9 | 30 | 22
|FUND SYMBOLS||CLASS A||CLASS C||CLASS R6||CLASS Y|
|What are the fund’s main investment strategies and related risks?||8|
|Who oversees and manages the fund?||16|
|How does the fund price its shares?||18|
|How do I buy fund shares?||18|
|How do I sell or exchange fund shares?||27|
|Policy on excessive short-term trading||29|
|Distribution plans and payments to dealers||32|
|Fund distributions and taxes||33|
Investment Category: Income
This prospectus explains what you should know about this mutual fund before you invest. Please read it carefully.
These securities have not been approved or disapproved by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) nor has the SEC passed upon the accuracy or adequacy of this prospectus. Any statement to the contrary is a crime.
Putnam Mortgage Opportunities Fund
Putnam Mortgage Opportunities Fund seeks to maximize total return consistent with what Putnam Investment Management, LLC believes to be prudent risk. Total return is composed of capital appreciation and income.
following tables describe the fees and expenses you may pay if you buy, hold and
sell shares of the fund. You may pay other fees, such as brokerage commissions
and other fees to financial intermediaries, which are not reflected in the
tables and examples below.
|Share class||Maximum sales charge (load) imposed on purchases (as a percentage of offering price)||Maximum deferred sales charge (load) (as a percentage of original purchase price or redemption proceeds, whichever is lower)|
(expenses you pay each year as a percentage of the value of your investment)
|Share class||Management fees||Distribution and service (12b-1) fees||Other
|Total annual fund operating
|Expense reimbursement#||Total annual fund operating expenses after expense reimbursement|
The following hypothetical example is intended to help you compare the cost of investing in the fund with the cost of investing in other funds. It assumes that you invest $10,000 in the fund for the time periods indicated and then, except as indicated, redeem all your shares at the end of those periods. It assumes a 5% return on your investment each year and that the fund’s operating expenses remain the same. Only the first year of each period in the example takes into account the expense reimbursement described above. Your actual costs may be higher or lower.
|Share class||1 year||3 years||5 years||10 years|
|Class C (no redemption)||$
fund pays transaction-related costs, such as commissions, when it buys and sells
securities (or “turns over” its portfolio). A higher turnover rate may indicate
higher transaction costs and may result in higher taxes when the fund’s shares
are held in a taxable account. These costs, which are not reflected in annual
fund operating expenses or the above example, affect fund performance. The
fund’s turnover rate in the most recent fiscal year was
We invest mainly in mortgages, mortgage-related fixed income securities and related derivatives that are either investment-grade or below-investment-grade in quality (sometimes referred to as “junk bonds”). Under normal circumstances, we invest at least 80% of the fund’s net assets (plus any borrowings for investment purposes) in mortgages, mortgage-related fixed income securities and related derivatives (i.e., derivatives used to acquire exposure to, or whose underlying securities are, mortgages or mortgage-related securities). The fund generally uses the net unrealized gain or loss, or market value, of mortgage-related derivatives for purposes of this policy but may use the notional value of a derivative if that is determined to be a more appropriate measure of the fund’s investment exposure. This policy may be changed only after 60 days’ notice to shareholders.
We expect to invest in lower-rated, higher-yielding mortgage-backed securities, including non-agency residential mortgage-backed securities (which may be backed by non-qualified or “sub-prime” mortgages), commercial mortgage-backed securities, collateralized mortgage obligations (including interest only, principal only, and other prepayment derivatives), and agency mortgage-backed securities. The fund currently has significant investment exposure to commercial mortgage-backed securities. Non-agency (i.e., privately issued) securities typically are lower-rated and higher yielding than securities issued or backed by agencies such as Ginnie
Mae, Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac. While our emphasis will be on mortgage-backed securities, we may also invest to a lesser extent in other types of asset-backed securities. We may consider, among other factors, credit, interest rate, prepayment and liquidity risks, as well as general market conditions, when deciding whether to buy or sell investments. We typically use to a significant extent derivatives, including credit default swaps, interest rate swaps, total return swaps, to-be-announced (TBA) commitments, futures, options and swaptions on mortgage-backed securities and indices for both hedging and non-hedging purposes, including to obtain or adjust exposure to mortgage-backed investments.
The value of investments in the fund’s portfolio may fall or fail to rise over extended periods of time for a variety of reasons, including general economic, political or financial market conditions, investor sentiment and market perceptions, government actions, geopolitical events or changes, and factors related to a specific issuer, geography, industry, or sector, such as the housing or real estate markets. These and other factors may lead to increased volatility and reduced liquidity in the fund’s portfolio holdings or in relevant markets. The novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic and efforts to contain its spread are likely to negatively affect the value, volatility, and liquidity of the securities and other assets in which the fund invests and exacerbate other risks that apply to the fund. These effects could negatively impact the fund’s performance and lead to losses on your investment in the fund.
The risks associated with bond investments include interest rate risk, which is the risk that the value of the fund’s bond investments are likely to fall if interest rates rise. Bond investments are also subject to credit risk, which is the risk that the issuers of the fund’s investments may default on payment of interest or principal. Default risk is generally higher for non-qualified mortgages. Interest rate risk is generally greater for longer-term bonds, and credit risk is generally greater for below-investment-grade bonds (a significant part of the fund’s investments), which can be more sensitive to changes in markets, credit conditions, and interest rates, and may be considered speculative.
Mortgage- and asset-backed investments, unlike traditional debt investments, are also subject to prepayment risk, which means that they may increase in value less than other bonds when interest rates decline and decline in value more than other bonds when interest rates rise. We may have to invest the proceeds from prepaid investments in other investments with less attractive terms and yields. The fund’s investments in mortgage-backed securities and asset-backed securities, and in certain other securities and derivatives, may be or become illiquid. The fund’s concentration in an industry group composed of privately issued residential and commercial mortgage-backed securities and mortgage-backed investments issued or guaranteed by the U.S. government or its agencies or instrumentalities may make the fund’s net asset value more susceptible to economic, market, political and other developments affecting the residential and commercial real estate markets, and
the servicing of mortgage loans secured by real estate properties. During periods of difficult economic conditions, delinquencies and losses on commercial mortgage backed securities in particular generally increase, including as a result of the effects of those conditions on commercial real estate markets, the ability of commercial tenants to make loan payments, and the ability of a property to attract and retain commercial tenants.
Our use of derivatives may increase the risks of investing in the fund by increasing investment exposure (which may be considered leverage) or, in the case of many over-the-counter instruments, because of the potential inability to terminate or sell derivatives positions and the potential failure of the other party to the instrument to meet its obligations. The risk of a party failing to meet its obligations may increase if the fund has significant investment exposure to that counterparty. The value of derivatives may move in unexpected ways due to unanticipated market movements, the use of leverage, imperfect correlation between the derivative instrument and the reference asset, or other factors, especially in unusual market conditions, and volatility in the value of derivatives could adversely impact the fund’s returns, obligations and exposures. Derivatives are also subject to other risks, including liquidity risk (e.g., liquidity demands arising from the requirement to make payments to a derivative counterparty), operational risk (e.g., settlement issues or system failures), and legal risk (e.g., insufficient legal documentation or contract enforceability issues).
The fund expects to engage in frequent trading. Funds with high turnover may be more likely to realize capital gains that must be distributed to shareholders as taxable income and may incur higher transaction costs than funds with relatively lower turnover, which may detract from performance.
There is no guarantee that the investment techniques, analyses, or judgments that we apply in making investment decisions for the fund will produce the intended outcome or that the investments we select for the fund will perform as well as other securities that were not selected for the fund. We, or the fund’s other service providers, may experience disruptions or operating errors that could negatively impact the fund.
fund may not achieve its goal, and it is not intended to be a complete
|Annual Return 2016|
|Annual Return 2017|
|Annual Return 2018|
|Annual Return 2019|
|Annual Return 2020||-|
|Annual Return 2021||-|
|Worst calendar quarter
|Share class||1 year||5 years||Since inception |
|Class A before taxes*||-
|Class A after taxes on distributions*||-
|Class A after taxes on distributions and sale of fund shares*||-
|Class C before taxes*||-
|Class R6 before taxes**||-
|Class Y before taxes*||-
|ICE BofA U.S. Treasury Bill Index*** (no deduction for fees, expenses or taxes)|
|Bloomberg U.S. MBS Index† (no deduction for fees, expenses or taxes)||-
BLOOMBERG® is a trademark and service mark of Bloomberg Finance L.P. and its affiliates (collectively ”Bloomberg”). Bloomberg or Bloomberg’s licensors, own all proprietary rights in the Bloomberg Indices. Neither Bloomberg nor Bloomberg's licensors approve or endorse this material, or guarantees the accuracy or completeness of any information herein, or makes any warranty, express or implied, as to the results to be obtained therefrom, and to the maximum extent allowed by law, neither shall have any liability or responsibility for injury or damages arising in connection therewith.
|The fund’s performance is compared to the ICE BofA U.S. Treasury Bill Index, an unmanaged index that tracks the performance of U.S. dollar denominated U.S. Treasury bills, which represent obligations of the U.S. Government having a maturity of one year or less. The fund’s performance is also compared to the Bloomberg U.S. Mortgage Backed Securities (MBS) Index, an unmanaged index that tracks agency mortgage pass-through securities (both fixed-rate and hybrid adjustable- rate mortgages) guaranteed by Ginnie Mae (GNMA), Fannie Mae (FNMA), and Freddie Mac (FHLMC). Securities in the fund do not match those in the indexes and the performance of the fund will differ.|
Your fund’s management
Putnam Investment Management, LLC
Chief Investment Officer, Fixed Income,
portfolio manager of the fund since 2015
Co-Head of Structured Credit, portfolio
manager of the fund since 2015
Co-Head of Structured Credit, portfolio
manager of the fund since 2015
Putnam Investments Limited*
|*||Though the investment advisor has retained the services of Putnam Investments Limited (PIL), PIL does not currently manage any assets of the fund.|
Purchase and sale of fund shares
You can open an account, purchase and/or sell fund shares, or exchange them for shares of another Putnam fund by contacting your financial professional or by calling Putnam Investor Services at 1-800-225-1581.
When opening an account, you must complete and mail a Putnam account application, along with a check made payable to the fund, to: Putnam Investments, P.O. Box 219697, Kansas City, MO 64121-9697. The minimum initial investment of $500 is currently waived, although Putnam reserves the right to reject initial investments under $500 at its discretion. There is no minimum for subsequent investments.
You can sell your shares back to the fund or exchange them for shares of another Putnam fund any day the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) is open. Shares may be sold or exchanged by mail, by phone, or, for exchanges only, online at putnam.com. Some restrictions may apply.
The fund’s distributions will be taxed as ordinary income or capital gains unless you hold the shares through a tax-advantaged arrangement, in which case you will generally be taxed only upon withdrawal of monies from the arrangement.
Financial intermediary compensation
If you purchase the fund through a broker/dealer or other financial intermediary (such as a bank or financial professional), the fund and its related companies may pay that intermediary for the sale of fund shares and related services. Please bear in mind that these payments may create a conflict of interest by influencing the broker/dealer or other intermediary to recommend the fund over another investment. Ask your advisor or visit your advisor’s website for more information.
What are the fund’s main investment strategies and related risks?
This section contains greater detail on the fund’s main investment strategies and the related risks you would face as a fund shareholder. It is important to keep in mind that risk and reward generally go hand in hand; the higher the potential reward, the greater the risk. As mentioned in the fund summary, we pursue the fund’s goal by investing mainly in mortgage-related fixed income securities and related derivatives that are either investment-grade or below-investment-grade in quality. The fund invests significantly in mortgage-backed securities, which include investment vehicles that represent participations in, or that are secured by, mortgage loans and that facilitate the financing and reselling of mortgages by lenders.
required to make interest payments only at maturity rather than at intervals during the life of the investment.
We may invest without limit in higher-yield, higher-risk debt investments that are rated below BBB or its equivalent at the time of purchase by any nationally recognized securities rating agency rating such investments or, in unrated investments that we believe are of comparable quality. This includes investments in the lowest rating category of the rating agency. We will not necessarily sell an investment if its rating is reduced after buying it.
Investments rated below BBB or its’ equivalent are below-investment-grade in quality. This rating reflects a greater possibility that the issuers may be unable to make timely payments of interest and principal and thus default. If default occurs, or is perceived as likely to occur, the value of the investment will usually be more volatile and could decrease. The value of a debt instrument may also be affected by changes in, or perceptions of, the financial condition of the issuer, borrower, counterparty, or other entity, or underlying collateral or assets, or changes in, or perceptions of, specific or general market, economic, industry, political, regulatory, geopolitical, environmental, public health, and other conditions. A default or expected default could also make it difficult for us to sell the investment at a price approximating the value we had previously placed on it. We may have to participate in legal proceedings involving the issuer. This could increase the fund’s operating expenses and decrease its net asset value. Lower-rated debt usually has a more limited market than higher-rated debt, which may at times make it difficult for us to buy or sell certain debt instruments or to establish their fair values.
Credit ratings are based largely on the issuer’s historical financial condition and the rating agencies’ investment analysis at the time of rating. The rating assigned to any particular investment does not necessarily reflect the issuer’s current financial condition, and does not reflect an assessment of the investment’s volatility or liquidity. Although we consider credit ratings in making investment decisions, we perform our own investment analysis and do not rely only on ratings assigned by the rating agencies. Our success in achieving the fund’s goal may depend more on our own credit analysis when we buy lower-rated debt than when we buy investment-grade debt.
Although investment-grade investments generally have lower credit risk, they may share some of the risks of lower-rated investments. U.S. government investments generally have the least credit risk, but are not completely free of credit risk. While some investments, such as U.S. Treasury obligations and Ginnie Mae certificates, are backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. government, no assurance can be given that the U.S. government will continue to provide financial support to U.S. government-sponsored agencies or instrumentalities where it is not obligated to do so by law, such as Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. In September 2008, the Federal Housing Finance Agency (FHFA), an agency of the U.S. government, placed Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac into conservatorship, a statutory process with the objective of returning the entities to normal business operations. FHFA operates Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac as conservator until they are stabilized. It is unclear how long the
conservatorship will last, how Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac will operate following conservatorship, or what effect this conservatorship will have on the securities issued or guaranteed by Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac. In addition, the impact of any policy or legislative changes in the United States with respect to the housing market, and the practical implications for market participants, is uncertain and may not be known fully for some time after any such changes are implemented. Mortgage-backed and asset-backed securities not guaranteed by a government agency, including collateralized investment vehicles, which comprise a substantial portion of the fund’s investments, generally involve greater credit risk than securities guaranteed by government agencies.
Bond investments may be more susceptible to downgrades or defaults during economic downturns or other periods of economic stress, which can significantly strain the financial resources of debt issuers and/or underlying securitized assets, including the issuers of the bonds in which the fund invests (or has exposure to). This may make it less likely that those issuers can meet their financial obligations when due and may adversely impact the value of their bonds, which could negatively impact the performance of the fund. It is difficult to predict the level of financial stress and duration of such stress issuers may experience.
Compared to debt that cannot be prepaid, mortgage-backed investments are less likely to increase in value during periods of declining interest rates and have a higher risk of decline in value during periods of rising interest rates. These investments may increase the volatility of the fund. Some mortgage-backed investments receive only the interest portion or the principal portion of payments on the underlying mortgages. The yields and values of these investments are extremely sensitive to changes in interest rates and in the rate of principal payments on the underlying mortgages. The market for these investments may be volatile and limited, which may make them difficult to buy or sell. Asset-backed securities are structured like mortgage-backed securities, but instead of mortgage loans or interests in mortgage loans, the underlying assets may include such items as motor vehicle installment sales or installment loan contracts, leases of various types of real and personal property and receivables from credit card agreements. Asset-backed securities are subject to risks similar to those of mortgage-backed securities.
policy and action, inflation rates, and other factors. Declining interest rates generally result in an increase in the value of existing debt instruments, and rising interest rates generally result in a decrease in the value of existing debt instruments. Changes in a debt instrument’s value usually will not affect the amount of interest income paid to the fund, but will affect the value of the fund’s shares. Interest rate risk is generally greater for investments with longer maturities.
Some investments give the issuer the option to call or redeem an investment before its maturity date. If an issuer calls or redeems an investment during a time of declining interest rates, we might have to reinvest the proceeds in an investment offering a lower yield, and therefore the fund might not benefit from any increase in value as a result of declining interest rates.
developments affecting the residential and commercial real estate markets and the servicing of mortgage loans secured by real estate properties.
This policy may not be changed without approval of the fund’s shareholders. Factors affecting the residential and commercial real estate markets include the supply and demand of real property in particular markets, changes in the availability, terms and costs of mortgages, changes in tenants’ ability to make loan payments, changes in zoning laws and eminent domain practices, the impact of environmental laws, delays in completion of construction, changes in real estate values, changes in property taxes, levels of occupancy, adequacy of rent to cover operating expenses, changes in government regulations, and local and regional market conditions. Some of these factors may vary greatly by geographic location. The value of these investments also may be affected by changes in interest rates and social and economic trends. Mortgage-backed securities are subject to the risk of fluctuations in income from underlying real estate assets, prepayments, extensions, and defaults by borrowers. Because the fund currently has significant investment exposure to commercial mortgage-backed securities, the fund may be particularly susceptible to adverse developments affecting those securities. Commercial mortgage-backed securities include securities that reflect an interest in, or are secured by, mortgage loans on commercial real property, such as industrial and warehouse properties, office buildings, retail space and shopping malls, cooperative apartments, hotels and motels, nursing homes, hospitals and senior living centers. Many of the risks of investing in commercial mortgage-backed securities reflect the risks of investing in the real estate securing the underlying mortgage loans. During periods of difficult economic conditions (including periods of significant disruptions to business operations, supply chains, and customer activity and lower consumer demand for goods and services), delinquencies and losses on commercial real estate generally increase, including as a result of the effects of those conditions on commercial real estate markets, the ability of commercial tenants to make loan payments, and the ability of a property to attract and retain commercial tenants. The risk of defaults on residential mortgage-backed securities is generally higher in the case of mortgage-backed investments that include non-qualified mortgages. The fund may also invest in asset-backed securities, whose underlying assets may include, among other things, motor vehicle installment sales or installment loan contracts, leases of various types of personal property and receivables from credit card agreements, and which are subject to risks similar to those of mortgage-backed securities. Litigation with respect to the representations and warranties given in connection with the issuance of mortgage-backed securities can be an important consideration in investing in such securities, and the outcome of any such litigation could significantly impact the value of the fund’s mortgage-backed investments.
Derivatives are financial instruments whose value depends upon, or is derived from, the value of something else, such as one or more underlying investments, pools of investments, indexes or currencies. We may make use of “short” derivatives positions, the values of which typically move in the opposite direction from the price of the underlying investment, pool of investments, index or currency. We may use derivatives both for hedging and non-hedging purposes. For example, we may use derivatives to increase or decrease the fund’s exposure to long- or short-term interest rates (in the United States or abroad) or as a substitute for a direct investment in the securities of one or more issuers. The fund may also use derivatives to isolate prepayment risk associated with the fund’s holdings of collateralized mortgage obligations. However, we may also choose not to use derivatives, based on our evaluation of market conditions or the availability of suitable derivatives. Investments in derivatives may be applied toward meeting a requirement to invest in a particular kind of investment if the derivatives have economic characteristics similar to that investment.
Derivatives involve special risks and may result in losses. The successful use of derivatives depends on our ability to manage these sophisticated instruments. Some derivatives are “leveraged,” which means they provide the fund with investment exposure greater than the value of the fund’s investment in the derivatives. As a result, these derivatives may magnify or otherwise increase investment losses to the fund. The risk of loss from certain short derivatives positions is theoretically unlimited. The value of derivatives may move in unexpected ways due to unanticipated market movements, the use of leverage, imperfect correlation between the derivative instrument and the reference asset, or other factors, especially in unusual market conditions, and volatility in the value of derivatives could adversely impact the fund’s returns, obligations and exposures.
Other risks arise from the potential inability to terminate or sell derivatives positions. Derivatives may be subject to liquidity risk due to the obligation to make payments of margin, collateral, or settlement payments to counterparties. A liquid secondary market may not always exist for the fund’s derivatives positions. In fact, certain over-the-counter instruments (investments not traded on an exchange) will not be liquid. Over-the-counter instruments also involve the risk that the other party to the derivatives transaction will not be willing or able to meet its obligations with respect to the derivative transaction. The risk of a party failing to meet its obligations may increase if the fund has significant exposure to that counterparty. Derivatives transactions may also be subject to operational risk, including due to documentation and settlement issues, system failures, inadequate controls and human error, and legal risk due to insufficient documentation, insufficient capacity or authority of a counterparty, or issues with respect to legality or enforceability of the derivatives contract. For further information about additional types and risks of derivatives, see Miscellaneous Investments, Investment Practices and Risks in the SAI.
shareholders will purchase or redeem large quantities of shares of the fund rapidly or unexpectedly, including as a result of asset allocation decisions made by Putnam Management. These transactions could adversely affect the fund’s performance if it is forced to sell portfolio securities to satisfy redemption requests or purchase portfolio securities to invest cash when the fund would otherwise not do so, and at unfavorable prices. Redemptions of a large number of shares may affect the liquidity of the fund’s portfolio, increase the fund’s transaction costs and may result in adverse tax consequences for the fund and its shareholders. Large redemptions may be more likely during times of market stress or reduced liquidity, exacerbating the potential impact on the fund. In addition, fund returns may be adversely affected if the fund holds a portion of its assets in liquid, cash-like investments in connection with or in anticipation of shareholder redemptions. These risks are more pronounced to the extent that a smaller number of shareholders own substantial portions of the fund.
that the fund pursues a specific “ESG” or “sustainable” investment strategy, and we may make investment decisions for the fund other than on the basis of relevant ESG considerations.
The fund may also invest in cash or cash equivalents, including money market instruments or short-term instruments such as commercial paper, bank obligations (e.g., certificates of deposit and bankers’ acceptances), repurchase agreements, and U.S. Treasury bills or other government obligations. The fund may also from time to time invest all or a portion of its cash balances in money market and/or short-term bond funds advised by Putnam Management or its affiliates. The percentage of the fund invested in cash and cash equivalents and such money market and short-term bond funds is expected to vary over time and will depend on various factors, including market conditions, purchase and redemption activity by fund shareholders, and our assessment of the cash level that is appropriate to allow the fund to pursue investment opportunities as they arise and to meet shareholder redemption requests. Large cash positions may dampen performance and may prevent the fund from achieving its goal. The fund may also loan portfolio securities to earn income. These practices may be subject to other risks, as described under Miscellaneous Investments, Investment Practices and Risks in the SAI.
Who oversees and manages the fund?
The fund’s Trustees
As a shareholder of a mutual fund, you have certain rights and protections, including representation by a Board of Trustees. The Putnam Funds’ Board of Trustees oversees the general conduct of the fund’s business and represents the interests of the Putnam fund shareholders. At least 75% of the members of the Putnam Funds’ Board of Trustees are independent, which means they are not officers of the fund or affiliated with Putnam Investment Management, LLC (Putnam Management).
The Trustees periodically review the fund’s investment performance and the quality of other services such as administration, custody, and investor services. At least annually, the Trustees review the fees paid to Putnam Management and its affiliates for providing or overseeing these services, as well as the overall level of the fund’s operating expenses. In carrying out their responsibilities, the Trustees are assisted by an administrative staff, auditors and legal counsel that are selected by the Trustees and are independent of Putnam Management and its affiliates.
Contacting the fund’s Trustees
The Putnam Funds Trustees
100 Federal Street
Boston, MA 02110
The fund’s investment manager
The Trustees have retained Putnam Management, which has managed mutual funds since 1937, to be the fund’s investment manager, responsible for making investment decisions for the fund and managing the fund’s other affairs and business. The basis for the Trustees’ approval of the fund’s management contract and the sub-management contract described below is discussed in the fund’s semiannual report to shareholders dated November 30, 2021.
The fund pays a monthly management fee to Putnam Management. The fee is calculated by applying a rate to the fund’s “Average Net Assets,” which means the average of all of the determinations of the fund’s net asset value at the close of business on each business day during each month while the management contract is in effect.
The fund paid Putnam Management a management fee (after any applicable waivers) of 0.27% of average net assets for the fund’s last fiscal year. Putnam Management’s address is 100 Federal Street, Boston, MA 02110.
Putnam Management has retained its affiliate PIL to make investment decisions for such fund assets as may be designated from time to time for its management by Putnam Management. PIL is not currently managing any fund assets. If PIL were to manage any fund assets, Putnam Management (and not the fund) would pay a quarterly sub-management fee to PIL for its services at the annual rate of 0.20% of the average net asset value (NAV) of any fund assets managed by PIL. PIL, which provides a full range of international investment advisory services to institutional clients, is located at 16 St James’s Street, London, England, SW1A 1ER.
Pursuant to this arrangement, Putnam investment professionals who are based in foreign jurisdictions may serve as portfolio managers of the fund or provide other investment services, consistent with local regulations.
|Portfolio managers||Joined fund||Employer||Positions over past five years|
|Michael Salm||2015||Putnam Management
1997 - Present
|Chief Investment Officer,
Previously, Co-Chief Investment Officer of Fixed Income and Co-Head of Fixed Income
|Brett Kozlowski||2015||Putnam Management
2008 - Present
|Co-Head of Structured Credit |
Previously, Portfolio Manager
|Jatin Misra||2015||Putnam Management
2004 - Present
|Co-Head of Structured Credit |
Previously, Portfolio Manager
The SAI provides information about these individuals’ compensation, other accounts managed by these individuals and these individuals’ ownership of securities in the fund.
How does the fund price its shares?
The price of the fund’s shares is based on its NAV. The NAV per share of each class equals the total value of its assets, less its liabilities, divided by the number of its outstanding shares. NAV is only calculated as of the scheduled close of regular trading on the NYSE each day the exchange is open.
The fund values its investments for which market quotations are readily available at market value. It values all other investments and assets at their fair value, which may differ from recent market prices. Market quotations are not considered to be readily available for many debt securities. These securities are generally valued at fair value on the basis of valuations provided by an independent pricing service approved by the fund’s Trustees or dealers selected by Putnam Management. Pricing services and dealers determine valuations for normal institutional-size trading units of such securities using information with respect to transactions in the bond being valued, market transactions for comparable securities and various relationships, generally recognized by institutional traders, between securities. To the extent a pricing service or dealer is unable to value a security or provides a valuation that Putnam Management does not believe accurately reflects the security’s fair value, the security will be valued at fair value by Putnam Management.
The fund’s most recent NAV is available on Putnam Investments’ website at putnam.com/individual or by contacting Putnam Investor Services at 1-800-225-1581.
How do I buy fund shares?
Opening an account
You can open a fund account and purchase class A and C shares by contacting your financial representative or Putnam Investor Services at 1-800-225-1581 and obtaining a Putnam account application. The completed application, along with a check made payable to the fund, must then be returned to Putnam Investor Services at the following address:
P.O. Box 219697
Kansas City, MO 64121-9697
You can open a fund account with as little as $500. The minimum investment is waived if you make regular investments weekly, semi-monthly or monthly through automatic deductions from your bank checking or savings account. Although Putnam is currently waiving the minimum, it reserves the right to reject initial investments under the minimum at its discretion.
The fund sells its shares at the offering price, which is the NAV plus any applicable sales charge (class A shares only). Your financial representative or Putnam Investor Services generally must receive your completed buy order before the close of regular trading on the NYSE for your shares to be bought at that day’s offering price.
If you participate in an employer-sponsored retirement plan that offers the fund, please consult your employer for information on how to purchase shares of the fund through the plan, including any restrictions or limitations that may apply.
Also, the fund may periodically close to new purchases of shares or refuse any order to buy shares if the fund determines that doing so would be in the best interests of the fund and its shareholders.
Purchasing additional shares
Once you have an existing account, you can make additional investments at any time in any amount in the following ways:
Which class of shares is best for me?
This prospectus offers you two classes of fund shares: A and C. Employer-sponsored retirement plans may also choose class R6 shares, and certain investors described below may also choose class Y or R6 shares.
Each share class represents investments in the same portfolio of securities, but each class has its own sales charge and expense structure, as illustrated in the Fund summary — Fees and expenses section, allowing you and your financial representative to choose the class that best suits your investment needs. When you purchase shares of a fund, you must choose a share class. Deciding which share class best suits your situation depends on a number of factors that you should discuss with your financial representative, including:
Here is a summary of the differences among the classes of shares
Class A shares
Class C shares
Class R6 shares (available only to investors listed below)
|—||employer-sponsored retirement plans that are clients of third-party administrators (including affiliates of Putnam) that have entered into agreements with Putnam;|
|—||investors purchasing shares through an asset-based fee program that is sponsored by a registered broker-dealer or other financial institution;|
|—||investors purchasing shares through a commission-based platform of a registered broker-dealer or other financial institution that charges you additional fees or commissions, other than those described in the prospectus and SAI, and that has entered into an agreement with Putnam Retail Management to offer class R6 shares through such a program;|
|—||corporations, endowments, foundations and other institutional investors that have been approved by Putnam;|
|—||unaffiliated investment companies (whether registered or private) that have been approved by Putnam; and|
|—||health savings accounts (HSAs) purchasing shares through a registered broker-dealer or other financial institution.|
Class Y shares (available only to investors listed below)
|—||employer-sponsored retirement plans that are clients of third-party administrators (including affiliates of Putnam) that have entered into agreements with Putnam;|
|—||bank trust departments and trust companies that have entered into agreements with Putnam and offer institutional share class pricing to their clients;|
|—||corporate individual retirement accounts (IRAs) administered by Putnam, if another retirement plan of the sponsor is eligible to purchase class Y shares;|
|—||college savings plans that qualify for tax-exempt treatment under Section 529 of the Internal Revenue Code;|
|—||other Putnam funds and Putnam investment products;|
|—||investors purchasing shares through an asset-based fee program that is sponsored by a registered broker-dealer or other financial institution;|
|—||investors purchasing shares through a commission-based platform of a registered broker-dealer or other financial institution that charges you additional fees or commissions, other than those described in the prospectus and SAI, and that has entered into an agreement with Putnam Retail Management Limited Partnership (PRM) to offer class Y shares through such a program;|
|—||clients of a financial representative who are charged a fee for consulting or similar services;|
|—||corporations, endowments, foundations, and other institutional investors that have been approved by Putnam;|
|—||unaffiliated investment companies (whether registered or private) that have been approved by Putnam;|
|—||current and retired Putnam employees and their immediate family members (including an employee’s spouse, domestic partner, fiancé(e), or other family members who are living in the same household) as well as, in each case, Putnam-offered health savings accounts, IRAs, and other similar tax-advantaged plans solely owned by the foregoing individuals; current and retired directors of Putnam Investments, LLC; current and retired Great-West Life & Annuity Insurance Company|
employees; and current and retired Trustees of the fund. Upon the departure of any member of this group of individuals from Putnam, Great-West Life & Annuity Insurance Company, or the fund’s Board of Trustees, the member’s class Y shares convert automatically to class A shares, unless the member’s departure is a retirement, as determined by Putnam in its discretion for employees and directors of Putnam and employees of Great-West Life & Annuity Insurance Company and by the Board of Trustees in its discretion for Trustees; provided that conversion will not take place with respect to class Y shares held by former Putnam employees and their immediate family members in health savings accounts where it is not operationally practicable due to platform or other limitations; and
|—||personal and family member IRAs of registered representatives and other employees of broker-dealers and other financial institutions having a sales agreement with Putnam Retail Management, if (1) the registered representative or other employee is the broker of record or financial representative for the account, (2) the broker-dealer or other financial institution’s policies prohibit the use of class A shares or other classes of fund shares that pay 12b-1 fees in such accounts to avoid potential prohibited transactions under Internal Revenue Service rules due to the account owners’ status as “disqualified persons” under those rules, and (3) the broker-dealer or other financial institution has an agreement with Putnam Retail Management related to the use of class Y shares in these accounts.|
Trust companies or bank trust departments that purchased class Y shares for trust accounts may transfer them to the beneficiaries of the trust accounts, who may continue to hold them or exchange them for class Y shares of other Putnam funds. Defined contribution plans (including corporate IRAs) that purchased class Y shares under prior eligibility criteria may continue to purchase class Y shares.
Initial sales charges for class A shares
|Class A sales charge as a percentage of*:|
|Amount of purchase at offering price ($)||Net amount invested||Offering price**|
|50,000 but under 100,000||4.17||4.00|
|100,000 but under 250,000||3.36||3.25|
|250,000 but under 500,000||2.56||2.50|
|500,000 and above||NONE||NONE|
|*||Because of rounding in the calculation of offering price and the number of shares purchased, actual sales charges you pay may be more or less than these percentages.|
|**||Offering price includes sales charge.|
Reducing your class A sales charge
The fund offers two principal ways for you to qualify for discounts on initial sales charges on class A shares, often referred to as “breakpoint discounts”:
To calculate the total value of your existing accounts and any linked accounts, the fund will use the higher of (a) the current maximum public offering price of those shares or (b) if you purchased the shares after December 31, 2007, the initial value of the total purchases, or, if you held the shares on December 31, 2007, the market value at maximum public offering price on that date, in either case, less the market value on the applicable redemption date of any of those shares that you have redeemed.
Account types that may be linked with each other to obtain breakpoint discounts using the methods described above include:
In order to obtain a breakpoint discount, you should inform your financial representative at the time you purchase shares of the existence of other accounts or purchases that are eligible to be linked for the purpose of calculating the initial sales charge. The fund or your financial representative may ask you for records or other information about other shares held in your accounts and linked accounts, including accounts opened with a different financial representative. Restrictions may apply to certain accounts and transactions. Further details about breakpoint discounts can be found on Putnam Investments’ website at putnam.com/individual by selecting Mutual Funds, then Pricing and performance, and then About fund costs, and in the SAI.
Different financial intermediaries may impose different sales charges. Please refer to the Appendix for the sales charge or CDSC waivers that are applicable to each Specified Intermediary.
Class A shares
The following categories of investors are eligible to purchase class A shares without payment of a sales charge:
|(i)||current and former Trustees of the fund, their family members, business and personal associates; current and former employees of Putnam Management and certain current and former corporate affiliates, their family members, business and personal associates; employer-sponsored retirement plans for the foregoing; and partnerships, trusts or other entities in which any of the foregoing has a substantial interest;|
|(ii)||clients of administrators or other service providers of employer-sponsored retirement plans (for purposes of this waiver, employer-sponsored retirement plans do not include SEP IRAs, SIMPLE IRAs or SARSEPs) (not applicable to tax-exempt funds);|
|(iii)||registered representatives and other employees of broker-dealers having sales agreements with Putnam Retail Management; employees of financial institutions having sales agreements with Putnam Retail Management or otherwise having an arrangement with any such broker-dealer or financial institution with respect to sales of fund shares; and their immediate family members (spouses and children under age 21, including step-children and adopted children);|
|(iv)||a trust department of any financial institution purchasing shares of the fund in its capacity as trustee of any trust (other than a tax-qualified retirement plan trust), through an arrangement approved by Putnam Retail|
|Management, if the value of the shares of the fund and other Putnam funds purchased or held by all such trusts exceeds $1 million in the aggregate;|
|(v)||clients of (i) broker-dealers, financial institutions, financial intermediaries or registered investment advisors that charge a fee for advisory or investment services or (ii) broker-dealers, financial institutions, or financial intermediaries that have entered into an agreement with Putnam Retail Management to offer shares through a retail self-directed brokerage account with or without the imposition of a transaction fee;|
|(vi)||college savings plans that qualify for tax-exempt treatment under Section 529 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”); and|
|(vii)||shareholders reinvesting the proceeds from a Putnam Corporate IRA Plan distribution into a nonretirement plan account.|
Administrators and other service providers of employer-sponsored retirement plans are required to enter into contractual arrangements with Putnam Investor Services in order to offer and hold fund shares. Administrators and other service providers of employer-sponsored retirement plans seeking to place trades on behalf of their plan clients should consult Putnam Investor Services as to the applicable requirements.
Class A and Class C shares
A CDSC is waived in the event of a redemption under the following circumstances:
|(i)||a withdrawal from a Systematic Withdrawal Plan (“SWP”) of up to 12% of the net asset value of the account (calculated as set forth in the SAI);|
|(ii)||a redemption of shares that are no longer subject to the CDSC holding period therefor;|
|(iii)||a redemption of shares that were issued upon the reinvestment of distributions by the fund;|
|(iv)||a redemption of shares that were exchanged for shares of another Putnam fund, provided that the shares acquired in such exchange or subsequent exchanges (including shares of a Putnam money market fund or Putnam Ultra Short Duration Income Fund) will continue to remain subject to the CDSC, if applicable, until the applicable holding period expires; and|
|(v)||in the case of individual, joint or Uniform Transfers to Minors Act accounts, in the event of death or post-purchase disability of a shareholder, for the purpose of paying benefits pursuant to tax-qualified retirement plans (“Benefit Payments”), or, in the case of living trust accounts, in the event of the death or post-purchase disability of the settlor of the trust.|
Additional information about reductions and waivers of sales charges, including deferred sales charges, is included in the SAI. You may consult your financial representative or Putnam Retail Management for assistance.
How do I sell or exchange fund shares?
You can sell your shares back to the fund or exchange them for shares of another Putnam fund any day the NYSE is open, either through your financial representative or directly to the fund.
If you redeem your shares shortly after purchasing them, your redemption payment for the shares may be delayed until the fund collects the purchase price of the shares, which may be up to 7 calendar days after the purchase date.
Regarding exchanges, not all Putnam funds offer all classes of shares or may be open to new investors. If you exchange shares otherwise subject to a deferred sales charge, the transaction will not be subject to the deferred sales charge. When you redeem the shares acquired through the exchange, however, the redemption may be subject to the deferred sales charge, depending upon when and from which fund you originally purchased the shares. The deferred sales charge will be computed using the schedule of any fund into or from which you have exchanged your shares that would result in your paying the highest deferred sales charge applicable to your class of shares. For purposes of computing the deferred sales charge, the length of time you have owned your shares will be measured from the date of original purchase, unless you originally purchased the shares from another Putnam fund that does not directly charge a deferred sales charge, in which case the length of time you have owned your shares will be measured from the date you exchange those shares for shares of another Putnam fund that does charge a deferred sales charge, and will not be affected by any subsequent exchanges among funds.
The fund also reserves the right to revise or terminate the exchange privilege, limit the amount or number of exchanges or reject any exchange. The fund into which you would like to exchange may also reject your exchange. These actions may apply to all shareholders or only to those shareholders whose exchanges Putnam Management determines are likely to have a negative effect on the fund or other Putnam funds. Consult Putnam Investor Services before requesting an exchange. Ask your financial representative or Putnam Investor Services for prospectuses of other Putnam funds. Some Putnam funds are not available in all states.
Deferred sales charges for class C and certain class A shares
A deferred sales charge of 1.00% will apply to class C shares if redeemed within one year of purchase. Class A shares that are part of a purchase of $500,000 or more (other than by an employer-sponsored retirement plan) will be subject to a 1.00% deferred sales charge if redeemed within twelve months of purchase.
Deferred sales charges will be based on the lower of the shares’ cost and current NAV. Shares not subject to any charge will be redeemed first, followed by shares held longest. You may sell shares acquired by reinvestment of distributions without a charge at any time.
To the extent consistent with applicable laws and regulations, the fund reserves the right to satisfy all or a portion of a redemption request by distributing securities or other property in lieu of cash (“in-kind” redemptions), under both normal and stressed market conditions. The fund generally expects to use in-kind redemptions only in stressed market conditions or stressed conditions specific to the fund, such as redemption requests that represent a large percentage of the fund’s net assets in order to minimize the effect of the large redemption on the fund and its remaining shareholders. The fund will not use in-kind redemptions for retail investors who hold shares of the fund through a financial intermediary. Any in-kind redemption will be effected through a pro rata distribution of all publicly traded portfolio securities or securities for which quoted bid prices are available, subject to certain exceptions. The securities distributed in an in-kind redemption will be valued in the same manner as they are valued for purposes of computing the fund’s net asset value. Once distributed in-kind to an investor, securities may increase or decrease in value before the investor is able to convert them into cash. Any transaction costs or other expenses involved in liquidating securities received in an in-kind redemption will be borne by the redeeming investor. The fund has committed, in connection with an election under Rule 18f-1 under the Investment Company Act of 1940, to pay all redemptions of fund shares by a single shareholder during any 90-day period in cash, up to the lesser of (i) $250,000 or (ii) 1% of the fund’s net assets measured as of the beginning of such 90-day period. For information regarding procedures for in-kind redemptions, please contact Putnam Retail Management. You will not receive interest on uncashed redemption checks.
Policy on excessive short-term trading
When the fund invests in foreign securities, its performance may be adversely impacted and the interests of longer-term shareholders may be diluted as a result of time-zone arbitrage, a short-term trading practice that seeks to exploit changes in the
value of the fund’s investments that result from events occurring after the close of the foreign markets on which the investments trade, but prior to the later close of trading on the NYSE, the time as of which the fund determines its NAV. If an arbitrageur is successful, he or she may dilute the interests of other shareholders by trading shares at prices that do not fully reflect their fair value.
Because the fund invests in securities that may trade infrequently or may be more difficult to value, such as lower-rated bonds, it may be susceptible to trading by short-term traders who seek to exploit perceived price inefficiencies in the fund’s investments. In addition, the market for lower-rated bonds may at times show “market momentum,” in which positive or negative performance may continue from one day to the next for reasons unrelated to the fundamentals of the issuer. Short-term traders may seek to capture this momentum by trading frequently in the fund’s shares, which will reduce the fund’s performance and may dilute the interests of other shareholders. Because lower-rated debt may be less liquid than higher-rated debt, the fund may also be unable to buy or sell these securities at desirable prices when the need arises (for example, in response to volatile cash flows caused by short-term trading). Similar risks may apply if the fund holds other types of less liquid securities.
investor or financial intermediary following a warning may lead to termination of the exchange privilege for that investor or the financial intermediary initiating the trades on the investor’s behalf. Putnam Management may determine that an investor’s trading activity is excessive or otherwise potentially harmful based on various factors, including an investor’s or financial intermediary’s trading history in the fund or other Putnam funds, and may aggregate activity in multiple accounts in the fund or other Putnam funds that Putnam Management believes are under common ownership or control for purposes of determining whether the activity is excessive. If Putnam Management identifies an investor or financial intermediary engaging in excessive trading, it may revoke certain privileges, such as the telephone exchange privilege or the ability to initiate online exchanges via Putnam’s Individual Investor website. Putnam Management may also temporarily or permanently bar the investor or financial intermediary from investing in the fund or other Putnam funds. Putnam Management may take these steps in its discretion even if the investor’s activity does not fall within Putnam Management’s current monitoring parameters for the fund.
In particular, many purchase, redemption and exchange orders are received from financial intermediaries that hold omnibus accounts with the fund. Omnibus accounts are accounts in which shares are held in the name of a financial intermediary, such as a retirement plan sponsor, broker, adviser, or third-party administrator or recordkeeper, on behalf of its clients or participants, who are the beneficial owners of the fund shares held in the omnibus account. Putnam Management monitors cash flows into and out of the fund on an ongoing basis. If cash flows or other information indicate that excessive short-term trading may be taking place within an omnibus account, Putnam Management will contact the financial intermediary that maintains the omnibus account to obtain information about trading activity of the beneficial owners and attempt to identify and remedy any excessive trading. However, Putnam Management’s ability to monitor and deter excessive short-term traders in omnibus accounts ultimately depends on the capabilities and cooperation of the financial intermediaries that maintain the omnibus accounts. Financial intermediaries may impose different or additional limits on short-term trading.
Distribution plans and payments to dealers
Putnam funds are distributed primarily through dealers (including any broker, dealer, bank, bank trust department, registered investment advisor, financial planner, retirement plan administrator, and any other institution having a selling, services, or any similar agreement with Putnam Retail Management or one of its affiliates). In
order to pay for the marketing of fund shares and services provided to shareholders, the fund has adopted distribution and service (12b-1) plans, which increase the annual operating expenses you pay each year in certain share classes, as shown in the table of annual fund operating expenses in the section Fund summary — Fees and expenses. Putnam Retail Management and its affiliates also make additional payments to dealers that do not increase your fund expenses, as described below.
Putnam Retail Management and its affiliates also pay additional compensation to selected dealers in recognition of their marketing support and/or program servicing (each of which is described in more detail below). These payments may create an incentive for a dealer firm or its representatives to recommend or offer shares of the fund or other Putnam funds to its customers. These additional payments are made by Putnam Retail Management and its affiliates and do not increase the amount paid by you or the fund as shown under Fund summary — Fees and expenses.
The additional payments to dealers by Putnam Retail Management and its affiliates are generally based on one or more of the following factors: average net assets of a fund attributable to that dealer, sales or net sales of a fund attributable to that dealer, or reimbursement of ticket charges (fees that a dealer firm charges its representatives for effecting transactions in fund shares), or on the basis of a negotiated lump sum payment for services provided.
Marketing support payments are generally available to most dealers engaging in significant sales of Putnam fund shares. These payments are individually negotiated with each dealer firm, taking into account the marketing support services provided by the dealer, including business planning assistance, educating dealer personnel about the Putnam funds and shareholder financial planning needs, placement on the dealer’s preferred or recommended fund company list, access to sales meetings, sales representatives and management representatives of the dealer, market data, as well as the size of the dealer’s relationship with Putnam Retail Management. Although the total amount of marketing support payments made to dealers in any year may vary, on average, the aggregate payments are not expected, on an annual basis, to
exceed 0.085% of the average net assets of Putnam’s retail mutual funds attributable to the dealers.
Program servicing payments, which are paid in some instances to dealers in connection with investments in the fund through dealer platforms and other investment programs, are not expected, with certain limited exceptions, to exceed 0.20% of the total assets in the program on an annual basis. These payments are made for program or platform services provided by the dealer, including shareholder recordkeeping, reporting, or transaction processing, as well as services rendered in connection with dealer platform development and maintenance, fund/investment selection and monitoring, or other similar services.
You can find a list of all dealers to which Putnam made marketing support and/or program servicing payments in 2021 in the SAI, which is on file with the SEC and is also available on Putnam’s website at putnam.com. You can also find other details in the SAI about the payments made by Putnam Retail Management and its affiliates and the services provided by your dealer. Your dealer may charge you fees or commissions in addition to those disclosed in this prospectus. You can also ask your dealer about any payments it receives from Putnam Retail Management and its affiliates and any services your dealer provides, as well as about fees and/or commissions it charges.
Fund distributions and taxes
The fund normally distributes any net investment income and any net realized capital gains annually. You may choose to reinvest distributions from net investment income, capital gains or both in additional shares of your fund or other Putnam funds, or you may receive them in cash in the form of a check or an electronic deposit to your bank account. If you do not select an option when you open your account, all distributions will be reinvested. If you choose to receive distributions in cash, but correspondence from the fund or Putnam Investor Services is returned as “undeliverable,” the distribution option on your account may be converted to reinvest future distributions in the fund. You will not receive interest on uncashed distribution checks.
For shares purchased through your employer’s retirement plan, the terms of the plan will govern how the plan may receive distributions from the fund.
For federal income tax purposes, distributions of net investment income are generally taxable to you as ordinary income. Taxes on distributions of capital gains are determined by how long the fund owned (or is deemed to have owned) the investments that generated them, rather than by how long you have owned (or are deemed to have owned) your shares. Distributions that the fund properly reports to you as gains from investments that the fund owned for more than one year are generally taxable to you as long-term capital gains includible in net capital gain and taxed to individuals at reduced rates. Distributions of gains from investments that the fund owned for one year or less and gains on the sale of or payment on bonds characterized as market discount are generally taxable to you as ordinary income. Distributions are taxable in the manner described in this paragraph whether you receive them in cash or reinvest them in additional shares of this fund or other Putnam funds.
Distributions by the fund to retirement plans that qualify for tax-advantaged treatment under federal income tax laws will not be taxable. Special tax rules apply to investments through such plans. You should consult your tax advisor to determine the suitability of the fund as an investment through such a plan and the tax treatment of distributions (including distributions of amounts attributable to an investment in the fund) from such a plan.
Unless you are investing through a tax-advantaged retirement account (such as an IRA), you should consider avoiding a purchase of fund shares shortly before the fund makes a distribution because doing so may cost you money in taxes. Distributions are taxable to you even if they are paid from income or gains earned by the fund before your investment (and thus were included in the price you paid). Contact your financial representative or Putnam to find out the distribution schedule for your fund.
The fund’s investments in certain debt obligations may cause the fund to recognize taxable income in excess of the cash generated by such obligations. Thus, the fund could be required at times to liquidate other investments, including when it is not advantageous to do so, in order to satisfy its distribution requirements.
The fund’s investments in foreign securities, if any, may be subject to foreign withholding or other taxes. In that case, the fund’s return on those investments would be decreased.
Shareholders generally will not be entitled to claim a credit or deduction with respect to these foreign taxes. In addition, the fund’s investments in foreign securities or foreign currencies may increase or accelerate the fund’s recognition of ordinary income and may affect the timing or amount of the fund’s distributions.
The fund’s investments in derivative financial instruments, including investments by which the fund seeks exposure to assets other than securities, are subject to numerous special and complex tax rules. Moreover, the fund’s intention to qualify as a “regulated investment company” and receive favorable treatment under the federal income tax rules may limit its ability to invest in such instruments. The applicable tax rules could affect whether gains and losses recognized by the fund are treated as
ordinary or capital, accelerate the recognition of income or gains to the fund, defer or possibly prevent the recognition or use of certain losses by the fund and cause adjustments in the holding periods of the fund’s securities, thereby affecting, among other things, whether capital gains and losses are treated as short-term or long-term. The rules could, in turn, affect the amount, timing and character of the income distributed to shareholders by the fund and, therefore, may increase the amount of taxes payable by shareholders.
Any gain resulting from the sale or exchange of your shares generally also will be subject to tax.
The above is a general summary of the tax implications of investing in the fund. Please refer to the SAI for further details. You should consult your tax advisor for more information on your own tax situation, including possible foreign, state and local taxes.
Information about the Summary Prospectus, Prospectus, and SAI
The summary prospectus, prospectus, and SAI for a fund provide information concerning the fund. The summary prospectus, prospectus, and SAI are updated at least annually and any information provided in a summary prospectus, prospectus, or SAI can be changed without a shareholder vote unless specifically stated otherwise. The summary prospectus, prospectus, and the SAI are not contracts between the fund and its shareholders and do not give rise to any contractual rights or obligations or any shareholder rights other than any rights conferred explicitly by federal or state securities laws that may not be waived.
The financial highlights tables are intended to help you understand the fund’s recent financial performance. Certain information reflects financial results for a single fund share. The total returns represent the rate that an investor would have earned or lost on an investment in the fund, assuming reinvestment of all dividends and distributions. The financial highlights have been audited by PricewaterhouseCoopers, LLP. The Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm’s report and the fund’s financial statements are included in the fund’s annual report to shareholders, which is available upon request.
Financial highlights (For a common share outstanding throughout the period)
|INVESTMENT OPERATIONS||LESS DISTRIBUTIONS||RATIOS AND SUPPLEMENTAL DATA|
|Period ended||Net asset value, beginning of period||Net investment income (loss) a||Net realized and unrealized gain (loss) on investments||Total from investment operations||From
net investment income
return of capital
|Net asset value, end of period||Total return at net asset value (%) b||Net assets, end of period (in thousands)||Ratio of expenses to average net assets excluding interest expense (%) c,d||Ratio of net investment income (loss) to average net assets (%) d||Portfolio turnover (%) e|
|May 31, 2022||$9.41||.39||(.33)||.06||(.57)||—||(0.57)||$8.90||.81||$3,693||.78||4.28||1,790|
|May 31, 2021||9.01||.34||.39||.73||(.32)||(.01)||(0.33)||9.41||8.19||1,660||.75||3.64||1,058|
|May 31, 2020 †||10.51||.31||(1.11)||(.80)||(.69)||(.01)||(0.70)||9.01||(8.32)*||2,805||.71*||3.11*||1,311|
|May 31, 2022||$9.42||.32||(.32)||— f||(.50)||—||(0.50)||$8.92||.07||$382||1.53||3.47||1,790|
|May 31, 2021||9.01||.28||.39||.67||(.26)||— f||(0.26)||9.42||7.48||260||1.50||2.93||1,058|
|May 31, 2020 †||10.51||.24||(1.11)||(.87)||(.62)||(.01)||(0.63)||9.01||(8.91)*||337||1.40*||2.46*||1,311|
|May 31, 2022||$9.43||.41||(.33)||.08||(.60)||—||(0.60)||$8.91||.96||$1,157||.51||4.51||1,790|
|May 31, 2021 #||9.02||.38||.39||.77||(.35)||(.01)||(0.36)||9.43||8.56||1,017||.51||4.01||1,058|
|May 31, 2022||$9.42||.41||(.33)||.08||(.60)||—||(0.60)||$8.90||.96||$123,873||.53||4.52||1,790|
|May 31, 2021||9.02||.37||.39||.76||(.35)||(.01)||(0.36)||9.42||8.46||43,483||.50||3.93||1,058|
|May 31, 2020 †||10.51||.33||(1.11)||(.78)||(.70)||(.01)||(0.71)||9.02||(8.10)*||54,750||.48*||3.40*||1,311|
|#||For the period June 1, 2020 (commencement of operations) to May 31, 2021.|
|†||For the period July 1, 2019 (commencement of operations) to May 31, 2020.|
|a||Per share net investment income (loss) has been determined on the basis of the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the period.|
|b||Total return assumes dividend reinvestment and does not reflect the effect of sales charges.|
|c||Includes amounts paid through expense offset and/or brokerage service arrangements, if any. Also excludes acquired fund fees and expenses, if any.|
|d||Reflects involuntary contractual expense limitations in effect during the period. As a result of such limitations, the expenses of each class reflect a reduction of the following amount:|
|Percentage of average net assets|
|e||Portfolio turnover includes TBA roll transactions.|
|f||Represents less than $0.01 per share.|
|36 Prospectus||Prospectus 37|
Financial intermediary specific sales charge waiver information
As described in the prospectus, class A shares may be subject to an initial sales charge and class C shares may be subject to a CDSC. Certain financial intermediaries may impose different initial sales charges or waive the initial sales charge or CDSC in certain circumstances. This Appendix details the variations in sales charge waivers by financial intermediary. Not all financial intermediaries specify financial intermediary-specific sales charge waiver categories for every share class. For information about sales charges and waivers available for share classes other than those listed below, please see the section “Additional reductions and waivers of sales charges” in the prospectus. You should consult your financial representative for assistance in determining whether you may qualify for a particular sales charge waiver.
Class A Shares Front-End Sales Charge Waivers Available at Ameriprise Financial:
The following information applies to class A share purchases if you have an account with or otherwise purchase fund shares through Ameriprise Financial:
Shareholders purchasing fund shares through an Ameriprise Financial account are eligible for the following front-end sales charge waivers, which may differ from those disclosed elsewhere in this fund’s prospectus or SAI:
D.A. DAVIDSON & CO. (“D.A. DAVIDSON”)
Shareholders purchasing fund shares including existing fund shareholders through a D.A. Davidson platform or account, or through an introducing broker-dealer or independent registered investment advisor for which D.A. Davidson provides trade execution, clearance, and/or custody services, will be eligible for the following sales charge waivers (front-end sales charge waivers and contingent deferred, or back-end, sales charge waivers) and discounts, which may differ from those disclosed elsewhere in this prospectus or SAI.
Front-End Sales Charge Waivers on Class A Shares available at D.A. Davidson
CDSC Waivers on Classes A and C shares available at D.A. Davidson
Front-end sales charge discounts available at D.A. Davidson: breakpoints, rights of accumulation and/or letters of intent
EDWARD D. JONES & CO., L.P. (“EDWARD JONES”)
Policies Regarding Transactions Through Edward Jones
The following information has been provided by Edward Jones:
Effective on or after March 1, 2021, the following information supersedes prior information with respect to transactions and positions held in fund shares through an Edward Jones system. Clients of Edward Jones (also referred to as “shareholders”) purchasing fund shares on the Edward Jones commission and fee-based platforms are eligible only for the following sales charge discounts (also referred to as “breakpoints”) and waivers, which can differ from discounts and waivers described elsewhere in the mutual fund prospectus or statement of additional information (“SAI”) or through another broker-dealer. In all instances, it is the shareholder’s responsibility to inform Edward Jones at the time of purchase of any relationship, holdings of fund family, or other facts qualifying the purchaser for discounts or waivers. Edward Jones can ask for documentation of such circumstance. Shareholders should contact Edward Jones if they have questions regarding their eligibility for these discounts and waivers.
Rights of Accumulation (“ROA”)
Letter of Intent (“LOI”)
Sales Charge Waivers
Sales charges are waived for the following shareholders and in the following situations:
Contingent Deferred Sales Charge (“CDSC”) Waivers
If the shareholder purchases shares that are subject to a CDSC and those shares are redeemed before the CDSC is expired, the shareholder is responsible to pay the CDSC except in the following conditions:
Other Important Information Regarding Transactions Through Edward Jones
Minimum Purchase Amounts
|—||A fee-based account held on an Edward Jones platform|
|—||A 529 account held on an Edward Jones platform|
|—||An account with an active systematic investment plan or LOI|
Exchanging Share Classes
JANNEY MONTGOMERY SCOTT LLC (“JANNEY”)
Effective May 1, 2020, if you purchase fund shares through a Janney brokerage account, you will be eligible for the following load waivers (front-end sales charge waivers and contingent deferred sales charge (“CDSC”), or back-end sales charge, waivers) and discounts, which may differ from those disclosed elsewhere in this fund’s Prospectus or SAI.
Front-end sales charge* waivers on Class A shares available at Janney
CDSC waivers on Class A and C shares available at Janney
Front-end sales charge* discounts available at Janney: breakpoints, rights of accumulation, and/or letters of intent
|*||Also referred to as an “initial sales charge.”|
Shareholders purchasing fund shares through a Merrill Lynch platform or account held at Merrill Lynch will be eligible only for the following sales charge waivers (front-end sales charge waivers and CDSC waivers) and discounts, which may differ from those disclosed elsewhere in the fund’s prospectus or SAI. It is your responsibility to notify your financial representative at the time of purchase of any relationship or other facts qualifying you for sales charge waivers or discounts.
Front-end Sales Charge Waivers on Class A Shares available through Merrill Lynch
made after shares are automatically sold to pay Merrill Lynch’s account maintenance fees are not eligible for reinstatement
CDSC Waivers on A, B and C Shares available through Merrill Lynch
Front-end Sales Charge Discounts available through Merrill Lynch: Breakpoints, Rights of Accumulation & Letters of Intent
MORGAN STANLEY WEALTH MANAGEMENT
Effective July 1, 2018, shareholders purchasing fund shares through a Morgan Stanley Wealth Management transactional brokerage account will be eligible only for the following front-end sales charge waivers with respect to class A shares, which may differ from and may be more limited than those disclosed elsewhere in this fund’s Prospectus or SAI.
Front-end Sales Charge Waivers on class A Shares available at Morgan Stanley Wealth Management:
OPPENHEIMER & CO. INC. (“OPCO”)
Effective September 1, 2020, shareholders purchasing Fund shares through an OPCO platform or account are eligible only for the following load waivers (front-end sales charge waivers and contingent deferred, or back-end, sales charge waivers) and discounts, which may differ from those disclosed elsewhere in this Fund’s prospectus or SAI.
Front-end Sales Load Waivers on Class A Shares available at OPCO
CDSC Waivers on A, B and C Shares available at OPCO
Front-end Sales Charge Discounts Available at OPCO: Breakpoints & Rights of Accumulation
RAYMOND JAMES & ASSOCIATES, INC., RAYMOND JAMES FINANCIAL SERVICES, INC. AND EACH ENTITY’S AFFILIATES (“RAYMOND JAMES”)
Effective March 1, 2019, shareholders purchasing fund shares through a Raymond James platform or account, or through an introducing broker-dealer or independent registered investment adviser for which Raymond James provides trade execution, clearance, and/or custody services, will be eligible only for the following load waivers (front-end sales charge waivers and contingent deferred, or back-end, sales charge waivers) and discounts, which may differ from those disclosed elsewhere in this fund’s prospectus or SAI.
Front-end sales load waivers on Class A shares available at Raymond James
CDSC Waivers on Classes A, B and C shares available at Raymond James
Front-end load discounts available at Raymond James: breakpoints, rights of accumulation, and/or letters of intent
ROBERT W. BAIRD & CO. (“BAIRD”)
Effective September 1, 2020, shareholders purchasing fund shares through a Baird brokerage account will only be eligible for the following sales charge waivers (front-end sales charge waivers and CDSC waivers) and discounts, which may differ from those disclosed elsewhere in this prospectus or the SAI.
Front-End Sales Charge Waivers on Class A shares Available at Baird
CDSC Waivers on Class A and C shares Available at Baird
Front-End Sales Charge Discounts Available at Baird: Breakpoints and/or Rights of Accumulation
STIFEL, NICOLAUS & COMPANY, INCORPORATED (“STIFEL”)
Effective September 1, 2020, shareholders purchasing Fund shares through a Stifel platform or account or who own shares for which Stifel or an affiliate is the broker-dealer of record are eligible for the following additional sales charge waiver.
Front-end Sales Charge Waiver on Class A Shares
Class C shares that have been held for more than seven (7) years will be converted to Class A shares of the same Fund pursuant to Stifel’s policies and procedures. All other sales charge waivers and reductions described elsewhere in this prospectus or SAI will continue to apply for eligible shareholders.
Class A Sales Charge Waivers Available Only Through Specified Intermediaries
As described in the prospectus, class A shares may be purchased at net asset value without payment of a sales charge through a broker-dealer, financial institution, or financial intermediary that has entered into an agreement with Putnam Retail Management to offer shares through a retail self-directed brokerage account with or without the imposition of a transaction fee.
The following intermediaries have entered into such an agreement:
Financial Services LLC
Charles Schwab & Co., Inc.
Merrill Lynch, Pierce, Fenner & Smith Incorporated
J.P. Morgan Securities LLC
TD Ameritrade, Inc. and TD Ameritrade Clearing, Inc.
Morgan Stanley Smith Barney LLC
Interactive Brokers LLC
Vanguard Marketing Corporation
Citigroup Global Markets Inc.
E*Trade Securities LLC
Make the most of your Putnam privileges
The following services are available to you as a Putnam mutual fund shareholder.
Systematic investment plan
Invest as much as you wish. The amount you choose will be automatically transferred weekly, semi-monthly or monthly from your checking or savings account.
Make regular withdrawals monthly, quarterly, semiannually, or annually from your Putnam mutual fund account.
Transfer assets automatically from one Putnam account to another on a regular, prearranged basis.
Exchange money between Putnam funds. The exchange privilege allows you to adjust your investments as your objectives change. A signature guarantee is required for exchanges of more than $500,000 and shares of all Putnam funds may not be available to all investors.
Investors may not maintain, within the same fund, simultaneous plans for systematic investment or exchange (into the fund) and systematic withdrawal or exchange (out of the fund). These privileges are subject to change or termination.
Many of these services can be accessed online at putnam.com.
For more information about any of these services and privileges, call your financial representative or a Putnam customer service representative toll-free at 1-800-225-1581.
more information about
Putnam Mortgage Opportunities Fund
The fund’s SAI and annual and semiannual reports to shareholders include additional information about the fund. The SAI is incorporated by reference into this prospectus, which means it is part of this prospectus for legal purposes. The fund’s annual report discusses the market conditions and investment strategies that significantly affected the fund’s performance during its last fiscal year. You may get free copies of these materials, request other information about any Putnam fund, or make shareholder inquiries, by contacting your financial representative, by visiting Putnam’s website at putnam.com/individual, or by calling Putnam toll-free at 1-800-225-1581. You may access reports and other information about the fund on the EDGAR Database on the Securities and Exchange Commission’s website at http://www.sec.gov. You may get copies of this information, with payment of a duplication fee, by electronic request at the following E-mail address: publici[email protected]. You may need to refer to the fund’s file number.
100 Federal Street
Boston, MA 02110
Address correspondence to:
P.O. Box 219697
Kansas City, MO 64121-9697
|File No. 811-07237||SP765 328646 9/22|