IVY FUNDS - Form 485BPOS SEC filing

 

Statement of Additional Information

Ivy Funds

Nasdaq ticker symbols

 

Class A

Class C

Class I

Class R6

Class R

Class Y

Delaware Global Real Estate Fund

IREAX

IRECX

IRESX

IRENX

IRERX

IREYX

Delaware Ivy Core Bond Fund

IBOAX

IBOCX

IVBIX

IBNDX

IYBDX

IBOYX

Delaware Ivy Global Bond Fund

IVSAX

IVSCX

IVSIX

IVBDX

IYGOX

IVSYX

Delaware Ivy High Income Fund

WHIAX

WRHIX

IVHIX

IHIFX

IYHIX

WHIYX

Delaware Ivy International Value Fund

ICDAX

ICDCX

ICVIX

ICNGX

IYCUX

ICDYX

Delaware Ivy Limited-Term Bond Fund

WLTAX

WLBCX

ILTIX

ILMDX

IYLTX

WLTYX

Delaware Ivy Managed International Opportunities Fund

IVTAX

IVTCX

IVTIX

IVTNX

IYMGX

IVTYX

Delaware Ivy Municipal Bond Fund

WMBAX

WMBCX

IMBIX

IMBNX

n/a

n/a

Delaware Ivy Municipal High Income Fund

IYIAX

IYICX

WYMHX

IYINX

n/a

IYIYX

Delaware Ivy Natural Resources Fund

IGNAX

IGNCX

IGNIX

INRSX

IGNRX

IGNYX

Delaware Real Estate Securities Fund

IRSAX

IRSCX

IREIX

IRSEX

IRSRX

IRSYX

July 31, 2023

P.O. Box 534437, Pittsburgh, PA 15253-4437 (regular mail)

Attention: 534437, 500 Ross Street, 154-0520, Pittsburgh, PA 15262 (overnight courier service)

For a Prospectus, Performance, and Information on Existing Accounts: 800 523-1918

For Dealer Services (Broker/Dealers only): 800 362-7500

Ivy Funds (the “Trust”) is an open-end management investment company that currently consists of 39 separate series, 11 of which (each, a Fund and collectively, the Funds) are listed above. This Statement of Additional Information (“SAI”) supplements the information contained in the current prospectus (the "Prospectus"), dated July 31, 2023, and as it may be amended from time to time.

This SAI should be read in conjunction with the Prospectus. This SAI is not itself a prospectus but is, in its entirety, incorporated by reference into the Prospectus.

The Prospectus may be obtained through our website at delawarefunds.com/literature; by writing or calling your financial advisor; or by contacting the Funds' distributor, Delaware Distributors, L.P. (the “Distributor”), at the above address, or by calling the above phone numbers. Please do not send any correspondence to 100 Independence, 610 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19106-2354. The Funds' financial statements, the notes relating thereto, the financial highlights, and the report of the independent registered public accounting firm are incorporated by reference from the Funds' annual report (“Annual Report”) into this SAI. An Annual Report will accompany any request for this SAI. An Annual Report can be obtained, without charge, by calling 800 523-1918.

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Organization and Classification

This SAI describes the Funds, which are series of the Trust. Each Fund offers Class A and Class C shares. Each Fund, except Delaware Ivy Municipal Bond Fund, offers Class Y shares and each Fund, except Delaware Ivy Municipal Bond Fund and Delaware Ivy Municipal High Income Fund also offers Class R shares (Class R, together with Class A, Class C, and Class Y, the “Retail Classes”). In addition, each Fund offers Class I and Class R6 shares (the “Institutional Classes,” and together with the Retail Classes, the “Classes”). All references to “shares” in this SAI refer to all classes of shares (each share class, the “Class”) of the Funds, except where noted. The Funds' investment manager is Delaware Management Company (the “Manager”), a series of Macquarie Investment Management Business Trust (“MIMBT”) (a Delaware statutory trust). Macquarie Investment Management Austria Kapitalanlage AG (“MIMAK”), Macquarie Investment Management Global Limited (“MIMGL”), and Macquarie Investment Management Europe Limited (“MIMEL”) serve as sub-advisors to certain of the Funds as described under “Investment Manager and Other Service Providers.” For purposes of the “Investment Strategies and Risks” section, a reference to the Manager may also include MIMAK, MIMGL and MIMEL.

Organization

The Trust was organized as a Delaware statutory trust on November 13, 2008. On April 1, 2010, each of the then-existing series of the Trust became the successor either to one of the series of Ivy Funds, Inc., organized as a Maryland corporation on January 29, 1992, or to one of the series of Ivy Funds, organized as a Massachusetts business trust on December 21, 1983.

Effective October 14, 2016, Ivy Global Real Estate Fund changed its name to Ivy LaSalle Global Real Estate Fund.

Effective April 3, 2017, Ivy Global Natural Resources Fund changed its name to Ivy Natural Resources Fund.

Effective April 30, 2018, Ivy Advantus Bond Fund changed its name to Ivy Securian Core Bond Fund.

Effective April 30, 2018, Ivy Advantus Real Estate Securities Fund changed its name to Ivy Securian Real Estate Securities Fund.

Effective July 31, 2018, Ivy Cundill Global Value Fund changed its name to Ivy Pzena International Value Fund.

Effective November 5, 2018, Ivy LaSalle Global Risk-Managed Real Estate Fund merged into Ivy LaSalle Global Real Estate Fund.

Effective July 1, 2021, each Fund was renamed in conjunction with a transaction whereby Macquarie Management Holdings, Inc., the US holding company for Macquarie Group Limited's US asset management business, acquired the investment management business of Waddell & Reed Financial, Inc., including Ivy Investment Management Company, the former investment adviser of the Funds. On this date the word "Delaware" was added to each Fund's name.

Effective July 1, 2021, Class N shares were renamed Class R6 for each applicable Fund.

Effective November 15, 2021, Delaware Ivy Pzena International Value Fund changed its name to Delaware Ivy International Value Fund.

Effective July 29, 2022, Delaware Ivy LaSalle Global Real Estate Fund changed its name to Delaware Global Real Estate Fund.

Effective July 29, 2022, Delaware Ivy Securian Core Bond Fund changed its name to Delaware Ivy Core Bond Fund.

Effective July 29, 2022, Delaware Ivy Securian Real Estate Securities Fund changed its name to Delaware Real Estate Securities Fund.

Classification

The Trust is an open-end management investment company.

Each Fund's portfolio of assets (other than Delaware Global Real Estate Fund and Delaware Ivy International Value Fund) is “diversified” as defined in the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “1940 Act”), and therefore, is required to meet certain diversification requirements under the 1940 Act that may limit its investments. Such requirements are set forth under Nonfundamental Investment Restrictions — Diversification below. A Fund may not change from “diversified” to “nondiversified” without shareholder approval (as defined below).

Delaware Global Real Estate Fund and Delaware Ivy International Value Fund are “nondiversified” as defined in the 1940 Act. This means that each Fund may invest a greater portion of its assets in obligations of a single issuer or in several issuers.

Investment Objectives, Restrictions, and Policies

Investment Objectives

Each Fund's investment objective is described in the Prospectus. Each Fund's investment objective is nonfundamental, and may be changed without shareholder approval. However, the Trust's Board of Trustees (“Board”) must approve any changes to nonfundamental investment objectives, and a Fund will notify shareholders at least 60 days prior to a material change in the Fund's investment objective.

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Investment Objectives, Restrictions, and Policies

Fundamental Investment Restrictions

The following, set forth in their entirety, are the Funds' fundamental investment restrictions, which cannot be changed without shareholder approval for the affected Fund. For this purpose, shareholder approval for a Fund means the approval, at a meeting of Fund shareholders, by the lesser of (1) 67% or more of the Fund's voting securities present at the meeting, if more than 50% of the Fund's outstanding voting securities are present in person or by proxy or (2) more than 50% of the Fund's outstanding voting securities. If a percentage restriction is adhered to at the time of an investment or transaction, later changes in the percentage resulting from a change in value of portfolio securities or amount of total assets will not be considered a violation of the restriction. As to each Fund (unless otherwise specified):

1. The Fund may not borrow money except as permitted by (i) the 1940 Act, or interpretations or modifications by the SEC, SEC staff or other authority of competent jurisdiction, or (ii) exemptive or other relief or permission from the SEC, SEC staff or other authority of competent jurisdiction.

2. The Fund may not engage in the business of underwriting the securities of other issuers, except as permitted by (i) the 1940 Act, or interpretations or modifications by the SEC, SEC staff or other authority of competent jurisdiction, or (ii) exemptive or other relief or permission from the SEC, SEC staff or other authority of competent jurisdiction.

3. The Fund may lend money or other assets to the extent permitted by (i) the 1940 Act, or interpretations or modifications by the SEC, SEC staff or other authority of competent jurisdiction, or (ii) exemptive or other relief or permission from the SEC, SEC staff or other authority of competent jurisdiction.

4. The Fund may not issue senior securities except as permitted by (i) the 1940 Act, or interpretations or modifications by the SEC, SEC staff or other authority of competent jurisdiction, or (ii) exemptive or other relief or permission from the SEC, SEC staff or other authority of competent jurisdiction.

5. The Fund may not purchase or sell real estate except as permitted by (i) the 1940 Act, or interpretations or modifications by the SEC, SEC staff or other authority of competent jurisdiction, or (ii) exemptive or other relief or permission from the SEC, SEC staff or other authority of competent jurisdiction.

6. The Fund may not purchase or sell commodities or contracts related to commodities except to the extent permitted by (i) the 1940 Act, or interpretations or modifications by the SEC, SEC staff or other authority of competent jurisdiction, or (ii) exemptive or other relief or permission from the SEC, SEC staff or other authority of competent jurisdiction.

7. For each Fund other than Delaware Global Real Estate Fund, Delaware Ivy Natural Resources Fund, Delaware Real Estate Securities Fund and Delaware Ivy International Value Fund:

The Fund may not purchase the securities of any issuer (other than securities issued or guaranteed by the US government or any of its agencies or instrumentalities, securities of other investment companies and “tax-exempt securities” (i.e., securities the interest on which is not subject to federal income tax) or such other securities as may be excluded for this purpose under the 1940 Act, the rules and regulations thereunder and any applicable exemptive relief) if, as a result, such purchase would result in the concentration (as that term may be defined in the 1940 Act, the rules and regulations thereunder and any applicable exemptive relief) of its investments in securities of issuers in any one industry.

For each of Delaware Global Real Estate Fund and Delaware Real Estate Securities Fund:

Under normal circumstances, each Fund will concentrate its investments in the real estate or real estate-related industry. Each Fund will not concentrate its investments in any other particular industry, except as permitted by exemptive or other relief or permission from the SEC, SEC staff or other authority of competent jurisdiction.

For Delaware Ivy Natural Resources Fund:

Under normal market conditions, Delaware Ivy Natural Resources Fund will concentrate its investments in securities of issuers that produce, refine, develop, store, transport or supply energy or industrial products (i.e., building materials, packaging, chemicals, base metals, forest and agricultural products or provide basic services to the natural resources industry).

For Delaware Ivy International Value Fund:

The Fund shall not make investments that will result in the concentration (as that term may be defined in the 1940 Act, any rule or order thereunder, or U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) staff interpretation thereof) of its investments in the securities of issuers primarily engaged in the same industry, except that the Fund shall concentrate its investments in the consumer staples industry, provided that this restriction does not limit the Fund from investing in obligations issued or guaranteed by the U.S. government, its agencies or instrumentalities, or in tax-exempt obligations.

For purposes of a Fund's concentration policy, the Fund intends to comply with the SEC staff position that securities issued or guaranteed as to principal and interest by any single foreign government are considered to be securities of issuers in the same industry or group of industries. In applying a Fund's policy on concentration (i.e., investing more than 25% of its net assets in the securities of issuers primarily engaged in the same industry): (i) utility companies will be divided according to their services, for example, gas, gas transmission, electric, and telephone will each be considered a separate industry; (ii) financial service companies will be classified according to the end users of their services, for example, automobile finance, bank finance, and diversified finance will each be considered a separate industry; (iii) asset-backed securities will be classified according to the underlying assets securing such securities. In addition, in applying its policy on concentration, Delaware Ivy International Value Fund will divide: (i) the health care sector into its various component

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sub-industries (e.g., equipment, technology, distributors, pharmaceuticals and facilities); and (ii) the communication services sector into its various component sub-industries (e.g., advertising, publishing, alternative carriers, movies and entertainment).

For Each of Delaware Ivy Municipal Bond Fund and Delaware Ivy Municipal High Income Fund:

Under normal circumstances, at least 80% of the net assets of the Fund, plus any borrowings for investment purposes, will be invested in municipal bonds.

Nonfundamental Investment Restrictions

In addition to the fundamental investment policies and investment restrictions described above, and the various general investment policies described in the Prospectus, each Fund (unless otherwise specified) will be subject to the following investment restrictions, which are considered nonfundamental and may be changed by the Board without shareholder approval:

1. Investment in other investment companies:

Each Fund may buy shares of other investment companies only to the extent permitted under the 1940 Act, the rules and regulations thereunder and any applicable exemptive relief. Any Fund whose shares are acquired by another Fund in accordance with Section 12(d)(1)(G) of the 1940 Act shall not purchase securities of a registered open-end investment company or registered unit investment trust in reliance on either Section12(d)(1)(F) or Section 12(d)(1)(G) of the 1940 Act.

2. Investment in illiquid securities:

Each Fund may not purchase a security if, as a result, more than 15% of its net assets would consist of illiquid investments.

3. Investment in debt securities:

Each of Delaware Global Real Estate Fund, Delaware Ivy Natural Resources Fund, and Delaware Real Estate Securities Fund may invest up to 10% of its total assets in non-investment grade debt securities.

Each of Delaware Ivy Limited-Term Bond Fund and Delaware Ivy Municipal Bond Fund may not invest more than 20% of its total assets in non-investment grade debt securities.

Delaware Ivy Core Bond Fund may not invest more than 35% of its total assets in non-investment grade debt securities.

Delaware Ivy Municipal Bond Fund and Delaware Ivy Municipal High Income Fund may invest up to 20% of its total assets in taxable debt securities other than municipal bonds.

Under normal circumstances, at least 65% of Delaware Ivy Municipal High Income Fund's total assets will be invested in medium- and lower-quality municipal bonds, which are bonds rated BBB+ or lower by S&P or comparably rated by another NRSRO or, if unrated, determined by the Manager to be of comparable quality. The Fund may invest in higher-quality municipal bonds, and have less than 65% of its total assets in medium- and lower-quality municipal bonds, at times when yield spreads are narrow and the Manager believes that the higher yields do not justify the increased risk and/or when, in the Manager's opinion, there is a lack of medium- and lower-quality issues in which to invest

4. Investment in foreign securities:

Each of Delaware Ivy Municipal Bond Fund and Delaware Ivy Municipal High Income Fund may invest in commercial paper and other short-term equivalent securities issued by US and foreign issuers that are denominated in US dollars.

Delaware Real Estate Securities Fund may not invest more than 25% of its total assets in foreign securities.

Delaware Ivy Core Bond Fund may not invest more than 40% of its total assets in foreign securities.

5. Investment in Financial Instruments:

Each Fund may invest in Financial Instruments if it is permitted to invest in the type of asset by which the return on, or value of, the Financial Instrument primarily is measured.

6. Restrictions on selling short:

Each Fund may engage in short sales to the extent permitted by the 1940 Act, the rules and regulations thereunder and any applicable exemptive relief.

7. Diversification:

For each Fund (other than Delaware Global Real Estate Fund and Delaware Ivy International Value Fund), except to the extent permitted by the 1940 Act, the rules and regulations thereunder and any applicable exemptive relief, the Fund may not, with respect to 75% of the Fund's total assets, purchase the securities of any issuer (other than securities issued or guaranteed by the US government or any of its agencies or instrumentalities, and securities of other investment companies) if, as a result, (a) more than 5% of the Fund's total assets would be invested in the securities of that issuer, or (b) the Fund would hold more than 10% of the outstanding voting securities of that issuer.

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Investment Objectives, Restrictions, and Policies

The method of determining who is an issuer for purposes of the 5% limitation above for Delaware Ivy Municipal Bond Fund and Delaware Ivy Municipal High Income Fund is nonfundamental. In particular, in applying this limitation:

For municipal securities created by a particular government but backed only by the assets and revenues of a subdivision of that government, such as an agency, instrumentality, authority or other subdivision, the Fund considers such subdivision to be the issuer;

 

For PABs, the nongovernmental user of facilities financed by them is considered a separate issuer; and

 

A guarantee of a municipal securities is not deemed to be a security issued by the guarantor when the value of all securities issued and guaranteed by the guarantor, and owned by a Fund, does not exceed 10% of the value of the Fund's total assets.

 

8. Other Current Restrictions:

Each Fund may not invest more than 20% of its total assets in cash or cash equivalents. However, for temporary or defensive purposes, each Fund may invest in cash or cash equivalents without limitation.

Each of Delaware Ivy Municipal High Income Fund and Delaware Ivy Municipal Bond Fund may invest 25% or more of its total assets in PABs, in securities the payment of principal and interest on which is derived from revenue of similar projects, or in municipal bonds of issuers located in the same geographic area. Each Fund will not, however, have more than 25% of its total assets in PABs issued for any one industry or in any one state.

All Funds. An investment policy or restriction that states a maximum percentage of a Fund's assets that may be so invested or prescribes quality standards typically is applied immediately after, and based on, the Fund's acquisition of an asset. Accordingly, a subsequent change in the asset's value, net assets, or other circumstances will not be considered when determining whether the investment complies with a Fund's investment policies and restrictions.

Portfolio Turnover

Portfolio trading will be undertaken principally to accomplish each Fund's respective investment objective. The Funds are free to dispose of portfolio securities at any time, subject to complying with the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Internal Revenue Code”), and the 1940 Act, when changes in circumstances or conditions make such a move desirable in light of each Fund's respective investment objective. The Funds will not attempt to achieve or be limited to a predetermined rate of portfolio turnover. Such turnover always will be incidental to transactions undertaken with a view to achieving each Fund's respective investment objective.

The portfolio turnover rate tells you the amount of trading activity in a Fund's portfolio. A turnover rate of 100% would occur, for example, if all of a Fund's investments held at the beginning of a year were replaced by the end of the year, or if a single investment was frequently traded. The turnover rate also may be affected by cash requirements from redemptions and repurchases of a Fund's shares. A high rate of portfolio turnover in any year may increase brokerage commissions paid and could generate taxes for shareholders on realized investment gains. In investing to achieve its investment objective, a Fund may hold securities for any period of time.

For the fiscal years ended March 31, 2022 and 2023, the Funds' portfolio turnover rates were as follows:

             

Fund

 

2022

   

2023

 

Delaware Ivy Global Bond Fund

 

50%

   

124%

 

Delaware Ivy High Income Fund

 

48%

   

50%

 

Delaware Global Real Estate Fund

 

88%

   

109%

 

Delaware Ivy Limited-Term Bond Fund

 

88%

   

120%

 

Delaware Ivy Managed International Opportunities Fund

 

36%

   

19%

 

Delaware Ivy Municipal Bond Fund

 

60%

   

49%

 

Delaware Ivy Municipal High Income Fund

 

42%

   

79%

 

Delaware Ivy Natural Resources Fund

 

116%

   

48%

 

Delaware Ivy International Value Fund

 

119%

   

36%

 

Delaware Ivy Core Bond Fund

 

86%

   

128%

 

Delaware Real Estate Securities Fund

 

43%

   

57%

 

Investment Strategies and Risks

The Funds' investment objectives, strategies, and risks are described in the Prospectus. Certain additional information is provided below. The following discussion supplements the description of the Funds' investment strategies and risks that are included in the Prospectus. The Funds' investment strategies are nonfundamental and may be changed without shareholder approval.

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Securities — General

The main types of securities in which a Fund may invest, subject to its investment policies and restrictions, include common stocks, preferred stocks, debt securities, and convertible securities. Although common stocks and other equity securities have a history of long-term growth in value, their prices tend to fluctuate in the short term, particularly those of smaller companies. The equity securities in which a Fund invests may include preferred stock that converts into common stock. A Fund also may invest in preferred stocks rated in any rating category of the nationally recognized statistical rating organizations (NRSROs) or unrated preferred stocks, subject to the investment policies and restrictions of the Fund. Debt securities have varying levels of sensitivity to changes in interest rates and varying degrees of quality. As a general matter, however, when interest rates rise, the values of fixed-rate debt securities fall and, conversely, when interest rates fall, the values of fixed-rate debt securities rise. Similarly, debt securities with longer maturities generally are more sensitive to interest rate changes than debt securities with shorter maturities.

Subject to its investment policies and restrictions, a Fund may invest in debt securities rated in any rating category of the NRSROs, including securities rated in the lowest category (securities rated D by S&P Global Ratings, a division of S&P Global, Inc. (S&P) or comparably rated by another NRSRO). Debt securities rated D by S&P or comparably rated by another NRSRO are in payment default or are regarded as having extremely poor prospects of ever attaining any real investment standing. Debt securities rated at least BBB- by S&P or comparably rated by another NRSRO are considered to be investment grade debt securities; however, securities rated BBB- or comparably rated by another NRSRO may have speculative characteristics and involve greater risk of default or price changes. In addition, a Fund will treat unrated securities determined by the Manager to be of comparable quality to a rated security as having that rating. In the case of a “split-rated” security, which results when NRSROs rate the security at different rating levels (e.g., BBB by S&P and a higher or lower rating by another NRSRO), it is the general policy of each Fund to classify such security at the lower rating level if only two ratings are available.

While credit ratings are only one factor the Manager relies on in evaluating high-yield (low-rated) debt securities, certain risks are associated with credit ratings. Credit ratings evaluate the safety of principal and interest payments, not market value risk. Credit ratings for individual securities may change from time to time, and a Fund may retain a portfolio security whose rating has been changed. In addition, a credit rating may become stale in that it fails to reflect changes in an issuer's financial condition. Credit ratings represent the NRSRO's opinion regarding the quality of the security and are not a guarantee of quality. See Appendix A to this SAI for a description of these ratings.

Subject to its investment policies and restrictions, a Fund may purchase debt securities whose principal amount at maturity is dependent upon the performance of a specified equity security (commonly called “equity-linked debt securities”). The issuer of such debt securities is unaffiliated with the issuer of the equity security to whose performance the debt security is linked. Equity-linked debt securities differ from ordinary debt securities in that the principal amount received at maturity is not fixed, but is based on the price of the linked equity security at the time the debt security matures. The performance of equity-linked debt securities depends primarily on the performance of the linked equity security and also may be influenced by interest rate changes. In addition, although equity- linked debt securities typically are adjusted for diluting events such as stock splits, stock dividends and certain other events affecting the market value of the linked equity security, the debt securities are not adjusted for subsequent issuances of the linked equity security for cash. Such an issuance could adversely affect the price of the debt security. In addition to the equity risk relating to the linked equity security, such debt securities also are subject to credit risk with regard to the issuer of the debt security. In general, however, such debt securities are less volatile than the equity securities to which they are linked.

Debt securities may be unsecured and structurally or contractually subordinated to substantial amounts of senior indebtedness, all or a significant portion of which may be secured. Moreover, such debt investments may not be protected by financial covenants or limitations upon additional indebtedness. Other factors may materially and adversely affect the market price and yield of such debt investments, including investor demand, changes in the financial condition of the applicable issuer, government fiscal policy and domestic or worldwide economic conditions. Subject to its investment policies and restrictions, certain of the debt instruments in which a Fund may invest may have speculative characteristics. Debt securities may be subject to credit risk, duration risk, extension risk, income risk, interest rate risk, liquidity risk and reinvestment risk, among other risks.

Subject to its investment policies and restrictions, a Fund may invest in convertible securities. A convertible security is a bond, debenture, note, preferred stock or other security that may be converted into or exchanged for a prescribed amount of common stock of the same or different issuer within a particular period of time at a specified price or formula. Convertible securities generally have higher yields than common stocks of the same or similar issuers, but lower yields than comparable nonconvertible securities, are less subject to fluctuation in value than the underlying stock because they have fixed-income characteristics, and provide the potential for capital appreciation if the market price of the underlying common stock increases.

The value of a convertible security is influenced by changes in interest rates, with investment value declining as interest rates increase and increasing as interest rates decline. The credit standing of the issuer and other factors also may have an effect on the convertible security's investment value. A convertible security may be subject to redemption at the option of the issuer at a price established in the security's offering document. If a convertible security held by a Fund is called for redemption, such Fund will be required to convert it into the underlying stock, sell it to a third party or permit the issuer to redeem the security. Convertible securities typically are issued by smaller capitalized companies whose stock prices may be volatile. Thus, any of these actions could have an adverse effect on the ability of a Fund to achieve its investment objective(s).

Subject to its investment policies and restrictions, a Fund also may invest in contingent convertible securities (CoCos). CoCos are a form of hybrid debt security that are intended to either convert into equity or have their principal written down upon the occurrence of certain “triggers.” The triggers generally are

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Investment Strategies and Risks

linked to regulatory capital thresholds or regulatory actions calling into question the issuing banking institution's continued viability as a going concern. CoCos' unique equity conversion or principal write-down features are tailored to the issuing banking institution and its regulatory requirements. Some additional risks associated with CoCos include, but are not limited to:

Loss absorption risk. CoCos have fully discretionary coupons. This means coupons can potentially be cancelled at the banking institution's discretion or at the request of the relevant regulatory authority in order to help the bank absorb losses.

 

Subordinated instruments. CoCos, in the majority of circumstances, will be issued in the form of subordinated debt instruments in order to provide the appropriate regulatory capital treatment prior to a conversion. Accordingly, in the event of liquidation, dissolution or winding-up of an issuer prior to a conversion having occurred, the rights and claims of the holders of the CoCos, such as the Funds, against the issuer in respect of or arising under the terms of the CoCos generally shall rank junior to the claims of all holders of unsubordinated obligations of the issuer. In addition, if the CoCos are converted into the issuer's underlying equity securities following a conversion event (i.e., a “trigger”), each holder will be subordinated due to their conversion from being the holder of a debt instrument to being the holder of an equity instrument.

 

Market value will fluctuate based on unpredictable factors. The value of CoCos is unpredictable and will be influenced by many factors including, without limitation: (i) the creditworthiness of the issuer and/or fluctuations in such issuer's applicable capital ratios; (ii) supply and demand for the CoCos; (iii) general market conditions and available liquidity; and (iv) economic, financial and political events that affect the issuer, its particular market or the financial markets in general.

 

Subject to its investment policies and restrictions, a Fund also may invest in a type of convertible preferred stock that pays a cumulative, fixed dividend that is senior to, and expected to be in excess of, the dividends paid on the common stock of the issuer. At the mandatory conversion date, the preferred stock is converted into not more than one share of the issuer's common stock at the call price that was established at the time the preferred stock was issued. If the price per share of the related common stock on the mandatory conversion date is less than the call price, the holder of the preferred stock will nonetheless receive only one share of common stock for each share of preferred stock (plus cash in the amount of any accrued but unpaid dividends). At any time prior to the mandatory conversion date, the issuer may redeem the preferred stock upon issuing to the holder a number of shares of common stock equal to the call price of the preferred stock in effect on the date of redemption divided by the market value of the common stock, with such market value typically determined 1 or 2 trading days prior to the date notice of redemption is given. The issuer also must pay the holder of the preferred stock cash in an amount equal to any accrued but unpaid dividends on the preferred stock. This convertible preferred stock is subject to the same market risk as the common stock of the issuer, except to the extent that such risk is mitigated by the higher dividend paid on the preferred stock. The opportunity for equity appreciation afforded by an investment in such convertible preferred stock, however, is limited, because in the event the market value of the issuer's common stock increases to or above the call price of the preferred stock, the issuer may (and would be expected to) call the preferred stock for redemption at the call price. This convertible preferred stock also is subject to credit risk with regard to the ability of the issuer to pay the dividend established upon issuance of the preferred stock. Generally, however, the market value of the convertible preferred stock is less volatile than the related common stock of the issuer.

Certain unanticipated events, such as natural disasters, terrorist attacks, war, and other geopolitical events, can have a dramatic adverse effect on securities held by a Fund.

Specific Securities and Investment Practices

Banking Industry and Savings and Loan Obligations

Certificates of deposit are certificates issued against funds deposited in a commercial bank for a definite period of time and earning a specified return. Bankers' acceptances are negotiable drafts or bills of exchange, normally drawn by an importer or exporter to pay for specific merchandise, which are “accepted” by a bank (meaning, in effect, that the bank unconditionally agrees to pay the face value of the instrument at maturity). In addition to investing in certificates of deposit and bankers' acceptances, each Fund may invest in time deposits in banks or savings and loan associations. Time deposits generally are similar to certificates of deposit, but are uncertificated. Each Fund's investments in certificates of deposit, time deposits, and bankers' acceptances are limited to obligations of (i) US banks having total assets in excess of $500,000,000 (as of the date of their most recent financial statements at the time of investment), (ii) US banks which do not meet the $500,000,000 asset requirement, if the principal amount of such obligation is fully insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC), (iii) savings and loan associations which have total assets in excess of $500,000,000 and which are members of the FDIC, and (iv) foreign banks if the obligation is, in the opinion of the Manager, of an investment quality comparable to other debt securities which may be purchased by the Fund. Each Fund's investments in certificates of deposit of savings associations are limited to obligations of federal or state- chartered institutions whose total assets exceed $500,000,000 and whose deposits are insured by the FDIC. Bank deposits are not marketable, and a Fund may invest in them subject to its investment restrictions regarding illiquid investments, unless such obligations are payable at principal amount plus accrued interest on demand or within 7 days after demand.

Borrowing

Each Fund may borrow money only as permitted under the 1940 Act, the rules and regulations thereunder and any applicable exemptive relief. Proceeds from borrowings will be used for temporary, extraordinary or emergency purposes. Interest on money borrowed is an expense a Fund would not otherwise incur, and as a result, it may have reduced net investment income during periods of outstanding borrowings. If a Fund does borrow money, its share price may be subject to greater fluctuation until the borrowing is paid off.

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Credit-Linked Notes

Subject to its investment policies and restrictions, a Fund may invest in credit-linked notes. A credit-linked note is a structured note whose value is linked to an underlying reference asset. Credit-linked notes typically provide periodic payments of interest, as well as payment of principal upon maturity. The value of the periodic payments and the principal amount payable upon maturity are tied (positively or negatively) to a reference asset, such as an index, government bond, interest rate or currency exchange rate. The ongoing payments and principal upon maturity typically will increase or decrease depending on increases or decreases in the value of the reference asset. A credit-linked note typically is issued by a limited purpose trust or other vehicle and is a direct obligation of the issuing entity. The limited purpose trust or other vehicle, in turn, invests in bonds or a derivative or basket of derivatives instruments, such as credit default swaps, interest rate swaps and/or other securities, to provide the exposure set forth in the credit-linked note. The periodic interest payments and principal obligations payable under the terms of the note typically are conditioned upon the entity's receipt of payments on its underlying investment. If the underlying investment defaults, the periodic payments and principal received by the Funds will be reduced or eliminated. The buyer of a credit-linked note assumes the risk of default by the issuer and the underlying reference asset or entity. Generally, investors in credit-linked notes assume the risk of default by the issuer and the reference entity in return for a potentially higher yield on their investment or access to an investment that they could not otherwise obtain. In the event the issuer defaults or there is a credit event that relates to the reference asset, the recovery rate generally is less than a Fund's initial investment, and the Fund may lose money.

Foreign Securities and Currencies

Foreign Securities. Subject to its investment policies and restrictions, a Fund may invest in the securities of foreign issuers, including depositary receipts. In general, depositary receipts are securities convertible into and evidencing ownership of securities of foreign corporate issuers, although depositary receipts may not necessarily be denominated in the same currency as the securities into which they may be converted. American depositary receipts (ADRs), in registered form, are US dollar-denominated receipts typically issued by a US bank representing ownership of a specific number of shares in a non-US corporation. ADRs are quoted and traded in US dollars in the US securities market. An ADR is sponsored if the original issuing company has selected a single US bank to serve as its US depositary and transfer agent. This relationship requires a deposit agreement which defines the rights and duties of both the issuer and depositary. Companies that sponsor ADRs also must provide their ADR investors with English translations of company information made public in their own country of domicile. Sponsored ADR investors also generally have the same voting rights as ordinary shareholders, barring any unusual circumstances. ADRs which meet these requirements can be listed on US stock exchanges. Unsponsored ADRs typically are created at the initiative of a broker or bank reacting to demand for a specific foreign stock. The broker or bank purchases the underlying shares and deposits them in a depositary.

Unsponsored shares issued after 1983 are not eligible for US stock exchange listings, and they generally do not include voting rights.

Global depositary receipts and European depositary receipts, in bearer form, are foreign receipts evidencing a similar arrangement and are designed for use by non-US investors and traders in non-US markets. Global depositary receipts are designed to facilitate the trading of securities of foreign issuers by US and non-US investors and traders.

The Manager believes that investing in foreign securities involves investment opportunities as well as risks. Individual foreign economies may differ favorably or unfavorably from the US economy or each other in such matters as gross national product, rate of inflation, capital reinvestment, resource self-sufficiency and balance of payments position. Individual foreign companies also may differ favorably or unfavorably from US companies in the same industry. Foreign currencies may be stronger or weaker than the US dollar or than each other. Thus, the value of securities denominated in or indexed to foreign currencies, and the value of dividends and interest from such securities, can change significantly when foreign currencies strengthen or weaken relative to the US dollar.

The Manager believes that a Fund's ability to invest its assets abroad might enable it to take advantage of these differences and strengths.

However, foreign securities and foreign currencies involve additional significant risks, apart from the risks inherent in US investments. Foreign securities markets generally have less trading volume and less liquidity than US markets, and prices on some foreign markets can be highly volatile. Many foreign countries lack uniform accounting and disclosure standards comparable to those applicable to US companies, and it may be more difficult to obtain reliable information regarding an issuer's financial conditions and operations. In addition, the costs of foreign investing, including withholding taxes, brokerage commissions and custodial costs, generally are higher than for US investments.

Foreign markets may offer less protection to investors than US markets. Foreign issuers, brokers and securities markets may be subject to less government supervision. Foreign securities trading practices, including those involving the release of assets in advance of payment, may involve increased risks in the event of a failed trade or the insolvency of a broker-dealer, and may involve substantial delays. It also may be difficult to enforce legal rights in foreign countries.

Securities of issuers traded on exchanges may be suspended, either by the issuers themselves, by an exchange or by governmental authorities. Trading suspensions may be applied from time to time to the securities of individual issuers for reasons specific to that issuer, or may be applied broadly by exchanges or governmental authorities in response to market events. In the event that a Fund holds material positions in such suspended securities, the Fund's ability to liquidate its positions or provide liquidity to investors may be compromised and the Fund could incur significant losses.

Investing abroad also involves different political and economic risks. Foreign investments may be affected by actions of foreign governments adverse to the interests of US investors, including: the possibility of expropriation or nationalization of assets; confiscatory taxation; restrictions on US investment or on the ability to repatriate assets or convert currency into US dollars (which also may affect the liquidity of such investments), such as those applicable to certain investments in China; or other government intervention. There may be greater possibility of default by foreign governments or government-sponsored

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Investment Strategies and Risks

enterprises. Investments in foreign countries also involve a risk of local political, economic, or social instability, military action or unrest, or adverse diplomatic developments. There is no assurance that the Manager will be able to anticipate these potential events or counter their effects.

Certain foreign securities impose restrictions on transfer within the United States or to US persons. Although securities subject to transfer restrictions may be marketable abroad, they may be less liquid than foreign securities of the same class that are not subject to such restrictions.

As a general rule, the country designation for a security for purposes of a Fund's investment policies and restrictions regarding foreign securities is the issuer's country of domicile, as indicated by a third-party source (e.g., Bloomberg L.P.). However, in certain identified circumstances, a different country designation may be warranted. For example, an issuer's country designation could be changed if (i) the issuer derived at least 50% of its revenues or profits in a country other than the country of domicile; (ii) the issuer has at least 50% of its assets in a country other than the country of domicile; or (iii) the issuer's stock (security) principally is traded (based on total volume traded) in a country other than the country of domicile, provided the issuer does not have more than 50% of its revenues/profits or assets sourced in a single country.

Investments in obligations of US branches of foreign banks will be considered US securities if the Manager has determined that the nature and extent of federal and state regulation and supervision of the branch in question are substantially equivalent to federal or state-chartered US banks doing business in the same jurisdiction.

Foreign Currencies. Subject to its investment policies and restrictions, a Fund may purchase and sell foreign currency and invest in foreign currency deposits and may enter into forward currency contracts. The Funds may incur a transaction charge in connection with the exchange of currency. Currency conversion involves dealer spreads and other costs, although commissions usually are not charged.

Investment in foreign securities usually will involve currencies of foreign countries. Moreover, subject to its investment policies and restrictions, a Fund (other than Delaware Ivy Municipal Bond Fund, and Delaware Ivy Municipal High Income Fund (each, a Municipal Fund)) may hold funds temporarily in bank deposits in foreign currencies during the completion of investment programs and may purchase and sell forward foreign currency contracts. Because of these factors, the value of the assets of a Fund as measured in US dollars may be affected favorably or unfavorably by changes in foreign currency exchange rates and exchange control regulations, and a Fund may incur costs in connection with conversions between various currencies. Although a Fund's custodian values the Fund's assets daily in terms of US dollars, the Fund does not intend to convert its holdings of foreign currencies into US dollars on a daily basis, and for certain investments, there may be restrictions imposed by a foreign government on the conversion of its currency to US dollars (or other currencies). Generally, however, a Fund will convert its holdings of foreign currencies into US dollars, and investors should be aware of the costs of currency conversion. Although foreign exchange dealers do not charge a fee for conversion, they do realize a profit based on the difference (the “spread”) between the prices at which they are buying and selling various currencies, which can include other transaction costs. Thus, a dealer may offer to sell a foreign currency to a Fund at one rate, while offering a lesser rate of exchange should the Fund desire to resell that currency to the dealer. A Fund will conduct its foreign currency exchange transactions either on a spot (that is, cash) basis at the spot rate prevailing in the foreign currency exchange market, or through entering into forward contracts to purchase or sell foreign currencies. For more information regarding a Fund's use of forward contracts to purchase or sell foreign currencies, see Options, Futures and Other Derivatives Strategies — Forward Currency Contracts.

Because a Fund may invest in both US and foreign securities markets, subject to its investment policies and restrictions, changes in the Fund's share price may have a low correlation with movements in US markets. Each Fund's share price will reflect the movements of the different markets in which it invests (both US and foreign), and of the currencies in which the investments are denominated. Thus, the strength or weakness of the US dollar against foreign currencies may account for part of a Fund's investment performance. US and foreign securities markets do not always move in step with each other, and the total returns from different markets may vary significantly. Currencies in which a Fund's assets are denominated may be devalued against the US dollar, resulting in a loss to the Fund.

A Fund usually effects currency exchange transactions on a spot (that is, cash) basis at the spot rate prevailing in the foreign exchange market. However, some price spread on currency exchange will be incurred when the Fund converts assets from one currency to another. Further, a Fund may be affected either unfavorably or favorably by fluctuations in the relative rates of exchange between the currencies of different nations. For example, in order to realize the value of a foreign investment, the Fund must convert that value, as denominated in its foreign currency, into US dollars using the applicable currency exchange rate. The exchange rate represents the current price of a US dollar relative to that foreign currency; that is, the amount of such foreign currency required to buy one US dollar. If a Fund holds a foreign security which has appreciated in value as measured in the foreign currency, the level of appreciation actually realized by the Fund may be reduced or even eliminated if the foreign currency has decreased in value relative to the US dollar subsequent to the date of purchase. In such a circumstance, the cost of a US dollar purchased with that foreign currency has gone up and the same amount of foreign currency purchases fewer dollars than at an earlier date.

Emerging Market Securities. The risks of investing in foreign countries are intensified in developing countries, or emerging markets. A developing or emerging country is a nation that, in the Manager's opinion, is likely to experience long-term gross domestic product growth above that expected to occur in the United States, the UK, France, Germany, Italy, Japan and Canada. Developing and emerging countries may have relatively unstable governments, economies based on only a few industries and securities markets that trade a small number of securities.

Unless a Fund contains an alternative definition of an emerging market country in its prospectus, the Manager considers countries having developing or emerging markets to be all countries that generally are considered to be developing or emerging countries by the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (more commonly referred to as the World Bank) and the International Finance Corporation, as well as countries that are classified by the United Nations or otherwise regarded by their authorities as developing or emerging.

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As noted above, the country designation for a security for purposes of a Fund's investment policies and restrictions regarding foreign securities is the issuer's country of domicile, as indicated by a third-party source (e.g., Bloomberg L.P.). Accordingly, a security would be considered issued by a developing or emerging market country if the issuer's country of domicile is a developing or emerging market country. However, in certain identified circumstances, a different country designation may be warranted under the following circumstances: (i) the issuer derived at least 50% of its revenues or profits in a country other than the country of domicile; (ii) the issuer has at least 50% of its assets in a country other than the country of domicile; or (iii) the issuer's stock (security) principally is traded (based on total volume traded) in a country other than the country of domicile, provided the issuer does not have more than 50% of its revenues/profits or assets sourced in a single country.

Some of the risks to which a Fund may be exposed by investing in securities of developing or emerging markets are: restrictions placed by the government of a developing or emerging country related to investment, currency exchange controls, and repatriation of the proceeds of investment in that country; fluctuation of a developing or emerging country's currency against the US dollar; unusual price volatility in a developing or emerging country's securities markets; government involvement in the private sector, including government ownership of companies in which the Fund may invest; limited information about a developing or emerging market; high levels of tax levied by developing or emerging countries on dividends, interest and realized capital gains; the greater likelihood that developing or emerging markets will experience more volatility in inflation rates than developed markets; the greater potential that securities purchased by the Fund in developing or emerging markets may be fraudulent or counterfeit due to differences in the level of regulation, disclosure requirements and recordkeeping practices in those markets; risks related to the liquidity and transferability of investments in certain instruments, such as loan participations, that may not be considered “securities” under local law; settlement risks, including potential requirements for the Fund to render payment prior to taking possession of portfolio securities in which it invests; the possibility of nationalization, expropriation or confiscatory taxation; favorable or unfavorable differences between individual foreign economies and the US economy, such as growth of gross domestic product, rate of inflation, capital reinvestment, resources, self-sufficiency, and balance of payments position; additional costs associated with any investment in non-US securities, including higher custodial fees than typical US custodial arrangements, transaction costs of foreign currency conversions and generally higher commission rates on portfolio transactions than prevail in US markets; relatively unstable governments, economies based on only a few industries and securities markets that trade a small number of securities; greater social, economic and political instability, including the risk of war; lack of availability of currency hedging or other risk management techniques in certain developing or emerging countries; the fact that companies in developing or emerging countries may be newly organized and may be smaller and less seasoned; differences in accounting, auditing and financial reporting standards; the heightened risks associated specifically with establishing record ownership and custody of securities; and limitations on obtaining and enforcing judgments against non-US residents.

Sukuk. Foreign securities and emerging market securities include sukuk. Sukuk are certificates, similar to bonds, issued by the issuer to obtain an upfront payment in exchange for an income stream to be generated by certain assets of the issuer. Generally, the issuer sells the investor a certificate, which the investor then rents back to the issuer for a predetermined rental fee. The issuer also makes a contractual promise to buy back the certificate at a future date at par value. While the certificate is linked to the returns generated by certain assets of the issuer, the underlying assets are not pledged as security for the certificates, and the Fund (as the investor) is relying on the creditworthiness of the issuer for all payments required by the sukuk. Issuers of sukuk may include international financial institutions, foreign governments and agencies of foreign governments. Underlying assets may include, without limitation, real estate (developed and undeveloped), lease contracts and machinery and equipment.

Foreign Sovereign Debt Obligations. Investment in sovereign debt can involve a high degree of risk. The governmental entity that controls the repayment of sovereign debt may not be able or willing to repay the principal and/or interest when due in accordance with the terms of such debt. A governmental entity's willingness or ability to repay principal and interest due in a timely manner may be affected by, among other factors, its cash flow situation, the extent of its foreign reserves, the availability of sufficient foreign exchange on the date a payment is due, the relative size of the debt service burden to the economy as a whole, the governmental entity's policy towards the International Monetary Fund, and the political constraints to which a governmental entity may be subject. Governmental entities also may be dependent on expected disbursements from foreign governments, multilateral agencies and others abroad to reduce principal and interest arrearages on their debt. The commitment on the part of these governments, agencies and others to make such disbursements may be conditioned on a governmental entity's implementation of economic reforms and/or economic performance and the timely service of such debtor's obligations. Failure to implement such reforms, achieve such levels of economic performance or repay principal or interest when due may result in the cancellation of such third parties' commitments to lend funds to the governmental entity, which may further impair such debtor's ability or willingness to service its debts in a timely manner. Consequently, governmental entities may default on their sovereign debt. Holders of sovereign debt may be requested to participate in the rescheduling of such debt and to extend further loans to governmental entities. There is no bankruptcy proceeding by which sovereign debt on which governmental entities have defaulted may be collected in whole or in part.

Illiquid Investments

Rule 22e-4 under the 1940 Act provides that a Fund may not acquire an “illiquid investment” if, immediately after the acquisition, the Fund would have invested more than 15% of its net assets in illiquid investments that are assets. Rule 22e- 4 defines an illiquid investment as an investment that cannot reasonably be sold or disposed of under current market conditions in 7 calendar days or less without the sale or disposition significantly changing the market value of the investment. The Board has adopted a liquidity risk management program on behalf of the Fund's that is designed to comply with Rule 22e-4's requirements. The Board has delegated to an administrator the responsibility to oversee the program, whose duties include periodically reviewing the liquidity risk of the Fund's and categorizing the Fund's investments into one of four liquidity classifications (as defined in Rule 22e-4) based on prescribed criteria, including the number of days in which the administrator reasonably expects the investment would be convertible to cash under current market

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Investment Strategies and Risks

conditions without significantly changing the market value of the investment. This classification process takes into account relevant market, trading and investment-specific considerations (the analysis upon which a security is convertible to cash and placed into a classification will not take into account days when exchanges in foreign markets are closed for scheduled holidays).

The Manager believes that, at times, it is in the best interest of a Fund to be able to invest in illiquid securities up to the maximum amount allowable under the Fund's investment restriction on illiquid investments. See Investment Objectives, Restrictions, and Policies — Nonfundamental Investment Restrictions. The Manager believes that the risk of investing in illiquid securities is manageable, considering the availability of certain securities that are currently considered illiquid but have widely established trading markets. For example, there has been significant growth in the types and availability of bank loans and structured products, including: asset backed securities (which also includes many mortgage-backed securities), collateralized bond obligations, collateralized mortgage obligations, collateralized debt obligations and commercial mortgage-backed securities. Since many of these securities are initially offered as individual issues, they often are deemed illiquid. See Mortgage-Backed and Asset-Backed Securities for more information on these types of securities.

Indexed Securities and Structured Notes

Each Fund may invest in structured notes or other indexed securities, subject to its operating policy regarding financial instruments and other applicable restrictions. An example of a “structured note” is a note that is tied to a basket of multiple indices in which an investor receives twice the gains of each index that rises, subject to a cap on the returns with proportionate losses if the index falls. An example of an “indexed security” is a security that guarantees a return higher than the rate of inflation if it is held to maturity (called inflation indexed security). Structured notes or other indexed securities are derivative debt instruments, the interest rate or principal of which is linked to securities, currencies, interest rates, commodities, indices or other financial indicators (reference instruments). Most structured notes or other indexed securities are fixed-income securities that have maturities of three years or fewer. The interest rate or the principal amount payable at maturity of an indexed security may vary based on changes in one or more specified reference instruments, such as a floating interest rate compared with a fixed interest rate. The reference instrument need not be related to the terms of the structured note or indexed security.

Structured notes and indexed securities may be positively or negatively indexed (i.e., their principal value or interest rates may increase or decrease if the underlying reference instrument appreciates), and may have return characteristics similar to direct investments in the underlying reference instrument or to one or more options on the underlying reference instrument.

Structured notes and indexed securities may entail a greater degree of market risk than other types of debt securities because the investor bears the risk of the reference instrument. Structured notes and indexed securities also may be more volatile, less liquid, and more difficult to accurately price than less complex securities and instruments or more traditional debt securities. In addition to the credit risk of the structured note and indexed security's issuer and the normal risks of price changes in response to changes in interest rates, the principal amount of structured notes and indexed securities may decrease as a result of changes in the value of the underlying reference instruments. Further, in the case of certain structured notes and indexed securities, the interest rate may be increased or decreased or the terms may provide that, under certain circumstances, the principal amount payable on maturity may be reduced to zero resulting in a loss to a Fund.

The performance of structured notes and indexed securities depends to a great extent on the performance of the reference instrument to which they are indexed and also may be influenced by interest rate changes in the US and abroad. At the same time, structured notes and indexed securities are subject to the credit risks associated with the issuer of the security and their values may decline substantially if the issuer's creditworthiness deteriorates. Structured notes and indexed securities may be more volatile than the reference instrument. Gold-indexed securities, for example, typically provide for a maturity value that depends on the price of gold, resulting in a security whose price tends to rise and fall together with gold prices. Currency-indexed securities typically are short-term to intermediate-term debt securities whose maturity values or interest rates are determined by reference to the values of one or more specified foreign currencies, and may offer higher yields than US dollar-denominated securities of equivalent issuers. Currency-indexed securities may be positively or negatively indexed; that is, their maturity value may increase when the specified currency value increases, resulting in a security that performs similarly to a foreign-denominated instrument, or their maturity value may decline when foreign currencies increase, resulting in a security whose price characteristics are similar to a put on the underlying currency.

Currency-indexed securities also may have prices that depend on the values of a number of different foreign currencies relative to each other.

The Manager will use its judgment in determining whether structured notes or indexed securities should be treated as short-term instruments, bonds, stocks, or as a separate asset class for purposes of a Fund's investment allocations, depending on the individual characteristics of the securities. Certain structured notes and indexed securities that are not traded on an established market may be deemed illiquid.

Initial Public Offerings (IPOs)

Securities issued through an IPO can experience an immediate drop in value if the demand for the securities does not continue to support the offering price. Information about the issuers of IPO securities also is difficult to acquire since they are new to the market and may not have lengthy operating histories. A Fund may engage in short-term trading in connection with its IPO investments, which could produce higher trading costs. The number of securities issued in an IPO is limited, so it is likely that IPO securities will represent a smaller component of a Fund's portfolio as the Fund's assets increase (and thus have a more limited effect on the Fund's performance).

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Investment Company Securities

Each Fund may purchase shares of other investment companies only to the extent permitted under the 1940 Act, the rules and regulations thereunder, and any applicable exemptive relief and subject to its other investment policies and restrictions, except that each underlying Delaware Fund in which Delaware Ivy Managed International Opportunities Fund invests may not acquire any securities of registered open-end investment companies or unit investment trusts in reliance on Section 12(d)(1)(F) or (G) of the 1940 Act. As a shareholder in an investment company, a Fund would bear its pro rata share of that investment company's expenses, which could result in duplication of certain fees, including management and administrative fees; therefore, if a Fund acquires shares of an investment company, the Fund's shareholders would bear both their proportionate share of expenses of the Fund (including management and advisory fees) and, indirectly, the expenses of such investment company.

Closed-end Investment Companies. Shares of certain closed-end investment companies may at times be acquired only at market prices representing premiums to their NAVs. Shares of closed-end investment companies also may trade at a discount to NAV, which means a Fund may have to sell shares at a price lower than their NAV per share. Additionally, closed-end investment company shares may be halted or delisted by the listing exchange. Some countries, such as South Korea, Chile and India, have authorized the formation of closed-end investment companies to facilitate indirect foreign investment in their capital markets. The 1940 Act restrictions on investments in securities of other investment companies may limit opportunities that some of the Funds otherwise permitted to invest in foreign securities otherwise would have to invest indirectly in certain developing markets. A Fund will incur brokerage costs when purchasing and selling shares of closed-end investment companies.

Business Development Companies (BDCs). Subject to its investment policies and restrictions, a Fund may invest in shares of BDCs. BDCs are a type of closed-end investment company regulated by the 1940 Act and typically invest in and lend to small and medium-sized private companies that may not have access to public equity markets for raising capital. BDCs invest in such diverse industries as healthcare, chemical, manufacturing, technology and service companies. A BDC must invest at least 70% of the value of its total assets in certain asset types, which typically are the securities of private US businesses, and must make available significant managerial assistance to the issuers of such securities. BDCs often offer a yield advantage over other types of securities. Managers of BDCs may be entitled to compensation based on the BDC's performance, which may result in a manager of a BDC making riskier or more speculative investments in an effort to maximize incentive compensation and higher fees.

Because BDCs typically invest in small and medium-sized companies, a BDC's portfolio is subject to the risks inherent in investing in smaller companies, including that portfolio companies may be dependent on a small number of products or services and may be more adversely affected by poor economic or market conditions. Some BDCs invest substantially, or even exclusively, in one sector or industry group. Accordingly, the BDC may be susceptible to adverse conditions and economic or regulatory occurrences affecting the sector or industry group, which tends to increase the BDC's volatility and risk. Investments made by BDCs generally are subject to legal and other restrictions on resale and are otherwise less liquid than publicly traded securities. The illiquidity of these investments may make it difficult to sell such investments if the need arises, and if there is a need for a BDC in which a Fund invests to liquidate its portfolio quickly, it may realize a loss on its investments. BDCs also may have relatively concentrated investment portfolios, consisting of a relatively small number of holdings. A consequence of this limited number of investments is that the aggregate returns realized may be disproportionately impacted by the poor performance of a small number of investments, or even a single investment, particularly if a BDC experiences the need to write down the value of an investment, which tends to increase the BDC's volatility and risk.

Investments in BDCs are subject to management risk, including the ability of the BDC's management to meet the BDC's investment objective and to manage the BDC's portfolio when the underlying securities are redeemed or sold, during periods of market turmoil and as investors' perceptions regarding a BDC or its underlying investments change. BDC shares are not redeemable at the option of the BDC shareholder and, as with shares of other closed-end funds, they may trade in the secondary market at a discount to their NAV. Like an investment in other investment companies, a Fund will indirectly bear its proportionate share of any management and other expenses charged by the BDCs in which it invests.

BDCs may employ the use of leverage through borrowings or the issuance of preferred stock. While leverage often serves to increase the yield of a BDC, this leverage also subjects a BDC to increased risks, including the likelihood of increased volatility of the BDC and the possibility that the BDC's common share income will fall if the dividend rate of the preferred shares or the interest rate on any borrowings rises.

Exchange-Traded Funds (ETFs)

Subject to its investment policies and restrictions, and only to the extent permitted by the 1940 Act, the rules and regulations thereunder, and any applicable exemptive relief, a Fund may invest in ETFs for various purposes, which may or may not be a registered investment company (RIC) (i.e., open-end mutual fund). For example, a Fund may invest in S&P 500 Depositary Receipts (SPDRs), which track the S&P 500 Index; S&P MidCap 400 Depositary Receipts (MidCap SPDRs), which track the S&P MidCap 400 Index; and “Dow Industrial Diamonds,” which track the Dow Jones Industrial Average, or in ETFs that track other indexes; provided that such investments are consistent with the Fund's investment objective(s) as determined by the Manager. Each of these securities represents shares of beneficial interest in a trust, or series of a trust, that typically holds a proportionate amount of shares of all stocks included in the relevant underlying index. Since most ETFs are a type of investment company, a Fund's purchases of ETF shares are subject to its investment restrictions regarding investments in other investment companies.

An ETF's shares have a market price that approximates the NAV of the ETF's portfolio, which generally is designed to track the designated index or the NAV of the underlying basket of securities, currencies and/or commodities or commodities futures, as applicable. Some ETFs are actively managed and instead of replicating, they seek to outperform a particular index or basket or price of a commodity or currency. ETF shares are exchange-traded and as with other

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Investment Strategies and Risks

equity transactions, brokers charge a commission in connection with the purchase of shares of ETFs. In addition, an asset management fee is charged against the assets of an ETF (which is charged in addition to the investment management fee paid by a Fund).

Trading costs for ETFs can be higher than those for stock index futures contracts, but, because ETFs trade like other exchange-listed equities, they represent a relatively quick and convenient method of using a Fund's assets to track the return of a particular stock index. Investments in an ETF that is a RIC (i.e., open-end mutual fund) generally present the same primary risks as investments in a conventional open-end mutual fund that is not exchange-traded. The price of an ETF can fluctuate, and a Fund could lose money investing in an ETF. In addition, ETFs are subject to the following risks that do not apply to conventional mutual funds: (i) the market price of an ETF's shares may trade at a premium or discount to their NAV; (ii) an active trading market for an ETF's shares may not develop or be maintained; or (iii) trading of an ETF's shares may be halted if the listing exchange's officials deem such action appropriate, the shares are delisted from the exchange, or the activation of market- wide “circuit breakers” (which are tied to large decreases in stock prices) halts stock trading generally.

Lending Securities

For the purpose of realizing additional income or offsetting expenses, each Fund may lend portfolio securities up to the maximum amount of its total assets allowed under the 1940 Act (currently, one-third of total assets which, for purposes of this limitation, include the value of collateral received in return for securities loaned). Under a Fund's securities lending procedures, the Fund may lend securities only to broker-dealers and financial institutions deemed creditworthy by the Manager. The creditworthiness of entities to which a Fund makes loans of portfolio securities is monitored by the Manager throughout the term of the loan.

If a Fund lends securities, the borrower pays the Fund an amount equal to the dividends or interest on the securities that the Fund would have received if it had not loaned the securities. The Fund also receives additional compensation.

In addition, a borrower must collateralize any securities loans that it receives from a Fund in accordance with applicable regulatory requirements (the Guidelines). At the time of each loan, the Fund must receive collateral equal to no less than 102% of the market value of the securities loaned (or 105% of the market value of foreign securities loaned), including any accrued interest thereon. Under the present Guidelines, the collateral must consist of cash or US government securities or bank letters of credit, at least equal in value to the market value of the securities loaned on each day that the loan is outstanding. Such collateral will be marked-to-market daily, and if the market value of the lent securities exceeds the value of the collateral, the borrower must add more collateral so that it at least equals 102% of the market value of the domestic securities loaned (or 105% of the foreign securities loaned). If the market value of the securities decreases, the borrower is entitled to a return of the excess collateral.

There are two methods of receiving compensation for making loans. The first is to receive a negotiated loan fee from the borrower. This method is available for all three types of collateral. The second method, which is not available when letters of credit are used as collateral, is for a Fund to receive interest on the investment of the cash collateral or to receive interest on the US government securities used as collateral. Part of the interest received in either case may be shared with the borrower.

The letters of credit that a Fund may accept as collateral are agreements by banks (other than the borrowers of the Fund's securities), entered into at the request of the borrower and for its account and risk, under which the banks are obligated to pay to the Fund, while the letter is in effect, amounts demanded by the Fund if the demand meets the terms of the letter.

The Fund's right to make this demand secures the borrower's obligations to it. The terms of any such letters and the creditworthiness of the banks providing them (which might include the Fund's custodian bank) must be satisfactory to the Manager. The Fund will make loans only under rules of the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), which presently require the borrower to give the securities back to the Fund within 5 business days after the Fund gives notice to do so. If the Fund loses its voting rights on securities loaned, it will not be able to have the securities returned to it in time to vote them if a material event affecting the investment is to be voted on. The Fund may pay reasonable finder's, administrative and custodian fees in connection with loans of securities.

Some, but not all, of these rules are necessary to meet regulatory requirements relating to securities loans. These rules will not be changed unless the change is permitted under these requirements. The requirements do not cover the rules which may be changed without shareholder vote, as to: (1) whom securities may be loaned; (2) the investment of cash collateral; or (3) voting rights.

There may be risks of delay in receiving additional collateral from the borrower if the market value of the securities loaned increases. If the borrower defaults on its obligation to return the securities loaned because of insolvency or other reasons, a Fund could experience delays and costs in recovering the securities loaned or in gaining access to the collateral. These delays and costs could be greater for foreign securities. If a Fund is not able to recover the securities loaned, the Fund may sell the collateral and purchase a replacement investment in the market. Additional transaction costs would result, and the value of the collateral could decrease below the value of the replacement investment by the time the replacement investment is purchased. Until the replacement can be purchased, the Fund will not have the desired level of exposure to the security which the borrower failed to return. Cash received as collateral through loan transactions may be invested in other eligible securities, including shares of a money market fund. Investing this cash subjects the Fund to greater market risk including losses on the collateral and, should the Fund need to look to the collateral in the event of the borrower's default, losses on the loan secured by that collateral.

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Investments in Chinese Securities

Certain Funds may invest in “A-shares” of certain Chinese companies through various “connect programs” with local stock exchanges in China, such as the Shanghai-Hong Kong Stock Connect Program with the Shanghai Stock Exchange or the Shenzhen-Hong Kong Stock Connect Program with the Shenzhen Stock Exchange or other similar programs (collectively these are referred to as Connect Programs).

Connect Programs serve to link local Chinese stock markets (such as those in Shanghai or Shenzhen) with the Hong Kong stock exchange. Under the Connect Programs, investors in Hong Kong and China can trade and settle shares listed on the other market via the exchange and clearing house in their home market. This means that international investors, who previously were prohibited from investing directly in A-shares on local Chinese exchanges, can access this market.

However, local rules apply, and listed companies that issue A-shares remain subject to the listing requirements in the local market. This means that the Connect Programs are subject to quota limitations, and an investor cannot purchase and sell the same security on the same trading day, which may restrict a Fund's ability to invest in China A-shares through the Connect Programs and to enter into or exit trades on a timely basis. Connect Programs can operate only when both markets are open for trading and when banking services are available in both markets on the corresponding settlement days. As such, if one or both markets are closed on a US trading day, a Fund may not be able to dispose of its China A- shares in a timely manner, which could adversely affect the Fund's performance. Only certain China A-shares are eligible to be accessed through the Connect Programs. Such securities may lose their eligibility at any time, in which case they could be sold, but could no longer be purchased through the Connect Programs. Because the Connect Programs are relatively new, the actual effect on the market for trading China A-shares with the introduction of large numbers of foreign investors is unknown. In addition, there is no assurance that the necessary systems required to operate the Connect Programs will function properly or will continue to be adapted to changes and developments in both markets. In the event that the relevant systems do not function properly, trading through the Connect Programs could be disrupted.

The Connect Programs are subject to regulations promulgated by regulatory authorities for participating exchanges and further regulations or restrictions, such as limitations on redemptions or suspension of trading, may adversely impact a Connect Program, if the authorities believe it necessary to assure orderly markets or for other reasons. Because the relevant regulations are relatively new and untested, they are subject to change and there is no certainty as to how they will be applied. Investments in China A-shares may not be covered by the securities investor protection programs of a participating exchange and, without the protection of such programs, will be subject to the risk of default by the broker. In the event that the depository, the China Securities Depository and Clearing Corporation Limited (“ChinaClear”), defaulted, the Hong Kong Securities Clearing Company Limited, being the nominee under the Connect Program, has limited responsibility to assist clearing participants in pursuing claims against ChinaClear. Currently, there remains no precedent that the applicable courts in China would accept beneficial owners, rather than the nominee, under the Connect Program to pursue claims directly against ChinaClear in China. Therefore, a Fund may not be able to recover fully its losses from ChinaClear or may be delayed in receiving proceeds as part of any recovery process. A Fund also may not be able to exercise the rights of a shareholder and may be limited in its ability to pursue claims against the issuer of a security. A Fund may not be able to participate in corporate actions affecting China A-shares held through the Connect Programs due to time constraints or for other operational reasons. Similarly, a Fund may not be able to appoint proxies or participate in shareholders' meetings due to current limitations on the use of multiple proxies in China.

Trades on these Connect Programs are subject to certain requirements prior to trading. If these requirements are not completed prior to the market opening, a Fund cannot sell the shares on that trading day. Currently, certain local custodians offer a “bundled brokerage/custodian” solution to address such requirements. However, such solution may limit the number of brokers that a Fund may use to execute trades. An enhanced model also has been implemented by the Hong Kong Stock Exchange, but there are operational and practical challenges for an investor to utilize such enhanced model. If an investor holds 5% or more of the total shares issued by a China A-share issuer, the investor must return any profits obtained from the purchase and sale of those shares if both transactions occur within a six-month period. If a Fund holds 5% or more of the total shares of a China A-share issuer, its profits may be subject to this limitation. In addition, it currently is not clear whether all accounts managed by the Manager and/or its affiliates will be aggregated for purposes of this limitation. If that is the case, it makes it more likely that a Fund's profits may be subject to this limitation.

Because all trades of eligible China A-shares must be settled in Renminbi (RMB), the Chinese currency, investors must have timely access to a reliable supply of offshore RMB, which cannot be guaranteed. The value of the RMB may be subject to a high degree of fluctuation due to changes in interest rates, the imposition of currency controls, or the effects of monetary policies of China, other foreign governments, the United States, central banks or supranational entities.

Furthermore, because dividends declared by a Fund will be declared in US dollars and underlying payments received by the Fund from the China A-shares will be made in RMB, fluctuations in exchange rates may adversely affect the dividends that the Fund would pay.

Also, investing in China carries certain political and economic risks. The value of a Fund's assets may be adversely affected by inadequate investor protection and changes in Chinese laws or regulations. The Chinese economy may differ favorably or unfavorably from the US economy in respects such as the rate of growth of gross domestic product, the rate of inflation, capital reinvestment, resource self-sufficiency, balance of payments position and sensitivity to changes in global trade. The Chinese government has exercised and continues to exercise significant influence over many aspects of the economy. Accordingly, future government actions could have a significant effect on the country's economy, which could affect market conditions and prices and yields of China A-shares.

Investments in Chinese companies may be made through a special structure known as a variable interest entity (“VIE”) that is designed to provide foreign investors with exposure to Chinese companies that operate in certain sectors in which China restricts or prohibits foreign investment. Investments in VIEs

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Investment Strategies and Risks

may pose additional risks because the investment is made through an intermediary shell company that has entered into service and other contracts with the underlying Chinese operating company to provide investors with exposure to the operating company, but does not represent equity ownership in the operating company. As a result, such investment may limit the rights of an investor with respect to the underlying Chinese operating company. VIEs allow foreign shareholders to exert a degree of control over, and obtain economic benefits arising from, the operating company without formal legal ownership. However, the contractual arrangements between the shell company and the operating company may not be as effective in providing operational control as direct equity ownership, and a foreign investor's rights may be limited by, for example, actions of the Chinese government which could determine that the underlying contractual arrangements on which control of the VIE is based are invalid. The contractual arrangement on which the VIE structure is based would likely be subject to Chinese law and jurisdiction, which could raise questions about how recourse is sought.

Investments through VIEs may be affected by conflicts of interest and duties between the legal owners of the VIE and the stockholders of the listed holding company, which could adversely impact the value of investments. VIEs are not formally recognized under Chinese law and investors face uncertainty about future actions by the Chinese government that could significantly affect the operating company's financial performance and the enforceability of the contractual arrangements underlying the VIE structure. Prohibitions of these structures by the Chinese government, or the inability to enforce such contracts, from which the shell company derives its value, would likely cause the VIE-structured holding(s) to suffer significant losses, and in turn, adversely affect a Fund's returns and net asset value.

Loans and Other Direct Debt Instruments

Loans. Subject to its investment policies and restrictions, a Fund may purchase loan participations and/or loan assignments (sometimes called bank loans). Loan participations are interests in amounts owed by a corporate, governmental, or other borrower to a lender or consortium of lenders (typically banks, insurance companies, or investment banks). Purchasers of participation interests do not have any direct contractual relationship with the borrower. Most floating rate loans are acquired directly from the agent bank or from another holder of the loan by assignment. In an assignment, the Fund purchases an assignment of a portion of a lender's interest in a loan. In this case, the Fund may be required generally to rely upon the assigning bank to demand payment and enforce its rights against the borrower, but would otherwise be entitled to all of such bank's rights in the loan.

Purchasers of participation interests may be subject to delays, expenses, and risks that are greater than those that would be involved if the purchaser could enforce its rights directly against the borrower. In addition, under the terms of a participation interest, the purchaser may be regarded as a creditor of the intermediate participant (rather than of the borrower), so that the purchaser also may be subject to the risk that the intermediate participant could become insolvent. The agreement between the purchaser and lender who sold the participation interest also may limit the rights of the purchaser to vote on changes that may be made to the loan agreement, such as waiving a breach of a covenant.

Most loan participations are secured, and most impose restrictive covenants that must be met by the borrower. These loans typically are made by a syndicate of banks and institutional investors, which are represented by an agent bank that has negotiated and structured the loan and that is responsible generally for collecting interest, principal, and other amounts from the borrower on its own behalf and on behalf of the other lending institutions in the syndicate, and for enforcing its and their other rights against the borrower. Typically, under loan agreements, the agent is given broad discretion in monitoring the borrower's performance and is obligated to use the same care it would use in the management of its own property. Each of the lending institutions, including the agent bank, lends to the borrower a portion of the total amount of the loan, and retains the corresponding interest in the loan. Floating rate loans may include delayed draw term loans and pre-funded or synthetic letters of credit.

A Fund's ability to receive payments of principal and interest and other amounts in connection with loans held by it will depend primarily on the financial condition of the borrower. The failure by a Fund to receive scheduled interest or principal payments on a loan would adversely affect the income of the Fund and would likely reduce the value of its assets, which would be reflected in a reduction in the Fund's NAV. Banks and other lending institutions generally perform a credit analysis of the borrower before originating a loan or purchasing an assignment in a loan. In selecting the loans in which a Fund will invest, however, the Manager will not rely on that credit analysis of the agent bank but will perform its own investment analysis of the borrowers.

The Manager's analysis may include consideration of the borrower's financial strength and managerial experience, debt coverage, additional borrowing requirements or debt maturity schedules, changing financial conditions, and responsiveness to changes in business conditions and interest rates. The majority of the loans a Fund will invest in will be rated by one or more NRSROs. Investments in loans may be of any quality, including “distressed” loans, and will be subject to the Fund's credit quality policy. Some floating rate loans and other debt securities are not rated by any NRSRO. Historically, floating rate loans have not been registered with the SEC or any state securities commission or listed on any securities exchange. As a result, the amount of public information available about a specific floating rate loan historically has been less extensive than if the floating rate loan were registered or exchange traded.

Floating rate loans and other debt securities that are fully secured provide more protections than unsecured securities in the event of failure to make scheduled interest or principal payments. Indebtedness of borrowers whose creditworthiness is poor involves substantially greater risks and may be highly speculative. Borrowers that are in bankruptcy or restructuring may never pay off their indebtedness, or may pay only a small fraction of the amount owed. In connection with the restructuring of a floating rate loan or other debt security outside of bankruptcy court in a negotiated work-out or in the context of bankruptcy proceedings, equity securities or junior debt securities may be received in exchange for all or a portion of an interest in the security.

Corporate loans in which a Fund may purchase a loan assignment are made generally to provide bridge loans (temporary financing), finance internal growth, mergers, acquisitions (acquiring another company), recapitalizations (reorganizing the assets and liabilities of a borrower), stock purchases, leverage buy-outs (taking over control of a company), dividend payments to sponsors and other corporate activities. Under current market conditions, most of the corporate loans purchased by a Fund will represent loans made to highly leveraged corporate borrowers. The highly leveraged capital structure of the

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borrowers in such transactions may make such loans especially vulnerable to adverse changes in economic or market conditions. A Fund may hold investments in loans for a very short period of time when opportunities to resell the investments that the Manager believes are attractive arise.

Certain of the loans acquired by a Fund may involve revolving credit facilities under which a borrower may from time to time borrow and repay amounts up to the maximum amount of the facility. A revolving credit facility may require the Fund to increase its investment in a floating rate loan at a time when it would not otherwise have done so, even if the borrower's condition makes it unlikely that the amount will ever be repaid.

Notwithstanding its intention in certain situations to not receive material non-public information with respect to its management of investments in floating rate loans, the Manager may from time to time come into possession of material, non-public information about the issuers of loans that may be held by a Fund. Possession of such information may in some instances occur despite the Manager's efforts to avoid such possession, but in other instances, the Manager may choose to receive such information (e.g., in connection with participation in a creditor's committee with respect to a financially distressed issuer). As, and to the extent, required by applicable law, the Manager's ability to trade in these loans for the account of a Fund could potentially be limited by its possession of such information. Such limitations on the Manager's ability to trade could have an adverse effect on a Fund by, for example, preventing the Fund from selling a loan that is experiencing a material decline in value. In some instances, these trading restrictions could continue in effect for a substantial period of time.

In some instances, other accounts managed by the Manager may hold other securities issued by borrowers whose floating rate loans may be held by a Fund. These other securities may include, for example, debt securities that are subordinate to the floating rate loans held by the Fund, convertible debt or common or preferred equity securities. In certain circumstances, such as if the credit quality of the issuer deteriorates, the interests of holders of these other securities may conflict with the interests of the holders of the issuer's floating rate loans. In such cases, the Manager may owe conflicting fiduciary duties to the Fund and other client accounts. The Manager will endeavor to carry out its obligations to all of its clients to the fullest extent possible, recognizing that in some cases certain clients may achieve a lower economic return, as a result of these conflicting client interests, than if the Manager's client account collectively held only a single category of the issuer's securities.

A floating rate loan offered as part of the original lending syndicate typically is purchased at par value. As part of the original lending syndicate, a purchaser generally earns a yield equal to the stated interest rate. In addition, members of the original syndicate typically are paid a commitment fee. In secondary market trading, floating rate loans may be purchased or sold above, at, or below par, which can result in a yield that is below, equal to, or above the stated interest rate, respectively. At certain times when reduced opportunities exist for investing in new syndicated floating rate loans, floating rate loans may be available only through the secondary market.

If an agent becomes insolvent, or has a receiver, conservator, or similar official appointed for it by the appropriate bank or other regulatory authority, or becomes a debtor in a bankruptcy proceeding, the agent's appointment may be terminated, and a successor agent would be appointed. If an appropriate regulator or court determines that assets held by the agent for the benefit of the purchasers of floating rate loans are subject to the claims of the agent's general or secured creditors, the purchasers might incur certain costs and delays in realizing payment on a floating rate loan or suffer a loss of principal and/or interest. Furthermore, in the event of the borrower's bankruptcy or insolvency, the borrower's obligation to repay a floating rate loan may be subject to certain defenses that the borrower can assert as a result of improper conduct by the agent.

Unlike publicly-traded common stocks which trade on national exchanges, there is no central place or exchange for loans to trade. Loans trade in an over-the-counter (OTC) market, and confirmation and settlement, which are effected through standardized procedures and documentation, may take significantly longer than 7 days to complete. Extended trade settlement periods may, in unusual market conditions with a high volume of shareholder redemptions, present a risk to shareholders regarding a Fund's ability to pay redemption proceeds within the allowable time periods stated in its prospectus.

Loan interests may not be considered “securities,” and a purchaser, such as a Fund, therefore may not be entitled to rely on the anti-fraud protections of the federal securities laws.

Collateral. Most floating rate loans are secured by specific collateral of the borrower and are senior to most other securities of the borrower. The collateral typically has a market value, at the time the floating rate loan is made, that equals or exceeds the principal amount of the floating rate loan. The value of the collateral may decline, be insufficient to meet the obligations of the borrower, or be difficult to liquidate. As a result, a floating rate loan may not be fully collateralized and can decline significantly in value. Floating rate loan collateral may consist of various types of assets or interests. Collateral may include working capital assets, such as accounts receivable or inventory; tangible or intangible assets; or assets or other types of guarantees of affiliates of the borrower. Inventory is the goods a company has in stock, including finished goods, goods in the process of being manufactured, and the supplies used in the process of manufacturing. Accounts receivable are the monies due to a company for merchandise or securities that it has sold, or for the services it has provided. Tangible fixed assets include real property, buildings, and equipment. Intangible assets include trademarks, copyrights and patent rights, and securities of subsidiaries or affiliates.

Generally, floating rate loans are secured unless (i) the purchaser's security interest in the collateral is invalidated for any reason by a court, or (ii) the collateral is fully released with the consent of the agent bank and lenders or under the terms of a loan agreement as the creditworthiness of the borrower improves. Collateral impairment is the risk that the value of the collateral for a floating rate loan will be insufficient in the event that a borrower defaults. Although the terms of a floating rate loan generally require that the collateral at issuance have a value at least equal to 100% of the amount of such floating rate loan, the value of the collateral may decline subsequent to the purchase of a floating rate loan. In most loan agreements there is no formal requirement to pledge additional collateral. There is no guarantee that the sale of collateral would allow a borrower to meet its obligations should the borrower be unable to repay principal or pay interest or that the collateral could be sold quickly or easily.

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Investment Strategies and Risks

In addition, most borrowers pay their debts from the cash flow they generate. If the borrower's cash flow is insufficient to pay its debts as they come due, the borrower may seek to restructure its debts rather than sell collateral. Borrowers may try to restructure their debts by filing for protection under the federal bankruptcy laws or negotiating a work-out. If a borrower becomes involved in bankruptcy proceedings, access to the collateral may be limited by bankruptcy and other laws. In the event that a court decides that access to the collateral is limited or void, it is unlikely that purchasers could recover the full amount of the principal and interest due.

There may be temporary periods when the principal asset held by a borrower is the stock of a related company, which may not legally be pledged to secure a floating rate loan. On occasions when such stock cannot be pledged, the floating rate loan will be temporarily unsecured until the stock can be pledged or is exchanged for, or replaced by, other assets.

Some floating rate loans are unsecured. If the borrower defaults on an unsecured floating rate loan, there is no specific collateral on which the purchaser can foreclose.

Floating Interest Rate Loans. The rate of interest payable on floating rate loans is the sum of a base lending rate plus a specified spread. Base lending rates generally are the Certificate of Deposit (CD) Rate of a designated US bank, the Prime Rate of a designated US bank, the federal funds rate, or another base lending rate used by commercial lenders. A borrower usually has the right to select the base lending rate and to change the base lending rate at specified intervals. The applicable spread may be fixed at time of issuance or may adjust upward or downward to reflect changes in credit quality of the borrower.

The interest rate on CD Rate-based floating rate loans is reset periodically at intervals ranging from 30 to 180 days, while the interest rate on Prime Rate- or federal funds rate-based floating rate loans floats daily as those rates change. Investment in floating rate loans with longer interest rate reset periods can increase fluctuations in the floating rate loans' values when interest rates change.

The yield on a floating rate loan will depend primarily on the terms of the underlying floating rate loan and the base lending rate chosen by the borrower. The relationship between the CD Rate, the Prime Rate, and the federal funds rate will vary as market conditions change.

Floating rate loans typically will have a stated term of five to nine years. However, because floating rate loans are frequently prepaid, their average maturity is expected to be two to three years. The degree to which borrowers prepay floating rate loans, whether as a contractual requirement or at their election, may be affected by general business conditions, the borrower's financial condition, and competitive conditions among lenders. Prepayments cannot be predicted with accuracy. Prepayments of principal to the purchaser of a floating rate loan may result in the principal's being reinvested in floating rate loans with lower yields.

A Fund limits the amount of total assets that it will invest in any one issuer or in issuers within the same industry (see Fundamental Investment Restrictions). For purposes of these restrictions, a Fund generally will treat the borrower as the “issuer” of indebtedness held by the Fund. In the case of participation interests where a bank or other lending institution serves as intermediate participant between a Fund and the borrower, if the participation interest does not shift to the Fund the direct debtor-creditor relationship with the borrower, a Fund, in appropriate circumstances, will treat both the lending bank or other lending institution and the borrower as “issuers” for these purposes. Treating an intermediate participant as an issuer of indebtedness may restrict a fund's ability to invest in indebtedness related to a single intermediate participant, or a group of intermediate participants engaged in the same industry, even if the underlying borrowers represent many different companies and industries.

A borrower must comply with various restrictive covenants contained in the loan agreement. In addition to requiring the scheduled payment of interest and principal, these covenants may include restrictions on dividend payments and other distributions to stockholders, provisions requiring the borrower to maintain specific financial ratios, and limits on total debt. The loan agreement also may contain a covenant requiring the borrower to prepay the floating rate loan with any free cash flow. A breach of a covenant that is not waived by the agent (or by the lenders directly) normally is an event of default, which provides the agent or the lenders the right to call the outstanding floating rate loan.

Direct Debt Instruments. A Fund may invest in direct debt instruments, subject to its policies and restrictions regarding the quality of debt securities. Purchasers of loans and other forms of direct indebtedness depend primarily upon the creditworthiness of the borrower for payment of principal and interest. Direct debt instruments may not be rated by any NRSRO. If a Fund does not receive scheduled interest or principal payments on such indebtedness, the Fund's share price and yield could be adversely affected. Loans that are fully secured offer the Fund more protection than an unsecured loan in the event of non-payment of scheduled interest or principal. However, there is no assurance that the liquidation of collateral from a secured loan would satisfy the borrower's obligation, or that the collateral could be liquidated. Indebtedness of borrowers whose creditworthiness is poor involves substantially greater risks, and may be highly speculative. Borrowers that are in bankruptcy or restructuring may never pay off their indebtedness, or may pay only a small fraction of the amount owed. Direct indebtedness of developing countries also involves a risk that the governmental entities responsible for the repayment of the debt may be unable, or unwilling, to pay interest and principal when due.

Investments in loans through direct assignment of a financial institution's interests with respect to a loan may involve additional risks to the Fund. For example, if a loan is foreclosed, the Fund could become part owner of any collateral, and would bear the costs and liabilities associated with owning and disposing of the collateral. Direct debt instruments also may involve a risk of insolvency of the lending bank or other intermediary. Direct debt instruments that are not in the form of securities may offer less legal protection to the Fund in the event of fraud or misrepresentation. In the absence of definitive regulatory guidance, the Fund seeks to avoid situations where fraud or misrepresentation could adversely affect the Fund.

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A loan often is administered by a bank or other financial institution that acts as agent for all holders. The agent administers the terms of the loan, as specified in the loan agreement. Unless, under the terms of the loan or other indebtedness, the Fund has direct recourse against the borrower, it may have to rely on the agent to apply appropriate credit remedies against a borrower. If assets held by the agent for the benefit of the Fund were determined to be subject to the claims of the agent's general creditors, the Fund might incur certain costs and delays in realizing payment on the loan or loan participation and could suffer a loss of principal or interest.

Investments in direct debt instruments may entail less legal protection for the Fund. Direct indebtedness purchased by the Fund may include letters of credit, revolving credit facilities, or other standby financing commitments obligating the Fund to pay additional cash on demand. These commitments may have the effect of requiring the Fund to increase its investment in a borrower at a time when it would not otherwise have done so, even if the borrower's condition makes it unlikely that the amount will ever be repaid. Other types of direct debt instruments, such as loans through direct assignment of a financial institution's interest with respect to a loan, may involve additional risks to the Fund. For example, if a loan is foreclosed, the Fund could become part owner of any collateral, and would bear the costs and liabilities associated with owning and disposing of the collateral.

A Fund limits the amount of total assets that it will invest in any one issuer or in issuers within the same industry. For purposes of these limitations, a Fund generally will treat the borrower as the issuer of indebtedness held by the Fund. In the case of loan participations where a bank or other lending institution serves as financial intermediary between the Fund and the borrower, if the participation does not shift to the Fund the direct debtor-creditor relationship with the borrower, SEC interpretations require the Fund, in appropriate circumstances, to treat both the lending bank or other lending institution and the borrower as issuers for these purposes. Treating a financial intermediary as an issuer of indebtedness may restrict the Fund's ability to invest in indebtedness related to a single financial intermediary, or a group of intermediaries engaged in the same industry, even if the underlying borrowers represent many different companies and industries.

Listed Private Equity Companies and Funds

Subject to its investment policies and restrictions, a Fund may invest in securities of listed private equity companies and funds whose principal business is to invest in and lend capital to privately held companies. A Fund is subject to the underlying risks that affect the listed private equity companies and funds in which it invests. Generally, little public information exists for private companies, and there is a risk that the listed private equity companies and funds may not be able to make a fully informed investment decision. In addition, the listed private equity companies and funds may have relatively concentrated investment portfolios, consisting of a relatively small number of holdings. A consequence of this limited number of investments is that the aggregate returns realized by the listed private equity companies and funds may be adversely impacted by the poor performance of a small number of investments, or even a single investment. A Fund's investment in listed private equity companies and funds subjects the Fund's shareholders indirectly to the fees and expenses incurred by such companies and funds. Listed private equity companies and funds may include, among others, business development companies, investment holding companies, publicly traded limited partnership interests (common units), publicly traded venture capital funds, publicly traded venture capital trusts, publicly traded private equity funds, publicly traded private equity investment trusts, publicly traded closed-end funds, publicly traded financial institutions that lend to or invest in privately held companies and any other publicly traded vehicle whose purpose is to invest in privately held companies.

Low-Rated Securities

Debt securities rated below the four highest categories (that is, below BBB- by S&P, for example) are not considered investment grade obligations and commonly are called “junk bonds” or “high yield”. These securities are predominately speculative and present more credit risk than investment grade obligations with respect to the issuer's continuing ability to meet principal and interest payments.

Low-rated debt securities (including unrated securities determined by the Manager to be of comparable quality) generally involve greater volatility of price and risk of principal and income, including the possibility of default by, or bankruptcy of, the issuers of the securities. The market prices of these securities may fluctuate more than high-rated securities and may decline significantly in periods of general economic difficulty. In addition, the markets in which low-rated debt securities are traded are more limited than those in which higher-rated securities are traded. The existence of limited markets for particular securities may diminish a Fund's ability to sell the securities at fair value either to meet redemption requests or to respond to changes in the economy or in the financial markets and could adversely affect and cause fluctuations in the daily NAV of the Fund's shares.

Adverse publicity and investor perceptions, whether or not based on fundamental analysis, may decrease the values and liquidity of low-rated debt securities, especially in a thinly traded market. Valuation becomes more difficult and judgment plays a greater role in valuing low-rated debt securities than with respect to higher-rated debt securities for which more external sources of quotations and last sale information are available. Similarly, analysis of the creditworthiness of issuers of low-rated debt securities may be more complex than for issuers of higher-rated securities, and the ability of a Fund to achieve its investment objective may be more dependent upon such creditworthiness analysis than would be the case if the Fund were investing in higher-rated securities.

Low-rated debt securities may be more susceptible to real or perceived adverse economic and competitive industry conditions than investment grade securities. The prices of low-rated debt securities have been found to be less sensitive to interest rate changes than higher-rated investments, but more sensitive to adverse economic downturns or individual corporate developments. A projection of an economic downturn or of a period of rising interest rates, for example, could cause a decline in low-rated debt securities prices because the advent of a recession could lessen the ability of a highly leveraged company to make principal and interest payments on its debt securities. If the issuer of low-rated debt securities defaults, a Fund may incur additional expenses to seek recovery and lose all or part of its investment.

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Investment Strategies and Risks

Distressed Debt Securities. Subject to its investment policies and restrictions, a Fund may invest in distressed companies (generally, debt securities rated below CCC+ by S&P, for example) (or, if unrated, determined by the Manager to be of comparable quality) (generally referred to as Distressed Debt). Investing in Distressed Debt includes investing in securities of companies that are, or are about to be, involved in reorganizations, financial restructurings, or bankruptcy. A Fund's investment in Distressed Debt typically involves the purchase of bank debt, lower-rated or defaulted debt securities, comparable unrated debt securities, or other indebtedness (or participations in the indebtedness) of such companies. Such other indebtedness generally represents a specific commercial loan or portion of a loan made to a company by a financial institution such as a bank.

Loan participations represent fractional interests in a company's indebtedness and generally are made available by banks or other institutional investors. By purchasing all or a part of a loan participation, a Fund, in effect, steps into the shoes of the lender. Distressed Debt purchased by a Fund may be in the form of loans, notes or bonds. If the loan is secured, a Fund will have a priority claim to the assets of the company ahead of unsecured creditors and stockholders otherwise no such priority of claims exists.

A merger or other restructuring, or a tender or exchange offer, proposed or pending at the time a Fund invests in these securities may not be completed on the terms or within the time frame contemplated, resulting in losses to the Fund.

Distressed Debt securities typically are unrated, lower-rated, in default or close to default. Also, Distressed Debt generally is more likely to become worth less than the securities of more financially stable companies. An issuer of debt securities may be unable to make interest payments and repay principal when due. Changes in an issuer's financial strength or in a security's credit rating may affect a security's value and, thus, impact Fund performance. These debt securities are subject to interest rate, credit and prepayment risk. An increase in interest rates will reduce the resale value of debt securities and changes in the financial condition or credit rating of an issue may affect the value of its debt securities. Issuers may prepay their obligations on fixed rate debt securities when interest rates decline, which can shorten a security's maturity and reduce a Fund's return.

Debt securities rated below investment grade, and the type of Distressed Debt securities which a Fund may purchase, generally are considered to have more risk than higher-rated debt securities. They also may fluctuate more in price, and are less liquid than higher-rated debt securities. Their prices are especially sensitive to developments affecting the company's business and to ratings changes, and typically rise and fall in response to factors that affect the company's stock prices. Issuers of such Distressed Debt are not as strong financially, and are more likely to encounter financial difficulties and be more vulnerable to adverse changes in the economy, such as a recession or a sustained period of rising interest rates. The risk that a Fund may lose its entire investment in defaulted bonds is greater in comparison to investing in non-defaulted bonds. Purchasers of participations in indebtedness must rely on the financial institution issuing the participation to assert any rights against the borrower with respect to the underlying indebtedness. In addition, a Fund incurs the risk as to the creditworthiness of the bank or other financial intermediary, as well as of the company issuing the underlying indebtedness.

Master Limited Partnerships (MLPs)

Subject to its investment policies and restrictions, a Fund (other than the Municipal Funds) may invest in MLPs. An MLP is a limited partnership (or similar entity, such as a limited liability company, that is classified as a partnership for federal tax purposes), the interests in which are publicly traded. MLP units generally are registered with the SEC and are freely traded on a securities exchange or in the OTC market. Many MLPs operate in the oil and gas industries, including energy processing and distribution. MLPs generally are pass-through entities or businesses that are taxed at the security holder level and generally are not subject to federal or state income tax at the entity level, subject to the application of certain partnership audit rules. Annual income, gains, losses, deductions and credits of such an MLP pass through directly to its security holders. Distributions from an MLP, whether they are attributable to its annual net income that is passed through or consist in part of a return of the amount originally invested, would not be taxable, to the extent they do not exceed the investor's adjusted tax basis in its MLP interest. Generally, an MLP is operated under the supervision of one or more general partners. Limited partners are not involved in the day-to-day management of an MLP.

Investing in MLPs generally is subject to risks applicable to investing in a partnership as opposed to a corporation, which may include fewer protections afforded to investors (e.g., owners of common units in an MLP may have limited voting rights and no ability to elect directors, trustees or other managers). Although unitholders of an MLP generally are limited in their liability, similar to a corporation's shareholders, an MLP's creditors typically have the right to seek the return of distributions made to the MLP's unitholders if the liability in question arose before the distributions were paid. This liability may stay attached to the unitholder even after the units are sold.

MLPs holding credit-related investments are subject to interest rate risk and the risk of default on payment obligations by debt issuers. MLPs that concentrate in a particular industry or geographic region are subject to the risks associated with such industry or region (such as the risks associated with investing in the real estate or oil and gas industries). Investments held by an MLP may be relatively illiquid, limiting the MLP's ability to vary its portfolio promptly in response to changes in economic or other conditions. MLPs may have limited financial resources, their securities may trade infrequently and in limited volume, and they may be subject to more abrupt or erratic price movements than securities of larger or more broadly based companies.

Net income from an interest in a “qualified publicly-traded partnership” (QPTP), which many MLPs are treated as for federal tax purposes, is “qualifying income” for an entity (such as a Fund) that is a “regulated investment company” for these purposes (RIC). Please see the section entitled Distributions and Taxes - Taxes for additional information regarding the tax consequences of a Fund's investing in a QPTP.

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Money Market Instruments

Money market instruments are high-quality, short-term debt instruments. They may include US government securities, commercial paper and other short-term corporate obligations, certificates of deposit and other financial institution obligations. These instruments may carry fixed or variable interest rates.

Mortgage-Backed and Asset-Backed Securities

Mortgage-Backed Securities. Mortgage-backed securities represent direct or indirect participations in, or are secured by and payable from, mortgage loans secured by real property and include single- and multi-class pass-through securities and collateralized mortgage obligations (CMOs). Multi-class pass-through securities and collateralized mortgage obligations are collectively referred to in this SAI as CMOs. Some CMOs are directly supported by other CMOs, which in turn are supported by mortgage pools. Investors typically receive payments out of the interest and principal on the underlying mortgages. The portions of the payments that investors receive, as well as the priority of their rights to receive payments, are determined by the specific terms of the CMO class.

The US government mortgage-backed securities in which a Fund may invest include mortgage-backed securities issued by the Federal National Mortgage Association (Fannie Mae), the Government National Mortgage Association (Ginnie Mae) or the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (Freddie Mac). Other mortgage-backed securities are issued by private issuers, generally the originators of and investors in mortgage loans, including savings associations, mortgage bankers, commercial banks, investment bankers and special purpose entities. Payments of principal and interest (but not the market value) of such private mortgage-backed securities may be supported by pools of mortgage loans or other mortgage- backed securities that are guaranteed, directly or indirectly, by the US government or one of its agencies or instrumentalities, or they may be issued without any government guarantee of the underlying mortgage assets but with some form of non-government credit enhancement. These credit enhancements do not protect investors from changes in market value.

Ginnie Mae is a government-owned corporation that is an agency of the US Department of Housing and Urban Development. It guarantees, with the full faith and credit of the United States, full and timely payment of all monthly principal and interest on its mortgage-backed securities. Government-related guarantors (i.e., not backed by the full faith and credit of the US government) include Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. Fannie Mae is a government-sponsored corporation owned by stockholders. It is subject to general regulation by the Federal Housing Finance Authority (FHFA). Fannie Mae purchases residential mortgages from a list of approved seller/servicers that include state and federally chartered savings and loan associations, mutual savings banks, commercial banks, credit unions and mortgage bankers. Fannie Mae guarantees the timely payment of principal and interest on pass-through securities that it issues, but those securities are not backed by the full faith and credit of the US government. Freddie Mac is a government sponsored corporation formerly owned by the twelve Federal Home Loan Banks and now owned by stockholders. Freddie Mac issues participation certificates, which represent interests in mortgages from Freddie Mac's national portfolio. Freddie Mac guarantees the timely payment of interest and ultimate collection of principal on the participation certificates it issues, but those are not backed by the full faith and credit of the US government.

The Treasury historically has had the authority to purchase obligations of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac; however, in 2008, due to capitalization concerns, Congress provided the Treasury with additional authority to lend Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac emergency funds and to purchase the companies' stock, as described below. In September 2008, those capital concerns led the Treasury and the FHFA to announce that Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac had been placed in conservatorship.

Since that time, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac have received significant capital support through Treasury preferred stock purchases as well as Treasury and Federal Reserve purchases of their mortgage-backed securities. While the purchase programs for mortgage-backed securities ended in 2010, the Treasury continued its support for the entities' capital as necessary to prevent a negative net worth. Although the US government has provided support for US government mortgage-related securities in the past, and Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac may need an injection of additional Treasury capital in the future, there can be no assurance that it will do so in the future. Accordingly, no assurance can be given that the Federal Reserve, Treasury, or the FHFA initiatives discussed above will ensure that Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac will remain successful in meeting their obligations with respect to the debt and mortgage-backed securities they issue. Moreover, there remains significant uncertainty as to whether (or when) Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac will emerge from conservatorship, which has no specified termination date. In addition, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac also are the subject of several continuing class action lawsuits and investigations by federal regulators, which (along with any resulting financial restatements) may adversely affect the guaranteeing entities. Importantly, the future of the entities remains in question as the US government is considering multiple options, ranging from significant reform, nationalization, privatization, consolidation, or abolishment of the entities.

The FHFA and the Treasury (through its agreements to purchase preferred stock of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac) also have imposed strict limits on the size of the mortgage portfolios of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. In August 2012, the Treasury amended its preferred stock purchase agreements to provide that the portfolios of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac will be wound down at an annual rate of 15% (up from the previously agreed annual rate of 10%), resulting in Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac reaching the $250 billion target imposed under the preferred stock purchase agreements. Further, when a ratings agency downgraded long-term US government debt in August 2011, the agency also downgraded the bond ratings of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, from AAA to AA+, based on their direct reliance on the US government (although that rating did not directly relate to their mortgage-backed securities). The US government's commitment to ensure that Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac have sufficient capital to meet their obligations was, however, unaffected by the downgrade.

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Investment Strategies and Risks

A Fund may purchase mortgage-backed securities issued by both government and non-government entities such as banks, mortgage lenders or other financial institutions. Other types of mortgage-backed securities likely will be developed in the future, and a Fund may invest in them if the Manager determines that such investments are consistent with the Fund's objective(s) and investment policies.

Stripped Mortgage-Backed Securities. Stripped mortgage-backed securities are created when a US government agency or a financial institution separates the interest and principal components of a mortgage-backed security and sells them as individual securities. The holder of the principal-only security (PO) receives the principal payments made by the underlying mortgage-backed security, while the holder of the interest-only security (IO) receives interest payments from the same underlying security.

For example, IO classes are entitled to receive all or a portion of the interest, but none (or only a nominal amount) of the principal payments, from the underlying mortgage assets. If the mortgage assets underlying an IO experience greater than anticipated principal prepayments, then the total amount of interest allocable to the IO class, and therefore the yield to investors, generally will be reduced. In some instances, an investor in an IO may fail to recoup all of the investor's initial investment, even if the security is guaranteed by the US government or considered to be of the highest quality.

Conversely, PO classes are entitled to receive all or a portion of the principal payments, but none of the interest, from the underlying mortgage assets. PO classes are purchased at substantial discounts from par, and the yield to investors will be reduced if principal payments are slower than expected. IOs, POs and other CMOs involve special risks, and evaluating them requires special knowledge.

Asset-Backed Securities. Asset-backed securities have structural characteristics similar to mortgage-backed securities, as discussed above. However, the underlying assets are not first lien mortgage loans or interests therein, but include assets such as motor vehicle installment sales contracts, other installment sale contracts, home equity loans, leases of various types of real and personal property and receivables from revolving credit (credit card) agreements. Such assets are securitized through the use of trusts or special purpose corporations. Payments or distributions of principal and interest may be guaranteed up to a certain amount and for a certain time period by a letter of credit or a pool insurance policy issued by a financial institution unaffiliated with the issuer, or other credit enhancements may be present. The value of asset-backed securities also may depend on the creditworthiness of the servicing agent for the loan pool, the originator of the loans or the financial institution providing the credit enhancement.

Special Characteristics of Mortgage-Backed and Asset-Backed Securities. The yield characteristics of mortgage- backed and asset-backed securities differ from those of traditional debt securities. Among the major differences are that interest and principal payments are made more frequently, usually monthly, and that principal may be prepaid at any time because the underlying mortgage loans or other obligations generally may be prepaid at any time. Prepayments on a pool of mortgage loans are influenced by a variety of economic, geographic, social and other factors, including changes in mortgagors' housing needs, job transfers, unemployment, mortgagors' net equity in the mortgaged properties and servicing decisions. Generally, however, prepayments on fixed-rate mortgage loans will increase during a period of falling interest rates and decrease during a period of rising interest rates. Similar factors apply to prepayments on asset-backed securities, but the receivables underlying asset-backed securities generally are of a shorter maturity and thus are likely to experience substantial prepayments. Such securities, however, often provide that for a specified time period the issuers will replace receivables in the pool that are repaid with comparable obligations. If the issuer is unable to do so, repayment of principal on the asset-backed securities may commence at an earlier date.

The rate of interest on mortgage-backed securities is lower than the interest rates paid on the mortgages included in the underlying pool due to the annual fees paid to the servicer of the mortgage pool for passing through monthly payments to certificate holders and to any guarantor, and due to any yield retained by the issuer. Actual yield to the holder may vary from the coupon rate, even if adjustable, if the mortgage-backed securities are purchased or traded in the secondary market at a premium or discount. In addition, there normally is some delay between the time the issuer receives mortgage payments from the servicer and the time the issuer makes the payments on the mortgage-backed securities, and this delay reduces the effective yield to the holder of such securities.

Yields on pass-through securities typically are quoted by investment dealers and vendors based on the maturity of the underlying instruments and the associated average life assumption. The average life of pass-through pools varies with the maturities of the underlying mortgage loans. A pool's term may be shortened by unscheduled or early payments of principal on the underlying mortgages. Because prepayment rates of individual pools vary widely, it is not possible to predict accurately the average life of a particular pool. In the past, a common industry practice has been to assume that prepayments on pools of fixed-rate 30-year mortgages would result in a 12-year average life for the pool. At present, mortgage pools, particularly those with loans with other maturities or different characteristics, are priced on an assumption of average life determined for each pool. In periods of declining interest rates, the rate of prepayment tends to increase, thereby shortening the actual average life of a pool of mortgage-related securities. Conversely, in periods of rising interest rates, the rate of prepayment tends to decrease, thereby lengthening the actual average life of the pool. Changes in the rate or speed of these payments can cause the value of the mortgage-backed securities to fluctuate rapidly. However, these effects may not be present, or may differ in degree, if the mortgage loans in the pools have adjustable interest rates or other special payment terms, such as a prepayment charge. Actual prepayment experience may cause the yield of mortgage-backed securities to differ from the assumed average life yield.

The market for privately issued mortgage-backed and asset-backed securities is smaller and less liquid than the market for US government mortgage-backed securities. CMO classes may be specifically structured in a manner that provides any of a wide variety of investment characteristics, such as yield, effective maturity and interest rate sensitivity. As market conditions change, however, and especially during periods of rapid or unanticipated changes in market interest rates, the attractiveness of some CMO classes and the ability of the structure to provide the anticipated investment characteristics may be reduced. These changes can result in volatility in the market value, and in some instances reduced liquidity, of the CMO class.

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Municipal Obligations

Municipal obligations are issued by a wide range of state and local governments, agencies and authorities for various purposes. The two main kinds of municipal bonds are general obligation bonds and revenue bonds. The issuer of a general obligation bond has pledged its full faith, credit and taxing power for the payment of principal and interest on the bond. Revenue bonds are payable only from specific sources; these may include revenues from a particular facility or class of facilities or special tax or other revenue source. Private activity bonds (PABs) are revenue bonds issued by or on behalf of public authorities to obtain funds to finance privately operated facilities. Their credit quality usually is directly related to the credit standing of the user of the facilities being financed. See the section entitled Delaware Ivy Municipal Bond Fund and Delaware Ivy Municipal High Income Fund — Municipal Bonds for more information about municipal obligations.

Natural Resources and Physical Commodities

When a Fund invests in securities of companies engaged in natural resources activities, the Fund may be subject to greater risks and market fluctuations than funds with more diversified portfolios. The value of the Fund's securities will fluctuate in response to market conditions generally, and will be particularly sensitive to the markets for those natural resources in which a particular issuer is involved. The values of natural resources also may fluctuate directly with respect to real and perceived inflationary trends and various political developments. In selecting the Fund's investments, the Manager will consider each company's ability to create new products, secure any necessary regulatory approvals, and generate sufficient customer demand. A company's failure to perform well in any one of these areas, however, could cause its stock to decline sharply.

Natural resource industries throughout the world may be subject to greater political, environmental and other governmental regulation than many other industries. Changes in governmental policies and the need for regulatory approvals may have an adverse effect on the products and services of natural resources companies. For example, the exploration, development and distribution of coal, oil and gas in the US are subject to significant federal and state regulation, which may affect rates of return on such investments and the kinds of services that may be offered to companies in those industries. In addition, many natural resource companies have been subject to significant costs associated with compliance with environmental and other safety regulations. Such regulations also may hamper the development of new technologies. The direction, type or effect of any future regulations affecting natural resource industries are virtually impossible to predict.

Generally, energy commodities, such as coal, natural gas and crude oil, have distinctly higher volatility than other types of commodities, due in part to real time pricing and cross-commodity arbitrage described below. In purchasing related securities, the Manager considers the integration of derivatives and physical trades for risk management in a real-time environment. As well, scheduling receipts, deliveries and transmission of a commodity can all impact investments in commodities.

Energy commodities have unique market risks and physical properties which can affect the available supply. Factors unique to energy commodities include: research and development, location, recovery costs, transportation costs, conversion costs and storage costs, as well as global demand and other events that can affect demand such as war, weather and alternative energy sources. Natural gas and crude oil are especially susceptible to changes in supply and global demand. For example, global oil prices recently have been, and continue to be, subject to extreme market volatility. An investor in commodities must be able to manage cross-commodity arbitrage, that is, the ability to determine positions stated in equivalent units of measure (e.g., British thermal units). When assessing an investment opportunity — in coal, natural gas or crude oil — this calculation can be critical in determining the success an investor has when calculating how a trade breaks down into a single common denominator. Coal tolling, for instance, involves the conversion of coal to electricity for a fee. The tolling of coal gives marketers, suppliers and generators another arbitrage opportunity if there is a disparity between coal and electricity prices while providing some added liquidity between the two commodities.

Principal risks of investing in certain types of commodities include:

cross-commodity arbitrage can negatively impact a Fund's investments;

 

fluctuations in demand can negatively impact individual commodities: alternative sources of energy can create unforeseen competition; changes in weather can negatively affect demand; and global production can alter demand and the need for specific sources of energy;

 

fluctuations in supply can negatively impact individual commodities: transportation costs, research and development, location, recovery/retrieval costs, conversion costs, storage costs and natural disasters can all adversely impact different investments and types of energy;

 

environmental restrictions can increase costs of production;

 

restrictions placed by the government of a developing country related to investment, exchange controls, and repatriation of the proceeds of investment in that country; and

 

war can limit production or access to available supplies and/or resources.

 

Investments in precious metals (such as gold) and other physical commodities are considered speculative and subject to special risk considerations, including substantial price fluctuations over short periods of time, as well as increasing regulation. On the other hand, investments in precious metals, coins or bullion could help to moderate fluctuations in the value of a Fund's holdings, since the prices of precious metals have at times tended not to fluctuate as widely as shares of issuers engaged in the mining of precious metals.

Because precious metals and other commodities do not generate investment income, the return on such investments will be derived solely from the appreciation or depreciation on such investments. A Fund also may incur storage and other costs relating to its investments in precious metals and other

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Investment Strategies and Risks

commodities, which may, under certain circumstances, exceed custodial and brokerage costs associated with investments in other types of securities. When a Fund purchases a precious metal or other physical commodity, the Manager currently intends that it will only be in a form that is readily marketable. To continue to qualify as a RIC under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (Code), a Fund may not derive more than 10% of its yearly gross income from gains (without regard to losses) resulting from selling or otherwise disposing of precious metals or any other physical commodity (or options or futures contracts thereon unless the gain is realized from certain hedging transactions) and other “non-qualifying income.” See Distributions and Taxes - Taxes. Accordingly, a Fund may be required to hold its precious metals or sell them at a loss, or to sell some portfolio securities at a gain, when, for investment reasons, it would not otherwise do so.

The ability of a Fund to purchase and hold precious metals such as gold, silver and platinum may allow it to benefit from a potential increase in the price of precious metals or stability in the price of such metals at a time when the value of securities may be declining. For example, during periods of declining stock prices, the price of gold may increase or remain stable, while the value of the stock market may be subject to general decline.

Precious metal prices are affected by various factors, such as economic conditions, political events and monetary policies. As a result, the prices of gold, silver or platinum may fluctuate widely. The sole source of return to a Fund from such investments will be gains realized on their sale; a negative return will be realized if the metal is sold at a loss. Investments in precious metals do not provide a yield. A Fund's direct investment in precious metals is limited by tax considerations. See Distributions and Taxes - Taxes.

Options, Futures and Other Derivatives Strategies

General. The Manager may use certain options, futures contracts (sometimes referred to as futures), options on futures contracts, forward currency contracts, swaps, caps, floors, collars, indexed securities and other derivatives instruments (collectively, Financial Instruments) in an attempt to enhance income or yield, to hedge, to gain exposure to securities, sectors or geographical areas or to otherwise manage the risks of a Fund's investments.

Generally, each Fund may purchase and sell any type of Financial Instrument. However, as an operating policy, a Fund will only purchase or sell a particular Financial Instrument if the Fund is authorized to invest in the type of asset by which the return on, or value of, the Financial Instrument primarily is measured. Since each Fund is authorized to invest in foreign securities denominated in other currencies, each such Fund may purchase and sell foreign currency derivatives.

Hedging strategies can be broadly categorized as short hedges and long hedges. A short hedge is a purchase or sale of a Financial Instrument intended partially or fully to offset potential declines in the value of one or more investments held in a Fund's portfolio. Thus, in a short hedge, the Fund takes a position in a Financial Instrument whose price is expected to move in the opposite direction of the price of the investment being hedged.

Conversely, a long hedge is a purchase or sale of a Financial Instrument intended partially or fully to offset potential increases in the acquisition cost of one or more investments that a Fund intends to acquire. Thus, in a long hedge, the Fund takes a position in a Financial Instrument whose price is expected to move in the same direction as the price of the prospective investment being hedged. A long hedge is sometimes referred to as an anticipatory hedge. In an anticipatory hedge transaction, a Fund does not own a corresponding security. Therefore, the transaction relates to a security that the Fund intends to acquire. If the Fund does not complete the hedge by purchasing the security it anticipated purchasing, the effect on the Fund's holdings is the same as if the underlying security had been purchased and later sold, and the transaction could be viewed as speculative.

Financial Instruments involving underlying securities may be used in an attempt to hedge against price movements in one or more particular securities positions that a Fund owns or intends to acquire. Financial Instruments involving underlying indexes, in contrast, may be used in an attempt to hedge against price movements in market sectors in which a Fund has invested or expects to invest, respectively. Financial Instruments involving underlying debt securities may be used in an attempt to hedge either individual securities or broad debt market sectors.

In addition, Financial Instruments also may be used in seeking to gain exposure to securities, sectors, markets or geographical areas. Financial Instruments can be used individually, as in the purchase of a call option, or in combination, as in the purchase of a call option and a concurrent sale of a put option, as an alternative to purchasing securities.

Financial Instruments may be used in this manner in seeking to gain exposure more efficiently than through a direct purchase of the underlying security or to more specifically express the outlook of the Manager.

The enactment of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010 (the Dodd-Frank Act) resulted in historic and comprehensive statutory reform of certain OTC derivatives, including the manner in which the derivatives are regulated, derivatives documentation is negotiated, and trades are reported, executed or “cleared.”

Specifically, the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) has adopted rules to require certain standardized swaps, previously traded OTC, be executed in a regulated, transparent market and settled by means of a central clearing house. To date, the CFTC has designated only certain of the most common types of credit default index swaps and interest rate swaps as subject to mandatory clearing and certain public trading facilities have made certain of those cleared swaps available to trade, but it is expected that additional categories of swaps will in the future be designated as subject to mandatory clearing and trade execution requirements. Central clearing is intended to reduce counterparty credit risk and increase liquidity, but, central clearing does not eliminate these risks and may involve additional costs and risks not involved with uncleared swaps. The assets of a Fund may not be fully protected in the event of the bankruptcy of the futures commission merchant (FCM) or central counterparty because the Fund might be limited to recovering only a pro rata

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share of all available funds and margin segregated on behalf of an FCM's customers. Credit risk of cleared swap participants is concentrated in a few clearinghouses, and the consequences of insolvency of a clearinghouse are not clear.

In addition, the banking regulators and the CFTC have issued regulations requiring the posting of initial and variation margin for uncleared swaps that are applicable to all financial end-users, including the Funds.

The regulation of derivatives is a rapidly changing area of law and is subject to modification by government and judicial action. In addition, the SEC, CFTC and the exchanges are authorized to take extraordinary actions in the event of a market emergency, including, for example, the implementation or reduction of speculative position limits, the implementation of higher margin requirements, the establishment of daily price limits and the suspension of trading. It is not possible to predict fully the effects of current or future regulation. Changing regulation may, among various possible effects, increase the cost of entering into derivatives transactions, restrict the ability of a Fund to enter into certain types of derivative transactions, or could limit a Fund's ability to pursue its investment strategies. New requirements, even if not directly applicable to the Funds, may increase the cost of the Funds' investments and cost of doing business.

In 2012, pursuant to the Dodd-Frank Act, the CFTC made substantial amendments to the permissible exemptions, and to the conditions for reliance on the permissible exemptions, from registration as a "commodity pool operator" (CPO) under the Commodity Exchange Act (CEA). Under these amendments, if a Fund uses commodity interests (such as futures contracts, options on futures contracts and most swaps) other than for bona fide hedging purposes (as defined by the CFTC), the aggregate initial margin and premiums required to establish these positions (after taking into account unrealized profits and unrealized losses on any such positions and excluding the amount by which options are “in-the- money” at the time of purchase) may not exceed 5% of the Fund's liquidation value, or alternatively, the aggregate net notional value of those positions, determined at the time the most recent position was established, may not exceed 100% of the Fund's liquidation value (after taking into account unrealized profits and unrealized losses on any such positions) unless the Manager has registered as a CPO. The Manager, in its management of each Fund, currently is complying, and intends to continue to comply, with at least one of the two alternative limitations described above. Accordingly, the Manager has claimed an exclusion from the definition of the term “commodity pool operator” with respect to each Fund under the CEA and the regulations thereunder.

In addition to complying with these de minimis trading limitations set forth in the CFTC Rule 4.5 under the CPO rules, to qualify for an exclusion under the amended regulation, the operator of a Fund must satisfy a marketing test, which requires, among other things, that the Fund not hold itself out as a vehicle for trading commodity interests. Complying with the de minimis trading limitations may restrict the Manager's ability to use derivatives as part of a Fund's investment strategies. Although the Manager believes that it will be able to execute a Fund's investment strategies within the de minimis trading limitations, the Fund's performance could be adversely affected. In addition, a Fund's ability to use Financial Instruments may be limited by tax considerations. See Distributions and Taxes - Taxes.

Pursuant to authority granted under the Dodd-Frank Act, the Treasury issued a notice of final determination (Final Determination) stating that deliverable foreign exchange forwards, as defined in the Final Determination, should not be considered swaps for most purposes. Thus, deliverable foreign exchange forwards are not deemed to be commodity interests. Therefore, a Fund may enter into deliverable foreign exchange forwards without such transactions counting against the de minimis trading limitations discussed above. Notwithstanding the Treasury's determination, deliverable foreign exchange forwards (1) must be reported to swap data repositories, (2) are subject to business conduct standards, and (3) are subject to antifraud and anti-manipulation proscriptions of swap execution facilities.

In addition, pursuant to the Dodd-Frank Act and regulations adopted by the CFTC in connection with implementing the Dodd-Frank Act, non-deliverable forwards (NDFs) are deemed to be commodity interests, including for purposes of amended CFTC Rule 4.5, and are subject to the full array of regulations under the Dodd-Frank Act. Therefore, a Fund will limit its investment in NDFs as discussed above.

CFTC Rule 4.5 also provides that, for purposes of determining compliance with the de minimis trading limitations discussed above, swaps that are centrally-cleared on the same clearing organization may be netted where appropriate, but no such netting is permitted for uncleared swaps. To the extent some NDFs remain traded OTC and are not centrally- cleared, the absolute notional value of all such transactions, rather than the net notional value, would be counted against the de minimis trading limitations discussed above. Requests have been made to the CFTC staff for further guidance on this aspect of CFTC Rule 4.5.

In addition to the instruments, strategies and risks described below, the Manager expects to discover additional opportunities in connection with Financial Instruments and other similar or related techniques. These new opportunities may become available as new techniques are developed, as regulatory authorities broaden the range of permitted transactions and as new Financial Instruments or other techniques are developed. The Manager may utilize these opportunities to the extent that they are consistent with a Fund's objective(s) and permitted by a Fund's investment policies and restrictions and regulations adopted by applicable regulatory authorities. A Fund might not use any of these strategies, and there can be no assurance that any strategy used will succeed. The Funds' Prospectus or this SAI will be supplemented to the extent that new products or techniques involve materially different risks than those described below or in the Prospectus.

Special Risks. The use of Financial Instruments involves special considerations and risks, certain of which are described below. Some of these techniques may increase the volatility of a Fund and may involve a small investment of cash relative to the magnitude of the risk assumed. Risks pertaining to particular Financial Instruments are described in the sections that follow:

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Investment Strategies and Risks

1. Successful use of certain Financial Instruments depends upon the ability of the Manager to predict movements of the overall securities, currency and interest rate markets, among other skills. There can be no assurance that any particular strategy will succeed, and the use of Financial Instruments could result in a loss, regardless of whether the intent was to reduce risk or increase return.

2. There might be imperfect correlation, or even no correlation, between price movements of a Financial Instrument and price movements of the investments being hedged. For example, if the value of a Financial Instrument used in a short hedge increased by less than the decline in value of the hedged investment, the hedge would not be fully successful. Such a lack of correlation might occur due to factors unrelated to the value of the investments being hedged, such as speculation in the market or other pressures on the markets in which Financial Instruments are traded. The effectiveness of hedges using Financial Instruments on underlying indexes will depend on the degree of correlation between price movements in the index and price movements in the securities being hedged.

Because there are a limited number of types of exchange-traded options and futures contracts, the standardized contracts available may not match a Fund's current or anticipated investments exactly. A Fund may invest in options and futures contracts based on securities, indexes or other instruments with different issuers, maturities, or other characteristics from the securities in which it typically invests, which involves a risk that the options or futures position will not perfectly correlate with the performance of the Fund's other investments. Options and futures prices also can diverge from the prices of their underlying instruments, even if the underlying instruments match a Fund's investments well. Options and futures prices are affected by such factors as changes in volatility of the underlying instrument, the time remaining until expiration of the contract, and current and anticipated short-term interest rates, which may not affect security prices the same way. Imperfect correlation also may result from differing levels of demand in the options and futures markets and the securities markets, from structural differences in how options and futures and securities are traded, and/or from imposition of daily price fluctuation limits or trading halts. A Fund may purchase or sell options and futures contracts with a greater or lesser value than the securities it wishes to hedge or intends to purchase in order to attempt to compensate for differences in volatility between the contract and the securities, although this may not be successful in all cases. If price changes in a Fund's options or futures positions are poorly correlated with its other investments, the positions may fail to produce anticipated gains or result in losses that are not offset by gains in other investments.

3. If successful, the above-discussed strategies can reduce risk of loss by wholly or partially offsetting the negative effect of unfavorable price movements. However, such strategies also can reduce opportunity for gain by offsetting the positive effect of favorable price movements. For example, if a Fund entered into a short hedge because the Manager projected a decline in the price of a security in the Fund's portfolio, and the price of that security increased instead, the gain from that increase might be wholly or partially offset by a decline in the price of the Financial Instrument. Moreover, if the price of the Financial Instrument declined by more than the increase in the price of the security, the Fund could suffer a loss. In either such case, the Fund would have been in a better position had it not attempted to hedge at all.

4. As described below, a Fund might be required to maintain assets as cover, maintain segregated accounts or make margin payments when it takes positions in Financial Instruments involving obligations to third parties unless regulatory relief from restrictions applies. If the Fund were unable to close out its positions in such Financial Instruments, it might be required to continue to maintain such assets or accounts or make such payments until the position expired or matured. These requirements may require that a Fund sell portfolio securities at a disadvantageous time in order to meet such obligations, and could cause the Fund to incur losses.

5. A Fund's ability to close out a position in a Financial Instrument prior to expiration or maturity depends on the existence of a liquid secondary market or, in the absence of such a market, the ability and willingness of the other party to the transaction (counterparty) to enter into a transaction closing out the position. Therefore, there is no assurance that any position can be closed out at a time and price that is favorable to the Fund.

6. Certain Financial Instruments, including options, futures contracts, combined positions and swaps, can create leverage, which may amplify or otherwise increase a Fund's investment loss, possibly in an amount that could exceed the cost of that Financial Instrument or, under certain circumstances, that could be unlimited. Certain Financial Instruments also may require cash outlays that are only a small portion of the amount of exposure obtained through the Financial Instruments, which results in a form of leverage. Although leverage creates the opportunity for increased total return, it also can create investment exposure for a Fund that, in certain circumstances, could exceed the Fund's net assets and could alter the risk profile of the Fund in unanticipated ways.

7. When traded on foreign exchanges, Financial Instruments may not be regulated as rigorously as they would be if traded on or subject to the rules of an exchange located in the United States, may not involve a clearing mechanism and related guarantees, and will be subject to the risk of governmental actions affecting trading in, or the prices of, foreign securities, currencies and other instruments. The value of positions taken as part of non-US Financial Instruments also could be adversely affected by: (i) other complex foreign political, legal and economic factors; (ii) lesser availability of data on which to make trading decisions than in the United States; (iii) delays in a Fund's ability to act upon economic events occurring in foreign markets during non-business hours in the United States; (iv) the imposition of different exercise and settlement terms and procedures and margin requirements than in the United States; and (v) lower trading volume and liquidity.

Options. A call option gives the purchaser the right, but not the obligation, to buy, and obligates the writer to sell, the underlying investment at the agreed-upon price during the option period. A put option gives the purchaser the right, but not the obligation, to sell, and obligates the writer to buy, the underlying investment at the agreed-upon price during the option period. Purchasers of options pay an amount, known as a premium, to the option writer in exchange for the right under the option contract. Options are traded on an organized, liquid exchange or in the OTC market.

The purchase of call options can serve as a long hedge, and the purchase of put options can serve as a short hedge. Writing put or call options can enable a Fund to enhance income or yield by reason of the premiums paid by the purchasers of such options.

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Writing call options can serve as a limited short hedge, because declines in the value of the hedged investment would be offset to the extent of the premium received for writing the option. However, if the security or currency appreciates to a price higher than the exercise price of the call option, it can be expected that the option will be exercised and the Fund will be obligated to sell the security or currency at less than its market value.

Writing put options can serve as a limited long hedge because increases in the value of the hedged investment would be offset to the extent of the premium received for writing the option. However, if the security or currency depreciates to a price lower than the exercise price of the put option, it can be expected that the put option will be exercised and the Fund will be obligated to purchase the security or currency at more than its market value, which would be expected to result in a loss.

The value of an option position will reflect, among other things, the current market value of the underlying investment, the time remaining until expiration, the relationship of the exercise price to the market price of the underlying investment, the anticipated future price volatility of the underlying investment and general market conditions. Purchased options that expire unexercised have no value.

A Fund may effectively terminate its right or obligation under an option by entering into a closing transaction. For example, a Fund may terminate its obligation under a call or put option that it had written by purchasing the call or put option; this is known as a closing purchase transaction. Conversely, a Fund may terminate a position in a put or call option it had purchased by selling the put or call option; this is known as a closing sale transaction. Closing transactions permit a Fund to realize profits or limit losses on an option position prior to its exercise or expiration.

A type of put that a Fund may purchase is an optional delivery standby commitment, which is entered into by parties selling debt securities to the Fund. An optional delivery standby commitment gives the Fund the right to sell the security back to the seller on specified terms. This right is provided as an inducement to purchase the security.

Risks of Options on Securities. Options can offer large amounts of leverage, which may result in a Fund's NAV being more sensitive to changes in the value of the related instrument. Each Fund may purchase or write both options that are traded on domestic and foreign exchanges and OTC options. Exchange-traded options on securities in the United States are issued by the Options Clearing Corporation that, in effect, guarantees completion of every exchange-traded option transaction. In contrast, OTC options are contracts between a Fund and its counterparty (usually a securities dealer or a bank) with no clearing organization guarantee. Thus, when a Fund purchases an OTC option, it relies on the counterparty from whom it purchased the option to make or take delivery of the underlying investment upon exercise of the option. Failure by the counterparty to do so could result in the loss of any premium paid by the Fund as well as the loss of any expected benefit of the transaction. A Fund seeks to mitigate this risk by entering into a bilateral credit support arrangement with the counterparty, which requires the posting of collateral to cover the market value of purchased options, which would mitigate the possibility of losing any premium paid by a Fund, as well as any loss of expected benefit of the transaction.

A Fund's ability to establish and close out positions in exchange-listed options depends on the existence of a liquid market, and there can be no assurance that such a market will exist at any particular time. Closing transactions can be made for OTC options only by negotiating directly with the counterparty, or by negotiating with a different counterparty willing to take the Fund's place in the contract, called a novation. There can be no assurance that a Fund will in fact be able to close out an OTC option position at a favorable price prior to expiration. In the event of insolvency of the counterparty, the Fund would be able to terminate the position held with such counterparty; but, due to insolvency proceedings, might incur a significant delay in recovering any amounts owed to the Fund.

If a Fund were unable to effect a closing transaction for an option it had purchased, it would have to exercise the option to realize any profit. The inability to enter into a closing purchase transaction or an economically offsetting purchase transaction from another counterparty for a covered call option written by a Fund could cause material losses to such Fund because the Fund would, if unable to substitute other collateral, be unable to sell the investment used as cover for the written option until the option expires or is exercised.

Options on Indexes. Puts and calls on indexes are similar to puts and calls on securities or futures contracts except that all settlements are in cash and gain or loss depends on changes in the index in question rather than on price movements in individual securities or futures contracts. When a Fund writes a call on an index, it receives a premium and agrees that the purchaser of the call, upon exercise of the call, will receive from the Fund an amount of cash if the closing level of the index upon which the call is based is greater than the exercise price of the call. The amount of cash is equal to the difference between the closing price of the index and the exercise price of the call times a specified multiple (multiplier), which determines the total dollar value for each point of such difference. When a Fund buys a call on an index, it pays a premium and has the same rights as to such call as are indicated above. When a Fund buys a put on an index, it pays a premium and has the right to require the seller of the put, upon the Fund's exercise of the put, to deliver to the Fund an amount of cash if the closing level of the index upon which the put is based is less than the exercise price of the put, which amount of cash is determined by the multiplier, as described above for calls. When a Fund writes a put on an index, it receives a premium and the purchaser of the put has the right to require the Fund to deliver to the purchaser an amount of cash equal to the difference between the closing level of the index and the exercise price times the multiplier if the closing level is less than the exercise price. The timing of the right of an option owner to exercise the option depends on the type of option and negotiations between the purchaser and seller.

Risks of Options on Indexes. The risks of investment in options on indexes may be greater than options on securities. Because index options are settled in cash, when a Fund writes a call on an index, it cannot provide in advance for its potential settlement obligations by acquiring and holding the underlying securities. A Fund can offset some of the risk of writing a call index option by holding a diversified portfolio of securities similar to those on which the underlying index is based. However, a Fund cannot, as a practical matter, acquire and hold a portfolio containing exactly the same securities as underlie the index and, as a result, bears a risk that the value of the securities held will vary from the value of the index.

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Investment Strategies and Risks

Even if a Fund could assemble a portfolio that exactly reproduced the composition of the underlying index, it still would not be fully covered from a risk standpoint because of the timing risk inherent in writing index options. When an index option is exercised, the amount of cash that the holder is entitled to receive is determined by the difference between the exercise price and the closing index level on the date when the option is exercised. This timing risk is an inherent limitation on the ability of index call option writers to cover their risk exposure by holding securities positions.

Over-the-Counter (OTC) Options. Unlike exchange-traded options, which are standardized with respect to the underlying instrument, expiration date, contract size and strike price, the terms of OTC options (options not traded on an exchange) typically are established by a Fund, and negotiated with a counterparty, prior to entering into the option contract. While this type of arrangement allows a Fund the flexibility to tailor the option to its needs, OTC options involve counterparty risk that is not applicable to exchange-traded options, which are guaranteed by the clearing organization of the exchange where they are traded. Some of a Fund's counterparties are guaranteed by their parent holding companies with respect to that counterparty's payment obligations under OTC trades (like OTC options). This helps to mitigate such counterparty risk.

Generally, OTC foreign currency options used by a Fund are European-style options. This means that the option is only exercisable at its expiration. This is in contrast to American-style options, which are exercisable at any time prior to the expiration date of the option.

Futures Contracts and Options on Futures Contracts. Generally, a futures contract is a standardized agreement to buy or sell a specific quantity of an underlying reference instrument, such as a security, index, currency or commodity at a specific price on a specific date in the future. The purchase of futures contracts or call options on futures contracts can serve as a long hedge, and the sale of futures contracts or the purchase of put options on a futures contract can serve as a short hedge. Writing call options on futures contracts can serve as a limited short hedge, using a strategy similar to that used for writing call options on securities or indexes. Similarly, writing put options on futures contracts can serve as a limited long hedge. Futures contracts and options on futures contracts also can be purchased and sold to attempt to enhance income or yield.

In addition, futures contract strategies can be used to manage the average duration of a Fund's fixed-income holdings. If the Manager wishes to shorten the average duration of a Fund's fixed-income holdings, the Fund may sell a debt futures contract or a call option thereon, or purchase a put option on that futures contract. If the Manager wishes to lengthen the average duration of a Fund's fixed-income holdings, the Fund may buy a debt futures contract or a call option thereon, or sell a put option thereon.

No price is paid upon entering into a futures contract. Instead, at the inception of a futures contract a Fund is required to deposit initial margin that typically is calculated as an amount equal to the volatility in market value of a contract over a fixed period. Initial margin requirements are determined by the respective exchanges on which the futures contracts are traded and the FCM. Margin also must be deposited when writing a call or put option on a futures contract, in accordance with applicable exchange rules. Unlike margin in securities transactions, initial margin on futures contracts and options thereon does not represent a borrowing, but rather is in the nature of a performance bond or good-faith deposit that is returned to the Fund at the termination of the transaction if all contractual obligations have been satisfied. Under certain circumstances, such as periods of high volatility, a Fund may be required by an exchange to increase the level of its initial margin payment, and initial margin requirements might be increased generally in the future by regulatory action.

Subsequent variation margin payments are made to and from the FCM daily as the value of the futures position varies, a process known as marking-to-market. Variation margin does not involve borrowing, but rather represents a daily settlement of a Fund's obligations to or from a FCM. When a Fund purchases an option on a futures contract, the premium paid plus transaction costs is all that is at risk. In contrast, when a Fund purchases or sells a futures contract or writes a call or put option thereon, it is subject to daily variation margin calls that could be substantial in the event of adverse price movements. If a Fund has insufficient cash to meet daily variation margin requirements, it might need to sell securities at a time when such sales are disadvantageous.

Purchasers and sellers of futures contracts and options on futures contracts can enter into offsetting closing transactions, similar to closing transactions on options, by selling or purchasing the instrument purchased or sold. Positions in futures contracts and options on futures contracts may be closed only on an exchange or board of trade that provides a market for such contracts and options. However, there can be no assurance that a liquid market will exist for a particular contract at a particular time. In such event, it may not be possible to close a futures contract or options position.

Under certain circumstances, futures exchanges may establish daily limits on the amount that the price of a futures contract or an option on a futures contract can vary from the previous day's settlement price; once that limit is reached, no trades may be made that day at a price beyond the limit. Daily price limits do not limit potential losses because prices could move to the daily limit for several consecutive days with little or no trading, thereby preventing liquidation of unfavorable positions. In addition, the CFTC and various exchanges have established limits referred to as “speculative position limits” or “accountability levels” on the maximum net long or net short position that any person, such as a Fund, may hold or control in a particular futures contract or option thereon. For more information, see Speculative Position Limits.

If a Fund were unable to liquidate a futures contract or an option on a futures position due to the absence of a liquid secondary market or the imposition of price limits, it could incur substantial losses. The Fund would continue to be subject to market risk with respect to the position. In addition, except in the case of purchased options, the Fund would continue to be required to make daily variation margin payments and might be required to maintain the position being hedged by the futures contract or option or to maintain cash or liquid assets in an account.

Risks of Futures Contracts and Options. The purchase or sale of a futures contract may result in losses to a Fund in excess of the amount that the Fund delivered as initial margin. Because of the relatively low margin deposits required, futures trading involves a high degree of leverage; as a result, a relatively small price movement in a futures contract may result in immediate and substantial loss, or gain, to a Fund. There also is a risk of loss by a Fund of the initial

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and variation margin deposits in the event of bankruptcy of the FCM with which the Fund has an open position in a futures contract. The assets of a Fund may not be fully protected in the event of the bankruptcy of the FCM or central counterparty because the Fund might be limited to recovering only a pro rata share of all available funds and margin segregated on behalf of an FCM's customers. If an FCM does not provide accurate reporting, a Fund also is subject to the risk that the FCM could use the Fund's assets, which are held in an omnibus account with assets belonging to the FCM's other customers, to satisfy its own financial obligations or the payment obligations of another customer.

Futures contracts that are traded on non-US exchanges may not be as liquid as those purchased on CFTC-designated contract markets. In addition, non-US futures contracts may be subject to varied regulatory oversight. The price of any non-US futures contract and, therefore, the potential profit and loss thereon, may be affected by any change in the non-US exchange rate between the time a particular order is placed and the time it is liquidated, offset or exercised.

The amount of risk a Fund assumes when it purchases an option on a futures contract is the premium paid for the option plus related transaction costs. The purchase of an option also entails the risk that changes in the value of the underlying futures contract will not be fully reflected in the value of the option purchased. When a Fund sells (writes) an option on a futures contract, the Fund is subject to the risk of having to take a possibly adverse futures position if the purchaser of the option exercises its rights. If a Fund were required to take such a position, it could bear substantial losses.

The ordinary spreads between prices in the cash and futures markets (including the options on futures market), due to differences in the natures of those markets, are subject to the following factors, which may create distortions. First, all participants in the futures market are subject to margin deposit and maintenance requirements. Rather than meeting additional margin deposit requirements, investors may close futures contracts through offsetting transactions, which could distort the normal relationship between the cash and futures markets. Second, in the case of a physically settled futures contract, the liquidity of the futures market depends on participants entering into offsetting transactions rather than making or taking delivery. To the extent participants decide to make or take delivery, liquidity in the futures market could be reduced, thus producing distortion. Third, from the point of view of speculators, the deposit requirements in the futures market are less onerous than margin requirements in the securities market. Therefore, increased participation by speculators in the futures market may cause temporary price distortions. Due to the possibility of distortion, a correct forecast of general interest rate, currency exchange rate or stock market trends by the Manager still may not result in a successful transaction. The Manager may be incorrect in its expectations as to the extent of various interest rate, currency exchange rate or stock market movements or the time span within which the movements take place.

Index Futures. When a Fund utilizes an index futures contract in an attempt to hedge, the risk of imperfect correlation between movements in the price of an index futures contract and movements in the price of the securities that are the subject of the hedge increases as the composition of the Fund's portfolio diverges from the securities included in the applicable index. The price of the index futures contract may move more than or less than the price of the securities being hedged. If the price of the index futures contract moves less than the price of the securities that are the subject of the hedge, the hedge will not be fully effective but, if the price of the securities being hedged has moved in an unfavorable direction, the Fund would be in a better position than if it had not hedged at all. If the price of the securities being hedged has moved in a favorable direction, this advantage will be partially offset by the futures contract. If the price of the futures contract moves more than the price of the securities, the Fund will experience either a loss or a gain on the futures contract that will not be completely offset by movements in the price of the securities that are the subject of the hedge. To compensate for the imperfect correlation of movements in the price of the securities being hedged and movements in the price of the index futures contract, a Fund may buy or sell index futures contracts in a greater or lesser dollar amount than the dollar amount of the securities being hedged if the historical volatility of the prices of the securities being hedged is more than the historical volatility of the prices of the securities included in the index.

It also is possible that, where a Fund has sold index futures contracts in an attempt to hedge against a decline in the market, the market may advance and the value of the securities held in the portfolio may decline. If this occurred, the Fund would lose money on the futures contract and also experience a decline in value of its portfolio securities. However, while this could occur for a very brief period or to a very small degree, over time the value of a diversified portfolio of securities will tend to move in the same direction as the market indexes on which the futures contracts are based.

Where index futures contracts are purchased in an attempt to hedge against a possible increase in the price of securities before a Fund is able to invest in them in an orderly fashion, it is possible that the market may decline instead. If a Fund then concludes not to invest in them at that time because of concern as to possible further market decline or for other reasons, it will realize a loss on the futures contract that is not offset by a reduction in the price of the securities it had anticipated purchasing.

Foreign Currency Hedging Strategies — Special Considerations. Subject to its investment policies and restrictions, each Fund (other than the Municipal Funds) may use options and futures contracts on foreign currencies (including the euro), as described above, and forward foreign currency contracts (forward currency contracts), as described below, in an attempt to hedge against movements in the values of the foreign currencies in which the Fund's securities are denominated or in an attempt to enhance income or yield. Currency hedges can protect against price movements in a security that a Fund owns or intends to acquire that are attributable to changes in the value of the currency in which it is denominated. Such hedges do not, however, protect against price movements in the securities that are attributable to other causes.

A Fund might seek to hedge against changes in the value of a particular currency when no Financial Instruments on that currency are available or such Financial Instruments are more expensive than certain other Financial Instruments. In such cases, the Fund may seek to hedge against price movements in that currency by entering into transactions using Financial Instruments on another currency or a basket of currencies, the values of which the Manager believes will have a high degree of positive correlation to the value of the currency being hedged. The risk that movements in the price of the Financial Instrument will not correlate perfectly with movements in the price of the currency subject to the hedging transaction is magnified when this strategy is used.

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Investment Strategies and Risks

The value of Financial Instruments on foreign currencies depends on the value of the underlying currency relative to the US dollar.

There is no systematic reporting of last sale information for foreign currencies or any regulatory requirement that quotations available through dealers or other market sources be firm or revised on a timely basis. The interbank market in foreign currencies is a global, round-the-clock market. To the extent the US options or futures markets are closed while the markets for the underlying currencies remain open, significant price and rate movements might take place in the underlying markets that cannot be reflected in the markets for the Financial Instruments until they reopen.

Settlement of transactions involving foreign currencies might be required to take place within the country issuing the underlying currency. Thus, a Fund might be required to accept or make delivery of the underlying foreign currency in accordance with any US or foreign regulations regarding the maintenance of foreign banking arrangements by US residents and might be required to pay any fees, taxes and charges associated with such delivery assessed in the issuing country.

Forward Currency Contracts. Subject to its investment policies and restrictions, each Fund (other than Delaware Ivy Limited-Term Bond Fund and the Municipal Funds) may enter into forward currency contracts to purchase or sell foreign currencies for a fixed amount of US dollars or another foreign currency. A forward currency contract involves an obligation to purchase or sell a specific currency at a future date, which may be any fixed number of days (term) from the date of the forward currency contract agreed upon by the parties, at a price set at the time of the entry into the forward currency contract. These forward currency contracts are traded directly between currency traders (usually large commercial banks) and their customers. Such transactions may serve as long hedges; for example, a Fund may purchase a forward currency contract to lock in the US dollar price of a security denominated in a foreign currency that the Fund intends to acquire. Forward currency contract transactions also may serve as short hedges; for example, a Fund may sell a forward currency contract to lock in the US dollar equivalent of the proceeds from the anticipated sale of a security or a dividend or interest payment denominated in a foreign currency.

A Fund also may use forward currency contracts in an attempt to hedge against a decline in the value of existing investments denominated in foreign currency. For example, if the Fund owned securities denominated in euros, it could enter into a forward currency contract to sell euros in return for US dollars to hedge against possible declines in the euro's value. Such a hedge, sometimes referred to as a position hedge, would tend to offset both positive and negative currency fluctuations, but would not offset changes in security values caused by other factors. The Fund also could hedge the position by selling another currency expected to perform similarly to the euro. This type of hedge, sometimes referred to as a proxy hedge, could offer advantages in terms of cost, yield or efficiency, but generally would not hedge currency exposure as effectively as a simple hedge into US dollars. Proxy hedges may result in losses if the currency used to hedge does not perform similarly to the currency in which the hedged securities are denominated.

A Fund also may use forward currency contracts in an attempt to enhance income or yield. The Fund could use forward currency contracts to increase its exposure to foreign currencies that the Manager believes might rise in value relative to the US dollar, or shift its exposure to foreign currency fluctuations from one country to another. For example, if the Fund owned securities denominated in a foreign currency and the Manager believed that currency would decline relative to another currency, it might enter into a forward currency contract to sell an appropriate amount of the first foreign currency, with payment to be made in the second foreign currency. This is accomplished through contractual agreements to purchase or sell a specified currency at a specified future date and price set at the time of the contract.

Forward currency contracts are currently individually negotiated and privately traded by currency traders and their customers. These forward currency contracts may involve the sale of US dollars and the purchase of a foreign currency, or may be foreign cross-currency contracts involving the sale of one foreign currency and the purchase of another foreign currency; such foreign cross-currency contracts may be considered a hedging rather than a speculative strategy if the Fund's commitment to purchase the new (more favorable) currency is limited to the market value of the Fund's securities denominated in the old (less favorable) currency. The prediction of currency movements is extremely difficult and the successful execution of a speculative strategy is highly uncertain.

The cost to a Fund of engaging in forward currency contracts varies with factors such as the currency involved, the length of the contract period and the market conditions then prevailing.

As is the case with futures contracts, purchasers and sellers of forward currency contracts can enter into offsetting closing transactions by selling or purchasing, respectively, an instrument identical to the instrument purchased or sold. Currently, secondary markets generally do not exist for forward currency contracts. Closing transactions generally can be made for forward currency contracts by negotiating directly with the counterparty or by entering an offsetting transaction with a second counterparty. There can be no assurance that a Fund will be able to close out a forward currency contract at a favorable price prior to maturity and, in such cases, the Fund would continue to be subject to market currency risk with respect to the position, and may continue to be required to maintain a position in securities denominated in the foreign currency or to maintain cash or liquid assets in an account. In addition, in the event of insolvency of the counterparty, the Fund might be unable to promptly terminate the position held with such counterparty and might incur a significant delay in recovering any amounts owed to the Fund. Even if the Fund entered an offsetting transaction with a second counterparty, the Fund would continue to be subject to settlement risk relating to the transaction with the insolvent counterparty.

The precise matching of forward currency contract amounts and the value of the securities involved generally will not be possible because the value of such securities, measured in the foreign currency, will change after the forward currency contract has been established. Thus, a Fund might need to purchase or sell foreign currencies in the spot (cash) market to the extent such foreign currencies are not covered by forward currency contracts. The projection of short-term currency market movements is extremely difficult, and the successful execution of a short-term hedging strategy is highly uncertain.

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Normally, consideration of the prospect for currency parities will be incorporated into the longer-term investment decisions made with regard to overall diversification strategies. However, the Manager believes that it is important to have the flexibility to enter into such forward currency contracts when it determines that the best interests of a Fund will be served.

Successful use of forward currency contracts depends on the skill of the Manager in analyzing and predicting currency values. Forward currency contracts may substantially change a Fund's exposure to changes in currency exchange rates and could result in losses to the Fund if currencies do not perform as the Manager anticipates. There is no assurance that the Manager's use of forward currency contracts will be advantageous to a Fund or that the Manager will hedge at an appropriate time.

Forward currency contracts in which a Fund may engage include deliverable foreign exchange forwards. A deliverable foreign exchange forward contract provides for the actual exchange of the principal amounts of the two currencies in the contract (i.e., settlement on a physical basis). Foreign exchange forwards typically are traded in the interbank market directly between currency traders (usually large commercial banks) and their customers. Foreign exchange dealers realize a profit based on the difference (the spread) between the prices at which they are buying and the prices at which they are selling various currencies. A Fund also may be required to pay certain commissions. When a Fund enters into a deliverable foreign exchange forward, it relies on the counterparty to make or take delivery of the underlying currency at the maturity of the contract. Failure by the counterparty to do so would result in the loss of any expected benefit of the transaction.

A Fund may be required to obtain the currency that it must deliver under the foreign exchange forward through the sale of portfolio securities denominated in such currency or through conversion of other assets of the Fund into such currency.

A Fund also may enter into forward currency contracts that do not provide for physical settlement of the two currencies (each, a Reference Currency), but instead provide for settlement by a single cash payment calculated as the difference between the agreed-upon exchange rate and the prevailing market exchange rate at settlement based upon an agreed- upon notional amount (non-deliverable forwards, or NDFs). NDFs have a fixing date and a settlement (delivery) date. The fixing date is the date and time at which the difference between the prevailing market exchange rate and the agreed upon exchange rate is calculated. The settlement (delivery) date is the date by which the payment of the Settlement Amount is due to the party receiving payment.

NDFs typically may have terms from one month up to two years and are settled in US dollars.

NDFs are subject to many of the risks associated with derivatives in general and forward currency transactions, including risks associated with fluctuations in foreign currency and the risk that the counterparty will fail to fulfill its obligations. Under definitions adopted by the CFTC and SEC, NDFs are considered swaps, and therefore are included in the definition of “commodity interests.” In contrast, forward currency contracts that qualify as deliverable forwards are not regulated as swaps for most purposes, and are not included in the definition of “commodity interests.” However, these forwards are subject to some requirements applicable to swaps, including reporting to swap data repositories, documentation requirements, and business conduct rules applicable to swap dealers. CFTC regulation of forward currency contracts, especially NDFs, may restrict the Fund's ability to use these instruments in the manner described above.

Although NDFs historically have been traded OTC, as swaps they may in the future be required to be centrally cleared and traded on public facilities. Under such circumstances, they would be centrally cleared and a secondary market for them normally would exist. With respect to NDFs that are centrally-cleared, an investor could lose margin payments it has deposited with the clearing organization as well as the net amount of gains not yet paid by the clearing organization if the clearing organization breaches its obligations under the NDF, becomes insolvent or goes into bankruptcy. In the event of bankruptcy of the clearing organization, the investor may be entitled to the net amount of gains the investor is entitled to receive plus the return of margin owed to it only in proportion to the amount received by the clearing organization's other customers, potentially resulting in losses to the investor. Even if some NDFs remain traded OTC, they will be subject to margin requirements for uncleared swaps and counterparty risk common to other swaps.

Speculative Position Limits. The CFTC and various exchanges have established limits referred to as “speculative position limits” or “accountability levels” on the maximum net long or short futures positions that any person or group of persons under common trading control (other than a hedger, which the Funds are not) may hold, own or control in a particular futures contract or option on a futures contract. Trading limits also are imposed on the maximum number of contracts that any person may trade on a particular trading day. An exchange may order the liquidation of positions found to be in violation of these limits and it may impose other sanctions or restrictions. Among the purposes of speculative position limits is to prevent a corner or squeeze on a market or undue influence on prices by any single trader or group of traders. The current federal speculative position limits established by the CFTC apply to certain agricultural commodity positions, such as grains (oats, corn, and wheat), the soybeans complex (soybeans, soybean oil and soybean meal) and cotton.

Recent regulations have changed the requirements related to the use of certain derivatives. Some of these new regulations have limited the availability of certain derivatives and made their use by funds more costly. Constraints on the ability of the Manager to use derivatives to gain access to markets, participate in investment opportunities or risk-manage a Fund's assets could have an adverse impact on a Fund. The regulation of derivatives is a rapidly changing area of law and the impact of these new regulations are not certain at this time.

Combined Positions. A Fund may purchase and write options in combination with each other, or in combination with futures contracts or forward contracts, to adjust the risk and return characteristics of its overall position. A combined position usually will contain elements of risk that are present in each of its component transactions. For example, the Fund may purchase a put option and write a call option on the same underlying instrument in order to construct a combined position whose risk and return characteristics are similar to selling a futures contract. The Fund also may write a put option and purchase a call option on the same underlying instrument in order to construct a combined position whose risk and return characteristics are similar to holding the underlying

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Investment Strategies and Risks

instrument. Because combined options positions involve multiple trades, they may result in higher transaction costs, may be more difficult to open and close out and may perform in unanticipated ways. Because combined positions, like other Financial Instruments may require cash outlays that are only a small portion of the amount of exposure obtained through the combined positions, a Fund's investment exposure gained through these combined positions could exceed its net assets.

Turnover. A Fund's options and futures contracts activities may affect its turnover rate and brokerage commission payments. The exercise of calls or puts written by a Fund, and the sale or purchase of futures contracts, may cause it to sell or purchase related investments, thus increasing its turnover rate. Once a Fund has received an exercise notice on an option it has written, it cannot effect a closing transaction in order to terminate its obligation under the option and must deliver or receive the underlying securities at the exercise price. The exercise of puts purchased by a Fund also may cause the sale of related investments, also increasing turnover; although such exercise is within the Fund's control, holding a protective put might cause it to sell the related investments for reasons that would not exist in the absence of the put. A Fund pays a brokerage commission each time it buys or sells a put or call or purchases or sells a futures contract. Such commissions could be higher than those that would apply to direct purchases or sales.

Swaps, Caps, Floors and Collars. Each Fund may enter into swaps, including caps, floors and collars, for any legal purpose consistent with its investment objective(s) and policies, including to attempt: to obtain or preserve a particular return or a spread on a particular investment or portion of its portfolio; to protect against an increase in the price of securities the Fund anticipates purchasing at a later date; to protect against currency fluctuations; to use as a duration management technique; to enhance income or capital gains; to protect against a decline in the price of securities the Fund currently owns; or to gain exposure to certain markets in an economical way.

A swap is an agreement involving the exchange by a Fund with another party of their respective commitments to pay or receive payments at specified dates based upon or calculated by reference to changes in specified prices or rates (e.g., interest rates in the case of interest rate swaps) based on a specified amount (the “notional” amount). Examples of swap agreements include, but are not limited to, equity, commodity, index or other total return swaps, foreign currency swaps, credit default swaps and interest rate swaps.

The Dodd-Frank Act and related regulatory developments have imposed comprehensive new regulatory requirements on swaps and swap market participants. The regulatory framework includes: (1) registration and regulation of swap dealers and major swap participants; (2) requiring central clearing and execution of standardized swaps; (3) imposing margin requirements on swap transactions; (4) regulating and monitoring swap transactions through position limits and large trader reporting requirements; and (5) imposing record keeping and centralized and public reporting requirements, on an anonymous basis, for most swaps. The CFTC is responsible for the regulation of most swaps. The SEC has jurisdiction over a small segment of the market referred to as “security-based swaps,” which includes swaps on single securities or credits, or narrow-based indices of securities or credits.

A swap agreement may be negotiated bilaterally and traded OTC between the two parties (for an uncleared swap) or, in some instances, must be transacted through an FCM and cleared through a clearinghouse that serves as a central counterparty (for a cleared swap). Certain standardized swaps currently are, and more in the future are expected to be, subject to mandatory central clearing and exchange-trading. The Dodd-Frank Act and implementing rules will ultimately require the clearing and exchange- trading of many swaps. Mandatory exchange-trading and clearing will occur on a phased-in basis based on the type of market participant, CFTC approval of contracts for central clearing and public trading facilities making such cleared swaps available to trade. To date, the CFTC has designated only certain of the most common types of credit default index swaps and interest rate swaps as subject to mandatory clearing and certain public trading facilities have made certain of those cleared swaps available to trade, but it is expected that additional categories of swaps will in the future be designated as subject to mandatory clearing and trade execution requirements. Central clearing is intended to reduce counterparty credit risk and increase liquidity, but central clearing does not eliminate these risks and may involve additional costs and risks not involved with uncleared swaps.

In an uncleared swap, the swap counterparty typically is a brokerage firm, bank or other financial institution. During the term of an uncleared swap, a Fund will be required to pledge to the swap counterparty, from time to time, an amount of cash and/or other assets equal to the total net amount (if any) that would be payable by the Fund to the counterparty if all outstanding swaps between the parties were terminated on the date in question, including any early termination payments. Likewise, the counterparty will be required to pledge cash or other assets to cover its obligations to the Fund. However, the amount pledged may not always be equal to or more than the amount due to the other party. Therefore, if a counterparty defaults in its obligations to a Fund, the amount pledged by the counterparty and available to the Fund may not be sufficient to cover all the amounts due to the Fund and the Fund may sustain a loss.

In a cleared swap, a Fund's ultimate counterparty is a central clearinghouse rather than a brokerage firm, bank or other financial institution. Cleared swaps are submitted for clearing through each party's FCM, which must be a member of the clearinghouse that serves as the central counterparty. Transactions executed on a swap execution facility (SEF) may increase market transparency and liquidity but may require the Fund to incur increased expenses to access the same types of swaps that it has used in the past. When a Fund enters into a cleared swap, it must deliver to the central counterparty (via the FCM) an amount referred to as “initial margin.” Initial margin requirements are determined by the central counterparty, and are typically calculated as an amount equal to the volatility in market value of the cleared swap over a fixed period, but an FCM may require additional initial margin above the amount required by the central counterparty. During the term of the swap agreement, a “variation margin” amount also may be required to be paid by a Fund or may be received by a Fund in accordance with margin controls set for such accounts.

Swap agreements can be structured to provide exposure to a variety of different types of investments or market factors. For example, in an interest rate swap, fixed-rate payments may be exchanged for floating rate payments; in a currency swap, US dollar-denominated payments may be exchanged for

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payments denominated in a foreign currency; and in a total return swap, payments tied to the investment return on a particular asset, group of assets or index may be exchanged for payments that are effectively equivalent to interest payments or for payments tied to the return on another asset, group of assets or index.

Caps, floors and collars have an effect similar to buying or writing options; they allow a purchaser to attempt to protect itself against interest rate movements exceeding specified minimum or maximum levels. The purchase of a cap entitles the purchaser to receive payments from the seller on a notional principal amount to the extent that a specified index exceeds a predetermined value. The purchase of a floor entitles the purchaser to receive payments from the seller on a notional principal amount to the extent that a specified index falls below a predetermined value. A collar combines elements of buying a floor and selling a cap.

In a long total return equity swap, a Fund will receive, and, in a short total return swap, a Fund pays, the price appreciation of an equity index, a custom basket of equity securities, or a single equity, plus any dividend or coupon income from such securities, in exchange for payments equivalent to a floating rate of interest, or if the equity swap is for the equivalent of one interest rate period, a fixed fee that is established at the outset of the swap. Floating rate payments are pegged to a base rate, such as the federal funds rate, that is periodically adjusted. Therefore, if interest rates increase over the term of the swap contract, a Fund may be required to pay a higher amount at each swap reset date.

A Fund may enter into credit default swap contracts for hedging or investment purposes. The Fund may either sell or buy credit protection under these contracts. The seller in a credit default swap contract is required to pay the par (or other agreed-upon) value of a referenced debt obligation to the buyer in exchange for an equal face amount of deliverable obligations of the referenced debt obligation (or other agreed-upon debt obligation) described in the swap, or the seller may be required to deliver the related net cash amount, if the swap is cash settled, if there is a credit event by the issuer of that debt obligation. In return, the seller receives from the buyer a periodic stream of payments over the term of the contract or, if earlier, until the occurrence of a credit event. If the contract is terminated prior to its stated maturity, either the seller or the buyer would make a termination payment to the other in an amount approximately equal to the amount by which the value of the contract has increased in value to the recipient of the settlement payment. For example, if the contract is more valuable to the buyer (as would normally occur if the creditworthiness of the issuer of the referenced debt obligation has decreased), the seller would make a termination payment to the buyer. As the seller of credit protection, a Fund would effectively add leverage to the extent the notional amount exceeds the amount of cash the Fund has because, in addition to its total net assets, the Fund would be subject to the investment exposure of the notional amount of the swap. As the buyer, a Fund normally would be hedging its exposure on debt obligations that it holds.

Swap agreements may shift a Fund's investment exposure from one type of investment to another. For example, if the Fund agrees to exchange payments in US dollars for payments in foreign currency, the swap agreement would tend to decrease the Fund's exposure to US interest rates and increase its exposure to foreign currency and interest rates. Most swap agreements provide that, when the periodic payment dates for both parties are the same, payments are netted, and only the net amount is paid to the counterparty entitled to receive the net payment. Consequently, a Fund's current obligations (or rights) under a swap agreement generally will be equal only to the net amount to be paid or received under the agreement, based on the relative values of the positions held by each counterparty.

Because swap agreements may have a leverage component, adverse changes in the value or level of the underlying asset, reference rate or index can result in gains or losses that are substantially greater than the amount invested in the swap itself. Certain swaps have the potential for unlimited loss, regardless of the size of the initial investment. The net amount of the excess, if any, of a Fund's obligations over its entitlements with respect to each swap will be accrued on a daily basis and an amount of cash or liquid assets having an aggregate value at least equal to the accrued excess will be maintained in an account with the Fund's custodian that satisfies the requirements of the 1940 Act. The Fund also will establish and maintain such account with respect to its total obligations under any swaps that are not entered into on a net basis and with respect to any caps or floors that are written by the Fund. The Manager and each Fund believe that such obligations do not constitute senior securities under the 1940 Act and, accordingly, do not treat them as being subject to the Fund's borrowing restrictions.

The use of swap agreements entails certain risks that may be different from, or possibly greater than, the risks associated with investing directly in the referenced assets that underlie the swap agreement. Swaps are highly specialized instruments that require investment techniques and risk analyses different from those associated with stocks, bonds, and other traditional investments.

The use of a swap requires an understanding not only of the referenced asset, referenced rate, or index but also of the swap itself. If the Manager attempts to use a swap as a hedge against, or as a substitute for, a Fund's portfolio investment, the Fund will be exposed to the risk that the swap will have or will develop an imperfect or no correlation with the portfolio investment. This could cause significant losses for the Fund. While hedging strategies involving swap instruments can reduce the risk of loss, they also can reduce the opportunity for gain or even result in losses by offsetting favorable price movements in other Fund investments.

As with other investments, swap agreements are subject to the risk that the market value of the instrument will change in a way detrimental to a Fund's interest. The Fund bears the risk that the Manager will not accurately forecast future market trends or the values of assets, reference rates, indexes, or other economic factors in establishing swap positions for the Fund.

To the extent a swap is not centrally cleared, the use of a swap also involves the risk that a loss may be sustained as a result of the insolvency or bankruptcy of the counterparty or the failure of the counterparty to make required payments or otherwise comply with the terms of the agreement. The creditworthiness of firms with which a Fund enters into swaps, caps, floors or collars will be monitored by the Manager. If a counterparty's creditworthiness declines, the value of the swap might decline, potentially resulting in losses. Changing conditions in a particular market area, whether or not directly related to the referenced

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Investment Strategies and Risks

assets that underlie the swap agreement, may have an adverse impact on the creditworthiness of the counterparty. For example, the counterparty may have experienced losses as a result of its exposure to a sector of the market that adversely affect its creditworthiness. If a default occurs by the other party to such transaction, the Fund may have contractual remedies pursuant to the agreements related to the transaction.

Central clearing is designed to reduce counterparty credit risk and increase liquidity compared to uncleared swaps because central clearing interposes the central clearinghouse as the counterparty to each participant's swap, but it does not eliminate those risks completely and may involve additional costs and risks not involved with uncleared swaps. There also is a risk of loss by a Fund of the initial and variation margin deposits in the event of bankruptcy of an FCM with which the Fund has an open position, or the central counterparty in a swap contract. The assets of a Fund may not be fully protected in the event of the bankruptcy of an FCM or central counterparty because the Fund might be limited to recovering only a pro rata share of all available funds and margin segregated on behalf of an FCM's customers. If an FCM does not provide accurate reporting, a Fund also is subject to the risk that the FCM could use the Fund's assets, which are held in an omnibus account with assets belonging to the FCM's other customers, to satisfy its own financial obligations or the payment obligations of another customer to the central counterparty. Credit risk of cleared swap participants is concentrated in a few clearinghouses, and the consequences of insolvency of a clearinghouse are not clear.

With cleared swaps, a Fund may not be able to obtain terms as favorable as it would be able to negotiate for a bilateral, uncleared swap. In addition, an FCM may unilaterally amend the terms of its agreement with a Fund, which may include the imposition of position limits or additional margin requirements with respect to the Fund's investment in certain types of swaps. Central counterparties and FCMs can require termination of existing cleared swap transactions upon the occurrence of certain events, and also can require increases in margin above the margin that is required at the initiation of the swap agreement.

Finally, a Fund is subject to the risk that, after entering into a cleared swap with an executing broker, no FCM or central counterparty is willing or able to clear the transaction. In such an event, the Fund may be required to break the trade and make an early termination payment to the executing broker.

Payment-In-Kind (PIK) Securities

Subject to its investment policies and restrictions, a Fund (other than the Municipal Funds) may invest in PIK securities. PIK securities are securities that contain provisions that allow an issuer, at its discretion, to make current interest payments either in cash or in the form of additional securities. These instruments may be valued at a deep discount from the face amount. Interest received in the form of additional securities is recorded as interest income. Federal tax law requires the holder of a PIK security to accrue that interest income with respect to the security regardless of the receipt (or non-receipt) of cash payments. Accordingly, although a Fund generally will not receive cash payments on PIK securities, it will have current income attributable to those securities. To avoid liability for federal income and excise taxes, therefore, a Fund may be required to distribute cash in an amount equal to income accrued with respect to those securities and may have to dispose of portfolio securities under disadvantageous circumstances in order to generate cash to make that distribution.

It is possible that by effectively increasing the principal balance payable to a Fund or deferring cash payment of such interest until maturity, the use of PIK features will increase the risk that such amounts will become uncollectible when due and payable. Prices of PIK securities may be more sensitive to changes in the issuer's financial condition, fluctuations in interest rates and market demand/supply imbalances than cash-paying securities with similar credit ratings, and thus may be more speculative than are securities that pay interest periodically in cash. Investments in PIK securities may be illiquid or restricted, which may make it difficult for a Fund to dispose of them or to determine their current value.

Real Estate Investment Trust (REIT) Securities

Subject to its investment policies and restrictions, a Fund (other than the Municipal Funds) may invest in securities issued by REITs. A REIT is a domestic corporation (or a trust or association otherwise taxable as such for federal tax purposes) that meets certain requirements of the Code. The Code permits a qualifying REIT to deduct dividends it pays, thereby effectively eliminating entity-level federal income tax for a REIT that distributes all of its taxable income (including net capital gains) and making the REIT a modified pass-through vehicle for federal income tax purposes. To qualify for treatment as a REIT, a company must, among other things, derive at least 75% of its gross income each taxable year from real estate sources (such as rents from real estate, interest from mortgages on real estate, and gains from sales of real estate assets), and must annually distribute to its shareholders 90% or more of its taxable income (including net capital gains). Moreover, at the end of each quarter of its taxable year, at least 75% of the value of its total assets must be represented by real estate assets, cash and cash items and US government securities.

REITs are sometimes informally characterized as equity REITs, mortgage REITs and hybrid REITs. An equity REIT invests primarily in the fee ownership or leasehold ownership of land and buildings and derives its income primarily from rental income. A mortgage REIT invests primarily in mortgages on real estate, and derives its income primarily from interest payments received on credit it has granted. A hybrid REIT combines the characteristics of equity REITs and mortgage REITs. It is anticipated, although not required, that under normal circumstances, a majority of each Fund's investments in REITs will consist of shares issued by equity REITs.

Repurchase Agreements and Reverse Repurchase Agreements

Each Fund may purchase securities subject to repurchase agreements and reverse repurchase agreements, subject to its restriction on investment in illiquid investments, and subject to its investment policies and restrictions. A repurchase agreement is an instrument under which a Fund purchases a security and the seller (normally a commercial bank or broker-dealer) agrees, at the time of purchase, that it will repurchase the security at a specified time and price. A reverse repurchase agreement is the opposite: the Fund will sell the security with an obligation to repurchase it at an agreed-upon time and price. The

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amount by which the resale price is greater than the purchase price reflects an agreed-upon market interest rate effective for the period of the agreement. The return on the securities subject to the repurchase agreement may be more or less than the return on the repurchase agreement.

The majority of repurchase agreements in which a Fund will engage are overnight transactions, and the delivery pursuant to the resale typically will occur within 1 to 5 days of the purchase. The primary risk from repurchase agreements is that the Fund may suffer a loss if the seller fails to pay the agreed-upon amount on the delivery date and that amount is greater than the resale price of the underlying securities and other collateral held by the Fund. In the event of bankruptcy or other default by the seller, there may be possible delays and expenses in liquidating the underlying securities or other collateral, decline in their value or loss of interest. Additionally, reverse repurchase agreements involve borrowing to take advantage of investment opportunities; such leverage could magnify losses. If the Fund borrows money to purchase securities and those securities decline in value, then the value of the Fund's shares will decline faster than if the Fund were not leveraged. The return on such collateral may be more or less than that from the repurchase agreement. A Fund's repurchase agreements will be structured so as to fully collateralize the loans. In other words, the value of the underlying securities, which will be held by a Fund's custodian bank or by a third party that qualifies as a custodian under Section 17(f) of the 1940 Act, is and, during the entire term of the agreement, will remain at least equal to the value of the loan, including the accrued interest earned thereon. Repurchase agreements are entered into only with those entities approved by the Manager.

Restricted Securities

Subject to its investment policies and restrictions, each Fund may invest in restricted securities. Restricted securities are securities that are subject to legal or contractual restrictions on resale. However, restricted securities generally can be sold in privately negotiated transactions, pursuant to an exemption from registration under the Securities Act of 1933 (1933 Act), or in a registered public offering. For example, a Fund may purchase commercial paper that is issued in reliance on the so-called private placement exemption from registration that is afforded by Section 4(a)(2) of the 1933 Act (Section 4(a)(2) paper). Section 4(a)(2) paper normally is resold to other institutional investors through or with the assistance of investment dealers who make a market in the Section 4(a)(2) paper, thus providing liquidity. Where registration is required, a Fund may be obligated to pay all or part of the registration expense and a considerable period may elapse between the time it decides to seek registration and the time the Fund may be permitted to sell a security under an effective registration statement. If, during such a period, adverse market conditions were to develop, the Fund might obtain a less favorable price than prevailed when it decided to seek registration of the security.

A Fund also may invest in securities that normally are purchased or resold pursuant to Rule 144A under the 1933 Act (Rule 144A securities). Rule 144A is designed to facilitate efficient trading among institutional investors by permitting the sale of certain unregistered securities. Rule 144A securities may be resold only to qualified institutional buyers, provided that certain other conditions for resale are met. To the extent privately placed securities held by a Fund qualify under Rule 144A and an institutional market develops for those securities, a Fund likely will be able to dispose of the securities without registering them under the 1933 Act.

There are risks associated with investments in restricted securities in that there can be no assurance of a ready market for resale. Also, the contractual restrictions on resale might prevent the Fund from reselling the securities at a time when such sale would be desirable. Restricted securities that are traded in foreign markets often are subject to restrictions that prohibit resale to US persons or entities or permit sales only to foreign broker-dealers who agree to limit their resale to such persons or entities. The buyer of such securities must enter into an agreement that, usually for a limited period of time, it will resell such securities subject to such restrictions. Restricted securities in which a Fund seeks to invest need not be listed or admitted to trading on a foreign or US exchange and may be less liquid than listed securities.

Restricted securities that have not been registered generally are referred to as private placements and are purchased directly from the issuer or in the secondary market and usually are not listed on an exchange nor traded in other established markets. Such securities are restricted as to disposition and generally are sold to institutional investors.

Certain of a Fund's investments in private placements may consist of direct investments and may include investments in smaller, less-seasoned issuers, which may involve greater risks than investments in the securities of more established companies. These issuers may have limited product lines, markets or financial resources, or they may be dependent on a limited management group.

As a result of the absence of a public trading market, privately placed securities and other restricted securities may be less liquid and more difficult to value than publicly-traded securities. As relatively few purchasers of these securities may exist, especially in the event of adverse market or economic conditions or adverse changes in the issuer's financial condition, a Fund could have difficulty selling them when the Manager believes it is advisable to do so. To the extent that restricted securities may be resold in privately negotiated transactions, the prices realized from the sales, due to illiquidity, could be less than those originally paid by a Fund or less than the fair market value. In addition, issuers whose securities are not publicly traded may not be subject to the disclosure and other investor protection requirements that may be applicable if the securities were publicly traded. As a result, a Fund may be less able to predict a loss. In making investments in such securities, a Fund may obtain access to material non-public information, which may restrict the Fund's ability to conduct portfolio transactions in such securities. A Fund also may take a minority interest in a privately offered security, which may limit the Fund's ability to protect shareholders' interests in connection with corporate actions by the privately held company. A Fund's Portfolio Manager may serve on the board of directors (or similar governing body) of a privately held company, the securities of which that Fund may hold. While the Manager believes such service will be beneficial to the Fund and its shareholders, the Portfolio Manager's service as a board member also could create a conflict of interest (or an appearance of a conflict of interest) that may impact the Fund. In addition, investments in privately placed securities may include other additional contractual obligations, such as the payment of registration expenses as noted above or the purchase of additional securities.

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Investment Strategies and Risks

Short Sales Against the Box

Subject to its investment policies and restrictions, a Fund may sell securities “short against the box;” provided, however, that the Fund's aggregate short sales prices may not, at the time of any short sale, exceed 10% of its total assets. Whereas a short sale is the sale of a security the Fund does not own, a short sale is “against the box” if, at all times during which the short position is open, the Fund owns at least an equal amount of the securities sold short or other securities convertible into or exchangeable without further consideration for securities of the same issue as the securities sold short. Short sales against the box typically are used by sophisticated investors to defer recognition of capital gains or losses. None of the Funds has any present intention to sell securities short in this fashion.

Special Purpose Acquisition Companies

A Fund may invest in stock, warrants, and other securities of special purpose acquisition companies (SPACs) or similar special purpose entities that pool funds to seek potential acquisition opportunities. A SPAC is typically a publicly traded company that raises funds through an initial public offering (IPO) for the purpose of acquiring or merging with another company to be identified subsequent to the SPAC's IPO. The securities of a SPAC are often issued in “units” that include one share of common stock and one right or warrant (or partial right or warrant) conveying the right to purchase additional shares or partial shares. Generally, unless and until a transaction is completed, a SPAC will invest its assets (minus a portion used to cover expenses) in U.S. government securities, money market funds and similar investments. If an acquisition or merger that meets the requirements for the SPAC is not completed within a pre-established period of time (e.g., two years), the invested funds are returned to the SPAC's shareholders, minus certain permitted expenses. In that case, the rights or warrants issued by the SPAC will expire worthless.

Because SPACs and similar entities are in essence blank check companies that have no operating history or ongoing business other than seeking acquisitions, the value of their securities is particularly dependent on the ability of the entity's management to identify and complete a profitable acquisition. As a result, the values of investments in SPACs may be highly volatile and may depreciate significantly over time, and an acquisition or merger, once effected, may prove unsuccessful and an investment in the SPAC may lose value. Moreover, an investment in a SPAC is subject to a variety of additional risks, including the following:

(i) a portion of the monies raised by the SPAC for the purpose of effecting an acquisition or merger may be expended prior to the transaction for payment of taxes and other expenses;

(ii) prior to any acquisition or merger, a SPAC's assets are typically invested in U.S. government securities, money market funds and similar investments whose returns or yields may be significantly lower than those of a Fund's other investments;

(iii) a Fund generally will not receive significant income from its investments in SPACs (both prior to and after any acquisition or merger) and, therefore, the Fund's investments in SPACs will not significantly contribute to the Fund's distributions to shareholders;

(iv) attractive acquisition or merger targets may become scarce if the number of SPACs seeking to acquire operating businesses increases;

(v) an attractive acquisition or merger target may not be identified at all, in which case the SPAC will be required to return any remaining monies to shareholders;

(vi) if an acquisition or merger target is identified, a Fund may elect not to participate in, or vote to approve, the proposed transaction or the Fund may be required to divest its interests in the SPAC, due to regulatory or other considerations, in which case the Fund may not reap any resulting benefits;

(vii) the warrants or other rights with respect to the SPAC held by a Fund may expire worthless or may be redeemed by the SPAC at an unfavorable price;

(viii) any proposed merger or acquisition may be unable to obtain the requisite approval, if any, of SPAC shareholders and/or antitrust and securities regulators;

(ix) under any circumstances in which a Fund receives a refund of all or a portion of its original investment (which typically represents a pro rata share of the proceeds of the SPAC's assets, less any applicable taxes), the returns on that investment may be negligible, and the Fund may be subject to opportunity costs to the extent that alternative investments would have produced higher returns;

(x) to the extent an acquisition or merger is announced or completed, shareholders who redeem their shares prior to that time may not reap any resulting benefits;

(xi) a Fund may be delayed in receiving any redemption or liquidation proceeds from a SPAC to which it is entitled;

(xii) an investment in a SPAC may be diluted by additional later offerings of interests in the SPAC or by other investors exercising existing rights to purchase shares of the SPAC; and

(xiii) only a thinly traded market for shares of or interests in a SPAC may develop, or there may be no market at all, leaving a Fund unable to sell its interest in a SPAC or to sell its interest only at a price below what the Fund believes is the SPAC interest's intrinsic value.

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US Government Securities

US government securities are securities issued or guaranteed as to principal or interest by the US, or by a person controlled or supervised by and acting as an instrumentality of the US government. These securities include Treasury Bills (which mature within one year of the date they are issued), Treasury Notes (which have maturities of one to ten years) and Treasury Bonds (which generally have maturities of more than ten years). All such Treasury securities are backed by the full faith and credit of the United States.

Certain securities issued or guaranteed by US government agencies or instrumentalities are backed by the full faith and credit of the US government, such as securities issued by the Export-Import Bank of the United States, Farm Credit System Financial Assistance Corporation, Farmers Home Administration, Federal Housing Administration, General Services Administration, Ginnie Mae, Maritime Administration or Small Business Administration.

Other securities issued or guaranteed by US government agencies or instrumentalities are not backed by the full faith and credit of the US government. For example, some securities are supported by the right of the agency or instrumentality to borrow from the Treasury, such as securities issued by the FHLB, Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac, and other securities are supported only by the credit of the agency or instrumentality, such as securities issued by the Federal Farm Credit Banks Funding Corporation or Tennessee Valley Authority.

If the securities issued or guaranteed by a US government agency or instrumentality are not backed by the full faith and credit of the US government, there can be no assurance that the US government would provide financial support to the agency or instrumentality. A Fund will invest in securities of agencies and instrumentalities only if the Manager is satisfied that the credit risk involved is acceptable.

US government securities may include mortgage-backed securities issued or guaranteed as to the payment of principal and interest by US government agencies or instrumentalities, including, but not limited to, Ginnie Mae, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. These mortgage-backed securities include pass-through securities, participation certificates and collateralized mortgage obligations. See Mortgage-Backed and Asset-Backed Securities. Timely payment of principal and interest on Ginnie Mae pass-throughs is guaranteed by the full faith and credit of the United States. Both Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac are instrumentalities of the US government, but their obligations are not backed by the full faith and credit of the United States. It is possible that the availability and the marketability (that is, liquidity) of the securities discussed in this section could be adversely affected by actions of the US government to tighten the availability of its credit.

Variable or Floating Rate Instruments

Variable or floating rate instruments (including notes purchased directly from issuers) bear variable or floating interest rates and may carry rights that permit holders to demand payment of the unpaid principal balance plus accrued interest from the issuers or certain financial intermediaries on dates prior to their stated maturities. Floating rate securities have interest rates that change whenever there is a change in a designated base rate while variable rate instruments provide for a specified periodic adjustment in the interest rate. These formulas are designed to result in a market value for the instrument that approximates its par value.

Warrants and Rights

Subject to its investment policies and restrictions, each Fund may invest in warrants and rights. Warrants are options to purchase equity securities at specified prices for a specific period of time. Their prices do not necessarily move parallel to the prices of the underlying securities. Rights are similar to warrants but normally have a short duration and are distributed directly by the issuer to its shareholders. Rights and warrants have no voting rights, receive no dividends, and have no rights with respect to the assets of the issuer. Warrants and rights are highly volatile and, therefore, more susceptible to sharp declines in value than the underlying security might be. They also generally are less liquid than an investment in the underlying securities.

When-Issued and Delayed-Delivery Transactions

Subject to its investment policies and restrictions, a Fund may purchase securities in which it may invest on a when-issued or delayed-delivery basis or sell them on a delayed-delivery basis. In either case payment and delivery for the securities take place at a future date. The securities so purchased or sold are subject to market fluctuation; their value may be less or more when delivered than the purchase price paid or received. When purchasing securities on a when issued or delayed-delivery basis, a Fund assumes the rights and risks of ownership, including the risk of price and yield fluctuations. No interest accrues to the Fund until delivery and payment is completed. When a Fund makes a commitment to purchase securities on a when-issued or delayed-delivery basis, it will record the transaction and thereafter reflect the value of the securities in determining its NAV per share. When a Fund sells securities on a delayed-delivery basis, the Fund does not participate in further gains or losses with respect to the securities. When a Fund makes a commitment to sell securities on a delayed-delivery basis, it will record the transaction and thereafter value the securities at the sale price in determining its NAV per share. If the other party to a delayed-delivery transaction fails to deliver or pay for the securities, the Fund could miss a favorable price or yield opportunity, or could suffer a loss.

The use of when-issued transactions and forward commitments enables a Fund to seek to hedge against anticipated changes in interest rates and prices. For instance, in periods of rising interest rates and falling prices, a Fund might sell securities in its portfolio on a forward commitment basis to limit its exposure to falling prices. In periods of falling interest rates and rising prices, a Fund might sell a security in its portfolio and purchase the same or a similar security on a when- issued or forward commitment basis, thereby fixing the purchase price to be paid on the settlement date at an amount below that to which the Fund anticipates the market price of such security to rise and, in the meantime, obtaining the benefit of investing the proceeds of the sale of its portfolio security at currently higher cash yields. Of course, the success of this strategy depends upon the ability of the Manager to correctly anticipate increases and decreases

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Investment Strategies and Risks

in interest rates and prices of securities. If the Manager anticipates a rise in interest rates and a decline in prices and, accordingly, a Fund sells securities on a forward commitment basis in an attempt to hedge against falling prices, but in fact interest rates decline and prices rise, the Fund will have lost the opportunity to profit from the price increase. If the Manager anticipates a decline in interest rates and a rise in prices, and, accordingly, a Fund sells a security in its portfolio and purchases the same or a similar security on a when-issued or forward commitment basis in an attempt to enjoy currently high cash yields, but in fact interest rates increase and prices fall, the Fund will have lost the opportunity to profit from investment of the proceeds of the sale of the security at the increased interest rates. The likely effect of this hedging strategy, whether the Manager is correct or incorrect in its prediction of interest rate and price movements, is to reduce the chances of large capital gains or losses and thereby reduce the likelihood of wide variations in a Fund's NAV.

When-issued securities and forward commitments may be sold prior to the settlement date, but a Fund enters into when- issued and forward commitments only with the intention of actually receiving or delivering the securities, as the case may be. Each Fund may hold a when-issued security or forward commitment until the settlement date, even if the Fund will incur a loss upon settlement. In accordance with regulatory requirements, a Fund's custodian bank maintains, in a separate account of the Fund, liquid assets, such as cash, short-term securities and other liquid securities (marked to the market daily), having a value equal to, or greater than, any commitments to purchase securities on a when-issued or forward commitment basis and, with respect to forward commitments to sell portfolio securities of the Fund, the portfolio securities themselves. If a Fund, however, chooses to dispose of the right to acquire a when-issued security prior to its acquisition or dispose of its right to deliver or receive against a forward commitment, it can incur a gain or loss.

The purchase of securities on a when-issued or forward commitment basis exposes the Fund to risk because the securities may decrease in value prior to their delivery. Purchasing securities on a when-issued or forward commitment basis involves the additional risk that the return available in the market when the delivery takes place will be higher than that obtained in the transaction itself. A Fund's purchase of securities on a when-issued or forward commitment basis while remaining substantially fully invested could result in increased volatility of the price of the Fund's shares.

Zero Coupon Securities

Zero coupon securities are debt obligations that do not entitle the holder to any periodic payment of interest prior to maturity or do not specify a future date when the securities begin to pay current interest; instead, they are sold at a deep discount from their face value (that is, with original issue discount (OID)) and are redeemed at face value when they mature. Because zero coupon securities do not pay current income, their prices can be very volatile when interest rates change and generally are subject to greater price fluctuations in response to changing interest rates than prices of comparable debt obligations that make current distributions of interest in cash. Subject to its investment policies and restrictions, a Fund may invest in zero coupon securities that are stripped Treasury notes or bonds, zero coupon bonds of corporate or municipal issuers and other securities that are issued with OID. The federal tax law requires that a holder of a security with OID accrue as income (take into account, in the case of OID on a tax-exempt security (i.e., a security the interest on which is not subject to federal income tax)) each taxable year a ratable portion of the OID on the security, even though the holder may receive no interest payment on the security during the year. Accordingly, although a Fund generally will receive no payments on its zero coupon securities prior to their maturity or disposition, it will have current taxable or tax-exempt income attributable to those securities. To avoid liability for federal income and excise taxes, therefore, a Fund will be required to distribute cash in an amount equal to income accrued with respect to those securities and may have to dispose of portfolio securities under disadvantageous circumstances in order to generate cash to make that distribution.

A broker-dealer creates a derivative zero coupon security by separating the interest and principal components of a Treasury security and selling them as two individual securities. CATS (Certificates of Accrual on Treasury Securities), TIGRs (Treasury Investment Growth Receipts), and TRs (Treasury Receipts) are examples of derivative zeros.

The Federal Reserve Bank creates Separate Trading of Registered Interest and Principal of Securities (STRIPS) by separating the interest and principal components of an outstanding Treasury security and selling them as individual securities. Bonds issued by the Resolution Funding Corporation and the Financing Corporation also can be separated in this fashion. Original issue zeros are zero coupon securities originally issued by the US government, a government agency, or a corporation in zero coupon form.

Short-Term Debt Instruments and Temporary Investments

Each Fund may invest in money market securities (the types of which are discussed below) for liquidity and cash management purposes or if the Manager determines that securities meeting a Fund's investment objective and policies are not otherwise readily available for purchase. For temporary defensive purposes during periods when the Manager determines that conditions warrant, a Fund may increase this percentage up to 100%. For purposes of these policies, money market securities include (i) short-term US government securities, including custodial receipts evidencing separately traded interest and principal components of securities issued by the US Treasury; (ii) commercial paper rated in the highest short-term rating category by a NRSRO, such as S&P or Moody's, or determined by the Manager to be of comparable quality at the time of purchase; (iii) short-term bank obligations (certificates of deposit, time deposits, and bankers' acceptances) of US domestic banks, foreign banks and foreign branches of domestic banks, and commercial banks with assets of at least $1 billion as of the end of their most recent fiscal year; and (iv) repurchase agreements involving such securities. Each of these types of money market securities is discussed in more detail in this SAI.

US Government Securities. Examples of types of US government obligations in which a Fund may invest include US Treasury obligations and the obligations of US government agencies such as Federal Home Loan Banks, Federal Farm Credit Banks, Federal Land Banks, the Federal Housing Administration, Farmers Home Administration, Export-Import Bank of the US, Small Business Administration, Fannie Mae, Ginnie Mae, General Services

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Administration, Student Loan Marketing Association, Central Bank for Cooperatives, Freddie Mac, Federal Intermediate Credit Banks, Maritime Administration, and other similar agencies. Whether backed by the full faith and credit of the US Treasury or not, US government securities are not guaranteed against price movements due to fluctuating interest rates.

US Treasury Obligations. US Treasury obligations consist of bills, notes, and bonds issued by the US Treasury and separately traded interest and principal component parts of such obligations that are transferable through the federal book-entry system known as Separate Trading of Registered Interest and Principal of Securities (“STRIPS”) and Treasury Receipts (“TRs”).

 

Receipts. Interests in separately traded interest and principal component parts of US government obligations that are issued by banks or brokerage firms and are created by depositing US government obligations into a special account at a custodian bank. The custodian holds the interest and principal payments for the benefit of the registered owners of the certificates or receipts. The custodian arranges for the issuance of the certificates or receipts evidencing ownership and maintains the register. TRs and STRIPS are interests in accounts sponsored by the US Treasury. Receipts are sold as zero coupon securities.

 

US Government Zero Coupon Securities. STRIPS and receipts are sold as zero coupon securities, that is, fixed income securities that have been stripped of their unmatured interest coupons. Zero coupon securities are sold at a (usually substantial) discount and redeemed at face value at their maturity date without interim cash payments of interest or principal. The amount of this discount is accreted over the life of the security, and the accretion constitutes the income earned on the security for both accounting and tax purposes. Because of these features, the market prices of zero coupon securities are generally more volatile than the market prices of securities that have similar maturity but that pay interest periodically. Zero coupon securities are likely to respond to a greater degree to interest rate changes than are non-zero coupon securities with similar maturity and credit qualities.

 

US Government Agencies. Some obligations issued or guaranteed by agencies of the US government are supported by the full faith and credit of the US Treasury, others are supported by the right of the issuer to borrow from the Treasury, while still others are supported only by the credit of the instrumentality. Guarantees of principal by agencies or instrumentalities of the US government may be a guarantee of payment at the maturity of the obligation so that in the event of a default prior to maturity there might not be a market and thus no means of realizing on the obligation prior to maturity. Guarantees as to the timely payment of principal and interest do not extend to the value or yield of these securities or to the value of a Fund's shares.

 

Commercial Paper. Commercial paper is the term used to designate unsecured short-term promissory notes issued by corporations and other entities. Maturities on these issues vary from a few to 270 days. A Fund may invest in short-term promissory notes issued by corporations that, at the time of purchase, are rated P-1 and/or A-1. Commercial paper ratings P-1 by Moody's and A-1 by S&P are the highest investment grade category.

Obligations of Domestic Banks, Foreign Banks and Foreign Branches of US Banks. A Fund may invest in obligations issued by banks and other savings institutions. Investments in bank obligations include obligations of domestic branches of foreign banks and foreign branches of domestic banks. Such investments in domestic branches of foreign banks and foreign branches of domestic banks are not covered by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”) and may involve risks that are different from investments in securities of domestic branches of US banks. These risks may include future unfavorable political and economic developments, possible withholding taxes on interest income, seizure or nationalization of foreign deposits, currency controls, interest limitations, or other governmental restrictions that might affect the payment of principal or interest on the securities held by a Fund. Additionally, these institutions may be subject to less stringent reserve requirements and to different accounting, auditing, reporting, and recordkeeping requirements than those applicable to domestic branches of US banks. Bank obligations include the following:

Bankers' Acceptances. Bankers' acceptances are bills of exchange or time drafts drawn on, and accepted by, a commercial bank. Corporations use bankers' acceptances to finance the shipment and storage of goods and to furnish dollar exchange. Maturities are generally six months or less.

 

Certificates of Deposit. Certificates of deposit are interest-bearing instruments with a specific maturity. They are issued by banks and savings and loan institutions in exchange for the deposit of funds and normally can be traded in the secondary market prior to maturity. Unless they can be traded on a secondary market, certificates of deposit with penalties for early withdrawal may be considered illiquid.

 

Time Deposits. Time deposits are nonnegotiable receipts issued by a bank in exchange for the deposit of funds. Like a certificate of deposit, they earn a specified rate of interest over a definite period of time; however, they cannot be traded in the secondary market. Time deposits with a withdrawal penalty or that mature in more than seven calendar days may be considered to be illiquid investments.

 

Subject to its investment policies and restrictions, a Fund may utilize derivatives instruments, including, but not limited to, futures contracts, options and other types of derivatives instruments, for defensive purposes.

Delaware Ivy Managed International Opportunities Fund

Delaware Ivy Managed International Opportunities Fund is a fund of funds; it invests primarily in a combination of underlying Delaware Funds, as described in the Prospectus.

Other Direct Investments of Delaware Ivy Managed International Opportunities Fund

Delaware Ivy Managed International Opportunities Fund may invest directly in securities issued or guaranteed by the US government or any of its agencies or instrumentalities (US government securities), commercial paper and other short- term corporate obligations, other money market instruments, including repurchase agreements, and any other security, as that term is defined in the 1940 Act. Under normal circumstances, Delaware Ivy Managed International Opportunities Fund anticipates investments in these securities and instruments to be minimal.

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Delaware Ivy Managed International Opportunities Fund also may purchase shares of any investment company registered under the 1940 Act that is not affiliated with the Ivy Funds (an “unaffiliated fund”), provided that, immediately after such purchase, Delaware Ivy Managed International Opportunities Fund does not own more than 3% of the total outstanding stock of such unaffiliated fund. Delaware Ivy Managed International Opportunities Fund anticipates that investments in unaffiliated funds will be minimal, if any.

Delaware Ivy Municipal Bond Fund and Delaware Ivy Municipal High Income Fund (each, a Municipal Fund)

Municipal Bonds. Municipal bonds are issued by a wide range of state and local governments, agencies and authorities for various public purposes. The two main kinds of municipal bonds are general obligation bonds and revenue bonds. For general obligation bonds, the issuer has pledged its full faith, credit and taxing power for the payment of principal and interest. Revenue bonds are payable only from specific sources; these may include revenues from a particular facility or class of facilities or special tax or other revenue source.

State and local government authorities and agencies may issue a special type of municipal bond called private activity bonds (PABs). Each Municipal Fund may purchase a PAB only if the interest on it is exempt from federal income taxation, although such interest may be an item of tax preference for purposes of the federal alternative minimum tax (AMT). In general, PABs are revenue bonds and are issued by or on behalf of public authorities to obtain funds to finance privately operated facilities such as for energy and pollution control. PABs also are used to finance public facilities such as airports and mass transit systems. The credit quality of PABs usually is directly related to the credit standing of the user of the facilities being financed. Each Municipal Fund may invest an unlimited percentage of its assets in municipal bonds that are PABs.

Municipal leases and participation interests therein are another type of municipal bond (collectively, lease obligations). These obligations, which may take the form of a lease, an installment purchase, or a conditional sale contract, are issued by state and local governments and authorities to acquire land and a variety of equipment and facilities. The factors to be considered in determining whether or not any rated municipal lease obligations are liquid include the following: (1) the frequency of trades and quotes for the obligations, (2) the number of dealers willing to purchase or sell the security and the number of other potential buyers, (3) the willingness of dealers to undertake to make a market in the securities, (4) the nature of marketplace trades, including the time needed to dispose of the security, the method of soliciting offers and the mechanics of transfer, (5) the likelihood that the marketability of the obligation will be maintained through the time the instrument is held, (6) the credit quality of the issuer and the lessee, and (7) the essentiality to the lessee of the property covered by the lease. Unrated municipal lease obligations are considered illiquid.

Neither Municipal Fund has held, or intends to hold, municipal lease obligations directly as a lessor of the property, but each Municipal Fund may from time to time purchase a participation interest in a municipal lease obligation from a bank or other third party. A participation interest gives a Municipal Fund a specified, undivided interest in the municipal lease obligation in proportion to its purchased interest in the total amount of the obligation. Municipal leases frequently have risks distinct from those associated with general obligation or revenue bonds. State constitutions and statutes set forth requirements that states or municipalities must meet to incur debt, including voter referenda, interest rate limits or public sale requirements. Leases, installment purchases or conditional sale contracts have evolved as means for governmental issuers to acquire property and equipment without being required to meet these constitutional and statutory requirements. Many leases and contracts include non-appropriation clauses providing that the governmental issuer has no obligation to make future payments under the lease or contract unless money is appropriated for such purpose by the legislative body on a yearly or other periodic basis. Non-appropriation clauses free the issuer from debt issuance restrictions. In determining the liquidity of a municipal lease obligation, the Manager will differentiate between direct interests in municipal leases and municipal lease-backed securities, the latter of which may take the form of a lease-purchase agreement as its base. See Asset-Backed Securities. While the former may present liquidity issues, the latter are based on a well-established method of securing payment of a municipal lease obligation.

The Municipal Funds also may invest in municipal notes, which include tax anticipation notes (TANs), revenue anticipation notes (RANs), and bond anticipation notes (BANs). TANs are issued to finance working capital needs of municipalities.

Generally, TANs are issued in anticipation of future seasonal tax revenues, such as from income, sales, use and business taxes and are payable from these future revenues. RANs are issued in expectation of receipt of non-tax revenue, such as that available under federal revenue-sharing programs. BANs are issued to provide interim financing until long-term bond financing can be arranged. In most cases, the long-term bonds provide the funds for the repayment of the BANs.

The Manager and the Municipal Funds rely on the opinion of bond counsel for an issuer of an obligation in determining whether the interest thereon is excludable from gross income for federal income tax purposes. Distributions by the Fund may become taxable to shareholders due to noncompliant conduct by a bond issuer, unfavorable changes in federal or state tax laws, or adverse interpretations of tax laws by the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) or other authorities or because of other factors. Such adverse interpretations or actions could cause interest from a security to become taxable, possibly retroactively, subjecting shareholders to increased tax liability. Nonetheless, the Fund may continue to hold the obligation. If the obligation is sold, a loss might occur upon such sale.

Municipal bonds vary widely as to their interest rates, degree of security and maturity. Bonds are selected on the basis of quality, yield and diversification. Factors that affect the yield on municipal bonds include general money market conditions, municipal bond market conditions, the size of a particular offering, the maturity of the obligation and the nature of the issue. Lower-rated bonds (or unrated bonds of comparable quality as determined by the Manager) usually, but not always, have higher yields than similar but higher-rated bonds (or unrated bonds of comparable quality as determined by the Manager).

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Medium- or lower-rated municipal securities (securities typically rated BBB+ or lower by S&P, or comparably rated by another NRSRO, or, if unrated, determined by the Manager to be of comparable quality) are frequently traded only in markets where the number of potential purchasers and sellers, if any, is very limited. This factor may have the effect of limiting the availability of the securities for purchase by a Municipal Fund and also may limit the ability of a Municipal Fund to sell such securities at their fair value either to meet redemption requests or in response to changes in the economy or the financial markets.

Low-rated securities (securities typically rated BB+ or lower by S&P or comparably rated by another NRSRO, or, if unrated, determined by the Manager to be of comparable quality) (commonly called junk bonds) are considered to be speculative and involve greater risk of default or price changes due to changes in the issuer's creditworthiness. The market prices of these securities may fluctuate more than high-rated securities and may decline significantly in periods of general economic difficulty. The market for low-rated debt securities may be thinner and less active than that for higher-rated debt securities, which can adversely affect the prices at which the former are sold. Adverse publicity and changing investor perceptions may decrease the values and liquidity of low-rated debt securities, especially in a thinly traded market. Valuation becomes more difficult and judgment plays a greater role in valuing low-rated debt securities than with respect to higher-rated debt securities for which more external sources of quotations and last sale information are available. Since the risk of default is higher for low-rated debt securities, the Manager's research and credit analysis are an especially important part of managing securities of this type held by a Municipal Fund. The Manager regularly monitors the issuers of low-rated debt securities in each Municipal Fund's portfolio in an attempt to determine if the issuers will have sufficient cash flow and profits to meet required principal and interest payments. A Municipal Fund may choose, at its expense or in conjunction with others, to pursue litigation or otherwise to exercise its rights as a security holder if it determines this to be in the best interest of its shareholders. See Specific Securities and Investment Practices — Low-Rated Securities above.

Now or in the future, a NRSRO may use different rating designations for municipal obligations depending on their maturities on issuance or other characteristics. Credit ratings for individual securities may change from time to time, and, if unrated, a Municipal Fund is not required to dispose of any municipal bond if its rating falls below the rating required for its purchase, nor does such a fall in rating affect the amount of unrated municipal bonds which it may buy.

Defensive Strategies and Temporary Investments. To shorten the average maturity of its portfolio, the Municipal Funds may buy municipal bonds that are payable in a relatively short time. This could be either because they were so payable when they were first issued or because they will mature shortly after purchase. Another reason for buying either these short-term municipal bonds or “taxable obligations” (i.e., obligations, the interest on which is subject to federal income tax), up to the 20% limitation on taxable obligations described below, during normal circumstances is to keep assets at work until appropriate investments in longer-term municipal bonds can be made or in order to have cash available to pay for redemptions.

Short-term municipal bonds or taxable obligations purchased for defensive purposes will be held for as long as the Manager believes a temporary defensive posture should be maintained. When bought during normal market conditions, they will be held until appropriate investments in longer-term municipal bonds are made or until they are sold to meet redemptions.

Risks of Certain Types of Municipal Bonds. At any one time, each Municipal Fund may invest significantly in revenue bonds, the principal and interest on which are payable from revenues derived from similar projects, including the following: electrical utilities, health care and life care facilities and small industries. A substantial amount of the assets of the Municipal Fund may therefore be invested in securities that are related in such a way that an economic, business or political development or change affecting one such security may likewise affect the other securities. For example, a declining market for health care facilities might adversely affect the ability of municipalities to make timely payments of principal and interest on revenue bonds to be paid from hospital revenues. Each Municipal Fund also could have more than 25% of its total assets invested in issuers in the same geographic area, but will not have more than 25% of its total assets in securities of issuers located in any one state.

Many of the lower-rated municipal bonds in which a Municipal Fund seeks to invest may be PABs. As discussed above under Municipal Bonds, the entity responsible for payment of the principal and interest on PABs usually is the nongovernmental user of the facility being financed by the bond issue. Consequently, to the extent a Municipal Fund invests in bonds payable from revenues from facilities or projects in any one industry, it will be subject to the risks inherent in that industry.

For example, a hospital's gross receipts and net income available to service its debt are influenced by demand for hospital services, the ability of the hospital to provide the services required, management and medical capabilities, economic developments in the service area, efforts by insurers and government agencies to limit rates and expenses, confidence in the hospital, competition, availability and expense of malpractice insurance, Medicaid and Medicare funding, and possible federal legislation limiting the rates of increase of hospital charges. Significant events impacting the hospital industry in any one of these areas might adversely affect the industry's ability to service its debt or to pay principal when due.

Life care facilities are an alternative form of long-term housing for the elderly. They are subject to a wide variety of risks. Primarily, the projects must maintain adequate occupancy levels to be able to provide revenues adequate to maintain debt service payments. Moreover, since a portion of housing, medical care and other services may be financed by an initial deposit it is important that the facility maintain adequate financial reserves to secure estimated actuarial liabilities. The ability of management to accurately forecast inflationary cost pressures weighs importantly in the process. The facilities also may be impacted by the regulatory cost restrictions applied to health care delivery in general, particularly state regulations or changes in Medicare and Medicaid payments or qualifications, or restrictions imposed by medical insurance companies. They also may face competition from alternative health care or conventional housing facilities in the private or public sector.

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Tobacco Settlement Revenue Bonds. Tobacco settlement revenue bonds are secured by an issuing state's proportionate share in the Master Settlement Agreement (MSA). The MSA is a settlement agreement between certain states and US tobacco manufacturers representing approximately 95% of the combined market share of tobacco manufacturers. The MSA provides for payments by the tobacco manufacturers to the states, in perpetuity, in exchange for a release of claims against the manufacturers and a pledge of no further tobacco-related litigation.

A number of states have securitized the future flow of these payments by selling bonds pursuant to indentures, some through distinct governmental entities created for such purpose. These bonds are backed by the future revenue flow that is used for principal and interest payments on the bonds. Annual payments on the bonds, and thus risk to a Municipal Fund, are highly dependent on the receipt of future settlement payments by the state or its governmental entity, which in turn is dependent on many factors, including, but not limited to, annual US cigarette shipments, cigarette consumption, inflation and the financial capability of participating tobacco companies. As a result, payments made by tobacco manufacturers could be negatively affected if the decrease in tobacco consumption is significantly greater than the forecasted decline. A market share loss by the MSA companies to non-MSA participating tobacco manufacturers would cause a downward adjustment in the payment amounts. An MSA-participating manufacturer filing for bankruptcy also could cause delays or reductions in bond payments. The MSA itself has been subject to legal challenges and has, to date, withstood those challenges.

Certain tobacco settlement revenue bonds are supported by an annual state appropriation to pay any shortfalls in the payment of principal and interest on the bonds and are backed by the revenues of the state. Bonds having this additional layer of credit support present less risk to a Municipal Fund than stand-alone MSA bonds.

Auction Rate Securities. Each Municipal Fund may buy auction rate securities, which are debt securities with an interest rate set at auction. Auction rate securities may be issued by state and local governments, agencies and authorities.

Provided that the auction mechanism is successful, auction rate securities usually permit the holder to sell the securities in an auction at par value at specified intervals. The rate is reset by “Dutch” auction in which bids are made by broker-dealers and other institutions for a certain amount of securities at a specified minimum rate. The rate set by the auction is the lowest rate that covers all securities offered for sale. While this process is designed to permit auction rate securities to be traded at par value, there is a risk that an auction will fail due to insufficient demand for the securities. In addition, there may be no active secondary market for these securities between auctions, and sales conducted on a secondary market may not be on terms favorable to the seller. Since February 2008, numerous auctions have failed due to insufficient demand for securities and have continued to fail for an extended period of time. Failed auctions may adversely impact the liquidity of auction rate securities. Although some issuers of auction rate securities are redeeming or are considering redeeming such securities, such issuers are not obligated to do so, and therefore, there is no guarantee that a liquid market will exist for a Municipal Fund's investments in auction rate securities at a time when that Municipal Fund wishes to dispose of such securities.

Limited Investment in Other Securities. All of each Municipal Fund's invested assets, other than cash or receivables, must be invested in municipal securities, except that a limited amount of assets may be invested in certain other securities that are referred to in the Prospectus as taxable obligations, which include, among others, repurchase agreements and certain derivatives instruments (see discussion below). Under normal conditions, each Municipal Fund may invest in taxable obligations only if, after any such investment, not more than 20% of its net assets would consist of taxable obligations.

However, as a temporary defensive measure, each Municipal Fund may invest up to all of its assets in taxable obligations.

Cybersecurity Risk

With the increased use of technologies such as the internet and the dependence on computer systems to perform necessary business functions, the Funds and their service providers may have become more susceptible to operational and related risks through breaches in cybersecurity. A cybersecurity incident may refer to intentional or unintentional events that allow an unauthorized party to gain access to Fund assets, customer data, or proprietary information, or cause a Fund or Fund service providers (including, but not limited to, the Manager, distributor, fund accountants, custodian, transfer agent, and financial intermediaries) to suffer data corruption or lose operational functionality. A cybersecurity incident could, among other things, result in the loss or theft of customer data or funds, customers or employees being unable to access electronic systems (denial of services), loss or theft of proprietary information or corporate data, physical damage to a computer or network system, or remediation costs associated with system repairs.

Any of these results could have a substantial adverse impact on a Fund and its shareholders. For example, if a cybersecurity incident results in a denial of service, Fund shareholders could lose access to their electronic accounts and be unable to buy or sell Fund shares for an unknown period of time, and employees could be unable to access electronic systems to perform critical duties for the Fund, such as trading, NAV calculation, shareholder accounting or fulfillment of Fund share purchases and redemptions. Cybersecurity incidents could cause a Fund or Fund service provider to incur regulatory penalties, reputational damage, additional compliance costs associated with corrective measures, or financial loss of a significant magnitude and could result in allegations that a Fund or Fund service provider violated privacy and other laws.

Similar adverse consequences could result from cybersecurity incidents affecting issuers of securities in which the Fund invests, counterparties with which a Fund engages in transactions, governmental and other regulatory authorities, exchange and other financial market operators, banks, brokers, dealers, insurance companies, and other financial institutions and other parties. Risk management systems and business continuity plans seek to reduce the risks associated with cybersecurity in the event there is a cybersecurity breach, but there are inherent limitations in these systems and plans, including the possibility that certain risks may not have been identified, in large part because different or unknown threats may emerge in the future. Furthermore, the Funds do not control the cybersecurity systems and plans of the issuers of securities in which the Funds invest or the Funds' third party service providers or trading counterparties or any other service providers whose operations may affect the Funds or their shareholders.

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As an open-end management investment company, the Trust has delegated its operational activities to third-party service providers, subject to the oversight of the Board. Because the Trust operates its business through third-party service providers, it does not itself have any operational or security systems or infrastructure that are potentially subject to cyber attacks. The third-party service providers that facilitate the Trust's business activities, including, but not limited to, fund management, custody of Trust assets, fund accounting and financial administration, and transfer agent services, could be sources of operational and informational security risk to the Trust and its shareholders, including from breakdowns or failures of the third-party service providers' own systems or capacity constraints. A failure or breach of the operational or security systems or infrastructure of the Trust's third-party service providers could disrupt the Trust's operations, result in the disclosure or misuse of confidential or proprietary information, and cause losses. Although the Trust and its third-party service providers have business continuity plans and other safeguards in place, the operations of the Trust's third-party service providers may be adversely affected by significant disruption of the service providers' operating systems or physical infrastructure that support the Trust and its shareholders.

The proliferation of new technologies, the use of the Internet and telecommunications technologies to conduct business, as well as the increased sophistication and activities of organized crime, hackers, terrorists, activists, and others, have significantly increased the information security risks to which the Trust's third-party service providers are subject. The third-party service providers rely on digital technologies, computer and email systems, software, and networks to conduct their business and the business of the Trust. The Trust's third-party service providers have robust information security procedures; however, their technologies may become the target of cyber attacks or information security breaches that could result in the unauthorized release, gathering, monitoring, misuse, loss, or destruction of the Trust's or its shareholders' confidential and other information, or otherwise disrupt the business operations of the Trust or its third-party service providers. Although to date the Trust has not experienced any material losses relating to cyber attacks or other information security breaches, there can be no assurance that the Trust or its third-party service providers will not suffer such losses in the future.

Disruptions or failures in the physical infrastructure or operating systems that support the Trust's third-party service providers, or cyber attacks or security breaches of the networks, systems, or devices that the Trust's third-party service providers use to service the Trust's operations, could result in financial losses, the inability of Trust shareholders to transact business, violations of applicable privacy and other laws, regulatory fines, penalties, reputational damage, reimbursement or other compensation costs, and/or additional compliance costs. The business continuity policies and procedures that the Trust and its third-party service providers have established seek to identify and mitigate the types of risk to which the Trust and its third-party service providers are subject. As with any risk-management system, there are inherent limitations to these business continuity policies and procedures as there may exist, or develop in the future, risks that have not been anticipated or identified.

Natural Disaster/Epidemic Risk

Natural or environmental disasters, such as earthquakes, fires, floods, hurricanes, tsunamis, and other severe weather-related phenomena generally, and widespread disease, including pandemics and epidemics, have been and can be highly disruptive to economies and markets, adversely impacting individual companies, sectors, industries, markets, currencies, interest and inflation rates, credit ratings, investor sentiment, and other factors affecting the value of a fund's investments. Given the increasing interdependence among global economies and markets, conditions in one country, market, or region are increasingly likely to adversely affect markets, issuers, and/or foreign exchange rates in other countries. These disruptions could prevent a fund from executing advantageous investment decisions in a timely manner and could negatively impact the fund's ability to achieve its investment objective. Any such event(s) could have a significant adverse impact on the value and risk profile of a fund.

IBOR Transition Risk

The London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”) was a common benchmark interest rate index used to make adjustments to variable-rate loans and historically was used throughout global banking and financial industries to determine interest rates for a variety of borrowing arrangements and financial instruments (such as debt instruments and derivatives).

The majority of LIBOR rates were phased out at the end of 2021. The most common tenors of USD LIBOR (overnight and 1-, 3-, 6- and 12- month) ceased publication as of June 30, 2023. In addition, global regulators have announced that, with limited exceptions, no new LIBOR-based contracts should be entered into after 2021. The United Kingdom Financial Conduct Authority, which regulated LIBOR, will permit the use of synthetic U.S. dollar LIBOR rates for non-U.S. contracts for a limited period of time after June 30, 2023, but any such rates would be considered non-representative of the underlying market.

Over the past several years, various regulators and industry bodies identified alternative reference rates (“ARRs”) to replace LIBOR and assist with the transition to the new ARRs. While the transition process away from LIBOR has become increasingly well-defined, there remains uncertainty and risks related to converting certain longer-term securities and transactions to a new ARR. For example, there can be no assurance that the composition or characteristics of any ARRs or financial instruments in which a fund invests that utilize ARRs will be similar to or produce the same value or economic equivalence as LIBOR or that these instruments will have the same volume or liquidity. Additionally, while some instruments tied to LIBOR or a similar rate may include a replacement rate, not all instruments have such fallback provisions, and the effectiveness of such replacement rates remains uncertain. The cessation of LIBOR or similar rates could affect the value and liquidity of investments tied to these rates, especially those that do not include fallback provisions. While it is expected that market participants will amend legacy financial instruments referencing LIBOR to include such fallback provisions to ARRs, there remains uncertainty regarding the willingness and ability of parties to add or amend such fallback provisions in legacy instruments.

Any effects of the transition away from LIBOR and the adoption of ARRs, as well as other unforeseen effects, could result in losses. Furthermore, the risks associated with the discontinuation of LIBOR and transition to replacement rates may be exacerbated if an orderly transition to an ARR is not completed in a timely manner.

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Disclosure of Portfolio Holdings Information

Each Fund has adopted a policy generally prohibiting the disclosure of portfolio holdings information to any person until after 30 calendar days have passed. The Trust posts a list of each Fund's portfolio holdings monthly, with a 30-day lag, on each Fund's website, delawarefunds.com. In addition, on a 10-day lag, we also make available on the website a month-end summary listing of the number of each Fund's securities, country and asset allocations, and top 10 securities and sectors by percentage of holdings for each Fund. This information is available publicly to any and all shareholders free of charge once posted on the website or by calling 800 523-1918.

Other entities, including institutional investors and intermediaries that distribute the Funds' shares, are generally treated similarly and are not provided with the Funds' portfolio holdings in advance of when they are generally available to the public.

The Funds may, from time to time, provide statistical data derived from publicly available information to third parties, such as shareholders, prospective shareholders, financial intermediaries, consultants, and ratings and ranking organizations.

Third-party service providers and affiliated persons of the Funds are provided with the Funds' portfolio holdings only to the extent necessary to perform services under agreements relating to the Funds. In accordance with the policy, third-party service providers who receive nonpublic portfolio holdings information on an ongoing basis are: the Manager's affiliates (Macquarie Investment Management Business Trust, Delaware Investments Fund Services Company, and the Distributor), the Funds' independent registered public accounting firm, the Funds' custodian, the Funds' legal counsel, the Funds' financial printer (DG3), and the Funds' proxy voting service. These entities are obligated to keep such information confidential.

Third-party rating and ranking organizations and consultants who have signed agreements ("Nondisclosure Agreements") with the Funds or the Manager may receive portfolio holdings information more quickly than the 30-day lag. The Nondisclosure Agreements require that the receiving entity hold the information in the strictest confidence and prohibit the receiving entity from disclosing the information or trading on the information (either in Fund shares or in shares of the Funds' portfolio securities). In addition, the receiving party must agree to provide copies of any research or reports generated using the portfolio holdings information in order to allow for monitoring of use of the information. Neither the Funds, nor the Manager, nor sub-advisor, nor any affiliate, receives any compensation or consideration with respect to these agreements. To protect the shareholders' interests and to avoid conflicts of interest, Nondisclosure Agreements must be approved by a member of the Manager's Legal Department and Compliance Department and any deviation in the use of the portfolio holdings information by the receiving party must be approved in writing by the Funds' Chief Compliance Officer prior to such use.

The Board will be notified of any substantial changes to the foregoing procedures. The Board also receives an annual report from the Trust's Chief Compliance Officer that, among other things, addresses the operation of the Trust's procedures concerning the disclosure of portfolio holdings information.

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Management of the Trust

Trustees and officers

The business and affairs of the Trust are managed under the direction of its Board of Trustees. Information on the Trust's Trustees and principal officers is provided below. The Trustees serve for indefinite terms until their mandatory retirement, resignation, death, or removal. Trustees who are not “interested persons” as defined by the 1940 Act are referred to as the “Independent Trustees”.

As of June 30, 2023, the officers and Trustees of the Trust directly owned less than 1% of the outstanding shares of each Class of each Fund.

Name, Address,
and Birth Year

Position(s) Held with the Trust

Length of Time
Served​1

Number of Funds in Fund Complex Overseen by Trustee

Principal Occupation(s)
During the Past Five Years

Other Directorships Held by Trustee During the Past Five Years

Interested Trustee

Shawn K. Lytle2
100 Independence,
610 Market Street
Philadelphia, PA 19106-2354

1970

President, Chief Executive Officer, and Trustee

President and Chief Executive Officer since August 2015

Trustee since September 2015

116

Macquarie Asset Management3 (2015-Present)—Global Head of Public Investments (2019-Present); Head of Americas of Macquarie Group (2017-Present)

None

Independent Trustees

Jerome D. Abernathy
100 Independence,
610 Market Street
Philadelphia, PA 19106-2354

1959

Trustee

Since January 2019

116

Stonebrook Capital Management, LLC (financial technology: macro factors and databases)—Managing Member (1993-Present)

None

Ann D. Borowiec
100 Independence,
610 Market Street
Philadelphia, PA 19106-2354

1958

Trustee

Since March 2015

116

J.P. Morgan Chase & Co. (1987-2013)—Chief Executive Officer, Private Wealth Management (2011-2013)

Banco Santander International (2016-2019)

Santander Bank, N.A. (2016-2019)

Joseph W. Chow
100 Independence,
610 Market Street
Philadelphia, PA 19106-2354

1953

Trustee

Since January 2013

116

Private Investor (2011-Present); State Street Bank and Trust Company (1996-2011)—Executive Vice President of Enterprise Risk Management and Emerging Economies Strategy; and Chief Risk and Corporate Administration Officer

None

H. Jeffrey Dobbs
100 Independence,
610 Market Street
Philadelphia, PA 19106-2354

1955

Trustee

Since April 20194

116

KPMG LLP (2002-2015)—Global Sector Chairman, Industrial Manufacturing (2010-2015)

TechAccel LLC (2015-Present)

PatientsVoices, Inc. (2018-Present)

Valparaiso University Board (2012-Present)

Ivy Funds Complex (2019-2021)

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Management of the Trust

Name, Address,
and Birth Year

Position(s) Held with the Trust

Length of Time
Served1

Number of Funds in Fund Complex Overseen by Trustee

Principal Occupation(s)
During the Past Five Years

Other Directorships Held by Trustee During the Past Five Years

John A. Fry
100 Independence,
610 Market Street
Philadelphia, PA 19106-2354

1960

Trustee

Since January 2001

116

Drexel University—President (2010-Present)

Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia (2020-Present)

Kresge Foundation (2018-Present)

FS Credit Real Estate Income Trust, Inc. (2018-Present)

vTv Therapeutics Inc. (2017-Present)

Community Health Systems (2004-Present)

Drexel Morgan & Co. (2015-2019)

Joseph Harroz, Jr.
100 Independence,
610 Market Street
Philadelphia, PA 19106-2354

1967

Trustee

Since November 19984

116

University of Oklahoma—President (2020-Present); Interim President (2019-2020); Vice President and Dean, College of Law (2010-2019)

Brookhaven Investments LLC (commercial enterprises) —Managing Member (2019-Present)

St. Clair, LLC (commercial enterprises) —Managing Member (2019-Present)

OU Medicine, Inc. (2020-Present)

Big 12 Athletic Conference (2019-Present)

Valliance Bank (2007-Present)

Ivy Funds Complex (1998-2021)

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Name, Address,
and Birth Year

Position(s) Held with the Trust

Length of Time
Served1

Number of Funds in Fund Complex Overseen by Trustee

Principal Occupation(s)
During the Past Five Years

Other Directorships Held by Trustee During the Past Five Years

Sandra A.J. Lawrence
100 Independence,
610 Market Street
Philadelphia, PA 19106-2354

1957

Trustee

Since April 20194

116

Children's Mercy Hospitals and Clinics (2005-2019) —Chief Administrative Officer (2016-2019)

Brixmor Property Group Inc. (2021-Present)

Sera Prognostics Inc. (biotechnology) (2021-Present)

Recology (resource recovery) (2021-Present)

Evergy, Inc., Kansas City Power & Light Company, KCP&L Greater Missouri Operations Company, Westar Energy, Inc. and Kansas Gas and Electric Company (related utility companies) (2018-Present)

National Association of Corporate Directors (2017-Present)

American Shared Hospital Services (medical device) (2017-2021)

Ivy Funds Complex (2019-2021)

Frances A. Sevilla-Sacasa
100 Independence,
610 Market Street
Philadelphia, PA 19106-2354

1956

Trustee

Since September 2011

116

Banco Itaú International—Chief Executive Officer (2012-2016); Bank America, U.S. Trust Private Wealth—President (2007-2008); U.S. Trust Corp.-—President & CEO

(2005-2007)

Invitation Homes Inc. (2023-Present)

Florida Chapter of National Association of Corporate Directors (2021-Present)

Callon Petroleum Company (2019-Present)

Camden Property Trust (2011-Present)

New Senior Investment Group Inc. (REIT) (2021)

Carrizo Oil & Gas, Inc. (2018-2019)

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Management of the Trust

Name, Address,
and Birth Year

Position(s) Held with the Trust

Length of Time
Served1

Number of Funds in Fund Complex Overseen by Trustee

Principal Occupation(s)
During the Past Five Years

Other Directorships Held by Trustee During the Past Five Years

Thomas K. Whitford
100 Independence,
610 Market Street
Philadelphia, PA 19106-2354

1956

Trustee

Trustee since January 2013

Chair since January 2023

116

PNC Financial Services Group (1983-2013)—Vice Chairman (2009-2013)

HSBC USA Inc. (2014-2022)

HSBC North America Holdings Inc. (2013-2022)

Christianna Wood
100 Independence,
610 Market Street
Philadelphia, PA 19106-2354

1959

Trustee

Since January 2019

116

Gore Creek Capital, Ltd.—Chief Executive Officer and President (2009-Present); Capital Z Asset Management—Chief Executive Officer (2008-2009); California Public Employees' Retirement System (CalPERS)—Senior Investment Officer of Global Equity (2002-2008)

The Merger Fund (2013-2021), The Merger Fund VL (2013-2021), WCM Alternatives: Event-Driven Fund (2013-2021), and WCM Alternatives: Credit Event Fund (2017-2021)

Grange Insurance (2013-Present)

H&R Block Corporation (2008-2022)

International Securities Exchange
(2010-2018)

Vassar College Trustee (2006-2018)

Janet L. Yeomans
100 Independence,
610 Market Street
Philadelphia, PA 19106-2354

1948

Trustee

Since April 1999

116

3M Company (1995-2012)—Vice President and Treasurer (2006-2012)

Temple University Hospital (since 2017)

Pennsylvania State System of Higher Education (since 2018)

 

Officers

Position(s) Held with the Trust

Length of Time
Served​1

Principal Occupation(s)
During the Past Five Years

David F. Connor​5
100 Independence,
610 Market Street
Philadelphia, PA 19106-2354

1963

Senior Vice President, General Counsel, and Secretary

Senior Vice President since May 2013; General Counsel since May 2015; Secretary since October 2005

David F. Connor has served in various capacities at different times at MAM.

Daniel V. Geatens​5
100 Independence,
610 Market Street
Philadelphia, PA 19106-2354

1972

Senior Vice President and Treasurer

Senior Vice President since December 2020; Treasurer since October 2007

Daniel V. Geatens has served in various capacities at different times at MAM.

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Officers

Position(s) Held with the Trust

Length of Time
Served1

Principal Occupation(s)
During the Past Five Years

Richard Salus
100 Independence,
610 Market Street
Philadelphia, PA 19106-2354

1963

Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer

Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer since November 2006

Richard Salus has served in various capacities at different times at MAM.

 

1

"Length of Time Served" refers to the time since the Trustee or officer began serving one or more of the Trusts in the Delaware Funds complex.

2

Shawn K. Lytle is considered to be an “Interested Trustee” because he is an executive officer of the Manager.

3

Macquarie Asset Management is the marketing name for certain companies comprising the asset management division of Macquarie Group, including the Funds' Manager, principal underwriter, and transfer agent.

4

Includes time served on the Board of the Ivy Funds prior to the date when the Ivy Funds complex joined the Delaware Funds complex.

5

David F. Connor and Daniel V. Geatens serve in similar capacities for the six portfolios of the Optimum Fund Trust, which have the same investment manager, principal underwriter, and transfer agent as the Funds. Mr. Geatens also serves as the Chief Financial Officer of the Optimum Fund Trust.

The following table shows each Trustee's ownership of shares of the Funds and of shares of all Delaware Funds as of December. 31, 2022.

Name

Dollar Range of Equity Securities in the Funds

Aggregate Dollar Range of Equity Securities* in All Registered Investment Companies Overseen by Trustee in Family of Investment Companies

Interested Trustee

 

 

Shawn K. Lytle

None

Over $100,000

Independent Trustees

 

 

Jerome D. Abernathy

None

Over $100,000

Ann D. Borowiec

None

Over $100,000

Joseph W. Chow

None

Over $100,000

H. Jeffrey Dobbs

None

Over $100,000

John A. Fry

None

Over $100,000

Joseph Harroz, Jr.

$1-$10,000 (Delaware Ivy Natural Resources Fund)
Over $100,000 (Delaware Ivy Core Bond Fund)

Over $100,000

Sandra A.J. Lawrence

None

Over $100,000

Frances A. Sevilla-Sacasa

None

Over $100,000

Thomas K. Whitford

None

Over $100,000

Christianna Wood

None

Over $100,000

Janet L. Yeomans

None

Over $100,000

 

*

The ranges for equity securities ownership by each Trustee are: none; $1-$10,000; $10,001-$50,000; $50,001-$100,000; or over $100,000.

The following table describes the aggregate compensation received by each Trustee from the Trust and the total compensation received from Delaware Funds for which he or she served as a Trustee for the Trust's last fiscal year. Only the Independent Trustees of the Trust receive compensation from the Trust.

Trustee

Aggregate Compensation from the Trust

Pension or Retirement Benefits Accrued as Part of Fund Expenses

Total Compensation from the Investment Companies in the Delaware Funds Complex1

Jerome D. Abernathy

$160,554

none

$319,086

Thomas L. Bennett2

$170,162

none

$302,516

Ann D. Borowiec

$164,458

none

$327,815

Joseph W. Chow

$154,435

none

$312,300

H. Jeffrey Dobbs

$152,550

none

$306,200

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Management of the Trust

Trustee

Aggregate Compensation from the Trust

Pension or Retirement Benefits Accrued as Part of Fund Expenses

Total Compensation from the Investment Companies in the Delaware Funds Complex1

John A. Fry

$158,651

none

$314,086

Joseph Harroz, Jr.

$142,665

none

$288,101

Sandra A. J. Lawrence

$160,625

none

$316,715

Frances A. Sevilla-Sacasa

$154,435

none

$312,300

Thomas K. Whitford (Chair)3

$223,503

none

$442,516

Christianna Wood

$152,550

none

$306,200

Janet L. Yeomans

$156,454

none

$314,929

 

1

Each Independent Trustee/Director receives an annual retainer fee for serving as a Trustee/Director for the investment companies in the Delaware Funds by Macquarie family of funds (116 funds in the complex) for which they serve, plus certain meeting fees. The committee members, committee chairs, and Board Chair also receive retainers for their serving on such committees, serving as committee chair or serving as Board Chair, respectively. An Independent Trustee/Director may receive additional fees based on determination by the Board Chair and the Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee.

2

Thomas L. Bennett served as Board Chair until his retirement from the Board on December 31, 2022.

3

Thomas K. Whitford has been Board Chair since January 1, 2023.

Common Board of Trustees/Directors: The business of the Trust is managed under the direction of its Board. The Trustees also serve on the Boards of all the other investment companies that comprise Delaware Funds. The Trustees believe that having a common Board for all funds in the complex is efficient and enhances the ability of the Board to address its responsibilities to each fund in the complex. The Trustees believe that the common board structure allows the Trustees to leverage their individual expertise and that their judgment is enhanced by being Trustees of all of the funds in the complex.

Size and Composition of Board: The Board is currently comprised of twelve Trustees. Eleven of the twelve are Independent Trustees. The Board comprises of Trustees with a variety of professional backgrounds and experiences. The Board believes that the skill sets of its members are complementary and add to the overall effectiveness of the Board. The Trustees regard diversity as an important consideration in the present composition of the Board and the selection of qualified candidates to fill vacancies on the Board. In order to ensure that Board membership will be refreshed from time to time, the Board has adopted a mandatory retirement age of 75 for Trustees. As a result, a Trustee may serve until December 31 of the calendar year in which such Trustee reaches the age of 75. At the discretion of the other Trustees, active service for a particular Trustee may be extended for a limited period of time beyond a Trustee's normal retirement date.

Qualifications of the Trustees: The Board has concluded that, based on each Trustee's experience, qualifications, attributes or skills on an individual basis and in combination with those of the other Trustees, each Trustee should serve as a Trustee. In reaching its determination the Board, at the recommendation of the Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee, considers, in light of the Trust's business and structure, the individual's experience, qualifications, attributes, and skills. No one such factor is determinative, but some of the relevant factors that have been considered include: (i) the Trustee's educational background; business, professional training or practice; public service or academic positions; experience from service as a board member (including the Board) or as an executive of investment funds, public companies or significant private or not-for-profit entities or other organizations, and/or other life experiences; (ii) the ability to work effectively and collegially with other people; (iii) how the Trustee's background and attributes contribute to the overall mix of skills and experience on the Board as a whole; and (iv) the Trustee's willingness and ability to contribute to the Board's oversight and decision-making functions and provide the necessary skills to allow the Board to carry out its responsibilities. In addition to the table above, set forth below is a brief discussion of the specific experience, qualifications and skills of each Trustee that led the Board to conclude that he or she should serve as a Trustee.

Jerome D. Abernathy — Mr. Abernathy has extensive experience in the investment management industry. He has been the Managing Member of Stonebrook Capital Management, LLC (financial technology: macro factors and databases) since 1993 and has served in various roles including Chief Investment Officer and Managing Partner. Prior to that, Mr. Abernathy served as a Managing Director at Guggenheim Investments, Director of Research at Moore Capital Management, and as a trader and researcher at Morgan Stanley. He also has experience as a director of other corporate and not-for-profit boards. Mr. Abernathy received a B.S. in electrical engineering from Howard University and a Ph.D. in electrical engineering and computer science from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He has served on the Board since January 2019.

Ann D. Borowiec — Ms. Borowiec has extensive experience in the bankingand wealth management industry. She is currently a private investor. She was previously the Chief Executive Officer of Private Wealth Management at J.P. Morgan Chase & Co. from 2011 to 2013. During her 25 year career at J.P. Morgan, she served in a variety of senior roles including running the U.S. Private Bank, leading the global marketing team for Private Banking, and running Investor relations for J.P. Morgan Chase & Co. Ms. Borowiec began her career in public accounting. She also has experience as a director of other corporate and not-for-profit boards, including, among others, Santander Bank N.A., Banco Santander International and the New Jersey Symphony. Ms. Borowiec holds a B.B.A. from Texas Christian University and an M.B.A. from Harvard University. She has served on the Board since March 2015.

Joseph W. Chow — Mr. Chow has extensive experience in the banking and financial services industry, including investments, risk management and business strategy. Mr. Chow is currently a private investor. He was previously at State Street Bank and Trust Company where he held a number of

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positions between 1990 and 2011, including Executive Vice President of Enterprise Risk Management, Executive Vice President of Emerging Economies Strategy, and Chief Risk and Corporate Administration Officer. He also has experience as a director of other corporate and not-for-profit boards, including Hercules Technology Growth Capital, Inc. Mr. Chow holds a B.A. degree from Brandeis University and a M.C.P. (city planning) and a M.S in Management (finance) from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He has served on the Board since January 2013.

H. Jeffrey Dobbs — Mr. Dobbs has extensive experience in the global professional services industry. He is currently a private investor. Mr. Dobbs was the Global Chairman of the Industrial Manufacturing Sector at KPMG LLP from 2010 to 2015, where he was a partner from 2002 to 2015 and also served as the Global Lead Partner for a Fortune 5 global automotive company from 2003 to 2015. In these roles, he was responsible for the quality and client satisfaction of the strategic, operational, risk and compliance services provided to industrial manufacturing clients around the world. Prior to that, Mr. Dobbs was a partner at Arthur Andersen from 1988 to 2002, where he also served as the Kansas City Office Managing Partner. He has experience as a director of other corporate and not-for-profit boards. Mr. Dobbs holds a B.S. in accounting from Valparaiso University and is a retired Certified Public Accountant. He has served on the Board since April 2021. Prior to that, he served on the Board of Trustees of the Ivy Funds from April 2019 to April 2021.

John A. Fry — Mr. Fry has extensive experience in higher education. Having served in senior management for three major institutions of higher learning, he has extensive experience overseeing areas such as finance, investments, risk-management, internal audit, and information technology. He has been the President of Drexel University since 2010. Prior to that he served as President of Franklin & Marshall College from 2002 to 2010, Executive Vice President of the University of Pennsylvania from 1995 to 2002, and as a management consultant for the higher education and non-profit sectors at Coopers & Lybrand's National Higher Education Consulting Practice from 1990 to 1995 and KPMG Peat Marwick from 1982 to 1990. He also has extensive experience as a director of other corporate and not-for-profit boards, including, among others, the Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia, the Kresge Foundation and FS Credit Real Estate Income Trust Inc. Mr. Fry holds a B.A. degree in American Civilization from Lafayette College and an M.B.A. from New York University. He has served on the Board since January 2001.

Joseph Harroz, Jr. — Mr. Harroz has extensive experience in higher education. He has been the President of the University of Oklahoma since 2020. Prior to that he served as the Interim President from 2019 to 2020, Dean of the College of Law from 2010 to 2019, General Counsel from 1997 to 2019 and Vice President of Executive Affairs from 1994 to 1997. Mr. Harroz is a Managing Member of Brookhaven Investments LLC and St. Clair, LLC, each commercial enterprises, since 2019. He also has experience as a director of other corporate and not-for-profit boards, including OU Health, Inc., Big 12 Athletic Conference and Valliance Bank. Mr. Harroz holds a B.A. degree from the University of Oklahoma and a J.D. from Georgetown University Law Center. He has been on the Board since April 2021 and prior to that on the Board of Trustees of the Ivy Funds from November 1998 to April 2021, serving as chair of that board for more than a decade.

Sandra A.J. Lawrence — Ms. Lawrence has extensive experience in the healthcare and financial services sectors. She is currently a private investor. Ms. Lawrence was Chief Administrative Officer and Executive Vice President of Children's Mercy Hospitals and Clinics from 2016 to 2019 and Chief Financial Officer and Executive Vice President from 2005 to 2016. Prior to that, she was Chief Financial Officer and Senior Vice President of Midwest Research Institute (MRI) from 2004 to 2005, Vice President and Administrator of Gateway, Inc. from 1998 to 2000, General Manager of Gateway's Kansas City operation from 1997 to 1998, Director of MRI's Statistics & Economics Center from 1995 to 1997, and President of Stern Brothers (investment bank) from 1992 to 1995. Mr. Lawrence also previously served as interim Chief Executive Officer of Frontier Medical Research, President and Chief Executive Officer of Global Packaging Solutions, Inc., and in various roles in commercial real estate development. She also has extensive experience as a director of other corporate, private, and not-for-profit boards. Ms. Lawrence holds a B.A. from Vassar College, an M.Arch from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and an M.B.A. from Harvard Business School. She has served on the Board since April 2021. Prior to that, she served on the Board of Trustees of the Ivy Funds from April 2019 to April 2021.

Frances A. Sevilla-Sacasa — Ms. Sevilla-Sacasa has extensive experience in banking and wealth management. She is currently a private investor and was CEO of Banco Itaú International, Miami, Florida, from April 2012 to December 2016. She served as Executive Advisor to the Dean of the University of Miami School of Business from August 2011 to March 2012, Interim Dean of the University of Miami School of Business from January 2011 to July 2011, President of U.S. Trust, Bank of America Private Wealth Management from July 2007 to December 2008, President and CEO of US Trust Company from early 2007 until June 2007, and President of US Trust Company from November 2005 until June 2007. She previously served in a variety of roles with Citigroup's private banking business, including President of Latin America Private Banking, President of Europe Private Banking, and Head of International Trust Business. She also has experience as a director of other corporate and not-for-profit boards. Ms. Sevilla-Sacasa holds a B.A. from the University of Miami and an M.B.A from the Thunderbird School of Global Management. She has served on the Board since September 2011.

Thomas K. Whitford — Mr. Whitford has extensive experience in the banking and financial services industry. He is currently a private investor. He was the Vice Chairman of PNC Financial Services Group from 2009 to 2013. Prior to that, he held a number of other leadership positions at PNC, including Chairman of National City Bank (responsible for PNC's integration of National City Corporation) from 2008 to 2009, Chief Administrative Officer from 2007 to 2008, Chief Risk Officer from 2002 to 2007, Chief Executive Officer of PNC's Wealth Management business from 1997 to 2001 and other positions from 1983 to 1997. He also has previous experience as a director of other corporate and not-for-profit boards, including among others, HSBC North America Holdings Inc., HSBC Finance Corporation, Longwood Gardens and The Barnes Foundation. Mr. Whitford holds a B.S. from the University of Massachusetts and an M.B.A. from The Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania. Mr. Whitford has served on the Board since January 2013 and chair since January 2023.

Christianna Wood — Ms. Wood has extensive portfolio management experience in the institutional investment management industry. She has been the President and Chief Executive Officer of Gore Creek Capital, Ltd. since 2009. Prior to that she served as the Chief Executive Officer of Capital Z

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Management of the Trust

Asset Management (one of the largest independent sponsors of hedge funds) from 2008 to 2009 and as the Senior Investment Officer of Global Equity of the California Public Employees' Retirement System (CalPERS) (the largest public pension plan in the United States) from 2002 to 2008. At CalPERS, in addition to the responsibility for their $150 billion global equity portfolio, Ms. Wood also had oversight responsibilities for CalPERS corporate governance program and ESG strategies. She has extensive experience as a non-executive director of numerous corporate and not-for-profit boards. Ms. Wood received a B.A. in economics from Vassar College and an M.B.A. in finance from New York University. Ms. Wood was a 2018 Harvard University Advanced Leadership Fellow. She has served on the Board since January 2019.

Janet L. Yeomans — Ms. Yeomans has extensive broad-based financial experience, including global financial risk management, investments, and mergers and acquisitions. She is currently a private investor. Ms. Yeomans was previously Vice President and Treasurer of 3M, a multinational conglomerate, from 1995 to 2012 where she was responsible for funding global operations, managing the investment of employee benefit assets and advising the Board on financial related matters. Prior to that, Ms. Yeomans managed the Investment Technology Group at Interactive Data Corporation and was an econometric consultant at Data Resources, Inc. Ms. Yeomans served as an adjunct professor of IT Governance at Temple University's Fox School of Business in 2016. She also has experience as a director of other corporate and not-for-profit boards, including, the Minnesota State Board of Investment, Temple University Hospital and the Pennsylvania State System of Higher Education. Ms. Yeomans holds degrees in mathematics and physics from Connecticut College, an M.S. in mathematics from Illinois Institute of Technology, and an M.B.A. from the University of Chicago. She has served on the Board since April 1999.

Shawn K. Lytle — Mr. Lytle has approximately 30 years of experience in the investment management industry. He has been the Global Head of Macquarie Asset Management since January 2019 and Head of Americas - Macquarie Group since December 2017 and he is responsible for all aspects of the firm's business. He joined the firm as President of Macquarie Asset Management - Americas in 2015. Prior to that time, Mr. Lytle served in various executive management, investment management, and distribution positions at two major banking institutions. He holds a B.A. degree from The McDonough School of Business at Georgetown University. Mr. Lytle serves on the board of directors of the National Association of Securities Professionals (NASP), the Sustainability Accounting Standards Board, and he is a member of the board of governors for the Investment Company Institute (ICI). In November 2017, Mr. Lytle was named to the Black Enterprise list of “Most Powerful Executives in Corporate America.”

Board Leadership Structure: The Board has overall responsibility for the oversight of the Funds. The Chair of the Board is an Independent Trustee and the Chair of each Committee of the Board is an Independent Trustee. The Board has five standing Committees: Audit Committee, Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee, Equity Investments Committee, Fixed Income, Multi-Asset and Sub-advised Fund Investments Committee, and Committee of Independent Trustees/Directors. The role of the Chair of the Board is to preside at all meetings of the Board, to act as a liaison with service providers, fund officers, legal counsel and other Trustees generally between meetings and to actively develop meeting agendas. The Chair of each Committee performs a similar role with respect to the Committee. The Chair of the Board or the Chair of a Committee may also perform such other functions as may be delegated by the Board or the Committee, respectively, from time to time.

The Board has regular meetings five times a year, and may hold special meetings if required before its next regular meeting. Each Committee meets regularly to conduct the oversight functions delegated to that Committee by the Board and reports its findings to the Board. The Board and each standing Committee conduct annual assessments of their oversight function and structure. The Board has determined that the Board's leadership structure is appropriate because it allows the Board to exercise independent judgment over management and to allocate areas of responsibility among Committees and the full Board to enhance effective oversight.

Audit CommitteeThis committee monitors accounting and financial reporting policies, practices, and internal controls for the Trust. It also oversees the quality and objectivity of the Trust's financial statements and the independent audit thereof, and acts as a liaison between the Trust's independent registered public accounting firm and the full Board. The committee currently consists of the following Independent Trustees: Frances Sevilla-Sacasa, Chair; H. Jeffrey Dobbs; and Sandra A. J. Lawrence. The Audit Committee held six meetings during the Trust's last fiscal year.

Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee: This committee is responsible for nominating Trustees and making recommendations to the Board concerning Board composition, committee structure and governance, director education, and governance practices. The committee currently consists of the following Independent Trustees: Ann D. Borowiec, Chair; John A. Fry; Joseph Harroz, Jr.; and Thomas K. Whitford (ex officio). The Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee held six meetings during the Trust's last fiscal year.

The committee will consider shareholder recommendations for nomination to the Board only in the event that there is a vacancy on the Board. Shareholders who wish to submit recommendations for nominations to the Board to fill a vacancy must submit their recommendations in writing to the Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee, c/o Delaware Funds at 100 Independence, 610 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19106-2354. At a minimum, the recommendation should include: the name, address and business, educational and/or other pertinent background of the person being recommended; a statement concerning whether the person is an “interested person” as defined in the 1940 Act; any other information that the Funds would be required to include in a proxy statement concerning the person if he or she was nominated; and the name and address of the person submitting the recommendation, together with the number of Fund shares held by such person and the period for which the shares have been held. The recommendation also can include any additional information which the person submitting it believes would assist the committee in evaluating the recommendation.

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In evaluating nominees, the committee considers, among other things, an individual's background, skills, and experience; whether the individual is an “interested person” as defined in the 1940 Act; and whether the individual would be deemed an “audit committee financial expert” within the meaning of applicable SEC rules. The committee also considers whether the individual's background, skills, and experience will complement the background, skills, and experience of other nominees and will contribute to the diversity of the Board.

Investments Committees: Each of the Investments Committees works to assist the Board in the oversight, monitoring, and evaluation of Fund performance, investment related risks and other related matters, meet with the investment management team representatives of the Funds from time to time to discuss investment performance and investment process and perform such other functions as may be delegated to it from time to time by the Board.

The Equity Investments Committee currently consists of the following Independent Trustees: Joseph W. Chow, Chair; Jerome D. Abernathy; H. Jeffrey Dobbs; and Christianna Wood. The Equity Investments Committee held four meetings during the Trust's last fiscal year.

The Fixed Income, Multi-Asset and Sub-advised Fund Investments Committee consists of the following Independent Trustees: Janet L. Yeomans, Chair; Jerome D. Abernathy; Sandra A.J. Lawrence; and Christianna Wood. The Fixed Income, Multi-Asset and Sub-advised Fund Investments Committee held five meetings during the Trust's last fiscal year.

Committee of Independent Trustees/Directors: This committee oversees the approval process of the Funds' advisory and distribution agreements and arrangements, serves as a liaison between the Board and the Manager and the Funds' Chief Compliance Officer and undertakes other responsibilities. The committee is comprised of all of the Trust's Independent Trustees. The Committee of Independent Trustees held four meetings during the Trust's last fiscal year.

Board Role in Risk Oversight: Investing in general and the operation of a Fund involve a variety of risks, such as investment risk, illiquidity risk, compliance risk, and operational risk, among others. The Board oversees risk as part of its oversight of the Funds. Risk oversight is addressed as part of various regular Board and committee activities. The Board, directly or through its committees, reviews reports from among others, the Manager, sub-advisers, the Funds' Chief Compliance Officer, the Funds' independent registered public accounting firm, counsel, and other parties, as appropriate, regarding risks faced by the Funds and the risk management programs of the Manager and certain service providers. The actual day-to-day risk management with respect to the Funds resides with the Manager and other service providers to the Funds. Although the risk management policies of the Manager and the service providers are designed to be effective, those policies and their implementation vary among service providers and over time, and there is no guarantee that they will be effective. Not all risks that may affect the Funds can be identified or processes and controls developed to eliminate or mitigate their occurrence or effects, and some risks are simply beyond any control of the Funds or the Manager, its affiliates or other service providers.

Code of Ethics

The Trust, the Manager, MIMAK, MIMGL, MIMEL, and the Distributor have adopted Codes of Ethics in compliance with the requirements of Rule 17j-1 under the 1940 Act, which govern personal securities transactions. Under the Codes of Ethics, persons subject to the Codes are permitted to engage in personal securities transactions, including securities that may be purchased or held by the Funds, subject to the requirements set forth in Rule 17j-1 under the 1940 Act and certain other procedures set forth in the applicable Code of Ethics. The Codes of Ethics are on public file with, and are available from, the SEC.

Proxy Voting Policy

The Trust has formally delegated to the Manager the responsibility for making all proxy voting decisions in relation to portfolio securities held by the Funds. If and when proxies need to be voted on behalf of the Funds, the Manager and any Macquarie affiliates advising the Funds (collectively, “Macquarie Asset Management Public Investments”) will vote such proxies pursuant to Macquarie Asset Management Public Investments' (“MPI”) Proxy Voting Policies and Procedures (the “Procedures”). MPI has established a Proxy Voting Committee (the “Committee”), which is responsible for overseeing MPI's proxy voting process for the Funds. One of the main responsibilities of the Committee is to review and approve the Procedures to ensure that the Procedures are designed to allow MPI to vote proxies in a manner consistent with the goal of voting in the best interests of the Funds.

In order to facilitate the actual process of voting proxies, MPI has contracted with proxy advisory firms to analyze proxy statements on behalf of the Funds and MPI's other clients and provide MPI with research recommendations on upcoming proxy votes in accordance with the Procedures. The Committee is responsible for overseeing the proxy advisory firms' services. If a proxy has been voted for the Funds, the proxy advisory firm will create a record of the vote. By no later than August 31 of each year, information (if any) regarding how the Funds voted proxies relating to portfolio securities during the most recently disclosed 12-month period ended June 30 is available without charge (i) through the Funds' website at http://www.delawarefunds.com/proxy; and (ii) on the Commission's website at http://www.sec.gov.

When determining whether to invest in a particular company, one of the factors MPI may consider is the quality and depth of the company's management. As a result, MPI believes that recommendations of management on any issue (particularly routine issues) should be given a fair amount of weight in determining how proxy issues should be voted. Thus, on many issues, MPI's votes are cast in accordance with the recommendations of the company's management. However, MPI may vote against management's position when it runs counter to MPI's specific Proxy Voting Guidelines (the “Guidelines”), and MPI will also vote against management's recommendation when MPI believes such position is not in the best interests of the Funds.

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Proxy Voting Policy

As stated above, the Procedures also list specific Guidelines on how to vote proxies on behalf of the Funds. Some examples of the Guidelines are as follows: (i) generally vote for shareholder proposals asking that a majority or more of directors be independent; (ii) generally vote for management or shareholder proposals to reduce supermajority vote requirements, taking into account: ownership structure; quorum requirements; and vote requirements; (iii) votes on mergers and acquisitions should be considered on a case-by-case basis; (iv) generally vote re-incorporation proposals on a case-by-case basis; (v) votes with respect to equity-based compensation plans are generally determined on a case-by-case basis; (vi) generally vote for proposals requesting that a company report on its policies, initiatives, oversight mechanisms, and ethical standards related to social, economic, and environmental sustainability, unless company already provides similar reports through other means or the company has formally committed to the implementation of a reporting program based on Global Reporting Initiative guidelines or a similar standard; and (vii) generally vote for management proposals to institute open-market share repurchase plans in which all shareholders may participate on equal terms.

Because the Trust has delegated proxy voting to MPI, the Funds are not expected to encounter any conflict of interest issues regarding proxy voting and therefore does not have procedures regarding this matter. However, MPI does have a section in its Procedures that addresses the possibility of conflicts of interest. Most of the proxies which MPI receives on behalf of its clients are voted in accordance with the Procedures. Since the Procedures are pre-determined by the Committee, application of the Procedures by MPI's portfolio management teams when voting proxies after reviewing the proxy and research provided by the proxy advisory firms should in most instances adequately address any potential conflicts of interest. If MPI becomes aware of a conflict of interest in an upcoming proxy vote, the proxy vote will generally be referred to the Committee or the Committee's delegates for review. If the portfolio management team for such proxy intends to vote in accordance with the proxy advisory firm's recommendation pursuant to our Procedures, then no further action is needed to be taken by the Committee. If MPI's portfolio management team is considering voting a proxy contrary to the proxy advisory firm's research recommendation under the Procedures, the Committee or its delegates will assess the proposed vote to determine if it is reasonable. The Committee or its delegates will also assess whether any business or other material relationships between MPI and a portfolio company (unrelated to the ownership of the portfolio company's securities) could have influenced an inconsistent vote on that company's proxy. If the Committee or its delegates determines that the proposed proxy vote is unreasonable or unduly influenced by a conflict, the portfolio management team will be required to vote the proxy in accordance with the proxy advisory firm's research recommendation or abstain from voting.

Investment Manager and Other Service Providers

Investment Manager

The Manager, located at 100 Independence, 610 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19106-2354, furnishes investment management services to the Funds, subject to the supervision and direction of the Board. The Manager also provides investment management services to all of the other Delaware Funds. Affiliates of the Manager also manage other investment accounts. While investment decisions for the Funds are made independently from those of the other funds and accounts, investment decisions for such other funds and accounts may be made at the same time as investment decisions for the Funds. The Manager pays the salaries of all Trustees, officers, and employees who are affiliated with both the Manager and the Trust. In the course of discharging its non-portfolio management duties under the advisory contract, the Manager may delegate to affiliates.

Together, the Manager and the other subsidiaries of Macquarie Management Holdings, Inc. (“MMHI”) manage, as of June 30, 2023, approximately $183.5 billion in assets, including mutual funds, separate accounts, and other investment vehicles. The Manager is a series of Macquarie Investment Management Business Trust (a Delaware statutory trust), which is a subsidiary of MMHI. MMHI is a subsidiary, and subject to the ultimate control, of Macquarie Group Limited (“Macquarie”). Macquarie is a Sydney, Australia-headquartered global provider of banking, financial, advisory, investment and funds management services. “Macquarie Asset Management” is the marketing name for certain companies comprising the asset management division of Macquarie Group Limited.

The Funds' Investment Management Agreement (“Investment Management Agreement”) may be renewed each year only so long as such renewal and continuance are specifically approved at least annually by the Board or by vote of a majority of the outstanding voting securities of each Fund, and only if the terms of, and the renewal thereof, have been approved by the vote of a majority of the Independent Trustees of the Trust who are not parties thereto or interested persons of any such party, cast in person at a meeting called for the purpose of voting on such approval. The Investment Management Agreement is terminable without penalty on 60 days' notice by the Trustees of the Trust or by the Manager. The Investment Management Agreement will terminate automatically in the event of its assignment.

As compensation for the services rendered under the Investment Management Agreement, the Funds shall pay the Manager an annual management fee as a percentage of average daily net assets equal to:

Fund Name

Management Fee (annual rate as a percentage of average daily net assets)

Delaware Ivy Global Bond Fund

0.625% of net assets up to $500 million
0.60% of net assets over $500 million and up to $1 billion
0.55% of net assets over $1 billion and up to $1.5 billion
0.50% of net assets over $1.5 billion and up to $5 billion
0.49% of net assets over $5 billion and up to $10 billion
0.48% of net assets over $10 billion

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Fund Name

Management Fee (annual rate as a percentage of average daily net assets)

Delaware Ivy High Income Fund

0.625% of net assets up to $500 million
0.60% of net assets over $500 million and up to $1 billion
0.55% of net assets over $1 billion and up to $1.5 billion
0.50% of net assets over $1.5 billion and up to $10 billion
0.49% of net assets over $10 billion and up to $20 billion
0.48% of net assets over $20 billion

Delaware Global Real Estate Fund

0.95% of net assets up to $1 billion
0.92% of net assets over $1 billion and up to $2 billion
0.87% of net assets over $2 billion and up to $3 billion
0.84% of net assets over $3 billion and up to $5 billion
0.82% of net assets over $5 billion and up to $10 billion
0.80% of net assets over $10 billion

Delaware Ivy Limited-Term Bond Fund

0.50% of net assets up to $500 million
0.45% of net assets over $500 million and up to $1 billion
0.40% of net assets over $1 billion and up to $1.5 billion
0.35% of net assets over $1.5 billion and up to $5 billion
0.34% of net assets over $5 billion and up to $10 billion
0.33% of net assets over $10 billion

Delaware Ivy Managed International Opportunities Fund

0.05% of net assets.

Delaware Ivy Municipal Bond Fund and
Delaware Ivy Municipal High Income Fund

0.525% of net assets up to $500 million
0.50% of net assets over $500 million and up to $1 billion
0.45% of net assets over $1 billion and up to $1.5 billion
0.40% of net assets over $1.5 billion and up to $5 billion
0.395% of net assets over $5 billion and up to $10 billion
0.39% of net assets over $10 billion and up to $15 billion
0.385% of net assets over $15 billion

Delaware Ivy Natural Resources Fund

0.85% of net assets up to $1 billion
0.83% of net assets over $1 billion and up to $2 billion
0.80% of net assets over $2 billion and up to $3 billion
0.76% of net assets over $3 billion and up to $5 billion
0.73% of net assets over $5 billion and up to $10 billion
0.70% of net assets over $10 billion

Delaware Ivy International Value Fund

1.00% of net assets up to $500 million
0.85% of net assets over $500 million and up to $1 billion
0.83% of net assets over $1 billion and up to $2 billion
0.80% of net assets over $2 billion and up to $3 billion
0.76% of net assets over $3 billion and up to $5 billion
0.73% of net assets over $5 billion and up to $10 billion
0.70% of net assets over $10 billion

Delaware Ivy Core Bond Fund

0.525% of net assets up to $500 million
0.50% of net assets over $500 million and up to $1 billion
0.45% of net assets over $1 billion and up to $1.5 billion
0.40% of net assets over $1.5 billion and up to $5 billion
0.395% of net assets over $5 billion and up to $10 billion
0.39% of net assets over $10 billion

Delaware Real Estate Securities Fund

0.90% of net assets up to $1 billion
0.87% of net assets over $1 billion and up to $2 billion
0.84% of net assets over $2 billion and up to $3 billion
0.80% of net assets over $3 billion and up to $5 billion
0.76% of net assets over $5 billion and up to $10 billion
0.72% of net assets over $10 billion

During the last three fiscal years, the Funds paid the following investment management fees to its investment advisor:

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Investment Manager and Other Service Providers

 

Fund

March 31, 2023

March 31, 2022

March 31, 2021

Delaware Ivy Global Bond Fund

$2,716,376 earned
$2,587,712 paid
$128,664 waived

$3,262,322 earned
$3,260,864 paid
$1,468 waived

$2,854,241 earned
$2,854,241 paid
$0 waived

Delaware Ivy High Income Fund

$15,300,833 earned
$15,300,804 paid
$29 waived

$21,322,063 earned
$21,322,063 paid
$0 waived

$21,392,925 earned
$21,392,925 paid
$0 waived

Delaware Global Real Estate Fund

$484,664 earned
$212,398 paid
$272,266 waived

$857,792 earned
$720,370 paid
$151,563 waived

$943,030 earned
$777,542 paid
$165,488 waived

Delaware Ivy Limited-Term Bond Fund

$3,471,426 earned
$3,231,151 paid
$240,275 waived

$5,195,060 earned
$5,195,060 paid
$0 waived

$5,352,509 earned
$5,352,509 paid
$0 waived

Delaware Ivy Managed International Opportunities Fund

$48,608 earned
$10,294 paid
$38,314 waived

$84,195 earned
$24,645 paid
$59,550 waived

$84,348 earned
$65,180 paid
$19,168 waived

Delaware Ivy Municipal Bond Fund

$2,410,699 earned
$2,081,721 paid
$328,978 waived

$3,754,054 earned
$3,754,054 paid
$0 waived

$3,914,436 earned
$3,914,436 paid
$0 waived

Delaware Ivy Municipal High Income Fund

$3,426,069 earned
$3,324,661 paid
$101,408 waived

$4,946,720 earned
$4,946,720 paid
$0 waived

$5,155,505 earned
$5,155,505 paid
$0 waived

Delaware Ivy Natural Resources Fund

$2,294,493 earned
$2,146,433 paid
$148,060 waived

$2,095,637 earned
$2,071,380 paid
$24,257 waived

$1,862,084 earned
$1,862,084 paid
$0 waived

Delaware Ivy International Value Fund

$1,152,392 earned
$878,310 paid
$274,082 waived

$1,907,503 earned
$1,907,503 paid
$0 waived

$2,243,765 earned
$1,772,594 paid
$471,171 waived

Delaware Ivy Core Bond Fund

$3,023,401 earned
$1,951,660 paid
$1,071,741 waived

$5,505,131 earned
$4,322,665 paid
$1,237,115 waived

$6,062,508 earned
$4,763,557 paid
$1,298,951 waived

Delaware Real Estate Securities Fund

$2,075,566 earned
$1,871,226 paid
$204,340 waived

$2,970,622 earned
$2,965,435 paid
$5,187 waived

$2,916,484 earned
$2,592,447 paid
$324,037 waived

Except for those expenses borne by the Manager under the Investment Management Agreement, and the Distributor under the Distribution Agreement, each Fund is responsible for all of its own expenses. Among others, such expenses include each Fund's proportionate share of certain administrative expenses; investment management fees; transfer and dividend disbursing fees and costs; accounting services; custodian expenses; federal and state securities registration fees; proxy costs; and the costs of preparing prospectuses and reports sent to shareholders.

Sub-Advisors

The Manager has entered into sub-advisory agreements on behalf of certain of the Funds, as described below, with MMIMAK, MIMEL and MIMGL, each of which is an affiliate of the Manager (the “Affiliated Sub-Advisors”).

MIMAK, located at Kaerntner Strasse 28, 1010 Vienna, Austria, is an affiliate of the Manager and a part of Macquarie Asset Management (MAM). MAM is the marketing name for certain companies comprising the asset management division of Macquarie Group Limited. As of June 30, 2023, MAM managed approximately $357.9 billion in assets for institutional and individual clients. The Manager has entered into a separate sub-advisory agreement with MIMAK for Delaware Ivy Managed International Opportunities Fund and compensates MIMAK out of the investment advisory fees it receives from that Fund. In addition to the services MIMAK provides to Delaware Ivy Managed International Opportunities Fund, and although the Manager has principal responsibility for all investment advisory services for the Funds, with respect to Delaware Ivy Global Bond Fund, Delaware Ivy High Income Fund, Delaware Ivy Limited-Term Bond Fund, and Delaware Ivy Core Bond Fund, the Manager may seek investment advice and recommendations from MIMAK and the Manager may also permit MIMAK to execute Fund security trades on behalf of the Manager and exercise investment discretion for securities in certain markets where the Manager believes it will be beneficial to utilize MIMAK's specialized market knowledge.

MIMEL, located at 28 Ropemaker Street, London, England, is an affiliate of the Manager and a part of MAM. The Manager has entered into a separate sub-advisory agreement with MIMEL for Delaware Global Real Estate Fund and Delaware Real Estate Securities Fund and compensates MIMEL out of the

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investment advisory fees it receives from those Funds. In addition to the services MIMEL provides to those Funds, and although the Manager has principal responsibility for all investment advisory services for the Funds, with respect to Delaware Ivy High Income Fund, Delaware Ivy Global Bond Fund, Delaware Ivy Limited-Term Bond Fund and Delaware Ivy Core Bond Fund, the Manager may seek investment advice and recommendations from MIMEL and the Manager may also permit MIMEL to execute Fund security trades on behalf of the Manager and exercise investment discretion for securities in certain markets where the Manager believes it will be beneficial to utilize MIMEL's specialized market knowledge.

MIMGL, located at 50 Martin Place, Sydney, Australia, is an affiliate of the Manager and a part of MAM. The Manager has entered into a separate sub-advisory agreement with MIMGL for Delaware Global Real Estate Fund and Delaware Real Estate Securities Fund and compensates MIMGL out of the investment advisory fees it receives from those Funds. In addition to the services MIMGL provides to those Funds, and although the Manager has principal responsibility for all investment advisory services for the Funds, with respect to Delaware Ivy Managed International Opportunities Fund, Delaware Ivy Natural Resources Fund, and Delaware Ivy International Value Fund, the Manager may seek quantitative support from MIMGL, and may permit MIMGL to execute Fund security trades on behalf of the Manager, and with respect to Delaware Ivy Global Bond Fund, Delaware Ivy High Income Fund, Delaware Ivy Limited-Term Bond Fund, and Delaware Ivy Core Bond Fund, the Manager may seek fixed income investment advice and recommendations from MIMGL and exercise investment discretion for securities in certain markets where the Manager believes it will be beneficial to utilize MIMGL's specialized market knowledge.

Pursuant to the terms of the relevant sub-advisory agreement, the investment sub-advisory fee is paid by the Manager to each Affiliated Sub-Advisor based on the extent to which an Affiliated Sub-Advisor provides services to the Funds.

The Manager has paid MIMAK the following investment sub-advisory fees during the fiscal year ended March 31, 2023 (shown on an aggregated basis):

 

March 31, 2023

Delaware Ivy Global Bond Fund

$14,559

Delaware Ivy High Income Fund

$9,439

Delaware Ivy Limited-Term Bond Fund

$684

Delaware Ivy Managed International Opportunities Fund

$122,094

The investment sub-advisory fees (shown on an aggregated basis) paid to MIMAK as a percentage of each Fund's average daily net assets were as follows:

 

March 31, 2023*

Delaware Ivy Global Bond Fund

0.00%

Delaware Ivy High Income Fund

0.00%

Delaware Ivy Limited-Term Bond Fund

0.00%

Delaware Ivy Managed International Opportunities Fund

0.13%

*The annualized investment sub-advisory fee for each Fund is calculated as a percentage of the average daily net assets of the Fund managed by the sub-advisor.

The Manager has paid MIMGL the following investment sub-advisory fees during the fiscal year ended March 31, 2023 (shown on an aggregated basis):

 

March 31, 2023

Delaware Global Real Estate Fund

$37,311

Delaware Real Estate Securities Fund

$181,619

The investment sub-advisory fees (shown on an aggregated basis) paid to MIMGL as a percentage of the Fund's average daily net assets were as follows:

 

March 31, 2023*

Delaware Global Real Estate Fund

0.07%

Delaware Real Estate Securities Fund

0.07%

*The annualized investment sub-advisory fee for the Fund is calculated as a percentage of the average daily net assets of the Fund managed by the sub-advisor.

The Manager has paid MIMEL the following investment sub-advisory fees during the fiscal year ended March 31, 2023 (shown on an aggregated basis):

 

March 31, 2023

Delaware Ivy Global Bond Fund

$826,382

Delaware Ivy Limited-Term Bond Fund

$1,350

Delaware Ivy High Income Fund

$18,239

Delaware Global Real Estate Fund

$19,288

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Investment Manager and Other Service Providers

 

March 31, 2023

Delaware Real Estate Securities Fund

$93,818

The investment sub-advisory fees (shown on an aggregated basis) paid to MIMEL as a percentage of each Fund's average daily net assets were as follows:

 

March 31, 2023*

Delaware Ivy Global Bond Fund

0.19%

Delaware Ivy Limited-Term Bond Fund

0.00%

Delaware Ivy High Income Fund

0.00%

Delaware Global Real Estate Fund

0.04%

Delaware Real Estate Securities Fund

0.04%

*The annualized investment sub-advisory fee for each Fund is calculated as a percentage of the average daily net assets of the Fund managed by the sub-advisor.

Distributor

The Distributor, Delaware Distributors, L.P., located at 100 Independence, 610 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19106-2354, serves as the national distributor of the Funds' shares under a Distribution Agreement dated April 30, 2021. The Distributor is an affiliate of the Manager and bears all of the costs of promotion and distribution, except for payments by the Retail Classes under their respective Rule 12b-1 Plans. The Distributor is an indirect subsidiary of MMHI and, therefore, of Macquarie. The Distributor has agreed to use its best efforts to sell shares of the Funds. See the Prospectus for information on how to invest. Shares of the Funds are offered on a continuous basis by the Distributor and may be purchased through authorized investment dealers or directly by contacting the Distributor or the Trust. The Distributor also serves as the national distributor for the Delaware Funds. The Board annually reviews fees paid to the Distributor.

During the fiscal years ended March 31, 2023 and March 31, 2022, the Funds' distributor received net commissions from each Fund on behalf of its respective Class A shares, after reallowances to dealers, as follows:

Fiscal Year End

Total Amount of

Underwriting

Commissions

Amounts
Reallowed to Dealers

Net Commission to Distributor

Delaware Ivy Global Bond Fund

 

 

 

3/31/2023

$35,228

$29,608

$5,620

3/31/2022*

$99,930

$65,559

$34,371

Delaware Ivy High Income Fund

 

 

 

3/31/2023

$663,261

$509,177

$154,084

3/31/2022*

$1,761,142

$967,193

$793,949

Delaware Global Real Estate Fund

 

 

 

3/31/2023

$4,914

$3,751

$1,163

3/31/2022*

$5,907

$3,200

$2,707

Delaware Ivy Limited-Term Bond Fund

 

 

 

3/31/2023

$156,052

$115,029

$41,023

3/31/2022*

$592,083

$370,639

$221,444

Delaware Ivy Managed International
Opportunities Fund

 

 

 

3/31/2023

$20,198

$15,015

$5,183

3/31/2022*

$50,666

$26,322

$24,344

Delaware Ivy Municipal Bond Fund

 

 

 

3/31/2023

$45,004

$37,237

$7,767

3/31/2022*

$231,079

$167,347

$63,732

Delaware Ivy Municipal High Income Fund

 

 

 

3/31/2023

$86,068

$72,420

$13,648

3/31/2022*

$423,225

$311,023

$112,202

Delaware Ivy Natural Resources Fund

 

 

 

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Fiscal Year End

Total Amount of

Underwriting

Commissions

Amounts
Reallowed to Dealers

Net Commission to Distributor

3/31/2023

$111,431

$76,205

$35,226

3/31/2022*

$144,638

$74,378

$70,260

Delaware Ivy International Value Fund

 

 

 

3/31/2023

$18,545

$13,896

$4,649

3/31/2022*

$33,088

$17,720

$15,368

Delaware Ivy Core Bond Fund

 

 

 

3/31/2023

$55,261

$41,275

$13,986

3/31/2022*

$184,102

$100,629

$83,473

Delaware Real Estate Securities Fund

 

 

 

3/31/2023

$63,846

$43,121

$20,725

3/31/2022*

$123,874

$65,503

$58,371

 

*

Ivy Distributors, Inc., the Funds' former distributor, served for a portion of this fiscal year.

During the fiscal years ended March 31, 2023 and March 31, 2022, the Funds' distributor received, in the aggregate, limited contingent deferred sales charge (“Limited CDSC”) payments with respect to Class A shares and contingent deferred sales charge (“CDSC”) payments with respect to Class C shares as follows:

Fiscal Year End

Class A

Class C

Delaware Ivy Global Bond Fund

 

3/31/2023

$662

$71

3/31/2022*

$1,050

$225

Delaware Ivy High Income Fund

 

3/31/2023

$6,677

$5,901

3/31/2022*

$2,970

$4,009

Delaware Global Real Estate Fund

 

3/31/2023

$27

$14

3/31/2022*

$2

$27

Delaware Ivy Limited-Term Bond Fund

 

3/31/2023

$3,448

$941

3/31/2022*

$1,930

$1,164

Delaware Ivy Managed International Opportunities Fund

 

3/31/2023

$375

$84

3/31/2022*

$53

$52

Delaware Ivy Municipal Bond Fund

 

3/31/2023

$11,932

$230

3/31/2022*

$719

$112

Delaware Ivy Municipal High Income Fund

 

3/31/2023

$12,166

$929

3/31/2022*

$8,285

$683

Delaware Ivy Natural Resources Fund

 

3/31/2023

$593

$417

3/31/2022*

$369

$174

Delaware Ivy International Value Fund

 

3/31/2023

$522

$603

3/31/2022*

$290

$0

Delaware Ivy Core Bond Fund

 

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Investment Manager and Other Service Providers

Fiscal Year End

Class A

Class C

3/31/2023

$649

$843

3/31/2022*

$577

$977

Delaware Real Estate Securities Fund

 

3/31/2023

$129

$87

3/31/2022*

$176

$55

 

*

Ivy Distributors, Inc., the Funds' former distributor, served for a portion of this fiscal year.

The dollar amounts of underwriting commissions for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2021 for Class A shares and Class C shares of each of the Funds were as follows:

Fund

Class A shares*

Class C shares*

Delaware Ivy Global Bond Fund

$36,782

$1,128

Delaware Ivy High Income Fund

$768,719

$31,001

Delaware Global Real Estate Fund

$4,203

$11

Delaware Ivy Limited-Term Bond Fund

$540,880

$9,685

Delaware Ivy Managed International Opportunities Fund

$32,856

$75

Delaware Ivy Municipal Bond Fund

$175,589

$583

Delaware Ivy Municipal High Income Fund

$299,001

$4,211

Delaware Ivy Natural Resources Fund

$71,560

$1,014

Delaware Ivy International Value Fund

$19,447

$27

Delaware Ivy Core Bond Fund

$160,205

$4,228

Delaware Real Estate Securities Fund

$50,132

$96

 

*

Ivy Distributors, Inc., the Funds' former distributor, served as the Funds' distributor for all of the fiscal year ended March 31, 2021.

The amounts retained by Ivy Distributors, Inc., the Funds' former distributor, for each Fund for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2021 were as follows:

Fund

March 31, 2021

Delaware Ivy Global Bond Fund

$6,346

Delaware Ivy High Income Fund

$159,127

Delaware Global Real Estate Fund

$1,300

Delaware Ivy Limited-Term Bond Fund

$42,170

Delaware Ivy Managed International Opportunities Fund

$8,401

Delaware Ivy Municipal Bond Fund

$32,957

Delaware Ivy Municipal High Income Fund

$69,474

Delaware Ivy Natural Resources Fund

$19,542

Delaware Ivy International Value Fund

$2,543

Delaware Ivy Core Bond Fund

$38,577

Delaware Real Estate Securities Fund

$16,251

Transfer Agent

Effective June 24, 2022, Delaware Investments Fund Services Company (DIFSC) became the transfer agent for the Funds. DIFSC, an affiliate of the Manager, is located at 100 Independence, 610 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19106-2354, and serves as the Funds' shareholder servicing, dividend disbursing, and transfer agent (the "Transfer Agent") pursuant to a Shareholder Services Agreement.

The Transfer Agent is an indirect subsidiary of MMHI and, therefore, of Macquarie. The Transfer Agent also acts as shareholder servicing, dividend disbursing, and transfer agent for the other Delaware Funds. The Transfer Agent is paid a fee by the Funds for providing these services consisting of an asset-based fee and certain out-of-pocket expenses. The Transfer Agent will bill, and the Funds will pay, such compensation monthly. Omnibus and networking fees charged by financial intermediaries and subtransfer agency fees are passed on to and paid directly by the Funds. The Transfer Agent's compensation is fixed each year and approved by the Board, including a majority of the Independent Trustees.

Prior to June 24, 2022, Waddell & Reed Services Company, doing business as WI Services Company ("WISC"), or one of WISC's agents performed shareholder servicing functions, including the maintenance of shareholder accounts, the issuance, transfer and redemption of shares, distribution of dividends and payment of redemptions, the furnishing of related information to the Funds and the handling of shareholder inquiries.

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Each Fund has authorized, in addition to the Transfer Agent, one or more brokers to accept purchase and redemption orders on its behalf. Such brokers are authorized to designate other intermediaries to accept purchase and redemption orders on behalf of the Funds. For purposes of pricing, the Funds will be deemed to have received a purchase or redemption order when an authorized broker or, if applicable, a broker's authorized designee, accepts the order.

BNY Mellon Investment Servicing (US) Inc. ("BNYMIS") provides subtransfer agency services to the Funds. In connection with these services, BNYMIS administers the overnight investment of cash pending investment in the Funds or payment of redemptions. The proceeds of this investment program are used to offset the Funds' transfer agency expenses.

Fund Accountants

The Bank of New York Mellon ("BNY Mellon"), 240 Greenwich Street, New York, NY 10286-0001, provides fund accounting and financial administration services to the Funds. Those services include performing functions related to calculating the Funds' NAVs and providing financial reporting information, regulatory compliance testing, and other related accounting services. For these services, the Funds pay BNY Mellon an asset-based fee, subject to certain fee minimums plus certain out-of-pocket expenses and transactional charges. DIFSC provides fund accounting and financial administration oversight services to the Funds. Those services include overseeing the Funds' pricing process, the calculation and payment of fund expenses, and financial reporting in shareholder reports, registration statements, and other regulatory filings. DIFSC also manages the process for the payment of dividends and distributions and the dissemination of Funds' NAVs and performance data. For these services, the Funds pay DIFSC an asset-based fee, subject to certain fee minimums, plus certain out-of-pocket expenses, and transactional charges. The fees payable to BNY Mellon and DIFSC under the service agreements described above will be allocated among all funds in the Delaware Funds on a relative NAV basis.

Waddell & Reed Services Company, doing business as WISC, (or a sub-agent) previously provided the Funds with bookkeeping and accounting services and assistance and other administrative services, including maintenance of Fund records, pricing of Fund shares, preparation of prospectuses for existing shareholders, preparation of proxy statements and certain shareholder reports.

Fees paid for accounting services during the past three fiscal years ended March 31, 2023, March 31, 2022 and March 31, 2021 for each of the Funds were as follows:

Fund

March 31, 2023

March 31, 2022*

March 31, 2021*

Delaware Ivy Global Bond Fund

$129,479

$136,088

$140,886

Delaware Ivy High Income Fund

$427,212

$303,021

$275,415

Delaware Global Real Estate Fund

$50,909

$46,374

$59,529

Delaware Ivy Limited-Term Bond Fund

$208,460

$248,481

$274,487

Delaware Ivy Managed International Opportunities Fund

$61,130

$7,287

$43,040

Delaware Ivy Municipal Bond Fund

$158,303

$146,664

$212,613

Delaware Ivy Municipal High Income Fund

$201,998

$241,136

$264,538

Delaware Ivy Natural Resources Fund

$85,255

$89,023

$93,347

Delaware Ivy International Value Fund

$74,800

$88,637

$95,163

Delaware Ivy Core Bond Fund

$197,627

$228,661

$274,487

Delaware Real Estate Securities Fund

$95,098

$118,675

$105,258

 

*

WISC provided accounting services to the Funds for all or a portion of this fiscal year.

Securities Lending Agent

The Board has approved each Fund's participation in a securities lending program. Under the securities lending program, BNY Mellon serves as the Funds' securities lending agent (“Securities Lending Agent”).

For the fiscal year ended March 31, 2023, the income earned by the Funds as well as the fees and/or compensation paid by the Funds pursuant to the Lending Agreement between the Trust with respect to the Funds and the Securities Lending Agent were as follows:

Securities Lending Activities

Delaware Ivy Global Bond Fund

Delaware Ivy High Income Fund

Delaware Global Real Estate Fund

Gross income from securities lending activities

$188,098

$2,561,816

$420

Fees and/or compensation paid by a Fund for securities lending activities and related services

Fees paid to Securities Lending Agent from revenue split

$6,606

$383,727

$38

Fees paid for any cash collateral management service (including fees deducted from a pooled cash collateral reinvestment vehicle) not included in revenue split

$0

$0

$0

Administrative fees not included in revenue split

$0

$0

$0

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Investment Manager and Other Service Providers

Securities Lending Activities

Delaware Ivy Global Bond Fund

Delaware Ivy High Income Fund

Delaware Global Real Estate Fund

Indemnification fees not included in revenue split

$0

$0

$0

Rebates paid to (received from) borrowers

$105,490

($2,234,806)

($57)

Other fees not included above

$0

$0

$0

Aggregate fees/compensation paid by (paid to) a Fund for securities lending activities

$112,096

($1,851,079)

($19)

Net income from securities lending activities

$76,002

$4,412,895

$439

 

Securities Lending Activities

Delaware Ivy Limited-Term Bond Fund

Delaware Ivy
Natural Resources Fund

Delaware Ivy
International Value Fund

Gross income from securities lending activities

$178,341

$273,662

$92,891