Anfield Universal Fixed Income ETF

 

AFIF

 

a series of Two Roads Shared Trust

 

PROSPECTUS

November 30, 2021

 

 

www.RegentsParkFunds.com

 

1-866-866-4848

 

 

 

 

This Prospectus provides important information about the Anfield Universal Fixed Income ETF (the “Fund”) that you should know before investing. Please read it carefully and keep it for future reference.

 

These securities have not been approved or disapproved by the Securities and Exchange Commission nor has the Securities and Exchange Commission passed upon the accuracy or adequacy of this Prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

Shares of the Fund are listed and traded on Cboe BZX Exchange, Inc. (the “Exchange”)

 
 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

FUND SUMMARY     1  
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ABOUT
PRINCIPAL INVESTMENT STRATEGIES AND RELATED RISKS
    10  
Investment Objective     10  
Principal Investment Strategies     10  
Principal and Other Investment Risks     10  
Portfolio Holdings Disclosure     23  
Cybersecurity     23  
MANAGEMENT     23  
Investment Adviser     23  
Investment Sub-Adviser     24  
Portfolio Managers     24  
DETERMINATION OF NET ASSET VALUE     24  
HOW TO BUY AND SELL SHARES     25  
FREQUENT PURCHASES AND REDEMPTIONS OF FUND SHARES     26  
DISTRIBUTION AND SERVICE PLAN     26  
DIVIDENDS, OTHER DISTRIBUTIONS AND TAXES     27  
FUND SERVICE PROVIDERS     28  
OTHER INFORMATION     29  
FINANCIAL HIGHLIGHTS     30  
PRIVACY NOTICE     31  

 
 

FUND SUMMARY– ANFIELD UNIVERSAL FIXED INCOME ETF

 

Investment Objective: The Anfield Universal Fixed Income ETF (the “Fund”) seeks current income.

 

Fees and Expenses of the Fund: This table describes the fees and expenses that you may pay if you buy, hold and sell shares of the Fund. You may pay other fees, such as brokerage commissions and other fees to financial intermediaries, which are not reflected in the table and Example below.

 

Annual Fund Operating Expenses

(expenses that you pay each year as a percentage of the value of your investment)

 
Management Fees 0.75%
Distribution and Service (12b-1) Fees 0.00%
Other Expenses 0.25%
Acquired Fund Fees and Expenses(1) 0.01%
Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses 1.01%
(1) Acquired Fund Fees and Expenses are the indirect costs of investing in other investment companies. The operating expenses in this fee table will not correlate to the expense ratio in the Fund’s financial highlights because the financial statements include only the direct operating expenses incurred by the Fund.

 

Example: This Example is intended to help you compare the cost of investing in the Fund with the cost of investing in other funds.

 

The Example assumes that you invest $10,000 in the Fund for the time periods indicated and then redeem all of your shares at the end of those periods. The Example also assumes that your investment has a 5% return each year and that the Fund’s operating expenses remain the same. Although your actual costs may be higher or lower, based upon these assumptions your costs would be:

 

1 Year 3 Years 5 Years 10 Years
$103 $323 $560 $1,241

 

Portfolio Turnover: The Fund pays transaction costs, such as commissions, when it buys and sells securities (or “turns over” its portfolio). A higher portfolio turnover rate may indicate higher transaction costs and may result in higher taxes when Fund shares are held in a taxable account. These costs, which are not reflected in annual fund operating expenses or in the Example, affect the Fund’s performance. For the fiscal period ended July 31, 2021, the Fund’s portfolio turnover rate was 135% of the average value of its portfolio.

 

Principal Investment Strategies: The Fund is an actively managed exchange-traded fund (“ETF”) that normally invests at least 80% of its net assets, including any borrowings for investment purposes, in a diversified portfolio of fixed income instruments. The Fund is not managed relative to an index and has broad flexibility to allocate its assets across different types of securities and sectors of the fixed income markets. The principal investments of the Fund include corporate bonds, U.S. government and agency securities, master-limited partners (“MLPs”) (tied to energy-related commodities), private debt, foreign sovereign bonds, convertible securities, bank loans, asset-backed securities, mortgage-backed securities, and cash equivalent instruments. To a lesser extent, the Fund may invest in dividend-paying common stocks. The Fund may also invest in various types of derivatives, including futures, options, credit default swaps, total return swaps and repurchase agreements. The Fund may use derivatives as a substitute for making direct investments in underlying instruments, to reduce certain exposures or to “hedge” against market volatility and other risks. The Fund may also invest in other investment companies, including other ETFs.

 

The Fund may invest in fixed income instruments with fixed or adjustable (floating) rates. The Fund does not seek to maintain any particular weighted average maturity or duration, and may invest in fixed income instruments of any maturity or duration. The Fund may invest in both investment grade and below investment grade (often referred to as “high yield” or “junk” bonds) securities, subject to a maximum of up to 50% of the Fund’s assets in below investment grade securities. The Fund will typically invest a substantial portion of the Fund’s investments in securities of issuers with a range of credit ratings that have stable or improving fundamentals. Securities of these issuers include secured bank loans and below investment grade bonds. The Fund may invest without limit in U.S. and non-U.S. dollar-denominated securities of U.S. and foreign issuers, including investing up to 20% of its net assets in issuers located in emerging market countries.

 

Although the Fund normally does not engage in any direct borrowing, leverage is inherent in the derivatives it trades. While Federal law limits bank borrowings to one-third of a fund’s assets (which includes the borrowed amount), the use of derivatives is not limited in the same manner. Federal law generally requires the Fund to segregate or “earmark” liquid assets or otherwise cover the market exposure of its derivatives. Leverage magnifies exposure to the swings in prices of the reference asset underlying a derivative and results in increased volatility, which means the Fund will generally have the potential for greater gains, as well as the potential for greater losses, than a fund that does not use derivatives.

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The Fund’s investment process includes both a top-down macroeconomic analysis and a bottom-up analysis of individual securities. In its evaluation of a potential investment, the Fund conducts a fundamental analysis of the individual issuer, reviews the valuation of the security and the relative valuations of similar securities, and analyzes the supply and demand for the security in the market. The Fund seeks to identify companies in stable and growing sectors of the economy that generate sufficient revenue to meet their debt obligations. The Fund will sell a portfolio holding when the security no longer meets its investment criteria or when a more attractive investment is available.

 

The Fund is actively managed and may engage in frequent trading.

 

Principal Investment Risks. As with all funds, there is the risk that you could lose money through your investment in the Fund. An investment in the Fund is not guaranteed to achieve its investment objective; is not a deposit with a bank; is not insured, endorsed or guaranteed by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation or any other government agency; and is subject to investment risks. The value of your investment in the Fund, as well as the amount of return you receive on your investment, may fluctuate significantly. You may lose part or all of your investment in the Fund or your investment may not perform as well as other similar investments. The Fund is not intended to be a complete investment program but rather one component of a diversified investment portfolio. Many factors affect the Fund’s net asset value and performance. Each risk summarized below is a principal risk of investing in the Fund and different risks may be more significant at different times depending upon market conditions or other factors.

 

The following describes the risks the Fund bears directly or indirectly through investments in underlying funds. As with any fund, there is no guarantee that the Fund will achieve its goal.

 

Management Risk. The Fund’s investment strategies may not result in an increase in the value of your investment in the Fund or in overall performance equal to other similar investment vehicles having similar investment strategies to those of the Fund. The Sub-Adviser determines the intrinsic value of the securities the Fund holds and its assessment may be incorrect, which may result in a decline in the value of Fund shares and failure to achieve its investment objective. The Fund’s portfolio managers use qualitative analyses and/or models. Any imperfections or limitations in such analyses or models could affect the ability of the portfolio managers to implement strategies.

 

Market Risk. Overall market risk may affect the value of individual instruments in which the Fund invests. The Fund is subject to the risk that the securities markets will move down, sometimes rapidly and unpredictably, based on overall economic conditions and other factors, which may negatively affect the Fund’s performance. Factors such as domestic and foreign (non-U.S.) economic growth and market conditions, real or perceived adverse economic or political conditions, inflation, changes in interest rate levels, lack of liquidity in the bond or other markets, volatility in the equities or other securities markets or adverse investor sentiment and political events affect the securities markets. Securities markets also may experience long periods of decline in value. When the value of the Fund’s investments goes down, your investment in the Fund decreases in value and you could lose money.

 

Local, state, regional, national or global events such as war, acts of terrorism, the spread of infectious illness or other public health issues, recessions, or other events could have a significant impact on the Fund and its investments and could result in decreases to the Fund’s net asset value. Political, geopolitical, natural and other events, including war, terrorism, trade disputes, government shutdowns, market closures, natural and environmental disasters, epidemics, pandemics and other public health crises and related events and governments’ reactions to such events have led, and in the future may lead, to economic uncertainty, decreased economic activity, increased market volatility and other disruptive effects on U.S. and global economies and markets. Such events may have significant adverse direct or indirect effects on the Fund and its investments. For example, a widespread health crisis such as a global pandemic could cause substantial market volatility, exchange trading suspensions and closures, impact the ability to complete redemptions, and affect Fund performance. A health crisis may exacerbate other pre-existing political, social and economic risks. In addition, the increasing interconnectedness of markets around the world may result in many markets being affected by events or conditions in a single country or region or events affecting a single or small number of issuers.

 

Fixed Income Securities Risk. Fixed income securities are subject to interest rate risk, call risk, prepayment and extension risk, credit risk, duration risk, and liquidity risk. In addition, current market conditions may pose heightened risks for fixed income securities. When the Fund invests in fixed income securities or derivatives, the value of your investment in the Fund will fluctuate with changes in interest rates. Typically, a rise in interest rates causes a decline in the value of fixed income securities or derivatives owned by the Fund. In general, the market price of fixed income securities with longer maturities or durations will increase or decrease more in response to changes in interest rates than shorter-term securities. Risks associated with rising interest rates are heightened given that interest rates in the U.S. currently remain near historic lows. Other risk factors include credit risk (the debtor may default) and prepayment risk (the debtor may pay its obligation early, reducing the amount of interest payments). These risks could affect the value of a particular investment by the Fund, possibly causing the Fund’s share price and total return to be reduced and fluctuate more than other types of investments. Moreover, new regulations applicable to and changing business practices of financial intermediaries that make markets in fixed income securities have resulted in less market making activity for certain fixed income securities, which has reduced the liquidity and may increase the volatility for such fixed income securities. Liquidity may decline unpredictably in response to overall economic conditions or credit tightening. For example, a general rise in interest rates may cause investors to move out of fixed income securities on a large scale, which could adversely affect the price and liquidity of fixed income securities and could also result in increased redemptions for the Fund. Duration risk arises when holding long duration and long maturity investments, which will magnify certain risks, including interest rate risk and credit risk. Effective duration estimates price changes for relatively small changes in rates. If rates rise significantly, effective duration may tend to understate the drop in a security’s price. If rates drop significantly, effective duration may tend to overstate the rise in a security’s price.

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Active Trading Risk. A higher portfolio turnover due to active and frequent trading will result in higher transactional and brokerage costs that may result in lower investment returns.

 

Authorized Participant Concentration Risk. To the extent that authorized participants are unable or otherwise unavailable to proceed with creation and/or redemption orders and no other authorized participant is able to create or redeem in their place, shares may trade at a discount to net asset value (“NAV”) and may face delisting.

 

Bank Loan Risk. The Fund’s investments in secured and unsecured participations in bank loans and assignments of such loans may create substantial risk. In making investments in such loans, which are made by banks or other financial intermediaries to borrowers, the Fund will depend primarily upon the creditworthiness of the borrower for payment of principal and interest.

 

Common Stock Risk. The stock (i.e., equity) market can be volatile. Equity securities are susceptible to general market fluctuations and volatile increases and decreases in value as market confidence in and perceptions of their issuers change. The prices of stocks can fall rapidly in response to developments affecting a specific company or industry, or to changing economic, political or market conditions.

 

Convertible Securities Risk. The market value of a convertible security performs like that of a regular debt security; that is, if market interest rates rise, the value of a convertible security usually falls. In addition, convertible securities are subject to the risk that the issuer will not be able to pay interest or dividends when due, and their market value may change based on changes in the issuer’s credit rating or the market’s perception of the issuer’s creditworthiness. Since it derives a portion of its value from the common stock into which it may be converted, a convertible security is also subject to the same types of market and issuer risks that apply to the underlying common stock.

 

Counterparty Credit Risk. The Fund may enter into various types of derivative contracts. Many of these derivative contracts will be privately negotiated in the over-the-counter market. These contracts also involve exposure to credit risk, since contract performance depends in part on the financial condition of the counterparty. The stability and liquidity of many derivative transactions depends in large part on the creditworthiness of the parties to the transactions. If a counterparty to such a transaction defaults, exercising contractual rights may involve delays or costs for the Fund. Furthermore, there is a risk that a counterparty could become the subject of insolvency proceedings, and that the recovery of securities and other assets from such counterparty will be delayed or be of a value less than the value of the securities or assets originally entrusted to such counterparty. If a privately negotiated over-the-counter contract calls for payments by the Fund, the Fund must be prepared to make such payments when due. In addition, if a counterparty’s creditworthiness declines, the Fund may not receive payments owed under the contract, or such payments may be delayed under such circumstances and the value of agreements with such counterparty can be expected to decline, potentially resulting in losses to the Fund. The Adviser considers factors such as counterparty credit ratings and financial statements among others when determining whether a counterparty is creditworthy. The Adviser regularly monitors the creditworthiness of each counterparty with which the Fund enters into a transaction. In addition, the Fund may enter into swap agreements that involve a limited number of counterparties, which may increase the Fund’s exposure to counterparty risk.

 

Credit Risk. The risk that the Fund could lose money if the issuer or guarantor of a fixed income security is unwilling or unable to make timely payments to meet its contractual obligations on investments held by the Fund. Changes in the credit rating of a debt security held by the Fund could have a similar effect.

 

Credit Spread Risk. The risk that credit spreads (or the difference in yield between securities that is due to differences in their credit quality) may increase when the market expects lower-grade bonds to default more frequently. Widening credit spreads may quickly reduce the market values of lower-rated securities.

 

Currency Risk. The risk that foreign (non-U.S.) currencies will decline in value relative to the U.S. dollar and adversely affect the value of the Fund’s investments in foreign (non-U.S.) currencies or in securities that trade in, and receive revenues in, or in derivatives that provide exposure to, foreign (non-U.S.) currencies.

 

Cybersecurity Risk. There is risk to the Fund of an unauthorized breach and access to fund assets, customer data (including private shareholder information), or proprietary information, or the risk of an incident occurring that causes the Fund, the Adviser, the Sub-Adviser, custodian, transfer agent, distributor and other service providers and financial intermediaries (collectively, the “Service Providers”) to suffer data breaches, data corruption or lose operational functionality. Successful cyber-attacks or other cyber-failures or events affecting the Fund or its Service Providers may adversely impact the Fund or its shareholders.

 

Derivatives Risk. The derivative instruments in which the Fund may invest, including futures, options, credit default swaps, total return swaps, repurchase agreements and other similar instruments, may be more volatile than other instruments and may be subject to unanticipated market movements, which are potentially unlimited. The use of derivative instruments involves risks different from, or possibly greater than, the risks associated with investing directly in securities and other traditional investments, and certain derivatives may create a risk of loss greater than the amount invested. These risks include (i) the risk that the counterparty to a derivative transaction may not fulfill its contractual obligations; (ii) risk of mispricing or improper valuation; and (iii) the risk that changes in the value of the derivative may not correlate perfectly with the underlying asset, rate or index. The risks associated with investments in derivatives also

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include liquidity, interest rate, market, credit and management risks. In addition, if a derivative is being used for hedging purposes there can be no assurance given that each derivative position will achieve a perfect correlation with the security or currency against which it is being hedged, or that a particular derivative position will be available when sought by the portfolio manager. Derivative prices are highly volatile and may fluctuate substantially during a short period of time. Such prices are influenced by numerous factors that affect the markets, including, but not limited to: changing supply and demand relationships; government programs and policies; and national and international political and economic events, changes in interest rates, and inflation and deflation.

 

Emerging Markets Risk. Investing in emerging markets involves not only the risks described herein with respect to investing in foreign securities, but also other risks, including exposure to economic structures that are generally less diverse and mature, and to political systems that can be expected to have less stability, than those of developed countries. The typically small size of the markets may also result in a lack of liquidity and in price volatility of these securities. Emerging markets are riskier than more developed markets because they tend to develop unevenly and may never fully develop. Investments in emerging markets may be considered speculative and share the risks of foreign developed markets but to a greater extent. Emerging markets are more likely to experience hyperinflation and currency devaluations, which adversely affect returns to U.S. investors. In addition, many emerging financial markets have far lower trading volumes and less liquidity than developed markets, which may result in increased price volatility of emerging market investments. The legal remedies for investors in emerging markets may be more limited than the remedies available in the U.S., and the ability of U.S. authorities (e.g., SEC and the U.S. Department of Justice) to bring actions against bad actors may be limited.

 

ETF Structure Risks. The Fund is structured as an ETF and as a result is subject to special risks, including:

· Not Individually Redeemable. Shares are not individually redeemable and may be redeemed by the Fund at NAV only in large blocks known as “Creation Units.” You may incur brokerage costs purchasing enough shares to constitute a Creation Unit.
· Trading Issues. Trading in shares on the Exchange may be halted due to market conditions or for reasons that, in the view of the Exchange, make trading in shares inadvisable, such as extraordinary market volatility. There can be no assurance that shares will continue to meet the listing requirements of the Exchange. An active trading market for the Fund’s shares may not be developed or maintained. If the Fund’s shares are traded outside a collateralized settlement system, the number of financial institutions that can act as authorized participants that can post collateral on an agency basis is limited, which may limit the market for the Fund’s shares.
· Market Price Variance Risk. The market prices of shares will fluctuate in response to changes in NAV and supply and demand for shares and will include a “bid-ask spread” charged by the exchange specialists, market makers or other participants that trade the particular security. There may be times when the market price and the NAV vary significantly. This means that shares may trade at a discount or premium to NAV. If a shareholder purchases shares at a time when the market price is at a premium to the NAV or sells shares at a time when the market price is at a discount to NAV, the shareholder may sustain losses if the shares are sold at a price that is less than the price paid by the shareholder for the shares.
o In times of market stress, such as what was experienced during the COVID-19 pandemic, market makers may step away from their role market making in shares of ETFs and in executing trades, which can lead to differences between the market value of Fund shares and the Fund’s NAV.
o The market price for the Fund’s shares may deviate from the Fund’s NAV, particularly during times of market stress, with the result that investors may pay significantly more or significantly less for Fund shares than the Fund’s NAV, which is reflected in the bid and ask price for Fund shares or in the closing price.
o When all or a portion of an ETFs underlying securities trade in a market that is closed when the market for the Fund’s shares is open, there may be changes from the last quote of the closed market and the quote from the Fund’s domestic trading day, which could lead to differences between the market value of the Fund’s shares and the Fund’s NAV.
o In stressed market conditions, the market for the Fund’s shares may become less liquid in response to the deteriorating liquidity of the Fund’s portfolio. This adverse effect on the liquidity of the Fund’s shares may, in turn, lead to differences between the market value of the Fund’s shares and the Fund’s NAV.

 

Fluctuation of Net Asset Value Risk. Unlike conventional ETFs, the Fund is not an index fund. The Fund is actively managed and does not seek to replicate the performance of a specified index. The NAV of the Fund’s shares will generally fluctuate with changes in the market value of the Fund’s holdings. The market prices of the shares will generally fluctuate in accordance with changes in NAV as well as the relative supply of and demand for the shares on the Exchange. The Adviser cannot predict whether the shares will trade below, at or above their NAV. Price differences may be due, in large part, to the fact that supply and demand forces at work in the secondary trading market for the shares will be closely related to, but not identical to, the same forces influencing the prices of the Fund’s holdings trading individually or in the aggregate at any point in time. Actively managed ETFs have a limited trading history and, therefore, there can be no assurance as to whether and/or the extent to which the Shares will trade at premiums or discounts to NAV.

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Foreign (Non-U.S.) Investment Risk. Foreign (non-U.S.) securities present greater investment risks than investing in the securities of U.S. issuers and may experience more rapid and extreme changes in value than the securities of U.S. companies, due to less information about foreign (non-U.S.) companies in the form of reports and ratings than about U.S. issuers; different accounting, auditing and financial reporting requirements; smaller markets; nationalization; expropriation or confiscatory taxation; currency blockage; or political changes or diplomatic developments. Foreign (non-U.S.) securities may also be less liquid and more difficult to value than securities of U.S. issuers.

 

Foreign securities include direct investments in non-U.S. dollar-denominated securities traded primarily outside of the United States and dollar-denominated securities of foreign issuers. Foreign securities also include indirect investments such as American Depositary Receipts (“ADRs”), European Depositary Receipts (“EDRs”) and Global Depositary Receipts (“GDRs”). ADRs are U.S. dollar-denominated receipts representing shares of foreign-based corporations. ADRs are receipts that are traded in the United States and entitle the holder to all dividend and capital gain distributions that are paid out on the underlying foreign shares. EDRs and GDRs are receipts that often trade on foreign exchanges. They represent ownership in an underlying foreign or U.S. security and generally are denominated in a foreign currency. Foreign government obligations may include debt obligations of supranational entities, including international organizations (such as The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, also known as the World Bank) and international banking institutions and related government agencies.

 

Futures Contract Risk. Futures contracts are subject to the same risks as the underlying investments that they represent, but also may involve risks different from, and possibly greater than, the risks associated with investing directly in the underlying investments. Investments in futures contracts involve additional costs, may be more volatile than other investments and may involve a small initial investment relative to the risk assumed. In connection with the Fund’s use of futures contracts, if the value of investments is incorrectly forecasted, the Fund might have been in a better position if the Fund had not entered into the contract. Because the futures utilized by the Fund are standardized and exchange-traded, where the exchange serves as the ultimate counterparty for all contracts, the primary credit risk on futures contracts is the creditworthiness of the exchange itself. Futures are also subject to market risk, interest rate risk (in the case of futures contracts relating to income producing securities) and index tracking risk (in the case of stock index futures).

 

Gap Risk. The Fund is subject to the risk that a stock price or derivative value will change dramatically from one level to another with no trading in between and/or before the Fund can exit the investment. Usually such movements occur when there are adverse news announcements, which can cause a stock price or derivative value to drop substantially from the previous day’s closing price. Trading halts may lead to gap risk.

 

Hedging Transactions Risk. The Adviser from time to time employs various hedging techniques. The success of the Fund’s hedging strategy will be subject to the Adviser’s ability to correctly assess the degree of correlation between the performance of the instruments used in the hedging strategy and the performance of the investments in the portfolio being hedged. Because the characteristics of many securities change as markets change or time passes, the success of the Fund’s hedging strategy will also be subject to the Adviser’s ability to continually recalculate, readjust, and execute hedges in an efficient and timely manner. For a variety of reasons, the Adviser may not seek to establish a perfect correlation between such hedging instruments and the portfolio holdings being hedged. Such imperfect correlation may prevent the Fund from achieving the intended hedge or expose the Fund to risk of loss. In addition, it is not possible to hedge fully or perfectly against any risk, and hedging entails its own costs.

 

High Yield Risk. Investment in or exposure to high yield (lower rated or below investment grade) debt instruments (also known as “junk bonds”) may involve greater levels of interest rate, credit, liquidity and valuation risk than for higher rated instruments. High yield debt instruments are considered predominantly speculative and are higher risk than investment grade instruments with respect to the issuer’s continuing ability to make principal and interest payments and, therefore, such instruments generally involve greater risk of default or price changes than higher rated debt instruments.

 

Index Risk. If a derivative is linked to the performance of an index, it will be subject to the risks associated with changes in that index.

 

Investment Companies and Exchange-Traded Funds Risks. When the Fund invests in other investment companies, including closed-end funds and ETFs, it will bear additional expenses based on its pro rata share of the other investment company’s or ETF’s operating expenses, including the management fees of the investment company or ETF in addition to those paid by the Fund. The risk of owning an investment company or ETF generally reflects the risks of owning the underlying investments held by the investment company or ETF. The Fund will also incur brokerage costs when it purchases and sells closed-end funds and ETFs. The Fund may invest in inverse ETFs, which may result in increased volatility and will magnify the Fund’s losses or gains. During periods of market volatility, inverse ETFs may not perform as expected.

 

Issuer-Specific Risk. The value of a specific security can be more volatile than the market as a whole and may perform worse than the market as a whole.

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Leveraging Risk. As part of the Fund’s principal investment strategy, the Fund may make investments in derivatives instruments such as total return swaps, forward and futures contracts. These derivative instruments provide the economic effect of financial leverage by creating additional investment exposure to the underlying instrument. Financial leverage will magnify, sometimes significantly, the Fund’s exposure to any increase or decrease in prices associated with a particular reference asset resulting in increased volatility in the value of the Fund’s portfolio. Certain derivatives require the Fund to make margin payments, a form of security deposit intended to protect against nonperformance of the derivative contract. The Fund may have to post additional margin if the value of the derivative position changes in a manner adverse to the Fund. The use of leverage may increase expenses and increase the impact of the Fund’s other risks and small changes in the value of the underlying instrument may produce disproportionate losses to the Fund. While such financial leverage has the potential to produce greater gains, it also may result in greater losses, which in some cases may cause the Fund to liquidate portfolio positions when it may not be advantageous to do so to satisfy its obligations to meet additional margin requirements or to meet collateral segregation requirements or regulatory requirements, resulting in increased volatility of returns. Leverage, including borrowing, may cause the Fund to be more volatile than if the Fund had not been leveraged.

 

LIBOR Risk. The Fund may invest in securities and other instruments whose interest payments are determined by references to the London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”).

 

The United Kingdom Financial Conduct Authority, which regulates LIBOR, announced that after 2021 it will cease its active encouragement of banks to provide the quotations needed to sustain LIBOR. On March 5, 2021, ICE Benchmark Administration Limited, the administrator of LIBOR, announced its intention to cease publishing a majority of the USD LIBOR rates immediately after publication on June 30, 2023, with the remaining USD LIBOR rates to end immediately after publication on December 31, 2021. The U.S. Federal Reserve, based on the recommendations of the New York Federal Reserve’s Alternative Reference Rate Committee (comprised of major derivative market participants and their regulators), has begun publishing Secured Overnight Financing Rate (SOFR), a broad measure of secured overnight U.S. Treasury repo rates, that is intended to replace USD LIBOR. Proposals for alternative reference rates for other currencies have also been announced or have already begun publication. The unavailability of LIBOR presents risks to the Fund, including the risk that any pricing or adjustments to the Fund’s investments resulting from a substitute or alternate reference rate may adversely affect the Fund’s performance and/or NAV. It remains uncertain how such changes would be implemented and the effects such changes would have on the Fund, including any negative effects on the Fund’s liquidity and valuation of the Fund’s investments, issuers of instruments in which the Fund invests and financial markets generally.

 

Liquidity Risk. Liquidity risk exists when particular investments of the Fund would be difficult to purchase or sell, possibly preventing the Fund from selling such illiquid securities at an advantageous time or price, or possibly requiring the Fund to dispose of other investments at unfavorable times or prices in order to satisfy its obligations. In the past, in stressed markets, certain types of securities suffered periods of illiquidity if disfavored by the market. All of these risks may increase during periods of market turmoil, such as that experienced in 2020 with COVID-19 and could have a negative effect on the Fund’s performance.

 

Market Events Risk. There has been increased volatility, depressed valuations, decreased liquidity and heightened uncertainty in the financial markets during the past several years, including, what was experienced in 2020. These conditions may continue, recur, worsen or spread. The U.S. government and the Federal Reserve, as well as certain foreign governments and central banks, have taken steps to support financial markets, including by keeping interest rates at historically low levels. This and other government intervention may not work as intended, particularly if the efforts are perceived by investors as being unlikely to achieve the desired results. The U.S. government and the Federal Reserve may reduce market support activities. Such reduction, including interest rate increases, could negatively affect financial markets generally, increase market volatility and reduce the value and liquidity of securities in which the Fund invests. Policy and legislative changes in the United States and in other countries may also continue to contribute to decreased liquidity and increased volatility in the financial markets. The impact of these changes on the markets, and the practical implications for market participants, may not be fully known for some time.

 

MLP Risk. An investment in MLP units involves certain risks which differ from an investment in the securities of a corporation. Holders of MLP units have limited control and voting rights on matters affecting the partnership. In addition, there are certain tax risks associated with an investment in MLP units and conflicts of interest exist between common unit holders of MLPs and the general partner, including those arising from incentive distribution payments. Risks of MLPs include the following: a decrease in the production of natural gas, natural gas liquids, crude oil, coal or other energy commodities; or a decrease in the volume of such commodities available for transportation, mining, processing, storage or distribution, which may adversely impact the financial performance of MLPs or MLP-related securities. In addition, investing in MLPs involves certain risks related to investing in the underlying assets of the MLPs. The amount of cash that any MLP has available to pay its unit holders in the form of distributions/dividends depends on the amount of cash flow generated from such company’s operations. Cash flow from operations will vary from quarter to quarter and is largely dependent on factors affecting the MLP’s operations and factors affecting the energy, natural resources or real estate sectors in general. MLPs were adversely impacted by the reduced demand for oil and other energy commodities as a result of the slowdown in economic activity resulting from the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic, which triggered an unprecedented sell-off of energy pipeline and midstream companies in 2020. Recently, global oil prices have experienced significant volatility, including a period where an oil-price futures contract fell into negative territory for the first time in history. Reduced production and continued oil price volatility may adversely impact the value of the Fund’s investments in MLPs and energy infrastructure companies.

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Mortgage-Backed and Asset-Backed Securities Risk. The risk of investing in mortgage-backed and other asset-backed securities, including prepayment risk, extension risk, interest rate risk, market risk and management risk. Mortgage-backed securities include caps and floors, inverse floaters, mortgage dollar rolls, private mortgage pass-through securities, resets and stripped mortgage securities. A systemic and persistent increase in interest rate volatility may also negatively impact a number of the Fund’s mortgage-backed and asset-backed securities holdings. The Fund will invest less than 25% of its net assets in asset-backed securities or mortgage-backed securities that are below-investment grade.

 

Odd Lot Pricing Risk. Bonds may be purchased and held as smaller sized bond positions known as “odd lots”. Pricing services generally value such securities based on bid prices for larger institutional sized bond positions known as “round lots”; and such round lot prices may reflect more favorable pricing than odd lot holdings. The Fund may purchase securities suitable for its investment strategies in odd lots. Special valuation considerations may apply with respect to the Fund’s odd-lot positions, as the Fund may receive different prices when it sells such positions than it would receive for sales of institutional round lot positions. The Fund may fair value a particular bond if the Adviser does not believe that the round lot value provided by the independent pricing service reflects fair value of the Fund’s holding. There can be no assurance that the Fund’s valuation procedures will result in pricing data that is completely congruent with prices that the Fund might obtain on the open market.

 

Portfolio Turnover Risk. The Fund may experience high portfolio turnover, including investments made on a shorter-term basis, which may lead to increased Fund expenses that may result in lower investment returns. A higher portfolio turnover may result in higher transactional and brokerage costs. High portfolio turnover may also result in higher short-term capital gains taxable to shareholders.

 

Prepayment and Extension Risk. Many types of fixed income securities are subject to prepayment risk. Prepayment occurs when the issuer of a fixed income security can repay principal prior to the security’s maturity. Fixed income securities subject to prepayment can offer less potential for gains during a declining interest rate environment and similar or greater potential for loss in a rising interest rate environment and accordingly, a decline in the Fund’s NAV. In addition, the potential impact of prepayment features on the price of a fixed income security can be difficult to predict and result in greater volatility. On the other hand, rising interest rates could cause prepayments of the obligations to decrease, extending the life of mortgage- and asset-backed securities with lower payment rates. This is known as extension risk and may increase the Fund’s sensitivity to rising rates and its potential for price declines.

 

Regulatory Risk. Changes in the laws or regulations of the United States or other countries, including any changes to applicable tax laws and regulations, could impair the ability of the Fund to achieve its investment objective and could increase the operating expenses of the Fund. For example, the SEC recently adopted regulations that will subject activities of funds trading certain derivative instruments to additional regulation, which may increase the operating expenses of the Fund and impair the Fund’s ability to achieve its investment objective.

 

Sector Risk. The risk that if the Fund invests a significant portion of its total assets in certain issuers within the same economic sector, an adverse economic, business or political development or natural or other event, including war, terrorism, natural and environmental disasters, epidemics, pandemics and other public health crises, affecting that sector may affect the value of the Fund’s investments more than if the Fund’s investments were not so focused. While the Fund may not concentrate in any one industry, the Fund may invest without limitation in a particular sector. Also, a significant dislocation in one or more industries (e.g, financial, energy, etc.) could put pressure on bonds issued by those sectors.

 

Securities Lending Risk. The risks associated with lending portfolio securities, as with other extensions of secured credit, include, but are not limited to, possible delays in receiving additional collateral or in the recovery of the securities loaned, possible loss of rights in the collateral should the borrower fail financially, as well as risk of loss in the value of the collateral or the value of the investments made with the collateral.

 

Swap Risk. Swap agreements are subject to the risk that the counterparty to the swap will default on its obligation to pay the Fund and the risk that the Fund will not be able to meet its obligations to pay the counterparty to the swap. In addition, there is the risk that a swap may be terminated by the Fund or the counterparty in accordance with its terms. If a swap were to terminate, the Fund may be unable to implement its investment strategies and the Fund may not be able to achieve its investment objective.

· Credit Default Swaps Risk. A credit default swap enables an investor to buy or sell protection against a credit event with respect to an issuer. Credit default swaps involve risks because they are difficult to value, are highly susceptible to liquidity and credit risk, and generally pay a return to the party that has paid the premium only in the event of an actual default by the issuer of the underlying obligation (as opposed to a credit downgrade or other indication of financial difficulty). The Fund bears the loss of the amount expected to be received under a swap agreement in the event of the default or bankruptcy of a swap agreement counterparty.
· Total Return Swaps Risk. A total return swap is a contract in which one party agrees to make periodic payments to another party based on the change in market value of the assets underlying the contract, which may include a specified security, basket of securities, or securities indices during the specified period, in return for periodic payments based on a fixed or variable interest rate or the total return from other underlying assets. Total return swap agreements may be used to obtain exposure to a security or market without owning or taking physical custody of such security or investing directly in such market. Total return swap agreements may effectively add leverage to the Fund’s portfolio because, in addition to its total net assets, the Fund would be subject to investment exposure on the notional amount of the swap. The primary risks associated with total return swaps are credit risk (if the counterparty fails to meet its obligations) and market risk (if there is no liquid market for the agreement or unfavorable changes occur to the underlying asset).
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U.S. Government Securities Risk. Treasury obligations may differ in their interest rates, maturities, times of issuance and other characteristics. Obligations of U.S. Government agencies and authorities are supported by varying degrees of credit but generally are not backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Government. No assurance can be given that the U.S. Government will provide financial support to its agencies and authorities if it is not obligated by law to do so. In addition, the value of U.S. Government securities may be affected by changes in the credit rating of the U.S. Government.

 

Valuation Risk. The sale price that the Fund could receive for a portfolio security may differ from the Fund’s valuation of the security, particularly for securities that trade in low volume or volatile markets or that are valued using a fair value methodology. In addition, the value of the securities in the Fund’s portfolio may change on days when shareholders will not be able to purchase or sell the Fund’s shares.

 

Variable or Floating Rate Securities Risk. Variable and floating rate securities generally are less sensitive to interest rate changes but may decline in value if their interest rates do not rise as much, or as quickly, as interest rates in general. Floating rate securities will not generally increase in value if interest rates decline.

 

Volatility Risk. The Fund’s investments may appreciate or decrease significantly in value over short periods of time. The value of an investment in the Fund’s portfolio may fluctuate due to factors that affect markets generally or that affect a particular industry or sector. The value of an investment in the Fund’s portfolio may also be more volatile than the market as a whole. This volatility may affect the Fund’s NAV per share, including by causing it to experience significant increases or declines in value over short periods of time. Events or financial circumstances affecting individual investments, industries or sectors may increase the volatility of the Fund.

 

Performance: The bar chart and performance table below show the variability of the Fund’s returns, which is some indication of the risks of investing in the Fund, by showing changes in the Fund’s performance from year to year and by showing the Fund’s one-year and since inception performance compared with those of a broad measure of market performance. The bar chart shows performance of the Fund’s shares for each calendar year since the Fund’s inception. The performance table compares the performance of the Fund over time to the performance of a broad-based securities market index. You should be aware that the Fund’s past performance (before and after taxes) is not necessarily an indication of how the Fund will perform in the future. Updated performance information is available at no cost by visiting www.RegentsParkFunds.com or by calling 1-866-866-4848.

 

Performance Bar Chart for Calendar Years Ended December 31st:

Highest Quarter: 03/31/2019 1.44%
Lowest Quarter: 09/30/2019 -0.97%

 

The Fund’s year to date return for the period ended September 30, 2021 was: -0.28%

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Performance Table

Average Annual Total Returns

(For the year ended December 31, 2020)

  One
Year
Since
Inception(1)
Return before taxes 1.68% 0.93%
Return after taxes on Distributions 1.16% 0.13%
Return after taxes on Distributions and Sale of Fund Shares 0.99% 0.37%

Ice BofA Merrill Lynch US Dollar LIBOR 3-Month Constant Maturity Index(2)

(reflects no deduction for fees, expenses or taxes)

1.08% 1.89%
(1) Inception date is September 28, 2018.
(2) The ICE BofA Merrill Lynch US Dollar LIBOR 3-Month Constant Maturity Index is designed to track the performance of a synthetic asset paying LIBOR to a stated maturity. The index is based on the assumed purchase at par of a synthetic instrument having exactly its stated maturity and with a coupon equal to that day’s fixing rate. That issue is assumed to be sold the following business day (priced at a yield equal to the current day fixing rate) and rolled into a new instrument. Investors cannot invest directly in an index or benchmark. Index returns are gross of any fees, brokerage commissions or other expenses of investing.

 

After-tax returns are calculated using the historical highest individual federal marginal income tax rates and do not reflect the impact of state and local taxes. Actual after-tax returns depend on an investor’s tax situation and may differ from those shown above, and after-tax returns shown are not relevant to investors who hold their Fund shares through tax-deferred arrangements, such as 401(k) plans or individual retirement accounts.

 

Investment Adviser: Regents Park Funds, LLC (“Regents Park” or the “Adviser”) serves as investment adviser to the Fund.

 

Sub-Adviser: Anfield Capital Management, LLC (“Anfield” or the “Sub-Adviser”) serves as sub-adviser to the Fund.

 

Portfolio Managers: The Fund is jointly managed by Cyrille Conseil, Head of Portfolio Management, Peter van de Zilver, Head of Portfolio Manager Analytics and Risk Management, and David Young, Chief Executive Officer. Messrs. Conseil, van de Zilver and Young have managed the Fund since it commenced operations in 2018.

 

Purchase and Sale of Fund Shares: The Fund will issue and redeem shares at NAV only in large blocks of 25,000 shares
(each block of shares is called a “Creation Unit”). Creation Units are issued and redeemed for cash and/or in-kind for securities. Except when aggregated in Creation Units, the shares are not redeemable securities of the Fund.

 

Shares of the Fund are listed for trading on the Cboe BZX Exchange, Inc. (the “Exchange”) and trade at market prices rather than NAV. Individual shares may only be purchased and sold in secondary market transactions through brokers or dealers at market price. Because shares trade at market prices, rather than NAV, shares of the Fund may trade at a price that is greater than NAV (i.e., a premium), at NAV, or less than NAV (i.e., a discount).

 

An investor may incur costs attributable to the difference between the highest price a buyer is willing to pay to purchase shares of the Fund (bid) and the lowest price a seller is willing to accept for shares of the Fund (ask) when buying or selling shares in the secondary market (the “bid-ask spread”).

 

Recent information, including information about the Fund’s NAV, market price, premiums and discounts, and bid-ask spreads, is included on the Fund’s website at www.regentparkfunds.com.

 

Tax Information: The Fund’s distributions generally will be taxable at ordinary income or long-term capital gain rates. A sale of shares may result in capital gain or loss.

 

Payments to Broker-Dealers and Other Financial Intermediaries: If you purchase shares of the Fund through a broker-dealer or other financial intermediary (such as a bank), the Fund and its related companies, including the Adviser, may pay the intermediary for the sale of Fund shares and related services. These payments may create a conflict of interest by influencing the broker-dealer or other intermediary and your salesperson to recommend the Fund over another investment. Ask your salesperson or visit your financial intermediary’s website for more information.

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ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ABOUT PRINCIPAL INVESTMENT STRATEGIES AND RELATED RISKS 

 

Investment Objective: The Fund seeks current income. The Fund’s investment objective may be changed by the Fund’s Board of Trustees upon 60 days, prior written notice to shareholders.

 

Principal Investment Strategies: The Fund is an actively managed ETF that normally invests at least 80% of its net assets, including any borrowings for investment purposes, in a diversified portfolio of fixed income instruments. The Fund is not managed relative to an index and has broad flexibility to allocate its assets across different types of securities and sectors of the fixed income markets. The principal investments of the Fund include corporate bonds, U.S. government and agency securities, master-limited partners (“MLPs”) (tied to energy-related commodities), private debt, foreign sovereign bonds, convertible securities, bank loans, asset-backed securities, mortgage-backed securities, and cash equivalent instruments. To a lesser extent, the Fund may invest in dividend-paying common stocks. The Fund may also invest in various types of derivatives, including futures, options, credit default swaps, total return swaps and repurchase agreements. The Fund may use derivatives as a substitute for making direct investments in underlying instruments, to reduce certain exposures or to “hedge” against market volatility and other risks. Derivative instruments used by the Fund will be counted towards the 80% policy discussed above to the extent they have economic characteristics similar to the securities included within that policy. The Fund may also invest in other investment companies, including other ETFs.

 

The Fund may invest in fixed income instruments with fixed or adjustable (floating) rates. The Fund does not seek to maintain any particular weighted average maturity or duration and may invest in fixed income instruments of any maturity or duration. The Fund may invest in both investment grade and below investment grade (often referred to as “high yield” or “junk” bonds) securities, subject to a maximum of up to 50% of the Fund’s assets in below investment grade securities. The Fund will typically invest a substantial portion of the Fund’s investments in securities of issuers with a range of credit ratings that have stable or improving fundamentals. Securities of these issuers include secured bank loans and below investment grade bonds. The Fund may invest without limit in U.S. and non-U.S. dollar-denominated securities of U.S. and foreign issuers, including investing up to 20% of its net assets in issuers located in emerging market countries.

 

Although the Fund normally does not engage in any direct borrowing, leverage is inherent in the derivatives it trades. While Federal law limits bank borrowings to one-third of a fund’s assets (which includes the borrowed amount), the use of derivatives is not limited in the same manner. Federal law generally requires the Fund to segregate or “earmark” liquid assets or otherwise cover the market exposure of its derivatives. Leverage magnifies exposure to the swings in prices of the reference asset underlying a derivative and results in increased volatility, which means the Fund will generally have the potential for greater gains, as well as the potential for greater losses, than a fund that does not use derivatives.

 

The Fund’s investment process includes both a top-down macroeconomic analysis and a bottom-up analysis of individual securities. In its evaluation of a potential investment, the Fund conducts a fundamental analysis of the individual issuer, reviews the valuation of the security and the relative valuations of similar securities, and analyzes the supply and demand for the security in the market. The Fund seeks to identify companies in stable and growing sectors of the economy that generate sufficient revenue to meet their debt obligations. The Fund will sell a portfolio holding when the security no longer meets its investment criteria or when a more attractive investment is available.

 

In response to market, economic, political or other conditions, the Fund may temporarily use a different investment strategy for defensive purposes. Such a strategy could include investing up to 100% of the Fund’s assets in cash or cash equivalent securities such as U.S. Treasury securities and money market mutual funds. To the extent that the Fund invests in money market mutual funds for cash positions, there will be some duplication of expenses because the Fund pays its pro-rata portion of such money market funds’ advisory fees and operational fees. Defensive investing could affect the Fund’s performance and the Fund might not achieve its investment objectives. The Fund may also invest a substantial portion of its assets in such instruments at any time to maintain liquidity or pending selection of investments in accordance with its policies.

 

The Fund is actively managed and may engage in frequent trading.

 

Principal and other Investment Risks 

 

As with all funds, there is the risk that you could lose money through your investment in the Fund. An investment in the Fund is not guaranteed to achieve its investment objective; is not a deposit with a bank; is not insured, endorsed or guaranteed by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation or any other government agency; and is subject to investment risks. Neither the Adviser nor the Sub-Adviser can guarantee that the Fund will achieve its objectives. The value of your investment in the Fund, as well as the amount of return you receive on your investment, may fluctuate significantly. You may lose part or all of your investment in the Fund or your investment may not perform as well as other similar investments. The Fund is not intended to be a complete investment program but rather one component of a diversified investment portfolio. Many factors affect the Fund’s net asset value and performance. It is important that investors closely review and understand these risks before making an investment in the Fund. Additional information regarding the principal and certain other risks of investing in the Fund is provided below. The Fund’s Statement of Additional Information (“SAI”), which is incorporated by reference into this Prospectus, includes more information about the Fund and its investments and risks. The risks described in this Prospectus (and in the SAI) are not intended to include every potential risk of investing in the Fund. The Fund could be subject to additional risks because the types of investments it makes may change over time.

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The following describes the risks the Fund bears directly or indirectly through investments in underlying funds.

 

Active Trading Risk. A higher portfolio turnover may result in higher transactional and brokerage costs associated with the turnover which may reduce the Fund’s return, unless the instruments traded can be bought and sold without corresponding commission costs. Active trading of instruments may also increase the Fund’s realized capital gains or losses, which may affect the taxes you pay as a Fund shareholder.

 

Authorized Participant Concentration Risk. To the extent that authorized participants are unable or otherwise unavailable to proceed with creation and/or redemption orders and no other authorized participant is able to create or redeem in their place, shares may trade at a discount to NAV and may face delisting.

 

Bank Loan Risk. The Fund’s investments in secured and unsecured participations in bank loans and assignments of such loans may create substantial risk. In making investments in such loans, which are made by banks or other financial intermediaries to borrowers, the Fund will depend primarily upon the creditworthiness of the borrower for payment of principal and interest. If the Fund does not receive scheduled interest or principal payments on such indebtedness, the Fund’s share price could be adversely affected. The Fund may invest in loan participations that are rated by a NRSRO or are unrated, and may invest in loan participations of any credit quality, including “distressed” companies with respect to which there is a substantial risk of losing the entire amount invested. In addition, certain bank loans in which the Fund may invest may be illiquid and, therefore, difficult to value and/or sell at a price that is beneficial to the Fund. The Fund may also gain exposure to bank loans through investments in investment companies and ETFs that invest in such instruments. In addition to the risks associated with bank loans, such investments would carry the risks associated with investment companies and ETFs, discussed below.

 

Cash Redemption Risk. The Fund may pay out its redemption proceeds in cash rather than through the in-kind delivery of portfolio securities. The Fund may be required sell portfolio securities in order to obtain the cash needed to distribute redemption proceeds. This may cause the Fund to recognize a capital gain that it might not have incurred if it had made a redemption in-kind. As a result, the Fund may pay out higher annual capital gains distributions than if the in-kind redemption process was used. Only certain institutional investors known as authorized participants who have entered into an agreement with the Fund’s distributor may redeem shares from the Fund directly; all other investors buy and sell shares at market prices on the Exchange.

 

Collateralized Loan Obligations Risk. The Fund is subject to certain risks as a result of its investments in CLOs. The CLO’s performance is linked to the expertise of the CLO manager. One of the primary risks to investors of a CLO is the potential change in CLO manager, over which the Fund will have no control. The Fund may be adversely affected by new (or revised) laws or regulations that may be imposed by government regulators or self-regulatory organizations that supervise the financial markets. CLO debt securities are limited recourse obligations of their issuers. If income from the underlying loans is insufficient to make payments on the CLO debt, no other assets will be available for payment. In the event of an early redemption, holders of the CLO debt being redeemed will be repaid earlier than the stated maturity of the debt. The timing of redemptions may adversely affect the returns on CLO debt. The CLO manager may not find suitable assets in which to invest during the reinvestment period or to replace assets that the manager has determined are no longer suitable for investment. Additionally, there is a risk that the reinvestment period may terminate early if, for example, the CLO defaults on payments on the securities which it issues or if the CLO manager determines that it can no longer reinvest in underlying assets.

 

Common Stock Risk. The stock (i.e., equity) market can be volatile. Equity securities are susceptible to general market fluctuations and volatile increases and decreases in value as market confidence in and perceptions of their issuers change. The prices of stocks can fall rapidly in response to developments affecting a specific company or industry, or to changing economic, political or market conditions.

 

Convertible Securities Risk. Convertible securities include fixed income securities that may be exchanged or converted into a predetermined number of the issuer’s common stock at the option of the holder during a specified period. The market value of a convertible security performs like that of a regular debt security; that is, if market interest rates rise, the value of a convertible security usually falls. In addition, convertible securities are subject to the risk that the issuer will not be able to pay interest or dividends when due, and their market value may change based on changes in the issuer’s credit rating or the market’s perception of the issuer’s creditworthiness. Since it derives a portion of its value from the common stock into which it may be converted, a convertible security is also subject to the same types of market and issuer risks that apply to the underlying common stock. Convertible securities subject the Fund to the risks associated with both fixed-income securities and equity securities. If a convertible security’s investment value is greater than its conversion value, its price will likely increase when interest rates fall and decrease when interest rates rise. If the conversion value exceeds the investment value, the price of the convertible security will tend to fluctuate directly with the price of the underlying equity security.

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Counterparty Credit Risk. The stability and liquidity of many derivatives transactions, including repurchase agreements, swap transactions, forwards and over-the-counter derivative transactions depend in large part on the creditworthiness of the parties to the transactions. The Fund may enter into various types of derivative contracts. Many of these derivative contracts will be privately negotiated in the over-the-counter market. These contracts also involve exposure to credit risk, since contract performance depends in part on the financial condition of the counterparty. If a counterparty to such a transaction defaults, exercising contractual rights may involve delays or costs for the Fund. Furthermore, there is a risk that a counterparty could become the subject of insolvency proceedings and that the recovery of securities and other assets from such counterparty will be delayed or be of a value less than the value of the securities or assets originally entrusted to such counterparty. If a privately negotiated over-the-counter contract calls for payments by the Fund, the Fund must be prepared to make such payments when due. In addition, if a counterparty’s creditworthiness declines, the Fund may not receive payments owed under the contract, or such payments may be delayed under such circumstances and the value of agreements with such counterparty can be expected to decline, potentially resulting in losses to the Fund. The Adviser considers factors such as counterparty credit ratings and financial statements among others when determining whether a counterparty is creditworthy. The Adviser regularly monitors the creditworthiness of each counterparty with which the Fund enters into a transaction. In addition, the Fund may enter into swap agreements that involve a limited number of counterparties, which may increase the Fund’s exposure to counterparty risk.

 

Transactions in certain types of swaps (including credit default swaps) are also required to be centrally cleared (“cleared derivatives”). In a transaction involving cleared derivatives, the Fund’s counterparty is a clearing house, rather than a bank or broker. Since the Fund is not a member of clearing houses and only members of a clearing house (“clearing members”) can participate directly in the clearing house, the Fund will hold cleared derivatives through accounts at clearing members. In cleared derivatives positions, the Fund will make payments (including margin payments) to and receive payments from a clearing house through their accounts at clearing members. Clearing members guarantee performance of their clients’ obligations to the clearing house. In contrast to bilateral derivatives transactions, following a period of advance notice to the Fund, clearing members generally can require termination of existing cleared derivatives transactions at any time and increases in margin above the margin that it required at the beginning of a transaction. Clearing houses also have broad rights to increase margin requirements for existing transactions and to terminate transactions. Any such increase or termination could interfere with the ability of the Fund to pursue its investment strategy. Also, the Fund is subject to execution risk if it enters into a derivatives transaction that is required to be cleared (or that the Adviser expects to be cleared), and no clearing member is willing or able to clear the transaction on the Fund’s behalf. While the documentation in place between the Fund and its clearing members generally provides that the clearing members will accept for clearing all transactions submitted for clearing that are within credit limits specified by the clearing members in advance, the Fund could be subject to this execution risk if the Fund submits for clearing transactions that exceed such credit limits, if the clearing house does not accept the transactions for clearing, or if the clearing members do not comply with their agreement to clear such transactions. In that case, the transaction might have to be terminated, and the Fund could lose some or all of the benefit of any increase in the value of the transaction after the time of the transaction. In addition, new regulations could, among other things, restrict the Fund’s ability to engage in, or increase the cost to the Fund of, derivatives transactions, for example, by making some types of derivatives no longer available to the Fund or increasing margin or capital requirements. If the Fund is not able to enter into a particular derivatives transaction, the Fund’s investment performance and risk profile could be adversely affected as a result.

 

In addition, the Fund may use counterparties located in jurisdictions outside the United States. Such local counterparties are subject to the laws and regulations in non-U.S. jurisdictions that are designed to protect their customers in the event of their insolvency. However, the practical effect of these laws and their application to the Fund’s assets are subject to substantial limitations and uncertainties. Because of the large number of entities and jurisdictions involved and the range of possible factual scenarios involving the insolvency of a counterparty, it is impossible to generalize about the effect of their insolvency on the Fund and its assets. Shareholders should assume that the insolvency of any counterparty would result in a loss to the Fund, which could be material. If the Fund obtains exposure to one or more investment funds indirectly through the use of one or more total return swaps, those investments will be subject to counterparty risk.

 

Credit Risk. The risk that issuers or guarantors of a fixed income security cannot or will not make payments on the securities and other investments held by the Fund, resulting in losses to the Fund. Changes in the credit rating of a debt security or of the issuer of a debt security held by the Fund could have a similar effect. The credit quality of securities held by the Fund may be lowered if an issuer’s financial condition changes, which may lower their value and may affect their liquidity. Generally, the lower the credit rating of a security, the greater the risk that the issuer of the security will default on its obligation. High quality securities are generally believed to have relatively low degrees of credit risk. The Fund intends to enter into financial transactions with counterparties that are creditworthy at the time of the transactions. There is always the risk that the Adviser’s analysis of creditworthiness is incorrect or may change due to market conditions. To the extent that the Fund focuses its transactions with a limited number of counterparties, it will be more susceptible to the risks associated with one or more counterparties.

 

Credit Spread Risk. The risk that credit spreads (or the difference in yield between securities that is due to differences in their credit quality) may increase when the market expects lower-grade bonds to default more frequently. Widening credit spreads may quickly reduce the market values of lower-rated securities.

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Currency Risk. The risk that foreign (non-U.S.) currencies will decline in value relative to the U.S. dollar and adversely affect the value of the Fund’s investments in foreign (non-U.S.) currencies or in securities that trade in, and receive revenues in, or in derivatives that provide exposure to, foreign (non-U.S.) currencies. Currency risk may be particularly high to the extent that the Fund invests in foreign (non-U.S.) currencies or engages in foreign currency transactions that are economically tied to emerging market countries.

 

Cybersecurity Risk. There is risk to the Fund of an unauthorized breach and access to fund assets, customer data (including private shareholder information), or proprietary information, or the risk of an incident occurring that causes the Fund or its Service Providers to suffer data breaches, data corruption or lose operational functionality. Successful cyber-attacks or other cyber-failures or events affecting the Fund, or its Service Providers may adversely impact the Fund or its shareholders. Because information technology (“IT”) systems and digital data underlie most of the Fund’s operations, the Fund and its Service Providers are exposed to the risk that their operations and data may be compromised as a result of internal and external cyber-failures, breaches or attacks (“Cyber Risk”). This could occur as a result of malicious or criminal cyber-attacks. Cyber-attacks include actions taken to: (i) steal or corrupt data maintained online or digitally, (ii) gain unauthorized access to or release confidential information, (iii) shut down the Fund or Service Provider website through denial-of-service attacks, or (iv) otherwise disrupt normal business operations. Events arising from human error, faulty or inadequately implemented policies and procedures or other systems failures unrelated to any external cyber-threat may have effects similar to those caused by deliberate cyber-attacks. See “Cybersecurity” below for additional risks related to potential cybersecurity breaches.

 

Derivatives Risk. The Fund may invest in derivatives, which are financial instruments whose value is typically based on the value of a security, index or other instrument. These instruments include futures, options, credit default swaps, total return swaps, repurchase agreements and other similar instruments. Derivative instruments may be more volatile than other instruments and may be subject to unanticipated market movements, which are potentially unlimited. Derivatives may also include customized baskets or options
(which may incorporate other securities directly and also various derivatives including common stock, options, and futures) structured as agreed upon by a counterparty, as well as specially structured types of mortgage- and asset-backed securities whose value is often linked to commercial and residential mortgage portfolios. The Fund’s use of derivative instruments involves risks different from, and possibly greater than, the risks associated with investing directly in securities and other more traditional investments, and certain derivatives may create a risk of loss greater than the amount invested.

 

Investing for hedging purposes or to increase the Fund’s return may result in certain additional transaction costs that may reduce the Fund’s performance. The Fund may use a variety of currency hedging techniques to attempt to hedge exchange rate risk or gain exposure to a particular currency. When used for hedging purposes, no assurance can be given that each derivative position will achieve a perfect correlation with the investment against which it is being hedged. Because the markets for certain derivative instruments are relatively new, suitable derivatives transactions may not be available in all circumstances for risk management or other purposes and there can be no assurance that a particular derivative position will be available when sought by the Adviser or that such techniques will be utilized by the Adviser.

 

The market value of derivative instruments and securities may be more volatile than that of other instruments, and each type of derivative instrument may have its own special risks, including the risk of mispricing or improper valuation of derivatives and the inability of derivatives to correlate perfectly with underlying assets, rates, and indices. Many derivatives, in particular privately negotiated derivatives, are complex and often valued subjectively. Improper valuations can result in increased cash payment requirements to counterparties or a loss of value to the Fund. The value of derivatives may not correlate perfectly, or at all, with the value of the assets, reference rates or indices they are designed to closely track.

 

Derivatives are subject to a number of other risks, including liquidity risk (the possibility that the derivative may be difficult to purchase or sell and the Adviser may be unable to initiate a transaction or liquidate a position at an advantageous time or price), leverage risk
(the possibility that adverse changes in the value or level of the underlying asset, reference rate or index can result in loss of an amount substantially greater than the amount invested in the derivative), interest rate risk (some derivatives are more sensitive to interest rate changes and market price fluctuations), and counterparty risk (the risk that a counterparty may be unable to perform according to a contract, and that any deterioration in a counterparty’s creditworthiness could adversely affect the instrument). In addition, because derivative products are highly specialized, investment techniques and risk analyses employed with respect to investments in derivatives are different from those associated with stocks and bonds. Finally, the Fund’s use of derivatives may cause the Fund to realize higher amounts of short-term capital gains (generally taxed at ordinary income tax rates) than if the Fund had not used such instruments. Derivative instruments are also subject to the risk that the market value of an instrument will change to the detriment of the Fund. If the Adviser inaccurately forecast the values of securities, currencies or interest rates or other economic factors in using derivatives, the Fund might have been in a better position if it had not entered into the transaction at all. Some strategies involving derivative instruments can reduce the risk of loss, but they can also reduce the opportunity for gain or result in losses by offsetting favorable price movements in other investments held by the Fund. The Fund may also have to buy or sell a security at a disadvantageous time or price because regulations require funds to maintain offsetting positions or asset coverage in connection with certain derivatives transactions.

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The Fund may also purchase or write (sell) credit default swaps (“CDS”) or credit default swap indexes (“CDX”), which are credit derivatives used to hedge credit risk and/or take a position on a basket of credit entities. Unlike a credit default swap, which is an over the counter derivative, a CDX may be exchange-traded, or sold over the counter. Each CDX is designed to track a basket of credit entities, which may be standard or customized. This means that it may be more liquid than a credit default swap, and it may be cheaper to hedge the Fund’s portfolio with a CDX than it would be to buy many single name credit default swaps to achieve a similar effect. The Fund may also purchase or sell total return swaps or invest in inverse ETFs to hedge its long positions. The Fund may also use derivative transactions to create investment leverage. For example, the Fund may use total return swaps or CDX to take indirect long or short positions on equity or fixed income indices, equity or fixed income securities, or currencies.

 

The SAI provides a more detailed description of the types of derivative instruments in which the Fund may invest and their associated risks.

 

Emerging Markets Risk. To the extent the Fund invests in emerging market securities, the risks associated with foreign (non-U.S.) investment risk may be particularly high. The Fund’s investments in emerging market countries are subject to all of the risks of foreign investing generally and have additional heightened risks due to a lack of established legal, political, business and social frameworks to support securities markets. These risks include less social, political and economic stability; smaller securities markets with low or nonexistent trading volume and greater illiquidity and price volatility; more restrictive national policies on foreign investment, including restrictions on investment in issuers or industries deemed sensitive to national interests; less transparent and established taxation policies; less developed regulatory or legal structures governing private and foreign investment; more pervasiveness of corruption and crime; less financial sophistication, creditworthiness and/or resources possessed by, and less government regulation of, the financial institutions and issuers with which the Fund transacts; less government supervision and regulation of business and industry practices, stock exchanges, brokers and listed companies than in the U.S.; greater concentration in a few industries resulting in greater vulnerability to regional and global trade conditions; higher rates of inflation and more rapid and extreme fluctuations in inflation rates; greater sensitivity to interest rate changes; increased volatility in currency exchange rates and potential for currency devaluations and/or currency controls; greater debt burdens relative to the size of the economy; more delays in settling portfolio transactions and heightened risk of loss from share registration and custody practices; and less assurance that recent favorable economic developments will not be slowed or reversed by unanticipated economic, political or social events in such countries. Because of these risk factors, the Fund’s investments in developing market countries are subject to greater price volatility and illiquidity than investments in developed markets. Governments of emerging market countries may own or control parts of the private sector. Accordingly, government actions could have a significant impact on economic conditions. Certain emerging market countries require governmental approval prior to investments by foreign persons, limit the amount of investment by foreign persons in a particular sector and/or company, limit the investment by foreign persons to a specific class of securities of an issuer that may have less advantageous rights than a domestically available class, require foreign investors to maintain a trading account with only one licensed securities company in the relevant market and/or impose additional taxes on foreign investors. These may contribute to the illiquidity of the relevant securities market, as well as create inflexibility and uncertainty as to the trading environment. The legal remedies for investors in emerging markets may be more limited than the remedies available in the U.S., and the ability of U.S. authorities (e.g., SEC and the U.S. Department of Justice) to bring actions against bad actors may be limited.

 

Energy Sector Risk. The Fund may invest in the energy sector, which is comprised of energy, industrial, consumer, infrastructure and logistics companies, and will therefore be susceptible to adverse economic, environmental, business, regulatory or other occurrences affecting that sector. The energy sector has historically experienced substantial price volatility. At times, the performance of these investments may lag the performance of other sectors or the market as a whole. Companies operating in the energy sector are subject to specific risks, including, among others, fluctuations in commodity prices; reduced consumer demand for commodities such as oil, natural gas or petroleum products; reduced availability of natural gas or other commodities for transporting, processing, storing or delivering; slowdowns in new construction; extreme weather or other natural disasters; and threats of attack by terrorists on energy assets. Additionally, energy sector companies are subject to substantial government regulation and changes in the regulatory environment for energy companies may adversely impact their profitability. Over time, depletion of natural gas reserves and other energy reserves may also affect the profitability of energy companies. The energy markets have experienced significant volatility in recent periods, including a historic drop in crude oil and natural gas prices in April 2020 attributable to the significant decrease in demand for oil and other energy commodities as a result of the slowdown in economic activity due to the COVID-19 pandemic as well as price competition among key oil-producing countries. The low-price environment caused financial hardship for energy companies and has led to, and may continue to lead to, energy companies defaulting on debt and filing for bankruptcy. The energy markets may continue to experience stress and relatively high volatility for a prolonged period.

 

ETF Structure Risks. The Fund is structured as an ETF and as a result is subject to special risks, including:

· Not Individually Redeemable. Shares are not individually redeemable and may be redeemed by the Fund at NAV only in large blocks known as “Creation Units.” You may incur brokerage costs purchasing enough shares to constitute a Creation Unit.
· Trading Issues. Trading in shares on the Exchange may be halted due to market conditions or for reasons that, in the view of the Exchange, make trading in shares inadvisable, such as extraordinary market volatility. There can be no assurance that shares will continue to meet the listing requirements of the Exchange. An active trading market for the Fund’s shares may not be developed or maintained. If the Fund’s shares are traded outside a collateralized settlement system, the number of financial institutions that can act as authorized participants that can post collateral on an agency basis is limited, which may limit the market for the Fund’s shares.
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· Market Price Variance Risk. Individual Shares of the Fund that are listed for trading on the Exchange can be bought and sold in the secondary market at market prices. The market prices of Shares will fluctuate in response to changes in NAV and supply and demand for Shares and will include a “bid-ask spread” charged by the exchange specialists, market makers or other participants that trade the particular security. There may be times when the market price and the NAV vary significantly and you may pay more than NAV when buying shares on the secondary market, and you may receive less than net asset value when you sell those shares. This means that Shares may trade at a discount to NAV and the discount is likely to be greatest when the price of Shares is falling fastest, which may be the time that you most want to sell your Shares. The Fund’s investment results are measured based upon the daily NAV of the Fund over a period of time. Investors purchasing and selling Shares in the secondary market may not experience investment results consistent with those experienced by those creating and redeeming directly with the Fund. If a shareholder purchases shares at a time when the market price is at a premium to the net asset value or sells shares at a time when the market price is at a discount to NAV, the shareholder may sustain losses if the shares are sold at a price that is less than the price paid by the shareholder for the shares.
o In times of market stress, such as what was experienced during the COVID-19 pandemic, market makers may step away from their role market making in shares of ETFs and in executing trades, which can lead to differences between the market value of Fund shares and the Fund’s NAV.
o The market price for the Fund’s shares may deviate from the Fund’s NAV, particularly during times of market stress, with the result that investors may pay significantly more or significantly less for Fund shares than the Fund’s NAV, which is reflected in the bid and ask price for Fund shares or in the closing price.
o When all or a portion of an ETFs underlying securities trade in a market that is closed when the market for the Fund’s shares is open, there may be changes from the last quote of the closed market and the quote from the Fund’s domestic trading day, which could lead to differences between the market value of the Fund’s shares and the Fund’s NAV.
o In stressed market conditions, the market for the Fund’s shares may become less liquid in response to the deteriorating liquidity of the Fund’s portfolio. This adverse effect on the liquidity of the Fund’s shares may, in turn, lead to differences between the market value of the Fund’s shares and the Fund’s NAV.

 

Financial Sector Risk. The financial sector can be significantly affected by changes in interest rates, government regulation, the rate of defaults on corporate, consumer and government debt, the availability and cost of capital, and the impact of more stringent capital requirements. The Fund may be adversely affected by events or developments negatively impacting the financial sector.

 

Fixed Income Securities Risk. Fixed income securities held by the Fund are subject to interest rate risk, call risk, prepayment and extension risk, credit risk, duration risk and liquidity risk, which are more fully described below. In addition, current market conditions may pose heightened risks for fixed income securities. The Fund may lose money if short-term or long-term interest rates rise sharply in a manner not anticipated by Fund management. A general rise in interest rates has the potential to cause investors to move out of fixed-income securities on a large scale, which may increase redemptions from funds that hold large amounts of fixed-income securities. Heavy redemptions could cause the Fund to sell assets at inopportune times or at a loss or depressed value and could hurt the Fund’s performance. When the Fund invests in fixed income securities or derivatives, the value of your investment in the Fund will fluctuate with changes in interest rates. Typically, a rise in interest rates causes a decline in the value of fixed income securities or derivatives owned by the Fund. In general, the market price of fixed income securities with longer maturities or durations will increase or decrease more in response to changes in interest rates than shorter-term securities. Risks associated with rising interest rates are heightened given that interest rates in the U.S. currently remain near historic lows. Other risk factors include credit risk (the debtor may default) and prepayment risk (the debtor may pay its obligation early, reducing the amount of interest payments). These risks could affect the value of a particular investment by the Fund, possibly causing the Fund’s share price and total return to be reduced and fluctuate more than other types of investments. Moreover, new regulations applicable to and changing business practices of financial intermediaries that make markets in fixed income securities have resulted in less market making activity for certain fixed income securities, which has reduced the liquidity and may increase the volatility for such fixed income securities. Liquidity may decline unpredictably in response to overall economic conditions or credit tightening. For example, a general rise in interest rates may cause investors to move out of fixed income securities on a large scale, which could adversely affect the price and liquidity of fixed income securities. Duration risk arises when holding long duration and long maturity investments, which will magnify certain risks, including interest rate risk and credit risk.

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Fluctuation of Net Asset Value Risk. Unlike conventional ETFs, the Fund is not an index fund. The Fund is actively managed and does not seek to replicate the performance of a specified index. The NAV of the Fund’s shares will generally fluctuate with changes in the market value of the Fund’s holdings. The market prices of the shares will generally fluctuate in accordance with changes in NAV as well as the relative supply of and demand for the shares on the Exchange. The Adviser cannot predict whether the shares will trade below, at or above their NAV. Price differences may be due, in large part, to the fact that supply and demand forces at work in the secondary trading market for the shares will be closely related to, but not identical to, the same forces influencing the prices of the Fund’s holdings trading individually or in the aggregate at any point in time. Actively managed ETFs have a limited trading history and, therefore, there can be no assurance as to whether and/or the extent to which the shares will trade at premiums or discounts to NAV.

 

Foreign (Non-U.S.) Investment Risk. Foreign (non-U.S.) securities present greater investment risks than investing in the securities of U.S. issuers and may experience more rapid and extreme changes in value than the securities of U.S. companies, due to less stringent foreign securities regulations and less information about foreign (non-U.S.) companies in the form of reports and ratings than about U.S. issuers; different accounting, auditing and financial reporting requirements; smaller markets; nationalization; expropriation or confiscatory taxation; currency blockage; or political, financial, social and economic events (including, for example, military confrontations, war and terrorism) or diplomatic developments. To the extent that the Fund invests a significant portion of its assets in a specific geographic region, the Fund will generally have more exposure to regional economic risks associated with foreign investments. Foreign (non-U.S.) securities may also be less liquid and more difficult to value than securities of U.S. issuers. In addition, foreign markets may have greater volatility than domestic markets and foreign securities may be less liquid and harder to value than domestic securities. Certain foreign markets may rely heavily on particular industries or foreign capital and are more vulnerable to diplomatic developments, the imposition of economic sanctions against a particular country or countries, organizations, entities and/or individuals, changes in international trading patterns, trade barriers, and other protectionist or retaliatory measures. International trade barriers or economic sanctions against foreign countries, organizations, entities and/or individuals may adversely affect the Fund’s foreign holdings or exposures.

 

Foreign securities involve special risks and costs, which are considered by the Adviser or the Sub-Adviser in evaluating the creditworthiness of issuers and making investment decisions for the Fund. Foreign securities fluctuate in price because of political, financial, social and economic events in foreign countries (including, for example, military confrontations, war and terrorism). A foreign security could also lose value because of more or less stringent foreign securities regulations and less stringent accounting and disclosure standards.

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Foreign securities, and in particular foreign debt securities, are sensitive to changes in interest rates. In addition, investment in the securities of foreign governments involves the risk that foreign governments may default on their obligations or may otherwise not respect the integrity of their obligations. The performance of investments in securities denominated in a foreign currency also will depend, in part, on the strength of the foreign currency against the U.S. dollar and the interest rate environment in the country issuing the currency. Absent other events which otherwise could affect the value of a foreign security (such as a change in the political climate or an issuer’s credit quality), appreciation in the value of the foreign currency generally results in an increase in value of a foreign currency-denominated security in terms of U.S. dollars. A decline in the value of the foreign currency relative to the U.S. dollar generally results in a decrease in value of a foreign currency-denominated security. Additionally, many countries throughout the world are dependent on a healthy U.S. economy and are adversely affected when the U.S. economy weakens, or its markets decline.

 

Investment in foreign securities may involve higher costs than investment in U.S. securities, including higher transaction and custody costs as well as the imposition of additional taxes by foreign governments. Foreign investments also may involve risks associated with the level of currency exchange rates, less complete financial information about the issuers, less market liquidity, more market volatility and political instability. Future political and economic developments, the possible imposition of withholding taxes on dividend income, the possible seizure or nationalization of foreign holdings, the possible establishment of exchange controls or freezes on the convertibility of currency, trade restrictions (including tariffs) or the adoption of other governmental restrictions might adversely affect an investment in foreign securities. Additionally, foreign banks and foreign branches of domestic banks may be subject to less stringent reserve requirements and to different accounting, auditing and recordkeeping requirements.

 

While the Fund’s investments may, if permitted, be denominated in foreign currencies, the portfolio securities and other assets held by the Fund or underlying funds are valued in U.S. dollars. Price fluctuations may occur in the dollar value of foreign securities because of changing currency exchange rates or, in the case of hedged positions, because the U.S. dollar declines in value relative to the currency hedged. Currency exchange rates may fluctuate significantly over short periods of time causing the Fund’s or underlying fund’s NAV to fluctuate as well. Currency exchange rates can be affected unpredictably by the intervention or the failure to intervene by U.S. or foreign governments or central banks, or by currency controls or political developments in the United States or abroad. To the extent that the Fund or underlying fund is invested in foreign securities while also maintaining currency positions, it may be exposed to greater combined risk. The net currency positions of the Fund or underlying funds may expose them to risks independent of their securities positions.

 

The Fund may operate in euros and/or may hold euros and/or euro-denominated bonds and other obligations. The euro requires participation of multiple sovereign states forming the Euro zone and is therefore sensitive to the credit and general economic and political positions of each such state, including, each state’s actual and intended ongoing engagement with and/or support for the other sovereign states then forming the European Union (“EU”), in particular those within the Euro zone. Changes in these factors might materially and adversely impact the value of securities in which the Fund or underlying fund has invested.

 

In addition, voters in the United Kingdom (“UK”) approved withdrawal from the EU and the UK withdrew from the EU on January 31, 2020. Securities issued by companies domiciled in the UK could be subject to changing regulatory and tax regimes. Banking and financial services companies that operate in the UK or EU could be disproportionately impacted by those actions. Other countries may seek to withdraw from the EU and/or abandon the euro, the common currency of the EU, which could exacerbate market and currency volatility and negatively impact the Fund’s investments in securities issued by companies located in EU countries. A number of countries in Europe have suffered terror attacks, and additional attacks may occur in the future. Ukraine has experienced ongoing military conflict; this conflict may expand and military attacks could occur in Europe. Europe has also been struggling with mass migration from the Middle East and Africa. Recent and upcoming European elections could, depending on the outcomes, further call into question the future direction of the EU. The ultimate effects of these events and other socio-political or geopolitical issues are not known but could profoundly affect global economies and markets. The impact of these actions, especially if they occur in a disorderly fashion, is not clear, but could be significant and far-reaching. Whether or not the Fund invests in securities of issuers located in Europe or with significant exposure to European issuers or countries, these events could negatively affect the value and liquidity of the Fund’s investments.

 

Futures Contract Risk. The successful use of futures contracts draws upon the Adviser’s or Sub-Adviser’s skill and experience with respect to such instruments and is subject to special risk considerations. The primary risks associated with the use of futures contracts, which may adversely affect the Fund’s NAV and total return are (a) the imperfect correlation between the change in market value of the instruments held by the Fund and the price of the forward or futures contract; (b) possible lack of a liquid secondary market for a forward or futures contract and the resulting inability to close a forward or futures contract when desired; (c) losses caused by unanticipated market movements, which are potentially unlimited; (d) the Adviser’s or Sub-Adviser’s inability to predict correctly the direction of securities prices, interest rates, currency exchange rates and other economic factors; (e) the possibility that the counterparty will default in the performance of its obligations; and (f) if the Fund has insufficient cash, it may have to sell securities from its portfolio to meet daily variation margin requirements or to meet margin increases required as a result of market conditions or periods of high volatility, and the Fund may have to sell securities at a time when it may be disadvantageous to do so. The Fund could be unable to recover assets held at the futures clearing broker, even assets directly traceable to the Fund from the futures clearing broker in the event of a bankruptcy of the broker. A futures clearing broker is required to segregate customer funds pursuant to the Commodities Exchange Act and the regulations of the U.S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission (“CFTC”). However, in the unlikely event of the broker’s bankruptcy, there is no equivalent of the Securities Investors Protection Corporation insurance as is applicable in the case of securities broker dealers’ bankruptcies.

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Gap Risk. The Fund is subject to the risk that a stock price or derivative value will change dramatically from one level to another with no trading in between and/or before the Fund can exit the investment. Usually such movements occur when there are adverse news announcements, which can cause a stock price or derivative value to drop substantially from the previous day’s closing price. For example, the price of a stock can drop from its closing price one night to its opening price the next morning. The difference between the two prices is the gap. Trading halts may lead to gap risk.

 

Hedging Transactions Risk. The Adviser may employ various hedging techniques. The success of the Fund’s hedging strategy will be subject to the Adviser’s ability to correctly assess the degree of correlation between the performance of the instruments used in the hedging strategy and the performance of the investments in the portfolio being hedged. Since the characteristics of many securities change as markets change or time passes, the success of the Fund’s hedging strategy will also be subject to the Adviser’s ability to continually recalculate, readjust, and execute hedges in an efficient and timely manner. Investing for hedging purposes or to increase the Fund’s return may result in certain additional transaction costs.

 

Hedging against a decline in the value of a portfolio position does not eliminate fluctuations in the values of those portfolio positions or prevent losses if the values of those positions decline. Rather, it establishes other positions designed to gain from those same declines, thus seeking to moderate the decline in the portfolio position’s value. Such hedging transactions also limit the opportunity for gain if the value of the portfolio position should increase. For a variety of reasons, the Adviser may not seek to establish a perfect correlation between such hedging instruments and the portfolio holdings being hedged. Such imperfect correlation may prevent the Fund from achieving the intended hedge or expose the Fund to risk of loss. In addition, it is not possible to hedge fully or perfectly against any risk, and hedging entails its own costs. The Adviser may determine, in its sole discretion, not to hedge against certain risks and certain risks may exist that cannot be hedged. Furthermore, the Adviser may not anticipate a particular risk so as to hedge against it effectively. Hedging transactions also limit the opportunity for gain if the value of a hedged portfolio position should increase.

 

High Yield Risk. Investment in or exposure to high yield (lower rated) debt instruments (also known as “junk bonds”) may involve greater levels of interest rate, credit, liquidity and valuation risk than for higher rated instruments. High yield debt instruments are considered predominantly speculative and are higher risk than investment grade instruments with respect to the issuer’s continuing ability to make principal and interest payments and, therefore, such instruments generally involve greater risk of default or price changes than higher rated debt instruments. An economic downturn or period of rising interest rates could adversely affect the value of these securities and market for these securities and reduce market liquidity (liquidity risk). Less active markets can diminish the Fund’s ability to obtain accurate market quotations when valuing portfolio securities and thereby give rise to valuation risk. If the issuer of a security is in default with respect to interest or principal payments, the issuer’s security could lose its entire value. Furthermore, the transaction costs associated with the purchase and sale of high yield debt instruments may vary greatly depending on a number of factors and may adversely affect the Fund’s performance.

 

Index Risk. If a derivative is linked to the performance of an index, it will be subject to the risks associated with changes in that index. If the index changes, the Fund could receive lower interest payments or experience a reduction in the value of the derivative to below what the Fund paid. Certain indexed securities, including inverse securities (which move in an opposite direction to the index), may create leverage, to the extent that they increase or decrease in value at a rate that is a multiple of the changes in the applicable index.

 

Investment Companies and Exchange-Traded Funds Risk. When the Fund invests in other investment companies, including closed-end funds and ETFs, it will bear additional expenses based on its pro rata share of the other investment company’s or ETF’s operating expenses, including the management fees of the investment company or ETF in addition to those paid by the Fund. The risk of owning an ETF or other investment company generally reflects the risks of owning the underlying investments the investment company or ETF holds. The Fund also will incur brokerage costs when it purchases and sells closed-end funds and ETFs. In addition, the market value of shares of ETFs or closed-end funds may differ from their NAV. Accordingly, there may be times when closed-end fund or ETF shares trade at a premium or discount to NAV. For ETFs, this difference in price may be due to the fact that the supply and demand in the market for fund shares at any point in time is not always identical to the supply and demand in the market for the underlying basket of securities. The Fund may invest in inverse ETFs, which may result in increased volatility and will magnify the Fund’s losses or gains. During periods of market volatility, inverse ETFs may not perform as expected.

 

Issuer-Specific Risk. The value of a specific security or option can be more volatile than the market as a whole and may perform worse than the market as a whole. The value of large cap securities, as represented by the S&P 500 Index, can be more volatile than smaller cap securities due to differing market reactions to adverse issuer, political, regulatory, market, or economic developments.

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Leveraging Risk. As part of the Fund’s principal investment strategy, the Fund may make investments in derivatives instruments such as total return swaps, forward and futures contracts. These derivative instruments provide the economic effect of financial leverage by creating additional investment exposure to the underlying instrument. Financial leverage will magnify, sometimes significantly, the Fund’s exposure to any increase or decrease in prices associated with a particular reference asset resulting in increased volatility in the value of the Fund’s portfolio and small changes in the value of the underlying instrument may produce disproportionate losses to the Fund. If the Fund uses leverage through the purchase of derivative instruments, the Fund has the risk that losses may exceed the net assets of the Fund. The use of certain derivatives may increase leveraging risk and adverse changes in the value or level of the underlying asset, rate, or index may result in a loss substantially greater than the amount paid for the derivative. The use of leverage may increase expenses and increase the impact of the Fund’s other risks. Certain derivatives require the Fund to make margin payments, a form of security deposit intended to protect against nonperformance of the derivative contract. The Fund may have to post additional margin if the value of the derivative position changes in a manner adverse to the Fund. While such financial leverage has the potential to produce greater gains, it also may result in greater losses, which in some cases may cause the Fund to liquidate portfolio positions when it may not be advantageous to do so to satisfy its obligations to meet additional margin requirements, leverage and collateral segregation requirements, regulatory requirements or redemption requests, resulting in increased volatility of returns. The NAV of the Fund while employing leverage will be more volatile and sensitive to market movements.

 

LIBOR Risk. The Fund may invest in securities and other instruments whose interest payments are determined by references to the London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”).

 

The United Kingdom Financial Conduct Authority, which regulates LIBOR, announced that after 2021 it will cease its active encouragement of banks to provide the quotations needed to sustain LIBOR. On March 5, 2021, ICE Benchmark Administration Limited, the administrator of LIBOR, announced its intention to cease publishing a majority of the USD LIBOR rates immediately after publication on June 30, 2023, with the remaining USD LIBOR rates to end immediately after publication on December 31, 2021.

 

The U.S. Federal Reserve, based on the recommendations of the New York Federal Reserve’s Alternative Reference Rate Committee (comprised of major derivative market participants and their regulators), has begun publishing Secured Overnight Financing Rate (SOFR), a broad measure of secured overnight U.S. Treasury repo rates, that is intended to replace USD LIBOR. Proposals for alternative reference rates for other currencies have also been announced or have already begun publication. Markets are slowly developing in response to these new reference rates. Uncertainty related to the liquidity impact of the change in rates, negative effects on the valuation of the Fund’s investments, and how to appropriately adjust these rates at the time of transition, poses risks for the Fund. The effect of any changes to, or discontinuation of, LIBOR on the Fund will depend on, among other things, (1) existing fallback or termination provisions in individual contracts and (2) whether, how, and when industry participants develop and adopt new reference rates and fallbacks for both legacy and new instruments and contracts. The expected discontinuation of LIBOR could have a significant impact on the financial markets in general and may also present heightened risk to market participants, including public companies, investment advisers, investment companies, and broker-dealers. The risks associated with this discontinuation and transition will be exacerbated if the work necessary to effect an orderly transition to an alternative reference rate is not completed in a timely manner. For example, current information technology systems may be unable to accommodate new instruments and rates with features that differ from LIBOR. Accordingly, it is difficult to predict the full impact of the transition away from LIBOR on the Fund until new reference rates and fallbacks for both legacy and new instruments and contracts are commercially accepted and market practices become settled.

 

Alteration of the terms of a debt instrument or a modification of the terms of other types of contracts to replace an interbank offered rate with a new reference rate could result in a taxable exchange and the realization of income and gain/loss for U.S. federal income tax purposes. The IRS has issued proposed regulations regarding the tax consequences of the transition from interbank offered rates to new reference rates in debt instruments and non-debt contracts. Under the proposed regulations, to avoid such alteration or modification of the terms of a debt instrument being treated as a taxable exchange, the fair market value of the modified instrument or contract must be substantially equivalent to its fair market value before the qualifying change was made. The IRS may withdraw, amend or finalize, in whole or part, these proposed regulations and/or provide additional guidance, with potential retroactive effect.

 

Liquidity Risk. There is risk that the Fund may not be able to liquidate its holdings because of unusual market conditions, an unusually high volume of redemption requests, legal restrictions impairing its ability to sell particular securities or close derivative positions at an advantageous market price or other reasons. Certain portfolio securities may be less liquid than others, which may make them difficult or impossible to sell at the time and the price that the Fund would like. The Fund may have to lower the price, sell other securities instead or forgo an investment opportunity. In addition, less liquid securities may be more difficult to value and markets may become less liquid when there are fewer interested buyers or sellers or when dealers are unwilling or unable to make a market for certain securities. Recently, dealers have generally been less willing to make markets for fixed income securities. Any of these events could have a negative effect on fund management or performance. Funds with principal investment strategies that involve investments in securities of companies with smaller market capitalizations, foreign securities, Rule 144A securities, derivatives or securities with substantial market and/or credit risk tend to have the greatest exposure to liquidity risk. In the past, in stressed markets, certain types of securities suffered periods of illiquidity if disfavored by the market. All of these risks may increase during periods of market turmoil, such as that experienced in 2020 with COVID-19 and could have a negative effect on the Fund’s performance.

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Management Risk. The Fund’s investment strategies may not result in an increase in the value of your investment in the Fund or in overall performance equal to other similar investment vehicles having similar investment strategies to those of the Fund. The NAV of the Fund changes daily based on the performance of the securities and derivatives in which it invests. The Sub-Adviser’s judgments about the attractiveness, value and potential appreciation of particular securities and derivatives in which the Fund invests may prove to be incorrect and may not produce the desired results. The Fund’s portfolio managers use qualitative analyses and/or models. Any imperfections or limitations in such analyses or models could affect the ability of the portfolio managers to implement strategies. Additionally, the Adviser or Sub-Adviser may have conflicts of interest that could interfere with its management of the Fund’s portfolio. For example, the Adviser, Sub-Adviser or their affiliates may manage other investment funds or have other clients that may be similar to, or overlap with, the investment objective and strategy of the Fund, creating potential conflicts of interest when making decisions regarding which investments may be appropriate for the Fund and other clients. Further information regarding conflicts of interest is available in the SAI.

 

Market Events Risk. There has been increased volatility, depressed valuations, decreased liquidity and heightened uncertainty in the financial markets during the past several years, including what was experienced in 2020. These conditions are an inevitable part of investing in capital markets and may continue, recur, worsen or spread. The U.S. government and the Federal Reserve, as well as certain foreign governments and central banks, have taken steps to support financial markets, including by keeping interest rates at historically low levels. This and other government intervention may not work as intended, particularly if the efforts are perceived by investors as being unlikely to achieve the desired results. The U.S. government and the Federal Reserve may reduce market support activities. Such reduction, including interest rate increases, could negatively affect financial markets generally, increase market volatility and reduce the value and liquidity of securities in which the Fund invests. Policy and legislative changes in the United States and in other countries may also continue to contribute to decreased liquidity and increased volatility in the financial markets. The impact of these changes on the markets, and the practical implications for market participants, may not be fully known for some time.

 

COVID-19 has resulted in travel restrictions, closed international borders, enhanced health screenings at ports of entry and elsewhere, disruption of and delays in healthcare service preparation and delivery, prolonged quarantines, cancellations, business and school closings, supply chain disruptions, and lower consumer demand, as well as general concern and uncertainty. The impact of COVID-19, and other infectious illness outbreaks that may arise in the future, could adversely affect the economies of many nations or the entire global economy, individual issuers and capital markets in ways that cannot necessarily be foreseen.

 

Market Risk. Overall market risk may affect the value of individual instruments in which the Fund invests. The Fund is subject to the risk that the securities markets will move down, sometimes rapidly and unpredictably, based on overall economic conditions and other factors, which may negatively affect the Fund’s performance. Factors such as domestic and foreign (non-U.S.) economic growth and market conditions, real or perceived adverse economic or political conditions, inflation, changes in interest rate levels, lack of liquidity in the bond and other markets, volatility in the securities markets, adverse investor sentiment affect the securities markets and political events affect the securities markets. Securities markets also may experience long periods of decline in value. When the value of the Fund’s investments goes down, your investment in the Fund decreases in value and you could lose money.

 

Equity securities generally have greater price volatility than fixed income securities, although under certain market conditions fixed income securities may have comparable or greater price volatility. During a general downturn in the securities markets, multiple asset classes may decline in value simultaneously. Adverse market conditions may be prolonged and may not have the same impact on all types of securities. Different sectors of the market and different security types may react differently to such developments. Changes in value may be temporary or may last for extended periods. The Fund may experience a substantial or complete loss on any individual security. Even when securities markets perform well, there is no assurance that the investments held by the Fund will increase in value along with the broader market. Market factors, such as the demand for particular portfolio securities, may cause the price of certain portfolio securities to fall while the prices of other securities rise or remain unchanged.

 

Local, state, regional, national or global events such as war, acts of terrorism, the spread of infectious illness or other public health issues, recessions, or other events could have a significant impact on the Fund and its investments and could result in decreases to the Fund’s NAV. Political, geopolitical, natural and other events, including war, terrorism, trade disputes, government shutdowns, market closures, natural and environmental disasters, epidemics, pandemics and other public health crises and related events and governments’ reactions to such events have led, and in the future may lead, to economic uncertainty, decreased economic activity, increased market volatility and other disruptive effects on U.S. and global economies and markets. Such events may have significant adverse direct or indirect effects on the Fund and its investments. For example, a widespread health crisis such as a global pandemic could cause substantial market volatility, exchange trading suspensions and closures, impact the ability to complete redemptions, and affect Fund performance. A health crisis may exacerbate other pre-existing political, social and economic risks. In addition, the increasing interconnectedness of markets around the world may result in many markets being affected by events or conditions in a single country or region or events affecting a single or small number of issuers.

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MLP Risk. An investment in MLP units involves certain risks which differ from an investment in the securities of a corporation. Holders of MLP units have limited control and voting rights on matters affecting the partnership. In addition, there are certain tax risks associated with an investment in MLP units and conflicts of interest exist between common unit holders of MLPs and the general partner, including those arising from incentive distribution payments. Additional risks of MLPs include the following: a decrease in the production of natural gas, natural gas liquids, crude oil, coal or other energy commodities; or a decrease in the volume of such commodities available for transportation, mining, processing, storage or distribution, which may adversely impact the financial performance of MLPs or MLP-related securities. To maintain or grow their revenues, these companies need to maintain or expand their reserves through exploration of new sources of supply, through the development of existing sources, through acquisitions, or through long-term contracts to acquire reserves. The financial performance of MLPs may be adversely affected if an MLP, or the companies to whom it provides the service, are unable to cost-effectively acquire additional reserves sufficient to replace the natural decline. Various governmental authorities have the power to enforce compliance with regulations and the permits issued under them, and violators are subject to administrative, civil and criminal penalties, including civil fines, injunctions or both. Stricter laws, regulations or enforcement policies could be enacted in the future which would likely increase compliance costs and may adversely affect the financial performance of MLPs. Volatility of commodity prices, which may lead to a reduction in production or supply, may also negatively impact the performance of MLPs. MLPs are also subject to risks that are specific to the industry they serve. MLPs that provide crude oil, refined product, natural gas liquids and natural gas services are subject to supply and demand fluctuations in the markets they serve which will be impacted by a wide range of factors, including fluctuating commodity prices, weather, increased conservation or use of alternative fuel sources, increased governmental or environmental regulation, depletion, rising interest rates, declines in domestic or foreign production, accidents or catastrophic events, and economic conditions, among others. As a partnership, an MLP has no tax liability at the entity level if it satisfies a qualifying income test set forth in the Fund’s SAI. If, as a result of a change in current law or a change in an MLP’s business, an MLP were treated as a corporation for federal income tax purposes, such an MLP would be obligated to pay federal income tax on its income at the corporate tax rate. If an MLP were classified as a corporation for federal income tax purposes, the amount of cash available for distribution by the MLP would be reduced. Investing in MLPs involves certain risks related to investing in the underlying assets of the MLPs. The amount of cash that any MLP has available to pay its unit holders in the form of distributions/dividends depends on the amount of cash flow generated from such company’s operations. Cash flow from operations will vary from quarter to quarter and is largely dependent on factors affecting the MLP’s operations and factors affecting the energy, natural resources or real estate sectors in general. MLPs were adversely impacted by the reduced demand for oil and other energy commodities as a result of the slowdown in economic activity resulting from the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic, which triggered an unprecedented sell-off of energy pipeline and midstream companies in 2020. Recently, global oil prices have experienced significant volatility, including a period where an oil-price futures contract fell into negative territory for the first time in history. Reduced production and continued oil price volatility may adversely impact the value of the Fund’s investments in MLPs and energy infrastructure companies.

 

Mortgage-Backed and Asset-Backed Securities Risk. The risk of investing in mortgage-backed and other asset-backed securities, including prepayment risk, extension risk, interest rate risk, market risk and management risk as discussed under Fixed Income Securities Risk above. Mortgage-backed securities include caps and floors, inverse floaters, mortgage dollar rolls, private mortgage pass-through securities, resets and stripped mortgage securities. With respect to prepayment risk, if interest rates fall, the underlying debt may be repaid early, reducing the value of the Fund’s investments. On the other hand, if interest rates rise, the duration of the securities may be extended, making them more sensitive to changes in interest rates. Furthermore, fewer prepayments may be made, which would cause the average bond maturity to rise, increasing the potential for the Fund to lose money. The value of mortgage-backed and asset-backed securities may be considerably affected by changes in interest rates, the market’s perception of issuers, declines in the value of collateral, and the creditworthiness of the parties involved. Those securities that are guaranteed as to timely payment of interest and principal by a government entity, are not guaranteed as to market price, which will fluctuate. The ability of the Fund to successfully utilize these instruments may depend on the ability of the Fund’s Adviser to forecast interest rates and other economic factors correctly.

 

New Fund Risk. The Fund is recently formed. Investors bear the risk that the Fund may not grow to or maintain economically viable size, not be successful in implementing its investment strategy, and may not employ a successful investment strategy, any of which could result in the Fund being liquidated at any time without shareholder approval and/or at a time that may not be favorable for certain shareholders. Such a liquidation could have negative tax consequences for shareholders.

 

Odd Lot Pricing Risk. Bonds may be purchased and held as smaller sized bond positions known as “odd lots”. Pricing services generally value such securities based on bid prices for larger institutional sized bond positions known as “round lots”; and such round lot prices may reflect more favorable pricing than odd lot holdings. The Fund may purchase securities suitable for its investment strategies in odd lots. Special valuation considerations may apply with respect to the Fund’s odd-lot positions, as the Fund may receive different prices when it sells such positions than it would receive for sales of institutional round lot positions. The Fund may fair value a particular bond if the Adviser does not believe that the round lot value provided by the independent pricing service reflects fair value of the Fund’s holding. There can be no assurance that the Fund’s valuation procedures will result in pricing data that is completely congruent with prices that the Fund might obtain on the open market.

 

Portfolio Turnover Risk. The Fund may experience high portfolio turnover, including investments made on a shorter-term basis, which may lead to increased Fund expenses that may result in lower investment returns. A higher portfolio turnover may result in higher transactional and brokerage costs. High portfolio turnover may also result in higher short-term capital gains taxable to shareholders.

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Regulatory Risk. Changes in the laws or regulations of the United States or other countries, including any changes to applicable tax laws and regulations, could impair the ability of the Fund to achieve its investment objective and could increase the operating expenses of investment companies trading certain derivative instruments subject to regulation by the CFTC, including additional disclosure and operational obligations. The SEC recently adopted regulations that will subject activities of funds trading certain derivative instruments to additional regulation, which may increase the operating expenses of the Fund and impair the Fund’s ability to achieve its investment objective.

 

Sector Risk. The risk that if the Fund invests a significant portion of its total assets in certain issuers within the same economic sector, an adverse economic, business or political development or natural or other event, including war, terrorism, natural and environmental disasters, epidemics, pandemics and other public health crises, affecting that sector may affect the value of the Fund’s investments more than if the Fund’s investments were not so focused. While the Fund may not concentrate in any one industry, the Fund may invest without limitation in a particular sector. Also, a significant dislocation in one or more industries (e.g., financial, energy, etc.) could put pressure on bonds issued by those sectors.

 

Securities Lending Risk. To realize additional income, the Fund may lend portfolio securities with a value of up to 33 1/3% of the total assets, including any collateral received from the loans. The Fund receives collateral equal to at least 102% of the market value for loans secured by government securities or cash in the same currency as the loaned shares and 105% for all other loaned securities at each loan’s inception. The collateral the Fund receives will generally take the form of cash, U.S. Government securities, letters of credit, or other collateral as deemed appropriate by the Adviser. The Fund may use any cash collateral it receives to invest in short-term investments, including money market funds. It is the Trust’s policy to obtain additional collateral from or return excess collateral to the borrower by the end of the next business day. Therefore, from time to time the value of the collateral received by the Fund may be less than the value of the securities on loan. The Fund will receive income earned on the securities loaned during the lending period and a portion of the interest or rebate earned on the collateral received. The risks associated with lending portfolio securities, as with other extensions of secured credit, include, but are not limited to, possible delays in receiving additional collateral or in the recovery of the securities loaned, possible loss of rights in the collateral should the borrower fail financially, as well as risk of loss in the value of the collateral or the value of the investments made with the collateral.

 

Swap Risk. Swap agreements are subject to the risk that the counterparty to the swap will default on its obligation to pay the Fund and the risk that the Fund will not be able to meet its obligations to pay the counterparty to the swap. In addition, there is the risk that a swap may be terminated by the Fund or the counterparty in accordance with its terms. If a swap were to terminate, the Fund may be unable to implement its investment strategies and the Fund may not be able to achieve its investment objective.

· Credit Default Swaps Risk. A credit default swap enables an investor to buy or sell protection against a credit event with respect to an issuer. Credit default swaps involve risks because they are difficult to value, are highly susceptible to liquidity and credit risk, and generally pay a return to the party that has paid the premium only in the event of an actual default by the issuer of the underlying obligation (as opposed to a credit downgrade or other indication of financial difficulty). The Fund bears the loss of the amount expected to be received under a swap agreement in the event of the default or bankruptcy of a swap agreement counterparty.
· Total Return Swaps Risk. A total return swap is a contract in which one party agrees to make periodic payments to another party based on the change in market value of the assets underlying the contract, which may include a specified security, basket of securities, or securities indices during the specified period, in return for periodic payments based on a fixed or variable interest rate or the total return from other underlying assets. Total return swap agreements may be used to obtain exposure to a security or market without owning or taking physical custody of such security or investing directly in such market. Total return swap agreements may effectively add leverage to the Fund’s portfolio because, in addition to its total net assets, the Fund would be subject to investment exposure on the notional amount of the swap. The primary risks associated with total return swaps are credit risk (if the counterparty fails to meet its obligations) and market risk (if there is no liquid market for the agreement or unfavorable changes occur to the underlying asset).

 

U.S. Government Securities Risk. Treasury obligations may differ in their interest rates, maturities, times of issuance and other characteristics. Obligations of U.S. Government agencies and authorities are supported by varying degrees of credit but generally are not backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Government. No assurance can be given that the U.S. Government will provide financial support to its agencies and authorities if it is not obligated by law to do so. In addition, the value of U.S. Government securities may be affected by changes in the credit rating of the U.S. Government.

 

Valuation Risk. The sale price the Fund could receive for a security may differ from the Fund’s valuation of the security, particularly for securities that trade in low volume or volatile markets, or that are valued using a fair value methodology. Because portfolio securities of the Fund may be traded on non-U.S. exchanges, and non-U.S. exchanges may be open on days when the Fund does not price its shares, the value of the securities in the Fund’s portfolio may change on days when shareholders will not be able to purchase or sell the Fund’s shares.

 

Variable and Floating Rate Securities Risk. Variable and floating rate securities generally are less sensitive to interest changes but may decline in value if their interest rates do not rise as much, or as quickly, as interest rates in general. Floating rate securities will not generally increase in value if interest rates decline.

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Volatility Risk. The Fund’s investments may appreciate or decrease significantly in value over short periods of time. The value of an investment in the Fund’s portfolio may fluctuate due to factors that affect markets generally or that affect a particular industry or sector. The value of an investment in the Fund’s portfolio may also be more volatile than the market as a whole. This volatility may affect the Fund’s NAV per share, including by causing it to experience significant increases or declines in value over short periods of time. Events or financial circumstances affecting individual investments, industries or sectors may increase the volatility of the Fund.

 

Portfolio Holdings Disclosure: A description of the Fund’s policies and procedures regarding the release of portfolio holdings information is available in the Fund’s SAI. Shareholders may request portfolio holdings schedules at no charge by calling
1-866-866-4848.

 

Cybersecurity: The computer systems, networks and devices used by the Fund and its Service Providers to carry out routine business operations employ a variety of protections designed to prevent damage or interruption from computer viruses, network failures, computer and telecommunication failures, infiltration by unauthorized persons and security breaches. Despite the various protections utilized by the Fund and its Service Providers, systems, networks, or devices potentially can be breached. The Fund and its shareholders could be negatively impacted as a result of a cybersecurity breach. The Fund, the Adviser and the Sub-Adviser have limited ability to prevent or mitigate cybersecurity incidents affecting third-party Service Providers.

 

Cybersecurity breaches can include unauthorized access to systems, networks, or devices; infection from computer viruses or other malicious software code; and attacks that shut down, disable, slow, or otherwise disrupt operations, business processes, or website access or functionality. Cybersecurity breaches may cause disruptions and impact the Fund’s business operations, potentially resulting in financial losses; interference with the Fund’s ability to calculate its NAV; impediments to trading; the inability of the Fund, the Adviser, and other Service Providers to transact business; prevention of Fund investors from purchasing, redeeming or exchanging shares or receiving distributions; violations of applicable privacy and other laws; regulatory fines, penalties, reputational damage, reimbursement or other compensation costs, or additional compliance costs; as well as the inadvertent release of confidential information.

 

Similar adverse consequences could result from cybersecurity breaches affecting issuers of securities in which the Fund invests; counterparties with which the Fund engages in transactions; governmental and other regulatory authorities; exchange and other financial market operators, banks, brokers, dealers, insurance companies, and other financial institutions (including financial intermediaries and service providers for the Fund’s shareholders); and other parties. In addition, substantial costs may be incurred by these entities in order to prevent any cybersecurity breaches in the future.

 

 

MANAGEMENT 

 

Investment Adviser 

 

Regents Park Funds, LLC, located at 4041 MacArthur Boulevard, Suite 155, Newport Beach, CA 92660, serves as the investment adviser to the Fund. Subject to the authority of the Board of Trustees, the Adviser is responsible for the overall management of the Fund’s business affairs pursuant to an Investment Advisory Agreement between Fund and the Adviser. Regents Park was founded in May, 2016 and as of July 31, 2021, the Adviser had approximately $345 million assets under management. Anfield Group, LLC (“Anfield Group”), which is wholly owned by the David Young and Sandra G. Glain Family Trust, wholly owns Regents Park. For the fiscal period ended July 31, 2021, the aggregate fee paid to the Adviser was 0.75% of the Fund’s average daily net assets.

 

Subject to the supervision of the Board of Trustees, the Adviser is responsible for managing the Fund’s day-to-day operations; including selecting the overall investment strategies of the Fund; monitoring and evaluating investment sub-adviser performance; and providing related administrative services and facilities under an Investment Advisory Agreement between the Fund and the Adviser. The Adviser has the ultimate responsibility to oversee any investment sub-advisers, and to recommend their hiring, termination and replacement, subject to approval of the Trust’s Board of Trustees.

 

The management fee set forth in the Investment Advisory Agreement is 0.75% annually, to be paid on a monthly basis. For the fiscal year ended April 30, 20201, the aggregate fee paid to the Fund’s investment adviser was 0.75% of the Fund’s average daily net assets. In addition to investment advisory fees, the Fund pays other expenses including costs incurred in connection with the maintenance of securities law registration, printing and mailing prospectuses and Statements of Additional Information to shareholders, certain financial accounting services, taxes or governmental fees, custodial, transfer and shareholder servicing agent costs, expenses of outside counsel and independent accountants, preparation of shareholder reports and expenses of trustee and shareholders meetings.

 

The Adviser has contractually agreed to reduce its fees and/or absorb expenses of the Fund, until at least November 30, 2022, to ensure that total annual fund operating expenses after fee waiver and/or reimbursement (exclusive of certain expenses, including: (i) brokerage fees and commissions, (ii) acquired fund fees and expenses; (iii) fees and expenses associated with investments in other collective investment vehicles or derivative instruments (including for example option and swap fees and expenses); (iv) borrowing costs (such as interest and dividend expense on securities sold short); (v) taxes; and (vi) extraordinary expenses, such as litigation expenses) will not exceed 1.50% of

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the Fund’s average daily net assets; subject to possible recoupment from the Fund in future years on a rolling three-year basis (within the three years after the fees have been waived or reimbursed) if such recoupment can be achieved without exceeding the foregoing expense limits as well as any expense limitation that was in effect at the time the waiver or reimbursement was made. Fee waiver and reimbursement arrangements can decrease the Fund’s expenses and boost its performance. A discussion regarding the basis for the Board of Trustees’ approval of the Investment Advisory Agreement is available in the Fund’s annual report to shareholders dated July 31, 2021.

 

Investment Sub-Adviser 

 

Anfield Capital Management, LLC, located at 4041 MacArthur Boulevard, Suite 155, Newport Beach, CA 92660, serves as Sub-Adviser to the Fund. The Sub-Adviser was formed in 2009 and currently manages assets for private investors, financial intermediaries, and institutional clients. As of July 31, 2021, it had approximately $1.9 billion in assets under management. Anfield Group owns a 92% majority interest in Anfield. The Sub-Adviser is an affiliate of the Adviser. The Sub-Adviser is paid by the Adviser, not the Fund.

 

Portfolio Managers 

 

Cyrille Conseil, CFA Portfolio Manager, Research and Trading

 

Mr. Conseil is a Portfolio Manager of Anfield and a senior member of the Adviser’s Investment Committee. Mr. Conseil has over 25 years of investment management experience and joined the Adviser in 2012. Prior to joining the Adviser, Mr. Conseil was an Executive Vice President, Portfolio Manager and Head of the global leveraged loan desk at PIMCO since May of 2005. Mr. Conseil holds a Chartered Financial Analyst (CFA) designation.

 

Peter van de Zilver, CFA Portfolio Manager, Risk Management

 

Mr. van de Zilver has served as Head of Portfolio Manager Analytics and Risk Management at the Adviser since 2012. Mr. van de Zilver has over 20 years of investment management experience and retired in 2010 from a senior position in PIMCO’s Portfolio Analytics group, where he was responsible for the architecture, development and implementation of many of PIMCO’s analytics and risk management systems. Mr. van de Zilver holds a Chartered Financial Analyst (CFA) designation.

 

David Young, CFA Portfolio Manager, Global Strategy

 

Mr. Young has served as Chief Executive Officer at the Adviser since 2009, and as Chief Investment Officer from 2009 through 2012. Mr. Young has over 25 years of investment management experience and retired at the end of 2008 from his position as Executive Vice President and Account Manager with PIMCO, where he was responsible for contributing to the firm’s global macroeconomic view and investment strategy, and building the business in the UK, Europe and the Middle East. Mr. Young holds a Chartered Financial Analyst (CFA) designation.

 

The SAI provides additional information about the Portfolio Managers’ compensation, other accounts managed by the Portfolio Managers, and the Portfolio Managers’ ownership of securities in the Fund.

 

 

DETERMINATION OF NET ASSET VALUE 

 

The NAV of the Fund’s shares is determined at the close of regular trading on the New York Stock Exchange (normally 4:00 p.m. Eastern Time) on each day the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) is open. NAV is computed by determining, on a per class basis, the aggregate market value of all assets of the Fund, less its liabilities, divided by the total number of shares outstanding ((assets-liabilities)/number of shares = NAV). The NYSE is closed on weekends and New Year’s Day, Martin Luther King, Jr. Day, Presidents’ Day, Good Friday, Memorial Day, Independence Day, Labor Day, Thanksgiving Day and Christmas Day. The NAV takes into account the expenses and fees of the Fund, including management, administration, and distribution fees, which are accrued daily.

 

Generally, the Fund’s securities are valued each day at the last quoted sales price on each security’s primary exchange. Securities traded or dealt in upon one or more securities exchanges (whether domestic or foreign) for which market quotations are readily available and not subject to restrictions against resale shall be valued at the last quoted sales price on the primary exchange or, in the absence of a sale on the primary exchange, at the mean between the current bid and ask prices on such exchange. Securities primarily traded in the National Association of Securities Dealers’ Automated Quotation System (“NASDAQ”) National Market System for which market quotations are readily available shall be valued using the NASDAQ Official Closing Price. Securities that are not traded or dealt in any securities exchange (whether domestic or foreign) and for which over-the-counter market quotations are readily available generally shall be valued at the last sale price or, in the absence of a sale, at the mean between the current bid and ask price on such over-the- counter market. Debt securities not traded on an exchange may be valued at prices supplied by a pricing agent(s) based on broker or dealer supplied valuations or matrix pricing, a method of valuing securities by reference to the value of other securities with similar characteristics, such as rating, interest rate and maturity.

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If market quotations are not readily available, securities will be valued at their fair market value as determined using the “fair value” procedures approved by the Board. Fair value pricing involves subjective judgments and it is possible that the fair value determined for a security may be materially different than the value that could be realized upon the sale of that security. The fair value prices can differ from market prices when they become available or when a price becomes available. The Board has delegated execution of these procedures to a fair value team composed of one or more representatives from each of the (i) Trust, (ii) administrator, and (iii) Adviser. The team may also enlist third party consultants such as an audit firm or financial officer of a security issuer on an as-needed basis to assist in determining a security-specific fair value. The Board reviews and considers the determinations reached by the fair value committee in ratifying the fair value committee’s application of the fair valuation methodologies employed.

 

The Fund may use independent pricing services to assist in calculating the value of the Fund’s securities. In addition, market prices for foreign securities are not determined at the same time of day as the NAV for the Fund. Because the Fund may invest in securities primarily listed on foreign exchanges, and these exchanges may trade on weekends or other days when the Fund does not price its shares, the value of some of the Fund’s portfolio securities may change on days when APs may not be able to purchase or redeem Fund shares.

 

In computing the NAV, the Fund values foreign securities held by the Fund at the latest closing price on the exchange in which they are traded immediately prior to closing of the NYSE. Prices of foreign securities quoted in foreign currencies are translated into U.S. dollars at current rates. If events materially affecting the value of a security in the Fund’s portfolio, particularly foreign securities, occur after the close of trading on a foreign market but before the Fund prices its shares, the security will be valued at fair value. For example, if trading in a portfolio security is halted and does not resume before the Fund calculates its NAV, the Adviser may need to price the security using the Fund’s fair value pricing guidelines. The determination of fair value involves subjective judgments. As a result, using fair value to price a security may result in a price materially different from the prices used by other funds to determine NAV, or from the price that may be realized upon the actual sale of the security.

 

With respect to any portion of the Fund’s assets that are invested in one or more open-end management investment companies registered under the 1940 Act, the Fund’s NAV is calculated based upon the NAV of those open-end management investment companies, and the prospectuses for these companies explain the circumstances under which those companies will use fair value pricing and the effects of using fair value pricing.

 

Premium/Discount Information

 

Most investors will buy and sell shares of the Fund in secondary market transactions through brokers at market prices and the Fund’s shares will trade at market prices. The market price of shares of the Fund may be greater than, equal to, or less than NAV. Market forces of supply and demand, economic conditions and other factors may affect the trading prices of shares of the Fund.

 

Information regarding the intraday value of shares of the Fund, also known as the “indicative optimized portfolio value” (“IOPV”), may, but is not required to be, disseminated every 15 seconds throughout each trading day by the securities exchange on which the Fund’s shares are listed or by market data vendors or other information providers. The IOPV is based on the current market value of the Fund’s securities, including cash required to be deposited in exchange for a Creation Unit. The IOPV is generally determined by using both current market quotations and price quotations obtained from broker-dealers and other market intermediaries that may trade in the Fund’s portfolio securities. The IOPV may not reflect the exact composition of the Fund’s current portfolio of securities at a particular point in time or the best possible valuation of the Fund’s current portfolio. As a result, the IOPV should not be confused with the NAV, which is computed only once a day. Information regarding how often the shares of the Fund traded at a price above (at a premium to) or below (at a discount to) the NAV of the Fund during the past four calendar quarters, when available, can be found at www.RegentsParkFunds.com.

 

 

HOW TO BUY AND SELL SHARES 

 

Shares of the Fund are listed for trading on the Exchange under the symbol AFIF. Share prices are reported in dollars and cents per Share. Shares can be bought and sold on the secondary market throughout the trading day like other publicly traded shares, and shares typically trade in blocks of less than a Creation Unit. There is no minimum investment required. Shares may only be purchased and sold on the secondary market when the Exchange is open for trading. The Exchange is open for trading Monday through Friday and is closed on weekends and the following holidays, as observed: New Year’s Day, Martin Luther King, Jr. Day, Presidents’ Day, Good Friday, Memorial Day, Juneteenth, Independence Day, Labor Day, Thanksgiving Day and Christmas Day.

 

When buying or selling shares through a broker, you will incur customary brokerage commissions and charges, and you may pay some or all of the spread between the bid and the offered price in the secondary market on each leg of a round trip (purchase and sale) transaction.

 

Authorized participants (“APs”) may acquire shares directly from the Fund, and APs may tender their shares for redemption directly to the Fund, at NAV per Share only in large blocks, or Creation Units, of 25,000 shares. Purchases and redemptions directly from the Fund must follow the Fund’s procedures, which are described in the SAI.

 

The Fund may liquidate and terminate at any time without shareholder approval.

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Share Trading Prices

 

The approximate value of shares of the Fund, an amount representing on a per share basis the sum of the current market price of the securities accepted by the Fund in exchange for shares of the Fund and an estimated cash component will be disseminated every 15 seconds throughout the trading day through the facilities of the Consolidated Tape Association. This approximate value should not be viewed as a “real-time” update of the NAV per share of the Fund because the approximate value may not be calculated in the same manner as the NAV, which is computed once a day, generally at the end of the business day. The Fund is not involved in, or responsible for, the calculation or dissemination of the approximate value of the shares, and the Fund does not make any warranty as to the accuracy of these values.

 

Book Entry

 

Shares are held in book entry form, which means that no stock certificates are issued. The Depository Trust Company (“DTC”) or its nominee is the record owner of all outstanding shares of the Fund and is recognized as the owner of all shares for all purposes.

 

Investors owning shares are beneficial owners as shown on the records of DTC or its participants. DTC serves as the securities depository for all shares. Participants in DTC include securities brokers and dealers, banks, trust companies, clearing corporations and other institutions that directly or indirectly maintain a custodial relationship with DTC. As a beneficial owner of shares, you are not entitled to receive physical delivery of stock certificates or to have shares registered in your name, and you are not considered a registered owner of shares. Therefore, to exercise any right as an owner of shares, you must rely upon the procedures of DTC and its participants. These procedures are the same as those that apply to any other securities that you hold in book entry or “street name” form.

 

 

FREQUENT PURCHASES AND REDEMPTIONS OF FUND SHARES 

 

The Fund’s shares can only be purchased and redeemed directly from the Fund in Creation Units by APs, and the vast majority of trading in the Fund’s shares occurs on the secondary market. Because the secondary market trades do not directly involve the Fund, it is unlikely those trades would cause the harmful effects of market timing, including dilution, disruption of portfolio management, increases in the Fund’s trading costs and the realization of capital gains. With regard to the purchase or redemption of Creation Units directly with the Fund, to the extent effected in-kind (i.e., for securities), those trades do not cause the harmful effects that may result from frequent cash trades. To the extent trades are effected in whole or in part in cash, those trades could result in dilution to the Fund and increased transaction costs, which could negatively impact the Fund’s ability to achieve its investment objective. However, direct trading by APs is critical to ensuring that the Fund’s shares trade at or close to NAV. The Fund also employs fair valuation pricing to minimize potential dilution from market timing. In addition, the Fund imposes transaction fees on purchases and redemptions of Fund shares to cover the custodial and other costs incurred by the Fund in effecting trades. These fees increase if an investor substitutes cash in part or in whole for securities, reflecting the fact that the Fund’s trading costs increase in those circumstances. Given this structure, the Trust has determined that it is not necessary to adopt policies and procedures to detect and deter market timing of the Fund’s shares.

 

 

DISTRIBUTION AND SERVICE PLAN 

 

The Fund has adopted a distribution and service plan (“Plan”) pursuant to Rule 12b-1 under the 1940 Act. Under the Plan, the Fund is authorized to pay distribution fees to the distributor and other firms that provide distribution and shareholder services. If these distribution and shareholder services are provided, the Fund may pay distribution fees at an annual rate not to exceed 0.25% of average daily net assets, pursuant to Rule 12b-1 under the 1940 Act.

 

No distribution or service fees are currently paid by the Fund, and there are no current plans to impose these fees. In the event Rule 12b-1 fees were charged, over time they would increase the cost of an investment in the Fund.

 

Additional Compensation to Financial Intermediaries: Northern Lights Distributors, LLC, the Fund’s distributor, its affiliates, and the Fund’s Adviser or Sub-Adviser or their affiliates may, at their own expense and out of their own legitimate profits, provide additional cash payments to financial intermediaries who sell shares of the Fund, including affiliates of the Adviser. Financial intermediaries include brokers, financial planners, banks, insurance companies, retirement or 401(k) plan administrators and others. These payments may be in addition to any Rule 12b-1 fees that the Fund could charge pursuant to a Rule 12b-1 plan and any sales charges that are disclosed elsewhere in this Prospectus. These payments are generally made to financial intermediaries that provide shareholder or administrative services, or marketing support. Marketing support may include access to sales meetings, sales representatives and financial intermediary management representatives, inclusion of the Fund on a sales list, including a preferred or select sales list, or other sales programs. These payments also may be made as an expense reimbursement in cases where the financial intermediary provides shareholder services to Fund shareholders.

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DIVIDENDS, OTHER DISTRIBUTIONS AND TAXES 

 

Unlike interests in conventional mutual funds, which typically are bought and sold from and to the fund only at closing NAVs, the Fund’s shares are traded throughout the day in the secondary market on a national securities exchange on an intra-day basis and are created and redeemed in-kind and/or for cash in Creation Units at each day’s next calculated NAV. In-kind arrangements are designed to protect ongoing shareholders from the adverse effects on the Fund’s portfolio that could arise from frequent cash redemption transactions. In a conventional mutual fund, redemptions can have an adverse tax impact on taxable shareholders if the mutual fund needs to sell portfolio securities to obtain cash to meet net fund redemptions. These sales may generate taxable gains for the ongoing shareholders of the mutual fund, whereas the shares’ in-kind redemption mechanism generally will not lead to a tax event for the Fund or its ongoing shareholders.

 

Ordinarily, dividends from net investment income, if any, are declared and paid monthly by the Fund. The Fund distributes its net realized capital gains, if any, to shareholders annually.

 

Distributions in cash may be reinvested automatically in additional whole shares only if the broker through whom you purchased shares makes such option available.

 

Taxes

 

As with any investment, you should consider how your investment in shares will be taxed. The tax information in this Prospectus is provided as general information. You should consult your own tax professional about the tax consequences of an investment in shares.

 

Unless your investment in shares is made through a tax-exempt entity or tax-deferred retirement account, such as an individual retirement account, you need to be aware of the possible tax consequences when:

· The Fund makes distributions,
· You sell your shares listed on the Exchange, and
· You purchase or redeem Creation Units.

 

Taxes on Distributions

 

As stated above, dividends from net investment income, if any, ordinarily are declared and paid monthly by the Fund. The Fund may also pay a special distribution at the end of a calendar year to comply with U.S. federal tax requirements. Distributions from the Fund’s net investment income, including net short-term capital gains, if any, are taxable to you as ordinary income, except that the Fund’s dividends attributable to its “qualified dividend income” (i.e., dividends received on stock of most domestic and certain foreign corporations with respect to which the Fund satisfies certain holding period and other restrictions), if any, generally are subject to U.S. federal income tax for non-corporate shareholders who satisfy those restrictions with respect to their Fund shares at the rate for net capital gain -- a maximum of 20%. In addition, a 3.8% Medicare tax will also apply. A part of the Fund’s dividends also may be eligible for the dividends-received deduction allowed to corporations -- the eligible portion may not exceed the aggregate dividends the Fund receives from domestic corporations subject to U.S. federal income tax (excluding REITs) and excludes dividends from foreign corporations -- subject to similar restrictions.

 

In general, your distributions are subject to U.S. federal income tax when they are paid, whether you take them in cash or reinvest them in the Fund (if that option is available). Distributions reinvested in additional shares of the Fund through the means of a dividend reinvestment service, if available, will be taxable to shareholders acquiring the additional shares to the same extent as if such distributions had been received in cash. Distributions of net long-term capital gains, if any, in excess of net short-term capital losses are taxable as long-term capital gains, regardless of how long you have held the shares.

 

Distributions in excess of the Fund’s current and accumulated earnings and profits are treated as a tax-free return of capital to the extent of and in reduction of your basis in the shares and as capital gain thereafter. A distribution will reduce the Fund’s NAV per Share and may be taxable to you at ordinary income or capital gain rates (as described above) even though, from an investment standpoint, the distribution may constitute a return of capital.

 

By law, the Fund is required to withhold 24% of your distributions and redemption proceeds if you have not provided the Fund with a correct Social Security number or other taxpayer identification number and in certain other situations.

27
 

 

Taxes on Exchange-Listed Share Sales

 

Any capital gain or loss realized upon a sale of shares is generally treated as long-term capital gain or loss if the shares have been held for more than one year and as short-term capital gain or loss if the shares have been held for one year or less. The ability to deduct capital losses from sales of shares may be limited.

 

Taxes on Purchase and Redemption of Creation Units

 

An AP who exchanges securities for Creation Units generally will recognize a gain or a loss equal to the difference between the market value of the Creation Units at the time of the exchange and the sum of the exchanger’s aggregate basis in the securities surrendered plus any Cash Component it pays. An AP who exchanges Creation Units for securities will generally recognize a gain or loss equal to the difference between the exchanger’s basis in the Creation Units and the sum of the aggregate market value of the securities received plus any cash equal to the difference between the NAV of the shares being redeemed and the value of the securities. The Internal Revenue Service (“Service”), however, may assert that a loss realized upon an exchange of securities for Creation Units cannot be deducted currently under the rules governing “wash sales” or for other reasons. Persons exchanging securities should consult their own tax advisors with respect to whether wash sale rules apply and when a loss might be deductible.

 

Any capital gain or loss realized upon redemption of Creation Units is generally treated as long-term capital gain or loss if the shares have been held for more than one year and as short-term capital gain or loss if the shares have been held for one year or less.

 

If you purchase or redeem Creation Units, you will be sent a confirmation statement showing how many shares you purchased or sold and at what price. See “Tax Status” in the SAI for a description of the requirement regarding basis determination methods applicable to Share redemptions and the Fund’s obligation to report basis information to the Service.

 

The foregoing discussion summarizes some of the possible consequences under current U.S. federal income tax law of an investment in the Fund. It is not a substitute for personal tax advice. Consult your personal tax advisor about the potential tax consequences of an investment in the shares under all applicable tax laws. See “Tax Status” in the SAI for more information.

 

 

FUND SERVICE PROVIDERS 

 

Ultimus Fund Solutions, LLC is the Fund’s administrator and fund accountant. It has its principal office at 225 Pictoria Drive, Suite 450, Cincinnati, Ohio, 45246, and is primarily in the business of providing administrative, fund accounting and transfer agent services to retail and institutional mutual funds. It is an affiliate of the Distributor.

 

Brown Brothers Harriman & Co. (“BBH”), 50 Post Office Square, Boston, MA 02110, is the Fund’s custodian and transfer agent.

 

Northern Lights Distributors, LLC (the “Distributor”), 4221 North 203rd Street, Suite 100, Elkhorn, Nebraska 68022, is the distributor for the shares of the Fund. The Distributor is a registered broker-dealer and member of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (“FINRA”).

 

Blank Rome LLP, 1271 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10020, serves as legal counsel to the Trust.

 

RSM US LLP, 555 17th Street, Suite 1200, Denver, CO 80202, serves as the Fund’s independent registered public accounting firm. The independent registered public accounting firm is responsible for auditing the annual financial statements of the Fund.

 

28
 

 

OTHER INFORMATION 

 

Investment by Other Investment Companies

 

The SEC has granted an exemptive order to the Adviser permitting, among other relief, registered investment companies and unit investment trusts that enter into an agreement with respect to certain investment companies that the Adviser or an affiliate advises (“Investing Funds”) to invest in such investment companies beyond the limits set forth in Section 12(d)(1) of the 1940 Act, subject to certain terms and conditions. Pursuant to recently enacted SEC rules, the Investing Funds may rely on the exemptive order to make such investments until January 19, 2022. This aspect of the exemptive order is not applicable to the Fund. Accordingly, Investing Funds must adhere to the limits set forth in Section 12(d)(1) of the 1940 Act when investing in the Fund.

 

Continuous Offering

 

The method by which Creation Units of shares are created and traded may raise certain issues under applicable securities laws. Because new Creation Units of shares are issued and sold by the Fund on an ongoing basis, a “distribution,” as such term is used in the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), may occur at any point. Broker-dealers and other persons are cautioned that some activities on their part may, depending on the circumstances, result in their being deemed participants in a distribution in a manner which could render them statutory underwriters and subject them to the prospectus delivery requirement and liability provisions of the Securities Act.

 

For example, a broker-dealer firm or its client may be deemed a statutory underwriter if it takes Creation Units after placing an order with the Distributor, breaks them down into constituent shares and sells the shares directly to customers or if it chooses to couple the creation of a supply of new shares with an active selling effort involving solicitation of secondary market demand for shares. A determination of whether one is an underwriter for purposes of the Securities Act must take into account all the facts and circumstances pertaining to the activities of the broker-dealer or its client in the particular case, and the examples mentioned above should not be considered a complete description of all the activities that could lead to a characterization as an underwriter.

 

Broker-dealer firms should also note that dealers who are not “underwriters” but are effecting transactions in shares, whether or not participating in the distribution of shares, are generally required to deliver a prospectus. This is because the prospectus delivery exemption in Section 4(3) of the Securities Act is not available in respect of such transactions as a result of Section 24(d) of the 1940 Act. As a result, broker-dealer firms should note that dealers who are not “underwriters” but are participating in a distribution (as contrasted with engaging in ordinary secondary market transactions) and thus dealing with the shares that are part of an overallotment within the meaning of Section 4(3)(C) of the Securities Act, will be unable to take advantage of the prospectus delivery exemption provided by Section 4(3) of the Securities Act. For delivery of prospectuses to exchange members, the prospectus delivery mechanism of Rule 153 under the Securities Act is only available with respect to transactions on a national exchange.

 

Dealers effecting transactions in the shares, whether or not participating in this distribution, are generally required to deliver a Prospectus. This is in addition to any obligation of dealers to deliver a Prospectus when acting as underwriters.

 

Householding: To reduce expenses, the Fund mails only one copy of the prospectus and each annual and semi-annual report (or, if applicable, each notice of electronic accessibility thereof) to those addresses shared by two or more accounts. If you wish to receive individual copies of these documents, please call the Fund at 1-866-866-4848 on days the Fund is open for business or contact your financial institution. The Fund will begin sending you individual copies thirty days after receiving your request.

29
 

 

FINANCIAL HIGHLIGHTS 

 

The financial highlights tables are intended to help you understand the Fund’s financial performance for the period of the Fund’s operations. Certain information reflects financial results for a single Fund share. The total returns in the tables represent the rate that an investor would have earned (or lost) on an investment in the Fund (assuming reinvestment if all dividends and distributions). This information for the Fund has been derived from the financial statements audited by RSM US LLP, whose report, along with the Fund’s financial statements, are included in the Fund’s July 31, 2021 annual report, which is available upon request and is incorporated by reference in the SAI.

 

Per Share Data and Ratios for a Share of Beneficial Interest Outstanding Throughout the Periods

 

    For the     For the     For the  
    Year Ended     Year Ended     Period Ended  
    July 31, 2021     July 31, 2020     July 31, 2019*  
Net asset value, beginning of year/period   $ 9.86     $ 9.84     $ 10.00  
Activity from investment operations:                        
Net investment income(a)     0.13       0.12       0.22  
Net realized and unrealized gain (loss) on investments     (0.16 )     0.01       (0.17 )
Total from investment operations     (0.03 )     0.13       0.05  
Less distributions from:                        
Net investment income     (0.14 )     (0.11 )     (0.20 )
Net realized gains                 (0.01 )
Total distributions     (0.14 )     (0.11 )     (0.21 )
Net asset value, end of year/period   $ 9.69     $ 9.86     $ 9.84  
Market price, end of year/period   $ 9.70     $ 9.86     $ 9.88  
Total return(b)(c)     (0.32 )%     1.88 %     0.52 %(i)(j)
Market price total return     (0.22 )%     1.47 %     0.53 %(i)
Net assets, at end of year/period (000)s   $ 129,179     $ 121,756     $ 27,801  
Ratio of gross expenses to average net assets(d)(e)     1.00 %     1.23 %     1.30 %(k)
Ratio of net expenses to average net assets(e)(f)     1.00 %     1.21 %     0.95 %(k)
Ratio of net investment income to average net assets(g)     1.35 %     1.21 %     2.56 %(k)
Portfolio Turnover Rate(h)     135 %     227 %     330 %(i)
                         
* The Anfield Universal Fixed Income ETF commenced operations on September 17, 2018.
(a) Per share amounts calculated using the average shares method, which more appropriately represents the per share data for the period.
(b) Total return is calculated assuming a purchase of shares at net asset value on the first day and a sale at net asset value on the last day of the period. Distributions are assumed, for the purpose of this calculation, to be reinvested at the ex-dividend date net asset value per share on their respective payment dates. Total return would have been lower absent fee waiver/expense reimbursement.
(c) Includes adjustments in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States and, consequently, the net asset value for financial reporting purposes and the returns based upon those net asset values may differ from the net asset values and returns for shareholder transactions.
(d) Represents the ratio of expenses to average net assets absent fee waivers and/or expense reimbursements by the Adviser.
(e) Does not include the expenses of other investment companies in which the fund invests.
(f) Represents the ratio of expenses to average net assets inclusive of fee waivers and/or expense reimbursements by the Adviser.
(g) Recognition of net investment income by the Fund is affected by the timing of the declaration of dividends by the underlying investment companies in which the Fund invests.
(h) Portfolio turnover rate excludes securities received or delivered from in-kind transactions.
(i) Not annualized.
(j) Represents total return based on net asset values per share from commencement of investment operations on September 17, 2018 through July 31, 2019. Total return based on net asset value per share, as of the close of business on the day of commencement of trading on the BATS on September 18, 2018 through July 31, 2019 was 0.52%.
(k) Annualized
30
 

 

PRIVACY NOTICE 

 

FACTS WHAT DOES TWO ROADS SHARED TRUST DO WITH YOUR PERSONAL INFORMATION
Why? Financial companies choose how they share your personal information.  Federal law gives consumers the right to limit some but not all sharing.  Federal law also requires us to tell you how we collect, share, and protect your personal information.  Please read this notice carefully to understand what we do.
What?

THE TYPES OF PERSONAL INFORMATION WE COLLECT AND SHARE DEPENDS ON THE PRODUCT OR SERVICE THAT YOU HAVE WITH US. THIS INFORMATION CAN INCLUDE:

·         Social Security number and income

·         Account transactions and transaction history

·         Investment experience and purchase history

When you are no longer our customer, we continue to share your information as described in this notice.

How? All financial companies need to share customers’ personal information to run their everyday business.  In the section below, we list the reasons financial companies can share their customers’ personal information; the reason Two Roads Shared Trust chooses to share and whether you can limit this sharing.

 

 

Reasons we can share your personal information Does Two Roads
Shared Trust share?
Can you limit
this sharing?

For our everyday business purposes –

such as to process your transactions, maintain your account(s), respond to court orders and legal investigations, or report to credit bureaus

YES NO

For our marketing purposes –

to offer our products and services to you

NO We do not share
For joint marketing with other financial companies NO We do not share

For our affiliates’ everyday business purposes –

information about your transactions and experiences

NO We do not share

For our affiliates’ everyday business purposes –

information about your creditworthiness

NO We do not share
For our affiliates to market to you NO We do not share
For nonaffiliates to market to you NO We do not share
   
Questions? Call 1-631-490-4300

 

31
 

 

What we do

How does Two Roads Shared Trust protect my personal information?

To protect your personal information from unauthorized access and use, we use security measures that comply with federal law. These measures include computer safeguards and secured files and buildings.

 

Our service providers are held accountable for adhering to strict policies and procedures to prevent any misuse of your nonpublic personal information.

How does Two Roads Shared Trust collect my personal information?

We collect your personal information, for example, when you

·         open an account or give us contact information

·         provide account information or give us your income information

·         make deposits or withdrawals from your account

We also collect your personal information from other companies.

Why can’t I limit all sharing?

Federal law gives you the right to limit only

·         sharing for affiliates’ everyday business purposes – information about your creditworthiness

·         affiliates from using your information to market to you

·         sharing for nonaffiliates to market to you

State laws and individual companies may give you additional rights to limit sharing

 

 

Definitions

Affiliates

Companies related by common ownership or control. They can be financial and nonfinancial companies.

·         Two Roads Shared Trust has no affiliates.

Nonaffiliates

Companies not related by common ownership or control. They can be financial and nonfinancial companies.

·         Two Roads Shared Trust does not share with nonaffiliates so they can market to you.

Joint marketing

A formal agreement between nonaffiliates financial companies that together market financial products or services to you.

·         Two Roads Shared Trust does not jointly market.

 

 

32
 

Anfield Universal Fixed Income ETF

 

Adviser

Regents Park Funds, LLC

4041 MacArthur Blvd., Suite 155

Newport Beach, CA 92660

Distributor

Northern Lights Distributors, LLC

4221 North 203rd Street, Suite 100 Elkhorn, NE 68022

Sub-Adviser

Anfield Capital Management, LLC

4041 MacArthur Blvd., Suite 155

Newport Beach, CA 92660

Legal
Counsel

Blank Rome LLP

1271 Avenue of the Americas

New York, NY 10020

Custodian
& Transfer Agent

Brown Brothers Harriman & Co.

50 Post Office Square

Boston, MA 02110

Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

RSM US LLP

555 17th Street, Suite 1200

Denver, CO 80202

Administrator

Ultimus Fund Solutions, LLC

225 Pictoria Drive, Suite 450, Cincinnati, Ohio, 45246

   

 

Additional information about the Fund is included in the Fund’s SAI dated November 30, 2021 and annual and semi-annual reports to shareholders. The SAI and the financial statements included in the Fund’s most recent annual report to shareholders for the fiscal year ended July 31, 2021, including the notes thereto and report of the independent registered public accounting firm thereon, are incorporated into this Prospectus by reference (i.e., legally made a part of this Prospectus). The SAI provides more details about the Fund’s policies and management. In the Fund’s annual report, you will find a discussion of the market conditions and investment strategies that significantly affected the Fund’s performance during its last fiscal year.

 

To obtain a free copy of the SAI and the annual and semi-annual reports to shareholders, or other information about the Fund, or to make shareholder inquiries about the Fund, please call 1-866-866-4848. The SAI, annual and semi-annual reports and other information relating to the Fund can be found, free of charge, at www.RegentsParkFunds.com. You may also write to:

 

Anfield Universal Fixed Income ETF

c/o Ultimus Fund Solutions, LLC

P.O. Box 541150

Omaha, Nebraska 68154

 

Reports and other information about the Fund are available on the EDGAR Database on the SEC’s Internet site at http://www.sec.gov. Copies of the information may be obtained, after paying a duplicating fee, by electronic request at the following E-mail address: publicinfo@sec.gov.

 

 

Investment Company Act File # 811-22718