the Board's conclusion that the Trustee should serve (or continue to serve) as a trustee of the fund, is provided below.
Board Structure and Oversight Function. Kathleen Murphy is an interested person and currently serves as Chair. The Trustees have determined that an interested Chair is appropriate and benefits shareholders because an interested Chair has a personal and professional stake in the quality and continuity of services provided to the fund. Independent Trustees exercise their informed business judgment to appoint an individual of their choosing to serve as Chair, regardless of whether the Trustee happens to be independent or a member of management. The Independent Trustees have determined that they can act independently and effectively without having an Independent Trustee serve as Chair and that a key structural component for assuring that they are in a position to do so is for the Independent Trustees to constitute a substantial majority for the Board. The Independent Trustees also regularly meet in executive session. Mary C. Farrell serves as the lead Independent Trustee and as such (i) acts as a liaison between the Independent Trustees and management with respect to matters important to the Independent Trustees and (ii) with management prepares agendas for Board meetings.
Fidelity ® funds are overseen by different Boards of Trustees. The fund's Board oversees asset allocation funds. Other Boards oversee Fidelity's alternative investment, investment-grade bond, money market, and asset allocation funds, and Fidelity's equity and high income funds. The fund may invest in Fidelity ® ; funds overseen by such other Boards. The use of separate Boards, each with its own committee structure, allows the Trustees of each group of Fidelity ® funds to focus on the unique issues of the funds they oversee, including common research, investment, and operational issues.
The Trustees primarily operate as a full Board, but also operate in committees, to facilitate the timely and efficient consideration of all matters of importance to the Trustees, the fund, and fund shareholders and to facilitate compliance with legal and regulatory requirements and oversight of the fund's activities and associated risks. The Board has charged Strategic Advisers and its affiliates with (i) identifying events or circumstances the occurrence of which could have demonstrably adverse effects on the fund's business and/or reputation; (ii) implementing processes and controls to lessen the possibility that such events or circumstances occur or to mitigate the effects of such events or circumstances if they do occur; and (iii) creating and maintaining a system designed to evaluate continuously business and market conditions in order to facilitate the identification and implementation processes described in (i) and (ii) above. Because the day-to-day operations and activities of the fund  are carried out by or through Strategic Advisers, its affiliates and other service providers, the fund's exposure to risks is mitigated but not eliminated by the processes overseen by the Trustees. Board oversight of different aspects of the fund's activities is exercised primarily through the full Board, but also through the Audit and Compliance Committee. Appropriate personnel, including but not limited to the fund's Chief Compliance Officer (CCO), FMR's internal auditor, the independent accountants, the fund's Treasurer and portfolio management personnel, make periodic reports to the Board's committees, as appropriate. The responsibilities of each standing committee, including their oversight responsibilities, are described further under "Standing Committees of the Trustees."
Interested Trustees*:
Correspondence intended for a Trustee who is an interested person may be sent to Fidelity Investments, 245 Summer Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02210.
Name, Year of Birth; Principal Occupations and Other Relevant Experience+
Charles S. Morrison (1960)
Year of Election or Appointment: 2020
Trustee
Mr. Morrison also serves as Trustee of other funds. Previously, Mr. Morrison served as President (2017-2018) and Director (2014-2018) of Fidelity SelectCo, LLC (investment adviser firm), President of Fidelity Management & Research Company (FMR) (investment adviser firm, 2016-2018), a Director of Fidelity Investments Money Management, Inc. (investment adviser firm, 2014-2018), President, Asset Management (2014-2018), Trustee of the Fidelity Equity and High Income Funds (283 funds as of December 2018) (2014-2018), and was an employee of Fidelity Investments. Mr. Morrison also previously served as Vice President of Fidelity's Fixed Income and Asset Allocation Funds (2012-2014), President, Fixed Income (2011-2014), Vice President of Fidelity's Money Market Funds (2005-2009), President, Money Market Group Leader of FMR (2009), and Senior Vice President, Money Market Group of FMR (2004-2009). Mr. Morrison also served as Vice President of Fidelity's Bond Funds (2002-2005), certain Balanced Funds (2002-2005), and certain Asset Allocation Funds (2002-2007), and as Senior Vice President (2002-2005) of Fidelity's Bond Division.
Kathleen Murphy (1963)
Year of Election or Appointment: 2022
Trustee
Chair of the Board of Trustees
Ms. Murphy also serves as Trustee of other funds. Ms. Murphy serves as a Senior Adviser to the Chief Executive Officer of Fidelity Investments (2022-present), member of the Board of Directors of Snyk Technologies (cybersecurity technology, 2022-present), member of the Advisory Board of FliptRX (pharmacy benefits manager, 2022-present), member of the Board of Directors of Fidelity Investments Life Insurance Company (2009-present)), and member of the Board of Directors of Empire Fidelity Investments Life Insurance Company (2009-present). Previously, Ms. Murphy served as President of Personal Investing at Fidelity Investments (2009-2021), Chief Executive Officer of ING U.S. Wealth Management (2003-2008), and Deputy General Counsel, General Counsel and Chief Compliance Officer (1997-2003) of Aetna. Ms. Murphy also serves as Vice Chairman of the Board of Directors of the National Football Foundation (2013-present).
* Determined to be an "Interested Trustee" by virtue of, among other things, his or her affiliation with the trust or various entities under common control with Strategic Advisers.
+ The information includes the Trustee's principal occupation during the last five years and other information relating to the experience, attributes, and skills relevant to the Trustee's qualifications to serve as a Trustee, which led to the conclusion that the Trustee should serve as a Trustee for the fund.
Independent Trustees:
Correspondence intended for an Independent Trustee may be sent to Fidelity Investments, P.O. Box 55235, Boston, Massachusetts 02205-5235.
Name, Year of Birth; Principal Occupations and Other Relevant Experience+
Peter C. Aldrich (1944)
Year of Election or Appointment: 2006
Trustee
Mr. Aldrich also serves as Trustee of other funds. Mr. Aldrich is an independent Director of BLPF GP LLC (general partner of a private fund, 2006-present) and BlackRock US Core Property Fund, Inc. (real estate investment trust, 2006-present). Previously, Mr. Aldrich served as a Managing Member of Poseidon, LLC (foreign private investment, 1998-2004), and Chairman and Managing Member of AEGIS, LLC (foreign private investment, 1997-2004). Mr. Aldrich previously was a founder, Chief Executive Officer, and Chairman of AEW Capital Management, L.P. (then, Aldrich, Eastman and Waltch, L.P.). Mr. Aldrich also served as a Director of LivelyHood, Inc. (private corporation, 2013-2020), a Trustee for the Fidelity Rutland Square Trust (2005-2010), a Director of Zipcar, Inc. (car sharing services, 2001-2009) and as Faculty Chairman of The Research Council on Global Investment of The Conference Board (business and professional education non-profit, 1999-2004). Mr. Aldrich is a Member Emeritus of the Board of Directors of the National Bureau of Economic Research and the Board of Trustees of the Museum of Fine Arts Boston.     
Mary C. Farrell (1949)
Year of Election or Appointment: 2013
Trustee
Ms. Farrell also serves as Trustee of other funds. Ms. Farrell is a Director of the W.R. Berkley Corporation (insurance provider) and Director (2006-present) and Chair (2021-present) of the Howard Gilman Foundation (charitable organization). Previously, Ms. Farrell was Managing Director and Chief Investment Strategist at UBS Wealth Management USA and Co-Head of UBS Wealth Management Investment Strategy & Research Group (2003-2005) and President (2009-2021) of the Howard Gilman Foundation (charitable organization). Ms. Farrell also served as Investment Strategist at PaineWebber (1982-2000) and UBS PaineWebber (2000-2002). Ms. Farrell serves as Chairman of the Board of Trustees of Yale-New Haven Hospital and Vice Chairman of the Yale New Haven Health System Board and previously served as Trustee on the Board of Overseers of the New York University Stern School of Business.
Karen Kaplan (1960)
Year of Election or Appointment: 2006
Trustee
Ms. Kaplan also serves as Trustee of other funds. Ms. Kaplan is Chair (2014-present) and Chief Executive Officer (2013-present) of Hill Holliday (advertising and specialized marketing). Ms. Kaplan is a Member of the Board of Governors of the Chief Executives' Club of Boston (2010-present), Member of the Executive Committee and past Chair of the Greater Boston Chamber of Commerce (2006-present), Advisory Board Member of the National Association of Corporate Directors Chapter (2012-present), Member of the Board of Trustees of the Post Office Square Trust (2012-present), Trustee of the Brigham and Women's Hospital (2016-present), Overseer of the Boston Symphony Orchestra (2014-present), Member of the Board of Directors of The Advertising Council, Inc. (2016-present), Member of the Ron Burton Training Village Executive Board of Advisors (2017-present), Member of the Executive Committee of The Ad Council, Inc. (2019-present), and Member of the Board of Directors of The Ad Club of Boston (2020-present). Previously, Ms. Kaplan served as an Advisory Board Member of Fidelity Rutland Square Trust (2006-2010), Director of The Michaels Companies, Inc. (specialty retailer, 2015-2021), a member of the Clinton Global Initiative (2010-2015), Director of DSM (dba Delta Dental and DentaQuest) (2004-2014), Formal Appointee of the 2015 Baker-Polito Economic Development Council, Director of Vera Bradley Inc. (designer of women';s accessories, 2012-2015), Member of the Board of Directors of the Massachusetts Conference for Women (2008-2015), Member of the Board of Directors of Jobs for Massachusetts (2012-2015), President of the Massachusetts Women's Forum (2008-2010), Treasurer of the Massachusetts Women's Forum (2002-2006), and Vice Chair of the Board of the Massachusetts Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children (2003-2010).
Christine Marcks (1955)
Year of Election or Appointment: 2020
Trustee
Ms. Marcks also serves as Trustee of other Funds. Prior to her retirement, Ms. Marcks served as Chief Executive Officer and President - Prudential Retirement (2007-2017) and Vice President for Rollover and Retirement Income Strategies (2005-2007), Prudential Financial, Inc. (financial services). Previously, Ms. Marcks served as a Member of the Advisory Board of certain Fidelity ® funds (2019-2020), was Senior Vice President and Head of Financial Horizons (2002-2004) and Vice President, Strategic Marketing (2000-2002) of Voya Financial (formerly ING U.S.) (financial services), held numerous positions at Aetna Financial Services (financial services, 1987-2000) and served as an International Economist for the United States Department of the Treasury (1980-1987). Ms. Marcks also serves as a member of the Board of Trustees, Audit Committee and Benefits & Operations Committee of the YMCA Retirement Fund (2018-present), a non-profit organization providing retirement plan benefits to YMCA staff members, and as a member of the Board of Trustees of Assumption College (2019-present).
Heidi L. Steiger (1953)
Year of Election or Appointment: 2017
Trustee
Ms. Steiger also serves as Trustee of other funds. Ms. Steiger serves as Managing Partner of Topridge Associates, LLC (consulting, 2005-present) and a member of the Board of Directors (2022-present) of Live Current Media, Inc. Previously, Ms. Steiger served as a member of the Board of Directors (2013-2021) and member of the Membership and Executive Committee (2017-2021) of Business Executives for National Security (nonprofit), a member of the Board of Directors Chair of the Remuneration Committee of Imagine Intelligent Materials Limited (2019-2021) (technology company), a member of the Advisory Board of the joint degree program in Global Luxury Management at North Carolina State University (Raleigh, NC) and Skema (Paris) (2018-2021), a Non-Executive Director of CrowdBureau Corporation (financial technology company and index provider, 2018-2021), a member of the Global Advisory Board and Of Counsel to Signum Global Advisors (international policy and strategy, 2018-2020), Eastern Region President of The Private Client Reserve of U.S. Bancorp (banking and financial services, 2010-2015), Advisory Director of Berkshire Capital Securities, LLC (financial services, 2009-2010), President and Senior Advisor of Lowenhaupt Global Advisors, LLC (financial services, 2005-2007), and President and Contributing Editor of Worth Magazine (2004-2005) and held a variety of positions at Neuberger Berman Group, LLC (financial services, 1986-2004), including Partner and Executive Vice President and Global Head of Private Asset Management at Neuberger Berman (1999-2004). Ms. Steiger also served as a member of the Board of Directors of Nuclear Electric Insurance Ltd (insurer of nuclear utilities, 2006-2017), a member of the Board of Trustees and Audit Committee of the Eaton Vance Funds (2007-2010), a member of the Board of Directors of Aviva USA (formerly AmerUs) (insurance, 2004-2014), and a member of the Board of Trustees and Audit Committee and Chair of the Investment Committee of CIFG (financial guaranty insurance, 2009-2012), and a member of the Board of Directors of Kin Group Plc (formerly, Fitbug Holdings) (health and technology, 2016-2017).
+ The information includes the Trustee's principal occupation during the last five years and other information relating to the experience, attributes, and skills relevant to the Trustee's qualifications to serve as a Trustee, which led to the conclusion that the Trustee should serve as a Trustee for the fund.
Advisory Board Members and Officers:
Correspondence intended for a Member of the Advisory Board (if any) may be sent to Fidelity Investments, P.O. Box 55235, Boston, Massachusetts 02205-5235. Correspondence intended for an officer or Howard E. Cox, Jr. may be sent to Fidelity Investments, 245 Summer Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02210. Officers appear below in alphabetical order.
Name, Year of Birth; Principal Occupation
Howard E. Cox, Jr. (1944)
Year of Election or Appointment: 2009
Member of the Advisory Board
Mr. Cox also serves as a Member of the Advisory Board of other funds. Mr. Cox is a Partner of Greylock (venture capital, 1971-present) and a Director of Stryker Corporation (medical products and services, 1974-present). Previously, Mr. Cox served as an Advisory Board Member of Fidelity Rutland Square Trust (2006-2010). Mr. Cox also serves as a Member of the Secretary of Defense's Business Board of Directors (2008-present), a Director of Business Executives for National Security (1997-present), a Director of the Brookings Institution (2010-present), a Director of the World Economic Forum's Young Global Leaders Foundation (2009-present), and is a Member of the Harvard Medical School Board of Fellows (2002-present).
Craig S. Brown (1977)
Year of Election or Appointment: 2019
Assistant Treasurer
Mr. Brown also serves as an officer of other funds. Mr. Brown serves as Assistant Treasurer of FIMM, LLC (2021-present) and is an employee of Fidelity Investments (2013-present). Previously, Mr. Brown served as Assistant Treasurer of certain Fidelity ® funds (2019-2022).     
John J. Burke III (1964)
Year of Election or Appointment: 2018
Chief Financial Officer
Mr. Burke also serves as Chief Financial Officer of other funds. Mr. Burke serves as Head of Investment Operations for Fidelity Fund and Investment Operations (2018-present) and is an employee of Fidelity Investments (1998-present). Previously Mr. Burke served as head of Asset Management Investment Operations (2012-2018).     
Margaret Carey (1973)
Year of Election or Appointment: 2023
Assistant Secretary
Ms. Carey also serves as an officer of other funds and as CLO of certain other Fidelity entities. She is a Senior Vice President and Deputy General Counsel of FMR LLC (diversified financial services company, 2019-present), and is an employee of Fidelity Investments.     
Jonathan Davis (1968)
Year of Election or Appointment: 2010
Assistant Treasurer
Mr. Davis also serves as an officer of other funds. Mr. Davis serves as Assistant Treasurer of FIMM, LLC (2021-present), FMR Capital, Inc. (2017-present), FD Funds GP LLC (2021-present), FD Funds Holding LLC (2021-present), and FD Funds Management LLC (2021-present); and is an employee of Fidelity Investments. Previously, Mr. Davis served as Vice President and Associate General Counsel of FMR LLC (diversified financial services company, 2003-2010).     
Laura M. Del Prato (1964)
Year of Election or Appointment: 2018
Assistant Treasurer
Ms. Del Prato also serves as an officer of other funds. Ms. Del Prato serves as Assistant Treasurer of FIMM, LLC (2021-present) and is an employee of Fidelity Investments (2017-present). Previously, Ms. Del Prato served as President and Treasurer of The North Carolina Capital Management Trust: Cash Portfolio and Term Portfolio (2018-2020). Prior to joining Fidelity Investments, Ms. Del Prato served as a Managing Director and Treasurer of the JPMorgan Mutual Funds (2014-2017). Prior to JPMorgan, Ms. Del Prato served as a partner at Cohen Fund Audit Services (accounting firm, 2012-2013) and KPMG LLP (accounting firm, 2004-2012).     
James D. Gryglewicz (1972)
Year of Election or Appointment: 2015
Chief Compliance Officer 
Mr. Gryglewicz also serves as Chief Compliance Officer of other funds. Mr. Gryglewicz serves as Compliance Officer of Strategic Advisers LLC (investment adviser firm, 2015-present), Senior Vice President of Asset Management Compliance (2009-present), and is an employee of Fidelity Investments (2004-present). Previously, Mr. Gryglewicz served as Compliance Officer of Fidelity SelectCo, LLC (investment adviser firm, 2014-2019), and as Chief Compliance Officer of certain Fidelity® funds (2014-2018).     
Colm A. Hogan (1973)
Year of Election or Appointment: 2016
Assistant Treasurer
Mr. Hogan also serves as an officer of other funds. Mr. Hogan serves as Assistant Treasurer of FIMM, LLC (2021-present) and FMR Capital, Inc. (2017-present) and is an employee of Fidelity Investments (2005-present). Previously, Mr. Hogan served as Deputy Treasurer of certain Fidelity ® funds (2016-2020) and Assistant Treasurer of certain Fidelity ® funds (2016-2018).     
Christina H. Lee (1975)
Year of Election or Appointment: 2020
Secretary and Chief Legal Officer
Ms. Lee also serves as Secretary and CLO of other funds. Ms. Lee serves as Vice President, Associate General Counsel (2014-present) and is an employee of Fidelity Investments (2007-present). Previously, Ms. Lee served as Assistant Secretary of certain funds (2018-2019).     
Chris Maher (1972)
Year of Election or Appointment: 2016
Assistant Treasurer
Mr. Maher also serves as an officer of other funds. Mr. Maher serves as Assistant Treasurer of FIMM, LLC (2021-present) and FMR Capital, Inc. (2017-present), and is an employee of Fidelity Investments (2008-present). Previously, Mr. Maher served as Assistant Treasurer of certain funds (2013-2020); Vice President of Asset Management Compliance (2013), Vice President of the Program Management Group of FMR (investment adviser firm, 2010-2013), and Vice President of Valuation Oversight (2008-2010).     
Brett Segaloff (1972)
Year of Election or Appointment: 2021
Anti-Money Laundering (AML) Officer
Mr. Segaloff also serves as an AML Officer of other funds and other related entities. He is Director, Anti-Money Laundering (2007-present) of FMR LLC (diversified financial services company) and is an employee of Fidelity Investments (1996-present).     
Stacie M. Smith (1974)
Year of Election or Appointment: 2020
President and Treasurer
Ms. Smith also serves as an officer of other funds. Ms. Smith serves as Assistant Treasurer of FIMM, LLC (2021-present) and FMR Capital, Inc. (2017-present), is an employee of Fidelity Investments (2009-present), and has served in other fund officer roles. Prior to joining Fidelity Investments, Ms. Smith served as Senior Audit Manager of Ernst & Young LLP (accounting firm, 1996-2009). Previously, Ms. Smith served as Assistant Treasurer (2013-2019) and Deputy Treasurer (2013-2016) of certain Fidelity ® funds.     
Jim Wegmann (1979)
Year of Election or Appointment: 2019
Assistant Treasurer
Mr. Wegmann also serves as an officer of other funds. Mr. Wegmann serves as Assistant Treasurer of FIMM, LLC (2021-present) and is an employee of Fidelity Investments (2011-present). Previously, Mr. Wegmann served as Assistant Treasurer of certain Fidelity ® funds (2019-2021).     
Standing Committees of the Trustees. The Board of Trustees has established two committees to supplement the work of the Board as a whole. The members of each committee are Independent Trustees.
The Audit and Compliance Committee is composed of all of the Independent Trustees, with Ms. Steiger currently serving as Chair. All committee members must be able to read and understand fundamental financial statements, including a company's balance sheet, income statement, and cash flow statement. The committee determines whether at least one member of the committee is an "audit committee financial expert" as defined in rules promulgated by the SEC under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. The committee normally meets in conjunction with in person meetings of the Board of Trustees, or more frequently as called by the Chair or a majority of committee members. The committee meets separately periodically with the fund's Treasurer, the fund's Chief Financial Officer, the fund's CCO, personnel responsible for the internal audit function of FMR LLC, and the fund's outside auditors. The committee has direct responsibility for the appointment, compensation, and oversight of the work of the outside auditors employed by the fund for the purpose of preparing or issuing an audit report or related work. The committee assists the Trustees in overseeing and monitoring: (i) the systems of internal accounting and financial controls of the fund and the fund's service providers, (ii) the financial reporting processes of the fund , (iii) the independence, objectivity and qualification of the auditors to the fund, (iv) the annual audits of the fund's financial statements, and (v) the accounting policies and disclosures of the fund. The committee considers and acts upon (i) the provision by any outside auditor of any non-audit services for any fund, and (ii) the provision by any outside auditor of certain non-audit services to fund service providers and their affiliates to the extent that such approval (in the case of this clause (ii)) is required under applicable regulations (auditor independence regulations) of the SEC. It is responsible for approving all audit engagement fees and terms for the fund and for resolving disagreements between the fund and any outside auditor regarding any fund's financial reporting, and has sole authority to hire and fire any auditor. Auditors of the fund report directly to the committee. The committee will obtain assurance of independence and objectivity from the outside auditors, including a formal written statement delineating all relationships between the auditor and the fund and any service providers consistent with Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (PCAOB) Ethics and Independence Rule 3526, Communication with Audit Committees Concerning Independence. The committee will discuss with the outside auditors any such disclosed relationships and their impact on the auditor's independence and objectivity. The committee will receive reports of compliance with provisions of the auditor independence regulations relating to the hiring of employees or former employees of the outside auditors. It oversees and receives reports on the fund's service providers' internal controls and reviews with management, internal audit personnel of FMR LLC, and outside auditors the adequacy and effectiveness of the fund's and service providers' accounting and financial controls, including: (i) any significant deficiencies or material weaknesses in the design or operation of internal controls over financial reporting that are reasonably likely to adversely affect the fund's ability to record, process, summarize, and report financial data; (ii) any change in the fund's internal control over financial reporting that has materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, the fund's internal control over financial reporting; and (iii) any fraud, whether material or not, that involves management or other employees who have a significant role in the fund's or service provider's internal controls over financial reporting. The committee will review with counsel any legal matters that may have a material impact on the fund's financial statements and any material reports or inquiries received from regulators or governmental agencies. The committee reviews at least annually a report from the outside auditor describing (i) any material issues raised by the most recent internal quality control review, peer review, or PCAOB examination of the auditing firm and (ii) any material issues raised by any inquiry or investigation by governmental or professional authorities of the auditing firm since the most recent report and in each case any steps taken to deal with such issues. The committee will oversee and receive reports on the fund's financial reporting process from the fund's Treasurer and outside auditors and will receive reports from any outside auditor relating to (i) critical accounting policies and practices used by the fund, (ii) alternative accounting treatments that the auditor has discussed with Strategic Advisers, and (iii) other material written communications between the auditor and Strategic Advisers (as determined by the auditor). The committee will discuss with Strategic Advisers, the fund's Treasurer, outside auditors and, if appropriate, internal audit personnel of FMR LLC, their qualitative judgments about the appropriateness and acceptability of accounting principles and financial disclosure practices used or proposed for adoption by the fund. The committee will review with Strategic Advisers, the fund's Treasurer, outside auditors, and internal audit personnel of FMR LLC (to the extent relevant) the results of audits of the fund's financial statements. The committee will discuss regularly and oversee the review of the fund's major internal controls exposures, the steps that have been taken to monitor and control such exposures, and any risk management programs relating to the fund. The committee also oversees the administration and operation of the compliance policies and procedures of the fund and fund's service providers as required by Rule 38a-1 of the 1940 Act. The committee is responsible for the review and approval of policies and procedures relating to (i) provisions of the Code of Ethics, (ii) anti-money laundering requirements, (iii) compliance with investment restrictions and limitations, (iv) privacy, (v) recordkeeping, and (vi) other compliance policies and procedures which are not otherwise delegated to another committee of the Board of Trustees or reserved to the Board itself. The committee has responsibility for recommending to the Board the designation of a CCO of the fund. The committee serves as the primary point of contact between the CCO and the Board, it oversees the annual performance review and compensation of the CCO and, if required, makes recommendations to the Board with respect to the removal of the appointed CCO. The committee receives reports on significant correspondence with regulators or governmental agencies, employee complaints or published reports which raise concerns regarding compliance matters, and copies of significant non-routine correspondence with the SEC. The committee receives reports from the CCO including the annual report concerning the fund's compliance policies as required by Rule 38a-1 and quarterly reports in respect of any breaches of fiduciary duty or violations of federal securities laws.
The Governance and Nominating Committee is composed of all of the Independent Trustees, with Ms. Farrell currently serving as Chair. The committee meets as called by the Chair. With respect to fund governance and board administration matters, the committee periodically reviews procedures of the Board of Trustees and its committees (including committee charters) and periodically reviews compensation of Independent Trustees. The committee monitors corporate governance matters and makes recommendations to the Board of Trustees on the frequency and structure of the Board of Trustee meetings and on any other aspect of Board procedures. It reviews the performance of legal counsel employed by the funds and the Independent Trustees. On behalf of the Independent Trustees, the committee will make such findings and determinations as to the independence of counsel for the Independent Trustees as may be necessary or appropriate under applicable regulations or otherwise. The committee is also responsible for Board administrative matters applicable to Independent Trustees, such as expense reimbursement policies and compensation for attendance at meetings, conferences and other events. The committee monitors compliance with, acts as the administrator of, and makes determinations in respect of, the provisions of the Statement of Policy Relating to Personal Investing by the Independent Trustees and Independent Advisory Board Members. The committee monitors the functioning of each Board committee and makes recommendations for any changes, including the creation or elimination of standing or ad hoc Board committees. The committee monitors regulatory and other developments to determine whether to recommend modifications to the committee's responsibilities or other Trustee policies and procedures in light of rule changes, reports concerning "best practices" in corporate governance and other developments in mutual fund governance. The committee recommends that the Board establish such special or ad hoc Board committees as may be desirable or necessary from time to time in order to address ethical, legal, or other matters that may arise. The committee also oversees the annual self-evaluation of the Board of Trustees and establishes procedures to allow it to exercise this oversight function. In conducting this oversight, the committee shall address all matters that it considers relevant to the performance of the Board of Trustees and shall report the results of its evaluation to the Board of Trustees, including any recommended amendments to the principles of governance, and any recommended changes to the fund's or the Board of Trustees' policies, procedures, and structures. The committee reviews periodically the size and composition of the Board of Trustees as a whole and recommends, if necessary, measures to be taken so that the Board of Trustees reflects the appropriate balance of knowledge, experience, skills, expertise, and diversity required for the Board as a whole and contains at least the minimum number of Independent Trustees required by law. The committee makes nominations for the election or appointment of Independent Trustees and for membership on committees. The committee shall have authority to retain and terminate any third-party advisers, including authority to approve fees and other retention terms. Such advisers may include search firms to identify Independent Trustee candidates and board compensation consultants. The committee may conduct or authorize investigations into or studies of matters within the committee's scope of responsibilities, and may retain, at the fund's expense, such independent counsel or other advisers as it deems necessary. The committee will consider nominees to the Board of Trustees recommended by shareholders based upon the criteria applied to candidates presented to the committee by a search firm or other source. Recommendations, along with appropriate background material concerning the candidate that demonstrates his or her ability to serve as an Independent Trustee of the fund, should be submitted to the Chair of the committee at the address maintained for communications with Independent Trustees. If the committee retains a search firm, the Chair will generally forward all such submissions to the search firm for evaluation.
During the fiscal year ended February 28, 2023, each committee held the number of meetings shown in the table below:
COMMITTEE
NUMBER OF MEETINGS HELD
Audit Committee
5
Governance and Nominating Committee
3
The following table sets forth information describing the dollar range of equity securities beneficially owned by each Trustee in the fund and in all funds in the aggregate within the same fund family overseen by the Trustee for the calendar year ended December 31, 2022.
Interested Trustees
DOLLAR RANGE OF
FUND SHARES
Charles S Morrison
Kathleen Murphy
 
 
Strategic Advisers® Fidelity® International Fund
none
none
 
 
 
AGGREGATE DOLLAR RANGE OF
FUND SHARES IN ALL FUNDS
OVERSEEN WITHIN FUND FAMILY
over $100,000
over $100,000
 
 
Independent Trustees
DOLLAR RANGE OF
FUND SHARES
Peter C Aldrich
Mary C Farrell
Karen Kaplan
Christine Marcks
Strategic Advisers® Fidelity® International Fund
none
none
none
none
 
AGGREGATE DOLLAR RANGE OF
FUND SHARES IN ALL FUNDS
OVERSEEN WITHIN FUND FAMILY
over $100,000
none
over $100,000
none
DOLLAR RANGE OF
FUND SHARES
Heidi L Steiger
 
 
 
Strategic Advisers® Fidelity® International Fund
none
 
 
 
 
AGGREGATE DOLLAR RANGE OF
FUND SHARES IN ALL FUNDS
OVERSEEN WITHIN FUND FAMILY
over $100,000
 
 
 
The following table sets forth information describing the compensation of each Trustee and Member of the Advisory Board (if any) for his or her services for the fiscal year ended February 28, 2023, or calendar year ended December 31, 2022, as applicable.
Compensation Table (A)
AGGREGATE
COMPENSATION
FROM A FUND
 
Peter C Aldrich
 
 
Mary C Farrell
 
 
Karen Kaplan
 
 
Christine Marcks
 
Strategic Advisers® Fidelity® International Fund
$
20,150
$
23,189
$
20,150
$
20,150
TOTAL COMPENSATION
FROM THE FUND COMPLEX (B)
$
297,500
$
342,500
$
297,500
$
297,500
AGGREGATE
COMPENSATION
FROM A FUND
 
Heidi L Steiger
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Strategic Advisers® Fidelity® International Fund
$
23,519
 
 
 
TOTAL COMPENSATION
FROM THE FUND COMPLEX (B)
$
347,500
 
 
 
(A) Charles S. Morrison, Kathleen Murphy, and Howard E. Cox, Jr. are interested persons and are compensated by Strategic Advisers or an affiliate (including FMR).
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                               
 
(B) Reflects compensation received for the calendar year ended December 31, 2022, for 14 funds of one trust. Compensation figures include cash and may include amounts elected to be deferred.
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                               
 
As of February 28, 2023, the Trustees, Members of the Advisory Board (if any), and officers of the fund owned, in the aggregate, less than 1% of each class's total outstanding shares, with respect to the fund.
CONTROL OF INVESTMENT ADVISERS
FMR LLC, as successor by merger to FMR Corp., is the ultimate parent company of Strategic Advisers, FIAM, FMR Investment Management (UK) Limited (FMR UK), Fidelity Management & Research (Hong Kong) Limited (FMR H.K.), and Fidelity Management & Research (Japan) Limited (FMR Japan). The voting common shares of FMR LLC are divided into two series. Series B is held predominantly by members of the Johnson family, including Abigail P. Johnson, directly or through trusts, and is entitled to 49% of the vote on any matter acted upon by the voting common shares. Series A is held predominantly by non-Johnson family member employees of FMR LLC and its affiliates and is entitled to 51% of the vote on any such matter. The Johnson family group and all other Series B shareholders have entered into a shareholders' voting agreement under which all Series B shares will be voted in accordance with the majority vote of Series B shares. Under the 1940 Act, control of a company is presumed where one individual or group of individuals owns more than 25% of the voting securities of that company. Therefore, through their ownership of voting common shares and the execution of the shareholders' voting agreement, members of the Johnson family may be deemed, under the 1940 Act, to form a controlling group with respect to FMR LLC.
At present, the primary business activities of FMR LLC and its subsidiaries are: (i) the provision of investment advisory, management, shareholder, investment information and assistance and certain fiduciary services for individual and institutional investors; (ii) the provision of securities brokerage services; (iii) the management and development of real estate; and (iv) the investment in and operation of a number of emerging businesses.
FIAM is a registered investment adviser. FMR LLC is the ultimate parent company of FIAM. Information regarding the ownership of FMR LLC is disclosed above.
FIL Limited, a Bermuda company formed in 1968, is the ultimate parent company of FIA and FIA(UK). Abigail P. Johnson, other Johnson family members, and various trusts for the benefit of the Johnson family own, directly or indirectly, more than 25% of the voting common stock of FIL Limited. At present, the primary business activities of FIL Limited and its subsidiaries are the provision of investment advisory services to non-U.S. investment companies and private accounts investing in securities throughout the world.
Geode, a registered investment adviser, is a subsidiary of Geode Capital Holdings LLC. Geode was founded in January 2001 to develop and manage quantitative investment strategies and to provide advisory and sub-advisory services.
Strategic Advisers, the sub-adviser(s), the sub-subadviser(s) (if any), (the Investment Advisers), Fidelity Distributors Company LLC (FDC), and the fund have adopted codes of ethics under Rule 17j-1 of the 1940 Act that set forth employees' fiduciary responsibilities regarding the fund, establish procedures for personal investing, and restrict certain transactions. Employees subject to the codes of ethics, including the Investment Advisers' investment personnel, may invest in securities for their own investment accounts, including securities that may be purchased or held by the fund.
MANAGEMENT CONTRACT
The fund has entered into a management contract with Strategic Advisers, pursuant to which Strategic Advisers furnishes investment advisory and other services.
The fund's initial shareholder approved a proposal permitting Strategic Advisers to enter into new or amended sub-advisory agreements with one or more unaffiliated sub-advisers without obtaining shareholder approval of such agreements, subject to conditions of an exemptive order that has been granted by the SEC (Exemptive Order). One of the conditions of the Exemptive Order requires the Board of Trustees to approve any such agreement. Subject to oversight by the Board of Trustees, Strategic Advisers has the ultimate responsibility to oversee the fund's sub-advisers and recommend their hiring, termination, and replacement. In the event the Board of Trustees approves a sub-advisory agreement with a new unaffiliated sub-adviser, shareholders will be provided with information about the new sub-adviser and sub-advisory agreement within ninety days of appointment.
Strategic Advisers has retained FIAM LLC, FIL Investment Advisors, and Geode Capital Management, LLC to serve as sub-advisers for the fund.
FIA, in turn, has retained FIA(UK) to serve as a sub-subadviser for the fund.
FIAM, in turn, has retained FMR UK, FMR H.K., and FMR Japan to serve as sub-subadvisers for the fund.
The sub-advisers do not sponsor the fund.
It is not possible to predict the extent to which the fund's assets will be invested by a particular sub-adviser at any given time and one or more sub-advisers may not be managing any assets for the fund at any given time.
Management and Sub-Advisory Services. Under the terms of its management contract with the fund, Strategic Advisers acts as investment adviser and, subject to the supervision of the Board of Trustees, directs the investments of the fund in accordance with its investment objective, policies and limitations. Strategic Advisers is authorized, in its discretion, to allocate the fund's assets pursuant to its investment strategy. Strategic Advisers or its affiliates provide the fund with all necessary office facilities and personnel for servicing the fund's investments, compensate all officers of the fund and all Trustees who are interested persons of the trust or of Strategic Advisers, and compensate all personnel of the fund or Strategic Advisers performing services relating to research, statistical and investment activities.
In addition, Strategic Advisers or its affiliates, subject to the supervision of the Board of Trustees, provide the management and administrative services necessary for the operation of the fund. These services include providing facilities for maintaining the fund's organization; supervising relations with custodians, transfer and pricing agents, accountants, underwriters and other persons dealing with the fund; preparing all general shareholder communications and conducting shareholder relations; maintaining the fund's records and the registration of the fund's shares under federal securities laws and making necessary filings under state securities laws; developing management and shareholder services for the fund; and furnishing reports, evaluations and analyses on a variety of subjects to the Trustees.
Under its respective sub-advisory agreement, and subject to the supervision of the Board of Trustees, each sub-adviser directs the investment of its allocated portion of the fund's assets in accordance with the fund's investment objective, policies and limitations.
Management-Related Expenses. In addition to the management fee payable to Strategic Advisers, the fund pays all of its expenses that are not assumed by Strategic Advisers or its affiliates. Under the terms of separate agreements between Strategic Advisers and the fund's transfer agent and service agent, Strategic Advisers or an affiliate is responsible for the payment of any fees associated with the transfer agent and service agent agreements. The fund pays for the typesetting, printing, and mailing of its proxy materials to shareholders, legal expenses, and the fees of the custodian, auditor, and Independent Trustees. The fund's management contract further provides that the fund will pay for typesetting, printing, and mailing prospectuses, statements of additional information, notices, and reports to shareholders. Other expenses paid by the fund include interest, taxes, brokerage commissions, fees and expenses associated with the fund's securities lending program, if applicable, the fund's proportionate share of insurance premiums and Investment Company Institute dues, and the costs of registering shares under federal securities laws and making necessary filings under state securities laws. The fund is also liable for such non-recurring expenses as may arise, including costs of any litigation to which the fund may be a party, and any obligation it may have to indemnify its officers and Trustees with respect to litigation.
Management Fee.
For the services of Strategic Advisers under the management contract, the fund pays Strategic Advisers a monthly management fee calculated by adding the annual rate of 0.25% of the fund's average daily net assets throughout the month plus the total fees payable monthly to the fund's sub-advisers, if any, pursuant to the applicable investment sub-advisory agreement(s); provided, however, that the fund's maximum aggregate annual management fee will not exceed 1.00% of the fund's average daily net assets.
In addition, Strategic Advisers has contractually agreed to waive a portion of the fund's management fee in an amount equal to 0.25% of the average daily net assets of the fund until September 30, 2025. The fee waiver will increase returns.
The following table shows the amount of management fees paid by the fund to Strategic Advisers for the fiscal year(s) ended February 28, 2023, 2022, and 2021. In addition, the table shows the amount of waivers reducing management fees.
Fund(s)
Fiscal
Years
Ended
 
Amount of Waivers Reducing Management Fees
 
Management Fees Paid to
Investment Adviser
Management Fees Paid as a % of Average Net Assets of the Fund
Strategic Advisers® Fidelity® International Fund
2023
$
50,971,849
$
13,447,658
0.07%
 
2022
$
55,446,853
$
9,371,635
0.04%
 
2021
$
30,572,027
$
2,489,199
0.02%
Strategic Advisers may, from time to time, voluntarily reimburse all or a portion of a fund's or, in the case of a multiple class fund, a class's operating expenses. Strategic Advisers retains the ability to be repaid for these expense reimbursements in the amount that expenses fall below the limit prior to the end of the fiscal year.
Expense reimbursements will increase returns, and repayment of the reimbursement will decrease returns.
Sub-Adviser - FIAM. The fund and Strategic Advisers have entered into a sub-advisory agreement with FIAM pursuant to which FIAM may provide investment advisory services for the fund. Under the terms of the sub-advisory agreement, for providing investment management services to the fund, Strategic Advisers pays FIAM fees based on the net assets of the portion of the fund managed by FIAM pursuant to a separately negotiated investment mandate (a "Strategy"). The fees are calculated using the effective rate applicable to Aggregated Assets managed by FIAM under a particular Strategy. Aggregated Assets for a particular Strategy means the assets of all registered investment companies managed by Strategic Advisers that are managed by FIAM pursuant to that Strategy.
The following fee rate schedules apply to the mandates below. 
Emerging Markets : 0.99% of the first $150 million in assets and 0.95% on any amount in excess of $150 million in assets.
International Equity Value : 0.34% on all assets.
Select Emerging Markets Equity : 0.30% on all assets.
Select International : 0.24% on all assets.
Select International Plus : 0.24% on all assets.
On behalf of the fund, FIAM, in turn, has entered into sub-subadvisory agreement(s) with FMR UK, FMR H.K., and FMR Japan. Pursuant to the sub-subadvisory agreement, FIAM may receive from the sub-subadviser investment research and advice on issuers outside the United States (non-discretionary services) and FIAM may grant the sub-subadviser investment management authority and the authority to buy and sell securities if FIAM believes it would be beneficial to the fund (discretionary services). FIAM, not the fund, pays the sub-subadviser(s). 
Sub-Adviser - FIA. The fund and Strategic Advisers have entered into a sub-advisory agreement with FIA pursuant to which FIA may provide investment advisory services for the fund. Under the terms of the sub-advisory agreement, for providing investment management services to the fund, Strategic Advisers pays FIA fees based on the net assets of the portion of the fund managed by FIA pursuant to a separately negotiated Strategy. The fees are calculated using the effective rate applicable to Aggregated Assets managed by FIA under a particular Strategy. Aggregated Assets for a particular Strategy means the assets of all registered investment companies managed by Strategic Advisers that are managed by FIA pursuant to that Strategy.
The following fee rate schedule applies to the mandate below. 
Regiona l: 0.55% of the first $100 million in assets; 0.52% on the next $200 million in assets; 0.50% on the next $200 million in assets; and 0.40% on any amount in excess of $500 million in assets.
On behalf of the fund, FIA, in turn, has entered into a sub-subadvisory agreement with FIA(UK). Pursuant to the sub-subadvisory agreement, FIA may receive from the sub-subadviser investment research and advice on issuers outside the United States (non-discretionary services) and FIA may grant the sub-subadviser investment management authority and the authority to buy and sell securities if FIA believes it would be beneficial to the fund (discretionary services). FIA, not the fund, pays FIA(UK).
Sub-Adviser - Geode. The fund and Strategic Advisers have entered into a sub-advisory agreement with Geode pursuant to which Geode may provide investment advisory services for the fund. Under the terms of the sub-advisory agreement, for providing investment management services to the fund, Strategic Advisers pays Geode fees based on the net assets of the portion of the fund managed by Geode pursuant to a separately negotiated Strategy. The fees are calculated using the effective rate applicable to Aggregated Assets managed by Geode under a particular Strategy. Aggregated Assets for a particular Strategy means the assets of all registered investment companies managed by Strategic Advisers that are managed by Geode pursuant to that Strategy.
The following fee rate schedules apply to the mandates below. 
International Factor-Based : 0.15% of the first $500 million in assets; 0.125% of the next $500 million in assets; and 0.10% on any amount in excess of $1 billion in assets.
International Put Spread : 0.175% of the first $500 million in assets; 0.15% of the next $500 million in assets; and 0.125% on any amount in excess of $1 billion in assets.
The following table shows the amount of sub-advisory fees paid by Strategic Advisers, on behalf of the fund, to FIAM for the fiscal year(s) ended February 28, 2023, 2022, and 2021. 
Fund
Fiscal Years
Ended
 
Sub-Advisory
Fees Paid to
FIAM
Sub-Advisory
Fees
Paid to
FIAM
as a % of
Average Net
Assets of the
Fund
Strategic Advisers® Fidelity® International Fund
2023
$
13,449,113
0.07%
 
2022
$
9,368,222
0.04%
 
2021
$
2,490,653
0.02%
No sub-advisory fees were paid by Strategic Advisers, on behalf of the fund, to FIA or Geode for the fiscal years ended February 28, 2023, 2022, and 2021.
Expense estimates, which are accrued in the period to which they relate and adjusted when actual amounts are known, will cause differences between the amount of the management fees paid by the fund to Strategic Advisers and the aggregate amount of the sub-advisory fees paid by Strategic Advisers, on behalf of the fund, to the sub-adviser(s).
Wilfred Chilangwa and John Curtin are employees of Strategic Advisers, a subsidiary of FMR LLC and an affiliate of FMR. Strategic Advisers is the adviser to the fund.  
Mr. Chilangwa is Lead Portfolio Manager of the fund and receives compensation for those services. Mr. Curtin is Co-Portfolio Manager of the fund and receives compensation for those services. As of February 28, 2023, portfolio manager compensation generally consists of a fixed base salary determined periodically (typically annually), a bonus, and in certain cases, participation in several types of equity-based compensation plans. A portion of each portfolio manager's compensation may be deferred based on criteria established by Strategic Advisers or at the election of the portfolio manager.  
Each portfolio manager's base salary is determined by level of responsibility and tenure at Strategic Advisers or its affiliates. The primary components of each portfolio manager's bonus are based on (i) the pre-tax investment performance of the portfolio manager's fund(s) and account(s) measured against a benchmark index and a defined peer group assigned to each fund or account, and (ii) the investment performance of a broad range of Strategic Advisers® funds and accounts, including the fund. Accounts may include model portfolios designed for asset allocation, retirement planning, or tax-sensitive goals. The pre-tax investment performance of each portfolio manager's fund(s) and account(s) is weighted according to the portfolio manager's tenure on those fund(s) and account(s), and the average asset size of those fund(s) and account(s) over the portfolio manager's tenure. Each component is calculated separately over a measurement period that initially is contemporaneous with the portfolio manager's tenure, but that eventually encompasses rolling periods of up to five years for the comparison to a benchmark index and peer group. A smaller subjective component of the bonus is based on each portfolio manager's overall contribution to management of Strategic Advisers. The portion of each portfolio manager's bonus that is linked to the investment performance of the portfolio manager's fund is based on the fund's pre-tax investment performance measured against the MSCI EAFE Index (net MA tax), and the pre-tax investment performance of the fund measured against the Morningstar® Foreign Large Blend Category. Each portfolio manager may be compensated under equity-based compensation plans linked to increases or decreases in the net asset value of the stock of FMR LLC, Strategic Advisers' parent company. FMR LLC is a diverse financial services company engaged in various activities that include fund management, brokerage, retirement, and employer administrative services.  
A portfolio manager's compensation plan may give rise to potential conflicts of interest. Although investors in the fund may invest through either tax-deferred accounts or taxable accounts, a portfolio manager's compensation is linked to the pre-tax performance of the fund, rather than its after-tax performance. A portfolio manager's base pay tends to increase with additional and more complex responsibilities that include increased assets under management and a portion of the bonus relates to marketing efforts, which together indirectly link compensation to sales. When a portfolio manager takes over a fund or an account, the time period over which performance is measured may be adjusted to provide a transition period in which to assess the portfolio. The management of multiple funds and accounts (including proprietary accounts) may give rise to potential conflicts of interest if the funds and accounts have different objectives, benchmarks, time horizons, and fees as a portfolio manager must allocate time and investment ideas across multiple funds and accounts. In addition, a fund's trade allocation policies and procedures may give rise to conflicts of interest if the fund's orders do not get fully executed due to being aggregated with those of other accounts managed by Strategic Advisers or an affiliate. A portfolio manager may execute transactions for another fund or account that may adversely impact the value of securities held by a fund. Securities selected for other funds or accounts may outperform the securities selected for the fund. Portfolio managers may be permitted to invest in the funds they manage, even if a fund is closed to new investors. Trading in personal accounts, which may give rise to potential conflicts of interest, is restricted by a fund's Code of Ethics.
The following table provides information relating to other accounts managed by Wilfred Chilangwa as of February 28, 2023:
 
Registered Investment Companies *
 
Other Pooled
Investment
Vehicles
 
Other
Accounts**
Number of Accounts Managed
4
 
none
 
41
Number of Accounts Managed with Performance-Based Advisory Fees
none
 
none
 
none
Assets Managed (in millions)
$52,000
 
none
 
$52,496
Assets Managed with Performance-Based Advisory Fees (in millions)
none
 
none
 
none
* Includes Strategic Advisers ®  Fidelity ®  International Fund ($20,318 (in millions) assets managed). The amount of assets managed of the fund reflects trades and other assets as of the close of the business day prior to the fund's fiscal year-end.
** Includes assets invested in registered investment companies managed by the portfolio manager.
As of February 28, 2023, the dollar range of shares of Strategic Advisers ®  Fidelity ®  International Fund beneficially owned by Mr. Chilangwa was $50,001 - $100,000.
The following table provides information relating to other accounts managed by John Curtin as of February 28, 2023:
 
Registered Investment Companies *
 
Other Pooled
Investment
Vehicles
 
Other
Accounts**
Number of Accounts Managed
1
 
none
 
32
Number of Accounts Managed with Performance-Based Advisory Fees
none
 
none
 
none
Assets Managed (in millions)
$20,318
 
none
 
$5,750
Assets Managed with Performance-Based Advisory Fees (in millions)
none
 
none
 
none
* Includes Strategic Advisers ®  Fidelity ®  International Fund ($20,318 (in millions) assets managed). The amount of assets managed of the fund reflects trades and other assets as of the close of the business day prior to the fund's fiscal year-end.
** Includes assets invested in registered investment companies managed by the portfolio manager.
As of February 28, 2022, the dollar range of shares of Strategic Advisers ®  Fidelity ®  International Fund beneficially owned by Mr. Curtin was $50,001 - $100,000.
PROXY VOTING GUIDELINES
Proxy Voting - Strategic Advisers.  
On behalf of the fund, the Board of Trustees of the trust has delegated proxy voting authority to Strategic Advisers. Strategic Advisers has established the following Proxy Voting Guidelines.  
I. General Principles
A. Strategic Advisers generally intends to vote shares of underlying funds held by a fund using echo voting procedures (that is, in the same proportion as the holders of all other shares of the particular underlying fund).  
B. Any proposals not covered by paragraph A above or other special circumstances will be voted pursuant to the Proxy Voting Guidelines included as Attachment A.  
Attachment A
I. Introduction  
These guidelines are intended to help Fidelity's customers and the companies in which Fidelity invests understand how Fidelity votes proxies to further the values that have sustained Fidelity for over 75 years. Our core principles sit at the heart of our voting philosophy; putting our customers' and fund shareholders' long-term interests first and investing in companies that share our approach to creating value over the long-term guides everything we do. Fidelity generally adheres to these guidelines in voting proxies and our Stewardship Principles serve as the foundation for these guidelines. Our evaluation of proxies reflects information from many sources, including management or shareholders of a company presenting a proposal and proxy voting advisory firms. Fidelity maintains the flexibility to vote individual proxies based on our assessment of each situation.  
In evaluating proxies, Fidelity considers factors that are financially material to individual companies and investing funds' investment objectives and strategies in support of maximizing long-term shareholder value. This includes considering the company's approach to financial and operational, human, and natural capital and the impact of that approach on the potential future value of the business.
Fidelity will vote on proposals not specifically addressed by these guidelines based on an evaluation of a proposal's likelihood to enhance the long-term economic returns or profitability of the company or to maximize long-term shareholder value. Fidelity will not be influenced by business relationships or outside perspectives that may conflict with the interests of the funds and their shareholders.
II. Board of Directors and Corporate Governance  
Directors of public companies play a critical role in ensuring that a company and its management team serve the interests of its shareholders. Fidelity believes that through proxy voting, it can help ensure accountability of management teams and boards of directors, align management and shareholder interests, and monitor and assess the degree of transparency and disclosure with respect to executive compensation and board actions affecting shareholders' rights. The following general guidelines are intended to reflect these proxy voting principles.  
A. Election of Directors  
Fidelity will generally support director nominees in elections where all directors are unopposed (uncontested elections), except where board composition raises concerns, and/or where a director clearly appears to have failed to exercise reasonable judgment or otherwise failed to sufficiently protect the interests of shareholders.  
Fidelity will evaluate board composition and generally will oppose the election of certain or all directors if, by way of example:  
1. Inside or affiliated directors serve on boards that are not composed of a majority of independent directors.
2. There are no women on the board or if a board of ten or more members has fewer than two women directors.
3. There are no racially or ethnically diverse directors.
4. The director is a public company CEO who sits on more than two unaffiliated public company boards.
5. The director, other than a CEO, sits on more than five unaffiliated public company boards.
Fidelity will evaluate board actions and generally will oppose the election of certain or all directors if, by way of example:
1. The director attended fewer than 75% of the total number of meetings of the board and its committees on which the director served during the company's prior fiscal year, absent extenuating circumstances.  
2. The company made a commitment to modify a proposal or practice to conform to these guidelines, and failed to act on that commitment.  
3. For reasons described below under the sections entitled Compensation and Anti-Takeover Provisions and Director Elections.
B. Contested Director Elections  
On occasion, directors are forced to compete for election against outside director nominees (contested elections). Fidelity believes that strong management creates long-term shareholder value. As a result, Fidelity generally will vote in support of management of companies in which the funds' assets are invested. Fidelity will vote its proxy on a case-by-case basis in a contested election, taking into consideration a number of factors, amongst others:  
1. Management's track record and strategic plan for enhancing shareholder value;
2. The long-term performance of the company compared to its industry peers; and
3. The qualifications of the shareholder's and management's nominees.
Fidelity will vote for the outcome it believes has the best prospects for maximizing shareholder value over the long-term.
C. Cumulative Voting Rights  
Under cumulative voting, each shareholder may exercise the number of votes equal to the number of shares owned multiplied by the number of directors up for election. Shareholders may cast all of their votes for a single nominee (or multiple nominees in varying amounts). With regular (non-cumulative) voting, by contrast, shareholders cannot allocate more than one vote per share to any one director nominee. Fidelity believes that cumulative voting can be detrimental to the overall strength of a board. Generally, therefore, Fidelity will oppose the introduction of, and support the elimination of, cumulative voting rights.  
D. Classified Boards  
A classified board is one that elects only a percentage of its members each year (usually one-third of directors are elected to serve a three-year term). This means that at each annual meeting only a subset of directors is up for re-election. Fidelity believes that, in general, classified boards are not as accountable to shareholders as declassified boards. For this and other reasons, Fidelity generally will oppose a board's adoption of a classified board structure and support declassification of existing boards.  
E. Independent Chairperson  
In general, Fidelity believes that boards should have a process and criteria for selecting the board chair, and will oppose shareholder proposals calling for, or recommending the appointment of, a non-executive or independent chairperson. If, however, based on particular facts and circumstances, Fidelity believes that appointment of a non-executive or independent chairperson appears likely to further the interests of shareholders and promote effective oversight of management by the board of directors, Fidelity will consider voting to support a proposal for an independent chairperson under such circumstances.  
F. Majority Voting in Director Elections  
In general, Fidelity supports proposals calling for directors to be elected by a majority of votes cast if the proposal permits election by a plurality in the case of contested elections (where, for example, there are more nominees than board seats). Fidelity may oppose a majority voting shareholder proposal where a company's board has adopted a policy requiring the resignation of an incumbent director who fails to receive the support of a majority of the votes cast in an uncontested election.  
G. Proxy Access  
Proxy access proposals generally require a company to amend its by-laws to allow a qualifying shareholder or group of shareholders to nominate directors on a company's proxy ballot. Fidelity believes that certain safeguards as to ownership threshold and duration of ownership are important to assure that proxy access is not misused by those without a significant economic interest in the company or those driven by short term goals. Fidelity will evaluate proxy access proposals on a case-by-case basis, but generally will support proposals that include ownership of at least 3% (5% in the case of small-cap companies) of the company's shares outstanding for at least three years; limit the number of directors that eligible shareholders may nominate to 20% of the board; and limit to 20 the number of shareholders that may form a nominating group.  
H. Indemnification of Directors and Officers  
In many instances there are sound reasons to indemnify officers and directors, so that they may perform their duties without the distraction of unwarranted litigation or other legal process. Fidelity generally supports charter and by-law amendments expanding the indemnification of officers or directors, or limiting their liability for breaches of care unless Fidelity is dissatisfied with their performance or the proposal is accompanied by anti-takeover provisions (see Anti-Takeover Provisions and Shareholders Rights Plans below).  
III. Compensation  
Incentive compensation plans can be complicated and many factors are considered when evaluating such plans. Fidelity evaluates such plans based on protecting shareholder interests and our historical knowledge of the company and its management.  
A. Equity Compensation Plans  
Fidelity encourages the use of reasonably designed equity compensation plans that align the interest of management with those of shareholders by providing officers and employees with incentives to increase long-term shareholder value. Fidelity considers whether such plans are too dilutive to existing shareholders because dilution reduces the voting power or economic interest of existing shareholders as a result of an increase in shares available for distribution to employees in lieu of cash compensation. Fidelity will generally oppose equity compensation plans or amendments to authorize additional shares under such plans if:  
1. The company grants stock options and equity awards in a given year at a rate higher than a benchmark rate ("burn rate") considered appropriate by Fidelity and there were no circumstances specific to the company or the compensation plans that leads Fidelity to conclude that the rate of awards is otherwise acceptable.  
2. The plan includes an evergreen provision, which is a feature that provides for an automatic increase in the shares available for grant under an equity compensation plan on a regular basis.  
3. The plan provides for the acceleration of vesting of equity compensation even though an actual change in control may not occur.  
As to stock option plans, considerations include the following:
1. Pricing: We believe that options should be priced at 100% of fair market value on the date they are granted. We generally oppose options priced at a discount to the market, although the price may be as low as 85% of fair market value if the discount is expressly granted in lieu of salary or cash bonus.  
2. Re-pricing: An "out-of-the-money" (or underwater) option has an exercise price that is higher than the current price of the stock. We generally oppose the re-pricing of underwater options because it is not consistent with a policy of offering options as a form of long-term compensation. Fidelity also generally opposes a stock option plan if the board or compensation committee has re-priced options outstanding in the past two years without shareholder approval.  
Fidelity generally will support a management proposal to exchange, re-price or tender for cash, outstanding options if the proposed exchange, re-pricing, or tender offer is consistent with the interests of shareholders, taking into account a variety of factors such as:  
1. Whether the proposal excludes senior management and directors;
2. Whether the exchange or re-pricing proposal is value neutral to shareholders based upon an acceptable pricing model;
3. The company's relative performance compared to other companies within the relevant industry or industries;
4. Economic and other conditions affecting the relevant industry or industries in which the company competes; and
5. Any other facts or circumstances relevant to determining whether an exchange or re-pricing proposal is consistent with the interests of shareholders.  
B. Employee Stock Purchase Plans  
These plans are designed to allow employees to purchase company stock at a discounted price and receive favorable tax treatment when the stock is sold. Fidelity generally will support employee stock purchase plans if the minimum stock purchase price is equal to or greater than 85% (or at least 75% in the case of non-U.S. companies where a lower minimum stock purchase price is equal to the prevailing "best practices" in that market) of the stock's fair market value and the plan constitutes a reasonable effort to encourage broad based participation in the company's stock.  
IV. Advisory Vote on Executive Compensation (Say on Pay) and Frequency of Say on Pay Vote  
Current law requires companies to allow shareholders to cast non-binding votes on the compensation for named executive officers, as well as the frequency of such votes. Fidelity generally will support proposals to ratify executive compensation unless the compensation appears misaligned with shareholder interests or is otherwise problematic, taking into account:  
- The actions taken by the board or compensation committee in the previous year, including whether the company re-priced or exchanged outstanding stock options without shareholder approval; adopted or extended a golden parachute without shareholder approval; or adequately addressed concerns communicated by Fidelity in the process of discussing executive compensation;  
- The alignment of executive compensation and company performance relative to peers; and
- The structure of the compensation program, including factors such as whether incentive plan metrics are appropriate, rigorous and transparent; whether the long-term element of the compensation program is evaluated over at least a three-year period; the sensitivity of pay to below median performance; the amount and nature of non-performance-based compensation; the justification and rationale behind paying discretionary bonuses; the use of stock ownership guidelines and amount of executive stock ownership; and how well elements of compensation are disclosed.  
When presented with a frequency of Say on Pay vote, Fidelity generally will support holding an annual advisory vote on Say on Pay.  
A. Compensation Committee  
Directors serving on the compensation committee of the Board have a special responsibility to ensure that management is appropriately compensated and that compensation, among other things, fairly reflects the performance of the company. Fidelity believes that compensation should align with company performance as measured by key business metrics. Compensation policies should align the interests of executives with those of shareholders. Further, the compensation program should be disclosed in a transparent and timely manner.  
Fidelity will oppose the election of directors on the compensation committee if:
1.The compensation appears misaligned with shareholder interests or is otherwise problematic and results in concerns with:
a)The alignment of executive compensation and company performance relative to peers; and
b)The structure of the compensation program, including factors outlined above under the section entitled Advisory Vote on Executive Compensation (Say on Pay) and Frequency of Say on Pay Vote.
2. The company has not adequately addressed concerns communicated by Fidelity in the process of discussing executive compensation.
3. Within the last year, and without shareholder approval, a company's board of directors or compensation committee has either:
a) Re-priced outstanding options, exchanged outstanding options for equity, or tendered cash for outstanding options; or
b) Adopted or extended a golden parachute.
B. Executive Severance Agreements  
Executive severance compensation and benefit arrangements resulting from a termination following a change in control are known as "golden parachutes." Fidelity generally will oppose proposals to ratify golden parachutes where the arrangement includes an excise tax gross-up provision; single trigger for cash incentives; or may result in a lump sum payment of cash and acceleration of equity that may total more than three times annual compensation (salary and bonus) in the event of a termination following a change in control.  
V. Environmental and Social Issues  
Grounded in our Stewardship Principles, these guidelines outline our views on corporate governance. As part of our efforts to maximize long-term shareholder value, we incorporate consideration of human and natural capital issues into our evaluation of a company, particularly if we believe an issue is material to that company and the investing fund's investment objective and strategies.
Fidelity generally considers management's recommendation and current practice when voting on shareholder proposals concerning human and natural capital issues because it generally believes that management and the board are in the best position to determine how to address these matters. Fidelity, however, also believes that transparency is critical to sound corporate governance. Fidelity evaluates shareholder proposals concerning natural and human capital topics. To engage and vote more effectively on the growing number of submitted proposals on these topics, we developed a four-point decision-making framework. In general, Fidelity will more likely support proposals that:
Address a topic that our research has identified as financially material;
Provide disclosure of new or additional information to investors, improving transparency;
Provide value to the business or investors by improving the landscape of investment-decision relevant information or contributing to our understanding of a company's processes and governance of the topic in question; and
Are realistic or practical for the company to comply with.
VI. Anti-Takeover Provisions and Shareholders Rights Plans  
Fidelity generally will oppose a proposal to adopt an anti-takeover provision.
Anti-takeover provisions include:
- classified boards;
- "blank check" preferred stock (whose terms and conditions may be expressly determined by the company's board, for example, with differential voting rights);  
- golden parachutes;
- supermajority provisions (that require a large majority (generally between 67-90%) of shareholders to approve corporate changes as compared to a majority provision that simply requires more than 50% of shareholders to approve those changes);  
- poison pills;
- restricting the right to call special meetings;
- provisions restricting the right of shareholders to set board size; and
- any other provision that eliminates or limits shareholder rights.
A. Shareholders Rights Plans ("poison pills")  
Poison pills allow shareholders opposed to a takeover offer to purchase stock at discounted prices under certain circumstances and effectively give boards veto power over any takeover offer. While there are advantages and disadvantages to poison pills, they can be detrimental to the creation of shareholder value and can help entrench management by deterring acquisition offers not favored by the board, but that may, in fact, be beneficial to shareholders.  
Fidelity generally will support a proposal to adopt or extend a poison pill if the proposal:
1. Includes a condition in the charter or plan that specifies an expiration date (sunset provision) of no greater than five years;  
2. Is integral to a business strategy that is expected to result in greater value for the shareholders;
3. Requires shareholder approval to be reinstated upon expiration or if amended;
4. Contains a mechanism to allow shareholders to consider a bona fide takeover offer for all outstanding shares without triggering the poison pill; and  
5. Allows the Fidelity funds to hold an aggregate position of up to 20% of a company's total voting securities, where permissible.
Fidelity generally also will support a proposal that is crafted only for the purpose of protecting a specific tax benefit if it also believes the proposal is likely to enhance long-term economic returns or maximize long-term shareholder value.  
B. Shareholder Ability to Call a Special Meeting  
Fidelity generally will support shareholder proposals regarding shareholders' right to call special meetings if the threshold required to call the special meeting is no less than 25% of the outstanding stock.  
C. Shareholder Ability to Act by Written Consent  
Fidelity generally will support proposals regarding shareholders' right to act by written consent if the proposals include appropriate mechanisms for implementation. This means that proposals must include record date requests from at least 25% of the outstanding stockholders and consents must be solicited from all shareholders.  
D. Supermajority Shareholder Vote Requirement  
Fidelity generally will support proposals regarding supermajority provisions if Fidelity believes that the provisions protect minority shareholder interests in companies where there is a substantial or dominant shareholder.  
VII. Anti-Takeover Provisions and Director Elections  
Fidelity will oppose the election of all directors or directors on responsible committees if the board adopted or extended an anti-takeover provision without shareholder approval.  
Fidelity will consider supporting the election of directors with respect to poison pills if:
- All of the poison pill's features outlined under the Anti-Takeover Provisions and Shareholders Rights section above are met when a poison pill is adopted or extended.  
- A board is willing to consider seeking shareholder ratification of, or adding the features outlined under the Anti-Takeover Provisions and Shareholders Rights Plans section above to, an existing poison pill. If, however, the company does not take appropriate action prior to the next annual shareholder meeting, Fidelity will oppose the election of all directors at that meeting.  
- It determines that the poison pill was narrowly tailored to protect a specific tax benefit, and subject to an evaluation of its likelihood to enhance long-term economic returns or maximize long-term shareholder value.  
VIII. Capital Structure and Incorporation  
These guidelines are designed to protect shareholders' value in the companies in which the Fidelity funds invest. To the extent a company's management is committed and incentivized to maximize shareholder value, Fidelity generally votes in favor of management proposals; Fidelity may vote contrary to management where a proposal is overly dilutive to shareholders and/or compromises shareholder value or other interests. The guidelines that follow are meant to protect shareholders in these respects.  
A. Increases in Common Stock  
Fidelity may support reasonable increases in authorized shares for a specific purpose (a stock split or re-capitalization, for example). Fidelity generally will oppose a provision to increase a company's authorized common stock if such increase will result in a total number of authorized shares greater than three times the current number of outstanding and scheduled to be issued shares, including stock options.  
In the case of real estate investment trusts (REITs), however, Fidelity will oppose a provision to increase the REIT's authorized common stock if the increase will result in a total number of authorized shares greater than five times the current number of outstanding and scheduled to be issued shares.  
B. Multi-Class Share Structures  
Fidelity generally will support proposals to recapitalize multi-class share structures into structures that provide equal voting rights for all shareholders, and generally will oppose proposals to introduce or increase classes of stock with differential voting rights. However, Fidelity will evaluate all such proposals in the context of their likelihood to enhance long-term economic returns or maximize long-term shareholder value.  
C. Incorporation or Reincorporation in another State or Country  
Fidelity generally will support management proposals calling for, or recommending that, a company reincorporate in another state or country if, on balance, the economic and corporate governance factors in the proposed jurisdiction appear reasonably likely to be better aligned with shareholder interests, taking into account the corporate laws of the current and proposed jurisdictions and any changes to the company's current and proposed governing documents. Fidelity will consider supporting these shareholder proposals in limited cases if, based upon particular facts and circumstances, remaining incorporated in the current jurisdiction appears misaligned with shareholder interests.  
IX. Shares of Fidelity Funds or other non-Fidelity Funds  
When a Fidelity fund invests in an underlying Fidelity fund with public shareholders or a non-Fidelity investment company or business development company, Fidelity will generally vote in the same proportion as all other voting shareholders of the underlying fund (this is known as "echo voting"). Fidelity may not vote if "echo voting" is not operationally practical or not permitted under applicable laws and regulations. For Fidelity fund investments in a Fidelity Series Fund, Fidelity generally will vote in a manner consistent with the recommendation of the Fidelity Series Fund's Board of Trustees on all proposals, except where not permitted under applicable laws and regulations.
X. Foreign Markets  
Many Fidelity funds invest in voting securities issued by companies that are domiciled outside the United States and are not listed on a U.S. securities exchange. Corporate governance standards, legal or regulatory requirements and disclosure practices in foreign countries can differ from those in the United States. When voting proxies relating to non-U.S. securities, Fidelity generally will evaluate proposals under these guidelines and where applicable and feasible, take into consideration differing laws, regulations and practices in the relevant foreign market in determining how to vote shares.  
In certain non-U.S. jurisdictions, shareholders voting shares of a company may be restricted from trading the shares for a period of time around the shareholder meeting date. Because these trading restrictions can hinder portfolio management and could result in a loss of liquidity for a fund, Fidelity generally will not vote proxies in circumstances where such restrictions apply. In addition, certain non-U.S. jurisdictions require voting shareholders to disclose current share ownership on a fund-by-fund basis. When such disclosure requirements apply, Fidelity generally will not vote proxies in order to safeguard fund holdings information.  
XI. Securities on Loan  
Securities on loan as of a record date cannot be voted. In certain circumstances, Fidelity may recall a security on loan before record date (for example, in a particular contested director election or a noteworthy merger or acquisition). Generally, however, securities out on loan remain on loan and are not voted because, for example, the income a fund derives from the loan outweighs the benefit the fund receives from voting the security. In addition, Fidelity may not be able to recall and vote loaned securities if Fidelity is unaware of relevant information before record date, or is otherwise unable to timely recall securities on loan.  
XII. Avoiding Conflicts of Interest  
Voting of shares is conducted in a manner consistent with the best interests of the Fidelity funds. In other words, securities of a company generally will be voted in a manner consistent with these guidelines and without regard to any other Fidelity companies' business relationships.  
Fidelity takes its responsibility to vote shares in the best interests of the funds seriously and has implemented policies and procedures to address actual and potential conflicts of interest.  
XIII. Conclusion  
Since its founding more than 75 years ago, Fidelity has been driven by two fundamental values: 1) putting the long-term interests of our customers and fund shareholders first; and 2) investing in companies that share our approach to creating value over the long-term. With these fundamental principles as guideposts, the funds are managed to provide the greatest possible return to shareholders consistent with governing laws and the investment guidelines and objectives of each fund.  
Fidelity believes that there is a strong correlation between sound corporate governance and enhancing shareholder value. Fidelity, through the implementation of these guidelines, puts this belief into action through consistent engagement with portfolio companies on matters contained in these guidelines, and, ultimately, through the exercise of voting rights by the funds.  
Glossary  
  • Burn rate means the total number of stock option and full value equity awards granted as compensation in a given year divided by the weighted average common stock outstanding for that same year.  
                    - For a large-capitalization company, burn rate higher than 1.5%.
                    - For a small-capitalization company, burn rate higher than 2.5%.
             - For a micro-capitalization company, burn rate higher than 3.5%.
  • Golden parachute means employment contracts, agreements, or policies that include an excise tax gross-up provision; single trigger for cash incentives; or may result in a lump sum payment of cash and acceleration of equity that may total more than three times annual compensation (salary and bonus) in the event of a termination following a change in control.  
  • Large-capitalization company means a company included in the Russell 1000® Index or the Russell Global ex-U.S. Large Cap Index.  
  • Micro-capitalization company means a company with market capitalization under US $300 million.
  • Poison pill refers to a strategy employed by a potential takeover / target company to make its stock less attractive to an acquirer. Poison pills are
  • generally designed to dilute the acquirer's ownership and value in the event of a takeover.  
  • Small-capitalization company means a company not included in the Russell 1000® Index or the Russell Global ex-U.S. Large Cap Index that is not a Micro-Capitalization Company.  
Sub-Adviser(s):  
Proxy voting policies and procedures are used by a sub-adviser to determine how to vote proxies relating to the securities held by its allocated portion of the fund's assets. The proxy voting policies and procedures used by a sub-adviser are described below.
  Proxy Voting - FIAM
I. Introduction  
These guidelines are intended to help Fidelity's customers and the companies in which Fidelity invests understand how Fidelity votes proxies to further the values that have sustained Fidelity for over 75 years. Our core principles sit at the heart of our voting philosophy; putting our customers' and fund shareholders' long-term interests first and investing in companies that share our approach to creating value over the long-term guides everything we do. Fidelity generally adheres to these guidelines in voting proxies and our Stewardship Principles serve as the foundation for these guidelines. Our evaluation of proxies reflects information from many sources, including management or shareholders of a company presenting a proposal and proxy voting advisory firms. Fidelity maintains the flexibility to vote individual proxies based on our assessment of each situation.  
In evaluating proxies, Fidelity considers factors that are financially material to individual companies and investing funds' investment objectives and strategies in support of maximizing long-term shareholder value. This includes considering the company's approach to financial and operational, human, and natural capital and the impact of that approach on the potential future value of the business.
Fidelity will vote on proposals not specifically addressed by these guidelines based on an evaluation of a proposal's likelihood to enhance the long-term economic returns or profitability of the company or to maximize long-term shareholder value. Fidelity will not be influenced by business relationships or outside perspectives that may conflict with the interests of the funds and their shareholders.
II. Board of Directors and Corporate Governance  
Directors of public companies play a critical role in ensuring that a company and its management team serve the interests of its shareholders. Fidelity believes that through proxy voting, it can help ensure accountability of management teams and boards of directors, align management and shareholder interests, and monitor and assess the degree of transparency and disclosure with respect to executive compensation and board actions affecting shareholders' rights. The following general guidelines are intended to reflect these proxy voting principles.  
A. Election of Directors  
Fidelity will generally support director nominees in elections where all directors are unopposed (uncontested elections), except where board composition raises concerns, and/or where a director clearly appears to have failed to exercise reasonable judgment or otherwise failed to sufficiently protect the interests of shareholders.  
Fidelity will evaluate board composition and generally will oppose the election of certain or all directors if, by way of example:  
1. Inside or affiliated directors serve on boards that are not composed of a majority of independent directors.
2. There are no women on the board or if a board of ten or more members has fewer than two women directors.
3. There are no racially or ethnically diverse directors.
4. The director is a public company CEO who sits on more than two unaffiliated public company boards.
5. The director, other than a CEO, sits on more than five unaffiliated public company boards.
Fidelity will evaluate board actions and generally will oppose the election of certain or all directors if, by way of example:
1. The director attended fewer than 75% of the total number of meetings of the board and its committees on which the director served during the company's prior fiscal year, absent extenuating circumstances.  
2. The company made a commitment to modify a proposal or practice to conform to these guidelines, and failed to act on that commitment.  
3. For reasons described below under the sections entitled Compensation and Anti-Takeover Provisions and Director Elections.
B. Contested Director Elections  
On occasion, directors are forced to compete for election against outside director nominees (contested elections). Fidelity believes that strong management creates long-term shareholder value. As a result, Fidelity generally will vote in support of management of companies in which the funds' assets are invested. Fidelity will vote its proxy on a case-by-case basis in a contested election, taking into consideration a number of factors, amongst others:  
1. Management's track record and strategic plan for enhancing shareholder value;
2. The long-term performance of the company compared to its industry peers; and
3. The qualifications of the shareholder's and management's nominees.
Fidelity will vote for the outcome it believes has the best prospects for maximizing shareholder value over the long-term.
C. Cumulative Voting Rights  
Under cumulative voting, each shareholder may exercise the number of votes equal to the number of shares owned multiplied by the number of directors up for election. Shareholders may cast all of their votes for a single nominee (or multiple nominees in varying amounts). With regular (non-cumulative) voting, by contrast, shareholders cannot allocate more than one vote per share to any one director nominee. Fidelity believes that cumulative voting can be detrimental to the overall strength of a board. Generally, therefore, Fidelity will oppose the introduction of, and support the elimination of, cumulative voting rights.  
D. Classified Boards  
A classified board is one that elects only a percentage of its members each year (usually one-third of directors are elected to serve a three-year term). This means that at each annual meeting only a subset of directors is up for re-election. Fidelity believes that, in general, classified boards are not as accountable to shareholders as declassified boards. For this and other reasons, Fidelity generally will oppose a board's adoption of a classified board structure and support declassification of existing boards.  
E. Independent Chairperson  
In general, Fidelity believes that boards should have a process and criteria for selecting the board chair, and will oppose shareholder proposals calling for, or recommending the appointment of, a non-executive or independent chairperson. If, however, based on particular facts and circumstances, Fidelity believes that appointment of a non-executive or independent chairperson appears likely to further the interests of shareholders and promote effective oversight of management by the board of directors, Fidelity will consider voting to support a proposal for an independent chairperson under such circumstances.  
F. Majority Voting in Director Elections  
In general, Fidelity supports proposals calling for directors to be elected by a majority of votes cast if the proposal permits election by a plurality in the case of contested elections (where, for example, there are more nominees than board seats). Fidelity may oppose a majority voting shareholder proposal where a company's board has adopted a policy requiring the resignation of an incumbent director who fails to receive the support of a majority of the votes cast in an uncontested election.  
G. Proxy Access  
Proxy access proposals generally require a company to amend its by-laws to allow a qualifying shareholder or group of shareholders to nominate directors on a company's proxy ballot. Fidelity believes that certain safeguards as to ownership threshold and duration of ownership are important to assure that proxy access is not misused by those without a significant economic interest in the company or those driven by short term goals. Fidelity will evaluate proxy access proposals on a case-by-case basis, but generally will support proposals that include ownership of at least 3% (5% in the case of small-cap companies) of the company's shares outstanding for at least three years; limit the number of directors that eligible shareholders may nominate to 20% of the board; and limit to 20 the number of shareholders that may form a nominating group.  
H. Indemnification of Directors and Officers  
In many instances there are sound reasons to indemnify officers and directors, so that they may perform their duties without the distraction of unwarranted litigation or other legal process. Fidelity generally supports charter and by-law amendments expanding the indemnification of officers or directors, or limiting their liability for breaches of care unless Fidelity is dissatisfied with their performance or the proposal is accompanied by anti-takeover provisions (see Anti-Takeover Provisions and Shareholders Rights Plans below).  
III. Compensation  
Incentive compensation plans can be complicated and many factors are considered when evaluating such plans. Fidelity evaluates such plans based on protecting shareholder interests and our historical knowledge of the company and its management.  
A. Equity Compensation Plans  
Fidelity encourages the use of reasonably designed equity compensation plans that align the interest of management with those of shareholders by providing officers and employees with incentives to increase long-term shareholder value. Fidelity considers whether such plans are too dilutive to existing shareholders because dilution reduces the voting power or economic interest of existing shareholders as a result of an increase in shares available for distribution to employees in lieu of cash compensation. Fidelity will generally oppose equity compensation plans or amendments to authorize additional shares under such plans if:  
1. The company grants stock options and equity awards in a given year at a rate higher than a benchmark rate ("burn rate") considered appropriate by Fidelity and there were no circumstances specific to the company or the compensation plans that leads Fidelity to conclude that the rate of awards is otherwise acceptable.  
2. The plan includes an evergreen provision, which is a feature that provides for an automatic increase in the shares available for grant under an equity compensation plan on a regular basis.  
3. The plan provides for the acceleration of vesting of equity compensation even though an actual change in control may not occur.  
As to stock option plans, considerations include the following:
1. Pricing: We believe that options should be priced at 100% of fair market value on the date they are granted. We generally oppose options priced at a discount to the market, although the price may be as low as 85% of fair market value if the discount is expressly granted in lieu of salary or cash bonus.  
2. Re-pricing: An "out-of-the-money" (or underwater) option has an exercise price that is higher than the current price of the stock. We generally oppose the re-pricing of underwater options because it is not consistent with a policy of offering options as a form of long-term compensation. Fidelity also generally opposes a stock option plan if the board or compensation committee has re-priced options outstanding in the past two years without shareholder approval.  
Fidelity generally will support a management proposal to exchange, re-price or tender for cash, outstanding options if the proposed exchange, re-pricing, or tender offer is consistent with the interests of shareholders, taking into account a variety of factors such as:  
1. Whether the proposal excludes senior management and directors;
2. Whether the exchange or re-pricing proposal is value neutral to shareholders based upon an acceptable pricing model;
3. The company's relative performance compared to other companies within the relevant industry or industries;
4. Economic and other conditions affecting the relevant industry or industries in which the company competes; and
5. Any other facts or circumstances relevant to determining whether an exchange or re-pricing proposal is consistent with the interests of shareholders.  
B. Employee Stock Purchase Plans  
These plans are designed to allow employees to purchase company stock at a discounted price and receive favorable tax treatment when the stock is sold. Fidelity generally will support employee stock purchase plans if the minimum stock purchase price is equal to or greater than 85% (or at least 75% in the case of non-U.S. companies where a lower minimum stock purchase price is equal to the prevailing "best practices" in that market) of the stock's fair market value and the plan constitutes a reasonable effort to encourage broad based participation in the company's stock.  
IV. Advisory Vote on Executive Compensation (Say on Pay) and Frequency of Say on Pay Vote  
Current law requires companies to allow shareholders to cast non-binding votes on the compensation for named executive officers, as well as the frequency of such votes. Fidelity generally will support proposals to ratify executive compensation unless the compensation appears misaligned with shareholder interests or is otherwise problematic, taking into account:  
- The actions taken by the board or compensation committee in the previous year, including whether the company re-priced or exchanged outstanding stock options without shareholder approval; adopted or extended a golden parachute without shareholder approval; or adequately addressed concerns communicated by Fidelity in the process of discussing executive compensation;  
- The alignment of executive compensation and company performance relative to peers; and
- The structure of the compensation program, including factors such as whether incentive plan metrics are appropriate, rigorous and transparent; whether the long-term element of the compensation program is evaluated over at least a three-year period; the sensitivity of pay to below median performance; the amount and nature of non-performance-based compensation; the justification and rationale behind paying discretionary bonuses; the use of stock ownership guidelines and amount of executive stock ownership; and how well elements of compensation are disclosed.  
When presented with a frequency of Say on Pay vote, Fidelity generally will support holding an annual advisory vote on Say on Pay.  
A. Compensation Committee  
Directors serving on the compensation committee of the Board have a special responsibility to ensure that management is appropriately compensated and that compensation, among other things, fairly reflects the performance of the company. Fidelity believes that compensation should align with company performance as measured by key business metrics. Compensation policies should align the interests of executives with those of shareholders. Further, the compensation program should be disclosed in a transparent and timely manner.  
Fidelity will oppose the election of directors on the compensation committee if:
1.The compensation appears misaligned with shareholder interests or is otherwise problematic and results in concerns with:
a)The alignment of executive compensation and company performance relative to peers; and
b)The structure of the compensation program, including factors outlined above under the section entitled Advisory Vote on Executive Compensation (Say on Pay) and Frequency of Say on Pay Vote.
2. The company has not adequately addressed concerns communicated by Fidelity in the process of discussing executive compensation.
3. Within the last year, and without shareholder approval, a company's board of directors or compensation committee has either:
a) Re-priced outstanding options, exchanged outstanding options for equity, or tendered cash for outstanding options; or
b) Adopted or extended a golden parachute.
B. Executive Severance Agreements  
Executive severance compensation and benefit arrangements resulting from a termination following a change in control are known as "golden parachutes." Fidelity generally will oppose proposals to ratify golden parachutes where the arrangement includes an excise tax gross-up provision; single trigger for cash incentives; or may result in a lump sum payment of cash and acceleration of equity that may total more than three times annual compensation (salary and bonus) in the event of a termination following a change in control.  
V. Environmental and Social Issues  
Grounded in our Stewardship Principles, these guidelines outline our views on corporate governance. As part of our efforts to maximize long-term shareholder value, we incorporate consideration of human and natural capital issues into our evaluation of a company, particularly if we believe an issue is material to that company and the investing fund's investment objective and strategies.
Fidelity generally considers management's recommendation and current practice when voting on shareholder proposals concerning human and natural capital issues because it generally believes that management and the board are in the best position to determine how to address these matters. Fidelity, however, also believes that transparency is critical to sound corporate governance. Fidelity evaluates shareholder proposals concerning natural and human capital topics. To engage and vote more effectively on the growing number of submitted proposals on these topics, we developed a four-point decision-making framework. In general, Fidelity will more likely support proposals that:
Address a topic that our research has identified as financially material;
Provide disclosure of new or additional information to investors, improving transparency;
Provide value to the business or investors by improving the landscape of investment-decision relevant information or contributing to our understanding of a company's processes and governance of the topic in question; and
Are realistic or practical for the company to comply with.
VI. Anti-Takeover Provisions and Shareholders Rights Plans  
Fidelity generally will oppose a proposal to adopt an anti-takeover provision.
Anti-takeover provisions include:
- classified boards;
- "blank check" preferred stock (whose terms and conditions may be expressly determined by the company's board, for example, with differential voting rights);  
- golden parachutes;
- supermajority provisions (that require a large majority (generally between 67-90%) of shareholders to approve corporate changes as compared to a majority provision that simply requires more than 50% of shareholders to approve those changes);  
- poison pills;
- restricting the right to call special meetings;
- provisions restricting the right of shareholders to set board size; and
- any other provision that eliminates or limits shareholder rights.
A. Shareholders Rights Plans ("poison pills")  
Poison pills allow shareholders opposed to a takeover offer to purchase stock at discounted prices under certain circumstances and effectively give boards veto power over any takeover offer. While there are advantages and disadvantages to poison pills, they can be detrimental to the creation of shareholder value and can help entrench management by deterring acquisition offers not favored by the board, but that may, in fact, be beneficial to shareholders.  
Fidelity generally will support a proposal to adopt or extend a poison pill if the proposal:
1. Includes a condition in the charter or plan that specifies an expiration date (sunset provision) of no greater than five years;  
2. Is integral to a business strategy that is expected to result in greater value for the shareholders;
3. Requires shareholder approval to be reinstated upon expiration or if amended;
4. Contains a mechanism to allow shareholders to consider a bona fide takeover offer for all outstanding shares without triggering the poison pill; and  
5. Allows the Fidelity funds to hold an aggregate position of up to 20% of a company's total voting securities, where permissible.
Fidelity generally also will support a proposal that is crafted only for the purpose of protecting a specific tax benefit if it also believes the proposal is likely to enhance long-term economic returns or maximize long-term shareholder value.  
B. Shareholder Ability to Call a Special Meeting  
Fidelity generally will support shareholder proposals regarding shareholders' right to call special meetings if the threshold required to call the special meeting is no less than 25% of the outstanding stock.  
C. Shareholder Ability to Act by Written Consent  
Fidelity generally will support proposals regarding shareholders' right to act by written consent if the proposals include appropriate mechanisms for implementation. This means that proposals must include record date requests from at least 25% of the outstanding stockholders and consents must be solicited from all shareholders.  
D. Supermajority Shareholder Vote Requirement  
Fidelity generally will support proposals regarding supermajority provisions if Fidelity believes that the provisions protect minority shareholder interests in companies where there is a substantial or dominant shareholder.  
VII. Anti-Takeover Provisions and Director Elections  
Fidelity will oppose the election of all directors or directors on responsible committees if the board adopted or extended an anti-takeover provision without shareholder approval.  
Fidelity will consider supporting the election of directors with respect to poison pills if:
- All of the poison pill's features outlined under the Anti-Takeover Provisions and Shareholders Rights section above are met when a poison pill is adopted or extended.  
- A board is willing to consider seeking shareholder ratification of, or adding the features outlined under the Anti-Takeover Provisions and Shareholders Rights Plans section above to, an existing poison pill. If, however, the company does not take appropriate action prior to the next annual shareholder meeting, Fidelity will oppose the election of all directors at that meeting.  
- It determines that the poison pill was narrowly tailored to protect a specific tax benefit, and subject to an evaluation of its likelihood to enhance long-term economic returns or maximize long-term shareholder value.  
VIII. Capital Structure and Incorporation  
These guidelines are designed to protect shareholders' value in the companies in which the Fidelity funds invest. To the extent a company's management is committed and incentivized to maximize shareholder value, Fidelity generally votes in favor of management proposals; Fidelity may vote contrary to management where a proposal is overly dilutive to shareholders and/or compromises shareholder value or other interests. The guidelines that follow are meant to protect shareholders in these respects.  
A. Increases in Common Stock  
Fidelity may support reasonable increases in authorized shares for a specific purpose (a stock split or re-capitalization, for example). Fidelity generally will oppose a provision to increase a company's authorized common stock if such increase will result in a total number of authorized shares greater than three times the current number of outstanding and scheduled to be issued shares, including stock options.  
In the case of REITs, however, Fidelity will oppose a provision to increase the REIT's authorized common stock if the increase will result in a total number of authorized shares greater than five times the current number of outstanding and scheduled to be issued shares.  
B. Multi-Class Share Structures  
Fidelity generally will support proposals to recapitalize multi-class share structures into structures that provide equal voting rights for all shareholders, and generally will oppose proposals to introduce or increase classes of stock with differential voting rights. However, Fidelity will evaluate all such proposals in the context of their likelihood to enhance long-term economic returns or maximize long-term shareholder value.  
C. Incorporation or Reincorporation in another State or Country  
Fidelity generally will support management proposals calling for, or recommending that, a company reincorporate in another state or country if, on balance, the economic and corporate governance factors in the proposed jurisdiction appear reasonably likely to be better aligned with shareholder interests, taking into account the corporate laws of the current and proposed jurisdictions and any changes to the company's current and proposed governing documents. Fidelity will consider supporting these shareholder proposals in limited cases if, based upon particular facts and circumstances, remaining incorporated in the current jurisdiction appears misaligned with shareholder interests.  
IX. Shares of Fidelity Funds or other non-Fidelity Funds  
When a Fidelity fund invests in an underlying Fidelity fund with public shareholders or a non-Fidelity investment company or business development company, Fidelity will generally vote in the same proportion as all other voting shareholders of the underlying fund (this is known as "echo voting"). Fidelity may not vote if "echo voting" is not operationally practical or not permitted under applicable laws and regulations. For Fidelity fund investments in a Fidelity Series Fund, Fidelity generally will vote in a manner consistent with the recommendation of the Fidelity Series Fund's Board of Trustees on all proposals, except where not permitted under applicable laws and regulations.
X. Foreign Markets  
Many Fidelity funds invest in voting securities issued by companies that are domiciled outside the United States and are not listed on a U.S. securities exchange. Corporate governance standards, legal or regulatory requirements and disclosure practices in foreign countries can differ from those in the United States. When voting proxies relating to non-U.S. securities, Fidelity generally will evaluate proposals under these guidelines and where applicable and feasible, take into consideration differing laws, regulations and practices in the relevant foreign market in determining how to vote shares.  
In certain non-U.S. jurisdictions, shareholders voting shares of a company may be restricted from trading the shares for a period of time around the shareholder meeting date. Because these trading restrictions can hinder portfolio management and could result in a loss of liquidity for a fund, Fidelity generally will not vote proxies in circumstances where such restrictions apply. In addition, certain non-U.S. jurisdictions require voting shareholders to disclose current share ownership on a fund-by-fund basis. When such disclosure requirements apply, Fidelity generally will not vote proxies in order to safeguard fund holdings information.  
XI. Securities on Loan  
Securities on loan as of a record date cannot be voted. In certain circumstances, Fidelity may recall a security on loan before record date (for example, in a particular contested director election or a noteworthy merger or acquisition). Generally, however, securities out on loan remain on loan and are not voted because, for example, the income a fund derives from the loan outweighs the benefit the fund receives from voting the security. In addition, Fidelity may not be able to recall and vote loaned securities if Fidelity is unaware of relevant information before record date, or is otherwise unable to timely recall securities on loan.  
XII. Avoiding Conflicts of Interest  
Voting of shares is conducted in a manner consistent with the best interests of the Fidelity funds. In other words, securities of a company generally will be voted in a manner consistent with these guidelines and without regard to any other Fidelity companies' business relationships.  
Fidelity takes its responsibility to vote shares in the best interests of the funds seriously and has implemented policies and procedures to address actual and potential conflicts of interest.  
XIII. Conclusion  
Since its founding more than 75 years ago, Fidelity has been driven by two fundamental values: 1) putting the long-term interests of our customers and fund shareholders first; and 2) investing in companies that share our approach to creating value over the long-term. With these fundamental principles as guideposts, the funds are managed to provide the greatest possible return to shareholders consistent with governing laws and the investment guidelines and objectives of each fund.  
Fidelity believes that there is a strong correlation between sound corporate governance and enhancing shareholder value. Fidelity, through the implementation of these guidelines, puts this belief into action through consistent engagement with portfolio companies on matters contained in these guidelines, and, ultimately, through the exercise of voting rights by the funds.  
Glossary  
  • Burn rate means the total number of stock option and full value equity awards granted as compensation in a given year divided by the weighted average common stock outstanding for that same year.  
                    - For a large-capitalization company, burn rate higher than 1.5%.
                    - For a small-capitalization company, burn rate higher than 2.5%.
             - For a micro-capitalization company, burn rate higher than 3.5%.
  • Golden parachute means employment contracts, agreements, or policies that include an excise tax gross-up provision; single trigger for cash incentives; or may result in a lump sum payment of cash and acceleration of equity that may total more than three times annual compensation (salary and bonus) in the event of a termination following a change in control.  
  • Large-capitalization company means a company included in the Russell 1000® Index or the Russell Global ex-U.S. Large Cap Index.  
  • Micro-capitalization company means a company with market capitalization under US $300 million.
  • Poison pill refers to a strategy employed by a potential takeover / target company to make its stock less attractive to an acquirer. Poison pills are generally designed to dilute the acquirer's ownership and value in the event of a takeover.  
  • Small-capitalization company means a company not included in the Russell 1000® Index or the Russell Global ex-U.S. Large Cap Index that is not a Micro-Capitalization Company.  
Fidelity International's Proxy Voting Guidelines.  
1 General principles and application  
1.1 Voting authority and decision-making  
1.1.1 Voting execution and oversight: The Sustainable Investing Team of Fidelity International ("Fidelity") is responsible for the execution of voting, the oversight, decision-making and application of Fidelity's policies on voting.  
1.1.2 Non-routine investment proposals and special circumstances: Where necessary, non-routine investment proposals or other special circumstances are evaluated, in conjunction with the Sustainable Investing Team, by the appropriate Fidelity investment research analysts or portfolio managers.  
1.1.3 SIOC authority: All votes are subject to the authority of the Global Head of Stewardship and Sustainable Investing and the Sustainable Investing Operating Committee (SIOC).  
1.2 Voting approach  
1.2.1 Voting coverage: We seek to vote all equity securities where possible. In certain special situations, we may determine not to submit a vote where the costs outweigh the associated benefits. Fixed income managers are consulted on voting matters related to bondholder meetings.  
1.2.2 Routine proposals: Except as set forth in these guidelines, we will usually vote in favour of the recommendations set out by company management and routine proposals.  
1.2.3 Abstentions: We will vote to abstain on proposals if doing so is deemed to be in the best interests of investors or in some cases where the necessary information has not been provided. In certain limited circumstances, we may also vote to abstain in order to send a cautionary message to a company.  
1.2.4 Voting policy application: We make voting decisions on a case-by-case basis and take account of the specific company, sector considerations, prevailing local market standards and best practice, and our voting principles and guidelines. The application of our approach will also vary regionally based on factors including relevant agenda items, current expectations and phased implementation of policies. Where voting differently to our general approach is in the best interests of our clients, we will address these instances on a case- by-case basis. We seek to ensure that our approach to voting is aligned to our principles and in the best interests of our clients. Our voting application will also take into account our engagement strategy, focus areas and current prioritisation criteria.  
1.2.5 Issues not covered by principles or guidelines: We will assess where necessary on a case-by-case basis items or issues not clearly covered by our voting principles or guidelines.  
1.2.6 Voting application to agenda items: We will generally vote against items that directly correlate to any concern we have. Where there is no corresponding agenda item, we may vote against other proposals to signal our view and in more severe situations may vote against all agenda items to express our dissatisfaction.  
1.2.7 Engagement: We assess the merits of each proposal using company disclosure and internal as well as external research. When deemed necessary, we engage with companies to seek a better understanding of the proposal in order to make a more informed voting decision. We will also endeavour to engage with relevant stakeholders if needed to achieve a comprehensive and fair view of the item under review.  
1.3 Voting integration with sustainable investing factors  
1.3.1 Sustainability-related proposals: We evaluate proposals that relate to sustainability issues on a case-by-case basis, guided by our sustainable investing policy, our investment approach and policies, and widely accepted sustainable principles and frameworks such as the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). We also reference standards from organisations including the Sustainability Accounting Standards Board (SASB), the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI), and the CDP (formerly the Carbon Disclosure Project).  
1.3.2 Escalation of ESG concerns to voting: We seek to integrate voting as a tool to signal our concerns, and promote positive change, in relation to ESG issues that have been identified and discussed with the company but have seen no sign of improvement over a prolonged period. We will consider voting against the re- election of the chair or directors that are considered most accountable in this case.  
1.4 Conflicts of interest  
1.4.1 Conflicts of interest: In instances where there may be a conflict, we will either vote in accordance with the recommendation of our principal third-party research provider or, if no recommendation is available, we will either not vote or abstain in accordance with local regulations.  
1.4.2 Votes on our funds: Fidelity's Sustainable Investing Team will not vote at shareholder meetings of any Fidelity funds unless specifically instructed by a client.  
2 Shareholder rights and authority  
2.1 Multiple voting rights: We support the principle of one share, one vote and will vote against the authorisation of stock with differential voting rights if the issuance of such stock would adversely affect the voting rights of existing shareholders.  
2.2 Transfer of authority from shareholders to directors: We will generally vote against any limitation on shareholder rights or the transfer of authority from shareholders to directors. Furthermore, we will typically always support proposals that enhance shareholder rights or maximise shareholder value.  
2.3 Anti-takeover measures: We will vote against anti-takeover proposals including share authorities that can be used as a control-enhancing mechanism.  
2.4 Poison pill without approval: We will consider voting against senior management if a poison pill has been implemented without shareholder approval in the last year.  
2.5 Cumulative voting: We will support cumulative voting rights when it is determined they are favourable to the interests of minority shareholders.  
2.6 Voting by poll and disclosure of results: We support proposals to adopt mandatory voting by poll and full disclosure of voting outcomes.  
2.7 Voting practice: We will support proposals to adopt confidential voting and independent vote tabulation practices.  
2.8 Detailed documentation provided in a timely manner: We expect companies to provide adequate detail in shareholder meeting materials and for these materials to be made public sufficiently in advance of the shareholder meeting to enable all investors to make informed decisions.  
2.9 Conversion of stock: We will consider conversion of stock on a case-by-case basis.  
2.10 Shareholder ownership enhanced disclosure: We generally support enhanced shareholder ownership disclosure. However, we may vote against it where, in our view, the threshold obligations are unreasonably onerous.  
2.11 Shareholder ownership disclosure thresholds: We review proposals to reduce ownership percentage disclosure thresholds on a case-by-case basis.  
2.12 Other business: We will vote against proposals that request approval of non-specific items under a request for approval of other business.  
3 Corporate culture and conduct  
3.1 Board composition and independence  
3.1.1 Board independence: We favour robust independent representation on boards and may not support proposals relating to the election of directors where we deem there is an insufficient independence level on the board.  
3.1.2 Board committee independence: We support boards establishing audit, remuneration and nomination committees to enhance the management and scrutiny of these governance areas but will vote against election of directors where we feel the objectivity of these committees is compromised.  
3.1.3 Director independence: We will vote against the election of nominees as independent directors, supervisors, and statutory auditors if, in our view, they lack sufficient independence from the company, its management or its controlling shareholders.  
3.1.4 CEO and chair separation: We favour a separation of the roles of chair and chief executive and will vote in favour of this outcome when the opportunity arises. In markets where there is established separation of the two roles, we will consider voting against nominees deviating from best practice.  
3.1.5 Nominee disclosure: We will vote against director elections in cases where the names of the nominees are not disclosed to shareholders on a timely basis.  
3.1.6 Board renewal: We support periodic and orderly board refreshment and may vote against directors where, in our view, a significant proportion of the board is comprised of directors with excessively long tenures.  
3.2 Board effectiveness, conduct, diversity, inclusion and expertise  
3.2.1 Board effectiveness: Companies should articulate how the board is undertaking its role and functions and demonstrate this by providing key information on material issues. The board should also comment on the skill set, diversity and experience of its members.  
3.2.2 Director attendance: We will vote against the re-election of directors with poor attendance records at previous board or committee meetings without clear justification for the absence.  
3.2.3 Outside directorships on public company boards: We do not support directors serving on a significant number of boards because this may compromise their capacity to fully meet their board responsibilities. The assessment will consider the type of role they undertake at the company and will take into account the positions at related companies and the nature of their business and the differences in market development.  
3.2.4 Tenure of independent directors: We recognise that the independence of directors can diminish over time and we may not support the re-election of directors to independent director roles if their tenure is excessive. Where deemed valuable to the board, we may support a candidate's re-election to the board in a non-independent non-executive role.  
3.2.5 Board size: We will not support changes to increase a company's board size, or the election of directors, where we deem the size of the board is excessive. We will also not support reductions in board size that could compromise board effectiveness.  
3.2.6 Contested elections: We will review contested elections on a case-by-case basis.  
3.2.7 Diversity and inclusion: We support enhancing board effectiveness through diversity and inclusion of necessary talents and skill sets on a company board. This includes our support for gender, racially and ethnically diverse boards. Companies that fall short of market or sector best practice with respect to board gender, race and ethnic diversity are expected to adopt objectives for improvement and demonstrate progress over time. In circumstances where we conclude that a board is not addressing this issue with the seriousness or urgency it deserves, additional measures may be considered, including, where appropriate, voting against the re-election of members of the board, which may include the chairman or the chairman of the nomination committee.  
3.2.8 Gender-balanced boards: We support gender diversity on a company's board and will vote against the election of directors where boards do not have at least 30% female representation at companies in the most developed markets (including the UK, EU, USA and Australia) and 15% female representation in all other markets where standards on gender diversity are still developing. We may also take into account factors including the board size, industry and corporate structure.  
3.2.9 Racially and ethnically diverse and inclusive boards: We support racial and ethnic diversity on a company's board and will consider voting against the election of accountable directors where there are serious concerns relating to racial or ethnic underrepresentation on the board, or the number is inadequate, based on factors including the board size, industry, and market.  
3.2.10 Mandatory retirement age: We are generally not supportive of mandatory retirement ages for directors and employees.  
3.3 Conduct and accountability  
3.3.1 Corporate culture and conduct: We believe that companies should foster a culture across their organisations of acting lawfully, ethically and responsibly, including enforcing anti-corruption and anti-bribery policies and processes, and where it is clear that there has been serious conduct to the contrary, we will vote against the election of the accountable directors.  
3.3.2 Integrity and competence: We will vote against the election of directors if, in our view, they lack the necessary integrity, competence or capacity to carry out their duties as directors. Relevant factors which may lead us to conclude that a director's election should not be supported include but are not limited to: involvement in material failures of governance or risk oversight that call into question the nominee's fitness to serve as a fiduciary; qualifications and experience; and abuse of minority shareholder rights.  
3.3.3 Whistleblowing and risk practice: We support companies meeting minimum legal protection standards with regard to whistleblowing and risk management practices and will vote against directors where we have been made aware that there have been clear significant breaches of expected standards.  
3.3.4 Contingency planning and accountability: We encourage companies to undertake comprehensive contingency planning, taking into account ESG factors, and we may vote against the election of directors where we assess this has been clearly inadequate.  
3.3.5 Majority shareholder abuse: We will vote against board members, where appropriate, in cases where there have been abuses to minority shareholder interests by the company's controlling shareholder.  
3.3.6 Bundled voting items: Shareholder approval for the election of each director should be sought under individual agenda items. We will generally vote against bundled elections or bundled proposals where we are not supportive of any one or more components of the proposal.  
3.3.7 Local governance codes: We support companies following their local market corporate governance code for best practice and may vote against items where there is a material failing to meet basic local practice.  
4 Audit and financial reporting  
4.1 Audit committee independence: We will vote against members of the audit committee where the committee is not fully composed of non-executive directors and/ or a majority is not independent.  
4.2 Qualified or delayed audit: We will vote against relevant proposals where the audit report is either qualified, we have concerns about its integrity, or it is delayed without sufficient rationale.  
4.3 Auditor independence: We will vote against the appointment of an auditor where there are concerns in relation to their independence based on tenure and remuneration or controversies related to the audit firm.  
4.4 Auditor rotation: We will vote against the auditor appointment where the auditor's tenure has, in our view, become excessive.  
4.5 Auditor fees: We will consider voting against the auditor appointment and the chairman of the audit committee where non-audit related service fees appear excessive relative to audit fees.  
4.6 Audit independence: We will vote against members of the audit committee where there are concerns in relation to the independence or quality of the audit report or the auditor.  
4.7 Financial reporting: We will vote against financial statements where we have concerns about the content or accuracy of a company's financial position and reporting.  
4.8 Financial reporting and adherence to accounting practices: We will vote against financial statements where we believe the statements have failed to meet required levels of accounting practice.  
4.9 Financial reporting transparency: We will not support financial statements where we have concerns about the transparency of key issues including material weaknesses and fairness in the company's tax policies.  
5 Remuneration  
5.1 Approach, alignment and outcomes  
5.1.1 Alignment of interests: We aim to vote against remuneration-related proposals or appropriate directors where we believe there is a clear misalignment between a company's remuneration structure and the interests of shareholders. Remuneration committees must remain mindful of ensuring that variable pay outcomes broadly reflect shareholders' experience, and appropriate discretion should be applied when this is not reflected in formulaic outcomes.  
5.1.2 Poor transparency and complexity: We support simple and clear remuneration arrangements and believe these factors help make the expectations placed on participants clearer.  
5.1.3 Votes on remuneration: We will support proposals to give shareholders the right to vote on executive pay practices.  
5.1.4 Remuneration concerns: We will generally vote against remuneration proposals when payments made to executives are considered excessive, overly short-term in nature, or not reflective of company performance.  
5.1.5 Ongoing remuneration concerns: In markets that provide shareholders with the opportunity to vote on a company's remuneration report, we will consider voting against the re-election of the chairman of the remuneration committee if we vote against the report of the remuneration committee for the second year in a row (assuming no change in personnel in the interim).  
5.1.6 Remuneration committee independence: We do not support the presence of executive directors on the remuneration committee (or its equivalent) of the companies which employ them, and we will consider voting against directors or the remuneration report in these instances when given an opportunity to do so.  
5.1.7 Independent non-executive director pay: We will vote against remuneration granted to independent non-executive directors if the payment may compromise the directors' objectivity, although the circumstances of individual companies and rationale for pay structure will be considered. We will generally not support arrangements where independent and non-executive directors receive significant fee increases, share options, or payments in cash or shares that are subject to performance targets.  
5.2 Practice and implementation  
5.2.1 Misalignment of remuneration outcomes: We will vote against remuneration proposals where we believe there is a clear misalignment between executive pay and the experience of shareholders, or where material negative outcomes for stakeholders are not appropriately taken into consideration for pay outcomes.  
5.2.2 Pay quantum: We will vote against remuneration proposals where the size of pay or increases in executive pay levels are in our view excessive.  
5.2.3 Aggregate compensation ceiling: We will vote against proposals that seek to make adjustment to an aggregate compensation ceiling for directors where we believe this is excessive or we believe it is not necessary.  
5.2.4 Share ownership: We strongly encourage the long-term retention of shares, and we will consider voting against remuneration proposals if the company lacks policies requiring executives to build up a significant share ownership within a reasonable timeframe. In some markets, we expect share ownership guidelines to require the retention of shares for a period after the director's mandate has ended. We encourage the use of broad-based share incentive plans for executives and rank-and-file staff. For shares awarded to executives as part of a long-term incentive plan, we will have particular regard for minimum required retention periods. Practice in this regard differs globally but over time we expect all companies to move towards a minimum guaranteed share retention period of at least five years from the date of grant.  
5.2.5 Dilution: We will vote against incentive arrangements if the dilutive effect of shares authorised under the plan is excessive.  
5.2.6 Discounted awards: We will generally vote against options offered with an exercise price of less than 100% of fair market value at the date of grant. Employee share-save schemes may be supported provided the offering price of shares is not less than 80% of the fair market value on the date of grant.  
5.2.7 Re-pricing: We do not support the re- pricing of stock options and will vote against proposals that seek approval for this practice.  
5.2.8 Uncapped awards: We do not favour non-routine remuneration arrangements where the potential awards are uncapped or provide no clarity on the quantum of awards, such as those found in certain value creation plans.  
5.2.9 Re-testing of performance criteria: We do not support arrangements where performance re-testing is permitted. In our view, if performance targets for a given year are not met, then awards for that year should be foregone.  
5.2.10 Material changes to remuneration arrangements: We are not supportive of remuneration arrangements that provide discretion to permit material changes without shareholder approval.  
5.2.11 Holding period: We believe companies should put in place longer holding periods for share awards and our preference is for a minimum retention period of five years for shares granted to top executives. We will vote against arrangements where we deem the holding period too short.  
5.2.12 Performance hurdles reduced: We will generally vote against proposals where performance hurdles attached to remuneration arrangements have been reduced.  
5.2.13 Incentive arrangement criteria: Subject to local market standards, we will generally vote against incentive arrangements where any of the following are met:  
• No performance conditions: We will vote against proposals where there are no performance conditions attached to any of the incentive awards.  
• No disclosure of performance conditions: We will vote against proposals where there is no disclosure of the performance measures to be used.  
• Insufficiently challenging targets: We will vote against proposals where the performance targets are insufficiently challenging.  
• Inadequate proportion of award subject to targets: We will vote against proposals where the proportion of the performance targets attached to the incentive is insufficient.  
• Inadequate vesting period: We will vote against proposals where there is an inadequate vesting period attached to the awards.  
• Vesting on change of control: We will vote against proposals where there is full vesting on a change of control.
5.2.14 Non-standard incentive arrangements: We will review non-standard features relating to incentive arrangements on a case-by-case basis.  
5.2.15 No long-term incentive plan: In certain markets, based on local practices, we may vote against proposals such as the election of directors or the remuneration report, where there is no long-term incentive plan in place at the company.  
5.2.16 Severance packages: We will generally vote against severance packages that are contrary to best practice.  
5.2.17 Non-financial criteria: We will assess the use of non-financial performance criteria in long-term incentive arrangements on a case-by-case basis. Non-financial considerations, either directly linked with strategy implementation or focused on positive stakeholder outcomes, should be integrated into the remuneration policy as appropriate, either through the use of specific targets, modifiers, gateways/ underpins, or in the context of the ex- post review of formulaic remuneration outcomes by the board or remuneration committee. We will consider voting against proposals where we believe companies are not taking non-financial factors adequately into consideration.  
5.2.18 Board and management contracts: We will consider voting against the election of directors or remuneration-related proposals where executive director service contracts do not meet local market best practice.  
5.2.19 Remuneration-related employee loans: We will not support companies providing loans to facilitate participation in their remuneration plans. Employees should access required credit from banks or other third parties.  
5.2.20 Ex gratia payment: We will not generally support ex gratia payments to directors of the company.  
5.2.21 Authority to omit executive compensation disclosure: We will vote against proposals that seek to omit or reduce executive compensation disclosure.  
6 Articles and charter amendments  
6.1 Articles of association: We will vote against changes to a company's articles of association that are not in the interests of shareholders.  
6.2 Lower quorum requirement: We will vote against amendments to reduce the quorum level for special resolutions and changes to articles of incorporation.  
6.3 Limit number of shareholder representatives at meetings: We do not support proposals that have the potential to restrict or result in a detrimental effect on shareholder rights.  
6.4 Amend provisions on number of directors (increase or decrease maximum board size): We do not support proposals seeking to make changes in board size that would result in the board being too small or too large to function effectively.  
6.5 Require supermajority vote to remove director: We do not support the introduction of provisions that increase the potential difficulty in the removal of a director.  
6.6 Extend directors' terms: We do not support article amendments seeking to extend directors' terms.  
6.7 Takeover defence provisions: We do not support anti-takeover devices and accordingly would vote against proposals seeking to add or change provisions to adopt control- enhancing mechanisms.  
7 Investment-related matters  
7.1 Mergers, acquisitions and disposals: We will consider mergers, acquisitions and disposals on a case-by-case basis and vote against where we are not supportive of the transactions.  
7.2 Reorganisations and restructuring: We vote on a case-by-case basis with regard to company reorganisations and restructuring.  
7.3 Takeover bids: We review takeover bids on a case- by-case basis and although usually supportive of current management, where management has failed consistently to deliver on reasonable expectations for shareholder returns and the bid fully recognises the prospects of the company, we may support the proposal.  
7.4 Management buyouts: We review management buyouts on a case-by-case basis and review the opportunity to deliver value to shareholders along with potential conflicts of interest among other factors.  
7.5 Re-incorporation and changes in listings venue: Where a company seeks to make changes to re-incorporate or change its place of listing, we will review these on a case-by-case basis and assess the rationale for the change. We will vote against where there is no merit to the change or it appears contrary to the long-term interests of shareholders.  
8 Capital management  
8.1 Capital allocation: We encourage efficient capital allocation measures but where, in our view, excess cash should be returned to shareholders, we may vote against dividend-related items, directors or in support of shareholder proposals that facilitate improvement.  
8.2 Authority to increase share capital: We will vote against unusual or excessive requests to increase share capital, particularly in respect of proposed increases for companies in jurisdictions without assured pre-emptive rights or where this is to facilitate an anti-takeover device.  
8.3 Issuances with and without pre-emptive rights: We will vote against issuance requests with or without pre-emptive rights that we believe are excessive.  
8.4 Private placements: We will consider voting against board members where private placements have been made with limited offering or contrary to the interests of minority shareholders.  
8.5 Debt issuance: We are generally supportive of companies seeking approval for the issuance of debt providing the terms are not contrary to the interests of existing shareholders.  
8.6 Borrowing powers: We evaluate proposals related to the approval of company borrowing on a case-by-case basis.  
8.7 Share repurchase plans: We are generally supportive of companies seeking to repurchase shares but evaluate these considering broader factors related to the capital allocation.  
8.8 Reissuance of repurchased shares: We consider companies reissuing repurchased shares on a case-by-case basis and may vote against relevant proposals where this is deemed unnecessary or egregious.  
8.9 Corporate guarantees and loan agreements: We evaluate proposals related to the approval of corporate guarantees and loan agreements on a case-by-case basis.  
8.10 Investment of company funds into financial products: We are generally supportive of proposals seeking approval to use idle funds to invest in financial instruments for cash management or capital preservation unless, in our view, the investment would expose shareholders to unnecessary risk.  
8.11 Pledging of assets for debt: We assess proposals seeking the pledging of assets for debt on a case-by-case basis.  
9 Related-party transactions  
9.1 Related-party transactions: We believe that all material related- party transactions should be put to a shareholder vote. We will vote against related-party transactions that are not aligned with the interests of the company's minority shareholders.  
9.1.1 Conflicted related-party transactions: We will vote against where the terms of a related-party transaction are not equivalent to those that would prevail in an arm's-length transaction.  
9.1.2 Transaction disclosures: We will vote against where there is inadequate disclosure of key information or supporting evidence including the review of independent directors or financial advisors.  
9.1.3 Transaction pricing: We will not support related-party transactions where there are any concerns about the pricing of the transactions.  
9.1.4 Transaction rationale and timing: We will not support a transaction if the company has not provided adequate detail on the rationale for the transaction and its timing.  
10 Governance of climate change oversight, practice and action  
10.1 Minimum standards of climate change oversight and practice: We aim to vote against the election of members of a company's board, including the chairman and CEO, and other relevant proposals where, in our view, the company has not met our expectations of standards of climate change oversight and practice. We will take into consideration factors including the markets and industries in which the company is operating.  
10.1.1 We will vote against directors at companies that do not adequately meet our climate change-related expectations, taking into account if they are within industries most affected by climate change and the degree of urgency, where we believe they should be addressing these issues. We believe that all companies should be disclosing:  
• A stated policy on climate change
• Emissions data
• Confirmation of discussion and oversight of climate change at the board level
10.1.2 For companies we believe should be addressing climate change-related issues most urgently, including those within industries most affected by climate change, we believe that they should be undertaking and disclosing:  
• Targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions
• Description of the impacts of climate-related risks and opportunities on their businesses, strategy and financial planning
• Scenario planning including multiple scenarios
• Impact scenario referencing a 1.5 ° C limit  
10.2 Financing climate change: We will vote against directors where there are material concerns or failures with practices related to financing climate change.  
10.3 Climate change and engagement: In relation to ESG engagements on climate practices with company management, we will vote against the election of members of a company's board or other appropriate agenda items where the company has not adequately addressed our concerns.  
10.4 Climate action plans ('Say on Climate'): We support companies setting out climate action plans and improvements that result in votes at AGMs to act as accountability mechanisms for the execution of these plans.  
10.5 Climate change-related shareholder proposals: Our firm-wide positioning on climate, including support of the Paris Agreement, informs our climate voting approach both on holding boards accountable for not meeting minimum standards and on supporting shareholder proposals that improve climate-related corporate behaviours and disclosures. Climate- related shareholder proposal votes are evaluated on the merits of the proposal. In all cases however we take a holistic view of factors when determining our final decision.  
10.6 Climate change-related shareholder proposals on improved disclosure: We support shareholder proposals that call for enhanced disclosure on climate-related reporting and practice, encouraging this to be in accordance with the Task Force on Climate- related Financial Disclosures (TCFD) recommendations, and will consider supporting all shareholder proposals that promote this objective and are reasonable for the company to implement.  
10.7 Climate change-related and lobbying-related shareholder proposals: We support enhanced disclosure and best practice in relation to company practices on climate-related lobbying and will support all shareholder proposals that are reasonable for the company to implement and are aligned with their commitments and future development.  
10.8 Climate change-related shareholder proposals on the management of greenhouse gas emissions: We believe it is critical that all companies properly take into account and manage their greenhouse gas emissions and targets and will support, where reasonable, shareholder proposals seeking to improve these practices.  
11 Environmental and social responsibilities  
11.1 Environmental and social responsibility engagement: We will vote against directors that we consider accountable for major corporate failures in relation to their duties to manage relationships with stakeholders on material environmental or social concerns.  
11.2 Waste and pollution: We will vote against directors where it is clear there have been material failings by a company to minimise the negative externalities caused by its businesses or failure to monitor product quality and the chemical safety of its products for the environment and human health upon disposal.  
11.3 Water and aquaculture: We will vote against directors where a company has clearly failed to properly manage the sourcing of water, failed to mitigate potential water scarcity risks, or are accountable for failings resulting in material pollution or contamination.  
11.4 Sustainable protein: We will vote against directors where there are material concerns or failures with practices related to sustainable protein.  
11.5 Biodiversity: We will vote against directors where they have clearly failed to manage or implement the capabilities to monitor and assess material environmental risks related to biodiversity matters and reduce the ecological impact of their operations.  
11.6 Responsible palm oil: We will vote against directors where there are material concerns or failures with practices related to responsible palm oil.  
11.7 Supply chain sustainability, human rights, labour rights, and modern slavery: We will vote against the election of members of a company's board of directors, including the chair and CEO, and other appropriate proposals where, in our view, the company has not met the minimum standards of monitoring and overseeing itself and its suppliers with regard to human rights and minimising the risk of modern slavery or human rights violations occurring within its organisation or supply chain.  
11.8 Health and safety: We will vote against directors where there are failings in the provision of safe working conditions and managing health and safety risks.  
11.9 Data privacy, cyber security and digital ethics: Where a company has failed to meet our expectations on matters of data privacy, cybersecurity or digital ethics, we will vote against directors we view as accountable.  
11.10 Political donations and lobbying: We support robust disclosures on corporate political lobbying activities. We will consider voting against management, typically on shareholder proposals, where there is a misalignment between involvement with political donations and lobbying activities and a company's own stated strategy or commitments or such lobbying activity is in conflict with the interests of stakeholders.  
11.11 Corporate sustainability reporting: We will vote against directors where there are material issues or inaccuracies included within a company's sustainability reporting or the reporting level is significantly below expected standards.  
12 Shareholder-sponsored proposals  
12.1 Shareholder proposals: We evaluate shareholder proposals on a case-by-case basis and our consideration includes the company's perspective and response to the proposal, the proponents' case and the proposal's intention, whether the proposal is binding or advisory in nature, current market best practices, impact on shareholder value, and Fidelity's sustainable investing policies.  
12.2 Voting in favour of reasonable shareholder proposals: We aim to support ESG shareholder proposals that address and improve issues of material importance to the company and its stakeholders. Shareholder proposals are evaluated based on the merit of the proposal.  
12.3 Shareholder proposals seeking environmental and social improvement: We will support all shareholder proposals we deem reasonable that relate to improvements in the practices, disclosure and management of environmental and social impacts of company operations which include areas of our thematic engagement and general focus areas including:  
• Climate change
• Diversity and inclusion
• Waste and pollution
• Water and aquaculture
• Sustainable protein
• Biodiversity
• Responsible palm oil
• Deforestation
• Supply chain sustainability, human rights, labour rights, and modern slavery
• Health and safety
• Data privacy, cyber security and digital ethics
• Political donations and lobbying
• Corporate sustainability reporting
12.4 Failure to implement previously approved shareholder proposals: If a shareholder proposal receives majority support but is not implemented by the company, we will consider voting against board members at subsequent shareholder meetings.
Geode Proxy Voting Policies  
As an investment adviser, Geode holds voting authority for securities in many of the client accounts that it manages. Geode takes seriously its responsibility to monitor events affecting securities in those client accounts and to exercise its voting authority with respect to those securities in the best interests of its clients (as well as shareholders of mutual funds for which it serves as adviser or sub-adviser). The purposes of these proxy voting policies are to (1) establish a framework for Geode's analysis and decision-making with respect to proxy voting and (2) set forth operational procedures for Geode's exercise of proxy voting authority.  
Overview  
Geode anticipates that, based on its current business model, it will manage the vast majority of assets under its management using passive investment management techniques, such as indexing. Geode also manages funds and separate accounts using active investment management techniques, primarily employing quantitative investment strategies.  
Geode will engage established commercial proxy advisory firms for comprehensive analysis, research and voting recommendations, particularly for matters that may be controversial or require additional analysis under these proxy voting policies.  
Geode may determine to follow or reject any recommendation based on the research and analysis provided by proxy advisory firms or on any independent research and analysis obtained or generated by Geode. However, Geode has retained a third-party proxy voting service (the "Agent") to affect votes based on the customized policies established by Geode and maintain records of all of Geode's proxy votes. In limited instances where the proxy voting policies do not address the specific matter, the Agent will refer the ballot back to Geode. For ballots related to proxy contests, mergers, acquisitions and other organizational transactions, Geode may determine it is appropriate to conduct a company specific evaluation. In cases of proxies not voted by the Agent, the ultimate voting decision and responsibility rests with Geode Proxy. Geode's Operations Committee oversees the exercise of voting authority under these proxy voting policies.  
Due to its focused business model and the number of investments that Geode will make for its clients (particularly pursuant to its indexing strategy), Geode does not anticipate that actual or potential conflicts of interest are likely to occur in the ordinary course of its business. However, Geode believes it is essential to avoid having conflicts of interest affect its objective of voting in the best interests of its clients. Therefore, in the event that members of the Operations Committee, the Agent or any other person involved in the analysis or voting of proxies has knowledge of, or has reason to believe there may exist, any potential relationship, business or otherwise, between the portfolio company subject to the proxy vote and Geode (or any affiliate of Geode) or their respective directors, officers, employees or agents, such person shall notify the other members of the Operations Committee. Geode will analyze and address such potential conflict of interest, consulting with outside counsel, as appropriate. In the case of an actual conflict of interest, on the advice of counsel, Geode expects that the independent directors of Geode will consider the matter and may (1) determine that there is no conflict of interest (or that reasonable measures have been taken to remedy or avoid any conflict of interest) that would prevent Geode from voting the applicable proxy, (2) abstain, (3) cause authority to be delegated to the Agent or a similar special fiduciary to vote the applicable proxy or (4) recommend other methodology for mitigating the conflict of interest, if deemed appropriate (e.g., echo voting).  
Geode has established the specific proxy voting policies that are summarized below to maximize the value of investments in its clients' accounts, which it believes will be furthered through (1) accountability of a company's management and directors to its shareholders, (2) alignment of the interests of management with those of shareholders (including through compensation, benefit and equity ownership programs), and (3) increased disclosure of a company's business and operations. Geode reserves the right to override any of its proxy voting policies with respect to a particular shareholder vote when such an override is, in Geode's best judgment, consistent with the overall principle of voting proxies in the best long-term economic interests of Geode's clients.  
Policies  
All proxy votes shall be considered and made in a manner consistent with the best interests of Geode's clients (as well as shareholders of mutual fund clients) without regard to any other relationship, business or otherwise, between the portfolio company subject to the proxy vote and Geode or its affiliates. As a general matter, (1) proxies will be voted FOR incumbent members of a board of directors and FOR routine management proposals, except as otherwise addressed under these policies; (2) shareholder and non-routine management proposals addressed by these policies will be voted as provided in these policies; and (3) shareholder and non-routine management proposals not addressed by these policies will be evaluated by Geode Proxy based on fundamental analysis and/or research and recommendations provided by the Agent and other third-party proxy advisory firms.  
When voting the securities of non-US issuers, Geode will evaluate proposals in accordance with these policies but will also take local market standards and best practices into consideration. Geode may also limit or modify its voting at certain non-US meetings (e.g., if shares are required to be blocked or reregistered in connection with voting).  
Geode's specific policies are as follows:
I. Election of Directors  
Geode will generally vote FOR incumbent members of a board of directors except:  
Attendance. The incumbent board member failed to attend at least 75% of meetings in the previous year and does not provide a reasonable explanation.  
Independent Directors. Nominee is not independent and full board comprises less than a majority of independents. Nominee is not independent and sits on the audit, compensation or nominating committee.  
Director Responsiveness. The board failed to act on shareholder proposals that received approval by Geode and a majority of the votes cast in the previous year. The board failed to act on takeover offers where Geode and a majority of shareholders tendered their shares. At the previous board election, directors opposed by Geode received more than 50 percent withhold/against votes of the shares cast, and the company failed to address the issue(s) that caused the high withhold/against vote.  
Golden Parachutes. Incumbent members of the compensation committee adopted or renewed an excessive golden parachute within the past year.  
Gender Diversity. If there are no women on the Board unless the Board has made a firm commitment to return to a gender-diverse status when there was a woman on the Board at the preceding annual meeting.  
Overboarding. The Director is a CEO and sits on the Board of more than two public companies besides his or her own; or a non-CEO Director who sits on more than five public company boards.  
• In Other Circumstances when a member of the board has acted in a manner inconsistent with the interests of shareholders of a company whose securities are held in client accounts.  
II. Majority Election. Unless a company has a policy achieving a similar result, Geode will generally vote in favor of a proposal calling for directors to be elected by a majority of votes cast in a board election provided that the plurality vote applies when there are more nominees than board seats.  
III. Say on Pay (non-binding).  
Advisory Vote on Executive Compensation. Geode will generally vote AGAINST advisory vote when: (1) there is a significant misalignment between executive pay and company performance; (2) the company maintains significant problematic pay practices; or (3) the board exhibits a significant level of poor communication and responsiveness to shareholders.  
Frequency Vote. Geode will generally vote FOR having an advisory vote on executive compensation every year.  
Advisory Vote on Golden Parachute. Geode will vote AGAINST excessive change-in-control severance payments.  
IV. Vote AGAINST Anti-Takeover Proposals , including:  
Addition of Special Interest Directors to the board.  
Authorization of "Blank Check" Preferred Stock. Geode will vote FOR proposals to require shareholder approval for the distribution of preferred stock except for acquisitions and raising capital in the ordinary course of business.  
Classification of Boards, Geode will vote FOR proposals to de-classify boards.  
Fair Price Amendments, other than those that consider only a two-year price history and are not accompanied by other anti-takeover measures.  
Golden Parachutes, that Geode deems to be excessive in the event of change-in-control.  
Poison Pills. Adoption or extension of a Poison Pill without shareholder approval will result in our voting AGAINST the election of incumbents or a management slate in the concurrent or next following vote on the election of directors, provided the matter will be considered if (a) the board has adopted a Poison Pill with a sunset provision; (b) the Pill is linked to a business strategy that will result in greater value for the shareholders; (c) the term is less than three years; (d) the Pill includes a qualifying offer clause; or (e) shareholder approval is required to reinstate the expired Pill. Geode will vote FOR shareholder proposals requiring or recommending that shareholders be given an opportunity to vote on the adoption of poison pills.  
Reduction or Limitation of Shareholder Rights ( e.g. , action by written consent, ability to call meetings, or remove directors).  
Reincorporation in another state (when accompanied by Anti-Takeover Provisions, including increased statutory anti-takeover provisions). Geode will vote FOR reincorporation in another state when not accompanied by such anti-takeover provisions.  
Requirements that the Board Consider Non-Financial Effects of merger and acquisition proposals.  
Requirements regarding Size, Selection and Removal of the Board that are likely to have an anti-takeover effect (although changes with legitimate business purposes will be evaluated).  
Supermajority Voting Requirements (i.e., typically 2/3 or greater) for boards and shareholders. Geode will vote FOR proposals to eliminate supermajority voting requirements.  
Transfer of Authority from Shareholders to Directors.  
V. Vote FOR proposed amendments to a company's certificate of incorporation or by-laws that enable the company to Opt   Out of the Control Shares Acquisition Statutes.  
VI. Vote AGAINST the introduction of new classes of Stock with Differential Voting Rights.  
VII. Vote AGAINST introduction and FOR elimination of Cumulative Voting Rights, except in certain instances where it is determined not to enhance shareholders' interests.  
VIII. Vote FOR elimination of Preemptive Rights.  
IX. Vote FOR Anti-Greenmail proposals so long as they are not part of anti-takeover provisions (in which case the vote will be AGAINST).  
X. Vote FOR charter and by-law amendments expanding the Indemnification of Directors to the maximum extent permitted under Delaware law (regardless of the state of incorporation) and vote AGAINST charter and by-law amendments completely Eliminating Directors' Liability for Breaches of Care.  
XI. Vote FOR proposals to adopt Confidential Voting and Independent Vote Tabulation practices.  
XII. Vote FOR Open-Market Stock Repurchase Programs , unless there is clear evidence of past abuse of the authority; the plan contains no safeguards against selective buybacks, or the authority can be used as an anti-takeover mechanism.  
XIII. Vote FOR management proposals to implement a Reverse Stock Split when the number of authorized shares will be proportionately reduced or the Reverse Stock Split is necessary to avoid de-listing.  
XIV. Vote FOR management proposals to Reduce the Par Value of common stock unless the proposal may facilitate an anti-takeover device or other negative corporate governance action.  
XV. Vote FOR the Issuance of Large Blocks of Stock if such proposals have a legitimate business purpose and do not result in dilution of greater than 20%. However, a company's specific circumstances and market practices may be considered in determining whether the proposal is consistent with shareholders' interests.  
XVI. Vote AGAINST Excessive Increases in Common Stock. Vote AGAINST increases in authorized common stock that would result in authorized capital in excess of three times the company's shares outstanding and reserved for legitimate purposes. For non-U.S. securities with conditional capital requests, vote AGAINST issuances of shares with preemptive rights in excess of 100% of the company's current shares outstanding. Special requests will be evaluated, taking company-specific circumstances into account.  
XVII. Vote AGAINST the adoption of or amendment to authorize additional shares under a Stock Option Plan if:  
• The stock option plan includes evergreen provisions, which provides for an automatic allotment of equity compensation every year.  
• The dilution effect of the shares authorized under the plan (including by virtue of any "evergreen" or replenishment provision), plus the shares reserved for issuance pursuant to all other option or restricted stock plans, is greater than 10%. However, dilution may be increased to 15% for small capitalization companies, and 20% for micro capitalization companies, respectively. If the plan fails this test, the dilution effect may be evaluated relative to any unusual factor involving the company.  
• The offering price of options is less than 100% of fair market value on the date of grant, except that the offering price may be as low as 85% of fair market value if the discount is expressly granted in lieu of salary or cash bonus, except that a modest number of shares (limited to 5% for a large capitalization company and 10% for small and micro capitalization companies) may be available for grant to employees and directors under the plan if the grant is made by a compensation committee composed entirely of independent directors (the "De Minimis Exception").  
The plan is administered by (1) a compensation committee not comprised entirely of independent directors or (2) a board of directors not comprised of a majority of independent directors, provided that a plan is acceptable if it satisfies the De Minimis Exception.  
• The plan's terms allow repricing of underwater options, or the board/committee has repriced options outstanding under the plan in the past two years without shareholder approval, unless by the express terms of the plan or a board resolution such repricing is rarely used (and then only to maintain option value due to extreme circumstances beyond management's control) and is within the limits of the De Minimis Exception.  
Liberal Definition of Change in Control: the plan provides that the vesting of equity awards may accelerate even though an actual change in control may not occur.  
XVIII. Vote AGAINST the election of incumbent members of the compensation committee or a management slate in the concurrent or next following vote on the election of directors if, within the last year and without shareholder approval, the company's board of directors or compensation committee has repriced outstanding options .  
XIX. Evaluate proposals to Reprice Outstanding Stock Options , taking into account such factors as: (1) whether the repricing proposal excludes senior management and directors; (2) whether the options proposed to be repriced exceeded the dilution thresholds described in these current proxy voting policies when initially granted; (3) whether the repricing proposal is value neutral to shareholders based upon an acceptable options pricing model; (4) the company's relative performance compared to other companies within the relevant industry or industries; (5) economic and other conditions affecting the relevant industry or industries in which the company competes; and (6) other facts or circumstances relevant to determining whether a repricing proposal is consistent with the interests of shareholders.  
XX. Vote AGAINST adoption of or amendments to authorize additional shares for Restricted Stock Awards ("RSA") if:  
• The dilution effect of the shares authorized under the plan, plus the shares reserved for issuance pursuant to all other option or restricted stock plans, is greater than 10%. However, dilution may be increased to 15% for small capitalization companies, and 20% for micro capitalization companies, respectively. If the plan fails this test, the dilution effect may be evaluated relative to any unusual factor involving the company.  
XXI. Vote AGAINST Omnibus Stock Plans if one or more component violates any of the criteria applicable to Stock Option Plans or RSAs under these proxy voting policies, unless such component is de minimis. In the case of an omnibus stock plan, the dilution limits applicable to Stock Option Plans or RSAs under these proxy voting policies will be measured against the total number of shares under all components of such plan.  
XXII. Vote AGAINST Employee Stock Purchase Plans if the plan violates any of the relevant criteria applicable to Stock Option Plans or RSAs under these proxy voting policies, except that (1) the minimum stock purchase price may be equal to or greater than 85% of the stock's fair market value if the plan constitutes a reasonable effort to encourage broad based participation in the company's equity, and (2) in the case of non-U.S. company stock purchase plans, the minimum stock purchase price may be equal to the prevailing "best practices," as articulated by the Agent, provided that the minimum stock purchase price must be at least 75% of the stock's fair market value.  
XXIII. Vote AGAINST Stock Awards (other than stock options and RSAs) unless it is determined they are identified as being granted to officers/directors in lieu of salary or cash bonus, subject to number of shares being reasonable.  
XXIV. Vote AGAINST equity vesting acceleration programs or amendments to authorize additional shares under such programs if the program provides for the acceleration of vesting of equity awards even though an actual change in control may not occur.  
XXV. Vote FOR Employee Stock Ownership Plans ("ESOPs") of non-leveraged ESOPs, and in the case of leveraged ESOPs, giving consideration to the company's state of incorporation, existence of supermajority vote rules in the charter, number of shares authorized for the ESOP, and number of shares held by insiders. Geode may also examine where the ESOP shares are purchased and the dilution effect of the purchase. Geode will vote AGAINST a leveraged ESOP if all outstanding loans are due immediately upon a change in control.  
XXVI. Vote AGAINST management or shareholder proposals on other Compensation Plans or Practices if such plans or practices are Inconsistent with the Interests of Shareholders. In addition, Geode may vote AGAINST the election of incumbents or a management slate in the concurrent or next following vote on the election of directors if Geode believes a board has approved executive compensation arrangements inconsistent with the interests of shareholders.  
XXVII. Environmental and Social Proposals . Evaluate each proposal related to environmental and social issues (including political contributions). Generally, Geode expects to vote with management's recommendation on shareholder proposals concerning environmental or social issues, as Geode believes management and the board are ordinarily in the best position to address these matters. Geode may support certain shareholder environmental and social proposals that request additional disclosures from companies which may provide material information to the investment management process, or where Geode otherwise believes support will help maximize shareholder value. Geode may take action against the re-election of board members if there are serious concerns over ESG practices or the board failed to act on related shareholder proposals that received approval by Geode and a majority of the votes cast in the previous year.  
XXVIII. Geode will generally vote AGAINST shareholder proposals seeking to establish proxy access. Geode will evaluate management proposals on proxy access. Geode will evaluate shareholder proposals seeking to amend an existing proxy access right.  
XXIX. Shares of Investment Companies.  
• For institutional accounts, Geode will generally vote in favor of proposals recommended by the underlying funds' Board of Trustees, unless voting is not permitted under applicable laws and regulations.  
• For retail managed accounts, Geode will employ echo voting when voting shares. To avoid certain potential conflicts of interest, if an investment company has a shareholder meeting, Geode would vote their shares in the investment company in the same proportion as the votes of the other shareholders of the investment company.
To view a fund's proxy voting record for the most recent 12-month period ended June 30, if applicable, visit www.fidelity.com/proxyvotingresults or visit the SEC's web site at www.sec.gov.
DISTRIBUTION SERVICES
The fund has entered into a distribution agreement with Fidelity Distributors Company LLC (FDC) , an affiliate of Strategic Advisers. The principal business address of FDC is 900 Salem Street, Smithfield, Rhode Island 02917. FDC is a broker-dealer registered under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and a member of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.
The fund's distribution agreement calls for FDC to use all reasonable efforts, consistent with its other business, to secure purchasers for shares of the fund, which are continuously offered.
Promotional and administrative expenses in connection with the offer and sale of shares are paid by Strategic Advisers.
The Trustees have approved a Distribution and Service Plan with respect to shares of the fund (the Plan) pursuant to Rule 12b-1 under the 1940 Act (the Rule).
The Rule provides in substance that a fund may not engage directly or indirectly in financing any activity that is primarily intended to result in the sale of shares of the fund except pursuant to a plan approved on behalf of the fund under the Rule.
The Plan, as approved by the Trustees, allows shares of the fund and/or Strategic Advisers to incur certain expenses that might be considered to constitute indirect payment by the fund of distribution expenses.
The Plan adopted for the fund or class, as applicable, is described in the prospectus.
Under the Plan, if the payment of management fees by the fund to Strategic Advisers is deemed to be indirect financing by the fund of the distribution of its shares, such payment is authorized by the Plan.
The Plan specifically recognizes that Strategic Advisers may use its management fee revenue, as well as its past profits or its other resources, to pay FDC for expenses incurred in connection with providing services intended to result in the sale of shares of the fund and/or shareholder support services. In addition, the Plan provides that Strategic Advisers, directly or through FDC, may pay significant amounts to intermediaries that provide those services.
Currently, the Board of Trustees has authorized such payments for shares of the fund.
Prior to approving the Plan, the Trustees carefully considered all pertinent factors relating to the implementation of the Plan, and determined that there is a reasonable likelihood that the Plan will benefit the fund or class, as applicable, and its shareholders.
In particular, the Trustees noted that the Plan does not authorize payments by shares of the fund other than those made to Strategic Advisers under its management contract with the fund.
To the extent that the Plan gives Strategic Advisers and FDC greater flexibility in connection with the distribution of shares, additional sales of shares or stabilization of cash flows may result.
Furthermore, certain shareholder support services may be provided more effectively under the Plan by local entities with whom shareholders have other relationships.
TRANSFER AND SERVICE AGENT AGREEMENTS
The fund has entered into a transfer agent agreement with Fidelity Investments Institutional Operations Company LLC (FIIOC), an affiliate of Strategic Advisers, which is located at 245 Summer Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02210. Under the terms of the agreement, FIIOC (or an agent, including an affiliate) performs transfer agency services.
For providing transfer agency services, FIIOC receives no fees from the fund; however, each underlying Fidelity® fund pays its respective transfer agent (either FIIOC or an affiliate of FIIOC) fees based, in part, on the number of positions in and/or assets of the fund invested in such underlying Fidelity® fund. Strategic Advisers or an affiliate of Strategic Advisers will bear the costs of the transfer agency services with respect to assets managed by one or more sub-advisers and assets invested in non-affiliated ETFs under the terms of an agreement between Strategic