COMBINED STATEMENT OF ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
FOR HARTFORD FUNDS
This Combined Statement of Additional Information (“SAI”) is not a prospectus, and it should be read in conjunction with the prospectus, as may be amended, restated or supplemented from time to time, of the series of The Hartford Mutual Funds II, Inc. (the “Company”) in the chart below (each a “Fund” and collectively, the “Funds”). The Company is an open-end management investment company currently consisting of fourteen separate series. This SAI relates only to the Funds.
THE HARTFORD MUTUAL FUNDS II, INC.
 
Class
A
Class
C
Class
I
Class
SDR
Class
R3
Class
R4
Class
R5
Class
Y
Class
F
Hartford Schroders China A
Fund
HSHAX
HSHCX
HSHIX
HSHRX
HSHYX
HSHFX
Hartford Schroders
Diversified Emerging
Markets Fund
HSXAX
HSXCX
HSXIX
HSDEX
HSXYX
HSXFX
Hartford Schroders
Emerging Markets Equity
Fund
SEMVX
HHHCX
SEMNX
SEMTX
HHHRX
HHHSX
HHHTX
HHHYX
HHHFX
Hartford Schroders
Emerging Markets Multi-
Sector Bond Fund
SMSVX
HFZCX
SMSNX
SMSRX
HFZRX
HFZSX
HFZTX
HFZYX
HFZFX
Hartford Schroders
International Multi-Cap Value
Fund
SIDVX
HFYCX
SIDNX
SIDRX
HFYRX
HFYSX
HFYTX
HFYYX
HFYFX
Hartford Schroders
International Stock Fund
SCVEX
HSWCX
SCIEX
SCIJX
HSWRX
HSWSX
HSWTX
HSWYX
HSWFX
Hartford Schroders
Securitized Income Fund
HITAX
HITCX
HITIX
HITSX
HITYX
HITFX
Hartford Schroders
Sustainable Core Bond Fund
HSAEX
SCBRX
HSACX
HSSBX
HSADX
SCBIX
HSSFX
Hartford Schroders Tax-
Aware Bond Fund
STWVX
HFKCX
STWTX
HFKVX
HFKYX
HFKFX
Hartford Schroders US
MidCap Opportunities Fund
SMDVX
HFDCX
SMDIX
SMDRX
HFDRX
HFDSX
HFDTX
HFDYX
HFDFX
Hartford Schroders US
Small Cap Opportunities
Fund
SCUVX
HOOCX
SCUIX
SCURX
HOORX
HOOSX
HOOTX
HOOYX
HOOFX
The Funds’ prospectus is incorporated by reference into this SAI. This SAI is incorporated by reference in its entirety into the prospectus. The audited financial statements and the notes thereto for each of Hartford Schroders China A Fund, Hartford Schroders Diversified Emerging Markets Fund, Hartford Schroders Emerging Markets Equity Fund, Hartford Schroders Emerging Markets Multi-Sector Bond Fund, Hartford Schroders International Multi-Cap Value Fund, Hartford Schroders International Stock Fund, Hartford Schroders Securitized Income Fund, Hartford Schroders Tax-Aware Bond Fund, Hartford Schroders US MidCap Opportunities Fund, and Hartford Schroders US Small Cap Opportunities Fund, which are included in the Annual Report to shareholders for each of these Funds dated October 31, 2021 (“Hartford Schroders Funds’ Annual Report”), are incorporated into this SAI by reference. No other portions of the audited financials are incorporated by reference herein. The Hartford Schroders Funds’ Annual Report was filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) and is available at https://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgar/data/49905/000119312522003493/d246340dncsr.htm . The audited financial statements and the notes thereto for Hartford Schroders Sustainable Core Bond Fund's predecessor fund, which is included in the Annual Report to shareholders for Hartford Schroders Sustainable Core Bond Fund's predecessor fund dated October 31, 2021 (“Core Bond Fund’s Annual Report”), are incorporated into this SAI by reference. No other portions of the audited financials are incorporated by reference herein. The Core Bond Fund’s Annual Report was filed with the SEC and is available at https://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgar/data/0000908802/000113542822000016/schroder-ncsr.htm . A free copy of the Hartford Schroders Funds’ Annual

Report, the Core Bond Fund’s Annual Report, and the Funds’ prospectus is available on the Funds’ website at hartfordfunds.com; upon request by writing to: Hartford Funds, P.O. Box 219060, Kansas City, MO 64121-9060; or by calling 1-888-843-7824.
Date of Prospectuses: March 1, 2022, as may be amended, restated or supplemented from time to time
Date of Statement of Additional Information: March 1, 2022

Table of Contents
 
Page No.
4
5
7
60
60
63
72
72
76
77
78
78
84
86
86
90
91
92
93
99
99
99
99
99
99
100
101
113
118

GENERAL INFORMATION
This SAI relates to all of the funds (each a “Fund” and collectively, the “Funds”) listed on the front cover page. Each Fund is a series of the Company. The Company was organized as a Maryland corporation on March 23, 2001. Each Fund is offered through a prospectus relating to one or more Funds and their classes. Each Fund is a separate mutual fund and each share of each Fund represents an equal proportionate interest in that Fund (subject to the liabilities belonging to the class). This SAI relates to Class A, C, I, SDR, R3, R4, R5, Y and F shares. Each Fund offers the classes set forth in the table on the cover page next to its name.
Each of the Funds, except for the Hartford Schroders China A Fund (“China A Fund”), Hartford Schroders Diversified Emerging Markets Fund (“Diversified Emerging Markets Fund”) and Hartford Schroders Securitized Income Fund (“Securitized Income Fund”), are the successors in interest to certain funds that were included as series of another investment company and that were advised by the Funds’ sub-adviser (the “Predecessor Funds”). With respect to each Fund, except China A Fund, Diversified Emerging Markets Fund, and Securitized Income Fund, the chart below sets forth the Fund's Predecessor Fund, the inception date of the Predecessor Fund, the shareholder meeting date and the reorganization date.
Fund*
Predecessor Fund
Inception Date
Predecessor Fund
Shareholder Meeting Date
Reorganization Date
Hartford Schroders
Emerging Markets Equity
Fund (“Emerging Markets
Equity Fund”)
Schroder Emerging
Market Equity Fund
March 31, 2006
October 11, 2016 and
adjourned to October 13,
2016
Before the opening of
business on October 24,
2016
Hartford Schroders
Emerging Markets Multi-
Sector Bond Fund
(“Emerging Markets Multi-
Sector Bond Fund”)
Schroder Emerging
Markets Multi-Sector
Bond Fund
June 25, 2013
October 11, 2016 and
adjourned to October 13,
2016
Before the opening of
business on October 24,
2016
Hartford Schroders
International Multi-Cap
Value Fund (“International
Multi-Cap Value Fund”)
Schroder International
Multi-Cap Value Fund
August 30, 2006
October 11, 2016 and
adjourned to October 13,
2016
Before the opening of
business on October 24,
2016
Hartford Schroders
International Stock Fund
(“International Stock
Fund”)
Schroder International
Alpha Fund
December 19, 1985
October 11, 2016 and
adjourned to October 13,
2016
Before the opening of
business on October 24,
2016
Hartford Schroders
Sustainable Core Bond
Fund (“Sustainable Core
Bond Fund”)**
Schroder Core Bond Fund
January 31, 2018
October 28, 2021 and
adjourned to November 3,
2021
After the close of
business on November
12, 2021
Hartford Schroders Tax-
Aware Bond Fund (“Tax-
Aware Bond Fund”)
Schroder Broad Tax-Aware
Value Bond Fund
October 3, 2011***
October 11, 2016 and
adjourned to October 13,
2016
Before the opening of
business on October 24,
2016
Hartford Schroders US
MidCap Opportunities
Fund (“US MidCap
Opportunities Fund”)
Schroder U.S. Small and
Mid Cap Opportunities
Fund
March 31, 2006
October 11, 2016 and
adjourned to October 13,
2016,
Before the opening of
business on October 24,
2016
Hartford Schroders US
Small Cap Opportunities
Fund (“US Small Cap
Opportunities Fund”)
Schroder U.S.
Opportunities Fund
August 6, 1993
October 11, 2016 and
adjourned to October 13,
2016,
Before the opening of
business on October 24,
2016
* Each Fund succeeded to the accounting and performance histories of the corresponding Predecessor Fund.
** Information included in this SAI for periods prior to November 15, 2021 for the Sustainable Core Bond Fund is that of its corresponding Predecessor Fund.
*** STW Broad Tax-Aware Value Bond Fund, a series of The Advisors' Inner Circle Fund II, merged into the fund on June 24, 2013. The inception date above is of the STW Broad Tax-Aware Value Bond Fund.
International Stock Fund and US Small Cap Opportunities Fund were previously organized as series of Schroder Capital Funds (Delaware), a Delaware Statutory Trust, and Emerging Markets Equity Fund, Emerging Markets Multi-Sector Bond Fund, International Multi-Cap Value Fund, Sustainable Core Bond Fund, Tax-Aware Bond Fund, and US MidCap Opportunities Fund were previously organized as series of Schroder Series Trust, a Massachusetts business trust.
The inception date of China A Fund is March 31, 2020. The inception date of Diversified Emerging Markets Fund is September 30, 2021. The inception date of Securitized Income Fund is February 28, 2019.
4

Hartford Funds Management Company, LLC (“HFMC” or the “Investment Manager”) is the investment manager to each Fund. Hartford Funds Distributors, LLC (“HFD”) is the principal underwriter to each Fund. HFMC and HFD are indirect subsidiaries of The Hartford Financial Services Group, Inc. (“The Hartford”), a Connecticut-based financial services company. The Hartford may be deemed to control each of HFMC and HFD through the indirect ownership of such entities. In addition, Schroder Investment Management North America Inc. (“SIMNA”) is a sub-adviser to each Fund and Schroder Investment Management North America Ltd. (“SIMNA Ltd.” and together with “SIMNA,” the “sub-advisers”) is a sub-sub-adviser to the China A Fund, Diversified Emerging Markets Fund, Emerging Markets Equity Fund, Emerging Markets Multi-Sector Bond Fund, International Multi-Cap Value Fund, International Stock Fund, and Tax-Aware Bond Fund.
HFMC also serves as the investment manager to the other series of The Hartford Mutual Funds II, Inc., which are not included in this SAI, and the series of The Hartford Mutual Funds, Inc., Hartford Funds Exchange-Traded Trust, Hartford Series Fund, Inc., and Hartford HLS Series Fund II, Inc.
Investments in the Funds are not:
Deposits or obligations of any bank;
Guaranteed or endorsed by any bank; or
Federally insured or guaranteed by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, the Federal Reserve Board or any other federal agency.
The prospectus and SAI do not purport to create any contractual obligations between the Company or any Fund and its shareholders. Further, shareholders are not intended third-party beneficiaries of any contracts entered into by (or on behalf of) the Funds, including contracts with the Investment Manager or other parties who provide services to the Funds.
INVESTMENT OBJECTIVES AND POLICIES
The investment objectives and principal investment strategies of each Fund are described in the Fund’s prospectus. Additional information concerning certain of the Funds’ investments, strategies and risks is set forth below.
A.
FUNDAMENTAL INVESTMENT RESTRICTIONS OF THE FUNDS
Each Fund has adopted the fundamental investment restrictions set forth below. Fundamental investment restrictions may not be changed with respect to a Fund without the approval of a majority of the Fund’s outstanding voting securities as defined in the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “1940 Act”). Under the 1940 Act and as used in the prospectus and this SAI, a “majority of the outstanding voting securities” means the lesser of (1) the holders of 67% or more of the outstanding shares of a Fund (or a class of the outstanding shares of a Fund) represented at a meeting if the holders of more than 50% of the outstanding shares of the Fund (or class) are present in person or by proxy or (2) the holders of more than 50% of the outstanding shares of the Fund (or of the class).
Unless otherwise provided below, all references below to the assets of each Fund are in terms of current market value.
Each Fund:
1. will not borrow money or issue any class of senior securities, except to the extent consistent with the 1940 Act, and the rules and regulations thereunder, or as may otherwise be permitted from time to time by regulatory authority;
2. (a) (except Securitized Income Fund) will not "concentrate" its investments in a particular industry or group of industries, except as permitted under the 1940 Act, and the rules and regulations thereunder as such may be interpreted or modified from time to time by regulatory authorities having appropriate jurisdiction;
(b) Securitized Income Fund will not "concentrate" its investments in a particular industry or group of industries, except as permitted under the 1940 Act, and the rules and regulations thereunder as such may be interpreted or modified from time to time by regulatory authorities having appropriate jurisdiction; except that the Securitized Income Fund will concentrate in mortgage-backed securities, which shall include all types of agency and non-agency mortgage-backed securities;
3. will not make loans, except to the extent consistent with the 1940 Act, and the rules and regulations thereunder, or as may otherwise be permitted from time to time by regulatory authority;
4. will not act as an underwriter of securities of other issuers, except to the extent that, in connection with the disposition of portfolio securities, the Fund may be deemed an underwriter under applicable laws;
5. will not purchase or sell real estate, except to the extent permitted under the 1940 Act and the rules and regulations thereunder, as such may be interpreted or modified from time to time by regulatory authorities having appropriate jurisdiction; and
6. will not invest in physical commodities or contracts relating to physical commodities, except to the extent permitted under the 1940 Act and other applicable laws, rules and regulations, as such may be interpreted or modified by regulatory authorities having jurisdiction, from time to time and as set forth in the Fund’s prospectus and SAI.
B.
NON-FUNDAMENTAL INVESTMENT RESTRICTIONS OF THE FUNDS
5

The following restrictions are non-fundamental restrictions and may be changed by the Board of Directors of the Company (the “Board”) without shareholder approval.
Each Fund may not:
1. Pledge its assets other than to secure permitted borrowings or to secure investments permitted by the Fund’s investment policies as set forth in its prospectus and this SAI, as they may be amended from time to time, and applicable law.
2. Purchase securities on margin except to the extent permitted by applicable law.
3. Purchase securities while outstanding borrowings exceed 5% of a Fund’s total assets, except where the borrowing is for temporary or emergency purposes. Reverse repurchase agreements, dollar rolls, securities lending, borrowing securities in connection with short sales (where permitted in a Fund’s prospectus and SAI), and other investments or transactions described in the Fund’s prospectus and this SAI, as they may be amended from time to time, are not deemed to be borrowings for purposes of this restriction.
4. Make short sales of securities or maintain a short position, except to the extent permitted by the Fund’s prospectus and SAI, as amended from time to time, and applicable law.
5. Invest more than 15% of its net assets in illiquid investments as determined pursuant to Rule 22e-4 under the 1940 Act and the Fund’s procedures adopted thereunder.
C.
NON-FUNDAMENTAL TAX RESTRICTIONS OF THE FUNDS
Each Fund must:
1. Maintain its assets so that, at the close of each quarter of its taxable year,
(a) at least 50 percent of the fair market value of its total assets is comprised of cash, cash items, U.S. Government securities, securities of other regulated investment companies and other securities (including bank loans), limited in respect of any one issuer to no more than 5 percent of the fair market value of the Fund’s total assets and 10 percent of the outstanding voting securities of such issuer, and
(b) no more than 25 percent of the fair market value of its total assets is invested in the securities (including bank loans) of any one issuer (other than U.S. Government securities and securities of other regulated investment companies), or of two or more issuers controlled by the Fund and engaged in the same, similar, or related trades or businesses, or of one or more qualified publicly traded partnerships.
These tax-related limitations are subject to cure provisions under applicable tax laws and may be changed by the Board without shareholder approval to the extent appropriate in light of changes to applicable tax law requirements.
D.
CLASSIFICATION
Each Fund, except China A Fund and Emerging Markets Multi-Sector Bond Fund, has elected to be classified as a diversified series of an open-end management investment company. As a diversified fund, at least 75% of the value of each such Fund’s total assets must be represented by cash and cash items (including receivables), U.S. Government securities, securities of other investment companies, and other securities for the purposes of this calculation limited in respect of any one issuer (i) to an amount not greater in value than 5% of the value of the total assets of such Fund and (ii) to not more than 10% of the outstanding voting securities of such issuer.
Each of China A Fund and Emerging Markets Multi-Sector Bond Fund has elected to be classified as a non-diversified series of an open-end management investment company, which means that the Fund is not required to comply with the diversification rules of the 1940 Act set forth in the prior paragraph, although the Fund must meet the tax-related diversification requirements set forth in Section C above.
A Fund may not change its classification status from diversified to non-diversified without the prior approval of shareholders but may change its classification status from non-diversified to diversified without such approval.
E.
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION REGARDING INVESTMENT RESTRICTIONS
The information below is not considered to be part of a Fund’s fundamental policy and is provided for informational purposes only.
Except with respect to the asset coverage requirements included in the limitation on borrowing set forth in Section A.1 above, if the percentage restrictions on investments described in this SAI and any Prospectus are adhered to at the time of investment, a later increase or decrease in such percentage resulting from a change in the values of securities or loans, a change in a Fund’s net assets or a change in security characteristics is not a violation of any of such restrictions.
With respect to investment restriction A.2, the 1940 Act does not define what constitutes “concentration” in an industry. However, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) has taken the position that an investment in excess of 25% of a Fund’s total assets in one or more issuers conducting their principal business activities in the same industry generally constitutes concentration. The Funds do not apply this restriction to municipal securities, repurchase agreements collateralized by securities
6

issued or guaranteed by the U.S. government, its agencies or instrumentalities, or other investment companies. In addition, for purposes of the Securitized Income Fund’s concentration policy set forth in investment restriction A.2(b), (i) all types of mortgage-backed securities (i.e., agency and non-agency) shall be considered a single industry; and (ii) obligations issued or guaranteed by the U.S. government or its agencies or instrumentalities that are not mortgage-backed securities shall not be considered part of any industry.
With respect to investment restriction A.5, the 1940 Act does not directly restrict a Fund’s ability to invest in real estate, but does require that every fund have a fundamental investment policy governing such investments. A Fund may acquire real estate as a result of ownership of securities or other instruments and a Fund may invest in securities or other instruments backed by real estate or securities of companies engaged in the real estate business or real estate investment trusts. A Fund is limited in the amount of illiquid assets it may purchase, and to the extent that investments in real estate are considered illiquid, Rule 22e-4 generally limits the Fund’s purchases of illiquid investments to 15% of its net assets.
With respect to investment restriction A.6, although the 1940 Act does not directly limit a Fund’s ability to invest in physical commodities or contracts relating to physical commodities, a Fund’s investments in physical commodities or contracts relating to physical commodities may be limited by a Fund’s intention to qualify as a registered investment company, as at least 90% of its gross income must come from certain qualifying sources of income, and income from physical commodities or contracts relating to physical commodities does not constitute qualifying income for this purpose. In addition, to the extent that any physical commodity or contracts relating to a physical commodity is considered to be an illiquid investment, Rule 22e-4 generally limits the Fund’s purchases of illiquid investments to 15% of its net assets. Other restrictions that could also limit a Fund’s investment in physical commodities or contracts relating to physical commodities include where that investment implicates a Fund’s diversification, concentration, or securities-related issuer policies, and where the Fund would need to take certain steps as set forth in its policies to avoid being considered to issue any class of senior securities.
F.
CERTAIN INVESTMENT STRATEGIES, RISKS AND CONSIDERATIONS
The investment objective and principal investment strategies for each Fund are discussed in each Fund’s prospectus. Certain descriptions in each Fund’s prospectus and this SAI of a particular investment practice or technique in which the Funds may engage or a financial instrument that the Funds may purchase are meant to describe the spectrum of investments that a Fund’s sub-adviser, in its discretion, might, but is not required to, use in managing the Fund’s portfolio assets in accordance with the Fund’s investment objective, policies and restrictions. A sub-adviser, in its discretion, may employ any such practice, technique or instrument for one or more of the Funds, but not for all of the Funds, for which it serves as sub-adviser. It is possible that certain types of financial instruments or techniques may not be available, permissible or effective for their intended purposes in all markets.
As a result of amendments to rules under the Commodity Exchange Act (“CEA”) by the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (“CFTC”), HFMC must either operate within certain guidelines and restrictions with respect to a Fund’s use of futures, options on such futures, commodity options and certain swaps, or be subject to registration with the CFTC as a “commodity pool operator” (“CPO”) with respect to the Fund and be required to operate the Fund in compliance with certain disclosure, reporting, and recordkeeping requirements.
Under current CFTC rules, the investment adviser of a registered investment company may claim an exemption from registration as a CPO only if the registered investment company that it advises uses futures contracts, options on such futures, commodity options and certain swaps solely for “bona fide hedging purposes,” or limits its use of such instruments for non-bona fide hedging purposes to certain de minimis amounts.
HFMC has elected to claim an exclusion from the definition of CPO with respect to each Fund. As a result, each such Fund will not purchase commodity futures, commodity options contracts, or swaps if, immediately after and as a result of such purchase, (i) the Fund’s aggregate initial margin and premiums posted for its non-bona fide hedging trading in these instruments exceeds 5% of the liquidation value of the Fund’s portfolio (after taking into account unrealized profits and losses and excluding the in the-money amount of an option at the time of purchase) or (ii) the aggregate net notional value of the Fund’s positions in such instruments not used solely for bona fide hedging purposes exceeds 100% of the liquidation value of the Fund’s portfolio (after taking into account unrealized profits and losses).
Each Fund may choose to change its election at any time. If a Fund operates subject to CFTC regulation, it may incur additional expenses.
INVESTMENT RISKS
The following supplements the information contained in the prospectus concerning the investment objective and policies of the Funds. The information below does not describe every type of investment, technique or risk to which a Fund may be exposed. The tables and discussion set forth below provide descriptions of some of the types of investments and investment strategies that one or more of the Funds may use, and the risks and considerations associated with those investments and investment strategies. Please see the Funds’ prospectus and the “Investment Objectives and Policies” section of this SAI for further information on each Fund’s investment policies and risks. Information contained in this section about the risks and considerations associated with a Fund’s investments and/or investment strategies applies only to those Funds specifically identified in the table below as making
7

each type of investment or using each investment strategy (each, a “Covered Fund”). Information that does not apply to a Covered Fund does not form a part of that Covered Fund’s SAI and should not be relied on by investors in that Covered Fund. Only information that is clearly identified as applicable to a Covered Fund is considered to form a part of the Covered Fund’s SAI. However, unless a strategy or investment described below is specifically prohibited by a Fund’s investment restrictions as set forth in the prospectus or under “Fundamental Investment Restrictions of the Funds” in this SAI, a Fund may engage in any of the strategies or make any of the investments described below (either as a principal or a non-principal strategy or investment). Subject to the foregoing, the Funds may engage in any of the investment strategies or purchase any of the investments described below directly, through its investment in one or more other investment companies, or through hybrid instruments, structured investments, or other derivatives, described below.
 
China A
Diversified Emerging Markets
Emerging Markets
Equity
Emerging Markets
Multi-Sector Bond
International Multi-
Cap Value
International Stock
Securitized Income
Sustainable Core Bond
Tax-Aware Bond
US MidCap
Opportunities
US Small Cap
Opportunities
Active Investment Management
Risk
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Active Trading Risk
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Asset-Backed Securities Risk
 
 
 
X
 
X
X
X
X
 
 
Collateralized Debt Obliga-
tions (CDOs) Risk
 
 
 
X
 
X
X
X
X
 
 
Asset Segregation Risk
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Bond Forwards Risk
 
 
 
 
 
 
X
X
 
 
 
Borrowing Risk
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Call Risk
 
 
 
X
 
 
X
X
X
 
 
Commodities Regulatory Risk
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Convertible Securities Risk
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Contingent Convertibles Risk
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Synthetic Convertibles Risk
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Counterparty Risk
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Credit Risk
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Credit Risk Transfer Securities
Risk
 
 
 
X
 
 
X
X
X
 
 
Currency Risk
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Cybersecurity Risk
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Depositary Receipts Risk
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Derivatives Risk
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Hedging Risk
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Options Contracts Risk
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Equity Linked Notes Risk
X
 
X
 
 
 
X
X
 
 
 
Futures Contracts and Options
on Futures Contracts Risk
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Swap Agreements and Swap-
tions Risk
 
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Inflation-Linked Instruments
Risk
 
 
 
 
 
 
X
X
 
 
 
Hybrid Instruments Risk
X
 
 
X
 
 
X
X
 
 
 
Credit-Linked Securities Risk
 
 
 
X
 
 
X
X
 
 
 
Indexed Securities and
Structured Notes Risk
 
 
 
X
 
 
X
X
X
 
 
Event-Linked Bonds Risk
 
 
 
X
 
 
X
X
 
 
 
Foreign Currency Transactions
Risk
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Risk Factors in Derivative
Instruments
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Additional Risk Factors and
Considerations of OTC
Transactions
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Dollar Rolls Risk
 
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Equity Risk
X
X
X
 
X
X
X
X
 
X
X
Special Purpose Acquisition
Companies Risk
X
X
X
 
X
X
X
X
 
X
X
ESG Integration Risk
X
 
X
X
X
X
X
 
X
X
X
Exchange-Traded Funds (ETFs)
Risk
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Exchange-Traded Notes (ETNs)
Risk
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Event Risk
 
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
8

 
China A
Diversified Emerging Markets
Emerging Markets
Equity
Emerging Markets
Multi-Sector Bond
International Multi-
Cap Value
International Stock
Securitized Income
Sustainable Core Bond
Tax-Aware Bond
US MidCap
Opportunities
US Small Cap
Opportunities
Fixed Income Securities Risk
 
 
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Foreign Investments Risk
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Currency Risk and Exchange
Risk
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Principal Exchange Rate
Linked Securities Risk
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Performance Indexed Paper
Risk
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Settlement Risk
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Government Intervention in
Financial Markets
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
High Yield Investments (“Junk
Bonds”) Risk
 
 
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Distressed Securities Risk
 
 
 
 
 
X
X
X
X
 
 
Illiquid Investments Risk
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Inflation Risk
 
 
 
X
 
 
X
X
X
X
X
Inflation Protected Debt Securi-
ties Risk
 
 
 
X
 
X
X
X
X
 
 
Initial Public Offerings (“IPO”)
Risk
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Interest Rate Risk
 
 
 
X
 
 
X
X
X
X
X
Interfund Lending Program Risk
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Inverse Floating Rate Securities
Risk
 
 
 
 
 
 
X
X
X
 
 
Investment Grade Securities
Risk
 
 
 
X
 
X
X
X
X
X
X
Investments in Emerging
Market Securities Risk
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
 
 
Sukuk Risk
 
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
 
 
Large Cap Securities Risk
X
X
X
 
X
X
 
X
 
X
X
Large Shareholder Transaction
Risk
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Lending Portfolio Securities
Risk
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
LIBOR Risk
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Liquidation of Funds Risk
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Loans and Loan Participations
Risk
 
 
 
X
 
 
X
X
X
 
 
Floating Rate Loans Risk
 
 
 
X
 
 
X
X
X
 
 
Loan Participations Risk
 
 
 
X
 
 
X
X
X
 
 
Senior Loans Risk
 
 
 
X
 
 
X
X
X
 
 
Unsecured Loans Risk
 
 
 
X
 
 
X
X
X
 
 
Delayed Settlement Risk
 
 
 
X
 
 
X
X
X
 
 
Market Risk
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Master Limited Partnership
(“MLP”) Risk
 
 
 
 
X
X
 
X
X
X
X
Mid Cap Securities Risk
X
X
X
 
X
X
X
X
 
X
X
Money Market Instruments and
Temporary Investment Strate-
gies
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Mortgage-Related Securities
Risk
 
 
 
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Municipal Securities Risk
 
 
 
 
 
 
X
X
X
 
 
New Fund Risk
X
X
 
 
 
 
X
X
 
 
 
Non-Diversification Risk
X
 
 
X
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Operational Risks
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Other Capital Securities Risk
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Other Investment Companies
Risk
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Preferred Stock Risk
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Private Placement Risk
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Private Investments in Public
Equity (PIPEs) Risk
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Quantitative Investing Risk
 
X
X
 
X
 
 
X
 
 
 
P-Notes Risk
X
X
X
X
X
X
 
X
 
 
 
9

 
China A
Diversified Emerging Markets
Emerging Markets
Equity
Emerging Markets
Multi-Sector Bond
International Multi-
Cap Value
International Stock
Securitized Income
Sustainable Core Bond
Tax-Aware Bond
US MidCap
Opportunities
US Small Cap
Opportunities
Real Estate Investment Trusts
(“REITs”) Risk
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Real Estate Related Securities
Risks
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Regional/Country Focus Risk
X
X
X
X
X
X
 
 
 
 
 
Investments in Central and
South America Risk
 
X
X
X
X
X
 
X
 
 
 
Investments in Europe Risk
 
X
X
X
X
X
 
X
 
 
 
Investments in Asia Risk
X
X
X
X
X
X
 
X
 
 
 
Investments in China Risk
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
 
 
Investments in Russia Risk
 
X
X
X
X
X
 
X
 
 
 
Repurchase and Reverse
Repurchase Agreements Risk
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Restricted Securities Risk
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Risks of Qualified Financial
Contracts
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Sector Risk
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Consumer Discretionary Sec-
tor Risk
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Communication Services Sec-
tor Risk
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Health Care Sector Risk
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Financials Sector Risk
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Industrials Sector Risk
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Information Technology Sector
Risk
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Utilities Sector Risk
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Securities Trusts Risk
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Short Sales Risk
 
 
 
 
 
 
X
X
 
 
 
Small Capitalization Securities
Risk
X
X
X
 
X
X
X
X
 
X
X
Sovereign Debt Risk
 
 
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Structured Securities Risk
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Sustainable Investing Risk
 
X
 
 
 
 
 
X
 
 
 
Taxable Income Risk
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
X
 
 
To Be Announced (TBA) Transac-
tions Risk
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
 
 
Short Sales of TBA Invest-
ments Risk
 
 
 
 
 
 
X
X
X
 
 
Use as an Underlying Fund Risk
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
U.S. Government Securities
Risk
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Valuation Risk
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Value Investing Style Risk
 
X
 
 
X
 
 
 
 
 
 
Volatility Risk
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Warrants and Rights Risk
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Zero Coupon Securities Risk
 
 
 
X
 
X
X
X
X
 
 
ACTIVE INVESTMENT MANAGEMENT RISK. The risk that, if the investment decisions and strategy of the portfolio manager(s) do not perform as expected, a Fund could underperform its peers or lose money. A Fund’s performance depends on the judgment of the portfolio manager(s) about a variety of factors, such as markets, interest rates and/or the attractiveness, relative value, liquidity, or potential appreciation of particular investments made for the Fund’s portfolio. The portfolio manager(s)’ investment models may not adequately take into account certain factors, may perform differently than anticipated and may result in a Fund having a lower return than if the portfolio managers used another model or investment strategy. In addition, to the extent a Fund allocates a portion of its assets to specialist portfolio managers, the styles employed by the different portfolio managers may not be complementary, which could adversely affect the Fund’s performance.
ACTIVE TRADING RISK. Active or frequent trading of a Fund’s portfolio securities could increase a Fund’s transaction costs and may increase an investor’s tax liability as compared to a fund with less active trading policies. These effects may adversely affect Fund performance.
10

ASSET-BACKED SECURITIES RISK. Asset-backed securities are securities backed by a pool of some underlying asset, including but not limited to home equity loans, installment sale contracts, credit card receivables or other assets. Asset-backed securities are “pass-through” securities, meaning that principal and interest payments — net of expenses — made by the borrower on the underlying assets (such as credit card receivables) are passed through to a Fund. The value of asset-backed securities, like that of traditional fixed income securities, typically increases when interest rates fall and decreases when interest rates rise. However, asset-backed securities differ from traditional fixed income securities because of their potential for prepayment. The price paid by a Fund for its asset-backed securities, the yield the Fund expects to receive from such securities and the average life of the securities are based on a number of factors, including the anticipated rate of prepayment of the underlying assets. In a period of declining interest rates, borrowers may prepay the underlying assets more quickly than anticipated, thereby reducing the yield to maturity and the average life of the asset-backed securities. Moreover, when a Fund reinvests the proceeds of a prepayment in these circumstances, it will likely receive a rate of interest that is lower than the rate on the security that was prepaid. To the extent that a Fund purchases asset-backed securities at a premium, prepayments may result in a loss to the extent of the premium paid. If a Fund buys such securities at a discount, both scheduled payments and unscheduled prepayments will increase current and total returns and unscheduled prepayments will also accelerate the recognition of income which, when distributed to shareholders, will be taxable as ordinary income. In a period of rising interest rates, prepayments of the underlying assets may occur at a slower than expected rate, creating maturity extension risk. This particular risk may effectively change a security that was considered short- or intermediate-term at the time of purchase into a longer term security. Since the value of longer-term securities generally fluctuates more widely in response to changes in interest rates than does the value of shorter term securities, maturity extension risk could increase the volatility of the Fund. When interest rates decline, the value of an asset-backed security with prepayment features may not increase as much as that of other fixed-income securities, and, as noted above, changes in market rates of interest may accelerate or retard prepayments and thus affect maturities.
Asset-backed securities do not always have the benefit of a security interest in the underlying asset. For example, credit card receivables are generally unsecured, and the debtors are entitled to the protection of a number of state and federal consumer credit laws, many of which give such debtors the right to set off amounts owed. The ability of an issuer of asset-backed securities to enforce its security interest in the underlying securities may be limited, and recoveries on repossessed collateral may not, in some cases, be available to support payments on these securities. If a Fund purchases asset-backed securities that are “subordinated” to other interests in the same asset-backed pool, the Fund as a holder of those securities may only receive payments after the pool’s obligations to other investors have been satisfied. Tax-exempt structured securities, such as tobacco bonds, are not considered asset-backed securities for purposes of each Fund’s investments.
Collateralized Debt Obligations (CDOs) Risk. A Fund may invest in collateralized debt obligations (“CDOs”), which include collateralized bond obligations (“CBOs”), collateralized loan obligations (“CLOs”) and other similarly structured securities. CBOs and CLOs are types of asset-backed securities. A CBO is a trust that is typically backed by a diversified pool of high risk, below investment grade fixed income securities. The collateral can be from many different types of fixed income securities such as high yield debt, residential privately issued mortgage-related securities, commercial privately issued mortgage-related securities, trust preferred securities and emerging market debt. A CLO is a trust typically collateralized by a pool of loans, which may include, among others, domestic and foreign senior secured loans, senior unsecured loans, and subordinate corporate loans, including loans that may be rated below investment grade or equivalent unrated loans. Other CDOs are trusts backed by other types of assets representing obligations of various parties. CDOs may charge management fees and administrative expenses.
For CBOs, CLOs and other CDOs, the cash flows from the trust are split into two or more portions, called tranches, varying in risk and yield. The riskiest portion is the “equity” tranche which bears the bulk of defaults from the bonds or loans in the trust and serves to protect the other, more senior tranches from default in all but the most severe circumstances. Since they are partially protected from defaults, senior tranches from a CBO trust, CLO trust or trust of another CDO typically have higher ratings and lower yields than their underlying securities, and can be rated investment grade. Despite the protection from the equity tranche, CBO, CLO or other CDO tranches can experience substantial losses due to actual defaults, increased sensitivity to defaults due to collateral default and disappearance of protecting tranches, market anticipation of defaults, as well as aversion to CBO, CLO or other CDO securities as a class.
The risks of an investment in a CDO depend largely on the type of collateral held by the special purpose entity (“SPE”) and the tranche of the CDO in which the Fund invests. Investment risk may also be affected by the performance of a CDO’s collateral manager (the entity responsible for selecting and managing the pool of collateral securities held by the SPE trust), especially during a period of market volatility. CDOs may be deemed to be illiquid investments and subject to Rule 22e-4’s restrictions on investments in illiquid investments. However, an active dealer market may exist for CDOs allowing a CDO to qualify for Rule 144A transactions. Normally, CBOs, CLOs and other CDOs are privately offered and sold, and thus, are not registered under the securities laws. The Fund’s investment in CDOs will not receive the same investor protection as an investment in registered securities. In addition, prices of CDO tranches can decline considerably. In addition to the normal risks associated with debt securities and asset backed
11

securities (e.g., interest rate risk, credit risk and default risk), CDOs carry additional risks including, but not limited to: (i) the possibility that distributions from collateral securities will not be adequate to make interest or other payments; (ii) the quality of the collateral may decline in value or quality or go into default or be downgraded; (iii) a Fund may invest in tranches of a CDO that are subordinate to other classes; and (iv) the complex structure of the security may not be fully understood at the time of investment and may produce disputes with the issuer, difficulty in valuing the security or unexpected investment results.
ASSET SEGREGATION RISK. To the extent required by the current SEC guidelines, if a Fund engages in transactions that expose it to an obligation to another party, the Fund will either (i) hold an offsetting position for the same type of financial asset or (ii) maintain cash or liquid securities, designated on the Fund’s books or held in a segregated account, with a value sufficient at all times to cover its potential obligations not covered pursuant to clause (i). Assets used as offsetting positions, designated on the Fund’s books or held in a segregated account cannot be sold while the position(s) requiring cover is/are open unless replaced with other appropriate assets. As a result, the commitment of a large portion of assets to be used as offsetting positions or to be designated or segregated in such a manner could impede portfolio management or the Fund’s ability to meet shareholder redemption requests or other current obligations. Each Fund reserves the right to modify its asset segregation policies in the future to comply with any changes in the SEC’s positions regarding asset segregation. See "Recent SEC Regulatory Change" herein.
BOND FORWARDS RISK. A bond forward is a contractual agreement between a Fund and another party to buy or sell an underlying asset at an agreed-upon future price and date. When a Fund enters into a bond forward, it will also simultaneously enter into a reverse repurchase agreement. In a bond forward transaction, no cash premium is paid when the parties enter into the bond forward. If the transaction is collateralized, an exchange of margin collateral will take place according to an agreed-upon schedule. Otherwise, no asset of any kind changes hands until the bond forward matures (typically in 30 days) or is rolled over for another agreed-upon period. Generally, the value of the bond forward will change based on changes in the value of the underlying asset. Bond forwards are subject to market risk (the risk that the market value of the underlying bond may change), non-correlation risk (the risk that the market value of the bond forward might move independently of the market value of the underlying bond) and counterparty credit risk (the risk that a counterparty will be unable to meet its obligation under the contract). If there is no cash exchanged at the time a Fund enters into the bond forward, counterparty risk may be limited to the loss of any marked-to-market profit on the contract and any delays or limitations on the Fund’s ability to sell or otherwise use the investments used as collateral for the bond forward. Reverse repurchase agreements involve the sale of securities held by a Fund with an agreement to repurchase the securities at an agreed-upon price, date and interest payment. Reverse repurchase agreements carry the risk that the market value of the securities that a Fund is obligated to repurchase may decline below the repurchase price. A Fund could also lose money if it is unable to recover the securities and the value of the collateral held or assets segregated by the Fund to cover the transaction is less than the value of securities. The use of reverse repurchase agreements may increase the possibility of fluctuation in a Fund’s net asset value.
In order to reduce the risk associated with leveraging, a Fund may “set aside” liquid assets (as described in “Asset Segregation Risk” above), or otherwise “cover” its position in bond forwards in a manner consistent with the 1940 Act or the current rules and SEC interpretations thereunder. As discussed in "Risk Factors in Derivative Instruments" below, the SEC adopted a final rule related to the use of derivatives, short sales, reverse repurchase agreements and certain other transactions by registered investment companies that rescinds and withdraws the guidance of the SEC and its staff regarding asset segregation and coverage transactions reflected in the Funds' asset segregation and cover practices discussed herein.
BORROWING RISK. Each Fund may borrow money to the extent set forth under “Investment Objectives and Policies.” The Funds do not intend to borrow for leverage purposes, except as may be set forth under “Investment Objectives and Policies.” Interest paid on borrowings will decrease the net earnings of a Fund and will not be available for investment.
Each Fund participates in a 364-day committed line of credit pursuant to a credit agreement and may borrow under the line of credit for temporary or emergency purposes.
CALL RISK. Call risk is the risk that an issuer, especially during periods of falling interest rates, may redeem a security by repaying it early. Issuers may call outstanding securities prior to their maturity due to a decline in interest rates, a change in credit spreads or changes to or improvements in the issuer’s credit quality. If an issuer calls a security in which a Fund has invested, the Fund may not recoup the full amount of its initial investment and may be forced to reinvest the money it receives in lower-yielding securities, securities with greater credit risks or securities with other, less favorable features. This could potentially lower the Fund’s income, yield and its distributions to shareholders.
COMMODITIES REGULATORY RISK. Commodity-related companies are subject to significant federal, state and local government regulation in virtually every aspect of their operations, including how facilities are constructed, maintained and operated, environmental and safety controls, and the prices they may charge for the products and services they provide. In addition, certain derivatives (for example, interest rate swaps) are considered to be commodities for regulatory purposes. The CFTC and the exchanges are authorized to take extraordinary actions in the event of a market emergency, including, for example, the retroactive implementation of speculative position limits or higher margin requirements, the establishment of daily limits and the suspension of trading. Any of these actions, if taken, could adversely affect the returns of a Fund by limiting or precluding investment decisions the Fund might otherwise make. The CFTC in October 2020 adopted amendments to its position limits rules that establish certain new and
12

amended position limits for 25 specified physical commodity futures and related options contracts traded on exchanges, other futures contracts and related options directly or indirectly linked to such 25 specified contracts, and any OTC transactions that are economically equivalent to the 25 specified contracts. To the extent these contracts are traded, the sub-advisers will need to consider whether the exposure created under these contracts might exceed the new and amended limits in anticipation of the applicable compliance dates, and the limits may constrain the ability of a Fund to use such contracts. The amendments also modify the bona fide hedging exemption for which certain swap dealers are currently eligible, which could limit the amount of speculative OTC transaction capacity each such swap dealer would have available for an applicable Fund prior to the applicable compliance date. In addition, various national governments have expressed concern regarding the derivatives markets and the need to regulate such markets. Stricter laws, regulations or enforcement policies, with respect to the derivatives market, could be enacted in the future which would likely increase compliance costs and may adversely affect the operations and financial performance of commodity-related companies. The effect of any future regulatory change on a Fund is impossible to predict, but could be substantial and adverse to the Fund. Also, future regulatory developments may impact a Fund’s ability to invest in commodity-linked derivatives.
CONVERTIBLE SECURITIES RISK. The market value of a convertible security typically performs like that of a regular debt security; this means that if market interest rates rise, the value of a convertible security usually falls. Convertible securities are also subject to the risk that the issuer will not be able to pay interest or dividends when due, and their market value may change based on changes in the issuer’s credit rating or the market’s perception of the issuer’s creditworthiness. Since it derives a portion of its value from the common stock into which it may be converted, a convertible security is also subject to the same types of market and issuer risk that apply to the underlying common stock. A convertible security tends to perform more like a stock when the underlying stock price is high relative to the conversion price (because more of the security’s value resides in the option to convert) and more like a debt security when the underlying stock price is low relative to the conversion price (because the option to convert is less valuable).
Contingent Convertibles Risk. Contingent convertible securities (also known as contingent capital securities or CoCos) (“CoCos”) are a form of hybrid debt security that are intended to either convert into equity or have their principal written down upon the occurrence of certain “triggers.” The triggers are generally linked to regulatory capital thresholds or regulatory actions calling into question the issuing banking institution’s continued viability as a going-concern. CoCos’ unique equity conversion or principal write-down features are tailored to the issuing banking institution and its regulatory requirements. Some additional risks associated with CoCos include, but are not limited to:
Loss absorption risk – CoCos have no stated maturity and have fully discretionary coupons. This means coupons can potentially be cancelled at the banking institution’s discretion or at the request of the relevant regulatory authority in order to help the bank absorb losses.
Subordinated instruments – CoCos will, in the majority of circumstances, be issued in the form of subordinated debt instruments in order to provide the appropriate regulatory capital treatment prior to a conversion. Accordingly, in the event of liquidation, dissolution or winding-up of an issuer prior to a conversion having occurred, the rights and claims of the holders of the CoCos, such as a Fund, against the issuer in respect of or arising under the terms of the CoCos shall generally rank junior to the claims of all holders of unsubordinated obligations of the issuer. In addition, if the CoCos are converted into the issuer’s underlying equity securities following a conversion event (i.e., a “trigger”), each holder will be subordinated due to their conversion from being the holder of a debt instrument to being the holder of an equity instrument.
Market value will fluctuate based on unpredictable factors – The value of CoCos is unpredictable and will be influenced by many factors including, without limitation: (i) the creditworthiness of the issuer and/or fluctuations in such issuer’s applicable capital ratios; (ii) supply and demand for the CoCos; (iii) general market conditions and available liquidity; and (iv) economic, financial and political events that affect the issuer, its particular market or the financial markets in general.
Synthetic Convertibles Risk. Synthetic convertible securities involve the combination of separate securities that possess the two principal characteristics of a traditional convertible security (i.e., an income-producing component and a right to acquire an equity security). Synthetic convertible securities are often achieved, in part, through investments in warrants or options to buy common stock (or options on a stock index), and therefore are subject to the risks associated with derivatives. The value of a synthetic convertible security will respond differently to market fluctuations than a traditional convertible security because a synthetic convertible is composed of two or more separate securities or instruments, each with its own market value. Because the convertible component is typically achieved by investing in warrants or options to buy common stock at a certain exercise price, or options on a stock index, synthetic convertible securities are subject to the risks associated with derivatives. In addition, if the value of the underlying common stock or the level of the index involved in the convertible component falls below the exercise price of the warrant or option, the warrant or option may lose all value.
COUNTERPARTY RISK. With respect to certain transactions, such as over-the-counter (“OTC”) derivatives contracts or repurchase agreements, a Fund will be exposed to the risk that the counterparty to the transaction may be unable or unwilling to make timely principal, interest or settlement payments, or otherwise to honor its obligations. In the event of a bankruptcy or insolvency of a counterparty, a Fund could experience delays in liquidating its positions and significant losses, including declines in the value of its
13

investment during the period in which the Fund seeks to enforce its rights, the inability to realize any gains on its investment during such period and any fees and expenses incurred in enforcing its rights. A Fund also bears the risk of loss of the amount expected to be received under a derivative transaction in the event of the default or bankruptcy of a counterparty. OTC derivatives may not offer a Fund the same level of protection as exchange traded derivatives.
CREDIT RISK. Credit risk is the risk that the issuer of a security will not be able to make timely principal and interest payments. Changes in an issuer’s financial strength, credit rating or the market’s perception of an issuer’s creditworthiness may also affect the value of a Fund’s investment in that issuer. The degree of credit risk depends on both the financial condition of the issuer and the terms of the obligation. Although the U.S. government has honored its credit obligations, it remains possible that the U.S. could default on its obligations. A U.S. credit rating downgrade or a U.S. credit default could decrease the value and increase the volatility of a Fund’s investments. While it is impossible to predict the consequences of such an event, a default by the U.S. or credit downgrade could be highly disruptive to the U.S. and global securities markets and could significantly impair the value of a Fund’s investments. Periods of market volatility may increase credit risk.
CREDIT RISK TRANSFER SECURITIES RISK. Credit risk transfer (“CRT”) securities are fixed income securities that transfer the credit risk related to certain types of mortgage-backed securities (“MBS”) to the owner of the CRT securities. If the underlying mortgages default, the principal of the CRT securities is used to pay back holders of the MBS. As a result, all or part of the mortgage default or credit risk associated with the underlying mortgage pools is transferred to a Fund. Therefore, a Fund could lose all or part of its investments in CRT securities in the event of default by the underlying mortgages.
CURRENCY RISK. The risk that the value of a Fund’s investments in foreign securities or currencies will be affected by the value of the applicable currency relative to the U.S. dollar. Foreign currency exchange rates may fluctuate significantly over short periods of time for a number of reasons, including: interest rates, inflation, changes in balance or payments and governmental surpluses or deficits, intervention (or the failure to intervene) by U.S. or foreign governments, central banks or supranational entities such as the International Monetary Fund, or by the imposition of currency controls or other political developments in the U.S. or abroad. Changes in foreign currency exchange rates will affect the U.S. dollar market value of securities denominated in such foreign currencies and any income received or expenses paid by a Fund in that foreign currency. This may affect the Fund’s share price, income and distributions to shareholders. When a Fund sells a foreign currency or foreign currency denominated security, its value may be worth less in U.S. dollars even if the investment increases in value in its local market. U.S. dollar-denominated securities of foreign issuers may also be affected by currency risk, as the revenue earned by issuers of these securities may also be affected by changes in the issuer’s local currency. Currency markets generally are not as regulated as securities markets. Currency risk may be particularly high to the extent that the Fund invests in foreign securities or currencies that are economically tied to emerging market countries. Some countries may have fixed or managed currencies that are not free-floating against the U.S. dollar. The dollar value of foreign investments may be affected by exchange controls. A Fund may be positively or negatively affected by governmental strategies intended to make the U.S. dollar, or other currencies in which the Fund invests, stronger or weaker. For example, the Chinese government heavily regulates the domestic exchange of foreign currencies and renminbi ("RMB") exchange rates in China, which may adversely affect the operations and financial results of a Fund’s investments in China. At times, there may be insufficient offshore RMB for a Fund to remain fully invested in Chinese equities. Although offshore RMB (CNH) and onshore RMB (CNY) are the same currency, they trade at different rates. Any divergence between CNH and CNY may adversely impact investors. Under exceptional circumstances, payment of proceeds from underlying investments and/or dividend payments in RMB may be delayed due to the exchange controls and restrictions applicable to RMB. Certain currencies may not be internationally traded, which could cause illiquidity with respect to a Fund’s investments in that currency and any securities denominated in that currency. Some countries may adopt policies that would prevent a Fund from transferring cash out of the country or withhold portions of interest and dividends at the source. Certain currencies have experienced a steady devaluation relative to the U.S. dollar. Any devaluations in the currencies in which a Fund’s portfolio securities are denominated may have a detrimental impact on the Fund. Where the exchange rate for a currency declines materially after a Fund’s income has been accrued and translated into U.S. dollars, the Fund may need to redeem portfolio securities to make required distributions. Similarly, if an exchange rate declines between the time a Fund incurs expenses in U.S. dollars and the time such expenses are paid, the Fund will have to convert a greater amount of the currency into U.S. dollars in order to pay the expenses. Investing in foreign currencies for purposes of gaining from projected changes in exchange rates further increases a Fund's exposure to foreign securities losses.
CYBERSECURITY RISK. Cybersecurity breaches are either intentional or unintentional events that allow an unauthorized party to gain access to Fund assets, customer data, or proprietary information, or cause a Fund or Fund service provider to suffer data corruption or lose operational functionality. Intentional cybersecurity incidents include: unauthorized access to systems, networks, or devices (such as through “hacking” activity); infection from computer viruses or other malicious software code; and attacks that shut down, disable, slow, or otherwise disrupt operations, business processes, or website access or functionality. In addition, unintentional incidents can occur, such as the inadvertent release of confidential information.
A cybersecurity breach could result in the loss or theft of customer data or funds, the inability to access electronic systems (“denial of services”), loss or theft of proprietary information or corporate data, physical damage to a computer or network system, or costs associated with system repairs, any of which could have a substantial impact on the Funds. For example, in a denial of service, Fund shareholders could lose access to their electronic accounts indefinitely, and employees of the Investment Manager,
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the sub-adviser(s), or the Funds' other service providers may not be able to access electronic systems to perform critical duties for the Funds, such as trading, NAV calculation, shareholder accounting, or fulfillment of Fund share purchases and redemptions. Cybersecurity incidents could cause the Funds, the Investment Manager, the sub-adviser(s), or other service provider to incur regulatory penalties, reputational damage, compliance costs associated with corrective measures, or financial loss. They may also result in violations of applicable privacy and other laws. In addition, such incidents could affect issuers in which a Fund invests, thereby causing the Fund’s investments to lose value.
The Investment Manager, the sub-adviser(s), and their affiliates have established risk management systems that seek to reduce cybersecurity risks, and business continuity plans in the event of a cybersecurity breach. However, there are inherent limitations in such plans, including that certain risks have not been identified, and there is no guarantee that such efforts will succeed, especially since none of the Investment Manager, the sub-adviser(s), or their affiliates controls the cybersecurity systems of the Funds' third-party service providers (including the Funds' custodian), or those of the issuers of securities in which the Funds invest.
DEPOSITARY RECEIPTS RISK. A Fund may invest in securities of foreign issuers in the form of depositary receipts or other securities that are convertible into securities of foreign issuers, including depositary receipts that are not sponsored by a financial institution (“Unsponsored Depositary Receipts”). Examples of depositary receipts include American Depositary Receipts (“ADRs”), European Depositary Receipts (“EDRs”), Global Depositary Receipts (“GDRs”) and Chinese Depositary Receipts (“CDRs”). ADRs are receipts typically issued by a U.S. bank or trust company that evidence underlying securities issued by a foreign corporation. ADRs are traded on U.S. securities exchanges, or in over-the-counter markets, and are denominated in U.S. dollars. EDRs and GDRs are similar instruments that are issued in Europe (EDRs) or globally (GDRs), traded on foreign securities exchanges and denominated in foreign currencies. Generally, CDRs, in registered from, are designed for use in the Chinese securities markets. CDRs may involve certain risks not applicable to investing in U.S. issuers, including changes in currency rates, application of local tax laws, changes in governmental administration or economic or monetary policy or changed circumstances in dealings between nations. The value of a depositary receipt will fluctuate with the value of the underlying security, reflect changes in exchange rates and otherwise involve the same risks associated with the foreign securities that they evidence or into which they may be converted. Depositary receipts are generally subject to the same risks as the foreign securities that they evidence or into which they may be converted. The issuers of Unsponsored Depositary Receipts are not obligated to disclose information that would be considered material in the United States. Therefore, there may be less information available regarding their issuers and there may not be a correlation between such information and the market value of the depositary receipts.
A Fund may also invest in Global Depositary Notes (“GDN”), a form of depositary receipt. A GDN is a debt instrument created by a bank that evidences ownership of a local currency-denominated debt security. An investment in GDNs involves further risks due to certain features of GDNs. GDNs emulate the terms (interest rate, maturity date, credit quality, etc.) of particular local currency-denominated bonds; however, they trade, settle, and pay interest and principal in U.S. dollars, and are Depository Trust Company/Euroclear/Clearstream eligible. Any distributions paid to the holders of GDNs are usually subject to a fee charged by the depositary. Certain investment restrictions in certain countries may adversely impact the value of GDNs because such restrictions may limit the ability to convert bonds into GDNs and vice versa. Such restrictions may cause bonds of the underlying issuer to trade at a discount or premium to the market price of the GDN. See also “Foreign Investments” below.
DERIVATIVES RISK. A Fund may use instruments called derivatives or derivative investments. A derivative is a financial instrument the value of which is derived from the value of one or more underlying securities, commodities, currencies, indices, debt instruments, other derivatives or any other agreed upon pricing index or arrangement (e.g., the movement over time of the Consumer Price Index or freight rates) (each an “Underlying Instrument”). Derivatives contracts are either physically settled, which means the parties trade the Underlying Instrument itself, or cash settled, which means the parties simply make cash payments based on the value of the Underlying Instrument (and do not actually deliver or receive the Underlying Instrument). Derivatives may allow a Fund to increase or decrease the level of risk to which the Fund is exposed more quickly and efficiently than transactions in other types of instruments.
Many derivative contracts are traded on securities or commodities exchanges, the contract terms are generally standard, and the parties make payments due under the contracts through the exchange. Most exchanges require the parties to post margin against their obligations under the contracts, and the performance of the parties’ obligations under such contracts is usually guaranteed by the exchange or a related clearing corporation. Other derivative contracts are traded over-the-counter (“OTC”) in transactions negotiated directly between the counterparties. OTC derivative contracts do not have standard terms, so they are generally less liquid and more difficult to value than exchange-traded contracts. OTC derivatives also expose a Fund to additional credit risks to the extent a counterparty defaults on a contract. See “Additional Risk Factors and Considerations of OTC Transactions” below.
Depending on how a Fund uses derivatives and the relationships between the market values of the derivative and the Underlying Instrument, derivatives could increase or decrease a Fund’s exposure to the risks of the Underlying Instrument. Derivative contracts may also expose the Fund to additional liquidity and leverage risks. See “Risk Factors in Derivative Instruments” below.
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A Fund may use derivatives for various purposes, including for cash flow management, as part of its overall investment strategy, to seek to replicate the performance of a particular index, or to seek to enhance returns. The use of derivatives to seek to enhance returns is considered speculative because a Fund is primarily seeking to achieve gains rather than to offset, or hedge, the risks of other positions. When a Fund invests in a derivative for speculative purposes, the Fund is fully exposed to the risks of loss of that derivative, which may sometimes be greater than the cost of the derivative itself. No Fund may use any derivative to gain exposure to an asset or class of assets that it would be prohibited by its investment restrictions from purchasing directly.
Hedging Risk. Each Fund may use derivative instruments to offset the risks, or to “hedge” the risks, associated with other Fund holdings. For example, derivatives may be used to hedge against movements in interest rates, currency exchange rates and the equity markets through the use of options, futures transactions and options on futures. Derivatives may also be used to hedge against duration risk in fixed-income investments. Losses on one Fund investment may be substantially reduced by gains on a derivative that reacts to the same market movements in an opposite manner. However, while hedging can reduce losses, it can also reduce or eliminate gains or cause losses if the market moves in a manner different from that anticipated by the Fund or if the cost of the derivative offsets the advantage of the hedge.
Among other risks, hedging involves correlation risk, which is the risk that changes in the value of the derivative will not match (i.e., will not offset) changes in the value of the holdings being hedged as expected by a Fund. In such a case, any losses on the Fund holdings being hedged may not be reduced or may even be increased as a result of the use of the derivative. The inability to close options and futures positions also could have an adverse impact on a Fund’s ability effectively to hedge its portfolio.
There can be no assurance that the use of hedging transactions will be effective. Each Fund is not required to engage in hedging transactions, and each Fund may choose not to do so. A decision as to whether, when and how to hedge involves the exercise of skill and judgment, and even a well-conceived hedge may be unsuccessful to some degree because of market behavior or unexpected interest rate trends.
The Funds might not employ any of the derivatives strategies described below, and there can be no assurance that any strategy used will succeed. A Fund’s success in employing derivatives strategies may depend on a sub-adviser’s correctly forecasting interest rates, market values or other economic factors, and there can be no assurance that the sub-adviser’s forecasts will be accurate. If a sub-adviser’s forecasts are not accurate, the Fund may end up in a worse position than if derivatives strategies had not been employed at all. A Fund’s ability to use certain derivative transactions may be limited by tax considerations and certain other legal considerations. Further, suitable derivative transactions might not be available at all times or in all circumstances. Described below are certain derivative instruments and trading strategies the Funds may use (either separately or in combination) in seeking to achieve their overall investment objectives.
Options Contracts Risk. An options contract, or an “option,” is a type of derivative. An option is an agreement between two parties in which one gives the other the right, but not the obligation, to buy or sell an Underlying Instrument at a set price (the “exercise price” or “strike price”) for a specified period of time, or to receive a cash settlement payment. The buyer of an option pays a premium for the opportunity to decide whether to carry out the transaction (exercise the option) when it is beneficial. The option seller (writer) receives the initial premium and is obligated to carry out the transaction if and when the buyer exercises the option. Options can trade on exchanges or in the OTC market and may be bought or sold on a wide variety of Underlying Instruments. Options that are written on futures contracts, or futures options (discussed below), are subject to margin requirements similar to those applied to futures contracts. A Fund may engage in options transactions on any security or instrument in which it may invest, on any securities index based on securities in which it may invest or on any aggregates of equity and debt securities consisting of securities in which it may invest (aggregates are composites of equity or debt securities that are not tied to a commonly known index). A Fund may also enter into options on foreign currencies. As with futures and swaps (discussed below), the success of any strategy involving options depends on a sub-adviser’s analysis of many economic and mathematical factors, and a Fund’s return may be higher if it does not invest in such instruments at all. The sections below describe certain types of options and related techniques that a Fund may use.
Call Options – A call option gives the holder the right to purchase the Underlying Instrument at the exercise price, or to receive a cash settlement payment, for a fixed period of time. A Fund would typically purchase a call option in anticipation of an increase in value of the Underlying Instrument because owning the option allows the Fund to participate in price increases on a more limited risk basis than if the Fund had initially directly purchased the Underlying Instrument. If, during the option period, the market value of the Underlying Instrument exceeds the exercise price, plus the option premium paid by the Fund and any transaction costs the Fund incurs in purchasing the option, the Fund realizes a gain upon exercise of the option. Otherwise, the Fund realizes either no gain or a loss on its purchase of the option.
A Fund is also permitted to write (i.e., sell) “covered” call options, which obligate a Fund, in return for the option premium, to sell the Underlying Instrument to the option holder for the exercise price, or to make a cash settlement payment, if the option is exercised at any time before or on its expiration date. In order for a call option to be covered, a Fund must have at least one of the following in place with respect to the option and for so long as the option is outstanding: (i) the Fund owns the Underlying Instrument subject to the option (or, in the case of an option on an index, owns securities whose price changes are expected to be similar to those of the underlying index), (ii) the Fund has an absolute and immediate right to
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acquire the Underlying Instrument without additional cash consideration (or for additional cash consideration so long as the Fund segregates such additional cash amount) upon conversion or exchange of other securities in its portfolio, (iii) the Fund enters into an offsetting forward contract and/or purchases an offsetting option or any other option that, by virtue of its exercise price or otherwise, reduces the Fund’s net exposure on its written option position, or (iv) the Fund segregates assets with an aggregate value equal to the exercise price of the option.
A Fund would typically write a call option to generate income from the option premium and/or in anticipation of a decrease, or only a limited increase (i.e., an increase that is less than the option premium received by the Fund in writing the option), in the market value of the Underlying Instrument. In writing a call option, however, a Fund would not profit if the market value of the Underlying Instrument increases to an amount that exceeds the sum of the exercise price plus the premium received by the Fund. Also, a Fund cannot sell the Underlying Instrument while the option is in effect unless the Fund enters into a closing purchase transaction. A closing purchase transaction cancels out the Fund’s position as option writer by means of an offsetting purchase of an identical option prior to the expiration or exercise of the option it has written.
Put Options – A put option gives the holder the right to sell the Underlying Instrument at the exercise price, or to receive a cash settlement payment, for a fixed period of time. A Fund would typically purchase a put option in anticipation of a decline in market values of securities. This limits the Fund’s potential for loss in the event that the market value of the Underlying Instrument falls below the exercise price.
A Fund is also permitted to write covered put options on the securities or instruments in which it may invest. In order for a put option to be covered, a Fund must have at least one of the following in place with respect to the option and for so long as the option is outstanding: (i) the Fund enters into an offsetting forward contract and/or purchases an offsetting option or any other option that, by virtue of its exercise price or otherwise, reduces the Fund’s net exposure on its written option position or (ii) the Fund segregates assets or cash with an aggregate value equal to the exercise price of the option.
A Fund would typically write a put option on an Underlying Instrument to generate income from premiums and in anticipation of an increase or only a limited decrease in the value of the Underlying Instrument. However, as writer of the put and in return for the option premium, a Fund takes the risk that it may be required to purchase the Underlying Instrument at a price in excess of its market value at the time of purchase. Because the purchaser may exercise its right under the option contract at any time during the option period, a Fund has no control over when it may be required to purchase the Underlying Instrument unless it enters into a closing purchase transaction.
Collars and Straddles – A Fund may employ collars, which are options strategies in which a call with an exercise price greater than the price of the Underlying Instrument (an “out-of-the-money call”) is sold and an in-the-money put (where the exercise price is again above the price of the Underlying Instrument) is purchased, to preserve a certain return within a predetermined range of values. A Fund may also write covered straddles consisting of a combination of a call and a put written on the same Underlying Instrument. A straddle is covered when sufficient assets are deposited to meet a Fund’s immediate obligations. A Fund may use the same liquid assets to cover both the call and put options where the exercise price of the call and put are the same, or the exercise price of the call is higher than that of the put. In such cases, a Fund will also segregate or designate on their books liquid assets equivalent to the amount, if any, by which the put is “in the money.”
Options on Indices – A Fund is permitted to invest in options on any index made up of securities or other instruments in which the Fund itself may invest. Options on indices are similar to options on securities except that index options are always cash settled, which means that upon exercise of the option the holder receives cash equal to the difference between the closing price of the index and the exercise price of the option times a specified multiple that determines the total monetary value for each point of such difference. As with other written options, all index options written by a Fund must be covered.
Risks Associated with Options – There are several risks associated with options transactions. For example, there are significant differences between the options market and the securities markets that could result in imperfect correlation between the two markets. Such imperfect correlation could then cause a given transaction to fail to achieve its objectives. Options are also subject to the risks of an illiquid secondary market, whether those options are traded over-the-counter or on a national securities exchange. There can be no assurance that a liquid secondary market on an options exchange will exist for any particular exchange-traded option at any particular time. If a Fund is unable to effect a closing purchase transaction with respect to options it has written, the Fund will not be able to sell the Underlying Instruments or dispose of the segregated assets used to cover the options until the options expire or are exercised. Similarly, if a Fund is unable to effect a closing sale transaction with respect to options it has purchased, it would have to exercise the options in order to realize any profit and would incur transaction costs upon the purchase or sale of the Underlying Instruments. Moreover, a Fund’s ability to engage in options transactions may be limited by tax considerations and other legal considerations.
The presence of a liquid secondary market on an options exchange may dry up for any or all of the following reasons: (i) there may be insufficient trading interest in certain options; (ii) the exchange may impose restrictions on opening or closing transactions or both; (iii) the exchange may halt or suspend trading, or impose other restrictions, on particular classes or series of options; (iv) unusual or unforeseen circumstances may interrupt normal exchange operations; (v) the facilities of
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the exchange or its related clearing corporation may at times be inadequate to handle trading volume; and/or (vi) one or more exchanges could, for economic or other reasons, decide or be compelled at some future date to discontinue the trading of options (or particular classes or series of options), in which event the secondary market on that exchange (or in such classes or series of options) would cease to exist. However, if the secondary market on an exchange ceases to exist, it would be expected (though it cannot be guaranteed) that outstanding options on that exchange, if any, that had been issued as a result of trades on that exchange would continue to be exercisable in accordance with their terms.
A Fund’s options transactions will also be subject to limitations, established by exchanges, boards of trade or other trading facilities, governing the maximum number of options in each class that may be written or purchased by any single investor or a group of investors acting in concert. As such, the number of options any single Fund can write or purchase may be affected by options already written or purchased by other Hartford Funds. An exchange, board of trade or other trading facility may order the liquidation of positions found to be in excess of these limits and/or impose sanctions. Also, the hours of trading for options may not conform to the hours during which the Underlying Instruments are traded. To the extent that the options markets close before the markets for the Underlying Instruments, significant price movements can take place in the underlying markets that would not be reflected in the options markets.
OTC options implicate additional liquidity and credit risks. Unlike exchange-listed options, where an intermediary or clearing corporation assures that the options transactions are properly executed, the responsibility for performing OTC options transactions rests solely on the writer and holder of those options. See “Additional Risk Factors and Considerations of OTC Transactions” below.
The writing and purchase of options is a highly specialized activity that involves investment techniques and risks different from those associated with ordinary portfolio securities transactions. The successful use of options depends on a sub-adviser’s ability to predict correctly future price fluctuations and the degree of correlation between the options and securities markets. See “Risk Factors in Derivative Instruments” below.
Additional Risk Associated with Options on Indices – The writer’s payment obligation under an index option (which is a cash-settled option) usually equals a multiple of the difference between the exercise price, which was set at initiation of the option, and the closing index level on the date the option is exercised. As such, index options implicate a “timing risk” that the value of the underlying index will change between the time the option is exercised by the option holder and the time the obligation thereunder is settled in cash by the option writer.
Equity Linked Notes Risk. Investments in equity linked notes (“ELNs”) often have risks similar to their underlying securities, which could include management risk, market risk and, as applicable, foreign securities and currency risks. In addition, since ELNs are in note form, ELNs are also subject to certain debt securities risks, such as interest rate and credit risk. Should the prices of the underlying securities move in an unexpected manner, a Fund may not achieve the anticipated benefits of an investment in an ELN, and may realize losses, which could be significant and could include the Fund’s entire principal investment. An investment in an ELN is also subject to counterparty risk, which is the risk that the issuer of the ELN will default or become bankrupt and a Fund will have difficulty being repaid, or fail to be repaid, the principal amount of, or income from, its investment. Investments in ELNs are also subject to liquidity risk, which may make ELNs difficult to sell and value. In addition, ELNs may exhibit price behavior that does not correlate with the underlying securities or a fixed income investment. See also “Foreign Investments – Linked Notes” below.
Futures Contracts and Options on Futures Contracts Risk. A futures contract, which is a type of derivative, is a standardized, exchange-traded contract that obligates the purchaser to take delivery, and the seller to make delivery, of a specified quantity of an Underlying Instrument at a specified price and specified future time, or to make a cash settlement payment. A Fund is generally permitted to invest in futures contracts and options on futures contracts with respect to, but not limited to, equity and debt securities and foreign currencies, aggregates of equity and debt securities (aggregates are composites of equity or debt securities that are not tied to a commonly known index), interest rates, indices, commodities and other financial instruments.
No price is paid upon entering into a futures contract. Rather, when a Fund purchases or sells a futures contract it is required to post margin (“initial margin”) with the futures commission merchant (“FCM”) executing the transaction. The margin required for a futures contract is usually less than ten percent of the contract value, but it is set by the exchange on which the contract is traded and may by modified during the term of the contract. Subsequent payments, known as “variation margin,” to and from the FCM, will then be made daily as the currency, financial instrument or securities index underlying the futures contract fluctuates (a process known as “marking to market”). If a Fund has insufficient cash available to meet daily variation margin requirements, it might need to sell securities at a time when such sales are disadvantageous. Futures involve substantial leverage risk.
An option on a futures contract (“futures option”) gives the option holder the right (but not the obligation) to buy or sell its position in the underlying futures contract at a specified price on or before a specified expiration date. As with a futures contract itself, a Fund is required to deposit and maintain margin with respect to futures options it writes. Such margin deposits will vary depending on the nature of the underlying futures contract (and the related initial margin requirements), the current market value of the option and other futures positions held by the Fund.
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The sale of a futures contract limits a Fund’s risk of loss, prior to the futures contract’s expiration date, from a decline in the market value of portfolio holdings correlated with the futures contract. In the event the market values of the portfolio holdings correlated with the futures contract increase rather than decrease, however, a Fund will realize a loss on the futures position and a lower return on the portfolio than would have been realized without the purchase of the futures contract.
Positions taken in the futures markets are usually not held to maturity but instead liquidated through offsetting transactions that may result in a profit or loss. While the Fund’s futures contracts will usually be liquidated in this manner, a Fund may instead make or take delivery of the Underlying Instrument whenever it appears economically advantageous to do so.
A Fund is permitted to enter into a variety of futures contracts, including interest rate futures, index futures, currency futures and commodity futures, and options on such futures contracts. A Fund may also invest in instruments that have characteristics similar to futures contracts, such as debt securities with interest or principal payments determined by reference to the value of a security, an index of securities or a commodity or currency at a future point in time. The risks of such investments reflect the risks of investing in futures and derivatives generally, including volatility and illiquidity.
Risks Associated with Futures and Futures Options – The primary risks associated with the use of futures contracts and options are: (a) imperfect correlation between the change in market value of instruments held by a Fund and the price of the futures contract or option; (b) the possible lack of an active market for a futures contract or option, or the lack of a liquid secondary market for a futures option, and the resulting inability to close the futures contract or option when desired; (c) losses, which are potentially unlimited, caused by unanticipated market movements; (d) a sub-adviser’s failure to predict correctly the direction of securities prices, interest rates, currency exchange rates and other economic factors; and (e) the possibility that the counterparty will default in the performance of its obligations. Futures contracts and futures options also involve brokerage costs, require margin deposits and, under current regulatory requirements in the case of contracts and options obligating a Fund to purchase securities or currencies, require the Fund to segregate assets to cover such contracts and options. Moreover, futures are inherently volatile, and a Fund’s ability to engage in futures transactions may be limited by tax considerations and other legal considerations.
U.S. futures exchanges and some foreign exchanges limit the amount of fluctuation in futures contract prices which may occur in a single business day (generally referred to as “daily price fluctuation limits”). The maximum or minimum price of a contract as a result of these limits is referred to as a “limit price.” If the limit price has been reached in a particular contract, no trades may be made beyond the limit price. Limit prices have the effect of precluding trading in a particular contract or forcing the liquidation of contracts at disadvantageous times or prices.
Additional Considerations of Commodity Futures Contracts – In addition to the risks described above, there are several additional risks associated with transactions in commodity futures contracts. In particular, the costs to store underlying physical commodities are reflected in the price of a commodity futures contract. To the extent that storage costs for an underlying commodity change while a Fund is invested in futures contracts on that commodity, the value of the futures contract may change proportionately. Further, the commodities that underlie commodity futures contracts may be subject to additional economic and non-economic variables, such as drought, floods, weather, livestock disease, pandemics, embargoes, tariffs and international economic, political and regulatory developments and may be subject to broad price fluctuations.
Other Considerations Related to Options and Futures Options – A Fund will engage in transactions in futures contracts and related options only to the extent such transactions are consistent with the requirements of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, (the “Code”) for maintaining qualification as a regulated investment company for U.S. federal income tax purposes.
Swap Agreements and Swaptions Risk. A swap agreement, or a swap, is a type of derivative instrument. Swap agreements are entered into for periods ranging from a few weeks to more than one year. In a standard swap, two parties exchange the returns (or differentials in rates of return) earned or realized on an Underlying Instrument. The gross returns to be exchanged (or “swapped”) between the parties are calculated with respect to a “notional amount,” which is a predetermined dollar principal that represents the hypothetical underlying quantity upon which the parties’ payment obligations are computed. The notional amount may be, among other things, a specific dollar amount invested, for example, at a particular interest rate, in a particular foreign currency or in a “basket” of securities or commodities that represents a particular index. The notional amount itself normally is not exchanged between the parties, but rather it serves as a reference amount from which to calculate the parties’ obligations under the swap.
A Fund will usually enter into swap agreements on a “net basis,” which means that the two payment streams are netted out with each party receiving or paying, as the case may be, only the net amount of the payments. A Fund’s obligations under a swap agreement are generally accrued daily (offset against any amounts owing to the Fund), and under current regulatory requirements, accrued but unpaid net amounts owed to a counterparty are covered by segregating liquid assets, marked to market daily, to avoid leveraging the Fund’s portfolio. If a Fund enters into a swap on other than a net basis, the Fund will segregate the full amount of its obligations under such swap. A Fund may enter into swaps, caps, collars, floors and related instruments with member banks of
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the Federal Reserve System, members of the New York Stock Exchange or other entities determined by a sub-adviser to be creditworthy. If a default occurs by the other party to such transaction, a Fund will have contractual remedies under the transaction documents, but such remedies may be subject to bankruptcy and insolvency laws that could affect the Fund’s rights as a creditor.
A Fund may engage in a wide variety of swap transactions, including, but not limited to, credit- and event-linked swaps, interest rate swaps, swaps on specific securities or indices, swaps on rates (such as mortgage prepayment rates) and other types of swaps, such as caps, collars, and floors. In addition, to the extent a Fund is permitted to invest in foreign currency-denominated securities, it may invest in currency swaps. A Fund may also enter into options on swap agreements (“swaptions”). Depending on how they are used, swap agreements may increase or decrease the overall volatility of a Fund’s investments and its share price and yield. The sections below describe certain swap arrangements and related techniques that the Funds may use.
Interest Rate Swaps, Caps, Floors and Collars – Interest rate swaps consist of an agreement between two parties to exchange their respective commitments to pay or receive interest (e.g., an exchange of floating rate payments for fixed-rate payments). Interest rate swaps are generally entered into on a net basis. Interest rate swaps do not involve the delivery of securities, other underlying assets, or principal. Accordingly, the risk of market loss with respect to interest rate and total rate of return swaps is typically limited to the net amount of interest payments that a Fund is contractually obligated to make.
Among other techniques, a Fund may use interest rate swaps to hedge interest rate and duration risk, which can be particularly sensitive to interest rate changes. Duration measures the sensitivity in prices of fixed-income securities to changes in interest rates; the duration of a portfolio or basket of bonds is the weighted average of the individual component durations. Longer maturity bonds typically have a longer duration than shorter maturity bonds and, therefore, higher sensitivity to interest rate changes. In an environment where interest rates are expected to rise, a Fund may use interest rate swaps to hedge interest rate and duration risk across a portfolio at particular duration points (such as two-, five- and 10- year duration points).
A Fund may also buy or sell interest rate caps, floors and collars. The purchase of an interest rate cap entitles the purchaser, to the extent that a specified interest rate index exceeds a predetermined level, to receive payments of interest on a specified notional amount from the party selling the interest rate cap. The purchase of an interest rate floor entitles the purchaser, to the extent that a specified interest rate falls below a predetermined level, to receive payments of interest on a specified notional amount from the party selling the interest rate floor. A collar is a combination of a cap and a floor that preserves a certain return within a predetermined range of interest rates. Caps, floors and collars may be less liquid than other types of derivatives.
Commodity Swaps – A commodity swap agreement is a contract in which one party agrees to make periodic payments to another party based on the change in market value of a commodity-based Underlying Instrument (such as a specific commodity or commodity index) in return for periodic payments based on a fixed or variable interest rate or the total return from another commodity-based Underlying Instrument. In a total return commodity swap, a Fund receives the price appreciation of a commodity index, a portion of a commodity index or a single commodity in exchange for paying an agreed-upon fee. As with other types of swap agreements, if the commodity swap lasts for a finite period of time, the swap may be structured such that the Fund pays a single fixed fee established at the outset of the swap. However, if the term of the commodity swap is ongoing, with interim swap payments, the Fund may pay a variable or “floating” fee. Such a variable fee may be pegged to a base rate and is adjusted at specific intervals. As such, if interest rates increase over the term of the swap contract, the Fund may be required to pay a higher fee at each swap reset date. See “LIBOR Risk” below.
Currency Swaps – A currency swap agreement is a contract in which two parties exchange one currency (e.g., U.S. dollars) for another currency (e.g., Japanese yen) on a specified schedule. The currency exchange obligations under currency swaps could be either interest payments calculated on the notional amount or payments of the entire notional amount (or a combination of both). A Fund may engage in currency swap agreements as a tool to protect against uncertainty and fluctuations in foreign exchange rates in the purchase and sale of securities. However, the use of currency swap agreements does not eliminate, or even always mitigate, potential losses arising from fluctuations in exchange rates. In the case of currency swaps that involve the delivery of the entire notional amount of currency in exchange for another currency, the entire notional principal of the currency swap is subject to the risk that the counterparty will default on its contractual delivery obligations.
Credit Default Swaps – A credit default swap (“CDS”) is an agreement between two parties whereby one party (the “protection buyer”) makes an up-front payment or a stream of periodic payments over the term of the CDS to the other party (the “protection seller”), provided generally that no event of default or other credit-related event (a “credit event”) with respect to an Underlying Instrument occurs. In return, the protection seller agrees to make a payment to the protection buyer if a credit event does occur with respect to the Underlying Instrument. The CDS market allows a Fund to manage credit risk through buying and selling credit protection on a specific issuer, asset or basket of assets. Credit default swaps typically last between six months and three years, provided that no credit event occurs. Credit default swaps may be physically settled or cash settled.
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A Fund may be either the protection buyer or the protection seller in a CDS. A Fund generally will not buy protection on issuers that are not currently held by that particular Fund. However, a Fund may engage in credit default swap trades on single names, indices and baskets to manage asset class exposure and to capitalize on spread differentials in instances where there is not complete overlap between such Fund’s holdings or exposures and the reference entities in the credit default swap. If the Fund is the protection buyer and no credit event occurs, the Fund loses its entire investment in the CDS (i.e., an amount equal to the aggregate amount of payments made by the Fund to the protection seller over the term of the CDS). However, if a credit event does occur, the Fund (as protection buyer), will deliver the Underlying Instrument to the protection seller and is entitled to a payment from the protection seller equal to the full notional value of the Underlying Instrument, even though the Underlying Instrument at that time may have little or no value. If the Fund is the protection seller and no credit event occurs, the Fund receives a fixed income throughout the term of the CDS (or an up-front payment at the beginning of the term of the CDS) in the form of payments from the protection buyer. However, if the Fund is the protection seller and a credit event occurs, the Fund is obligated to pay the protection buyer the full notional value of the Underlying Instrument in return for the Underlying Instrument (which may at that time be of little or no value).
A Fund may also invest in transactions on credit default swap indices, including CDX and iTraxx indices (collectively referred to as “CDSIs”). A CDSI is based on a portfolio of credit default swaps with similar characteristics, such as credit default swaps on high-yield bonds. In a typical CDSI transaction, one party — the protection buyer — is obligated to pay the other party — the protection seller — a stream of periodic payments over the term of the contract. If a credit event, such as a default or restructuring, occurs with respect to any of the underlying reference obligations, the protection seller must pay the protection buyer the loss on those credits. Also, if a restructuring credit event occurs in an iTraxx index, the Fund as protection buyer may receive a single name CDS contract representing the relevant constituent.
A Fund may enter into a CDSI transaction as either protection buyer or protection seller. If the Fund is a protection buyer, it would pay the counterparty a periodic stream of payments over the term of the contract and would not recover any of those payments if no credit events were to occur with respect to any of the underlying reference obligations. However, if a credit event did occur, the Fund, as a protection buyer, would have the right to deliver the referenced debt obligations or a specified amount of cash, depending on the terms of the applicable agreement, and to receive the par value of such debt obligations from the counterparty protection seller. As a protection seller, the Fund would receive fixed payments throughout the term of the contract if no credit events were to occur with respect to any of the underlying reference obligations. If a credit event were to occur, however, the value of any deliverable obligation received by the Fund, coupled with the periodic payments previously received by the Fund, may be less than the full notional value that the Fund, as a protection seller, pays to the counterparty protection buyer, effectively resulting in a loss of value to the Fund. Furthermore, as a protection seller, the Fund would effectively add leverage to its portfolio because it would have investment exposure to the notional amount of the swap transaction.
The use of CDSI, like all other swap agreements, is subject to certain risks, including the risk that a Fund’s counterparty will default on its obligations. If such a default were to occur, any contractual remedies that the Fund might have may be subject to applicable bankruptcy laws, which could delay or limit the Fund’s recovery. Thus, if the Fund’s counterparty to a CDSI transaction defaults on its obligation to make payments thereunder, the Fund may lose such payments altogether or collect only a portion thereof, which collection could involve substantial costs or delays. Certain CDSI transactions are subject to mandatory central clearing or may be eligible for voluntary central clearing. Because clearing interposes a central clearinghouse as the ultimate counterparty to each participant’s swap, central clearing is intended to decrease (but not eliminate) counterparty risk relative to uncleared bilateral swaps.
Total return swaps, asset swaps, inflation swaps and similar instruments – A Fund may enter into total return swaps, asset swaps, inflation swaps and other types of swap agreements. In a total return swap, the parties exchange the total return (i.e., interest payments plus any capital gains or losses) of an Underlying Instrument (or basket of such instruments) for the proceeds of another Underlying Instrument (or basket of such instruments). Asset swaps combine an interest rate swap with a bond and are generally used to alter the cash flow characteristics of the Underlying Instrument. For example, the parties may exchange a fixed investment, such as a bond with guaranteed coupon payments, for a floating investment like an index. Inflation swaps are generally used to transfer inflation risk. See "Inflation-Linked Instruments Risk" herein.
Swaptions – A Fund may also enter into swap options, or “swaptions.” A swaption is a contract that gives one party the right (but not the obligation), in return for payment of the option premium, to enter into a new swap agreement or to shorten, extend, cancel or otherwise modify an existing swap agreement at some designated future time and on specified terms. A Fund may write (sell) and purchase put and call swaptions. Depending on the terms of the particular option agreement, a Fund will generally incur a greater degree of risk when it writes a swaption than it will incur when it purchases a swaption. When a Fund purchases a swaption, it risks losing only the option premium it paid should it decide not to exercise the option. When a Fund writes a swaption, however, it is obligated according to the terms of the underlying agreement if the option holder exercises the option.
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Risks Associated with Swaps and Swaptions – Investing in swaps and swaptions, and utilizing these and related techniques in managing a Fund portfolio, are highly specialized activities that involve investment techniques and risks different from those associated with ordinary portfolio transactions. These investments involve significant risk of loss. Whether a Fund’s use of swaps will be successful in furthering its investment objective will depend on a sub-adviser’s ability to predict correctly whether certain types of investments are likely to produce greater returns than other investments. If a sub-adviser is incorrect in its forecast of market values, the sub-adviser’s utilization of swap arrangements and related techniques could negatively impact the Fund’s performance.
The swaps market is largely unregulated. It is possible that developments in the swaps market, including potential government regulation, could adversely affect a Fund’s ability to terminate existing swap agreements or to realize amounts to be received under such agreements. Also, certain restrictions imposed by the Code may limit a Fund’s ability to use swap agreements.
If the creditworthiness of a Fund’s swap counterparty declines, it becomes more likely that the counterparty will fail to meet its obligations under the contract, and consequently the Fund will suffer losses. Although there can be no assurance that a Fund will be able to do so, a Fund may be able to reduce or eliminate its exposure under a swap agreement either by assignment or other disposition, or by entering into an offsetting swap agreement with the same party or another creditworthy party. However, a Fund may have limited ability to eliminate its exposure under a credit default swap if the credit of the reference entity or underlying asset has declined. There can be no assurance that a Fund will be able to enter into swap transactions at prices or on terms a sub-adviser believes are advantageous to such Fund. In addition, although the terms of swaps, caps, collars and floors may provide for termination, there can be no assurance that a Fund will be able to terminate a swap or to sell or offset caps, collars or floors that it has purchased. Investing in swaps and related techniques involves the risks associated with investments in derivative instruments. Please see “Risk Factors in Derivative Instruments” and “Additional Risk Factors and Considerations of OTC Transactions” below.
Inflation-Linked Instruments Risk. A Fund is permitted to invest in a variety of inflation-linked instruments, such as inflation-indexed securities and inflation-linked derivatives, to manage inflation risk or to obtain inflation exposure. Inflation – a general rise in the prices of goods and services – is measured by inflation indices like the Consumer Price Index (CPI), which is calculated monthly by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, and the Retail Prices Index (RPI), which is calculated by the United Kingdom’s Office for National Statistics. The CPI is a measurement of changes in the cost of living, made up of components such as housing, food, transportation and energy.
Inflation-linked derivatives are derivative instruments that tie payments to an inflation index. Currently, most inflation derivatives are in the form of inflation swaps, such as CPI swaps. A CPI swap is a fixed-maturity, over-the-counter derivative where one party pays a fixed rate in exchange for payments tied to the CPI. The fixed rate, which is set by the parties at the initiation of the swap, is often referred to as the “breakeven inflation” rate and generally represents the current difference between Treasury yields and Treasury inflation protected securities (“TIPS”) yields of similar maturities at the initiation of the swap agreement. CPI swaps are typically designated as “zero coupon,” where all cash flows are exchanged at maturity. The value of a CPI swap is expected to fluctuate in response to changes in the relationship between nominal interest rates and the rate of inflation, as measured by the CPI. A CPI swap can lose value if the realized rate of inflation over the life of the swap is less than the fixed market implied inflation rate (the breakeven inflation rate) the investor agreed to pay at the initiation of the swap.
Other types of inflation derivatives include inflation options and futures. There can be no assurance that the CPI, or any foreign inflation index, will accurately measure the rate of inflation in the prices of consumer goods and services. Further, there can be no assurance that the rate of inflation in a foreign country will be correlated to the rate of inflation in the United States. Moreover, inflation-linked instruments are subject to the risks inherent in derivative transactions generally. See “Risk Factors in Derivative Instruments” herein. The market for inflation-linked instruments is still developing. Each Fund reserves the right to use the instruments discussed above and similar instruments that may be available in the future.
Hybrid Instruments Risk. A hybrid instrument is an interest in an issuer that combines the characteristics of an equity secu