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MASSMUTUAL SELECT FUNDS
1295 STATE STREET
SPRINGFIELD, MASSACHUSETTS 01111-0001
STATEMENT OF ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
THIS STATEMENT OF ADDITIONAL INFORMATION (“SAI”) IS NOT A PROSPECTUS. IT SHOULD BE READ IN CONJUNCTION WITH THE PROSPECTUS OF MASSMUTUAL SELECT FUNDS (THE “TRUST”) DATED FEBRUARY 1, 2023, AS AMENDED FROM TIME TO TIME (THE “PROSPECTUS”). THIS SAI INCORPORATES HEREIN THE FINANCIAL STATEMENTS OF THE FUNDS BY REFERENCE TO THE TRUST’S ANNUAL REPORTS AS OF SEPTEMBER 30, 2022 (THE “ANNUAL REPORTS”). TO OBTAIN A PROSPECTUS OR AN ANNUAL REPORT, CALL TOLL-FREE 1-888-309-3539, OR WRITE THE TRUST AT THE ABOVE ADDRESS.
This SAI relates to the following Funds:
Fund Name
Class I
MM Equity Asset Fund MSEJX
MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Bond Asset Fund MMBEX
MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Emerging Markets Bond Fund MMEMX
MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Large Cap Blend Fund MMLRX
MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Limited Duration Inflation Focused Bond Fund MMLDX
MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Real Assets Fund MMRFX
MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Small and Mid Cap Blend Fund MMBUX
MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price U.S. Treasury Long-Term Index Fund MMUTX
No dealer, salesman or any other person has been authorized to give any information or to make any representations, other than those contained in this SAI or in the related Prospectus, in connection with the offer contained herein, and, if given or made, such other information or representation must not be relied upon as having been authorized by the Trust or MML Distributors, LLC (the “Distributor”). This SAI and the related Prospectus do not constitute an offer by the Trust or by the Distributor to sell or a solicitation of any offer to buy any of the securities offered hereby in any jurisdiction to any person to whom it is unlawful to make such offer in such jurisdiction.
Dated February 1, 2023
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GENERAL INFORMATION
MassMutual Select Funds (the “Trust”) is a professionally managed, open-end investment company. This Statement of Additional Information (“SAI”) describes the following 7 diversified series of the Trust: (1) MM Equity Asset Fund (“MM Equity Asset Fund”), (2) MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Bond Asset Fund (“MM Select T. Rowe Price Bond Asset Fund”), (3) MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Large Cap Blend Fund (“MM Select T. Rowe Price Large Cap Blend Fund”), (4) MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Limited Duration Inflation Focused Bond Fund (“MM Select T. Rowe Price Limited Duration Inflation Focused Bond Fund”), (5) MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Real Assets Fund (“MM Select T. Rowe Price Real Assets Fund”), (6) MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Small and Mid Cap Blend Fund (“MM Select T. Rowe Price Small and Mid Cap Blend Fund”), and (7) MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price U.S. Treasury Long-Term Index Fund (“MM Select T. Rowe Price U.S. Treasury Long-Term Index Fund”); and one non-diversified series of the Trust: MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Emerging Markets Bond Fund (“MM Select T. Rowe Price Emerging Markets Bond Fund”) (each individually referred to as a “Fund” or collectively as the “Funds”). Currently, the Trustees have authorized a total of 53 separate series. Additional series may be created by the Trustees from time-to-time.
The Trust is organized under the laws of The Commonwealth of Massachusetts as a Massachusetts business trust pursuant to an Agreement and Declaration of Trust dated May 28, 1993, as amended and restated as of November 21, 2011, as it may be further amended from time to time (the “Declaration of Trust”). The investment adviser for each of the Funds is MML Investment Advisers, LLC (“MML Advisers”). The subadviser for MM Select T. Rowe Price Bond Asset Fund, MM Select T. Rowe Price Emerging Markets Bond Fund, MM Select T. Rowe Price Large Cap Blend Fund, MM Select T. Rowe Price Limited Duration Inflation Focused Bond Fund, MM Select T. Rowe Price Real Assets Fund, MM Select T. Rowe Price Small and Mid Cap Blend Fund, and MM Select T. Rowe Price U.S. Treasury Long-Term Index Fund is T. Rowe Price Associates, Inc. (“T. Rowe Price”). In addition, each of T. Rowe Price International Ltd (“T. Rowe Price International”) and T. Rowe Price Hong Kong Limited (“T. Rowe Price Hong Kong”) serves as a sub-subadviser for the MM Select T. Rowe Price Bond Asset Fund and MM Select T. Rowe Price Limited Duration Inflation Focused Bond Fund, T. Rowe Price Japan, Inc. (“T. Rowe Price Japan”) serves as a sub-subadviser for the MM Select T. Rowe Price Real Assets Fund, and T. Rowe Price Investment Management, Inc. (“T. Rowe Price Investment Management”) serves as a sub-subadviser for the MM Select T. Rowe Price Small and Mid Cap Blend Fund. The subadviser for the MM Equity Asset Fund is J.P. Morgan Investment Management Inc. (“J.P. Morgan”). MML Advisers, J.P. Morgan, T. Rowe Price, T. Rowe Price Hong Kong, T. Rowe Price International, T. Rowe Price Investment Management, and T. Rowe Price Japan are registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) as investment advisers. References in this SAI to a Fund’s subadviser may include any sub-subadvisers as applicable.
ADDITIONAL INVESTMENT POLICIES
Each Fund has a distinct investment objective which it pursues through separate investment policies, as described in the Prospectus and below. The fundamental investment policies and fundamental investment restrictions of a Fund may not be changed without the vote of a majority of that Fund’s outstanding voting securities (which, under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “1940 Act”) and the rules thereunder and as used in this SAI and in the Prospectus, means the lesser of (l) 67% of the shares of that Fund present at a meeting if the holders of more than 50% of the outstanding shares of that Fund are present in person or by proxy, or (2) more than 50% of the outstanding shares of that Fund). The Board of Trustees of the Trust (the “Board”) may adopt new or amend or delete existing non-fundamental investment policies and restrictions without shareholder approval. There is no guarantee that any Fund will achieve its investment objective.
Unless otherwise specified, each Fund may engage in the investment practices and techniques described below to the extent consistent with such Fund’s investment objective and fundamental investment restrictions. Not all Funds necessarily will utilize all or any of these practices and techniques at any one time or at all. Investment policies and restrictions described below are non-fundamental and may be changed by the Trustees without shareholder approval, unless otherwise noted. For a description of the ratings of corporate debt securities and money market instruments in which the various Funds may invest, reference should be made to Appendix A.
MM Equity Asset Fund and MM Select T. Rowe Price U.S. Treasury Long-Term Index Fund
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Disclaimer.   The “S&P 500 Index” is a product of S&P Dow Jones Indices LLC or its affiliates (“SPDJI”), and has been licensed for use by MassMutual. S&P®, S&P 500®, US 500, The 500, iBoxx®, iTraxx® and CDX® are trademarks of S&P Global, Inc. or its affiliates (“S&P”); Dow Jones® is a registered trademark of Dow Jones Trademark Holdings LLC (“Dow Jones”); and these trademarks have been licensed for use by SPDJI and sublicensed for certain purposes by MassMutual. It is not possible to invest directly in an index. The MM Equity Asset Fund is not sponsored, endorsed, sold or promoted by SPDJI, Dow Jones, S&P, or any of their respective affiliates (collectively, “S&P Dow Jones Indices”). S&P Dow Jones Indices does not make any representation or warranty, express or implied, to the owners of the MM Equity Asset Fund or any member of the public regarding the advisability of investing in securities generally or in the MM Equity Asset Fund particularly or the ability of the S&P 500 Index to track general market performance. Past performance of an index is not an indication or guarantee of future results. S&P Dow Jones Indices’ only relationship to MassMutual with respect to the S&P 500 Index is the licensing of the Index and certain trademarks, service marks and/or trade names of S&P Dow Jones Indices and/or its licensors. The S&P 500 Index is determined, composed and calculated by S&P Dow Jones Indices without regard to MassMutual or the MM Equity Asset Fund. S&P Dow Jones Indices has no obligation to take the needs of MassMutual or the owners of the MM Equity Asset Fund into consideration in determining, composing or calculating the S&P 500 Index. S&P Dow Jones Indices has no obligation or liability in connection with the administration, marketing or trading of the MM Equity Asset Fund. There is no assurance that investment products based on the S&P 500 Index will accurately track index performance or provide positive investment returns. S&P Dow Jones Indices LLC is not an investment adviser, commodity trading advisor, commodity pool operator, broker dealer, fiduciary, “promoter” ​(as defined in the 1940 Act ), “expert” ​(as enumerated within 15 U.S.C. § 77k(a)) or tax adviser. Inclusion of a security, commodity, crypto currency or other asset within an index is not a recommendation by S&P Dow Jones Indices to buy, sell, or hold such security, commodity, crypto currency or other asset, nor is it considered to be investment advice or commodity trading advice.
S&P DOW JONES INDICES DOES NOT GUARANTEE THE ADEQUACY, ACCURACY, TIMELINESS AND/OR THE COMPLETENESS OF THE S&P 500 INDEX OR ANY DATA RELATED THERETO OR ANY COMMUNICATION, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO, ORAL OR WRITTEN COMMUNICATION (INCLUDING ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATIONS) WITH RESPECT THERETO. S&P DOW JONES INDICES SHALL NOT BE SUBJECT TO ANY DAMAGES OR LIABILITY FOR ANY ERRORS, OMISSIONS, OR DELAYS THEREIN. S&P DOW JONES INDICES MAKES NO EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, AND EXPRESSLY DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE OR USE OR AS TO RESULTS TO BE OBTAINED BY MASSMUTUAL, OWNERS OF THE MM EQUITY ASSET FUND, OR ANY OTHER PERSON OR ENTITY FROM THE USE OF THE S&P 500 INDEX OR WITH RESPECT TO ANY DATA RELATED THERETO. WITHOUT LIMITING ANY OF THE FOREGOING, IN NO EVENT WHATSOEVER SHALL S&P DOW JONES INDICES BE LIABLE FOR ANY INDIRECT, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, PUNITIVE, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO, LOSS OF PROFITS, TRADING LOSSES, LOST TIME OR GOODWILL, EVEN IF THEY HAVE BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, TORT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR OTHERWISE. S&P DOW JONES INDICES HAS NOT REVIEWED, PREPARED AND/OR CERTIFIED ANY PORTION OF, NOR DOES S&P DOW JONES INDICES HAVE ANY CONTROL OVER, THE MM EQUITY ASSET FUND REGISTRATION STATEMENT, PROSPECTUS OR OTHER OFFERING MATERIALS. THERE ARE NO THIRD PARTY BENEFICIARIES OF ANY AGREEMENTS OR ARRANGEMENTS BETWEEN S&P DOW JONES INDICES AND MASSMUTUAL, OTHER THAN THE LICENSORS OF S&P DOW JONES INDICES.
“Bloomberg®” and Bloomberg U.S. Long Treasury Bond Index are service marks of Bloomberg Finance L.P. and its affiliates, including Bloomberg Index Services Limited (“BISL”), the administrator of the index (collectively, “Bloomberg”), and have been licensed for use for certain purposes by MassMutual.
The MM Select T. Rowe Price U.S. Treasury Long-Term Index Fund is not sponsored, endorsed, sold or promoted by Bloomberg. Bloomberg does not make any representation or warranty, express or implied, to the owners of or counterparties to the MM Select T. Rowe Price U.S. Treasury Long-Term Index Fund or any member of the public regarding the advisability of investing in securities or commodities generally or in the MM Select T. Rowe Price U.S. Treasury Long-Term Index Fund particularly. The only relationship of Bloomberg to MassMutual is the licensing of certain trademarks, trade names and service marks and of the Bloomberg U.S. Long Treasury Bond Index, which is determined, composed and calculated by BISL without regard to MassMutual or the MM Select T. Rowe Price U.S. Treasury Long-Term Index Fund. Bloomberg has no obligation to take the needs of MassMutual or the owners of the MM Select T. Rowe Price U.S. Treasury Long-Term Index Fund into consideration in determining, composing or calculating the Bloomberg U.S. Long Treasury Bond Index. Bloomberg is not responsible for and has not participated in the determination of the timing, price, or quantities of the MM Select T. Rowe Price U.S. Treasury Long-Term Index Fund to be issued.
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Bloomberg shall not have any obligation or liability, including, without limitation, to MM Select T. Rowe Price U.S. Treasury Long-Term Index Fund customers, in connection with the administration, marketing or trading of the MM Select T. Rowe Price U.S. Treasury Long-Term Index Fund.
BLOOMBERG DOES NOT GUARANTEE THE ACCURACY AND/OR THE COMPLETENESS OF THE BLOOMBERG U.S. LONG TREASURY BOND INDEX OR ANY DATA RELATED THERETO AND SHALL HAVE NO LIABILITY FOR ANY ERRORS, OMISSIONS OR INTERRUPTIONS THEREIN. BLOOMBERG DOES NOT MAKE ANY WARRANTY, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, AS TO RESULTS TO BE OBTAINED BYMASSMUTUAL, OWNERS OF THE MM SELECT T. ROWE PRICE U.S. TREASURY LONG-TERM INDEX FUND OR ANY OTHER PERSON OR ENTITY FROM THE USE OF THE BLOOMBERG U.S. LONG TREASURY BOND INDEXOR ANY DATA RELATED THERETO. BLOOMBERG DOES NOT MAKE ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES AND EXPRESSLY DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE OR USE WITH RESPECT TO THE BLOOMBERG U.S. LONG TREASURY BOND INDEX OR ANY DATA RELATED THERETO. WITHOUT LIMITING ANY OF THE FOREGOING, TO THE MAXIMUM EXTENT ALLOWED BY LAW, BLOOMBERG, ITS LICENSORS, AND ITS AND THEIR RESPECTIVE EMPLOYEES, CONTRACTORS, AGENTS, SUPPLIERS, AND VENDORS SHALL HAVE NO LIABILITY OR RESPONSIBILITY WHATSOEVER FOR ANY INJURY OR DAMAGES—WHETHER DIRECT, INDIRECT, CONSEQUENTIAL, INCIDENTAL, PUNITIVE OR OTHERWISE—ARISING IN CONNECTION WITH THE MM SELECT T. ROWE PRICE U.S. TREASURY LONG-TERM INDEX FUND OR BLOOMBERG U.S. LONG TREASURY BOND INDEX OR ANY DATA OR VALUES RELATING THERETO—WHETHER ARISING FROM THEIR NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE, EVEN IF NOTIFIED OF THE POSSIBILITY THEREOF.
Asset-Based Securities
A Fund may invest in debt, preferred, or convertible securities, the principal amount, redemption terms, or conversion terms of which are related to the market price of some natural resource asset such as gold bullion. These securities are referred to as “asset-based securities.” If an asset-based security is backed by a bank letter of credit or other similar facility, the investment adviser or subadviser may take such backing into account in determining the creditworthiness of the issuer. While the market prices for an asset-based security and the related natural resource asset generally are expected to move in the same direction, there may not be perfect correlation in the two price movements. Asset-based securities may not be secured by a security interest in or claim on the underlying natural resource asset. The asset-based securities in which a Fund may invest may bear interest or pay preferred dividends at below market (or even relatively nominal) rates. Certain asset-based securities may be payable at maturity in cash at the stated principal amount or, at the option of the holder, directly in a stated amount of the asset to which it is related. In such instance, because no Fund presently intends to invest directly in natural resource assets, a Fund would sell the asset-based security in the secondary market, to the extent one exists, prior to maturity if the value of the stated amount of the asset exceeds the stated principal amount and thereby realize the appreciation in the underlying asset. Certain restrictions imposed on the Funds by the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), may limit the Funds’ ability to invest in certain natural resource-based securities.
Precious Metal-Related Securities.   A Fund may invest in the equity securities of companies that explore for, extract, process, or deal in precious metals (e.g., gold, silver, and platinum), and in asset-based securities indexed to the value of such metals. Such securities may be purchased when they are believed to be attractively priced in relation to the value of a company’s precious metal-related assets or when the values of precious metals are expected to benefit from inflationary pressure or other economic, political, or financial uncertainty or instability. Based on historical experience, during periods of economic or financial instability the securities of companies involved in precious metals may be subject to extreme price fluctuations, reflecting the high volatility of precious metal prices during such periods. In addition, the instability of precious metal prices may result in volatile earnings of precious metal-related companies, which may, in turn, adversely affect the financial condition of such companies.
The major producers of gold include the Republic of South Africa, Russia, Canada, the United States, Brazil, and Australia. Sales of gold by Russia are largely unpredictable and often relate to political and economic considerations rather than to market forces. Economic, financial, social, and political factors within South Africa may significantly affect South African gold production.
Bank Capital Securities
A Fund may invest in bank capital securities. Bank capital securities are issued by banks to help fulfill their regulatory capital requirements. Many bank capital securities are commonly thought of as hybrids of debt and preferred stock. Some bank capital securities are perpetual (with no maturity date), callable, and have a cumulative interest deferral feature. This
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means that under certain conditions, the issuer bank can withhold payment of interest until a later date, likely increasing the credit and interest rate risks of an investment in those securities. Investments in bank capital securities are subject to the risks of other debt investments, such as default and non-payment, as well as certain other risks, such as the risk that bank regulators may force the bank to dissolve, merge, restructure its capitalization, or take other actions intended to prevent its failure or ensure its orderly resolution. Bank regulators in certain jurisdictions have broad authorities they may use to prevent the failure of banking institutions or to stabilize the banking industry, all of which may adversely affect the values of investments in bank capital securities and other bank obligations, including those of other banks.
Bank Loans
A Fund may invest in bank loans including, for example, corporate loans, loan participations, direct debt, bank debt, and bridge debt. A Fund may invest in a loan by lending money to a borrower directly as part of a syndicate of lenders. In a syndicated loan, the agent that originated and structured the loan typically administers and enforces the loan on behalf of the syndicate. In such cases, the agent is normally responsible for the collection of principal and interest payments from the borrower and the apportionment of these payments to the credit of all institutions that are parties to the loan agreement. A Fund will generally rely on the agent to receive and forward to the Fund its portion of the principal and interest payments on the loan. Failure by the agent to fulfill its obligations may delay or adversely affect receipt of payment by a Fund.
A Fund may invest in loans through novations, assignments, and participation interests. In a novation, a Fund typically assumes all of the rights of a lending institution in a loan, including the right to receive payments of principal and interest and other amounts directly from the borrower and to enforce its rights as a lender directly against the borrower. When a Fund takes an assignment of a loan, the Fund acquires some or all of the interest of another lender (or assignee) in the loan. In such cases, the Fund may be required generally to rely upon the assignor to demand payment and enforce rights under the loan. (There may be one or more assignors prior in time to the Fund.) If a Fund acquires a participation in the loan made by a third party loan investor, the Fund typically will have a contractual relationship only with the loan investor, not with the borrower. As a result, a Fund may have the right to receive payments of principal, interest, and any fees to which it is entitled only from the loan investor selling the participation and only upon receipt by such loan investor of such payments from the borrower. In connection with participations, a Fund generally will have no right to enforce compliance by the borrower with the terms of the loan agreement, nor any rights with respect to any funds acquired by other loan investors through set-off against the borrower, and the Fund may not directly benefit from the collateral supporting the loan in which it has purchased the participation. As a result, a Fund assumes the credit risk of both the borrower and the loan investor selling the participation. In the event of the insolvency of the loan investor selling a participation, a Fund may be treated as a general creditor of such loan investor. In addition, because loan participations are not generally rated by independent credit rating agencies, a decision by a Fund to invest in a particular loan participation will depend almost exclusively on its investment adviser’s or subadviser’s credit analysis of the borrower.
Loans in which a Fund may invest are subject generally to the same risks as debt securities in which the Fund may invest. In addition, loans in which a Fund may invest, including bridge loans, are generally made to finance internal growth, mergers, acquisitions, stock repurchases, leveraged buy-outs, and other corporate activities, including bridge loans. A significant portion of the loans purchased by a Fund may represent interests in loans made to finance highly leveraged corporate acquisitions, known as “leveraged buy-out” transactions, leveraged recapitalization loans, and other types of acquisition financing. The highly leveraged capital structure of the borrowers in such transactions may make such loans especially vulnerable to adverse changes in economic or market conditions.
Loans generally are subject to restrictions on transfer, and only limited opportunities may exist to sell loans in secondary markets. In some cases, negotiations involved in disposing of indebtedness may require weeks to complete. As a result, a Fund may be unable to sell loans at a time when it may otherwise be desirable to do so or may be able to sell them only at a price that is less than their fair market value. The settlement time for certain loans is longer than the settlement time for many other types of investments, and a Fund may not receive the payment for a loan sold by it until well after the sale; that cash would be unavailable for payment of redemption proceeds or for reinvestment.
Certain of the loans acquired by a Fund may involve revolving credit facilities under which a borrower may from time to time borrow and repay amounts up to the maximum amount of the facility. In such cases, the Fund would have an obligation to advance its portion of such additional borrowings upon the terms specified in the loan participation. A Fund may be required to fund such advances at times and in circumstances where the Fund might not otherwise choose to make a loan to the borrower.
The value of collateral, if any, securing a loan can decline, or may be insufficient to meet the borrower’s obligations or difficult to liquidate, or a Fund may be prevented or delayed from realizing the collateral. In addition, a Fund’s access to
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collateral may be limited by bankruptcy or other insolvency laws. If a secured loan is foreclosed, a Fund could become part owner of any collateral, and would bear the costs and liabilities associated with owning and disposing of the collateral. A bankruptcy or restructuring can result in the loan being converted to an equity ownership interest in the borrower. In addition, under legal theories of lender liability, a Fund potentially might be held liable as a co-lender.
Loans may not be considered “securities,” and a Fund that purchases a loan may not be entitled to rely on anti-fraud and other protections under the federal securities laws.
Below Investment Grade Debt Securities
A Fund may purchase below investment grade debt securities, sometimes referred to as “junk” or “high yield” bonds. The lower ratings of certain securities held by a Fund reflect a greater possibility that adverse changes in the financial condition of the issuer, or in general economic conditions, or both, or an unanticipated rise in interest rates, may impair the ability of the issuer to make payments of interest and principal. The inability (or perceived inability) of issuers to make timely payment of interest and principal would likely make the values of securities held by the Fund more volatile and could limit the Fund’s ability to sell its securities at prices approximating the values a Fund had placed on such securities. In the absence of a liquid trading market for securities held by it, the Fund may be unable at times to establish the fair market value of such securities. The rating assigned to a security by S&P Global Ratings (“S&P”) or Moody’s Investors Service, Inc. (“Moody’s”) does not reflect an assessment of the volatility of the security’s market value or of the liquidity of an investment in the security. (The term “below investment grade debt securities” includes securities that are not rated but are considered by a Fund’s investment adviser or subadviser to be of comparable quality to other below investment grade debt securities.)
Like those of other fixed income securities, the values of below investment grade debt securities fluctuate in response to changes in interest rates. Thus, a decrease in interest rates generally will result in an increase in the value of a Fund’s fixed income securities. Conversely, during periods of rising interest rates, the value of a Fund’s fixed income securities generally will decline. In addition, the values of such securities are also affected by changes in general economic conditions and business conditions, which are more likely to lead to a weakened capacity to make principal and interest payments than in the case of higher grade securities. Changes by recognized rating services in their ratings of any fixed income security and in the ability of an issuer to make payments of interest and principal may also affect the value of these investments. Changes in the values of portfolio securities generally will not affect cash income derived from such securities, but will affect the Fund’s net asset value (“NAV”).
Issuers of below investment grade debt securities are often highly leveraged, so their ability to service their debt obligations during an economic downturn or during sustained periods of rising interest rates may be impaired. In the past, economic downturns or increases in interest rates have, under certain circumstances, resulted in a higher incidence of default by the issuers of these instruments and are likely to do so in the future, especially in the case of highly leveraged issuers. In addition, such issuers may not have more traditional methods of financing available to them, and may be unable to repay debt at maturity by refinancing. The risk of loss due to default in payment of interest or principal by such issuers is significantly greater because such securities frequently are unsecured and subordinated to the prior payment of senior indebtedness. Certain of the below investment grade debt securities in which a Fund may invest are issued to raise funds in connection with the acquisition of a company, in so-called “leveraged buy-out” transactions. The highly leveraged capital structure of such issuers may make them especially vulnerable to adverse changes in economic conditions.
Under adverse market or economic conditions or in the event of adverse changes in the financial condition of the issuer, a Fund could find it more difficult to sell below investment grade debt securities when the Fund’s investment adviser or subadviser believes it advisable to do so or may be able to sell such securities only at prices lower than might otherwise be available. Consolidation in the financial services industry has resulted in there being fewer market makers for high yield bonds, which may result in further risk of illiquidity and volatility with respect to high yield bonds held by a Fund, and this trend may continue in the future. Furthermore, high yield bonds held by a Fund may not be registered under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “1933 Act”), and, unless so registered, a Fund will not be able to sell such high yield bonds except pursuant to an exemption from registration under the 1933 Act. This may further limit the Fund’s ability to sell high yield debt securities or to obtain the desired price for such securities. In many cases, below investment grade debt securities may be purchased in private placements and, accordingly, will be subject to restrictions on resale as a matter of contract or under securities laws. Under such circumstances, it may also be more difficult to determine the fair values of such securities for purposes of computing a Fund’s NAV. In order to enforce its rights in the event of a default by an issuer of below investment grade debt securities, a Fund may be required to take possession of and manage assets securing the issuer’s obligations on such securities, which may increase the Fund’s operating expenses and adversely affect the Fund’s NAV. A Fund may also be limited in its ability to enforce its rights and may incur greater costs in enforcing its rights in the
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event an issuer becomes the subject of bankruptcy proceedings. In addition, the Funds’ intention or ability to qualify as “regulated investment companies” under the Code may limit the extent to which a Fund may exercise its rights by taking possession of such assets.
Certain securities held by a Fund may permit the issuer at its option to “call,” or redeem, its securities. If an issuer were to redeem securities held by a Fund during a time of declining interest rates, the Fund may not be able to reinvest the proceeds in securities providing the same investment return as the securities redeemed.
The prices for below investment grade debt securities may be affected by legislative and regulatory developments. Below investment grade debt securities may also be subject to certain risks not typically associated with “investment grade” securities, such as the following: (i) reliable and objective information about the value of below investment grade debt securities may be difficult to obtain because the market for such securities may be thinner and less active than that for investment grade obligations; (ii) adverse publicity and investor perceptions, whether or not based on fundamental analysis, may decrease the values and liquidity of lower than investment grade obligations, and, in turn, adversely affect their market; (iii) companies that issue below investment grade debt securities may be in the growth stage of their development, or may be financially troubled or highly leveraged, so they may not have more traditional methods of financing available to them; (iv) when other institutional investors dispose of their holdings of below investment grade debt securities, the general market and the prices for such securities could be adversely affected; and (v) the market for below investment grade debt securities could be impaired if legislative proposals to limit their use in connection with corporate reorganizations or to limit their tax and other advantages are enacted.
Borrowings
A Fund is required at all times to maintain its assets at a level at least three times the amount of all of its borrowings (the “300% asset coverage test”). Any borrowings that come to exceed the 300% asset coverage requirement will be reduced within three days (not including Sundays and holidays) to the extent necessary to comply with this requirement.
Cash and Short-Term Debt Securities
Money Market Instruments Generally.   The Funds may invest in money market securities, including money market funds. Money market securities are high-quality, short-term debt instruments that may be issued by the U.S. Government, corporations, banks, or other entities. They may have fixed, variable, or floating interest rates. Some money market securities in which the Funds may invest are described below. During the 2008 global financial downturn and the market volatility caused by the coronavirus outbreak beginning in March 2020, many money market instruments that were thought to be highly liquid became illiquid and lost value. The U.S. Government and the Federal Reserve System, as well as certain foreign governments and central banks, have taken extraordinary actions with respect to the financial markets generally and money market instruments in particular. While these actions have stabilized the markets for these instruments, there can be no assurances that those actions will continue or continue to be effective. If a Fund’s money market instruments become illiquid, the Fund may be unable to satisfy certain of its obligations or may only be able to do so by selling other securities at prices or times that may be disadvantageous to do so.
Bank Obligations.   The Funds may invest in bank obligations, including certificates of deposit, time deposits, bankers’ acceptances, and other short-term obligations of domestic banks, foreign subsidiaries of domestic banks, foreign branches of domestic banks, and domestic and foreign branches of foreign banks, domestic savings and loan associations, and other banking institutions.
Certificates of deposit (“CDs”) are negotiable certificates evidencing the obligations of a bank to repay funds deposited with it for a specified period of time. Time deposits are non-negotiable deposits maintained in a banking institution for a specified period of time at a stated interest rate. Time deposits which may be held by the Funds will not benefit from insurance from the Bank Insurance Fund or the Savings Association Insurance Fund administered by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. Bankers’ acceptances are credit instruments evidencing the obligation of a bank to pay a draft drawn on it by a customer. These instruments reflect the obligation both of the bank and the drawer to pay the face amount of the instrument upon maturity. The other short-term obligations may include uninsured, direct obligations, bearing fixed, floating, or variable interest rates.
The Funds may invest in certificates of deposit and bankers’ acceptances of U.S. banks and savings and loan associations, London branches of U.S. banks, and U.S. branches of foreign banks. Obligations of foreign banks and of foreign branches of U.S. banks may be affected by foreign governmental action, including imposition of currency controls, interest limitations, withholding or other taxes, seizure of assets, or the declaration of a moratorium or restriction on
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payments of principal or interest. Foreign banks and foreign branches of U.S. banks may provide less public information than, and may not be subject to the same accounting, auditing, and financial recordkeeping standards as, domestic banks.
Cash, Short-Term Instruments, and Temporary Investments.   The Funds may hold a significant portion of their assets in cash or cash equivalents at the sole discretion of the Fund’s investment adviser or subadviser. The Funds’ investment adviser or subadvisers will determine the amount of the Funds’ assets to be held in cash or cash equivalents at their sole discretion, based on such factors as they may consider appropriate under the circumstances. The Funds may hold a portion of their assets in cash, for example, in order to provide for expenses or anticipated redemption payments or for temporary defensive purposes. The Funds may also hold a portion of their assets in cash as part of the Funds’ investment programs or asset allocation strategies, in amounts considered appropriate by the Funds’ investment adviser or subadvisers. To the extent the Funds hold assets in cash and otherwise uninvested, its investment returns may be adversely affected and the Funds may not achieve their respective investment objectives. The Funds may invest in high quality money market instruments. The instruments in which the Funds may invest include, without limitation: (i) short-term obligations issued or guaranteed by the U.S. Government, its agencies or instrumentalities (including government-sponsored enterprises); (ii) CDs, bankers’ acceptances, fixed time deposits, and other obligations of domestic banks (including foreign branches); (iii) non-convertible corporate debt securities (e.g., bonds and debentures) with remaining maturities at the date of purchase of not more than one year; (iv) repurchase agreements; and (v) short-term obligations of foreign banks (including U.S. branches).
Commercial Paper and Short-Term Corporate Debt Instruments.   The Funds may invest in commercial paper (including variable amount master demand notes) consisting of short-term, unsecured promissory notes issued by corporations to finance short-term credit needs. Commercial paper is usually sold on a discount basis and, other than asset-backed commercial paper, usually has a maturity at the time of issuance not exceeding nine months. Variable amount master demand notes are demand obligations that permit the investment of fluctuating amounts at varying market rates of interest pursuant to arrangements between the issuer and a commercial bank acting as agent for the payee of such notes whereby both parties have the right to vary the amount of the outstanding indebtedness on the notes. The investment adviser or subadvisers monitor on an ongoing basis the ability of an issuer of a demand instrument to pay principal and interest on demand. The Funds also may invest in non-convertible corporate debt securities (e.g., bonds and debentures) with not more than one year remaining to maturity at the date of settlement.
Letters of Credit.   Certain of the debt obligations (including municipal securities, certificates of participation, commercial paper, and other short-term obligations) which the Funds may purchase may be backed by an unconditional and irrevocable letter of credit of a bank, savings and loan association, or insurance company which assumes the obligation for payment of principal and interest in the event of default by the issuer.
Commodities
A Fund may invest directly or indirectly in commodities (such as precious metals or natural gas). Commodity prices can be more volatile than prices of other types of investments and can be affected by a wide range of factors, including changes in overall market movements, speculative investors, real or perceived inflationary trends, commodity index volatility, changes in interest rates or currency exchange rates, population growth and changing demographics, nationalization, expropriation, or other confiscation, changes in the costs of discovering, developing, refining, transporting, and storing commodities, the success of commodity exploration projects, temporary or long-term price dislocations and inefficiencies in commodity markets generally or in the market for a particular commodity, international or local regulatory, political, and economic developments (for example, regime changes and changes in economic activity levels), and developments affecting a particular region, industry, or commodity, such as drought, floods, or other weather conditions, livestock disease, epidemics, trade embargoes, energy conservation, competition from substitute products, transportation bottlenecks or shortages, fluctuations in supply and demand, and tariffs. Exposure to commodities can cause the NAV of a Fund’s shares to decline or fluctuate in a rapid and unpredictable manner. Commodity prices may be more or less volatile than securities of companies engaged in commodity-related businesses. Investments in commodity-related companies are subject to the risk that the performance of such companies may not correlate with the broader equity market or with returns on commodity investments to the extent expected by the investment adviser or subadviser. Such companies may be significantly affected by import controls, worldwide competition, changes in consumer sentiment, and spending, and can be subject to liability for, among other things, environmental damage, depletion of resources, and mandated expenditures for safety and pollution control. A liquid secondary market may not exist for certain commodity investments, which may make it difficult for the Fund to sell them at a desirable price or at the price at which it is carrying them.
A Fund may also directly or indirectly use commodity-related derivatives. The values of these derivatives may fluctuate more than the relevant underlying commodity or commodities or commodity index. A Fund’s investments in
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commodities or commodity-related derivatives can be limited by the Fund’s intention to qualify as a regulated investment company for U.S. federal income tax purposes, and can bear on the Fund’s ability to qualify as such.
Common and Preferred Stocks
Stocks represent shares of ownership in a company. Generally, preferred stock has a specified dividend and ranks after bonds and before common stocks in its claim on income for dividend payments and on assets should the company be liquidated. After other claims are satisfied, common stockholders participate in company profits on a pro-rata basis. Profits may be paid out in dividends or reinvested in the company to help it grow. Increases and decreases in earnings are usually reflected in a company’s stock price, so common stocks generally have the greatest appreciation and depreciation potential of all corporate securities. Like other equity securities, preferred stock is subject to the risk that its value may decrease based on actual or perceived changes in the business or financial condition of the issuer. In addition, changes in interest rates may adversely affect the value of a preferred stock that pays a fixed dividend.
Concentration Policy
For purposes of each Fund’s concentration limitation as disclosed in this SAI, the Funds apply such policy to direct investments in the securities of issuers in a particular industry, as determined by a Fund’s investment adviser or subadviser. A Fund’s investment adviser or subadviser may analyze the characteristics of a particular issuer and security and assign an industry or sector classification consistent with those characteristics in the event that the third party classification provider used by the investment adviser or subadviser does not assign a classification or the investment adviser or subadviser, in consultation with the Fund’s Chief Compliance Officer, determines that another industry or sector classification is more appropriate.
Convertible Securities
The Funds may invest in debt or preferred equity securities convertible into, or exchangeable for, common stock at a stated price or rate. Traditionally, convertible securities have paid dividends or interest at rates higher than common stocks but lower than nonconvertible securities. They generally participate in the appreciation or depreciation of the underlying stock into which they are convertible, but to a lesser degree. In recent years, convertibles have been developed which combine higher or lower current income with options and other features. Convertible securities are subject to the risks of debt and equity securities.
Cyber Security and Technology
With the increased use of technologies such as the Internet and the dependence on computer systems to perform business and operational functions, investment companies (such as the Funds) and their service providers (such as the Funds’ investment adviser, subadvisers, custodian, and transfer agent) may be prone to operational and information security risks resulting from cyber-attacks and/or technological malfunctions. In general, cyber-attacks are deliberate, but unintentional events may have similar effects. Cyber-attacks include, among others, stealing or corrupting data maintained online or digitally, preventing legitimate users from accessing information or services on a website, releasing confidential information without authorization, and causing operational disruption. Successful cyber-attacks against, or security breakdowns of, a Fund, the investment adviser, subadviser, custodian, transfer agent, or service provider may adversely affect the Fund or its shareholders. For instance, cyber-attacks may interfere with the processing of shareholder transactions, affect a Fund’s ability to calculate its NAV, cause the release of private shareholder information or confidential Fund information, impede trading, cause reputational damage, and subject the Fund to regulatory fines, penalties or financial losses, reimbursement or other compensation costs, and additional compliance costs. Cyber-attacks may render records of Fund assets and transactions, shareholder ownership of Fund shares, and other data integral to the functioning of the Fund inaccessible or inaccurate or incomplete. A Fund may also incur substantial costs for cyber security risk management in order to prevent cyber incidents in the future. A Fund and its shareholders could be negatively impacted as a result. There are inherent limitations in business continuity plans and systems designed to minimize the risk of cyber-attacks through the use of technology, processes, and controls, including the possibility that certain risks have not been identified given the evolving nature of this threat. The Funds rely on third-party service providers for many of their day-to-day operations, and will be subject to the risk that the protections and protocols implemented by those service providers will be ineffective to protect the Funds from cyber-attack. The Funds’ investment adviser does not control the cyber security plans and technology systems put in place by third-party service providers, and such third-party service providers may have limited indemnification obligations to the Funds’ investment adviser or the Funds, each of whom could be negatively impacted as a result. Similar types of cyber security risks also are present for issuers of securities in which the Funds invest, which could result in material adverse consequences for such issuers, and may cause a Fund’s investment in such securities to lose value.
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Debtor-in-Possession Financings
The Funds may invest in debtor-in-possession financings (commonly known as “DIP financings”) through participation interests in direct loans, purchase of assignments, and other means. DIP financings are arranged when an entity seeks the protections of the bankruptcy court under Chapter 11 of the U.S. Bankruptcy Code (“Chapter 11”). These financings allow the entity to continue its business operations while reorganizing under Chapter 11. Such financings constitute senior liens on an unencumbered security (i.e., a security not subject to other creditors’ claims). DIP financings are generally subject to the same risks as investments in senior bank loans and similar debt instruments, but involve a greater risk of loss of principal and interest. For example, there is a risk that the entity will not emerge from Chapter 11 and be forced to liquidate its assets under Chapter 7 of the U.S. Bankruptcy Code, as well as a risk that the bankruptcy court will not approve a proposed reorganization plan or will require substantial and unfavorable changes to an initial plan. In the event of liquidation, a Fund’s only recourse will be against the property securing the DIP financing. Companies in bankruptcy may also be undergoing significant financial and operational changes that may cause their financial performance to have elevated levels of volatility. DIP financings may involve payment-in-kind interest or principal interest payments, and a Fund may receive securities of a reorganized issuer (e.g., common stock, preferred stock, warrants) in return for its investment, which may include illiquid investments and investments that are difficult to value.
Derivatives
General.   Derivatives are financial instruments whose values are based on the values of one or more underlying indicators, such as a security, asset, currency, interest rate, or index. Derivative transactions can create investment leverage and may be highly volatile. Losses from derivatives can be substantially greater than the derivatives’ original cost and can sometimes be unlimited. A Fund may not be able to close out a derivative transaction at a favorable time or price.
A Fund’s use of derivative instruments involves risks different from, and possibly greater than, the risks associated with investing directly in securities and other more traditional investments. Derivative products can be highly specialized instruments that may require investment techniques and risk analyses different from those associated with investing directly in securities and other more traditional investments. Derivatives are subject to a number of risks, such as potential changes in value in response to interest rate changes or other market developments or as a result of the counterparty’s credit quality and the risk that a derivative transaction may not have the effect or benefit a Fund’s investment adviser or subadviser anticipated. Derivatives also involve the risk of mispricing or improper valuation and the risk that changes in the value of a derivative may not correlate perfectly with the underlying asset, rate, or index. When a Fund invests in a derivative instrument, it could lose more than the principal amount invested. Also, suitable derivative transactions may not be available in all circumstances, and there can be no assurance that a Fund will engage in these transactions to reduce exposure to other risks when that would be beneficial. Many derivative transactions are entered into “over the counter” ​(not on an exchange or contract market); as a result, the value of such a derivative transaction will depend on the ability and the willingness of the Fund’s counterparty to perform its obligations under the transaction. A liquid secondary market may not always exist for a Fund’s derivative positions at any time. Use of derivatives may affect the amount, timing, and character of distributions to shareholders. Although the use of derivatives is intended to enhance a Fund’s performance, it may instead reduce returns and increase volatility.
A Fund may be subject to the credit risk of its counterparty to derivative transactions (including repurchase and reverse repurchase agreements) and to the counterparty’s ability or willingness to perform in accordance with the terms of the transaction. A Fund may be negatively impacted if a counterparty becomes bankrupt or otherwise fails to perform its obligations under such a transaction. A Fund may experience significant delays in obtaining any recovery in a bankruptcy or other reorganization proceeding and a Fund may obtain only limited recovery or may obtain no recovery in such circumstances. In the event of a counterparty’s (or its affiliate’s) insolvency, the possibility exists that a Fund’s ability to exercise remedies, such as the termination of transactions, netting of obligations, and realization on collateral, could be stayed or eliminated under special resolution regimes adopted in the United States, the European Union, the United Kingdom, and various other jurisdictions. Such regimes provide government authorities with broad authority to intervene when a financial institution is experiencing financial difficulty. In particular, the regulatory authorities could reduce, eliminate, or convert to equity the liabilities to a Fund of a counterparty who is subject to such proceedings in the European Union (sometimes referred to as a “bail in”).
A Fund may enter into cleared derivatives transactions and/or exchange-traded futures contracts. When a Fund enters into a cleared derivative transaction and/or an exchange-traded futures contract, it is subject to the credit risk of the clearinghouse and the clearing member through which it holds its position. The clearing member or the clearinghouse could also fail to perform its obligations, causing losses to the Fund. Credit risk of market participants with respect to derivatives that are centrally cleared is concentrated in a few clearinghouses and clearing members. Under current
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Commodity Futures Trading Commission (“CFTC”) regulations, a clearing member is required to maintain customers’ assets in omnibus accounts for all of its customers segregated from the clearing member’s proprietary assets. If, for example, a clearing member fails to segregate customer assets, is unable to satisfy a substantial deficit in a customer account, or in the event of fraud or misappropriation of customer assets by a clearing member, clearing member customers may be subject to risk of loss of their funds in the event of that clearing member’s bankruptcy. A Fund might not be fully protected in the event of the bankruptcy of a Fund’s clearing member because the Fund would be limited to recovering only a pro rata share of the funds held by the clearing member on behalf of customers. It is not entirely clear how an insolvency proceeding of a clearinghouse, or the clearing member through which the Fund holds its positions at a clearinghouse, would be conducted, what effect the insolvency proceeding would have on any recovery by a Fund, and what impact an insolvency of a clearinghouse or clearing member would have on the financial system more generally.
U.S. and non-U.S. legislative and governmental authorities, various exchanges, and regulatory and self-regulatory authorities have undertaken reviews of derivatives trading in recent periods. Among the actions that have been taken or proposed to be taken are new position limits and reporting requirements, new or more stringent daily price fluctuation limits for futures and options transactions, new or increased margin and reserve requirements for various types of derivatives transactions, and mandatory clearing, trading, and reporting requirements for many derivatives. Additional measures are under active consideration and as a result there may be further actions that adversely affect the regulation of instruments in which the Funds invest. Such legislative and regulatory measures may reduce the availability of some types of derivative instruments, may increase the cost of trading in or maintaining other instruments or positions, and may cause uncertainty in the markets for a variety of derivative instruments. It is also possible that these or similar measures could potentially limit or completely restrict the ability of a Fund to use these instruments as a part of its investment strategy. For example, the SEC recently finalized new Rule 18f-4 under the 1940 Act providing for the regulation of registered investment companies’ use of derivatives and certain related instruments. The ultimate impact, if any, of the regulation remains unclear, but the new rule, among other things, limits derivatives exposure through one of two value-at-risk tests and eliminates the asset segregation framework for covering derivatives and certain financial instruments arising from the SEC’s Release 10666 and ensuing staff guidance. Limited derivatives users (as determined by Rule 18f-4), however, are not subject to the full requirements under the rule. Legislative and regulatory measures like this and others are evolving and still being implemented and their effects on derivatives market activities cannot be reliably predicted.
The CFTC and domestic futures exchanges have established (and continue to evaluate and revise) limits (“position limits”) on the maximum net long or net short positions which any person, or group of persons acting in concert, may hold or control in particular contracts. In addition, starting January 1, 2023, federal position limits will apply to swaps that are economically equivalent to futures contracts that are subject to CFTC-set speculative limits. All positions owned or controlled by the same person or entity, even if in different accounts, must be aggregated for purposes of complying with position limits. Thus, even if a Fund does not intend to exceed applicable position limits, it is possible that different clients managed by the investment adviser or subadviser may be aggregated for this purpose. Therefore, the trading decisions of the investment adviser or subadviser may have to be modified and positions held by a Fund liquidated in order to avoid exceeding such limits. Any modification of trading decisions or elimination of open positions that may be required to avoid exceeding such limits may adversely affect the performance of a Fund. A violation of position limits could also lead to regulatory action materially adverse to a Fund’s investment strategy.
No Fund has the obligation to enter into derivatives transactions at any time or under any circumstances. In addition, nothing in this SAI is intended to limit in any way any purpose for which a Fund may enter into any type of derivatives transaction; a Fund may use derivatives transactions for hedging purposes or generally for purposes of enhancing its investment return.
Foreign Currency Exchange Transactions
A Fund may enter into foreign currency exchange transactions for hedging purposes in order to protect against uncertainty in the level of future foreign currency exchange rates, or for other, non-hedging purposes—for example, a Fund may take a long or short position with respect to a foreign currency in which none of the Fund’s assets or liabilities are denominated, or where the position is in excess of the amount of any such assets or liabilities, in order to take advantage of anticipated changes in the relative values of those currencies. There can be no assurance that appropriate foreign currency transactions will be available for a Fund at any time or that a Fund will enter into such transactions at any time or under any circumstances even if appropriate transactions are available to it. A Fund may purchase or sell a foreign currency on a spot (i.e., cash) basis at the prevailing spot rate. A Fund may also enter into contracts to deliver in the future an amount of one currency in return for an amount of another currency (“forward contracts”) and may purchase and sell foreign currency futures contracts. (Foreign currency futures contracts are similar to financial futures contracts, except that they typically
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contemplate the delivery of foreign currencies; see “Financial Futures Contracts,” below.) A Fund may also purchase or sell options on foreign currencies or options on foreign currency futures contracts.
A Fund may enter into foreign currency exchange transactions in order to hedge against a change in the values of assets or liabilities denominated in one or more foreign currencies due to changes in currency exchange rates.
A Fund may also enter into foreign currency transactions to adjust generally the exposure of its portfolio to various foreign currencies. For example, a Fund with a large exposure to securities denominated in euros might want to continue to hold those securities, but to trade its exposure to the euro to exposure to, say, the Japanese Yen. In that case, the Fund might take a short position in the euro and a long position in the Yen. A Fund may also use foreign currency transactions to hedge the value of the Fund’s portfolio against the Fund’s benchmark index.
The value of any currency, including U.S. dollars and foreign currencies, may be affected by complex political and economic factors applicable to the issuing country. In addition, the exchange rates of foreign currencies (and therefore the values of foreign currency options, forward contracts, and futures contracts) may be affected significantly, fixed, or supported directly or indirectly by U.S. and foreign government actions. Government intervention may increase risks involved in purchasing or selling foreign currency options, forward contracts, and futures contracts, since exchange rates may not be free to fluctuate in response to other market forces. Foreign governmental restrictions or taxes could result in adverse changes in the cost of acquiring or disposing of foreign currencies.
Because foreign currency transactions occurring in the interbank market involve substantially larger amounts than those that may be involved in the use of foreign currency options, investors may be disadvantaged by having to deal in an odd lot market (generally consisting of transactions of less than $1 million) for the underlying foreign currencies at prices that are less favorable than for round lots.
There is no systematic reporting of last-sale information for foreign currencies and there is no regulatory requirement that quotations available through dealers or other market sources be firm or revised on a timely basis. Available quotation information is generally representative of very large transactions in the interbank market and thus may not reflect relatively smaller transactions (less than $1 million) where rates may be less favorable. The interbank market in foreign currencies is a global, around-the-clock market.
Currency Forward and Futures Contracts.   A foreign currency forward contract involves an obligation to deliver in the future, which may be any fixed number of days from the date of the contract as agreed by the parties, an amount of one currency in return for an amount of another currency, at an exchange rate set at the time of the contract. The contracts are traded in the interbank market conducted directly between currency traders (usually large commercial banks) and their customers. A foreign currency futures contract is a standardized contract for the future delivery of a specified amount of a foreign currency at a future date at an exchange rate set at the time of the contract. Foreign currency futures contracts traded in the United States are designed by and traded on exchanges regulated by the CFTC, such as the Chicago Mercantile Exchange. Foreign currency futures contracts will typically require a Fund to post both initial margin and variation margin.
Foreign currency forward contracts differ from foreign currency futures contracts in certain respects. For example, the maturity date of a forward contract may be any fixed number of days from the date of the contract agreed upon by the parties, rather than a predetermined date in a given month. Forward contracts may be in any amounts agreed upon by the parties rather than predetermined amounts. Also, forward foreign exchange contracts are traded directly between counterparties, exposing a Fund to credit risk with respect to its counterparty, whereas foreign currency futures contracts are traded on regulated exchanges. Because foreign currency forward contracts are private transactions between a Fund and its counterparty, any benefit of such contracts to the Fund will depend upon the willingness and ability of the counterparty to perform its obligations. In the case of a futures contract, a Fund is subject to the credit risk of the clearinghouse and the clearing member through which it holds its position as well as the risk that the clearing member or the clearinghouse could also fail to perform its obligations.
At the maturity of a forward or futures contract, a Fund will make delivery of the currency or currencies specified in the contract in return for the other currency or currencies specified in the contract (or, if the contract is a non-deliverable or cash-settled contract, settle the contract on a net basis) or, at or prior to maturity, enter into a closing transaction involving the purchase or sale of an offsetting contract. Closing transactions with respect to forward contracts are usually effected with the currency trader who is a party to the original forward contract. Closing transactions with respect to futures contracts are effected on a commodities exchange and a clearinghouse associated with the exchange assumes responsibility for closing out such contracts.
Positions in foreign currency futures contracts and related options may be closed out only on an exchange or board of trade which provides a market in such contracts or options. Although a Fund will normally purchase or sell foreign
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currency futures contracts and related options only on exchanges or boards of trade where there appears to be an active market, there is no assurance that an active market on an exchange or board of trade will exist for any particular contract or option or at any particular time. In such event, it may not be possible to close a futures or related option position and, in the event of adverse price movements, a Fund would continue to be required to make daily cash payments of variation margin on its futures positions. A Fund’s ability to close out a foreign currency forward contract will depend on the willingness of its counterparty to engage in an offsetting transaction.
Foreign Currency Options.   Options on foreign currencies operate similarly to options on securities, and are traded primarily in the over-the-counter (“OTC”) market, although certain options on foreign currencies may be listed on several exchanges. Although such options will be purchased or written only when an investment adviser or subadviser believes that a liquid secondary market exists for such options, there can be no assurance that a liquid secondary market will exist for a particular option at any specific time. Options on foreign currencies are affected by all of those factors which influence exchange rates and investments generally.
The value of a foreign currency option is dependent upon the value of the foreign currency and the U.S. dollar, and may have no relationship to the investment merits of a foreign security.
Foreign Currency Conversion.   Although foreign exchange dealers do not charge a fee for currency conversion, they do realize a profit based on the difference (the “spread”) between prices at which they buy and sell various currencies. Thus, a dealer may offer to sell a foreign currency to a Fund at one rate, while offering a lesser rate of exchange should a Fund desire to resell that currency to the dealer.
Foreign Currency Swap Agreements.   A Fund may enter into currency swaps to protect against adverse changes in exchange rates between the U.S. dollar and other currencies or as a means of making indirect investments in foreign currencies. Currency swaps involve the individually negotiated exchange by a Fund with another party of a series of payments in specified currencies in amounts determined pursuant to the terms of the swap agreement. (See “Swap Agreements and Options on Swap Agreements,” below.)
Foreign currency derivatives transactions may be highly volatile and may give rise to investment leverage.
Financial Futures Contracts
A Fund may enter into futures contracts, including interest rate futures contracts, securities index futures contracts, and futures contracts on fixed income securities (collectively referred to as “financial futures contracts”).
A Fund may use interest rate futures contracts to adjust the interest rate sensitivity (duration) of its portfolio or the credit exposure of the portfolio. Interest rate futures contracts obligate the long or short holder to take or make delivery of a specified quantity of a financial instrument, such as a specific fixed income security, during a specified future period at a specified price.
A Fund may use index futures contracts to hedge against broad market risks to its portfolio or to gain broad market exposure when it holds uninvested cash or as an inexpensive substitute for cash investments directly in securities or other assets, including commodities and precious metals. Securities index futures contracts are contracts to buy or sell units of a securities index at a specified future date at a price agreed upon when the contract is made and are settled in cash.
Positions in financial futures contracts may be closed out only on an exchange or board of trade which provides a market for such futures.
There are special risks associated with entering into financial futures contracts. The skills needed to use financial futures contracts effectively are different from those needed to select a Fund’s investments. There may be an imperfect correlation between the price movements of financial futures contracts and the price movements of the securities in which a Fund invests. There is also a risk that a Fund will be unable to close a position in a financial futures contract when desired because there is no liquid market for it.
The risk of loss in trading financial futures contracts can be substantial due to the low margin deposits required and the extremely high degree of leverage involved in futures pricing. Relatively small price movements in a financial futures contract could have an immediate and substantial impact, which may be favorable or unfavorable to a Fund. It is possible for a price-related loss to exceed the amount of a Fund’s margin deposit. An investor could also suffer losses if it is unable to close out a futures contract because of an illiquid market. Futures are subject to the creditworthiness of the clearing members (i.e., futures commission merchants) and clearing organizations involved in the transactions.
Although some financial futures contracts by their terms call for the actual delivery or acquisition of securities at expiration, in most cases the contractual commitment is closed out before expiration. The offsetting of a contractual
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obligation is accomplished by purchasing (or selling as the case may be) on a futures exchange an identical financial futures contract calling for delivery in the same month. Such a transaction offsets the obligation to make or take delivery. A Fund will incur brokerage fees when it purchases or sells financial futures contracts, and will be required to maintain margin deposits. If a liquid market does not exist when a Fund wishes to close out a financial futures contract, it will not be able to do so and will continue to be required to make daily cash payments of variation margin in the event of adverse price movements.
The investment adviser has claimed with respect to each Fund an exclusion from the definition of the term “commodity pool operator” under the Commodity Exchange Act (the “CEA”) and, therefore, is not subject to registration or regulation as a pool operator under the CEA. For the investment adviser to be eligible to claim such an exclusion, a Fund may only use futures contracts, options on such futures, commodity options and certain swaps solely for “bona fide hedging purposes” ​(as defined by the CFTC), or must limit its use of such instruments for non-bona fide hedging purposes to certain de minimis amounts, as provided by CFTC Rule 4.5. It is possible that that exclusion may in the future cease to be available with respect to one or more Funds. In any case where the exclusion is unavailable with respect to a Fund, additional requirements, including CFTC and National Futures Association (“NFA”)-mandated disclosure, reporting, and recordkeeping obligations, would apply with respect to that Fund. Compliance with the CFTC’s regulatory requirements and NFA rules could increase Fund expenses and potentially adversely affect a Fund’s total return.
Margin Payments.   When a Fund purchases or sells a financial futures contract, it is required to deposit with the clearing member an amount of cash, U.S. Treasury bills, or other permissible collateral equal to a small percentage of the amount of the financial futures contract. This amount is known as “initial margin.” The nature of initial margin is different from that of margin in security transactions in that it does not involve borrowing money to finance transactions. Rather, initial margin is similar to a performance bond or good faith deposit that is returned to a Fund upon termination of the contract, assuming the Fund satisfies its contractual obligations.
Subsequent payments to and from the clearing member occur on a daily basis in a process known as “marking to market.” These payments are called “variation margin” and are made as the value of the underlying financial futures contract fluctuates. For example, when a Fund sells an index futures contract and the price of the underlying index rises above the delivery price, the Fund’s position declines in value. The Fund then pays the clearing member a variation margin payment equal to the difference between the delivery price of the index futures contract and the value of the index underlying the index futures contract. Conversely, if the price of the underlying index falls below the delivery price of the contract, the Fund’s futures position increases in value. The clearing member then must make a variation margin payment equal to the difference between the delivery price of the index futures contract and the value of the index underlying the index futures contract.
When a Fund terminates a position in a financial futures contract, a final determination of variation margin is made, additional cash is paid by or to the Fund, and the Fund realizes a loss or a gain. Such closing transactions involve additional commission costs.
Options on Financial Futures Contracts.   A Fund may purchase and write call and put options on financial futures contracts. An option on a financial futures contract gives the purchaser the right, in return for the premium paid, to assume a position in a financial futures contract (a long position if the option is a call and a short position if the option is a put) at a specified exercise price at any time during the period of the option or only at expiration of the option, depending on the option’s terms. Upon exercise of the option, the holder would assume the underlying futures position and would receive a variation margin payment of cash or securities approximating the increase in the value of the holder’s option position. If an option is exercised on the last trading day prior to the expiration date of the option, the settlement will be made entirely in cash. Purchasers of options who fail to exercise their options prior to or on the exercise date suffer a loss of the premium paid.
Options on Swaps.   Options on swaps (“swaptions”) are similar to options on securities except that they are traded over-the-counter (i.e., not on an exchange) and the premium paid or received is to buy or grant the right to enter into a previously agreed upon swap transaction, such as an interest rate or credit default contract. Forward premium swaption contracts include premiums that have extended settlement dates. The delayed settlement of the premiums is factored into the daily valuation of the swaption contracts. In the case of interest rate cap and floor contracts, in return for a premium, ongoing payments between two parties are based on interest rates exceeding a specified rate, in the case of a cap contract, or falling below a specified rate, in the case of a floor contract.
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Special Risks of Transactions in Financial Futures Contracts and Related Options.   Financial futures contracts entail risks. The risks associated with purchasing and writing put and call options on financial futures contracts can be influenced by the market for financial futures contracts. An increase in the market value of a financial futures contract on which the Fund has written an option may cause the option to be exercised. In this situation, the benefit to a Fund would be limited to the value of the exercise price of the option and the Fund may realize a loss on the option greater than the premium the Fund initially received for writing the option. In addition, a Fund’s ability to close out an option it has written by entering into an offsetting transaction depends upon the market’s demand for such financial futures contracts. If a purchased option expires unexercised, a Fund would realize a loss in the amount of the premium paid for the option.
If an investment adviser’s or subadviser’s judgment about the general direction of interest rates or markets is wrong, the overall performance may be poorer than if no financial futures contracts had been entered into.
Liquidity Risks.   Positions in financial futures contracts may be closed out only on the exchange on which such contract is listed. Although the Funds intend to purchase or sell financial futures contracts for which there appears to be an active market, there is no assurance that a liquid market will exist for any particular contract or at any particular time. If there is not a liquid market at a particular time, it may not be possible to close a position in a financial futures contract at such time and, in the event of adverse price movements, a Fund would continue to be required to make daily cash payments of variation margin.
The ability to establish and close out positions in options on financial futures contracts will be subject to the development and maintenance of a liquid market. It is not certain that such a market will develop. Although a Fund generally will purchase only those options for which there appears to be an active market, there is no assurance that a liquid market on an exchange will exist for any particular option or at any particular time. In the event no such market exists for particular options, it might not be possible to effect closing transactions in such options, with the result that a Fund would have to exercise the options in order to realize any profit.
Hedging Risks.   There are several risks in connection with the use by a Fund of financial futures contracts and related options as a hedging device. One risk arises because of the imperfect correlation between movements in the prices of the financial futures contracts and options and movements in the underlying securities or index or movements in the prices of a Fund’s securities which are the subject of a hedge.
Successful use of financial futures contracts and options by a Fund for hedging purposes is also subject to an investment adviser’s or subadviser’s ability to predict correctly movements in the direction of the market. It is possible that, where a Fund has purchased puts on financial futures contracts to hedge its portfolio against a decline in the market, the securities or index on which the puts are purchased may increase in value and the value of securities held in the portfolio may decline. If this occurred, the Fund would lose money on the puts and also experience a decline in the value of its portfolio securities. In addition, the prices of financial futures contracts, for a number of reasons, may not correlate perfectly with movements in the underlying securities or index due to certain market distortions. First, all participants in the futures market are subject to margin deposit requirements. Such requirements may cause investors to close financial futures contracts through offsetting transactions which could distort the normal relationship between the underlying security or index and futures markets. Second, the margin requirements in the futures markets are less onerous than margin requirements in the securities markets in general, and as a result the futures markets may attract more speculators than the securities markets do. Increased participation by speculators in the futures markets may also cause temporary price distortions. Due to the possibility of price distortion, even a correct forecast of general market trends by an investment adviser or subadviser still may not result in a successful hedging transaction over a very short time period.
Other Risks.   A Fund will incur brokerage fees in connection with its transactions in financial futures contracts and related options. In addition, while financial futures contracts and options on financial futures contracts will be purchased and sold to reduce certain risks, those transactions themselves entail certain other risks. Thus, while a Fund may benefit from the use of financial futures contracts and related options, unanticipated changes in interest rates or stock price movements may result in a poorer overall performance for the Fund than if it had not entered into any financial futures contracts or options transactions. Moreover, in the event of an imperfect correlation between the position in the financial futures contract and the portfolio position that is intended to be protected, the desired protection may not be obtained and the Fund may be exposed to risk of loss.
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Swap Agreements and Options on Swap Agreements
A Fund may engage in swap transactions, including interest rate swap agreements, credit default swaps, and total return swaps.
Swap agreements are two party contracts entered into primarily by institutional investors for periods ranging from a few weeks to more than one year. In a standard “swap” transaction, two parties agree to exchange the returns (or differentials in rates of return) earned or realized on particular predetermined investments or instruments or rates, which may be adjusted for an interest factor. The gross returns to be exchanged or “swapped” between the parties are generally calculated with respect to a “notional amount” ​(i.e., the return on or increase in value of a particular dollar amount invested at a particular interest rate or in a “basket” of securities representing a particular index). When a Fund enters into an interest rate swap, it typically agrees to make payments to its counterparty based on a specified long- or short-term interest rate, and will receive payments from its counterparty based on another interest rate. Other forms of swap agreements include, among others, interest rate caps, under which, in return for a specified payment stream, one party agrees to make payments to the other to the extent that interest rates exceed a specified rate, or “cap”; interest rate floors, under which, in return for a specified payment stream, one party agrees to make payments to the other to the extent that interest rates fall below a specified rate, or “floor”; interest rate collars, under which a party sells a cap and purchases a floor or vice versa in an attempt to protect itself against interest rate movements exceeding given minimum or maximum levels; and curve cap swaps, under which a party might buy or sell protection against an increase in long-term interest rates relative to shorter-term rates. A Fund may enter into an interest rate swap in order, for example, to hedge against the effect of interest rate changes on the value of specific securities in its portfolio, or to adjust the interest rate sensitivity (duration) or the credit exposure of its portfolio overall, or otherwise as a substitute for a direct investment in debt securities.
A Fund may enter into total return swaps. In a total return swap, one party typically agrees to pay to the other a short-term interest rate in return for a payment at one or more times in the future based on the increase in the value of an underlying security or other asset, or index of securities or assets; if the underlying security, asset, or index declines in value, the party that pays the short-term interest rate must also pay to its counterparty a payment based on the amount of the decline. A Fund may take either side of such a swap, and so may take a long or short position in the underlying security, asset, or index. A Fund may enter into a total return swap to hedge against an exposure in its portfolio (including to adjust the duration or credit quality of a Fund’s bond portfolio) or generally to put cash to work efficiently in the markets in anticipation of, or as a replacement for, cash investments. A Fund may also enter into a total return swap to gain exposure to securities or markets in which it might not be able to invest directly (in so-called market access transactions). A Fund may also enter into contracts for difference, which are similar to total return swaps.
A Fund also may enter into credit default swap transactions. In a credit default swap, one party provides what is in effect insurance against a default or other adverse credit event affecting an issuer of debt securities (typically referred to as a “reference entity”). In general, the protection “buyer” in a credit default swap is obligated to pay the protection “seller” an upfront amount or a periodic stream of payments over the term of the swap. If a “credit event” occurs, the buyer has the right to deliver to the seller bonds or other obligations of the reference entity (with a value up to the full notional value of the swap), and to receive a payment equal to the par value of the bonds or other obligations. Credit events that would trigger a request that the seller make payment are specific to each credit default swap agreement, but generally include bankruptcy, failure to pay, restructuring, obligation acceleration, obligation default, or repudiation/moratorium. A Fund may be either the buyer or seller in a credit default swap transaction. When a Fund buys protection, it may or may not own securities of the reference entity. If it does own securities of the reference entity, the swap serves as a hedge against a decline in the value of the securities due to the occurrence of a credit event involving the issuer of the securities. If the Fund does not own securities of the reference entity, the credit default swap may be seen to create a short position in the reference entity. If a Fund is a buyer and no credit event occurs, the Fund will typically recover nothing under the swap, but will have had to pay the required upfront payment and stream of continuing payments under the swap. When a Fund sells protection under a credit default swap, the position may have the effect of creating leverage in the Fund’s portfolio through the Fund’s indirect long exposure to the issuer or securities on which the swap is written. When a Fund sells protection, it may do so either to earn additional income or to create such a “synthetic” long position. Credit default swaps involve general market risks, illiquidity risk, counterparty risk, and credit risk.
A Fund may also enter into options on swap agreements (“swaptions”). A swaption is a contract that gives a counterparty the right (but not the obligation) to enter into a new swap agreement or to shorten, extend, cancel, or otherwise modify an existing swap agreement, at some designated future time on specified terms. A Fund may write (sell) and purchase put and call swaptions. Depending on the terms of the particular option agreement, a Fund will generally incur a greater degree of risk when it writes a swaption than it will incur when it purchases a swaption. When a Fund purchases a swaption, it risks losing only the amount of the premium it has paid should it decide to let the option expire
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unexercised. However, when a Fund writes a swaption, upon exercise of the option the Fund will become obligated according to the terms of the underlying agreement. A Fund may enter into swaptions for the same purposes as swaps.
Whether a Fund’s use of swap agreements or swaptions will be successful will depend on the investment adviser’s or subadviser’s ability to predict correctly whether certain types of investments are likely to produce greater returns than other investments. Moreover, a Fund bears the risk of loss of the amount expected to be received under a swap agreement in the event of the default or bankruptcy of a swap agreement counterparty. Certain restrictions imposed on the Funds by the Code may limit the Funds’ ability to use swap agreements.
Swaps are highly specialized instruments that require investment techniques, risk analyses, and tax planning different from those associated with traditional investments. The use of a swap requires an understanding not only of the referenced asset, reference rate, or index but also of the swap itself, without the benefit of observing the performance of the swap under all possible market conditions. Because they are two party contracts that may be subject to contractual restrictions on transferability and termination and because they may have terms of greater than seven days, swap agreements may be considered to be illiquid and subject to a Fund’s limitation on investments in illiquid securities. To the extent that a swap is not liquid, it may not be possible to initiate a transaction or liquidate a position at an advantageous time or price, which may result in significant losses.
Like most other investments, swap agreements are subject to the risk that the market value of the instrument will change in a way detrimental to a Fund’s interest. A Fund bears the risk that an investment adviser or subadviser will not accurately forecast future market trends or the values of assets, reference rates, indexes, or other economic factors in establishing swap positions for the Fund. If an investment adviser or subadviser attempts to use a swap as a hedge against, or as a substitute for, a portfolio investment, the Fund will be exposed to the risk that the swap will have or will develop imperfect or no correlation with the portfolio investment. This could cause substantial losses for the Fund. While hedging strategies involving swap instruments can reduce the risk of loss, they can also reduce the opportunity for gain or even result in losses by offsetting favorable price movements in other Fund investments. Many swaps are complex and often valued subjectively.
When a Fund enters into swap agreements, it is subject to the credit risk of its counterparty and to the counterparty’s ability or willingness to perform in accordance with the terms of the agreement. A Fund may be negatively impacted if a counterparty becomes bankrupt or otherwise fails to perform its obligations under a swap agreement. A Fund may experience significant delays in obtaining any recovery in a bankruptcy or other reorganization proceeding and a Fund may obtain only limited recovery or may obtain no recovery in such circumstances.
Options, Rights, and Warrants
A Fund may purchase and sell put and call options on securities to enhance investment performance or to protect against changes in market prices. A Fund that invests in debt securities may also purchase and sell put and call options to adjust the interest rate sensitivity of its portfolio or the credit exposure of the portfolio.
Call Options.   A Fund may write call options on portfolio securities to realize a greater current return through the receipt of premiums. Such option transactions may also be used as a limited form of hedging against a decline in the price of securities owned by the Fund.
A call option gives the holder the right to purchase, and obligates the writer to sell, a security at the exercise price at any time before the expiration date in the case of an American-style option or only on the expiration date in the case of a European-style option. A Fund may write covered call options or uncovered call options. A call option is “covered” if the writer, at all times while obligated as a writer, either owns the underlying securities (or comparable securities satisfying the cover requirements of the securities exchanges), or has the right to acquire such securities through immediate conversion of securities. When a Fund has written an uncovered call option, the Fund will not necessarily hold securities offsetting the risk to the Fund. As a result, if the call option were exercised, the Fund might be required to purchase the security that is the subject of the call at the market price at the time of exercise. The Fund’s exposure on such an option is theoretically unlimited. There is also a risk, especially with less liquid preferred and debt securities, that the security may not be available for purchase.
A Fund will receive a premium from writing a call option, which increases the Fund’s return in the event the option expires unexercised or is closed out at a profit. The amount of the premium reflects, among other things, the relationship between the exercise price and the current market value of the underlying security, the volatility of the underlying security, the amount of time remaining until expiration, current interest rates, and the effect of supply and demand in the options market and in the market for the underlying security.
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In return for the premium received when it writes a covered call option, a Fund takes the risk during the life of the option that it will be required to deliver the underlying security at a price below the current market value of the security or, in the case of a covered call option, to give up some or all of the opportunity to profit from an increase in the market price of the securities covering the call option.
In the case of a covered option, the Fund also retains the risk of loss should the price of the securities decline. If the covered option expires unexercised, the Fund realizes a gain equal to the premium, which may be offset by a decline in price of the underlying security. If the option is exercised, the Fund realizes a gain or loss equal to the difference between the Fund’s cost for the underlying security and the proceeds of sale (exercise price minus commissions) plus the amount of the premium.
A Fund may enter into closing purchase transactions in order to realize a profit or limit a loss on a previously written call option or, in the case of a covered call option, to free itself to sell the underlying security or to write another call on the security, or protect a security from being called in an unexpected market rise. Any profits from a closing purchase transaction in the case of a covered call option may be offset by a decline in the value of the underlying security. Conversely, because increases in the market price of a call option will generally reflect increases in the market price of the underlying security, any loss resulting from a closing purchase transaction relating to a covered call option is likely to be offset in whole or in part by unrealized appreciation of the underlying security owned by the Fund.
Put Options.   A Fund may write put options in order to enhance its current return by taking a long directional position as to a security or index of securities. Such options transactions may also be used as a limited form of hedging against an increase in the price of securities that the Fund plans to purchase. A put option gives the holder the right to sell, and obligates the writer to buy, a security at the exercise price. A Fund may write covered or uncovered put options. A put option is “covered” if the writer segregates cash and high-grade short-term debt obligations or other permissible collateral equal to the price to be paid if the option is exercised.
By writing a put option, the Fund assumes the risk that it may be required to purchase the underlying security for an exercise price higher than its then current market value, resulting in a potential capital loss unless the security later appreciates in value. A Fund may terminate a put option that it has written before it expires by entering into a closing purchase transaction. Any loss from this transaction may be partially or entirely offset by the premium received on the terminated option.
Purchasing Put and Call Options.   A Fund may also purchase put options to protect portfolio holdings against a decline in market value. This protection lasts for the life of the put option because the Fund, as a holder of the option, may sell the underlying security at the exercise price regardless of any decline in its market price. A Fund may also purchase a put option hoping to profit from an anticipated decline in the value of the underlying security. In order for a put option to be profitable, the market price of the underlying security must decline sufficiently below the exercise price to cover the premium and transaction costs that the Fund must pay. If the Fund holds the security underlying the option, these costs will reduce any profit the Fund might have realized had it sold the underlying security instead of buying the put option.
A Fund may purchase call options to hedge against an increase in the price of securities that the Fund wants ultimately to buy. Such hedge protection is provided during the life of the call option since the Fund, as holder of the call option, is able to buy the underlying security at the exercise price regardless of any increase in the underlying security’s market price. A Fund may also purchase a call option as a long directional investment hoping to profit from an anticipated increase in the value of the underlying security. In order for a call option to be profitable, the market price of the underlying security must rise sufficiently above the exercise price to cover the premium and transaction costs. These costs will reduce any profit the Fund might have realized had it bought the underlying security at the time it purchased the call option.
A Fund may also buy and sell combinations of put and call options on the same underlying security to earn additional income.
A Fund may purchase or sell “structured options,” which may comprise multiple option exposures within a single security. The risk and return characteristics of a structured option will vary depending on the nature of the underlying option exposures. The Fund may use such options for hedging purposes or as a substitute for direct investments in options or securities. The Fund’s use of structured options may create investment leverage.
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Options on Foreign Securities.   A Fund may purchase and sell options on foreign securities if an investment adviser or subadviser believes that the investment characteristics of such options, including the risks of investing in such options, are consistent with the Fund’s investment objective. It is expected that risks related to such options will not differ materially from risks related to options on U.S. securities. However, position limits and other rules of foreign exchanges may differ from those in the United States. In addition, options markets in some countries, many of which are relatively new, may be less liquid than comparable markets in the United States.
Options on Securities Indexes.   A Fund may write or purchase options on securities indexes, subject to its general investment restrictions regarding options transactions. Index options are similar to options on individual securities in that the purchaser of an index option acquires the right to buy (in the case of a call) or sell (in the case of a put), and the writer undertakes the obligation to sell or buy (as the case may be), units of an index at a stated exercise price during the term of the option. Instead of giving the right to take or make actual delivery of securities, the holder of an index option has the right to receive a cash “exercise settlement amount.” This amount is equal to the amount by which the fixed exercise price of the option exceeds (in the case of a put) or is less than (in the case of a call) the closing value of the underlying index on the date of the exercise, multiplied by a fixed “index multiplier.” If the Fund has written an index call option, it will lose money if the index level rises above the option exercise price (plus the amount of the premium received by the Fund on the option). If the Fund has written an index put option, it will lose money if the index level falls below the option exercise price (less the amount of the premium received by the Fund).
In cases where a Fund uses index options for hedging purposes, price movements in securities which a Fund owns or intends to purchase probably will not correlate perfectly with movements in the level of a securities index and, therefore, a Fund bears the risk of a loss on a securities index option which is not completely offset by movements in the price of such securities. Because securities index options are settled in cash, a call writer cannot determine the amount of its settlement obligations in advance and, unlike call writing on a specific security, cannot provide in advance for, or cover, its potential settlement obligations by acquiring and holding underlying securities. A Fund may, however, cover call options written on a securities index by holding a mix of securities which substantially replicate the movement of the index or by holding a call option on the securities index with an exercise price no higher than the call option sold.
A Fund may purchase or sell options on stock indexes in order to close out its outstanding positions in options on stock indexes which it has purchased. A Fund may also allow such options to expire unexercised.
Risks Involved in the Sale of Options.   The successful use of a Fund’s options strategies depends on the ability of an investment adviser or subadviser to forecast correctly interest rate and market movements. For example, if a Fund were to write a covered call option based on an investment adviser’s or subadviser’s expectation that the price of the underlying security would fall, but the price were to rise instead, the Fund could be required to sell the security upon exercise at a price below the current market price. Similarly, if a Fund were to write a put option based on an investment adviser’s or subadviser’s expectation that the price of the underlying security would rise, but the price were to fall instead, the Fund could be required to purchase the security upon exercise at a price higher than the current market price.
When a Fund purchases an option, it runs the risk that it will lose its entire investment in the option in a relatively short period of time, unless the Fund exercises the option or enters into a closing sale transaction before the option’s expiration. If the price of the underlying security does not rise (in the case of a call) or fall (in the case of a put) to an extent sufficient to cover the option premium and transaction costs, the Fund will lose part or all of its investment in the option. This contrasts with an investment by a Fund in the underlying security, since the Fund will not realize a loss if the security’s price does not change.
The effective use of options also depends on a Fund’s ability to terminate option positions at times when an investment adviser or subadviser deems it desirable to do so. There is no assurance that a Fund will be able to effect closing transactions at any particular time or at an acceptable price.
If a secondary market in options were to become unavailable, a Fund could no longer engage in closing transactions. Lack of investor interest might adversely affect the liquidity of the market for particular options or series of options. A market may discontinue trading of a particular option or options generally. In addition, a market could become temporarily unavailable if unusual events—such as volume in excess of trading or clearing capability—were to interrupt its normal operations.
A market may at times find it necessary to impose restrictions on particular types of options transactions, such as opening transactions. If an underlying security ceases to meet qualifications imposed by the market or the Options Clearing Corporation, new series of options on that security will no longer be opened to replace expiring series, and opening transactions in existing series may be prohibited. If an options market were to become unavailable, a Fund as a holder of an
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option would be able to realize profits or limit losses only by exercising the option, and the Fund, as option writer, would remain obligated under the option until expiration or exercise.
Disruptions in the markets for the securities underlying options purchased or sold by a Fund could result in losses on the options. If trading is interrupted in an underlying security, the trading of options on that security is normally halted as well. As a result, a Fund as purchaser or writer of an option will be unable to close out its positions until options trading resumes, and it may be faced with considerable losses if trading in the security reopens at a substantially different price. In addition, the Options Clearing Corporation or other options markets may impose exercise restrictions. If a prohibition on exercise is imposed at the time when trading in the option has also been halted, a Fund as purchaser or writer of an option will be locked into its position until one of the two restrictions has been lifted. If the Options Clearing Corporation were to determine that the available supply of an underlying security appears insufficient to permit delivery by the writers of all outstanding calls in the event of exercise, it may prohibit indefinitely the exercise of put options. A Fund, as holder of such a put option, could lose its entire investment if the prohibition remained in effect until the put option’s expiration.
Foreign-traded options are subject to many of the same risks presented by internationally-traded securities. In addition, because of time differences between the United States and various foreign countries, and because different holidays are observed in different countries, foreign options markets may be open for trading during hours or on days when U.S. markets are closed. As a result, option premiums may not reflect the current prices of the underlying interest in the United States.
Exchanges have established limits on the maximum number of options an investor or group of investors acting in concert may write. The Funds, an investment adviser or subadviser, and other clients of the investment adviser or subadviser may constitute such a group. These limits restrict a Fund’s ability to purchase or sell particular options.
Over-the-Counter Options.   A Fund may purchase or sell OTC options. OTC options are not traded on securities or options exchanges or backed by clearinghouses. Rather, they are entered into directly between a Fund and the counterparty to the option. In the case of an OTC option purchased by the Fund, the value of the option to the Fund will depend on the willingness and ability of the option writer to perform its obligations to the Fund. In addition, OTC options may not be transferable and there may be little or no secondary market for them, so they may be considered illiquid. It may not be possible to enter into closing transactions with respect to OTC options or otherwise to terminate such options, and as a result a Fund may be required to remain obligated on an unfavorable OTC option until its expiration. It may be difficult under certain circumstances to value OTC options.
Rights and Warrants to Purchase Securities; Index Warrants; International.   A Fund may invest in rights and warrants to purchase securities. Rights or warrants generally give the holder the right to receive, upon exercise, a security at a stated price. Funds typically use rights and warrants in a manner similar to their use of options on securities, as described above. Risks associated with the use of rights or warrants are generally similar to risks associated with the use of options. Rights and warrants typically do not carry with them dividend or voting rights with respect to the underlying securities, or any rights in the assets of the issuer. In addition, the value of a right or a warrant will likely, but will not necessarily, change with the value of the underlying securities, and a right or a warrant ceases to have value if it is not exercised prior to its expiration date.
Bonds issued with warrants attached to purchase equity securities have many characteristics of convertible bonds and their prices may, to some degree, reflect the performance of the underlying stock. Bonds also may be issued with warrants attached to purchase additional fixed income securities.
A Fund may also invest in equity-linked warrants. A Fund purchases equity-linked warrants from a broker, who in turn is expected to purchase shares in the local market. If the Fund exercises its warrant, the shares are expected to be sold and the warrant redeemed with the proceeds. Typically, each warrant represents one share of the underlying stock. Therefore, the price and performance of the warrant are directly linked to the underlying stock, less transaction costs. In addition to the market risk related to the underlying holdings, a Fund bears counterparty risk with respect to the issuing broker. There is currently no active trading market for equity-linked warrants, and they may be highly illiquid.
In addition to warrants on securities, a Fund may purchase put warrants and call warrants whose values vary depending on the change in the value of one or more specified securities indexes (“index-linked warrants”). Index-linked warrants are generally issued by banks or other financial institutions and give the holder the right, at any time during the term of the warrant, to receive upon exercise of the warrant a cash payment from the issuer based on the value of the underlying index at the time of exercise. In general, if the value of the underlying index rises above the exercise price of the index-linked warrant, the holder of a call warrant will be entitled to receive a cash payment from the issuer upon exercise based on the difference between the value of the index and the exercise price of the warrant; if the value of the underlying
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index falls, the holder of a put warrant will be entitled to receive a cash payment from the issuer upon exercise based on the difference between the exercise price of the warrant and the value of the index. The holder of a warrant would not be entitled to any payments from the issuer at any time when, in the case of a call warrant, the exercise price is greater than the value of the underlying index, or, in the case of a put warrant, the exercise price is less than the value of the underlying index. If a Fund were not to exercise an index-linked warrant prior to its expiration, then the Fund would lose the amount of the purchase price paid by it for the warrant.
A Fund using index-linked warrants would normally do so in a manner similar to its use of options on securities indexes. The risks of a Fund’s use of index-linked warrants are generally similar to those relating to its use of index options. Unlike most index options, however, index-linked warrants are issued in limited amounts and are not obligations of a regulated clearing agency, but are backed only by the credit of the bank or other institution that issues the warrant. Also, index-linked warrants may have longer terms than index options. Index-linked warrants are not likely to be as liquid as certain index options backed by a recognized clearing agency. In addition, the terms of index-linked warrants may limit a Fund’s ability to exercise the warrants at such time, or in such quantities, as the Fund would otherwise wish to do.
A Fund may make indirect investments in foreign equity securities, through international warrants, participation notes, low exercise price warrants, or other products that allow the Fund to access investments in foreign markets that would otherwise be unavailable to them. International warrants are financial instruments issued by banks or other financial institutions, which may or may not be traded on a foreign exchange. International warrants are a form of derivative security that may give holders the right to buy or sell an underlying security or a basket of securities from or to the issuer for a particular price or may entitle holders to receive a cash payment relating to the value of the underlying security or basket of securities. International warrants are similar to options in that they are exercisable by the holder for an underlying security or securities or the value of the security or securities, but are generally exercisable over a longer term than typical options. These types of instruments may be American style exercise, which means that they can be exercised at any time on or before the expiration date of the international warrant, or European style exercise, which means that they may be exercised only on the expiration date. International warrants have an exercise price, which is typically fixed when the warrants are issued.
A Fund may invest in low exercise price warrants, which are warrants with an exercise price that is very low relative to the market price of the underlying instrument at the time of issue (e.g., one cent or less). The buyer of a low exercise price warrant effectively pays the full value of the underlying common stock at the outset. In the case of any exercise of warrants, there may be a time delay between the time a holder of warrants gives instructions to exercise and the time the price of the common stock relating to exercise or the settlement date is determined, during which time the price of the underlying security could change significantly. These warrants entail substantial credit risk, since the issuer of the warrant holds the purchase price of the warrant (approximately equal to the value of the underlying investment at the time of the warrant’s issue) for the life of the warrant.
The exercise or settlement date of the warrants and other instruments described above may be affected by certain market disruption events, such as difficulties relating to the exchange of a local currency into U.S. dollars, the imposition of capital controls by a local jurisdiction or changes in the laws relating to foreign investments. These events could lead to a change in the exercise date or settlement currency of the instruments, or postponement of the settlement date. In some cases, if the market disruption events continue for a certain period of time, the warrants may become worthless, resulting in a total loss of the purchase price of the warrants.
A participation note or “P-note” is typically a debt instrument issued by a bank or broker-dealer, where the amount of the bank’s or broker-dealer’s repayment obligation is tied to changes in the value of an underlying security or index of securities. A P-note is a general unsecured contractual obligation of the bank or broker-dealer that issues it. A Fund must rely on the creditworthiness of the issuer for repayment of the P-note and for any return on the Fund’s investment in the P-note and would have no rights against the issuer of the underlying security.
There is no assurance that there will be a secondary trading market for any of the instruments described above. They may by their terms be non-transferable or otherwise be highly illiquid and difficult to price. Issuers of such instruments or the calculation agent named in respect of such an instrument may have broad authority and discretion to adjust the instrument’s terms in response to certain events or to interpret an instrument’s terms or to make certain determinations relating to the instrument, which could have a significant adverse effect on the value of the instrument to a Fund. If the issuer or other obligor on an instrument is unable or unwilling to perform its obligations under such an instrument, a Fund may lose some or all of its investment in the instrument and any unrealized return on that investment. Certain of these instruments may be subject to foreign investment risk and currency risk.
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Equity-Linked Notes
An equity-linked note (ELN) is a debt instrument whose value changes based on changes in the value of a single equity security, basket of equity securities, or an index of equity securities. An equity-linked note may or may not pay interest. See “Hybrid Instruments,” below.
Hybrid Instruments
Hybrid instruments are generally considered derivatives and include indexed or structured securities, and combine elements of many derivatives transactions with those of debt, preferred equity, or a depositary instrument. A Fund may use a hybrid instrument as a substitute for any type of cash or derivative investment which it might make for any purpose.
A hybrid instrument may be a debt security, preferred stock, warrant, convertible security, certificate of deposit, or other evidence of indebtedness on which a portion of or all interest payments, and/or the principal or stated amount payable at maturity, redemption or retirement, is determined by reference to prices, changes in prices, or differences between prices, of securities, currencies, intangibles, goods, articles, or commodities (collectively, “underlying assets”), or by another index, economic factor, or other measure, including interest rates, currency exchange rates, or commodities or securities indexes (collectively, “benchmarks”). Hybrid instruments may take a number of forms, including, for example, debt instruments with interest or principal payments or redemption terms determined by reference to the value of an index, security, or other measure at a future time, preferred stock with dividend rates determined by reference to the value of a currency, or convertible securities where the conversion terms relate to a particular commodity.
The risks of investing in a hybrid instrument may, depending on the nature of the instrument, reflect a combination of the risks of investing in securities, options, futures, currencies, or other types of investments. An investment in a hybrid instrument as a debt instrument may entail significant risks that are not associated with a similar investment in a traditional debt instrument. The risks of a particular hybrid instrument will depend upon the terms of the instrument, but may include the possibility of significant changes in the level of the benchmark(s) or the prices of the underlying assets to which the instrument is linked. Such risks generally depend upon factors unrelated to the operations or credit quality of the issuer of the hybrid instrument, and may not be foreseen by the purchaser, such as financial or market developments, economic and political events, the supply and demand of the underlying assets, and interest rate movements. Hybrid instruments may be highly volatile and their use by a Fund may not be successful.
Hybrid instruments are potentially more volatile and carry greater market risks than traditional debt instruments. Hybrid instruments may be highly leveraged. Depending on the structure of the particular hybrid instrument, changes in a benchmark may be magnified by the terms of the hybrid instrument and have an even more dramatic and substantial effect upon the value of the hybrid instrument. Also, the prices of the hybrid instrument and the benchmark or underlying asset may not move in the same direction or at the same time.
Hybrid instruments may also carry liquidity risk since they typically trade OTC, and are not backed by a central clearing organization. The instruments are often “customized” to meet the portfolio needs of a particular investor, and therefore, the number of investors that are willing and able to buy such instruments in the secondary market may be smaller than that for more traditional debt securities. Under certain conditions, the value of such an investment could be zero. In addition, because the purchase and sale of hybrid investments would likely take place in an OTC market without the backing of a central clearing organization, or in a transaction between a Fund and the issuer of the hybrid instrument, the instruments will not likely be actively traded. Hybrid instruments also may not be subject to regulation by the CFTC, the SEC, or any other governmental regulatory authority.
When a Fund invests in a hybrid instrument, it also takes on the credit risk of the issuer of the hybrid instrument. In that respect, a hybrid instrument may create greater risks than investments directly in the securities or other assets underlying the hybrid instrument because the Fund is exposed both to losses on those securities or other assets and to the credit risk of the issuer of the hybrid instrument. A hybrid instrument may also pose greater risks than other derivatives based on the same securities or assets because, when it purchases the instrument, a Fund may be required to pay all, or most, of the notional amount of the investment by way of purchase price, whereas many other derivatives require a Fund to post only a relatively small portion of the notional amount by way of margin or similar arrangements.
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Structured Investments
A structured investment is typically issued by a specially created corporation or trust that purchases one or more securities or other assets (“underlying instruments”), and that in turn issues one or more classes of securities (“structured securities”) backed by, or representing different interests in, the underlying instruments. The cash flow on the underlying instruments may be apportioned among the newly issued structured securities to create securities with different investment characteristics, such as varying maturities, payment priorities, and interest rate provisions, and the extent of such payments made with respect to structured securities is dependent on the extent of the cash flow on the underlying instruments. Because structured securities typically involve no credit enhancement, their credit risk generally will reflect that of the underlying instruments. Investments in a structured security may be subordinated to the right of payment of another class of securities. Subordinated structured securities typically have higher yields and present greater risks than unsubordinated structured securities. Structured securities are typically sold in private placement transactions, and there currently is no active trading market for structured securities, and they may be highly illiquid and difficult to value. Because the purchase and sale of structured securities would likely take place in an OTC market without the backing of a central clearing organization, or in a transaction between a Fund and the issuer of the structured securities, the creditworthiness of the counterparty of the issuer of the structured securities would be an additional risk factor the Fund would have to consider and monitor.
Commodity-Linked “Structured” Securities.   Certain structured products may provide exposure to the commodities markets. Commodity-linked structured securities may be equity or debt securities, may be leveraged or unleveraged, and may present investment characteristics and risks of an investment in a security and one or more underlying commodities. Certain restrictions imposed on the Funds by the Code may limit the Funds’ ability to invest in certain commodity-linked structured securities.
Credit-Linked Securities.   Credit-linked securities are typically issued by a limited purpose trust or other vehicle that, in turn, invests in a basket of derivative instruments, such as credit default swaps, interest rate swaps, and other securities or transactions, in order to provide exposure to certain high yield or other fixed income issuers or markets. For example, a Fund may invest in credit-linked securities in order to gain exposure to the high yield markets pending investment of cash and/or to remain fully invested when more traditional income producing securities are not available. A Fund’s return on its investments in credit-linked securities will depend on the investment performance of the investments held in the trust or other vehicle. A Fund’s investments in these instruments are indirectly subject to the risks associated with the derivative instruments in which the trust or other vehicle invests, including, among others, credit risk, default, or similar event risk, counterparty risk, interest rate risk, leverage risk, and management risk. There will likely be no established trading market for credit-linked securities and they may be illiquid.
Event-Linked Securities.   Event-linked securities are typically fixed income securities for which the return of principal and payment of interest is contingent on the non-occurrence of a trigger event, such as a hurricane, earthquake, or other event that leads to physical or economic loss. If the trigger event occurs prior to maturity, a Fund may lose all or a portion of its principal and unpaid interest. Event-linked securities may expose a Fund to certain other risks, including issuer default, adverse regulatory or jurisdictional interpretations, liquidity risk, and adverse tax consequences.
Structured Hybrid Instruments.   Because the performance of structured hybrid instruments is linked to the performance of an underlying commodity, commodity index, or other economic variable, those investments are subject to “market risks” with respect to the movements of the commodity markets and may be subject to certain other risks that do not affect traditional equity and debt securities. If the interest payment on a hybrid instrument is linked to the value of a particular commodity, commodity index, or other economic variable and the underlying investment loses value, the purchaser might not receive the anticipated interest on its investment. If the amount of principal to be repaid on a structured hybrid instrument is linked to the value of a particular commodity, commodity index, or other economic variable, the purchaser might not receive all or any of the principal at maturity of the investment.
The values of structured hybrid instruments may fluctuate significantly because the values of the underlying investments to which they are linked are themselves extremely volatile, and the Fund may lose most or all of the value of its investment in a hybrid instrument. Additionally, the particular terms of a structured hybrid instrument may create economic leverage by contemplating payments that are based on a multiple of the price increase or decrease of the underlying commodity, commodity index, or other economic variable. A liquid secondary market may not exist for structured hybrid instruments, which may make it difficult to sell such instruments at an acceptable price or to value them accurately.
A Fund’s investment in structured products may be subject to limits under applicable law.
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When-Issued, Delayed-Delivery, To-Be-Announced, Forward Commitment, and Standby Commitment Transactions
A Fund may enter into when-issued, delayed-delivery, to-be-announced (“TBA”), or forward commitment transactions in order to lock in the purchase price of the underlying security or in order to adjust the interest rate exposure of the Fund’s existing portfolio. In when-issued, delayed-delivery, or forward commitment transactions, a Fund commits to purchase or sell particular securities, with payment and delivery to take place at a future date. In the case of TBA purchase commitments, the unit price and the estimated principal amount are established when the Fund enters into a commitment, with the actual principal amount being within a specified range of the estimate. Although a Fund does not typically pay for the securities in these types of transactions until they are delivered, it immediately assumes the risks of ownership, including the risk of price fluctuation. As a result, each of these types of transactions may create investment leverage in a Fund’s portfolio and increase the volatility of the Fund. If a Fund’s counterparty fails to deliver a security purchased on a when-issued, delayed-delivery, TBA, or forward commitment basis, there may be a loss, and the Fund may have missed an opportunity to make an alternative investment.
A Fund may also enter into standby commitment agreements, obligating the Fund, for a specified period, to buy a specified amount of a security at the option of the issuer, upon the issuance of the security. The price at which the Fund would purchase the security is set at the time of the agreement. In return for its promise to purchase the security, a Fund receives a commitment fee. The Fund receives this fee whether or not it is ultimately required to purchase the security. The securities subject to a standby commitment will not necessarily be issued, and, if they are issued, the value of the securities on the date of issuance may be significantly less than the price at which the Fund is required to purchase them.
Recently finalized Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (“FINRA”) rules include mandatory margin requirements for the TBA market with limited exceptions. TBA trades historically have not been required to be collateralized. The collateralization of TBA trades is intended to mitigate counterparty credit risk between trade and settlement, but could increase the cost of TBA transactions and impose added operational complexity. As of the date of this SAI, it is expected these FINRA rules will be implemented in the near future but it is not clear the full impact the rules will have on the Funds.
Distressed Securities
A Fund may invest in securities, including loans purchased in the secondary market, that are the subject of bankruptcy proceedings or otherwise in default or in risk of being in default as to the repayment of principal and/or interest at the time of acquisition by the Fund or that are rated in the lower rating categories by one or more nationally recognized statistical rating organizations (for example, Ca or lower by Moody’s and CC or lower by S&P or Fitch Ratings, Inc. (“Fitch”)) or, if unrated, are in the judgment of the investment adviser or subadviser of equivalent quality (“Distressed Securities”). Investment in Distressed Securities is speculative and involves significant risks and a Fund could lose all of its investment in any Distressed Security.
Distressed Securities are subject to greater credit and liquidity risks than other types of loans. Reduced liquidity can affect the values of Distressed Securities, make their valuation and sale more difficult, and result in greater volatility. A bankruptcy proceeding or other court proceeding could delay or limit the ability of the Fund to collect the principal and interest payments on Distressed Securities or adversely affect the Fund’s rights in collateral relating to a Distressed Security. If a lawsuit is brought by creditors of a borrower under a Distressed Security, a court or a trustee in bankruptcy could take certain actions that would be adverse to a Fund. For example:

Other creditors might convince the court to set aside a loan or the collateralization of the loan as a “fraudulent conveyance” or “preferential transfer.” In that event, the court could recover from the Fund the interest and principal payments that the borrower made before becoming insolvent. There can be no assurance that the Fund would be able to prevent that recapture.

A bankruptcy court may restructure the payment obligations under the loan so as to reduce the amount to which the Fund would be entitled.

The court might discharge the amount of the loan that exceeds the value of the collateral.

The court could subordinate the Fund’s rights to the rights of other creditors of the borrower under applicable law, decreasing, potentially significantly, the likelihood of any recovery on the Fund’s investment.
A Fund may, but will not necessarily, invest in a Distressed Security when the investment adviser or subadviser believes it is likely that the issuer of the Distressed Securities will make an exchange offer or will be the subject of a plan of reorganization pursuant to which the Fund will receive new securities in return for the Distressed Securities. There can be
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no assurance that such an exchange offer will be made or that such a plan of reorganization will be adopted. In addition, a significant period of time may pass between the time at which a Fund makes its investment in Distressed Securities and the time that any such exchange offer or plan of reorganization is completed. Even if an exchange offer is made or plan of reorganization is adopted with respect to Distressed Securities held by a Fund, there can be no assurance that the securities or other assets received by a Fund in connection with such exchange offer or plan of reorganization will not have a lower value or income potential than may have been anticipated when the investment was made. If a Fund participates in negotiations with respect to any exchange offer or plan of reorganization with respect to an issuer of Distressed Securities, the Fund may be restricted from disposing of such securities.
Dollar Roll Transactions
A Fund may enter into dollar roll transactions, in which the Fund sells mortgage-backed securities for delivery in the current month and simultaneously contracts to purchase substantially similar securities on a specified future date from the same party. A Fund may invest in dollar rolls in order to benefit from anticipated changes in pricing for the mortgage-backed securities during the term of the transaction, or for the purpose of creating investment leverage.
In a dollar roll, the securities that are to be purchased will be of the same type as the securities sold, but will be supported by different pools of mortgages. A Fund that engages in a dollar roll forgoes principal and interest paid on the sold securities during the roll period, but is compensated by the difference between the current sales price and the lower forward price for the future purchase. In addition, a Fund may benefit by investing the transaction proceeds during the roll period. Dollar roll transactions generally have the effect of creating leverage in a Fund’s portfolio.
Dollar rolls involve the risk that the Fund’s counterparty will be unable to deliver the mortgage-backed securities underlying the dollar roll at the fixed time. If the counterparty files for bankruptcy or becomes insolvent, the counterparty or its representative may ask for and receive an extension of time to decide whether to enforce the Fund’s repurchase obligation. A Fund’s use of the transaction proceeds may be restricted pending such decision. A Fund may enter into dollar roll transactions without limit up to the amount permitted under applicable law.
Exchange Traded Notes (ETNs)
ETNs are senior, unsecured, debt securities typically issued by financial institutions. An ETN’s return is typically based on the performance of a particular market index, and the value of the index may be impacted by market forces that affect the value of ETNs in unexpected ways. ETNs are similar to Structured Investments, except that they are typically listed on an exchange and traded in the secondary market. See “Structured Investments” in this SAI. The return on an ETN is based on the performance of the specified market index, and an investor may, at maturity, realize a negative return on the investment. ETNs typically do not make periodic interest payments and principal is not protected. The repayment of principal and any additional return due either at maturity or upon repurchase by the issuer depends on the issuer’s ability to pay, regardless of the performance of the underlying index. Accordingly, ETNs are subject to credit risk that the issuer will default or will be unable to make timely payments of principal. Certain events can impact an ETN issuer’s financial situation and ability to make timely payments to ETN holders, including economic, political, legal, or regulatory changes and natural disasters. Event risk is unpredictable and can significantly impact ETN holders.
The market value of an ETN may be influenced by, among other things, time to maturity, level of supply and demand of the ETN, volatility and lack of liquidity in the underlying assets, changes in the applicable interest rates, the current performance of the market index to which the ETN is linked, and the credit rating of the ETN issuer. The market value of an ETN may differ from the performance of the applicable market index and there may be times when an ETN trades at a premium or discount. This difference in price may be due to the fact that the supply and demand in the market for ETNs at any point in time is not always identical to the supply and demand in the market for the securities underlying the market index that the ETN seeks to track. A change in the issuer’s credit rating may also impact the value of an ETN without regard to the level of the underlying market index. ETNs are also subject to tax risk. No assurance can be given that the Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”) will accept, or a court will uphold, how the Funds characterize and treat ETNs for tax purposes.
A Fund’s ability to sell its ETN holdings may be limited by the availability of a secondary market. In addition, although an ETN may be listed on an exchange, the issuer may not be required to maintain the listing and there can be no assurance that a secondary market will exist for an ETN. Some ETNs may be relatively illiquid and may therefore be difficult to purchase or sell at a fair price. Leveraged ETNs may offer the potential for greater return, but their values may be highly volatile.
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Financial Services Companies
A Fund may invest in financial services companies. Financial services companies are subject to extensive government regulation that may affect their profitability in many ways, including by limiting the amount and types of loans and other commitments they can make, and the interest rates and fees they can charge. A financial services company’s profitability, and therefore its stock price, is especially sensitive to interest rate changes as well as the ability of borrowers to repay their loans. Changing regulations, continuing consolidations, and development of new products and structures all are likely to have a significant impact on financial services companies.
Fixed Income Securities
Certain of the debt securities in which the Funds may invest may not offer as high a yield as may be achieved from lower quality instruments having less safety. If a Fund disposes of an obligation prior to maturity, it may realize a loss or a gain. An increase in interest rates will generally reduce the value of debt securities, and a decline in interest rates will generally increase the value of debt securities. In addition, debt securities are subject to the ability of the issuer to make payment at maturity. As inflation increases, the present value of a Fund’s fixed income investment typically will decline. Investors’ expectation of future inflation can also adversely affect the current value of portfolio investments, resulting in lower asset values and potential losses.
To the extent that a Fund invests in debt securities, interest rate fluctuations will affect its NAV, but not the income it receives from its debt securities. In addition, if the debt securities contain call, prepayment, or redemption provisions, during a period of declining interest rates, those securities are likely to be redeemed, and a Fund would probably be unable to replace them with securities having as great a yield. Certain events, such as market or economic developments, regulatory or government actions, natural disasters, pandemics, terrorist attacks, war, and other geopolitical events can have a dramatic adverse effect on the debt market and the overall liquidity of the market for fixed income securities.
Investment in medium- or lower-grade debt securities involves greater investment risk, including the possibility of issuer default or bankruptcy. An economic downturn could severely disrupt this market and adversely affect the value of outstanding bonds and the ability of the issuers to repay principal and interest. In addition, lower-quality bonds are less sensitive to interest rate changes than higher-quality instruments and generally are more sensitive to adverse economic changes or individual corporate developments. During a period of adverse economic changes, including a period of rising interest rates, issuers of such bonds may experience difficulty in servicing their principal and interest payment obligations. Furthermore, medium- and lower-grade debt securities tend to be less marketable than higher-quality debt securities because the market for them is less broad. The market for unrated debt securities is even narrower. During periods of thin trading in these markets, the spread between bid and asked prices is likely to increase significantly, and a Fund may have greater difficulty selling its portfolio securities. The market value of these securities and their liquidity may be affected by adverse publicity and investor perceptions.
Foreign Securities
Each Fund may invest in foreign securities. Foreign securities include securities of foreign companies and foreign governments (or agencies or subdivisions thereof). If a Fund’s securities are held abroad, the countries in which such securities may be held and the sub-custodian holding them must be approved by the Board or its delegate under applicable rules adopted by the SEC. In buying foreign securities, each Fund may convert U.S. dollars into foreign currency.
The globalization and integration of the world economic system and related financial markets have made it increasingly difficult to define issuers geographically. Accordingly, the Funds intend to construe geographic terms such as “foreign,” “non-U.S.,” “European,” “Latin American,” “Asian,” and “emerging markets” in the manner that affords to the Funds the greatest flexibility in seeking to achieve the investment objective(s) of the relevant Fund. Specifically, unless otherwise stated, in circumstances where the investment objective and/or strategy is to invest (a) exclusively in “foreign securities,” “non-U.S. securities,” “European securities,” “Latin American securities,” “Asian securities,” or “emerging markets” ​(or similar directions) or (b) at least some percentage of the Fund’s assets in foreign securities, etc., the Fund will take the view that a security meets this description so long as the issuer of a security is tied economically to the particular country or geographic region indicated by words of the relevant investment objective and/or strategy (the “Relevant Language”). For these purposes the issuer of a security is deemed to have that tie if:
(i)
the issuer is organized under the laws of the country or a country within the geographic region suggested by the Relevant Language or maintains its principal place of business in that country or region; or
(ii)
the securities are traded principally in the country or region suggested by the Relevant Language; or
(iii)
the issuer, during its most recent fiscal year, derived at least 50% of its revenues or profits from goods produced or sold, investments made, or services performed in the country or region suggested by the Relevant Language or has at
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least 50% of its assets in that country or region.
In addition, the Funds intend to treat derivative securities (e.g., call options) by reference to the underlying security. Conversely, if the investment objective and/or strategy of a Fund limits the percentage of assets that may be invested in “foreign securities,” etc. or prohibits such investments altogether, a Fund intends to categorize securities as “foreign,” etc. only if the security possesses all of the attributes described above in clauses (i), (ii), and (iii).
Foreign securities also include a Fund’s investment in foreign securities through depositary receipts, in the form of American Depositary Receipts (“ADRs”), European Depositary Receipts (“EDRs”), Global Depositary Receipts (“GDRs”), or other similar securities. An ADR is a U.S. dollar-denominated security issued by a U.S. bank or trust company that represents, and may be converted into, a foreign security. An EDR or a GDR is generally similar but is issued by a non-U.S. bank. Depositary receipts are subject to the same risks as direct investment in foreign securities. Depositary receipts may not necessarily be denominated in the same currency as the underlying securities into which they may be converted, and changes in currency exchange rates may affect the value of an ADR investment in ways different from direct investments in foreign securities. Funds may invest in both sponsored and unsponsored depositary receipts. Unsponsored depositary receipts are organized independently and without the cooperation of the issuer of the underlying securities. As a result, available information concerning the issuers may not be as current for unsponsored depositary receipts and the prices of unsponsored depositary receipts may be more volatile than if such instruments were sponsored by the issuer. In addition, the underlying issuers of certain depositary receipts, particularly unsponsored or unregistered depositary receipts, are under no obligation to distribute shareholder communications to the holders of such receipts or to pass through to them any voting rights with respect to the deposited securities. A Fund may therefore receive less timely information or have less control than if it invested directly in the foreign issuer. An investment in an ADR is subject to the credit risk of the issuer of the ADR.
Investments in foreign securities involve special risks and considerations. Foreign companies are not generally subject to uniform accounting, auditing, and financial reporting standards, practices, and requirements comparable to those applicable to domestic companies, and such practices and standards may vary significantly from country to country. There may be less publicly available information about a foreign company than about a domestic company. The U.S. Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (“PCAOB”), which regulates auditors of U.S. public companies, is unable to inspect audit work papers in certain foreign countries. Investors in foreign countries often have limited rights and few practical remedies to pursue shareholder claims, including class actions or fraud claims, and the ability of the SEC, the U.S. Department of Justice, and other authorities to bring and enforce actions against foreign issuers or foreign persons is limited. Foreign markets have different clearance and settlement procedures. Delays in settlement could result in temporary periods when assets of a Fund are uninvested. The inability of a Fund to make intended security purchases due to settlement problems could cause it to miss certain investment opportunities. Foreign securities may also entail certain other risks, such as the possibility of one or more of the following: imposition of dividend or interest withholding or confiscatory taxes, higher brokerage costs, thinner trading markets, currency blockages or transfer restrictions, expropriation, nationalization, military coups, economic sanctions, or other adverse political or economic developments; less government supervision and regulation of securities exchanges, brokers and listed companies; and the difficulty of enforcing obligations in other countries, and are more susceptible to environmental problems. Purchases of foreign securities are usually made in foreign currencies and, as a result, a Fund may incur currency conversion costs and may be affected favorably or unfavorably by changes in the value of foreign currencies against the U.S. dollar. Further, it may be more difficult for a Fund’s agents to keep currently informed about corporate actions which may affect the prices of portfolio securities. Communications between the United States and foreign countries may be less reliable than within the United States, thus increasing the risk of delayed settlements of portfolio transactions or loss of certificates for portfolio securities. Certain markets may require payment for securities before delivery. In addition, there may be a possibility of nationalization or expropriation of assets, imposition of currency exchange controls, confiscatory taxation, political or financial instability, diplomatic developments that could adversely affect the values of the Fund’s investments in certain non-U.S. countries, and quotas or other limits on the ability of the Fund (or clients of the Fund’s investment adviser or subadviser) to invest or maintain investments in securities of issuers in certain countries.
A number of current significant political, demographic, and economic developments may affect investments in foreign securities and in securities of companies with operations overseas. The course of any one or more of these events and the effect on trade barriers, competition, and markets for consumer goods and services are uncertain. Similar considerations are of concern with respect to developing countries. For example, the possibility of revolution and the dependence on foreign economic assistance may be greater in these countries than in developed countries. Management seeks to mitigate the risks associated with these considerations through diversification and active professional management.
In addition to the general risks of investing in foreign securities, investments in emerging markets involve special risks. Securities of many issuers in emerging markets may have less stringent investor protection and disclosure standards, and
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may be less liquid and more volatile than securities of comparable domestic issuers. Shares of companies that only trade on an emerging market securities exchange are not likely to file reports with the SEC. The availability of material financial information about such companies and its reliability may be limited since such companies are generally not subject to the same regulatory, accounting, auditing, or auditor oversight requirements applicable to companies that file reports with the SEC. In addition, the PCAOB is unable to inspect audit work papers in certain emerging market countries. Emerging markets may have different clearance and settlement procedures, and in certain markets there have been times when settlements have been unable to keep pace with the volume of securities transactions, making it difficult to conduct such transactions. Delays in settlement could result in temporary periods when a portion of the assets of a Fund is uninvested and no return is earned thereon. The inability of a Fund to make intended security purchases due to settlement problems could cause a Fund to miss attractive investment opportunities. Inability to dispose of portfolio securities due to settlement problems could result in losses to a Fund due to subsequent declines in values of the portfolio securities, decrease in the level of liquidity in a Fund’s portfolio, or, if a Fund has entered into a contract to sell the security, possible liability to the purchaser. Certain markets may require payment for securities before delivery, and in such markets a Fund bears the risk that the securities will not be delivered and that the Fund’s payments will not be returned. In addition, securities markets of emerging market countries are subject to the risk that such markets may close, sometimes for extended periods of time, due to market, economic, political, regulatory, geopolitical, environmental, public health, or other conditions. Securities prices in emerging markets can be significantly more volatile than in the more developed nations of the world, reflecting the greater uncertainties of investing in less established markets and economies. In particular, countries with emerging markets may have relatively unstable governments, present the risk of nationalization of businesses, or may have restrictions on foreign ownership or prohibitions of repatriation of assets, and may have less protection of property rights than more developed countries. Investors in emerging markets may not have the ability to seek certain legal remedies in U.S. courts as private plaintiffs. As a practical matter, investors may have to rely on domestic legal remedies that are available in the emerging market and such remedies are often limited and difficult for international investors to pursue. Shareholder claims, including class action and securities law and fraud claims, generally are difficult or unavailable to pursue as a matter of law or practicality in many emerging market countries. In addition, the SEC, U.S. Department of Justice, and other U.S. authorities often have substantial difficulties in bringing and enforcing actions against non-U.S. companies and non-U.S. persons, including company officers and directors, in certain emerging markets due to jurisdictional limitations and various other factors. The economies of countries with emerging markets may be predominantly based on only a few industries, may be highly vulnerable to changes in local or global trade conditions, and may suffer from extreme and volatile debt burdens or inflation rates. Local securities markets may trade a small number of securities and may be unable to respond effectively to increases in trading volume, potentially making prompt liquidation of substantial holdings difficult or impossible at times. Securities of issuers located in countries with emerging markets may have limited marketability and may be subject to more abrupt or erratic price movements. In addition, many emerging market countries with less established health care systems have experienced outbreaks of pandemics or contagious diseases from time to time.
Certain emerging markets may require governmental approval for the repatriation of investment income, capital, or the proceeds of sales of securities by foreign investors. In addition, if a deterioration occurs in an emerging market’s balance of payments or for other reasons, a country could impose temporary restrictions on foreign capital remittances. A Fund could be adversely affected by delays in, or a refusal to grant, any required governmental approval for repatriation of capital, as well as by the application to that Fund of any restrictions on investments.
Russia, the Middle East, and many other emerging market countries are highly reliant on income from oil sales. Oil prices can have a major impact on these economies. Other commodities such as base and precious metals are also important to these economies. As global supply and demand for commodities fluctuates, these economies can be significantly impacted by the prices of such commodities.
Investment in certain foreign emerging market debt obligations may be restricted or controlled to varying degrees. These restrictions or controls may at times preclude investment in certain foreign emerging market debt obligations and increase the expenses of a Fund.
China Investment Risk.   Investments in securities of companies domiciled in the People’s Republic of China (“China” or the “PRC”) involve a high degree of risk and special considerations not typically associated with investing in the U.S. securities markets. Such heightened risks include, among others, an authoritarian government, popular unrest associated with demands for improved political, economic, and social conditions, the impact of regional conflict on the economy, and hostile relations with neighboring countries.
Military conflicts, either in response to internal social unrest or conflicts with other countries, could disrupt economic development. The Chinese economy is vulnerable to the long-running disagreements and religious and nationalist disputes
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with Tibet and the Xinjiang region. Since 1997, there have been tensions between the Chinese government and many people in Hong Kong who perceive China as tightening control over Hong Kong’s semi-autonomous liberal political, economic, legal, and social framework. Recent protests and unrest have increased tensions even further. Due to the interconnected nature of the Hong Kong and Chinese economies, this instability in Hong Kong may cause uncertainty in the Hong Kong and Chinese markets. China has a complex territorial dispute regarding the sovereignty of Taiwan and has made threats of invasion; Taiwan-based companies and individuals are significant investors in China. Military conflict between China and Taiwan may adversely affect securities of Chinese issuers. In addition, China has strained international relations with Japan, India, Russia, and other neighbors due to territorial disputes, historical animosities, and other defense concerns. Additionally, China is alleged to have participated in state-sponsored cyberattacks against foreign companies and foreign governments. Actual and threatened responses to such activity and strained international relations, including purchasing restrictions, sanctions, tariffs, or cyberattacks on the Chinese government or Chinese companies, may impact China’s economy and Chinese issuers of securities in which a Fund invests. China could be affected by military events on the Korean peninsula or internal instability within North Korea. These situations may cause uncertainty in the Chinese market and may adversely affect the performance of the Chinese economy.
The Chinese government has implemented significant economic reforms in order to liberalize trade policy, promote foreign investment in the economy, reduce government control of the economy, and develop market mechanisms. However, there can be no assurance that these reforms will continue or that they will be effective. Despite reforms and privatizations of companies in certain sectors, the Chinese government still exercises substantial influence over many aspects of the private sector and may own or control many companies. Chinese companies, such as those in the financial services or technology sectors, and potentially other sectors in the future, are subject to the risk that Chinese authorities can intervene in their operations and structure. The Chinese government continues to maintain a major role in economic policy making and investing in China involves risks of losses due to expropriation, nationalization, confiscation of assets and property, and the imposition of restrictions on foreign investments and on repatriation of capital invested.
The Chinese government may intervene in the Chinese financial markets, such as by the imposition of trading restrictions, a ban on “naked” short selling, or the suspension of short selling for certain stocks. This may affect market price and liquidity of these stocks, and may have an unpredictable impact on the investment activities of the Funds. Furthermore, such market interventions may have a negative impact on market sentiment which may in turn affect the performance of the securities markets and as a result the performance of the Funds.
In addition, there is less regulation and monitoring of the securities markets and the activities of investors, brokers, and other participants in China than in the United States. Accordingly, issuers of securities in China are not subject to the same degree of regulation as those in the United States with respect to such matters as insider trading rules, tender offer regulation, stockholder proxy requirements, and the requirements mandating timely and accurate disclosure of information. Stock markets in China are in the process of change and further development. This may lead to trading volatility, and difficulties in the settlement and recording of transactions and interpretation and application of the relevant regulations. Custodians may not be able to offer the level of service and safe-keeping in relation to the settlement and administration of securities in China that is customary in more developed markets. In particular, there is a risk that a Fund may not be recognized as the owner of securities that are held on behalf of the Fund by a sub-custodian.
The Chinese government has taken positions that prevent the PCAOB from inspecting the audit work and practices of accounting firms in mainland China and Hong Kong for compliance with U.S. law and professional standards. Audits performed by PCAOB-registered accounting firms in mainland China and Hong Kong may be less reliable than those performed by firms subject to PCAOB inspection. Accordingly, information about the Chinese securities in which the Funds invest may be less reliable or complete. Under amendments to the Sarbanes-Oxley Act enacted in December 2020, which requires that the PCAOB be permitted to inspect the accounting firm of a U.S.-listed Chinese issuer, Chinese companies with securities listed on U.S. exchanges may be delisted if the PCAOB is unable to inspect the accounting firm.
The Renminbi (“RMB”) is currently not a freely convertible currency and is subject to foreign exchange control policies and repatriation restrictions imposed by the Chinese government. The imposition of currency controls may negatively impact performance and liquidity of the Funds as capital may become trapped in the PRC. The Funds could be adversely affected by delays in, or a refusal to grant, any required governmental approval for repatriation of capital, as well as by the application to the Funds of any restrictions on investments. Investing in entities either in, or which have a substantial portion of their operations in, the PRC may require the Funds to adopt special procedures, seek local government approvals, or take other actions, each of which may involve additional costs and delays to the Funds.
While the Chinese economy has grown rapidly in recent years, there is no assurance that this growth rate will be maintained. China may experience substantial rates of inflation or economic recessions, causing a negative effect on its
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economy and securities market. China’s economy is heavily dependent on export growth. Reduction in spending on Chinese products and services, institution of tariffs or other trade barriers, or a downturn in any of the economies of China’s key trading partners may have an adverse impact on the securities of Chinese issuers. The tax laws and regulations in the PRC are subject to change, including the issuance of authoritative guidance or enforcement, possibly with retroactive effect. The interpretation, applicability, and enforcement of such laws by the PRC tax authorities are not as consistent and transparent as those of more developed nations, and may vary over time and from region to region. The application and enforcement of the PRC tax rules could have a significant adverse effect on a Fund and its investors, particularly in relation to capital gains withholding tax imposed upon non-residents. In addition, the accounting, auditing, and financial reporting standards and practices applicable to Chinese companies may be less rigorous, and may result in significant differences between financial statements prepared in accordance with PRC accounting standards and practices and those prepared in accordance with international accounting standards.
From time to time, China has experienced outbreaks of infectious illnesses and the country may be subject to other public health threats, infectious illnesses, diseases, or similar issues in the future. Any spread of an infectious illness, public health threat, or similar issue could reduce consumer demand or economic output, result in market closures, travel restrictions or quarantines, and generally have a significant impact on the Chinese economy, which in turn could adversely affect a Fund’s investments.
Investments in Hong Kong.   In 1997, the United Kingdom handed over control of Hong Kong to China. Since that time, Hong Kong has been governed by a quasi-constitution known as the Basic Law, while defense and foreign affairs are the responsibility of the central government in Beijing. The chief executive of Hong Kong is appointed by the Chinese government. However, Hong Kong is able to participate in international organizations and agreements and it continues to function as an international financial center, with no exchange controls, free convertibility of the Hong Kong dollar, and free inward and outward movement of capital. By treaty, China has committed to preserve Hong Kong’s high degree of autonomy in certain matters until 2047. However, as demonstrated by Hong Kong protests in recent years over political, economic, and legal freedoms, and the Chinese government’s response to them, there continues to exist political uncertainty within Hong Kong. For example, in June 2020, China adopted a new security law that severely limits freedom of speech in Hong Kong and expands police powers to seize electronic devices and intercept communications of suspects. Hong Kong has experienced strong economic growth in recent years due, in part, to its close ties with China and a strong service sector, but the decline in growth rates in China could limit Hong Kong’s future growth. In addition, if China exerts its authority so as to alter the economic, political, or legal structures, or further alters the existing social policy of Hong Kong, investor and business confidence in Hong Kong could be negatively affected, which in turn could negatively affect markets and business performance. These and other factors could have a negative impact on a Fund’s performance.
Investments in Taiwan.   For decades, a state of hostility has existed between Taiwan and China. Although tensions have lowered, exemplified by improved relations in recent years, the relationship with China remains a divisive political issue within Taiwan. As an export-oriented economy, Taiwan depends on a free-trade regime and remains vulnerable to downturns in the world economy. Taiwanese companies continue to compete mostly on price, producing generic products or branded merchandise on behalf of multinational companies. Accordingly, these businesses can be particularly vulnerable to currency volatility and increasing competition from neighboring lower-cost countries. Moreover, many Taiwanese companies are heavily invested in mainland China and other countries throughout Southeast Asia, making them susceptible to political events and economic crises in the region. Significantly, Taiwan and China have entered into agreements covering banking, securities, and insurance. Closer economic links with mainland China may bring greater opportunities for the Taiwanese economy, but such arrangements also pose new challenges. For example, foreign direct investment in China has resulted in Chinese import substitution away from Taiwan’s exports and a constriction of potential job creation in Taiwan. Likewise, the Taiwanese economy has experienced slow economic growth as demand for Taiwan’s exports has weakened due, in part, to declines in growth rates in China. Taiwan has sought to diversify its export markets and reduce its dependence on the Chinese market by increasing exports to the United States, Japan, Europe, and other Asian countries by, among other things, entering into free-trade agreements. The Taiwanese economy’s long-term challenges include a rapidly aging population, low birth rate, and the lingering effects of Taiwan’s diplomatic isolation. These and other factors could have a negative impact on a Fund’s performance.
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Risk of Investing in China through Stock Connect and Bond Connect.   China A-shares are equity securities of companies domiciled in China that trade on Chinese stock exchanges such as the Shanghai Stock Exchange (“SSE”) and the Shenzhen Stock Exchange (“SZSE”) (“A-shares”) and are denominated and traded in RMB whereas China B-shares are traded on Chinese stock exchanges and are denominated in RMB but traded in either U.S. dollars or Hong Kong dollars (“B-shares”). Foreign investment in A-shares on the SSE and SZSE has historically not been permitted, other than through a license granted under regulations in the PRC known as the Qualified Foreign Institutional Investor (“QFII”) and Renminbi Qualified Foreign Institutional Investor (“Renminbi QFII”) systems. Foreign investors may invest in B-shares directly. A Fund’s exposure to B-shares may be obtained through indirect exposure through investment in participation notes.
Investment in eligible A-shares listed and traded on the SSE or SZSE is also permitted through the Shanghai-Hong Kong Stock Connect program or the Shenzhen-Hong Kong Stock Connect program, as applicable (each, a “Stock Connect” and collectively, “Stock Connects”). Each Stock Connect is a securities trading and clearing links program established by The Stock Exchange of Hong Kong Limited (“SEHK”), the Hong Kong Securities Clearing Company Limited (“HKSCC”), the SSE or SZSE, as applicable, and China Securities Depository and Clearing Corporation Limited (“CSDCC”) that aims to provide mutual stock market access between the PRC and Hong Kong by permitting investors to trade and settle shares on each market through their local securities brokers. Under Stock Connects, a Fund’s trading of eligible A-shares listed on the SSE or SZSE, as applicable, would be effectuated through its Hong Kong broker and a securities trading service company established by SEHK.
Although no individual investment quotas or licensing requirements apply to investors in Stock Connects, trading through a Stock Connect’s Northbound Trading Link is subject to daily investment quota limitations which require that buy orders for A-shares be rejected once the daily quota is exceeded (although a Fund will be permitted to sell A-shares regardless of the quota). These limitations may restrict a Fund from investing in A-shares on a timely basis, which could affect the Fund’s ability to effectively pursue its investment strategy. Investment quotas are also subject to change. Investment in eligible A-shares through a Stock Connect is subject to trading, clearance and settlement procedures that could pose risks to a Fund. A-shares purchased through Stock Connects generally may not be sold or otherwise transferred other than through Stock Connects in accordance with applicable rules. For example, the PRC regulations require that in order for an investor to sell any A-share on a certain trading day, there must be sufficient A-shares in the investor’s account before the market opens on that day. If there are insufficient A-shares in the investor’s account, the sell order will be rejected by the SSE or SZSE, as applicable. SEHK carries out pre-trade checking on sell orders of certain stocks listed on the SSE market (“SSE Securities”) or SZSE market (“SZSE Securities”) of its participants (i.e., stock brokers) to ensure that this requirement is satisfied. While shares must be designated as eligible to be traded under a Stock Connect, those shares may also lose such designation, and if this occurs, such shares may be sold but cannot be purchased through a Stock Connect. In addition, Stock Connects will only operate on days when both the Chinese and Hong Kong markets are open for trading, and banking services are available in both markets on the corresponding settlement days. Therefore, an investment in A-shares through a Stock Connect may subject a Fund to a risk of price fluctuations on days when the Chinese market is open, but a Stock Connect is not trading. Moreover, day (turnaround) trading is not permitted on the A-shares market. If an investor buys A-shares on day “T,” the investor will only be able to sell the A-shares on or after day T+1. Further, since all trades of eligible A-shares must be settled in RMB, investors must have timely access to a reliable supply of offshore RMB, which cannot be guaranteed. There is also no assurance that RMB will not be subject to devaluation. Any devaluation of RMB could adversely affect a Fund’s investments. If a Fund holds a class of shares denominated in a local currency other than RMB, the Fund will be exposed to currency exchange risk if the Fund converts the local currency into RMB for investments in A-shares. A Fund may also incur conversion costs.
A-shares held through the nominee structure under a Stock Connect will be held through HKSCC as nominee on behalf of investors. The precise nature and rights of a Fund as the beneficial owner of the SSE Securities or SZSE Securities through HKSCC as nominee is not well defined under the PRC laws. There is a lack of a clear definition of, and distinction between, legal ownership and beneficial ownership under the PRC laws and there have been few cases involving a nominee account structure in the PRC courts. The exact nature and methods of enforcement of the rights and interests of a Fund under the PRC laws is also uncertain. In the unlikely event that HKSCC becomes subject to winding up proceedings in Hong Kong, there is a risk that the SSE Securities or SZSE Securities may not be regarded as held for the beneficial ownership of a Fund or as part of the general assets of HKSCC available for general distribution to its creditors. Notwithstanding the fact that HKSCC does not claim proprietary interests in the SSE Securities or SZSE Securities held in its omnibus stock account in the CSDCC, the CSDCC as the share registrar for SSE- or SZSE-listed companies will still treat HKSCC as one of the shareholders when it handles corporate actions in respect of such SSE Securities or SZSE Securities. HKSCC monitors the corporate actions affecting SSE Securities and SZSE Securities and keeps participants of Central Clearing and Settlement System (“CCASS”) informed of all such corporate actions that require CCASS
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participants to take steps in order to participate in them. Investors may only exercise their voting rights by providing their voting instructions to HKSCC through participants of CCASS. All voting instructions from CCASS participants will be consolidated by HKSCC, who will then submit a combined single voting instruction to the relevant SSE- or SZSE-listed company.
A Fund’s investments through a Stock Connect’s Northbound Trading Link are not covered by Hong Kong’s Investor Compensation Fund. Hong Kong’s Investor Compensation Fund is established to pay compensation to investors of any nationality who suffer pecuniary losses as a result of default of a licensed intermediary or authorized financial institution in relation to exchange-traded products in Hong Kong. In addition, since a Fund carries out Northbound Trading through securities brokers in Hong Kong but not PRC brokers, it is not protected by the China Securities Investor Protection Fund in the PRC.
Market participants are able to participate in Stock Connects subject to meeting certain information technology capability, risk management and other requirements as may be specified by the relevant exchange and/or clearinghouse. Further, the “connectivity” in Stock Connects requires routing of orders across the border of Hong Kong and the PRC. This requires the development of new information technology systems on the part of SEHK and exchange participants. There is no assurance that the systems of SEHK and market participants will function properly or will continue to be adapted to changes and developments in both markets. In the event that the relevant systems fail to function properly, trading in A-shares through Stock Connects could be disrupted.
The Shanghai-Hong Kong Stock Connect program launched in November 2014 and the Shenzhen-Hong Kong Stock Connect program launched in December 2016 and are both in their initial stages. The current regulations are relatively untested and there is no certainty as to how they will be applied or interpreted going forward. In addition, the current regulations are subject to change and there can be no assurance that a Stock Connect will not be discontinued. New regulations may be issued from time to time by the regulators and stock exchanges in China and Hong Kong in connection with operations, legal enforcement and cross-border trades under Stock Connects. A Fund may be adversely affected as a result of such changes. Furthermore, the securities regimes and legal systems of China and Hong Kong differ significantly and issues may arise from the differences on an ongoing basis. In the event that the relevant systems fail to function properly, trading in both markets through Stock Connects could be disrupted and a Fund’s ability to achieve its investment objective may be adversely affected. In addition, a Fund’s investments in A-shares through Stock Connects are generally subject to Chinese securities regulations and listing rules, among other restrictions. Further, different fees, costs and taxes are imposed on foreign investors acquiring A-shares through Stock Connects, and these fees, costs and taxes may be higher than comparable fees, costs and taxes imposed on owners of other securities providing similar investment exposure.
Some Funds may invest in onshore China bonds via a QFII license awarded to the Fund’s subadviser or through a China Interbank Bond Market (“CIBM”) registration through the Bond Connect program. CIBM is an OTC market outside the two main stock exchanges in the PRC, SSE, and SZSE, and was established in 1997. On CIBM, institutional investors (including domestic institutional investors but also QFIIs, Renminbi QFIIs as well as other offshore institutional investors, subject to authorization) trade certain debt instruments on a one-to-one quote-driven basis. CIBM accounts for a vast majority of outstanding bond values of total trading volume in the PRC. The main debt instruments traded on CIBM include government bonds, financial bonds, corporate bonds, bond repo, bond lending, and People’s Bank of China bills.
Investors should be aware that trading on CIBM exposes the applicable Fund to increased risks. CIBM is still in its development stage, and the market capitalization and trading volume may be lower than those of more developed markets. Market volatility and potential lack of liquidity due to low trading volume of certain debt securities may result in the prices of debt securities traded on such market to fluctuate significantly. Funds investing in such a market therefore may incur significant trading, settlement, and realization costs and may face counterparty default, liquidity, and volatility risks, resulting in significant losses for the Funds and their investors. Further, since a large portion of CIBM consists of Chinese state-owned entities, the policy priorities of the Chinese government, the strategic importance of the industry, and the strength of a company’s ties to the local, provincial, or central government may and will affect the pricing of such securities.
The Bond Connect program is a relatively new program and may be subject to further interpretation and guidance. There can be no assurance as to the program’s continued existence or whether future developments regarding the program may restrict or adversely affect a Fund’s investments or returns. In addition, the application and interpretation of the laws and regulations of Hong Kong and China, and the rules, policies, or guidelines published or applied by relevant regulators and exchanges in respect of the Bond Connect program are uncertain, and they may have a detrimental effect on a Fund’s investments and returns.
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A-Share Market Suspension Risk.   A-shares may only be bought from, or sold to, a Fund at times when the relevant A-shares may be sold or purchased on the relevant Chinese stock exchange. The A-shares market has a higher propensity for trading suspensions than many other global equity markets. Trading suspensions in certain stocks could lead to greater market execution risk and costs for a Fund. The SSE and SZSE currently apply a daily price limit, generally set at 10%, of the amount of fluctuation permitted in the prices of A-shares during a single trading day. The daily price limit refers to price movements only and does not restrict trading within the relevant limit. There can be no assurance that a liquid market on an exchange will exist for any particular A-share or for any particular time.
Risks of Investing in China through Variable Interest Entities.    Investments in Chinese companies may be made through a special structure known as a variable interest entity (“VIE”) that is designed to provide foreign investors, such as a Fund, with exposure to Chinese companies that operate in certain sectors in which China restricts or prohibits foreign investments. Investments in VIEs may pose additional risks because the investment is made through an intermediary shell company that has entered into service and other contracts with the underlying Chinese operating company in order to provide investors with exposure to the operating company, and therefore does not represent equity ownership in the operating company. The value of the shell company is derived from its ability to consolidate the VIE into its financials pursuant to contractual arrangements that allow the shell company to exert a degree of control over, and obtain economic benefits arising from, the VIE without formal legal ownership. The contractual arrangements between the shell company and the operating company may not be as effective in providing operational control as direct equity ownership, and the rights of a foreign investor (such as a Fund) may be limited, including by actions of the Chinese government that could determine that the underlying contractual arrangements are invalid. While VIEs are a longstanding industry practice and Chinese regulators have permitted such arrangements to proliferate, the structure has not been formally recognized under Chinese law and it is uncertain whether Chinese regulators will withdraw their implicit acceptance of the structure. It is also uncertain whether the contractual arrangements, which may be subject to conflicts of interest between the legal owners of the VIE and foreign investors, would be enforced by Chinese courts or arbitration bodies. Prohibitions of these structures by the Chinese government, or the inability to enforce such contracts, from which the shell company derives its value, would likely cause the VIE-structured holding(s) to suffer significant, detrimental, and possibly permanent loss, and in turn, adversely affect a Fund’s returns and net asset value.
Investments in the Middle East.   The economies of countries in the Middle East are all considered emerging markets economies and tend to be highly reliant on the exportation of commodities. Many Middle Eastern economies have little or no democratic tradition and are led by family structures. Opposition parties are often banned, leading to dissidence and militancy. Such developments, if they were to occur, could result in significant disruptions in securities markets. Certain Middle Eastern countries have strained relations with other Middle Eastern countries due to territorial disputes, historical animosities, international alliances, defense concerns, or other reasons, which may adversely affect the economies of these Middle Eastern countries. Certain Middle Eastern countries may be heavily dependent upon international trade, and consequently have been and may continue to be negatively affected by trade barriers, exchange controls, managed adjustments in relative currency values, and other protectionist measures imposed by the countries with which they trade. In addition, certain issuers in Middle Eastern countries in which a Fund invests may operate in, or have dealings with, countries subject to sanctions and/or embargoes imposed by the U.S. Government as state sponsors of terrorism. As a result, an issuer may sustain damage to its reputation if it is identified as an issuer operating in, or having dealings with, such countries.
The manner in which foreign investors may invest in companies in certain Middle Eastern countries, as well as limitations on those investments, may have an adverse impact on the operations of a Fund. For example, in certain of these countries, a Fund may be required to invest initially through a local broker or other entity and then have the shares that were purchased re-registered in the name of the Fund. Re-registration in some instances may not be possible on a timely basis. This may result in a delay during which the Fund may be denied certain of its rights as an investor, including rights to dividends or to be made aware of certain corporate actions. There also may be instances where the Fund places a purchase order but is subsequently informed, at the time of re-registration, that the permissible allocation of the investment to foreign investors has been filled.
Investments in Saudi Arabia.   A Fund generally expects to conduct transactions in a manner in which it would not be limited by regulations to a single broker. However, there may be a limited number of brokers who can provide services to the Fund in Saudi Arabia, which may have an adverse impact on the prices, quantity, or timing of Fund transactions.
A Fund’s ability to invest in Saudi Arabian equity securities depends on the ability of the investment adviser or subadviser, as a Foreign Portfolio Manager, and the Fund, as a Qualified Foreign Investor (“QFI”), to obtain and maintain such authorizations from the Saudi Arabia Capital Market Authority (“CMA”). Even though a Fund may obtain a QFI
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approval, the Fund does not have an exclusive investment quota and is subject to foreign investment limitations and other regulations imposed by the CMA on QFIs, as well as local market participants. Any change in the QFI system generally, including the possibility of the investment adviser or subadviser or the Fund losing its respective Foreign Portfolio Manager or QFI status with the CMA, may adversely affect the Fund.
A Fund is required to use a trading account to buy and sell securities in Saudi Arabia. This trading account can be held directly with a broker or held with a custodian, which is known as the Independent Custody Model (“ICM”). The ICM approach is generally regarded as preferable because securities are under the safekeeping and control of the custodian and would be recoverable in the event of the bankruptcy of the custodian. When a Fund utilizes the ICM approach, it relies on a broker standing instruction letter to authorize the Fund’s sub-custodian to move securities to a trading account for settlement, based on the details supplied by the broker. However, an authorized broker could potentially either fraudulently or erroneously sell a Fund’s securities, although opportunities for a local broker to conduct fraudulent transactions are limited due to short trading hours (trading hours in Saudi Arabia are generally between 10 a.m. to 3 p.m.). In addition, the risk of fraudulent or erroneous transactions is further mitigated by a manual pre-matching process conducted by the custodian, which validates the Fund’s settlement instructions with the local broker contract note and the transaction report from the depositary. Similar risks also apply to using a direct broker trading account. When a Fund utilizes a direct broker trading account, the account is set up in the Fund’s name, and the assets are likely to be treated as ring-fenced and separated from any other accounts at the broker. However, if the broker defaults, there may be a delay in recovering the Fund’s assets that are held in the broker account, and legal proceedings may need to be initiated in order to do so.
Health Care Companies
A Fund may invest in health care companies. The activities of health care companies may be funded or subsidized by federal and state governments. If government funding and subsidies are reduced or discontinued, the profitability of these companies could be adversely affected. Health care companies may also be affected by government policies on health care reimbursements, regulatory approval for new drugs and medical instruments, and similar matters. They are also subject to legislative risk, i.e., the risk of a reform of the health care system through legislation.
Illiquid Securities
Each Fund may invest not more than 15% of its net assets in “illiquid securities,” which are investments that the Fund reasonably expects cannot be sold or disposed of in current market conditions in seven calendar days or less without the sale or disposition significantly changing the market value of the investment. A Fund may not be able to dispose of such securities in a timely fashion and for a fair price, which could result in losses to a Fund. In addition, illiquid securities are generally more difficult to value. Illiquid securities may include repurchase agreements with maturities greater than seven days, futures contracts and options thereon for which a liquid secondary market does not exist, time deposits maturing in more than seven calendar days, and securities of new and early stage companies whose securities are not publicly traded. The Funds may also purchase securities eligible for resale to qualified institutional buyers pursuant to Rule 144A under the 1933 Act. Such securities may be determined to be liquid based on an analysis taking into account, among other things, trading activity for such securities and the availability of reliable pricing information, among other factors. If there is a lack of trading interest in particular Rule 144A securities, a Fund’s holdings of those securities may be illiquid, resulting in undesirable delays in selling these securities at prices representing fair value.
Index-Related Securities (Equity Equivalents)
The Funds may invest in certain types of securities that enable investors to purchase or sell shares in a portfolio of securities that seeks to track the performance of an underlying index or a portion of an index. Such Equity Equivalents include, among others, DIAMONDS (interests in a portfolio of securities that seeks to track the performance of the Dow Jones Industrial Average), SPDRs or Standard & Poor’s Depositary Receipts (interests in a portfolio of securities that seeks to track the performance of the S&P 500® Index), and the Nasdaq-100 Trust (interests in a portfolio of securities of the largest and most actively traded non-financial companies listed on the Nasdaq Stock Market). Such securities are similar to index mutual funds, but they are traded on various stock exchanges or secondary markets. The value of these securities is dependent upon the performance of the underlying index on which they are based. Thus, these securities are subject to the same risks as their underlying indexes as well as the securities that make up those indexes. For example, if the securities comprising an index that an index-related security seeks to track perform poorly, the index-related security will lose value.
Equity Equivalents may be used for several purposes, including to simulate full investment in the underlying index while retaining a cash balance for fund management purposes, to facilitate trading, to reduce transaction costs, or to seek higher investment returns where an Equity Equivalent is priced more attractively than securities in the underlying index.
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Because the expense associated with an investment in Equity Equivalents may be substantially lower than the expense of small investments directly in the securities comprising the indexes they seek to track, investments in Equity Equivalents may provide a cost-effective means of diversifying the fund’s assets across a broad range of equity securities.
The prices of Equity Equivalents are derived and based upon the securities held by the particular investment company. Accordingly, the level of risk involved in the purchase or sale of an Equity Equivalent is similar to the risk involved in the purchase or sale of traditional common stock, with the exception that the pricing mechanism for such instruments is based on a basket of stocks. The market prices of Equity Equivalents are expected to fluctuate in accordance with both changes in the NAVs of their underlying indexes and the supply and demand for the instruments on the exchanges on which they are traded. Substantial market or other disruptions affecting an Equity Equivalent could adversely affect the liquidity and value of the shares of the fund investing in such instruments.
Inflation-Linked Securities
Inflation-linked securities are typically fixed income securities whose principal values are periodically adjusted according to a measure of inflation. If the index measuring inflation falls, the principal value of an inflation-linked security will be adjusted downward, and consequently the interest payable on the security (calculated with respect to a smaller principal amount) will be reduced. Repayment of the original principal of the security upon maturity (as adjusted for inflation) is guaranteed in the case of U.S. Treasury inflation-linked securities. For securities that do not provide a similar guarantee, the adjusted principal value of the security repaid at maturity may be less than the original principal.
Alternatively, the interest rates payable on certain inflation-linked securities may be adjusted according to a measure of inflation. As a result, the principal values of such securities do not adjust according to the rate of inflation, although the interest payable on such securities may decline during times of falling inflation.
The values of inflation-linked securities are expected to change in response to changes in real interest rates. Real interest rates are tied to the relationship between nominal interest rates and the rate of inflation. If nominal interest rates increase at a faster rate than inflation, real interest rates may rise, leading to a decrease in value of inflation-linked securities. Inflation-linked securities may cause a potential cash flow mismatch to investors, because an increase in the principal amount of an inflation-linked security will be treated as interest income currently subject to tax at ordinary income rates even though investors will not receive repayment of principal until maturity. If a Fund invests in such securities, it will be required to distribute such interest income in order to qualify for treatment as a regulated investment company and eliminate the Fund-level tax, without a corresponding receipt of cash, and therefore may be required to dispose of portfolio securities at a time when it may not be advantageous to do so in order to make such distributions.
While the values of inflation-linked securities are expected to be largely protected from long-term inflationary trends, short-term increases in inflation may lead to declines in value. In addition, if interest rates rise due to reasons other than inflation (for example, due to changes in currency exchange rates), investors in inflation-linked securities may not be protected to the extent that the increase is not reflected in the securities’ inflation measure.
The periodic adjustment of U.S. Treasury inflation-linked securities is tied to the Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (“CPI-U”), which is calculated monthly by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. The CPI-U is a measurement of changes in the cost of living, made up of components such as housing, food, transportation, and energy. Inflation-linked securities issued by a foreign government or a private issuer are generally adjusted to reflect an inflation measure specified by the issuer. There can be no assurance that the CPI-U or any other inflation measure will accurately measure the real rate of inflation in the prices of goods and services.
IPOs and Other Limited Opportunities
A Fund may purchase securities of companies that are offered pursuant to an initial public offering (“IPO”) or other similar limited opportunities. Although companies can be any age or size at the time of their IPO, they are often smaller and have a limited operating history, which involves a greater potential for the value of their securities to be impaired following the IPO. The price of a company’s securities may be highly unstable at the time of its IPO and for a period thereafter due to factors such as market psychology prevailing at the time of the IPO, the absence of a prior public market, the small number of shares available, and limited availability of investor information. Securities purchased in IPOs have a tendency to fluctuate in value significantly shortly after the IPO relative to the price at which they were purchased. These fluctuations could impact the NAV and return earned on a Fund’s shares. Investors in IPOs can be adversely affected by substantial dilution in the value of their shares, by sales of additional shares, and by concentration of control in existing management and principal shareholders. In addition, all of the factors that affect the performance of an economy or equity markets may have a greater impact on the shares of IPO companies. IPO securities tend to involve greater risk due, in part, to public perception and the lack of publicly available information and trading history.
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Master Limited Partnerships
A Fund may invest in master limited partnerships (“MLPs”), which are limited partnerships in which ownership units are publicly traded. MLPs often own or own interests in properties or businesses that are related to oil and gas industries, including pipelines, although MLPs may invest in other types of investments, including credit-related investments. Generally, an MLP is operated under the supervision of one or more managing general partners. Limited partners (like a Fund when it invests in an MLP) are not involved in the day-to-day management of the partnership. A Fund also may invest in companies who serve (or whose affiliates serve) as MLP general partners.
Investments in MLPs are generally subject to many of the risks that apply to partnerships. For example, holders of the units of MLPs may have limited control and limited voting rights on matters affecting the partnership. There may be fewer corporate protections afforded investors in an MLP than investors in a corporation. Conflicts of interest may exist among unit holders, subordinated unit holders, and the general partner of an MLP, including those arising from incentive distribution payments. MLPs that concentrate in a particular industry or region are subject to risks associated with such industry or region. MLPs holding credit-related investments are subject to interest rate risk and the risk of default on payment obligations by debt issuers. Investments held by MLPs may be illiquid. MLP units may trade infrequently and in limited volume, and they may be subject to more abrupt or erratic price movements than securities of larger or more broadly based companies.
A Fund may also hold investments in limited liability companies that have many of the same characteristics and are subject to many of the same risks as master limited partnerships.
The manner and extent of a Fund’s investments in MLPs and limited liability companies may be limited by its intention to qualify as a regulated investment company under the Code, and any such investments by the Fund may adversely affect the ability of the Fund to qualify as such.
Mortgage- and Asset-Backed Securities
Mortgage-backed securities, including collateralized mortgage obligations (“CMOs”) and certain stripped mortgage-backed securities, represent a participation in, or are secured by, mortgage loans. Asset-backed securities are structured like mortgage-backed securities, but instead of mortgage loans or interests in mortgage loans, the underlying assets may include such items as motor vehicle installment sales or installment loan contracts, leases of various types of real and personal property, receivables from credit card agreements, home equity loans, and student loans. Asset-backed securities may also include collateralized debt obligations as described below.
A Fund may invest in mortgage-backed securities issued or guaranteed by (i) U.S. Government agencies or instrumentalities such as the Government National Mortgage Association (“GNMA”) (also known as Ginnie Mae), the Federal National Mortgage Association (“FNMA”) (also known as Fannie Mae), and the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (“FHLMC”) (also known as Freddie Mac) or (ii) other issuers, including private companies. Under the Federal Housing Finance Agency’s “Single Security Initiative,” Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac have entered into a joint initiative to develop a common securitization platform for the issuance of Uniform Mortgage-Backed Securities (“UMBS”), which would generally align the characteristics of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac mortgage-backed securities. In June 2019, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac started to issue UMBS in place of their current offerings of TBA-eligible mortgage-backed securities. The effect of the issuance of UMBS on the market for mortgage-backed securities is uncertain. Privately issued mortgage-backed securities may include securities backed by commercial mortgages, which are mortgages on commercial, rather than residential, real estate. Privately issued mortgage-backed securities are not traded on an exchange and there may be a limited market for the securities, especially when there is a perceived weakness in the mortgage and real estate market sectors. Without an active trading market, mortgage-backed securities held in a Fund’s portfolio may be particularly difficult to value because of the complexities involved in assessing the value of the underlying mortgage loans. There is no assurance that the U.S. Government would provide financial support to its agencies and instrumentalities if not required to do so. In addition, certain governmental entities have been subject to regulatory scrutiny regarding their accounting policies and practices and other concerns that may result in legislation, changes in regulatory oversight and/or other consequences that could adversely affect the credit quality, availability, or investment character of securities issued by these entities.
Mortgage-backed securities have yield and maturity characteristics corresponding to the underlying assets. Unlike traditional debt securities, which may pay a fixed rate of interest until maturity, when the entire principal amount comes due, payments on certain mortgage-backed securities include both interest and a partial repayment of principal. Besides the scheduled repayment of principal, repayments of principal may result from the voluntary prepayment, refinancing, or foreclosure of the underlying mortgage loans. If property owners make unscheduled prepayments of their mortgage loans, these prepayments will result in early payment of the applicable mortgage-related securities. In that event a Fund may be
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unable to invest the proceeds from the early payment of the mortgage-related securities in an investment that provides as high a yield as the mortgage-related securities. Consequently, early payment associated with mortgage-related securities may cause these securities to experience significantly greater price and yield volatility than that experienced by traditional fixed income securities. The occurrence of mortgage prepayments is affected by factors including the level of interest rates, general economic conditions, the location and age of the mortgages, and other social and demographic conditions. During periods of falling interest rates, the rate of mortgage prepayments tends to increase, thereby tending to decrease the life of mortgage-related securities. During periods of rising interest rates, the rate of mortgage prepayments usually decreases, thereby tending to increase the life of mortgage-related securities. If the life of a mortgage-related security is inaccurately predicted, a Fund may not be able to realize the rate of return the investment adviser or subadviser expected.
Mortgage-backed and asset-backed securities are less effective than other types of securities as a means of “locking in” attractive long-term interest rates. One reason is the need to reinvest prepayments of principal; another is the possibility of significant unscheduled prepayments resulting from declines in interest rates. These prepayments would have to be reinvested at lower rates. As a result, these securities may have less potential for capital appreciation during periods of declining interest rates than other securities of comparable maturities, although they may have a similar or greater risk of decline in market value during periods of rising interest rates. Prepayments may also significantly shorten the effective maturities of these securities, especially during periods of declining interest rates. Conversely, during periods of rising interest rates, a reduction in prepayments may increase the effective maturities of these securities, subjecting them to a greater risk of decline in market value in response to rising interest rates than traditional debt securities, and, therefore, potentially increasing the volatility of the Funds. The terms of certain asset-backed securities may require early prepayment in response to certain credit events potentially affecting the values of the asset-backed securities.
At times, some mortgage-backed and asset-backed securities will have higher than market interest rates and therefore will be purchased at a premium above their par value. Prepayments may cause losses on securities purchased at a premium. Ongoing developments in the residential and commercial mortgage markets may have additional consequences for the market for mortgage-backed securities. Asset-backed securities also involve the risk that borrowers may default on the obligations backing them and that the values of and interest earned on such investments will decline as a result. Loans made to lower quality borrowers, including those of sub-prime quality, involve a higher risk of default. Therefore, the values of asset-backed securities backed by lower quality assets, such as lower quality loans, including those of sub-prime quality, may suffer significantly greater declines in value due to defaults, payment delays, or a perceived increased risk of default, especially during periods when economic conditions worsen. During periods of deteriorating economic conditions, such as recessions or periods of rising unemployment, delinquencies and losses generally increase, sometimes dramatically, with respect to securitizations involving loans, sales contracts, receivables, and other obligations underlying asset-backed securities. The effects of the COVID-19 virus and governmental responses to the effects of the virus, as well as the effects of and responses to other pandemics and epidemics, may result in increased delinquencies and losses and have other, potentially unanticipated, adverse effects on such investments and the markets for those investments. There are fewer investors in mortgage- and asset-backed securities markets and those investors are more homogenous than in markets for other kinds of securities. If a number of market participants are impacted by negative economic conditions, forced selling of mortgage- or asset-backed securities unrelated to fundamental analysis could depress market prices and liquidity significantly and for a longer period of time than in markets with greater liquidity.
CMOs may be issued by a U.S. Government agency or instrumentality or by a private issuer. Although payment of the principal of, and interest on, the underlying collateral securing privately issued CMOs may be guaranteed by the U.S. Government or its agencies or instrumentalities, these CMOs represent obligations solely of the private issuer and are not insured or guaranteed by the U.S. Government, its agencies or instrumentalities, or any other person or entity.
CMOs typically issue multiple classes of securities, having different maturities, interest rates, and payment schedules, and with the principal and interest on the underlying mortgages allocated among the several classes in various ways. Payment of interest or principal on some classes or series of CMOs may be subordinated to payments on other classes or series and may be subject to contingencies; or some classes or series may bear some or all of the risk of default on the underlying mortgages. CMOs of different classes or series are generally retired in sequence as the underlying mortgage loans in the mortgage pool are repaid. If enough mortgages are repaid ahead of schedule, the classes or series of a CMO with the earliest maturities generally will be retired prior to their maturities. Thus, the early retirement of particular classes or series of a CMO would have the same effect as the prepayment of mortgages underlying other mortgage-backed securities. Conversely, slower than anticipated prepayments can extend the effective maturities of CMOs, subjecting them to a greater risk of decline in market value in response to rising interest rates than traditional debt securities, and, therefore, potentially increasing their volatility. Certain classes or series of CMOs may experience high levels of volatility in response to changes in interest rates and other factors.
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Stripped mortgage-backed securities are usually structured with two classes that receive payments of interest or principal on a pool of mortgage loans. Stripped mortgage-backed securities may experience very high levels of volatility in response to changes in interest rates. The yield to maturity on an interest only or “IO” class of stripped mortgage-backed securities is extremely sensitive not only to changes in prevailing interest rates but also to the rate of principal payments (including prepayments) on the underlying assets. A rapid rate of principal prepayments will typically result in a substantial decline in the value of IOs and may have a significant adverse effect on a Fund’s yield to maturity to the extent it invests in IOs. If the assets underlying the IO experience greater than anticipated prepayments of principal, the Fund may fail to recoup fully, or at all, its initial investment in these securities. Conversely, principal only securities or “POs” tend to increase in value if prepayments are greater than anticipated and decline if prepayments are slower than anticipated.
The secondary market for stripped mortgage-backed securities may be more volatile and less liquid than that for other mortgage-backed securities, potentially limiting a Fund’s ability to buy or sell those securities at any particular time.
Subprime mortgage loans, which typically are made to less creditworthy borrowers, have a higher risk of default than conventional mortgage loans. Therefore, mortgage-backed securities backed by subprime mortgage loans may suffer significantly greater declines in value due to defaults, and may experience high levels of volatility.
A Fund may invest in collateralized debt obligations (“CDOs”), including collateralized bond obligations (“CBOs”), collateralized loan obligations (“CLOs”), and other similarly structured securities. CBOs, CLOs, and other CDOs are types of asset-backed securities. A CBO is typically an obligation of a trust backed (or collateralized) by a pool of securities, often including high risk, below investment grade debt securities. The collateral may include many different types of debt securities such as high yield debt, residential privately issued mortgage-related securities, commercial privately issued mortgage-related securities, trust preferred securities, and emerging market debt. A CLO is typically an obligation of a trust backed (or collateralized) by a pool of loans, which may include, among others, domestic and foreign senior secured loans, senior unsecured loans, and subordinate corporate loans, including loans that may be rated below investment grade or equivalent unrated loans. Other types of CDOs may include, by way of example, obligations of trusts backed by other types of assets representing obligations of various types, and may include high risk, below investment grade debt obligations. CBOs, CLOs, and other CDOs may pay management fees and administrative expenses. The risk profile of an investment in a CBO, CLO, or other CDO depends largely on the type of the collateral securities and the class of the instrument in which a Fund invests.
For CBOs, CLOs, and other CDOs, the cash flows from the trust are split into two or more portions, called tranches, varying in risk and yield. The riskiest portion is the “equity” tranche which typically bears the effects of defaults from the bonds or loans in the trust in the first instance and may serve to protect other, senior tranches from defaults. Typically, the more senior the tranche in a CBO, CLO, or other CDO, the higher its rating, although senior tranches can experience substantial losses due to actual defaults. The market values of CBO, CLO, and CDO obligations may be affected by a number of factors, including, among others, changes in interest rates, defaults affecting junior tranches, market anticipation of defaults, and general market aversion to CBO, CLO, or other CDO securities as a class, or to the collateral backing them.
CBOs, CLOs, and other CDOs may be illiquid. In addition to the risks associated with debt securities discussed elsewhere in this SAI and the Funds’ Prospectus (e.g., interest rate risk and the risk of default), CBOs, CLOs, and other CDOs carry additional risks including, but not limited to: (i) the possibility that distributions from collateral securities will not be adequate to make interest or other payments on a CBO’s, CLO’s, or other CDO’s obligations; (ii) the collateral may decline in value or be in default; (iii) the risk that Funds may invest in tranches of CBOs, CLOs, or other CDOs that are subordinate to other classes; and (iv) the complex structure of the security may not be fully understood at the time of investment and may produce disputes with the issuer or unexpected investment results.
Some of the loans in which a Fund may invest or to which a Fund may gain exposure through its investments in CDOs, CLOs, or other types of structured securities may be covenant-lite loans, which contain fewer or less restrictive constraints on the borrower than certain other types of loans. Covenant-lite loans generally do not include terms that allow the lender to monitor the performance of the borrower and declare a default or force a borrower into bankruptcy restructuring if certain criteria are breached. Under such loans, lenders typically must rely on covenants that restrict a company from incurring additional debt or engaging in certain actions. Such covenants can only be breached by an affirmative action of the borrower, rather than by a deterioration in the borrower’s financial condition. Accordingly, a Fund may have fewer rights against a borrower when it invests in or has exposure to such loans and, accordingly, may have a greater risk of loss on such investments as compared to investments in or exposure to loans with additional or more conventional covenants.
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Other Income-Producing Securities
Other types of income-producing securities the Funds may purchase, include, but are not limited to, the following:

Variable and floating rate obligations. Variable and floating rate securities are debt instruments that provide for periodic adjustments in the interest rate paid on the security and, under certain limited circumstances, may have varying principal amounts. Variable rate securities provide for a specified periodic adjustment in the interest rate, while floating rate securities have interest rates that may change with change to the level of prevailing interest rates or the issuer’s credit quality. These types of securities are relatively long-term instruments that often carry demand features permitting the holder to demand payment of principal at any time or at specified intervals prior to maturity. There is a risk that the current interest rate on variable and floating securities may not accurately reflect current market interest rates or adequately compensate the holder for the current creditworthiness of the issuer. Due to their variable- or floating-rate features, these instruments will generally pay higher levels of income in a rising interest rate environment and lower levels of income as interest rates decline. For the same reason, the market value of a variable- or floating-rate instrument is generally expected to have less sensitivity to fluctuations in market interest rates than a fixed-rate instrument, although the value of a floating-rate instrument may nonetheless decline as interest rates rise and due to other factors, such as changes in credit quality. Some variable or floating rate securities are structured with liquidity features such as (1) put options or tender options that permit holders (sometimes subject to conditions) to demand payment of the unpaid principal balance plus accrued interest from the issuers or certain financial intermediaries or (2) auction rate features, remarketing provisions, or other maturity-shortening devices designed to enable the issuer to refinance or redeem outstanding debt securities (market-dependent liquidity features). The market-dependent liquidity features may not operate as intended as a result of the issuer’s declining creditworthiness, adverse market conditions, or other factors or the inability or unwillingness of a participating broker-dealer to make a secondary market for such securities. As a result, variable or floating rate securities that include market-dependent liquidity features may lose value and the holders of such securities may be required to retain them for an extended period of time or until maturity.
In order to use these investments most effectively, a Fund’s investment adviser or subadviser must correctly assess probable movements in interest rates. This involves different skills than those used to select most portfolio securities. If the investment adviser or subadviser incorrectly forecasts such movements, a Fund could be adversely affected by the use of variable or floating rate obligations.
Many financial instruments use or may use a floating rate based on the London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”), which is the offered rate for short-term Eurodollar deposits between major international banks. On July 27, 2017, the head of the United Kingdom’s Financial Conduct Authority announced a desire to phase out the use of LIBOR by the end of 2021. The administrator of LIBOR ceased publication of most LIBOR settings on a representative basis at the end of 2021 and is expected to cease publication of remaining U.S. dollar LIBOR settings on a representative basis after June 30, 2023. In addition, global regulators have announced that, with limited exceptions, no new LIBOR-based contracts should be entered into after 2021. Actions by regulators have resulted in the establishment of alternative reference rates to LIBOR in most major currencies. Market participants are focused on the transition mechanisms by which the reference rate in existing contracts or instruments may be amended, whether through market wide protocols, fallback contractual provisions, bespoke negotiations, or amendments, or otherwise. Markets are developing in response to these new rates, and questions around liquidity in these rates and how to appropriately adjust these rates to eliminate any economic value transfer at the time of transition remain a significant concern for a Fund. Neither the effect of the transition process nor its ultimate success can yet be known. A Fund may have investments linked to other interbank offered rates which may also cease to be published. The transition process might lead to increased volatility and illiquidity in markets that currently rely on LIBOR to determine interest rates. It could also lead to a reduction in the value of some LIBOR-based investments and reduce the effectiveness of new hedges placed against existing LIBOR-based instruments. Since the usefulness of LIBOR as a benchmark could deteriorate during the transition period, these effects could occur prior to the cessation of LIBOR.

Standby commitments. These instruments, which are similar to a put, give a Fund the option to obligate a broker, dealer, or bank to repurchase a security held by the Fund at a specified price.

Tender option bonds. Tender option bonds are relatively long-term bonds that are coupled with the agreement of a third party, such as a broker, dealer, or bank, to grant the holders of such securities the option to tender the securities to the institution at periodic intervals.
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Inverse floaters. Inverse floaters have variable interest rates that typically move in the opposite direction from movements in prevailing interest rates, most often short-term rates. Accordingly, the value of inverse floaters, or other obligations or certificates structured to have similar features, generally moves in the opposite direction from interest rates. The value of an inverse floater can be considerably more volatile than the value of other debt instruments of comparable maturity and credit quality. Inverse floaters incorporate varying degrees of leverage. Generally, greater leverage results in greater price volatility for any given change in interest rates. Inverse floaters may be subject to legal or contractual restrictions on resale and therefore may be less liquid than other types of securities. Similar to variable and floating rate obligations, effective use of inverse floaters requires skills different from those needed to select most portfolio securities. If movements in interest rates are incorrectly anticipated, a Fund could lose money or the NAV of its shares could decline by the use of inverse floaters.

Strip bonds. Strip bonds are debt securities that are stripped of their interest, usually by a financial intermediary, after the securities are issued. The market value of these securities generally fluctuates more in response to changes in interest rates than interest-paying securities of comparable maturities.
Standby commitments, tender option bonds, and instruments with demand features are primarily used by the Funds for the purpose of increasing the liquidity of a Fund’s portfolio.
Other Investment Companies
A Fund may invest in securities of other open- or closed-end investment companies, including exchange-traded funds (“ETFs”), traded on one or more national securities exchanges, as well as private investment vehicles. Provisions of the 1940 Act may limit the ability of a Fund to invest in certain registered investment companies or private investment vehicles or may limit the amount of its assets that a Fund may invest in any investment vehicle.
A Fund may, for example, invest in other open- or closed-end investment companies, including ETFs, during periods when it has large amounts of uninvested cash, when its investment adviser or subadviser believes share prices of other investment companies offer attractive values, or to gain or maintain exposure to various asset classes and markets or types of strategies and investments. A Fund may invest in shares of another registered investment company or private investment vehicle in order to gain indirect exposure to markets in a country where the Fund is not able to invest freely, or to gain indirect exposure to one or more issuers whose securities it may not buy directly. As a shareholder in an investment vehicle, a Fund would bear its ratable share of that vehicle’s expenses and would remain subject to payment of the Fund’s management fees with respect to assets so invested. Shareholders would therefore be subject to duplicative expenses to the extent a Fund invests in other investment vehicles. Shares of registered open-end investment companies traded on a securities exchange may not be redeemable by a Fund in all cases. Private investment vehicles in which a Fund may invest are not registered under the 1940 Act, and so will not offer all of the protections provided by the 1940 Act (including, among other things, independent oversight, protections against certain conflicts of interest, and custodial risks).
If a Fund invests in another investment vehicle, it is exposed to the risk that the other investment vehicle will not perform as expected. A Fund is exposed indirectly to all of the risks applicable to an investment in such other investment vehicle. In addition, lack of liquidity in the other investment vehicle could result in its value being more volatile than the underlying portfolio of securities, and may limit the ability of a Fund to sell or redeem its interest in the investment vehicle at a time or at a price it might consider desirable. A Fund may not be able to redeem its interest in private investment vehicles except at certain designated times. The investment policies and limitations of the other registered investment company or private investment vehicle may not be the same as those of the investing Fund; as a result, the Fund may be subject to additional or different risks, or may achieve a reduced investment return, as a result of its investment in another investment vehicle. If the other investment company is an ETF or other product traded on a securities exchange or otherwise actively traded, its shares may trade at a premium or discount to their NAV, an effect that might be more pronounced in less liquid markets. ETFs are also subject to additional risks, including, among others, the risk that the market price of an ETF’s shares may trade above or below its NAV, the risk that an active trading market for an ETF’s shares may not develop or be maintained, the risk that trading of an ETF’s shares may be halted, and the risk that the ETF’s shares may be delisted from the listing exchange. Unlike shares of a mutual fund, which can be bought and redeemed from the issuing fund by all shareholders at a price based on NAV, shares of an ETF may be purchased or redeemed directly from the ETF solely by Authorized Participants (“APs”) and only in aggregations of a specified number of shares (“Creation Units”). ETFs may have a limited number of financial institutions that act as APs. To the extent that those APs exit the business, or are unable to or choose not to process creation and/or redemption orders for Creation Units, and no other AP steps forward to create and redeem ETF shares, the ETF’s shares may be more likely to trade at a premium or discount to NAV and possibly face trading halts or delisting.
A Fund’s investment adviser or subadviser or their affiliates may serve as investment adviser to a registered investment company or private investment vehicle in which the Fund may invest, leading to conflicts of interest. For example, a Fund’s
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investment adviser or subadviser may receive fees based on the amount of assets invested in the other investment vehicle. Investment by a Fund in another registered investment company or private investment vehicle will typically be beneficial to its investment adviser or subadviser in the management of the other investment vehicle, by helping to achieve economies of scale or enhancing cash flows. Due to this and other factors, a Fund’s investment adviser or subadviser will have an incentive to invest the Fund’s assets in an investment vehicle sponsored or managed by it or its affiliates in lieu of investments by the Fund directly in portfolio securities, and will have an incentive to invest in such an investment vehicle over a non-affiliated investment vehicle to ensure an appropriate level of revenue to such investment adviser or subadviser or their affiliates. The investment adviser or subadviser will have no obligation to select the least expensive or best performing investment companies available to serve as an underlying investment vehicle. Similarly, a Fund’s investment adviser or subadviser will have an incentive to delay or decide against the sale of interests held by the Fund in an investment company sponsored or managed by it or its affiliates. It is possible that other clients of a Fund’s investment adviser or subadviser or its affiliates will purchase or sell interests in an investment company sponsored or managed by it at prices and at times more favorable than those at which the Fund does so.
New SEC Rule 12d1-4 under the 1940 Act, which became effective on January 19, 2022, is designed to streamline and enhance the regulatory framework for fund of funds arrangements. Rule 12d1-4 permits an investment company to invest in other investment companies beyond the statutory limits, subject to certain conditions. In connection with this Rule, the SEC rescinded Rule 12d1-2 under the 1940 Act and most fund of funds exemptive orders, effective January 19, 2022.
The Rule could affect a Fund’s ability to redeem its investments in other investment companies, make such investments less attractive, cause the Fund to incur losses, realize taxable gains distributable to shareholders, incur greater or unexpected expenses, or experience other adverse consequences.
T. Rowe Price may invest the assets of into money market funds. Therefore, T. Rowe Price may choose to invest any available cash reserves in a money market fund established for the exclusive use of the T. Rowe Price family of mutual funds and other T. Rowe Price clients. Currently, two such money market funds are in operation—T. Rowe Price Government Reserve Fund (“GRF”) and T. Rowe Price Treasury Reserve Fund (“TRF”), each a series of the T. Rowe Price Reserve Investment Funds, Inc. Additional series may be created in the future.
GRF and TRF must comply with the requirements of Rule 2a-7 under the 1940 Act governing money market funds. Each fund invests at least 99.5% of its total assets in cash, U.S. Government securities, and/or repurchase agreements that are collateralized by U.S. Government securities or cash. The funds do not pay an advisory fee to the investment manager at T. Rowe Price, but will incur other expenses. GRF and TRF are expected by T. Rowe Price to operate at a very low expense ratio. A Fund will only invest in GRF or TRF to the extent it is consistent with its investment objective and program. GRF and TRF are neither insured nor guaranteed by the U.S. Government, and there is no assurance they will maintain a stable NAV of $1.00 per share.
Partly Paid Securities
These securities are paid for on an installment basis. A partly paid security trades net of outstanding installment payments—the buyer “takes over payments.” The buyer’s rights are typically restricted until the security is fully paid. If the value of a partly paid security declines before a Fund finishes paying for it, the Fund will still owe the payments, but may find it hard to sell and as a result will incur a loss.
Portfolio Management
A Fund’s investment adviser or subadviser uses trading as a means of managing the portfolio of the Fund in seeking to achieve its investment objective. Transactions will occur when a Fund’s investment adviser or subadviser believes that the trade, net of transaction costs, will improve interest income or capital appreciation potential, or will lessen capital loss potential. Whether the goals discussed above will be achieved through trading depends on the Fund’s investment adviser’s or subadviser’s ability to evaluate particular securities and anticipate relevant market factors, including interest rate trends and variations from such trends. If such evaluations and expectations prove to be incorrect, a Fund’s income or capital appreciation may be reduced and its capital losses may be increased. In addition, high turnover in a Fund could result in additional brokerage commissions to be paid by that Fund. See also “Taxation” below.
The Funds may pay brokerage commissions to affiliates of one or more affiliates of the Funds’ investment adviser or subadvisers.
Portfolio Turnover
Portfolio turnover involves brokerage commissions and other transaction costs, which the relevant Fund will bear directly, and could involve realization of taxable capital gains. To the extent that portfolio turnover results in realization of
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net short-term capital gains, such gains ordinarily are treated as ordinary income when distributed to shareholders. Portfolio turnover rates are shown in the “Fees and Expenses of the Fund” and “Financial Highlights” sections of the Prospectus. See the “Taxation” and “Portfolio Transactions and Brokerage” sections in this SAI for additional information.
Real Estate-Related Investments; Real Estate Investment Trusts
Factors affecting the performance of real estate may include excess supply of real property in certain markets, changes in zoning laws, environmental regulations and other governmental action, completion of construction, changes in real estate value and property taxes, losses from casualty, condemnation, or natural disaster, sufficient level of occupancy, adequate rent to cover operating expenses, and local and regional markets for competing assets. The performance of real estate may also be affected by changes in interest rates, prudent management of insurance risks, and social and economic trends.
Real estate investment trusts (“REITs”) that may be purchased by a Fund include equity REITs, which own real estate directly, mortgage REITs, which make construction, development, or long-term mortgage loans, and hybrid REITs, which share characteristics of equity REITs and mortgage REITs. Equity REITs will be affected by, among other things, changes in the value of the underlying property owned by the REITs, while mortgage REITs will be affected by, among other things, the value of the properties to which they have extended credit. REITs are dependent upon the skill of each REIT’s management.
A Fund could, under certain circumstances, own real estate directly as a result of a default on debt securities it owns or from an in-kind distribution of real estate from a REIT. Risks associated with such ownership could include potential liabilities under environmental laws and the costs of other regulatory compliance. If a Fund has rental income or income from the direct disposition of real property, the receipt of such income may adversely affect its ability to retain its tax status as a regulated investment company and thus its ability to avoid taxation on its income and gains distributed to its shareholders. REITs are also subject to substantial cash flow dependency, defaults by borrowers, self-liquidation, and the risk of failing to qualify for favorable tax treatment under the Code and/or to maintain exempt status under the 1940 Act. If a Fund invests in REITs, investors would bear not only a proportionate share of the expenses of that Fund, but also, indirectly, expenses of the REITs.
Repurchase Agreements
A repurchase agreement is a contract under which a Fund acquires a security for a relatively short period (usually not more than one week) subject to the obligation of the seller to repurchase and the Fund to resell such security at a fixed time and price (representing the Fund’s cost plus interest). Repurchase agreements may also be viewed as loans made by a Fund which are collateralized by the securities subject to repurchase. The investment adviser or subadviser will monitor such transactions to ensure that the value of the underlying securities will be at least equal at all times to the total amount of the repurchase obligation, including the interest factor. If the seller defaults, a Fund could realize a loss on the sale of the underlying security to the extent that the proceeds of the sale including accrued interest are less than the resale price provided in the agreement including interest. In addition, if the seller should be involved in bankruptcy or insolvency proceedings, the Fund may incur delay and costs in selling the underlying security or may suffer a loss of principal and interest if the Fund is treated as an unsecured creditor and required to return the underlying collateral to the seller’s estate. There is no limit on the Funds’ investment in repurchase agreements.
Restricted Securities
Restricted securities are subject to legal restrictions on their sale. Difficulty in selling securities may result in a loss or be costly to a Fund. Restricted securities generally can be sold in privately negotiated transactions, pursuant to an exemption from registration under the 1933 Act, or in a registered public offering. Where registration is required, the holder of a registered security may be obligated to pay all or part of the registration expense and a considerable period may elapse between the time it decides to seek registration and the time it may be permitted to sell a security under an effective registration statement. If, during such a period, adverse market conditions were to develop, the holder might obtain a less favorable price than prevailed when it decided to seek registration of the security.
Reverse Repurchase Agreements and Treasury Rolls
A Fund may enter into reverse repurchase agreements or Treasury rolls with banks and broker-dealers to enhance return. Reverse repurchase agreements involve sales by a Fund of portfolio securities concurrently with an agreement by the Fund to repurchase the same securities at a later date at a fixed price (typically equal to the original sale price plus interest). During the reverse repurchase agreement period, the Fund continues to receive principal and interest payments on
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the securities and also has the opportunity to earn a return on the purchase price received by it from the counterparty. Similarly, in a Treasury roll transaction, a Fund sells a Treasury security and simultaneously enters into an agreement to repurchase the security from the buyer at a later date, at the original sale price plus interest. The repurchase price is typically adjusted to provide the Fund the economic benefit of any interest that accrued on the Treasury security during the term of the transaction. The Fund may use the purchase price received by it to earn additional return during the term of the Treasury roll transaction. Reverse repurchase agreements and Treasury rolls are similar to a secured borrowing of a Fund and generally create investment leverage. A Fund might lose money both on the security subject to the reverse repurchase agreement and on the investments it makes with the proceeds of the reverse repurchase agreement. If the counterparty in such a transaction files for bankruptcy or becomes insolvent, a Fund’s use of the proceeds from the sale of its securities may be restricted or forfeited, and the counterparty may fail to return/resell the securities in question to the Fund. A Fund may enter into reverse repurchase agreements or Treasury rolls without limit up to the amount permitted under applicable law. Pursuant to Rule 18f-4 under the 1940 Act, a Fund has the option to treat all reverse repurchase agreements and similar financing transactions as “derivatives transactions,” or to include all such transactions in the Fund’s asset coverage ratio for borrowings.
Securities Lending
A Fund may lend its portfolio securities. The Fund expects that, in connection with any securities loan: (1) the loan will be secured continuously by collateral consisting of U.S. Government securities, cash, or cash equivalents adjusted daily to have market value at least equal to the current market value of the securities loaned; (2) the Fund will have the right at any time on reasonable notice to call the loan and regain the securities loaned; (3) the Fund will receive an amount equal to any interest or dividends paid on the loaned securities; and (4) the aggregate market value of securities the Fund has loaned will not at any time exceed one-third (or such other lower limit as the Board may establish) of the total assets of the Fund. The risks in lending portfolio securities, as with other extensions of credit, include a possible delay in recovering the loaned securities or a possible loss of rights in the collateral should the borrower fail financially. Regulations adopted by global prudential regulators that are now in effect require certain bank-regulated counterparties and certain of their affiliates to include in certain financial contracts, including many securities lending agreements, terms that delay or restrict the rights of counterparties, such as the Funds, to terminate such agreements, foreclose upon collateral, exercise other default rights, or restrict transfers of credit support in the event that the counterparty and/or its affiliates are subject to certain types of resolution or insolvency proceedings. It is possible that these new requirements, as well as potential additional government regulation and other developments in the market, could adversely affect a Fund’s ability to terminate existing securities lending agreements or to realize amounts to be received under such agreements. Voting rights or rights to consent with respect to the loaned securities pass to the borrower, although a Fund would retain the right to call the loans at any time on reasonable notice, and may do so in order that the securities may be voted in an appropriate case.
A Fund’s securities loans will be made by a third-party agent appointed by the Fund, although the agent is only permitted to make loans to borrowers previously approved by the Fund’s Board. Any cash collateral securing a loan of securities by a Fund will typically be invested by the agent. The investment of the collateral will be at the risk and for the account of the Fund. The earnings on the investment of collateral will be split between the Fund and the agent; as a result, the agent may have an incentive to invest the collateral in riskier investments than if it were not to share in the earnings. It is possible that any loss on the investment of collateral for a securities loan will exceed (potentially by a substantial amount) the Fund’s earnings on the loan.
Short Sales
A short sale is a transaction in which a fund sells a security it does not own in anticipation that the market price of that security will decline. When a fund makes a short sale on a security, it must borrow the security sold short and deliver it to a broker dealer through which it made the short sale as collateral for its obligation to deliver the security upon the conclusion of the sale. A fund may have to pay a fee to borrow particular securities and is often obligated to pay over any accrued interest and dividends on such borrowed securities. If the price of the security sold short increases between the time of the short sale and the time a fund replaces the borrowed security, a fund will incur a loss, which could be unlimited, in cases where a fund is unable for whatever reason to close out its short position; conversely, if the price declines, a fund will realize a capital gain. Any gain will be decreased, and any loss increased, by the transaction costs described above. The successful use of short selling may be adversely impacted by imperfect correlation between movements in the price of the security sold short and the securities being hedged.
Selling short “against-the-box” refers to the sale of securities actually owned by the seller but held in safekeeping. In such short sales, while the short position is open, a fund must own an equal amount of such securities, or by virtue of
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ownership of securities have the right, without payment of further consideration, to obtain an equal amount of securities sold short. Short sales against-the-box generally produce current recognition of gain (but not loss) for U.S. federal income tax purposes on the constructive sale of securities “in the box” prior to the time the short position is closed out.
Terrorism, War, Natural Disasters, and Epidemics
Terrorism, war, and related geopolitical events (and their aftermath) have led, and in the future may lead, to increased short-term market volatility and may have adverse long-term effects on U.S. and world economies and markets generally. For example, in February 2022, Russia commenced a large-scale military attack on Ukraine. The outbreak of hostilities between the two countries could result in more widespread conflict and could have a severe adverse effect on the regional and the global financial markets and economies. In addition, sanctions imposed on Russia, Russian individuals, including politicians, and Russian corporate and banking entities by the U.S. and other countries, and any sanctions imposed in the future, may have a significant adverse impact on the Russian economy and related markets. Such actions may also result in a decline in the value and liquidity of Russian securities, and a weakening of the ruble, and will impair a Fund’s ability to buy, sell, receive, or deliver Russian securities. In addition, securities market trading halts related to the conflict could adversely impact the value and liquidity of a Fund’s holdings, and could impair a Fund’s ability to transact in and/or value portfolio securities. The ramifications of the conflict and related sanctions may negatively impact other regional and global financial markets (including in Europe, Asia, and the U.S.), companies in other countries (including those that have done business in Russia), and various sectors, industries, and markets for securities and commodities, such as oil and natural gas. The price and liquidity of a Fund’s investments may fluctuate widely as a result of this and other geopolitical conflicts and related events. The extent and duration of any military conflict or future escalation of such hostilities (including cyberattacks), the extent and impact of existing and future sanctions, market disruptions and volatility, and the result of any diplomatic negotiations, cannot be predicted. These and any related or similar future events could have a significant adverse impact on a Fund’s performance and the value of an investment in a Fund.
Natural and environmental disasters, such as, for example, earthquakes, fires, floods, hurricanes, tsunamis, and weather-related phenomena generally, as well as widespread epidemics, can be highly disruptive to economies and markets, adversely affecting individual companies, sectors, industries, markets, currencies, interest and inflation rates, credit ratings, investor sentiment, and other factors affecting the value of the Funds’ investments. For example, the spread of the novel strain of coronavirus and its variants (known as COVID-19) has caused volatility, severe market dislocations and liquidity constraints in many markets, and may adversely affect the Funds’ investments and operations. The transmission of COVID-19 and efforts to contain its spread have resulted in, among other things, travel restrictions and disruptions, closed international borders, enhanced health screenings at ports of entry and elsewhere, disruption of and delays in healthcare service preparation and delivery, quarantines, event and service cancellations or interruptions, and disruptions to business operations (including staff reductions), supply chains, and consumer activity, as well as general concern and uncertainty that has negatively affected the economic environment.
The COVID-19 virus has negatively affected the global economy, the economies of many countries, and the financial performance of individual issuers, sectors, industries, asset classes, and markets in significant and unforeseen ways. In addition, actions taken by governmental and quasi-governmental authorities and regulators throughout the world in response to the COVID-19 outbreak, including significant fiscal and monetary policy changes, have affected the values, volatility, and liquidity of securities or other assets. The effects of the outbreak in developing or emerging market countries may be greater due to less established health care systems, financial systems and institutions, and government institutions. The duration of the COVID-19 outbreak and its effects cannot be determined with certainty. The foregoing could have a significant adverse effect on a Fund’s performance and have the potential to impair a Fund’s ability to maintain operational standards (such as with respect to satisfying redemption requests), disrupt the operations of a Fund’s service providers, adversely affect the values and liquidity of a Fund’s investments, and negatively impact a Fund’s performance and a shareholder’s investment in a Fund. Other infectious illness outbreaks, epidemics or pandemics that may arise in the future, could adversely affect the economies of many nations or the entire global economy, the financial performance of individual issuers, borrowers and sectors, and the health of the markets generally in potentially significant and unforeseen ways.
Trade Claims
A Fund may purchase trade claims and other obligations of, or claims against, companies in bankruptcy proceedings. Trade claims are claims for payment by vendors and suppliers for products and services previously furnished to the companies in question. Other claims may include, for example, claims for payment under financial or derivatives obligations. Trade claims may be purchased directly from the creditor or through brokers or from dealers, and are typically purchased at a significant discount from their face amounts. There is no guarantee that a debtor will ever be able to satisfy its obligations on such claims. Trade claims are subject to the risks associated with low-quality and distressed obligations.
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Trust Preferred Securities
Trust preferred securities are typically issued by corporations, generally in the form of interest bearing notes with preferred securities characteristics, or by an affiliated trust, generally in the form of beneficial interests in subordinated debentures or similarly structured securities. Trust preferred securities may pay interest at either fixed or adjustable rates. Trust preferred securities may be issued with a final maturity date, or may be perpetual.
Trust preferred securities are typically junior and fully subordinated liabilities of an issuer and benefit from a guarantee that is junior and fully subordinated to the other liabilities of the guarantor. In addition, trust preferred securities typically permit an issuer to defer the payment of income for five years or more without triggering an event of default. Because of their subordinated position in the capital structure of an issuer, the ability to defer payments for extended periods of time without default consequences to the issuer, and certain other features (such as restrictions on common dividend payments by the issuer or ultimate guarantor when full cumulative payments on the trust preferred securities have not been made), these trust preferred securities are often treated as close substitutes for traditional preferred securities, both by issuers and investors.
Many trust preferred securities are issued by trusts or other special purpose entities established by operating companies and are not a direct obligation of an operating company. At the time the trust or special purpose entity sells such preferred securities to investors, it purchases debt of the operating company (with terms comparable to those of the trust or special purpose entity securities). The trust or special purpose entity is generally required to be treated as transparent for U.S. federal income tax purposes, and the holders of the trust preferred securities are treated for tax purposes as owning beneficial interests in the underlying debt of the operating company. Accordingly, payments on the trust preferred securities are treated as interest rather than dividends for U.S. federal income tax purposes. The trust or special purpose entity in turn would be a holder of the operating company’s debt and would typically be subordinated to other classes of the operating company’s debt.
U.S. Government Securities
The Funds may invest in U.S. Government securities. These include obligations issued or guaranteed by the U.S. Government or any of its agencies or instrumentalities. Payment of principal and interest on U.S. Government obligations (i) may be backed by the full faith and credit of the United States (as with U.S. Treasury obligations and GNMA certificates) or (ii) may be backed solely by the issuing or guaranteeing agency or instrumentality itself (as with FNMA notes). In the latter case, the investor must look principally to the agency or instrumentality issuing or guaranteeing the obligation for ultimate repayment and may not be able to assert a claim against the United States if the agency or instrumentality does not meet its commitment. Such securities may involve increased risk of loss of principal and interest compared to government debt securities that are backed by the full faith and credit of the United States. Such agency or instrumentality may be privately owned. There can be no assurance that the U.S. Government would provide financial support to its agencies or instrumentalities where it is not obligated to do so. From time to time, uncertainty regarding the status of negotiations in the U.S. Government to increase the statutory debt ceiling could: increase the risk that the U.S. Government may default on payments on certain U.S. Government securities; cause the credit rating of the U.S. Government to be downgraded or increase volatility in both stock and bond markets; result in higher interest rates; reduce prices of U.S. Treasury securities; and/or increase the costs of certain kinds of debt.
U.S. Government securities are subject to interest rate risk, and, in some cases, may be subject to credit risk. Although FHLMC and FNMA are now under conservatorship by the Federal Housing Finance Agency, and are benefiting from a liquidity backstop of the U.S. Treasury, no assurance can be given that these initiatives will be successful. As a general matter, the value of debt instruments, including U.S. Government obligations, declines when market interest rates increase and rises when market interest rates decrease. Certain types of U.S. Government obligations are subject to fluctuations in yield or value due to their structure or contract terms.
Utility Industries
Risks that are intrinsic to the utility industries include difficulty in obtaining an adequate return on invested capital, difficulty in financing large construction programs during an inflationary period, restrictions on operations and increased cost and delays attributable to environmental considerations and regulation, difficulty in raising capital in adequate amounts on reasonable terms in periods of high inflation and unsettled capital markets, technological innovations that may render existing plants, equipment, or products obsolete, the potential impact of natural or man-made disasters, increased costs and reduced availability of certain types of fuel, occasionally reduced availability and high costs of natural gas for resale, the effects of energy conservation, the effects of a national energy policy and lengthy delays and greatly increased costs and other problems associated with the design, construction, licensing, regulation, and operation of nuclear facilities
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for electric generation, including, among other considerations, the problems associated with the use of radioactive materials and the disposal of radioactive wastes. There are substantial differences among the regulatory practices and policies of various jurisdictions, and any given regulatory agency may make major shifts in policy from time to time. There is no assurance that regulatory authorities will, in the future, grant rate increases or that such increases will be adequate to permit the payment of dividends on common stocks issued by a utility company. Additionally, existing and possible future regulatory legislation may make it even more difficult for utilities to obtain adequate relief. Certain of the issuers of securities held in the Fund’s portfolio may own or operate nuclear generating facilities. Governmental authorities may from time to time review existing policies and impose additional requirements governing the licensing, construction and operation of nuclear power plants. Prolonged changes in climatic conditions can also have a significant impact on both the revenues of an electric and gas utility as well as the expenses of a utility, particularly a hydro-based electric utility.
Utility companies in the United States and in foreign countries are generally subject to regulation. In the United States, most utility companies are regulated by state and/or federal authorities. Such regulation is intended to ensure appropriate standards of service and adequate capacity to meet public demand. Generally, prices are also regulated in the United States and in foreign countries with the intention of protecting the public while ensuring that the rate of return earned by utility companies is sufficient to allow them to attract capital in order to grow and continue to provide appropriate services. There can be no assurance that such pricing policies or rates of return will continue in the future.
The nature of regulation of the utility industries continues to evolve both in the United States and in foreign countries. In recent years, changes in regulation in the United States increasingly have allowed utility companies to provide services and products outside their traditional geographic areas and lines of business, creating new areas of competition within the industries. In some instances, utility companies are operating on an unregulated basis. Because of trends toward deregulation and the evolution of independent power producers as well as new entrants to the field of telecommunications, non-regulated providers of utility services have become a significant part of their respective industries. The investment adviser or subadviser believes that the emergence of competition and deregulation will result in certain utility companies being able to earn more than their traditional regulated rates of return, while others may be forced to defend their core business from increased competition and may be less profitable. Reduced profitability, as well as new uses of funds (such as for expansion, operations, or stock buybacks) could result in cuts in dividend payout rates. The investment adviser or subadviser seeks to take advantage of favorable investment opportunities that may arise from these structural changes. Of course, there can be no assurance that favorable developments will occur in the future.
Foreign utility companies are also subject to regulation, although such regulations may or may not be comparable to those in the United States. Foreign utility companies may be more heavily regulated by their respective governments than utilities in the United States and, as in the United States, generally are required to seek government approval for rate increases. In addition, many foreign utilities use fuels that may cause more pollution than those used in the United States, which may require such utilities to invest in pollution control equipment to meet any proposed pollution restrictions. Foreign regulatory systems vary from country to country and may evolve in ways different from regulation in the United States.
A Fund’s investment policies are designed to enable it to capitalize on evolving investment opportunities throughout the world. For example, the rapid growth of certain foreign economies will necessitate expansion of capacity in the utility industries in those countries. Although many foreign utility companies currently are government-owned, thereby limiting current investment opportunities for a Fund, the investment adviser or subadviser believes that, in order to attract significant capital for growth, foreign governments are likely to seek global investors through the privatization of their utility industries. Privatization, which refers to the trend toward investor ownership of assets rather than government ownership, is expected to occur in newer, faster-growing economies and in mature economies. Of course, there is no assurance that such favorable developments will occur or that investment opportunities in foreign markets will increase.
The revenues of domestic and foreign utility companies generally reflect the economic growth and development in the geographic areas in which they do business. The investment adviser or subadviser will take into account anticipated economic growth rates and other economic developments when selecting securities of utility companies.
Zero-Coupon, Step Coupon and Pay-In-Kind Securities
Other debt securities in which the Funds may invest include zero coupon, step coupon, and pay-in-kind instruments. Zero coupon bonds are issued and traded at a discount from their face value. They do not entitle the holder to any periodic payment of interest prior to maturity. Step coupon bonds trade at a discount from their face value and pay coupon interest. The coupon rate is low for an initial period and then increases to a higher coupon rate thereafter. The discount from the face amount or par value depends on the time remaining until cash payments begin, prevailing interest rates, liquidity of the
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security, and the perceived credit quality of the issue. Pay-in-kind securities are debt or preferred stock securities that require or permit payment of interest in the form of additional securities. Payment-in-kind securities allow the issuer to avoid or delay the need to generate cash to meet current interest payments and, as a result, may involve greater risk than securities that pay interest currently or in cash.
Current U.S. federal income tax law requires holders of zero coupon and step coupon securities to report the portion of the original issue discount on such securities that accrues during a given year as interest income, even though holders receive no cash payments of interest during the year. In order to qualify as a regulated investment company under the Code, a Fund must distribute its investment company taxable income, including the original issue discount accrued on zero coupon or step coupon bonds. Because a Fund will not receive cash payments on a current basis in respect of accrued original issue discount on zero coupon or step coupon bonds during the period before interest payments begin, and may not receive cash payments on payment-in-kind securities until maturity or redemption, in some years that Fund may have to distribute cash obtained from other sources in order to satisfy the distribution requirements under the Code. A Fund might obtain such cash from selling other portfolio holdings which might cause a Fund to incur capital gains or losses on the sale. Additionally, these actions are likely to reduce the assets to which Fund expenses could be allocated and to reduce the rate of return for a Fund. In some circumstances, such sales might be necessary in order to satisfy cash distribution requirements even though investment considerations might otherwise make it undesirable for a Fund to sell the securities at the time.
Generally, the market prices of zero coupon, step coupon, and pay-in-kind securities are more volatile than the prices of securities that pay interest periodically and in cash and are likely to respond to changes in interest rates to a greater degree than other types of debt securities.
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DISCLOSURE OF PORTFOLIO HOLDINGS
The Trustees of the Funds, including a majority of Trustees who are not “interested persons” of the Funds (as defined in the 1940 Act), have adopted policies and procedures with respect to the disclosure of the Funds’ portfolio holdings. These policies and procedures generally provide that no disclosure of portfolio holdings information may be made unless publicly disclosed as described below or made as part of the daily investment activities of the Funds to the Funds’ investment adviser, subadviser(s), as applicable, or any of their designates who provide services to the Funds, which by explicit agreement or by virtue of their respective duties to the Funds, are required to maintain confidentiality of the information disclosed. Certain limited exceptions pursuant to the Funds’ policies and procedures are described below. The Funds’ portfolio holdings information may not be disseminated for compensation. Any exceptions to the Funds’ policies and procedures may be made only if approved in writing by the Funds’ Principal Executive Officer and the Funds’ Chief Compliance Officer as being in the best interests of the relevant Fund, and then only if the recipients are subject to a written confidentiality agreement specifying that the relevant Fund’s portfolio holdings information is the confidential property of the Fund and may not be used for any purpose except in connection with the provision of services to the Fund and, in particular, that such information may not be traded upon. Any such exceptions must be reported to the Funds’ Board at its next regularly scheduled meeting. It was determined that these policies and procedures are reasonably designed to ensure that disclosure of portfolio holdings information is in the best interests of a Fund’s shareholders and appropriately address the potential for conflicts between the interests of a Fund’s shareholders, on the one hand, and those of MML Advisers or any affiliated person of the Fund or MML Advisers on the other.
Acting pursuant to the policies and procedures adopted by the Trustees of the Funds, the Funds’ investment adviser and subadviser(s), as applicable, are primarily responsible for compliance with these policies and procedures, which includes maintaining such internal informational barriers (e.g., “Chinese walls”) as each believes are reasonably necessary for preventing the unauthorized disclosure of portfolio holdings information. Pursuant to Rule 38a-1 under the 1940 Act, the Trustees will periodically (as needed, but at least annually) receive reports from the Funds’ Chief Compliance Officer regarding the operation of these policies and procedures, including a confirmation by the Chief Compliance Officer that the investment adviser’s and the subadviser(’s/s’), as applicable, policies, procedures, and/or processes are reasonably designed to comply with the Funds’ policies and procedures in this regard.
Public Disclosures
The Funds’ portfolio holdings are currently disclosed to the public through required filings with the SEC and as described below. The Funds file their portfolio holdings with the SEC as of the end of the second and fourth quarters of the Funds’ fiscal year on Form N-CSR (with respect to each semiannual period and annual period) no later than 70 days after the end of the applicable quarter. In addition, monthly reports of all of the Funds’ portfolio holdings are filed quarterly with the SEC on Form N-PORT no later than 60 days after the end of each quarter of the Funds’ fiscal year, and the monthly report for the third month of each quarter will be made publicly available by the SEC upon filing. Shareholders may obtain the Funds’ Form N-CSR and N-PORT filings on the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov. In addition, the Funds’ annual and semiannual reports and complete schedule of portfolio holdings from their filings on Form N-PORT for the first and third quarters of each fiscal year are made available to shareholders at https://www.massmutual.com/funds after the end of the applicable quarter. The Funds’ annual and semiannual reports are also mailed to shareholders after the end of the applicable quarter.
The Funds’ most recent portfolio holdings as of the end of each quarter are available on https://www.massmutual.com/funds no earlier than 15 calendar days after the end of each quarter. Because such information is updated quarterly, it will generally be available for viewing for approximately three months after the posting.
A Fund’s portfolio holdings may also be made available on https://www.massmutual.com/funds at other times as approved in writing by the Funds’ Principal Executive Officer and the Funds’ Chief Compliance Officer as being in the best interests of the relevant Fund.
Other Disclosures
Acting pursuant to the policies and procedures adopted by the Trustees of the Funds, and to the extent permitted under the 1933 and 1940 Acts, the Funds, the Funds’ investment adviser, and the Funds’ subadviser(s), as applicable, may distribute (or authorize the Funds’ custodian to distribute) information regarding the Funds’ portfolio holdings more frequently than as provided to the public on a confidential basis to various service providers and others who require such information in order to fulfill their contractual duties with respect to the routine investment activities or operations of the Funds. Such service providers or others must, by explicit agreement or by virtue of their respective duties to the Funds, be
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required to maintain confidentiality of the information disclosed. These service providers include, but are not limited to, the Funds’ custodian (State Street Bank and Trust Company (“State Street”)), the Funds’ sub-administrators (State Street and MassMutual), the Funds’ independent registered public accounting firm (Deloitte & Touche LLP), filing agents, legal counsel (Ropes & Gray LLP), financial printer (Toppan Merrill, LLC), any portfolio liquidity classification vendor, any proxy voting service employed by the Funds, MML Advisers or any of the Funds’ subadviser(s), as applicable, providers of portfolio analysis tools, any pricing services employed by the Funds, and any providers of transition management services. The Funds or the Funds’ investment adviser may also periodically provide non-public information about their portfolio holdings to rating and ranking organizations, such as Lipper Inc. and Morningstar Inc., in connection with those firms’ research on and classification of the Funds and in order to gather information about how the Funds’ attributes (such as volatility, turnover, and expenses) compared with those of peer funds.
The Funds, the Funds’ investment adviser, or the Funds’ subadviser(s), as applicable, may distribute (or authorize the Funds’ custodian to distribute) information regarding the Funds’ portfolio holdings more frequently than as provided to the public on a confidential basis to various service providers and others who require such information in order to fulfill non-routine legitimate business activities related to the management, investment activities, or operations of the Funds. Such disclosures may be made only if (i) the recipients of such information are subject to a written confidentiality agreement specifying that the Funds’ portfolio holdings information is the confidential property of the Funds and may not be used for any purpose except in connection with the provision of services to the Funds and, in particular, that such information may not be traded upon; and (ii) if the Funds’ Chief Compliance Officer (or a person designated by the Chief Compliance Officer) determines that, under the circumstances, disclosure is in the best interests of the relevant Fund’s shareholders. The information distributed is limited to the information that the Funds, MML Advisers, or the relevant subadviser(s), as applicable, believes is reasonably necessary in connection with the services provided by the recipient receiving the information.
INVESTMENT RESTRICTIONS OF THE FUNDS
FUNDAMENTAL INVESTMENT RESTRICTIONS OF THE FUNDS
The following is a description of certain fundamental restrictions on investments of the Funds which may not be changed without a vote of a majority of the outstanding shares of the applicable Fund. Investment restrictions that appear below or elsewhere in this SAI and in the Prospectus which involve a maximum percentage of securities or assets shall not be considered violated unless an excess over the percentage occurs immediately after, and is caused by, an acquisition or encumbrance of securities or assets of, or borrowings by or on behalf of, a Fund. Each Fund may not:
(1)
with the exception of the MM Select T. Rowe Price Emerging Markets Bond Fund, purchase securities (other than securities issued, guaranteed or sponsored by the U.S. Government or its agencies or instrumentalities or securities issued by investment companies) of any one issuer if, as a result, more than 5% of a Fund’s total assets would be invested in the securities of such issuer or the Fund would own more than 10% of the outstanding voting securities of such issuer, except that up to 25% of the Fund’s total assets may be invested without regard to these limitations.
(2)
purchase commodities or commodity contracts, except that a Fund may enter into futures contracts, options, options on futures, and other financial or commodity transactions to the extent consistent with applicable law and the Fund’s Prospectus and SAI at the time.
(3)
purchase or sell real estate except that it may dispose of real estate acquired as a result of the ownership of securities or other instruments. (This restriction does not prohibit a Fund from investing in securities or other instruments backed by real estate or in securities of companies engaged in the real estate business.)
(4)
participate in the underwriting of securities, except to the extent that a Fund may be deemed an underwriter under federal securities laws by reason of acquisitions or distributions of portfolio securities (e.g., investments in restricted securities and instruments subject to such limits as imposed by the Board and/or law).
(5)
make loans, except to the extent permitted by the 1940 Act, the rules and regulations thereunder (as such statute, rules or regulations may be amended from time to time) or by guidance regarding or interpretations of, or exemptive orders under, the 1940 Act or the rules or regulations thereunder published by appropriate regulatory authorities.
(6)
borrow money or issue senior securities, except to the extent permitted by the 1940 Act, the rules and regulations thereunder (as such statute, rules or regulations may be amended from time to time) or by guidance regarding or interpretations of, or exemptive orders under, the 1940 Act or the rules or regulations thereunder published by appropriate regulatory authorities.
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(7)
concentrate its investments in any one industry, as determined by the Board, and in this connection a Fund will not acquire securities of companies in any one industry if, immediately after giving effect to any such acquisition, 25% or more of the value of the total assets of the Fund would be invested in such industry, with the following exceptions:
(a)
There is no limitation for securities issued or guaranteed by the U.S. Government or its agencies or instrumentalities.
(b)
There is no limitation for securities issued by other investment companies.
NON-FUNDAMENTAL INVESTMENT RESTRICTIONS OF THE FUNDS
In addition to the investment restrictions adopted as fundamental policies set forth above, the Funds operate with certain non-fundamental policies that may be changed by a vote of a majority of the Board members at any time.
In accordance with such policies, each Fund may not:
(1)
to the extent required by applicable law at the time, purchase additional securities when its borrowings, less amounts receivable on sales of portfolio securities, exceed 5% of its total assets.
(2)
sell securities short (except the MM Select T. Rowe Price Bond Asset Fund and the MM Select T. Rowe Price U.S. Treasury Long-Term Index Fund may sell securities short for hedging purposes), but reserves the right to sell securities short against the box.
(3)
invest more than 15% of its net assets in illiquid securities. This restriction does not limit the purchase of securities eligible for resale to qualified institutional buyers pursuant to Rule 144A under the 1933 Act, provided that such securities are determined to be liquid by MML Advisers or the subadviser pursuant to Board approved guidelines.
(4)
to the extent that shares of the Fund are purchased or otherwise acquired by other series of the Trust, acquire any securities of registered open-end investment companies or registered unit investment trusts in reliance on Section 12(d)(1)(F) or Section 12(d)(1)(G) of the 1940 Act.
With respect to limitation (3) above, if there is a lack of trading interest in particular Rule 144A securities, a Fund’s holdings of those securities may be illiquid, resulting in the possibility of undesirable delays in selling these securities at prices representing fair value. If, through a change in values, net assets, or other circumstances, the Fund were in a position where more than 15% of its net assets was invested in illiquid securities, it would take appropriate orderly steps, as deemed necessary, to protect liquidity.
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MANAGEMENT OF THE TRUST
The Trust has a Board comprised of 10 Trustees, a majority of which are not “interested persons” ​(as defined in the 1940 Act) of the Trust. The Board is generally responsible for the management and oversight of the business and affairs of the Trust. The Trustees formulate the general policies of the Trust and the Funds, approve contracts, and authorize Trust officers to carry out the decisions of the Board. To assist them in this role, the Trustees who are not “interested persons” of the Trust, the adviser, or any subadviser (“Independent Trustees”) have retained independent legal counsel. As investment adviser and subadvisers to the Funds, respectively, MML Advisers and J.P. Morgan, T. Rowe Price, T. Rowe Price Hong Kong, T. Rowe Price International, T. Rowe Price Investment Management, and T. Rowe Price Japan may be considered part of the management of the Trust. The Trustees and principal officers of the Trust are listed below together with information on their positions with the Trust, address, and year of birth, as well as their principal occupations during at least the past five years and their other current principal business affiliations.
The Board has appointed an Independent Trustee Chairperson of the Trust. The Chairperson presides at Board meetings and may call a Board or committee meeting when he or she deems it necessary. The Chairperson participates in the preparation of Board meeting agendas and may generally facilitate communications among the Trustees, and between the Trustees and the Trust’s management, officers, and independent legal counsel, between meetings. The Chairperson may also perform such other functions as may be requested by the Board from time to time. The Board has established the three standing committees described below, and may form working groups or ad hoc committees as needed.
The Board believes this leadership structure is appropriate because it allows the Board to exercise informed and independent judgment, and allocates areas of responsibility among committees or working groups of Trustees and the full Board in a manner that enhances effective oversight. The Board also believes that having a majority of Independent Trustees is appropriate and in the best interest of the Funds’ shareholders. However, in the Board’s opinion, having interested persons serve as Trustees brings both corporate and financial viewpoints that are significant elements in its decision-making process. The Board reviews its leadership structure at least annually and may make changes to it at any time, including in response to changes in the characteristics or circumstances of the Trust.
Independent Trustees
Allan W. Blair
1295 State Street
Springfield, MA 01111‑0001
Year of birth: 1948
Trustee of the Trust since 2003
Trustee of 110 portfolios in fund complex
Trustee of the Trust
Retired; Trustee (since 2003), MassMutual Select Funds (open-end investment company); Trustee (since 2012), MassMutual Premier Funds (open-end investment company); Trustee (since 2021), MassMutual Advantage Funds (open-end investment company); Trustee (since 2003), MML Series Investment Fund (open-end investment company); Trustee (since 2012), MML Series Investment Fund II (open-end investment company).
Nabil N. El‑Hage
1295 State Street
Springfield, MA 01111‑0001
Year of birth: 1958
Trustee of the Trust since 2012
Trustee of 110 portfolios in fund complex
Trustee of the Trust
Founder and CEO (since 2018), AEE International LLC (a Puerto Rico LLC); Founder and sole member (2016-2018), PR Academy of Executive Education LLC (a Puerto Rico LLC); Trustee (since 2012), MassMutual Select Funds (open-end investment company); Trustee (since 2003), Chairman (2006-2012), MassMutual Premier Funds (open-end investment company); Trustee (since 2021), MassMutual Advantage Funds (open-end investment company); Trustee (since 2012), MML Series Investment Fund (open-end investment company); Trustee (since 2005), Chairman (2006-2012), MML Series Investment Fund II (open-end investment company).
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Maria D. Furman
1295 State Street
Springfield, MA 01111‑0001
Year of birth: 1954
Trustee of the Trust since 2012
Trustee of 110 portfolios in fund complex
Trustee of the Trust
Retired; Trustee (since 2012), MassMutual Select Funds (open-end investment company); Trustee (since 2004), MassMutual Premier Funds (open-end investment company); Trustee (since 2021), MassMutual Advantage Funds (open-end investment company); Trustee (since 2012), MML Series Investment Fund (open-end investment company); Trustee (since 2005), MML Series Investment Fund II (open-end investment company).
R. Bradford Malt
1295 State Street
Springfield, MA 01111‑0001
Year of birth: 1954
Trustee of the Trust since 2022
Trustee of 110 portfolios in fund complex
Trustee of the Trust
Chairman (2004-2019), Management Committee (1993-2019), Partner (1987-2019), Associate (1979-1987), Ropes & Gray LLP (counsel to the Trust and MassMutual); Trustee (since 2022), MassMutual Select Funds (open-end investment company); Trustee (since 2022), MassMutual Premier Funds (open-end investment company); Trustee (since 2022), MassMutual Advantage Funds (open-end investment company); Trustee (since 2022), MML Series Investment Fund (open-end investment company); Trustee (since 2022), MML Series Investment Fund II (open-end investment company).
C. Ann Merrifield
1295 State Street
Springfield, MA 01111‑0001
Year of birth: 1951
Trustee of the Trust since 2012
Trustee of 110 portfolios in fund complex
Trustee of the Trust
Retired; Director (since 2020), Lead Director (2020-2022), Chairperson (since 2020) of the Nominating and Governance Committee, Member (since 2020) and Chairperson (2020-2022) of the Compensation Committee, and Member (2020-2022) of the Audit Committee, Lyra Therapeutics (a clinical-stage specialty pharmaceutical company); Director (since 2014), Chairperson (since 2017), Lead Director (2015-2017), Member (since 2014) and Chairperson (since 2015) of the Nominating and Governance Committee, Member (since 2019) of the Compensation Committee, and Member (2014-2019) of the Audit Committee, InVivo Therapeutics (research and clinical-stage biomaterials and biotechnology company); Trustee (since 2012), MassMutual Select Funds (open-end investment company); Trustee (since 2004), MassMutual Premier Funds (open-end investment company); Trustee (since 2021), MassMutual Advantage Funds (open-end investment company); Trustee (since 2012), MML Series Investment Fund (open-end investment company); Trustee (since 2005), MML Series Investment Fund II (open-end investment company).
Cynthia R. Plouché
1295 State Street
Springfield, MA 01111‑0001
Year of birth: 1957
Trustee of the Trust since 2022
Trustee of 110 portfolios in fund complex
Trustee of the Trust
Retired; Assessor (2014-2018), Moraine Township (property assessment); Trustee (since 2014), Northern Trust Funds (open-end investment companies); Trustee (since 2022), MassMutual Select Funds (open-end investment company); Trustee (since 2022), MassMutual Premier Funds (open-end investment company); Trustee (since 2022), MassMutual Advantage Funds (open-end investment company); Trustee (since 2022), MML Series Investment Fund (open-end investment company); Trustee (since 2022), MML Series Investment Fund II (open-end investment company).
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Jason J. Price
1295 State Street
Springfield, MA 01111‑0001
Year of birth: 1973
Trustee of the Trust since 2022
Trustee of 110 portfolios in fund complex
Trustee of the Trust
Co-Founder and Chairman of the Board (2017-2021), NXTHVN (arts organization); Trustee (since 2022), MassMutual Select Funds (open-end investment company); Trustee (since 2022), MassMutual Premier Funds (open-end investment company); Trustee (since 2022), MassMutual Advantage Funds (open-end investment company); Trustee (since 2022), MML Series Investment Fund (open-end investment company); Trustee (since 2022), MML Series Investment Fund II (open-end investment company).
Susan B. Sweeney
1295 State Street
Springfield, MA 01111‑0001
Year of birth: 1952
Chairperson of the Trust since 2022
Trustee of the Trust since 2009
Trustee of 112 portfolios in fund complex
1
Chairperson and Trustee of the Trust
Retired; Trustee (since 2012), Barings Corporate Investors (closed-end investment company); Trustee (since 2012), Barings Participation Investors (closed-end investment company); Chairperson (since 2022), Trustee (since 2009), MassMutual Select Funds (open-end investment company); Chairperson (since 2022), Trustee (since 2012), MassMutual Premier Funds (open-end investment company); Chairperson (since 2022), Trustee (since 2021), MassMutual Advantage Funds (open-end investment company); Chairperson (since 2022), Trustee (since 2009), MML Series Investment Fund (open-end investment company); Chairperson (since 2022), Trustee (since 2012), MML Series Investment Fund II (open-end investment company).
Interested Trustees
Michael R. Fanning2
1295 State Street
Springfield, MA 01111‑0001
Year of birth: 1963
Trustee of the Trust since 2021
Trustee of 110 portfolios in fund complex
Trustee of the Trust
Director (since 2016), MML Advisers; Head of MassMutual U.S. (since 2016), Executive Vice President (2016-2018), Member of MassMutual’s Executive Leadership Team (since 2008), MassMutual; Trustee (since 2021), MassMutual Select Funds (open-end investment company); Trustee (since 2021), MassMutual Premier Funds (open-end investment company); Trustee (since 2021), MassMutual Advantage Funds (open-end investment company); Trustee (since 2021), MML Series Investment Fund (open-end investment company); Trustee (since 2021), MML Series Investment Fund II (open-end investment company).
1
Barings Participation Investors and Barings Corporate Investors are deemed to be a part of the Fund Complex, because they are managed by Barings LLC, an affiliate of MML Advisers.
2
Mr. Fanning is an “Interested Person,” as that term is defined in the 1940 Act, as an employee of MassMutual.
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Clifford M. Noreen3
1295 State Street
Springfield, MA 01111‑0001
Year of birth: 1957
Trustee of the Trust since 2021
Trustee of 112 portfolios in fund complex
4
Trustee of the Trust
Head of Global Investment Strategy (since 2019), Deputy Chief Investment Officer and Managing Director (2016-2018), MassMutual; President (2008-2016), Vice Chairman (2007-2008), Member of the Board of Managers (2006-2016), Managing Director (2000-2016), Barings LLC; Chairman (since 2009), Trustee (since 2005), President (2005-2009), CI Subsidiary Trust and PI Subsidiary Trust; Chairman and Trustee (since 2009), President (2005-2009), Vice President (1993-2005), Barings Corporate Investors (closed-end investment company); Chairman and Trustee (since 2009), President (2005-2009), Vice President (1993-2005), Barings Participation Investors (closed-end investment company); Trustee (since 2021), MassMutual Select Funds (open-end investment company); Trustee (since 2021), MassMutual Premier Funds (open-end investment company); Trustee (since 2021), MassMutual Advantage Funds (open-end investment company); Trustee (since 2021), MML Series Investment Fund (open-end investment company); Trustee (since 2021), MML Series Investment Fund II (open-end investment company).
Principal Officers
Andrea Anastasio
1295 State Street
Springfield, MA 01111‑0001
Year of birth: 1974
Officer of the Trust since 2021
Officer of 110 portfolios in fund complex
Vice President
Vice President (since 2021), MML Advisers; Head of Investment Management Solutions (since 2021), MassMutual; Head of Investment Strategy and Research, North America (2019-2021), Head of Investment Product Management (2016-2019), State Street Global Advisors; Vice President (since 2021), MassMutual Select Funds (open-end investment company); Vice President (since 2021), MassMutual Premier Funds (open-end investment company); Vice President (since 2021), MassMutual Advantage Funds (open-end investment company); Vice President (since 2021), MML Series Investment Fund (open-end investment company); Vice President (since 2021), MML Series Investment Fund II (open-end investment company).
Andrew M. Goldberg
1295 State Street
Springfield, MA 01111‑0001
Year of birth: 1966
Officer of the Trust since 2001
Officer of 110 portfolios in fund complex
Vice President, Secretary, and Chief Legal Officer of the Trust
Lead Counsel, Investment Adviser & Mutual Funds (since 2018), Assistant Vice President and Counsel (2004-2018), MassMutual; Secretary (since 2015), Assistant Secretary (2013-2015), MML Advisers; Vice President, Secretary, and Chief Legal Officer (since 2008), Assistant Secretary (2001-2008), MassMutual Select Funds (open-end investment company); Vice President, Secretary (formerly known as “Clerk”), and Chief Legal Officer (since 2008), Assistant Clerk (2004-2008), MassMutual Premier Funds (open-end investment company); Vice President, Secretary, and Chief Legal Officer (since 2021), MassMutual Advantage Funds (open-end investment company); Vice President, Secretary, and Chief Legal Officer (since 2008), Assistant Secretary (2001-2008), MML Series Investment Fund (open-end investment company); Vice President, Secretary (formerly known as “Clerk”), and Chief Legal Officer (since 2008), Assistant Clerk (2005-2008), MML Series Investment Fund II (open-end investment company).
3
Mr. Noreen is an “Interested Person,” as that term is defined in the 1940 Act, as an employee of MassMutual.
4
Barings Participation Investors and Barings Corporate Investors are deemed to be a part of the Fund Complex, because they are managed by Barings LLC, an affiliate of MML Advisers.
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Renee Hitchcock
1295 State Street
Springfield, MA 01111‑0001
Year of birth: 1970
Officer of the Trust since 2007
Officer of 110 portfolios in fund complex
Chief Financial Officer and Treasurer of the Trust
Head of Mutual Fund Administration (since 2018), Assistant Vice President (2015-2018), MassMutual; Chief Financial Officer and Treasurer (since 2016), Assistant Treasurer (2007-2016), MassMutual Select Funds (open-end investment company); Chief Financial Officer and Treasurer (since 2016), Assistant Treasurer (2007-2016), MassMutual Premier Funds (open-end investment company); Chief Financial Officer and Treasurer (since 2021), MassMutual Advantage Funds (open-end investment company); Chief Financial Officer and Treasurer (since 2016), Assistant Treasurer (2007-2016), MML Series Investment Fund (open-end investment company); Chief Financial Officer and Treasurer (since 2016), Assistant Treasurer (2007-2016), MML Series Investment Fund II (open-end investment company).
Paul LaPiana
1295 State Street
Springfield, MA 01111‑0001
Year of birth: 1969
Officer of the Trust since 2021
Officer of 110 portfolios in fund complex
President of the Trust
President (since 2021), MML Advisers; Head of MassMutual U.S. Product (since 2019), Head of Field Management (2016-2019), MassMutual; President (since 2021), MassMutual Select Funds (open-end investment company); President (since 2021), MassMutual Premier Funds (open-end investment company); President (since 2021), MassMutual Advantage Funds (open-end investment company); President (since 2021), MML Series Investment Fund (open-end investment company); President (since 2021), MML Series Investment Fund II (open-end investment company).
Jill Nareau Robert
1295 State Street
Springfield, MA 01111‑0001
Year of birth: 1972
Officer of the Trust since 2008
Officer of 110 portfolios in fund complex
Vice President and Assistant Secretary of the Trust
Lead Counsel, Investment Adviser & Mutual Funds (since 2018), Assistant Vice President and Counsel (2009-2018), MassMutual; Assistant Secretary (since 2015), MML Advisers; Vice President and Assistant Secretary (since 2017), Assistant Secretary (2008-2017), MassMutual Select Funds (open-end investment company); Vice President and Assistant Secretary (since 2017), Assistant Secretary (formerly known as “Assistant Clerk”) (2008-2017), MassMutual Premier Funds (open-end investment company); Vice President and Assistant Secretary (since 2021), MassMutual Advantage Funds (open-end investment company); Vice President and Assistant Secretary (since 2017), Assistant Secretary (2008-2017), MML Series Investment Fund (open-end investment company); Vice President and Assistant Secretary (since 2017), Assistant Secretary (formerly known as “Assistant Clerk”) (2008-2017), MML Series Investment Fund II (open-end investment company).
Douglas Steele
1295 State Street
Springfield, MA 01111‑0001
Year of birth: 1975
Officer of the Trust since 2016
Officer of 110 portfolios in fund complex
Vice President of the Trust
Head of Product Management (since 2021), Vice President (since 2017), Head of Manager Research (2021), Head of Investment Management (2017-2021), Head of Investment Due Diligence (2016-2017), MML Advisers; Head of Product Management (since 2021), Head of Manager Research (2021), Head of Investment Management (2017-2021), Assistant Vice President (2013-2017), MassMutual; Vice President (since 2016), MassMutual Select Funds (open-end investment company); Vice President (since 2016), MassMutual Premier Funds (open-end investment company); Vice President (since 2021), MassMutual Advantage Funds (open-end investment company); Vice President (since 2016), MML Series Investment Fund (open-end investment company); Vice President (since 2016), MML Series Investment Fund II (open-end investment company).
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Philip S. Wellman
1295 State Street
Springfield, MA 01111‑0001
Year of birth: 1964
Officer of the Trust since 2007
Officer of 110 portfolios in fund complex
Vice President and Chief Compliance Officer of the Trust
Vice President and Chief Compliance Officer (since 2013), MML Advisers; Head of Mutual Funds & RIA Compliance (since 2018), Vice President, Associate General Counsel, and Chief Compliance Officer (Mutual Funds) (2014-2018), MassMutual; Vice President and Chief Compliance Officer (since 2007), MassMutual Select Funds (open-end investment company); Vice President and Chief Compliance Officer (since 2007), MassMutual Premier Funds (open-end investment company); Vice President and Chief Compliance Officer (since 2021), MassMutual Advantage Funds (open-end investment company); Vice President and Chief Compliance Officer (since 2007), MML Series Investment Fund (open-end investment company); Vice President and Chief Compliance Officer (since 2007), MML Series Investment Fund II (open-end investment company).
Each Trustee of the Trust serves until the next meeting of shareholders called for the purpose of electing Trustees and until the election and qualification of his or her successor or until he or she dies, resigns, or is removed. Notwithstanding the foregoing, unless the Trustees determine that it is desirable and in the best interest of the Trust that an exception to the retirement policy of the Trust be made, a Trustee shall retire and cease to serve as a Trustee upon the conclusion of the calendar year in which such Trustee attains the age of seventy-five years, however, an interested Trustee of the Trust shall no longer serve as a Trustee if or when they are no longer an employee of MassMutual or an affiliate.
The Chairperson is elected to hold such office for a term of three years or until their successor is elected and qualified to carry out the duties and responsibilities of their office, or until he or she retires, dies, resigns, is removed, or becomes disqualified, and any such Chairperson may not serve more than two consecutive terms.
The President, Treasurer, and Secretary and such other officers as the Trustees may in their discretion from time to time elect are elected to hold such office until their successor is elected and qualified to carry out the duties and responsibilities of their office, or until he or she dies, resigns, is removed, or becomes disqualified.
Each officer and the Chairperson shall hold office at the pleasure of the Trustees.
The Chairperson of any of the Trust’s Committees shall serve a term of three years or until he or she retires, dies, resigns, is removed, or becomes disqualified.
Additional Information About the Trustees
In addition to the information set forth above, the following specific experience, qualifications, attributes, and skills apply to each Trustee. Each Trustee was appointed to serve on the Board based on his or her overall experience and the Board did not identify any specific qualification as all-important or controlling. The information in this section should not be understood to mean that any of the Trustees is an “expert” within the meaning of the federal securities laws.
Allan W. Blair — As a former trustee and audit and compliance committee member of a large healthcare system, Mr. Blair has experience with financial, regulatory, and operational issues. He also has served as president and/or CEO of several non-profit and quasi-public organizations for over 30 years. Mr. Blair holds a BA from the University of Massachusetts at Amherst and a JD from Western New England College School of Law.
Nabil N. El-Hage — As a former CEO or CFO of various public and private companies, Mr. El-Hage has experience with financial, regulatory, and operational issues. He has also taught corporate finance at the graduate level, and has served as a director for more than a dozen public and private companies and as an associate at a venture capital firm. Mr. El-Hage holds a BS in Electronic Engineering from Yale University and an MBA with high distinction from Harvard University.
Michael R. Fanning — As an executive and/or director of financial services and insurance companies, Mr. Fanning has experience with financial, regulatory, and operational issues. He also has served as an audit committee member for financial services and insurance companies. Mr. Fanning holds a BA in Economics and a BA in Organizational Behavior and Management from Brown University.
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Maria D. Furman — As a trustee and chairperson or member of the audit and investment committees of various educational organizations, and as a former managing director, director, and portfolio manager at an investment management firm, Ms. Furman has experience with financial, regulatory, and operational issues. She also has served as an audit and investment committee member and a director, treasurer, and investment committee chair for environmental, educational, and healthcare organizations. Ms. Furman is a CFA charterholder and holds a BA from the University of Massachusetts at Dartmouth.
R. Bradford Malt — As a current Chairman Emeritus, a former Chairman, and a former partner of a corporate law firm, which serves as counsel to the Trust and to MML Advisers, with over 40 years of financial services experience, Mr. Malt has expertise in financial, regulatory, and operational issues. He has also served as a director for several public and private companies. Mr. Malt holds an AB in Applied Mathematics from Harvard College and a JD from Harvard Law School.
C. Ann Merrifield — As a trustee of a healthcare organization, current and former director of specialty pharmaceutical companies, former biotechnology executive, former partner of a consulting firm, and investment officer at a large insurance company, Ms. Merrifield has experience with financial, regulatory, and operational issues. She also has served as an audit committee member for a manufacturing company and three public life sciences companies. Ms. Merrifield holds a BA and M. Ed. from the University of Maine and an MBA from Amos Tuck School of Business Administration at Dartmouth College.
Clifford M. Noreen — As an executive of financial services companies with over 35 years of investment management experience, a director of several private companies, an investment committee member of two non-profit organizations, and a director and/or officer of various investment companies and private funds, Mr. Noreen has experience with financial, regulatory, and operational issues. Mr. Noreen holds a BA from the University of Massachusetts and an MBA from American International College.
Cynthia R. Plouché — As a former assessor of a township, a former portfolio manager for asset management firms, and a former chief investment officer and managing director of an asset management firm with over 32 years of financial services experience, Ms. Plouché has experience with financial, regulatory, and operational issues. She has also served as a trustee and audit committee member for open-end investment companies and a trustee for a closed-end investment company. Ms. Plouché holds a BA in Psychology and Social Relations from Harvard University and an MBA from the Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania.
Jason J. Price — As a former executive with over 25 years of financial services experience, Mr. Price has experience with financial, regulatory, and operational issues. He served as a Senior Vice President of Cigna Investment Management from 2009 to 2012 and as Head of Private Equity for the State of Connecticut Office of the Treasurer from 2005 to 2009. Mr. Price holds a BA in Business Administration from Morehouse College and an MBA from Harvard Business School.
Susan B. Sweeney — As a former executive and investment officer of a property and casualty company and a former executive of a financial services company with over 35 years of financial services experience, Ms. Sweeney has experience with financial, regulatory, and operational issues. From 2010 to 2014, she was Chief Investment Officer and Senior Vice President of Selective Insurance Company of America. She also served as Chief Investment Officer for the State of Connecticut Pension Fund from 2002 to 2007, directing a multi-asset portfolio. Ms. Sweeney holds a BS in Business Studies from Connecticut Board for State Academic Awards, an MBA from Harvard Business School, and a Doctor of Humane Letters from Charter Oak State College.
Board Committees and Meetings
The full Board met eight times during the fiscal year ended September 30, 2022.
Audit Committee.   The Trust has an Audit Committee, consisting of Trustees who are not “interested persons” ​(as defined in the 1940 Act) of the Trust. The Audit Committee, whose members are Messrs. Blair, El-Hage, Malt, and Price and Mses. Furman, Merrifield, and Plouché, oversees the Trust’s accounting and financial reporting policies and practices, its internal controls, and internal controls of certain service providers; oversees the quality and objectivity of the Trust’s financial statements and the independent audit thereof; evaluates the independence of the Trust’s independent registered public accounting firm; evaluates the overall performance and compensation of the Chief Compliance Officer; acts as liaison between the Trust’s independent registered public accounting firm and the full Board; and provides immediate access for the Trust’s independent registered public accounting firm to report any special matters they believe should be brought to the attention of the full Board. During the fiscal year ended September 30, 2022, the Audit Committee met four times.
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Nominating and Governance Committee.   The Trust has a Nominating and Governance Committee, consisting of each Trustee who is not an “interested person” of the Trust. The Nominating and Governance Committee meets at least twice per calendar year. During the fiscal year ended September 30, 2022, the Nominating and Governance Committee met twice. The Nominating and Governance Committee (a) identifies, and evaluates the qualifications of, individuals to become independent members of the Funds’ Board in the event that a position currently filled by an Independent Trustee is vacated or created; (b) nominates Independent Trustee nominees for election or appointment to the Board; (c) sets any necessary standards or qualifications for service on the Board; (d) recommends periodically to the full Board an Independent Trustee to serve as Chairperson; (e) evaluates at least annually the independence and overall performance of counsel to the Independent Trustees; (f) annually reviews the compensation of the Independent Trustees; and (g) oversees board governance issues including, but not limited to, (i) evaluating the board and committee structure and the performance of Trustees, (ii) considering and addressing any conflicts, (iii) considering the retirement policies of the Board, and (iv) considering and making recommendations to the Board at least annually concerning the Trust’s directors and officers liability insurance coverage.
The Nominating and Governance Committee will consider and evaluate nominee candidates properly submitted by shareholders of the Trust in the same manner as it considers and evaluates candidates recommended by other sources. The Nominating and Governance Committee may also consider any other facts and circumstances attendant to such shareholder submission as may be deemed appropriate by the Nominating and Governance Committee, including, without limitation, the value of the Funds’ securities owned by the shareholder and the length of time such shares have been held by the shareholder. A recommendation of a shareholder of the Trust must be submitted as described below to be considered properly submitted for purposes of the Nominating and Governance Committee’s consideration. The shareholders of the Trust must submit any such recommendation (a “Shareholder Recommendation”) in writing to the Trust’s Nominating and Governance Committee, to the attention of the Secretary, at the address of the principal executive offices of the Trust, which is 1295 State Street, Springfield, MA 01111-0001. The Shareholder Recommendation must be delivered to or mailed and received at the principal executive offices of the Trust at least 60 calendar days before the date of the meeting at which the Nominating and Governance Committee is to select a nominee for Independent Trustee. The Shareholder Recommendation must include: (i) a statement in writing setting forth: (A) the name, age, date of birth, phone number, business address, residence address, nationality, and pertinent qualifications of the person recommended by the shareholder (the “Shareholder Candidate”), including an explanation of why the shareholder believes the Shareholder Candidate will make a good Trustee; (B) the class or series and number of all shares of the Funds owned of record or beneficially by the Shareholder Candidate, as reported to such shareholder by the Shareholder Candidate; (C) any other information regarding the Shareholder Candidate called for with respect to director nominees by paragraphs (a), (d), (e), and (f) of Item 401 of Regulation S-K or paragraph (b) of Item 22 of Rule 14a-101 (Schedule 14A) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), adopted by the SEC (or the corresponding provisions of any regulation or rule subsequently adopted by the SEC or any successor agency applicable to the Funds); (D) any other information regarding the Shareholder Candidate that would be required to be disclosed if the Shareholder Candidate were a nominee in a proxy statement or other filing required to be made in connection with solicitation of proxies for election of trustees or directors pursuant to Section 14 of the Exchange Act and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder; and (E) whether the recommending shareholder believes that the Shareholder Candidate is or will be an “interested person” ​(as defined in Section 2(a)(19) of the 1940 Act) of the Funds and, if not an “interested person,” information regarding the Shareholder Candidate that will be sufficient for the Funds to make such determination; (ii) the written and signed consent of the Shareholder Candidate to be named as a nominee, consenting to (1) the disclosure, as may be necessary or appropriate, of such Shareholder Candidate’s information submitted in accordance with (i) above; and (2) service as a Trustee if elected; (iii) the recommending shareholder’s name as it appears on the Funds’ books, the number of all shares of each series of the Funds owned beneficially and of record by the recommending shareholder; (iv) a description of all arrangements or understandings between the recommending shareholder and the Shareholder Candidate and any other person or persons (including their names) pursuant to which the Shareholder Recommendation is being made by the recommending shareholder; and (v) such other information as the Nominating and Governance Committee may require the Shareholder Candidate to furnish as the Nominating and Governance Committee may reasonably require or deem necessary to determine the eligibility of such Shareholder Candidate to serve as a Trustee or to satisfy applicable law.
Shareholders may send other communications to the Trustees by addressing such correspondence directly to the Secretary of the Trust, c/o Massachusetts Mutual Life Insurance Company, 1295 State Street, Springfield, MA 01111-0001. When writing to the Board, shareholders should identify themselves, the fact that the communication is directed to the Board, the Fund they are writing about, and any relevant information regarding their Fund holdings. Except as provided below, the Secretary shall either (i) provide a copy of each shareholder communication to the Board at its next regularly scheduled meeting or (ii) if the Secretary determines that the communication requires more immediate attention, forward
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the communication to the Board promptly after receipt. The Secretary will also provide a copy of each shareholder communication to the Trust’s Chief Compliance Officer.
The Secretary may, in good faith, determine that a shareholder communication should not be provided to the Board because it does not reasonably relate to the Trust or its operations, management, activities, policies, service providers, Board, officers, shareholders, or other matters relating to an investment in the Funds or is otherwise ministerial in nature (such as a request for Fund literature, share data, or financial information). The Secretary will provide to the Board on a quarterly basis a summary of the shareholder communications not provided to the Board by virtue of this paragraph.
Contract Committee.   The Trust has a Contract Committee, consisting of each Trustee who is not an “interested person” of the Trust. During the fiscal year ended September 30, 2022, the Contract Committee met twice. The Contract Committee performs the specific tasks assigned to independent trustees by the 1940 Act, including the periodic consideration of the Trust’s investment management agreements and subadvisory agreements.
Risk Oversight
As registered investment companies, the Funds are subject to a variety of risks, including, among others, investment risks, financial risks, compliance risks, and operational risks. The Funds’ investment adviser and administrator, MML Advisers, has primary responsibility for the Funds’ risk management on a day-to-day basis as part of its overall responsibilities. The Funds’ subadvisers are primarily responsible for managing investment risk as part of their day-to-day investment management responsibilities, as well as operational risks at their respective firms. The Funds’ investment adviser and Chief Compliance Officer also assist the Board in overseeing the significant investment policies of the Funds and monitor the various compliance policies and procedures approved by the Board as a part of its oversight responsibilities.
In discharging its oversight responsibilities, the Board considers risk management issues throughout the year by reviewing regular reports prepared by the Funds’ investment adviser and Chief Compliance Officer, as well as special written reports or presentations provided on a variety of risk issues, as needed. For example, the investment adviser reports to the Board quarterly on the investment performance of each of the Funds, the financial performance of the Funds, overall market and economic conditions, and legal and regulatory developments that may impact the Funds. The Funds’ Chief Compliance Officer, who reports directly to the Board’s Independent Trustees, provides presentations to the Board at its quarterly meetings and an annual report to the Board concerning (i) compliance matters relating to the Funds, the Funds’ investment adviser and subadvisers, and the Funds’ other key service providers; (ii) regulatory developments; (iii) business continuity programs; and (iv) various risks identified as part of the Funds’ compliance program assessments. The Funds’ Chief Compliance Officer also meets at least quarterly in executive session with the Independent Trustees, and communicates significant compliance-related issues and regulatory developments to the Audit Committee between Board meetings.
In addressing issues regarding the Funds’ risk management between meetings, appropriate representatives of the investment adviser communicate with the Chairperson of the Trust, the Chairperson of the Audit Committee, or the Funds’ Chief Compliance Officer. As appropriate, the Trustees confer among themselves, or with the Funds’ Chief Compliance Officer, the investment adviser, other service providers, and independent legal counsel, to identify and review risk management issues that may be placed on the full Board’s agenda.
The Board also relies on its committees to administer the Board’s oversight function. The Audit Committee assists the Board in reviewing with the investment adviser and the Funds’ independent auditors, at various times throughout the year, matters relating to the annual audits, financial accounting and reporting matters, and the internal control environment at the service providers that provide financial accounting and reporting for the Funds. The Audit Committee also meets annually with representatives of the investment adviser’s Corporate Audit Department to review the results of internal audits of relevance to the Funds. This and the Board’s other committees present reports to the Board that may prompt further discussion of issues concerning the oversight of the Funds’ risk management. The Board may also discuss particular risks that are not addressed in the committee process.
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Share Ownership of Trustees and Officers of the Trust
The table below sets forth information regarding the Trustees’ beneficial ownership of Fund shares, based on the value of such shares as of December 31, 2022.
Name of Trustee
The Dollar Range of Equity
Securities Beneficially Owned
in the Trust
Aggregate Dollar Range of Equity
Securities in All Registered Investment
Companies Overseen by Trustee in
Family of Investment Companies
Independent Trustees
Allan W. Blair
None
over $100,000
Nabil N. El-Hage
None
None
Maria D. Furman
None
None
R. Bradford Malt
None
None
C. Ann Merrifield
None
None
Cynthia R. Plouché
None
None
Jason J. Price
None
None
Susan B. Sweeney
None
None
Interested Trustees
Michael R. Fanning
None
None
Clifford M. Noreen
None
None
The ownership information shown above does not include units of separate investment accounts that invest in one or more registered investment companies overseen by a Trustee in the family of investment companies held in a 401(k) plan or amounts held under a deferred compensation plan that are valued based on “shadow investments” in one or more such registered investment companies. As of December 31, 2022, these amounts were as follows: Mr. Blair, over $100,000; Mr. El-Hage, over $100,000; Mr. Fanning, $10,001-$50,000; Ms. Furman, None; Mr. Malt, None; Ms. Merrifield, None; Mr. Noreen, over $100,000; Ms. Plouché, None; Mr. Price, None; and Ms. Sweeney, None.
As of January 3, 2023, the Trustees and officers of the Trust, individually and as a group, did not beneficially own outstanding shares of any of the Funds.
To the knowledge of the Trust, as of December 31, 2022, the Independent Trustees and their immediate family members did not own beneficially or of record securities of the investment adviser, subadviser(s), principal underwriter, or sponsoring insurance company of the Funds or a person (other than a registered investment company) directly or indirectly controlling, controlled by, or under common control with the investment adviser, subadviser(s), principal underwriter, or sponsoring insurance company of the Funds.
Trustee Compensation
Effective January 1, 2023 the Trust, on behalf of each Fund, pays each of its Trustees who is not an officer or employee of MassMutual a fee of $35,805 per quarter plus a fee of $5,208 per in-person meeting attended plus a fee of $5,208 for the annual Contract Committee meeting. The Chairperson of the Board is paid an additional 40% of the quarterly fee, the in-person meeting fee, and the Contract Committee meeting fee. The Chairpersons of each of the Audit Committee and the Contract Committee are paid an additional 10% of the quarterly fee, the in-person meeting fee, and the Contract Committee meeting fee. The Chairperson of the Nominating and Governance Committee is paid an additional 7% of the quarterly fee, the in-person meeting fee, and the Contract Committee meeting fee. Such Trustees who serve on the Audit Committee, other than the Chairperson, are paid an additional 4% of the quarterly fee, the in-person meeting fee, and the Contract Committee meeting fee. No additional fees are paid for attending any other committee meetings or any special telephonic meetings. In addition, the Trust reimburses out-of-pocket business travel expenses to such Trustees. Trustees who are officers or employees of MassMutual receive no fees from the Trust.
During 2022, the Trust, on behalf of each Fund, paid each of its Trustees who was not an officer or employee of MassMutual a fee of $36,905 per quarter plus a fee of $5,368 per in-person meeting attended plus a fee of $5,368 for the annual Contract Committee meeting. The Chairperson of the Board was paid an additional 40% of the quarterly fee, the in-person meeting fee, and the Contract Committee meeting fee. The Chairpersons of each of the Audit Committee and the Contract Committee were paid an additional 10% of the quarterly fee, the in-person meeting fee, and the Contract
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Committee meeting fee. The Chairperson of the Nominating and Governance Committee was paid an additional 7% of the quarterly fee, the in-person meeting fee, and the Contract Committee meeting fee. Such Trustees who served on the Audit Committee, other than the Chairperson, were paid an additional 4% of the quarterly fee, the in-person meeting fee, and the Contract Committee meeting fee. No additional fees were paid for attending any other committee meetings or any special telephonic meetings. In addition, the Trust reimbursed out-of-pocket business travel expenses to such Trustees. Trustees who were officers or employees of MassMutual received no fees from the Trust.
The following table discloses actual compensation paid to Trustees of the Trust during the 2022 fiscal year. The Trust has no pension or retirement plan, but does have a deferred compensation plan. The plan provides for amounts deferred prior to July 1, 2008, plus interest, to be credited a rate of interest of eight percent (8%). Amounts deferred after July 1, 2008, plus or minus earnings, are “shadow invested.” These amounts are valued based on changes in the values of one or more registered investment companies overseen by a Trustee.
Name of Trustee
Aggregate Compensation from the Trust
Total Compensation from the Trust and
Fund Complex Paid to Trustees
Allan W. Blair
$191,115
$285,825
Nabil N. El-Hage
$196,280  1
$337,648
Michael R. Fanning
$0
$0
Maria D. Furman
$179,064
$267,800
R. Alan Hunter, Jr. 2
$149,919
$224,700
R. Bradford Malt 3
$53,633
$79,930
C. Ann Merrifield
$186,915
$279,500
Clifford M. Noreen
$0
$0
Cynthia R. Plouché 3
$53,633
$119,930
Jason J. Price 3
$53,633
$119,930
Susan B. Sweeney
$228,647
$510,787
?
1
The compensation amount shown does not include a gain/loss in the amount of $1,896 attributable to amounts held under a deferred compensation plan.
?
2
Retired from the Board as of June 30, 2022.
?
3
Joined the Board as of June 21, 2022.
CONTROL PERSONS AND PRINCIPAL HOLDERS OF SECURITIES
As of January 3, 2023, to the Trust’s knowledge, the following persons owned of record or beneficially 5% or more of the outstanding shares of the indicated classes of the Funds set forth below. Such ownership may be beneficially held by individuals or entities other than the owner listed. To the extent that any listed shareholder beneficially owns more than 25% of a Fund, it may be deemed to “control” such Fund within the meaning of the 1940 Act. The effect of such control may be to reduce the ability of other shareholders of the Fund to take actions requiring the affirmative vote of holders of a plurality or majority of the Fund’s shares without the approval of the controlling shareholder.
MM Equity Asset Fund
Class
Name and Address of Owner
Percent of Class
Class I
MassMutual RetireSMARTSM by JPMorgan 2040 Fund
1 Iron Street
Boston, MA 02210
15.18%
MassMutual RetireSMARTSM by JPMorgan 2030 Fund
1 Iron Street
Boston, MA 02210
15.10%
MassMutual RetireSMARTSM by JPMorgan 2050 Fund
1 Iron Street
Boston, MA 02210
11.92%
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Class
Name and Address of Owner
Percent of Class
MassMutual 60/40 Allocation Fund
1 Iron Street
Boston, MA 02210
9.03%
MassMutual RetireSMARTSM by JPMorgan 2035 Fund
1 Iron Street
Boston, MA 02210
8.14%
MassMutual 80/20 Allocation Fund
1 Iron Street
Boston, MA 02210
7.67%
MassMutual RetireSMARTSM by JPMorgan 2045 Fund
1 Iron Street
Boston, MA 02210
7.26%
MassMutual 40/60 Allocation Fund
1 Iron Street
Boston, MA 02210
5.69%
MassMutual RetireSMARTSM by JPMorgan 2025 Fund
1 Iron Street
Boston, MA 02210
5.27%
MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Bond Asset Fund1
Class
Name and Address of Owner
Percent of Class
Class I
MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Retirement 2030 Fund
1 Iron Street
Boston, MA 02210
29.91%
MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Retirement 2020 Fund
1 Iron Street
Boston, MA 02210
17.59%
MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Retirement 2025 Fund
1 Iron Street
Boston, MA 02210
16.23%
MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Retirement 2035 Fund
1 Iron Street
Boston, MA 02210
10.37%
MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Retirement 2040 Fund
1 Iron Street
Boston, MA 02210
8.10%
MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Retirement Balanced Fund
1 Iron Street
Boston, MA 02210
6.15%
MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Emerging Markets Bond Fund2
Class
Name and Address of Owner
Percent of Class
Class I
MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Retirement 2030 Fund
1 Iron Street
Boston, MA 02210
28.13%
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Class
Name and Address of Owner
Percent of Class
MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Retirement 2020 Fund
1 Iron Street
Boston, MA 02210
22.24%
MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Retirement 2025 Fund
1 Iron Street
Boston, MA 02210
18.84%
MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Retirement Balanced Fund
1 Iron Street
Boston, MA 02210
8.48%
MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Retirement 2035 Fund
1 Iron Street
Boston, MA 02210
7.85%
MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Retirement 2015 Fund
1 Iron Street
Boston, MA 02210
5.14%
MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Large Cap Blend Fund
Class
Name and Address of Owner
Percent of Class
Class I
MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Retirement 2040 Fund
1 Iron Street
Boston, MA 02210
20.52%
MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Retirement 2030 Fund
1 Iron Street
Boston, MA 02210
17.81%
MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Retirement 2050 Fund
1 Iron Street
Boston, MA 02210
15.14%
MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Retirement 2035 Fund
1 Iron Street
Boston, MA 02210
11.03%
MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Retirement 2045 Fund
1 Iron Street
Boston, MA 02210
10.19%
MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Retirement 2025 Fund
1 Iron Street
Boston, MA 02210
6.64%
MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Retirement 2055 Fund
1 Iron Street
Boston, MA 02210
6.51%
MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Retirement 2020 Fund
1 Iron Street
Boston, MA 02210
5.54%
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MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Limited Duration Inflation Focused Bond Fund3
Class
Name and Address of Owner
Percent of Class
Class I
MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Retirement 2020 Fund
1 Iron Street
Boston, MA 02210
30.04%
MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Retirement 2025 Fund
1 Iron Street
Boston, MA 02210
20.61%
MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Retirement Balanced Fund
1 Iron Street
Boston, MA 02210
17.51%
MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Retirement 2030 Fund
1 Iron Street
Boston, MA 02210
13.46%
MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Retirement 2010 Fund
1 Iron Street
Boston, MA 02210
8.11%
MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Retirement 2015 Fund
1 Iron Street
Boston, MA 02210
7.78%
MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Real Assets Fund
Class
Name and Address of Owner
Percent of Class
Class I
MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Retirement 2040 Fund
1 Iron Street
Boston, MA 02210
20.55%
MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Retirement 2030 Fund
1 Iron Street
Boston, MA 02210
17.79%
MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Retirement 2050 Fund
1 Iron Street
Boston, MA 02210
15.08%
MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Retirement 2035 Fund
1 Iron Street
Boston, MA 02210
11.02%
MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Retirement 2045 Fund
1 Iron Street
Boston, MA 02210
10.21%
MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Retirement 2025 Fund
1 Iron Street
Boston, MA 02210
6.65%
MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Retirement 2055 Fund
1 Iron Street
Boston, MA 02210
6.51%
MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Retirement 2020 Fund
1 Iron Street
Boston, MA 02210
5.52%
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MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Small and Mid Cap Blend Fund
Class
Name and Address of Owner
Percent of Class
Class I
MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Retirement 2040 Fund
1 Iron Street
Boston, MA 02210
20.53%
MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Retirement 2030 Fund
1 Iron Street
Boston, MA 02210
17.83%
MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Retirement 2050 Fund
1 Iron Street
Boston, MA 02210
15.15%
MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Retirement 2035 Fund
1 Iron Street
Boston, MA 02210
10.98%
MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Retirement 2045 Fund
1 Iron Street
Boston, MA 02210
10.25%
MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Retirement 2025 Fund
1 Iron Street
Boston, MA 02210
6.55%
MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Retirement 2055 Fund
1 Iron Street
Boston, MA 02210
6.54%
MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Retirement 2020 Fund
1 Iron Street
Boston, MA 02210
5.56%
MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price U.S. Treasury Long-Term Index Fund4
Class
Name and Address of Owner
Percent of Class
Class I
MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Retirement 2030 Fund
1 Iron Street
Boston, MA 02210
31.95%
MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Retirement 2025 Fund
1 Iron Street
Boston, MA 02210
14.04%
MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Retirement 2035 Fund
1 Iron Street
Boston, MA 02210
13.48%
MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Retirement 2020 Fund
1 Iron Street
Boston, MA 02210
12.86%
MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Retirement 2040 Fund
1 Iron Street
Boston, MA 02210
12.54%
?
1
As of January 3, 2023, MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Retirement 2030 Fund, 1 Iron Street, Boston, MA 02110, owned 29.91% of MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Bond Asset Fund and therefore may be presumed to “control”
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the Fund, as that term is defined in the 1940 Act. However, such ownership may be beneficially held by individuals or entities other than MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Retirement 2030 Fund. MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Retirement 2030 Fund is organized under the laws of Massachusetts.
?
2
As of January 3, 2023, MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Retirement 2030 Fund, 1 Iron Street, Boston, MA 02110, owned 28.13% of MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Emerging Markets Bond Fund and therefore may be presumed to “control” the Fund, as that term is defined in the 1940 Act. However, such ownership may be beneficially held by individuals or entities other than MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Retirement 2030 Fund. MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Retirement 2030 Fund is organized under the laws of Massachusetts.
?
3
As of January 3, 2023, MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Retirement 2020 Fund, 1 Iron Street, Boston, MA 02110, owned 30.04% of MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Limited Duration Inflation Focused Bond Fund and therefore may be presumed to “control” the Fund, as that term is defined in the 1940 Act. However, such ownership may be beneficially held by individuals or entities other than MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Retirement 2020 Fund. MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Retirement 2020 Fund is organized under the laws of Massachusetts.
?
4
As of January 4, 2022, MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Retirement 2030 Fund, 1 Iron Street, Boston, MA 02110, owned 31.95% of MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price U.S. Treasury Long-Term Index Fund and therefore may be presumed to “control” the Fund, as that term is defined in the 1940 Act. However, such ownership may be beneficially held by individuals or entities other than MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Retirement 2030 Fund. MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Retirement 2030 Fund is organized under the laws of Massachusetts.
INVESTMENT ADVISORY AND OTHER SERVICE AGREEMENTS
Investment Adviser
MML Advisers, a wholly-owned subsidiary of MassMutual, serves as investment adviser to each Fund pursuant to Investment Management Agreements with the Trust on behalf of the Funds (each, an “Advisory Agreement”). Under each Advisory Agreement, MML Advisers is obligated to provide for the management of each Fund’s portfolio of securities, subject to policies established by the Trustees of the Trust and in accordance with each Fund’s investment objective, policies, and restrictions as set forth herein and in the Prospectus, and has the right to select subadvisers to the Funds pursuant to an investment subadvisory agreement (the “Subadvisory Agreement”).
The Advisory Agreement with each Fund may be terminated by the Board or by MML Advisers without penalty: (i) at any time for cause or by agreement of the parties or (ii) by either party upon sixty days’ written notice to the other party. In addition, each Advisory Agreement automatically terminates if it is assigned or if its continuance is not specifically approved at least annually (after its initial 2 year period) by the Board or by the holders of a majority of the outstanding voting securities of the applicable Fund, and in either case by a majority of the Trustees who are not parties to the Advisory Agreement or interested persons of any such party. MML Advisers’ liability regarding its investment management obligations and duties is limited to situations involving its willful misfeasance, bad faith, gross negligence, or reckless disregard of such obligations and duties.
MML Advisers also serves as investment adviser to: MassMutual Total Return Bond Fund, MassMutual Strategic Bond Fund, MassMutual Diversified Value Fund, MassMutual Fundamental Value Fund, MM S&P 500® Index Fund, MassMutual Equity Opportunities Fund, MassMutual Fundamental Growth Fund, MassMutual Blue Chip Growth Fund, MassMutual Growth Opportunities Fund, MassMutual Mid Cap Value Fund, MassMutual Small Cap Value Equity Fund, MassMutual Small Company Value Fund, MassMutual Mid Cap Growth Fund, MassMutual Small Cap Growth Equity Fund, MassMutual Overseas Fund, MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price International Equity Fund, MassMutual 20/80 Allocation Fund, MassMutual 40/60 Allocation Fund, MassMutual 60/40 Allocation Fund, MassMutual 80/20 Allocation Fund, MassMutual RetireSMARTSM by JPMorgan In Retirement Fund, MassMutual RetireSMARTSM by JPMorgan 2020 Fund, MassMutual RetireSMARTSM by JPMorgan 2025 Fund, MassMutual RetireSMARTSM by JPMorgan 2030 Fund, MassMutual RetireSMARTSM by JPMorgan 2035 Fund, MassMutual RetireSMARTSM by JPMorgan 2040 Fund, MassMutual RetireSMARTSM by JPMorgan 2045 Fund, MassMutual RetireSMARTSM by JPMorgan 2050 Fund, MassMutual RetireSMARTSM by JPMorgan 2055 Fund, MassMutual RetireSMARTSM by JPMorgan 2060 Fund, MassMutual RetireSMARTSM by JPMorgan 2065 Fund, MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Retirement Balanced Fund, MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Retirement 2005 Fund, MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Retirement 2010 Fund, MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Retirement 2015 Fund, MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Retirement 2020 Fund, MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Retirement 2025 Fund, MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Retirement 2030 Fund, MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Retirement 2035 Fund, MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Retirement 2040 Fund, MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Retirement 2045 Fund, MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Retirement 2050 Fund, MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Retirement 2055 Fund, MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Retirement 2060 Fund, and
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MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Retirement 2065 Fund, which are series of the Trust; MassMutual U.S. Government Money Market Fund, MassMutual Short-Duration Bond Fund, MassMutual Inflation-Protected and Income Fund, MassMutual Core Bond Fund, MassMutual Diversified Bond Fund, MassMutual High Yield Fund, MassMutual Balanced Fund, MassMutual Disciplined Value Fund, MassMutual Main Street Fund, MassMutual Disciplined Growth Fund, MassMutual Small Cap Opportunities Fund, MassMutual Global Fund, MassMutual International Equity Fund, and MassMutual Strategic Emerging Markets Fund, which are series of MassMutual Premier Funds, an open-end management investment company; MassMutual Global Floating Rate Fund, MassMutual Global Credit Income Opportunities Fund, MassMutual Emerging Markets Debt Blended Total Return Fund, and MassMutual Global Emerging Markets Equity Fund, which are series of MassMutual Advantage Funds, an open-end management investment company; MML Aggressive Allocation Fund, MML American Funds Core Allocation Fund, MML American Funds Growth Fund, MML Balanced Allocation Fund, MML Blue Chip Growth Fund, MML Conservative Allocation Fund, MML Equity Income Fund, MML Equity Index Fund, MML Focused Equity Fund, MML Foreign Fund, MML Fundamental Equity Fund, MML Fundamental Value Fund, MML Global Fund, MML Growth Allocation Fund, MML Income & Growth Fund, MML International Equity Fund, MML Large Cap Growth Fund, MML Managed Volatility Fund, MML Mid Cap Growth Fund, MML Mid Cap Value Fund, MML Moderate Allocation Fund, MML Small Cap Growth Equity Fund, MML Small Company Value Fund, MML Small/Mid Cap Value Fund, MML Sustainable Equity Fund, and MML Total Return Bond Fund, which are series of MML Series Investment Fund, an open-end management investment company; MML Blend Fund, MML Dynamic Bond Fund, MML Equity Fund, MML Equity Rotation Fund, MML High Yield Fund, MML Inflation-Protected and Income Fund, MML iShares® 60/40 Allocation Fund, MML iShares® 80/20 Allocation Fund, MML Managed Bond Fund, MML Short-Duration Bond Fund, MML Small Cap Equity Fund, MML Strategic Emerging Markets Fund, and MML U.S. Government Money Market Fund, which are series of MML Series Investment Fund II, an open-end management investment company; certain wholly-owned subsidiaries of MassMutual; and various employee benefit plans and separate investment accounts in which employee benefit plans invest.
The Trust, on behalf of each Fund, pays MML Advisers an investment advisory fee monthly, at an annual rate based upon the average daily net assets of that Fund as follows:
Fund
MM Equity Asset Fund
0.18%
MM Select T. Rowe Price Bond Asset Fund
0.00%
MM Select T. Rowe Price Emerging Markets Bond Fund 0.00%
MM Select T. Rowe Price Large Cap Blend Fund
0.00%
MM Select T. Rowe Price Limited Duration Inflation Focused Bond Fund 0.00%
MM Select T. Rowe Price Real Assets Fund
0.00%
MM Select T. Rowe Price Small and Mid Cap Blend Fund 0.00%
MM Select T. Rowe Price U.S. Treasury Long-Term Index Fund 0.00%
Unaffiliated Subadvisers
J.P. Morgan
MML Advisers has entered into a Subadvisory Agreement with J.P. Morgan pursuant to which J.P. Morgan serves as a subadviser for the MM Equity Asset Fund. This agreement provides that J.P. Morgan manage the investment and reinvestment of the assets of the Fund. J.P. Morgan is located at 383 Madison Avenue, New York, New York 10179. J.P. Morgan is a wholly-owned subsidiary of JP Morgan Asset Management Holdings Inc., which is a wholly-owned subsidiary of JPMorgan Chase & Co., a bank holding company.
J.P. Morgan also provides subadvisory services for the MassMutual RetireSMARTSM By JPMorgan In Retirement Fund, MassMutual RetireSMARTSM by JPMorgan 2020 Fund, MassMutual RetireSMARTSM by JPMorgan 2025 Fund, MassMutual RetireSMARTSM by JPMorgan 2030 Fund, MassMutual RetireSMARTSM by JPMorgan 2035 Fund, MassMutual RetireSMARTSM by JPMorgan 2040 Fund, MassMutual RetireSMARTSM by JPMorgan 2045 Fund,
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MassMutual RetireSMARTSM by JPMorgan 2050 Fund, MassMutual RetireSMARTSM by JPMorgan 2055 Fund, MassMutual RetireSMARTSM by JPMorgan 2060 Fund, and MassMutual RetireSMARTSM by JPMorgan 2065 Fund, each of which is a series of the Trust.
T. Rowe Price
MML Advisers has entered into Subadvisory Agreements with T. Rowe Price pursuant to which T. Rowe Price serves as a subadviser for the MM Select T. Rowe Price Bond Asset Fund, MM Select T. Rowe Price Emerging Markets Bond Fund, MM Select T. Rowe Price Large Cap Blend Fund, MM Select T. Rowe Price Limited Duration Inflation Focused Bond Fund, MM Select T. Rowe Price Real Assets Fund, MM Select T. Rowe Price Small and Mid Cap Blend Fund, and MM Select T. Rowe Price U.S. Treasury Long-Term Index Fund. These agreements provide that T. Rowe Price manage the investment and reinvestment of the assets of the Funds. T. Rowe Price is located at 100 East Pratt Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21202. T. Rowe Price is a wholly-owned subsidiary of T. Rowe Price Group, Inc., a publicly traded financial services holding company.
T. Rowe Price also provides subadvisory services for the MassMutual Diversified Value Fund, MassMutual Equity Opportunities Fund, MassMutual Blue Chip Growth Fund, MassMutual Mid Cap Growth Fund, MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price International Equity Fund, MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Retirement Balanced Fund, MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Retirement 2005 Fund, MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Retirement 2010 Fund, MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Retirement 2015 Fund, MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Retirement 2020 Fund, MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Retirement 2025 Fund, MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Retirement 2030 Fund, MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Retirement 2035 Fund, MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Retirement 2040 Fund, MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Retirement 2045 Fund, MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Retirement 2050 Fund, MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Retirement 2055 Fund, and MassMutual Select T. Rowe Price Retirement 2060 Fund, each of which is a series of the Trust, for the MML Blue Chip Growth Fund, MML Equity Income Fund, and MML Mid Cap Growth Fund, each of which is a series of MML Series Investment Fund, a registered, open-end investment company for which MML Advisers serves as investment adviser, and for the MML Equity Fund which is a series of MML Series Investment Fund II, a registered, open-end investment company for which MML Advisers serves as investment adviser.
In addition, each of T. Rowe Price International and T. Rowe Price Hong Kong serves as a sub-subadviser for the MM Select T. Rowe Price Bond Asset Fund and MM Select T. Rowe Price Limited Duration Inflation Focused Bond Fund, T. Rowe Price Japan serves as a sub-subadviser for the MM Select T. Rowe Price Real Assets Fund, and T. Rowe Price Investment Management serves as a sub-subadviser for the MM Select T. Rowe Price Small and Mid Cap Blend Fund. Each of T. Rowe Price International and T. Rowe Price Investment Management is a wholly-owned subsidiary of T. Rowe Price and each of T. Rowe Price Hong Kong and T. Rowe Price Japan is a wholly-owned subsidiary of T. Rowe Price International. T. Rowe Price has entered into a subadvisory agreement with each of T. Rowe Price International, T. Rowe Price Hong Kong, T. Rowe Price Japan, and T. Rowe Price Investment Management under which, subject to the supervision of T. Rowe Price, T. Rowe Price International, T. Rowe Price Hong Kong, T. Rowe Price Japan, and T. Rowe Price Investment Management are authorized to trade securities, make discretionary investment decisions, and effect securities transactions, including the negotiation of commissions and the allocation of principal business and portfolio brokerage, on behalf of the MM Select T. Rowe Price Bond Asset Fund, MM Select T. Rowe Price Limited Duration Inflation Focused Bond Fund, MM Select T. Rowe Price Real Assets Fund, and MM Select T. Rowe Price Small and Mid Cap Blend Fund, as applicable. T. Rowe Price International is located at 60 Queen Victoria Street, London, England EC4N 4TZ. T. Rowe Price Hong Kong is located at 6/F Chater House, 8 Connaught Place, Central Hong Kong. T. Rowe Price Japan is located at Gran Tokyo South Tower 7F, I-9-2, Marunouchi, 1-chome, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, 100-6607, Japan. T. Rowe Price Investment Management is located at 100 East Pratt Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21202. T. Rowe Price International and T. Rowe Price Hong Kong also provide sub-subadvisory services for the MM Select T. Rowe Price International Equity Fund, which is a series of the Trust. T. Rowe Price Investment Management also provides sub-subadvisory services for the MassMutual Mid Cap Growth Fund, which is a series of the Trust, and for the MML Mid Cap Growth Fund which is a series of MML Series Investment Fund, a registered, open-end investment company for which MML Advisers serves as investment adviser.
The Funds’ subadvisory fees are paid by MML Advisers out of the advisory fees previously disclosed above.
Information about each portfolio manager’s compensation, other accounts managed by the portfolio managers, and each portfolio manager’s ownership of securities in the relevant Fund can be found in Appendix C.
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Administrator, Sub-Administrators, and Shareholder Servicing Agent
MML Advisers has entered into an administrative and shareholder services agreement (the “Administrative and Shareholder Services Agreement”) with the Trust, on behalf of each Fund, pursuant to which MML Advisers is obligated to provide certain administrative and shareholder services. MML Advisers may, at its expense, employ others to supply all or any part of the services to be provided to the Funds pursuant to the Administrative and Shareholder Services Agreement. MML Advisers has entered into sub-administration agreements with both State Street and MassMutual pursuant to which State Street and MassMutual each assist in many aspects of fund administration. Pursuant to a letter agreement between the Trust, MML Advisers, and State Street, the Trust has agreed to pay State Street for the services it provides pursuant to the sub-administration agreement with MML Advisers, although MML Advisers remains ultimately responsible for the payment of any such fees owed to State Street. The Trust, on behalf of each Fund, pays MML Advisers an administrative services fee monthly at an annual rate as shown in the table below:
Class I
MM Equity Asset Fund None
MM Select T. Rowe Price Bond Asset Fund None
MM Select T. Rowe Price Emerging Markets Bond Fund None
MM Select T. Rowe Price Large Cap Blend Fund None
MM Select T. Rowe Price Limited Duration Inflation Focused Bond Fund
None
MM Select T. Rowe Price Real Assets Fund None
MM Select T. Rowe Price Small and Mid Cap Blend Fund None
MM Select T. Rowe Price U.S. Treasury Long-Term Index Fund None
Pursuant to the Advisory Agreements, Subadvisory Agreements, and Administrative and Shareholder Services Agreement described above, for the fiscal years ended September 30, 2022, September 30, 2021, and September 30, 2020, the amount of advisory fees paid by each Fund, the amount of subadvisory fees paid by each Fund, the amount of administrative fees paid by each Fund, and the amount of any fees reimbursed by MML Advisers are as follows:
Fiscal Year Ended September 30, 2022
Advisory Fees
Paid
Subadvisory
Fees Paid
Administrative
Fees Paid
Other
Expenses
Reimbursed
MM Equity Asset Fund
$ 686,915 $ 686,459 $ $
MM Select T. Rowe Price Bond Asset Fund 1
(532,638)
MM Select T. Rowe Price Emerging Markets Bond Fund 1
(177,431)
MM Select T. Rowe Price Large Cap Blend Fund 1
(501,605)
MM Select T. Rowe Price Limited Duration Inflation
Focused Bond Fund1
(182,577)
MM Select T. Rowe Price Real Assets Fund 1
(180,114)
MM Select T. Rowe Price Small and Mid Cap Blend
Fund1
(272,875)
MM Select T. Rowe Price U.S. Treasury Long-Term Index
Fund1
(138,060)
?
1
The expenses in the above table reflect a written agreement by MML Advisers to cap the fees and expenses of the Fund (other than extraordinary legal and other expenses, Acquired Fund Fees and Expenses, interest expense, expenses related to borrowings, securities lending, leverage, taxes, and brokerage, short sale dividend and loan expense, or other non-recurring or unusual expenses such as organizational expenses and shareholder meeting expenses, as applicable) through September 30, 2022, to the extent that Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses after Expense Reimbursement would otherwise exceed 0.00% for Class I.
Fiscal Year Ended September 30, 2021
Advisory Fees
Paid
Subadvisory
Fees Paid
Administrative
Fees Paid
Other
Expenses
Reimbursed
MM Equity Asset Fund
$ 788,630 $ 787,949 $ $
MM Select T. Rowe Price Bond Asset Fund 1
(543,012)
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Fiscal Year Ended September 30, 2021
Advisory Fees
Paid
Subadvisory
Fees Paid
Administrative
Fees Paid
Other
Expenses
Reimbursed
MM Select T. Rowe Price Emerging Markets Bond Fund 1
(191,483)
MM Select T. Rowe Price Large Cap Blend Fund 1
(480,954)
MM Select T. Rowe Price Limited Duration Inflation
Focused Bond Fund1
(170,876)
MM Select T. Rowe Price Real Assets Fund 1
(193,775)
MM Select T. Rowe Price Small and Mid Cap Blend
Fund1
(374,711)
MM Select T. Rowe Price U.S. Treasury Long-Term Index
Fund1
(143,221)
?
1
The expenses in the above table reflect a written agreement by MML Advisers to cap the fees and expenses of the Fund (other than extraordinary legal and other expenses, Acquired Fund Fees and Expenses, interest expense, expenses related to borrowings, securities lending, leverage, taxes, and brokerage, short sale dividend and loan expense, or other non-recurring or unusual expenses such as organizational expenses and shareholder meeting expenses, as applicable) through September 30, 2021, to the extent that Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses after Expense Reimbursement would otherwise exceed 0.00% for Class I.
Fiscal Year Ended September 30, 2020
Advisory Fees
Paid
Subadvisory
Fees Paid
Administrative
Fees Paid
Other
Expenses
Reimbursed
MM Equity Asset Fund
$ 777,617 $ 777,898 $ $
MM Select T. Rowe Price Bond Asset Fund 1
2,495,190 610,187 (820,473)
MM Select T. Rowe Price Emerging Markets Bond Fund 2
650,806 346,603 (190,584)
MM Select T. Rowe Price Large Cap Blend Fund 3
6,993,510 2,686,915 (1,048,142)
MM Select T. Rowe Price Limited Duration Inflation
Focused Bond Fund4
531,391 209,727 (460,579)
MM Select T. Rowe Price Real Assets Fund 5
457,549 385,591 (172,792)
MM Select T. Rowe Price Small and Mid Cap Blend
Fund6
3,749,378 3,362,410 (546,180)
MM Select T. Rowe Price U.S. Treasury Long-Term Index
Fund4
269,258 118,132 (272,483)
?
1
Effective August 1, 2020, the expenses in the above table reflect a written agreement by MML Advisers to cap the fees and expenses of the Fund (other than extraordinary legal and other expenses, Acquired Fund Fees and Expenses, interest expense, expenses related to borrowings, securities lending, leverage, taxes, and brokerage, short sale dividend and loan expense, or other non-recurring or unusual expenses such as organizational expenses and shareholder meeting expenses, as applicable) through September 30, 2020, to the extent that Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses after Expense Reimbursement would otherwise exceed 0.00% for Class I. The expenses in the above table reflect a written agreement by MML Advisers to cap the fees and expenses of the Fund (other than extraordinary litigation and legal expenses, Acquired Fund Fees and Expenses, interest expense, short sale dividend and loan expense, or other non-recurring or unusual expenses such as organizational expenses and shareholder meeting expenses, as applicable) through July 31, 2020, to the extent that Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses after Expense Reimbursement would otherwise exceed 0.40% for Class I.
?
2
Effective August 1, 2020, the expenses in the above table reflect a written agreement by MML Advisers to cap the fees and expenses of the Fund (other than extraordinary legal and other expenses, Acquired Fund Fees and Expenses, interest expense, expenses related to borrowings, securities lending, leverage, taxes, and brokerage, short sale dividend and loan expense, or other non-recurring or unusual expenses such as organizational expenses and shareholder meeting expenses, as applicable) through September 30, 2020, to the extent that Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses after Expense Reimbursement would otherwise exceed 0.00% for Class I. The expenses in the above table reflect a written agreement by MML Advisers to cap the fees and expenses of the Fund (other than extraordinary
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litigation and legal expenses, Acquired Fund Fees and Expenses, interest expense, short sale dividend and loan expense, or other non-recurring or unusual expenses such as organizational expenses and shareholder meeting expenses, as applicable) through July 31, 2020, to the extent that Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses after Expense Reimbursement would otherwise exceed 0.70% for Class I.
?
3
Effective August 1, 2020, the expenses in the above table reflect a written agreement by MML Advisers to cap the fees and expenses of the Fund (other than extraordinary legal and other expenses, Acquired Fund Fees and Expenses, interest expense, expenses related to borrowings, securities lending, leverage, taxes, and brokerage, short sale dividend and loan expense, or other non-recurring or unusual expenses such as organizational expenses and shareholder meeting expenses, as applicable) through September 30, 2020, to the extent that Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses after Expense Reimbursement would otherwise exceed 0.00% for Class I. The expenses in the above table reflect a written agreement by MML Advisers to cap the fees and expenses of the Fund (other than extraordinary litigation and legal expenses, Acquired Fund Fees and Expenses, interest expense, short sale dividend and loan expense, or other non-recurring or unusual expenses such as organizational expenses and shareholder meeting expenses, as applicable) from October 18, 2019 through July 31, 2020, to the extent that Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses after Expense Reimbursement would otherwise exceed 0.55% for Class I. The expenses in the above table reflect a written agreement by MML Advisers to cap the fees and expenses of the Fund (other than extraordinary litigation and legal expenses, Acquired Fund Fees and Expenses, interest expense, short sale dividend and loan expense, or other non-recurring or unusual expenses such as organizational expenses and shareholder meeting expenses, as applicable) through October 17, 2019, to the extent that Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses after Expense Reimbursement would otherwise exceed 0.56% for Class I.
?
4
Effective August 1, 2020, the expenses in the above table reflect a written agreement by MML Advisers to cap the fees and expenses of the Fund (other than extraordinary legal and other expenses, Acquired Fund Fees and Expenses, interest expense, expenses related to borrowings, securities lending, leverage, taxes, and brokerage, short sale dividend and loan expense, or other non-recurring or unusual expenses such as organizational expenses and shareholder meeting expenses, as applicable) through September 30, 2020, to the extent that Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses after Expense Reimbursement would otherwise exceed 0.00% for Class I. The expenses in the above table reflect a written agreement by MML Advisers to cap the fees and expenses of the Fund (other than extraordinary litigation and legal expenses, Acquired Fund Fees and Expenses, interest expense, short sale dividend and loan expense, or other non-recurring or unusual expenses such as organizational expenses and shareholder meeting expenses, as applicable) through July 31, 2020, to the extent that Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses after Expense Reimbursement would otherwise exceed 0.15% for Class I.
?
5
Effective August 1, 2020, the expenses in the above table reflect a written agreement by MML Advisers to cap the fees and expenses of the Fund (other than extraordinary legal and other expenses, Acquired Fund Fees and Expenses, interest expense, expenses related to borrowings, securities lending, leverage, taxes, and brokerage, short sale dividend and loan expense, or other non-recurring or unusual expenses such as organizational expenses and shareholder meeting expenses, as applicable) through September 30, 2020, to the extent that Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses after Expense Reimbursement would otherwise exceed 0.00% for Class I. The expenses in the above table reflect a written agreement by MML Advisers to cap the fees and expenses of the Fund (other than extraordinary litigation and legal expenses, Acquired Fund Fees and Expenses, interest expense, short sale dividend and loan expense, or other non-recurring or unusual expenses such as organizational expenses and shareholder meeting expenses, as applicable) through July 31, 2020, to the extent that Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses after Expense Reimbursement would otherwise exceed 0.61% for Class I.
?
6
Effective August 1, 2020, the expenses in the above table reflect a written agreement by MML Advisers to cap the fees and expenses of the Fund (other than extraordinary legal and other expenses, Acquired Fund Fees and Expenses, interest expense, expenses related to borrowings, securities lending, leverage, taxes, and brokerage, short sale dividend and loan expense, or other non-recurring or unusual expenses such as organizational expenses and shareholder meeting expenses, as applicable) through September 30, 2020, to the extent that Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses after Expense Reimbursement would otherwise exceed 0.00% for Class I. The expenses in the above table reflect a written agreement by MML Advisers to cap the fees and expenses of the Fund (other than extraordinary litigation and legal expenses, Acquired Fund Fees and Expenses, interest expense, short sale dividend and loan expense, or other non-recurring or unusual expenses such as organizational expenses and shareholder meeting expenses, as applicable) through July 31, 2020, to the extent that Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses after Expense Reimbursement would otherwise exceed 0.65% for Class I.
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THE DISTRIBUTOR
The Funds’ shares are continuously distributed by MML Distributors, LLC (the “Distributor”), located at 1295 State Street, Springfield, Massachusetts 01111-0001, pursuant to a Principal Underwriter Agreement with the Trust, as amended (the “Distribution Agreement”). The Distributor pays commissions to its selling dealers as well as the costs of printing and mailing prospectuses to potential investors and of any advertising incurred by it in connection with distribution of shares of the Funds. The Distributor is a wholly-owned subsidiary of MassMutual.
The Distributor has agreed to use reasonable efforts to sell shares of the Funds but has not agreed to sell any specific number of shares of the Funds.
Shares of each Fund may be purchased through agents of the Distributor who are registered representatives and licensed by the Distributor to sell Fund shares, and through registered representatives of selected broker-dealers which are members of FINRA and which have entered into selling agreements with the Distributor. The Distributor may reallow up to 100% of any sales load on shares sold by dealers with whom it has sales agreements. Broker-dealers with which the Distributor has entered into selling agreements may charge their customers a processing or service fee in connection with the purchase or redemption of Fund shares. The amount and applicability of such a fee is determined and disclosed to such customers by each individual broker-dealer.
The Distribution Agreement continued in effect for an initial two-year period, and thereafter continues in effect so long as such continuance is approved at least annually (i) by the vote of a majority of the Trustees or by a vote of a majority of the shares of the Trust; and (ii) by a majority of the Trustees who are not parties to the Distribution Agreement or “interested persons” ​(as defined in the 1940 Act) of any such person, cast in person at a meeting called for the purpose of voting on such approval.
CUSTODIAN, DIVIDEND DISBURSING AGENT, AND TRANSFER AGENT
State Street, located at 1 Iron Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02210, is the custodian of each Fund’s investments (the “Custodian”) and is the Funds’ transfer agent and dividend disbursing agent (the “Transfer Agent”). As custodian, State Street has custody of the Funds’ securities and maintains certain financial and accounting books and records. As Custodian and Transfer Agent, State Street does not assist in, and is not responsible for, the investment decisions and policies of the Funds.
INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM
Deloitte & Touche LLP, located at 200 Berkeley Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02116, is the Trust’s independent registered public accounting firm. Deloitte & Touche LLP provides audit and related services, and assistance in connection with various SEC filings.
CODES OF ETHICS
The Trust, MML Advisers, the Distributor, J.P. Morgan, T. Rowe Price, T. Rowe Price Hong Kong, T. Rowe Price International, T. Rowe Price Investment Management, and T. Rowe Price Japan have each adopted a code of ethics (the “Codes of Ethics”) pursuant to Rule 17j-1 under the 1940 Act and Rule 204A-1 under the Investment Advisers Act of 1940, as amended. The Codes of Ethics permit Fund personnel to invest in securities, including securities that may be purchased or held by a Fund, for their own accounts, but require compliance with various pre-clearance requirements (with certain exceptions). The Codes of Ethics are on public file with, and are available from, the SEC.
PORTFOLIO TRANSACTIONS AND BROKERAGE
Transactions on stock exchanges, commodities markets and futures markets and other agency transactions involve the payment by the Funds of negotiated brokerage commissions. Such commissions may vary among different brokers. A particular broker may charge different commissions according to such factors as execution venue and exchange. Although the Funds do not typically pay commissions for principal transactions in the OTC markets, such as the markets for most fixed income securities and certain derivatives, an undisclosed amount of profit or “mark-up” is included in the price a Fund pays. In underwritten offerings, the price paid by a Fund includes a disclosed, fixed commission or discount retained by the underwriter or dealer.
The primary consideration in placing portfolio security transactions with broker-dealers for execution is to obtain the best execution of orders. Each Fund’s investment adviser or subadviser attempts to achieve this result by selecting broker-dealers to execute portfolio transactions on the basis of their professional capability, the value and quality of their brokerage services, including anonymity and trade confidentiality, and the level of their brokerage commissions.
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Under each Advisory or Subadvisory Agreement and as permitted by Section 28(e) of the Exchange Act and to the extent not otherwise prohibited by applicable law, an investment adviser or subadviser may cause a Fund to pay a broker-dealer that provides brokerage and research services to the investment adviser or subadviser an amount of commission for effecting a securities transaction for a Fund in excess of the amount other broker-dealers would have charged for the transaction if the investment adviser or subadviser determines in good faith that the greater commission is reasonable in relation to the value of the brokerage and research services provided by the executing broker-dealer viewed in terms of either a particular transaction or the investment adviser’s or subadviser’s overall responsibilities to the Trust and to its other clients. The term “brokerage and research services” includes: providing advice as to the value of securities, the advisability of investing in, purchasing, or selling securities, and the availability of securities or of purchasers or sellers of securities; furnishing analyses and reports concerning issuers, industries, securities, economic factors and trends, portfolio strategy, and the performance of accounts; and effecting securities transactions and performing functions incidental thereto such as clearance and settlement.
The investment adviser or subadvisers may obtain third-party research from broker-dealers or non-broker-dealers by entering into commission sharing arrangements (“CSAs”). Under a CSA, the executing broker-dealer agrees that part of the commissions it earns on certain equity trades will be allocated to one or more research providers as payment for research. CSAs allow an investment adviser or subadviser to direct broker-dealers to pool commissions that are generated from orders executed at that broker-dealer, and then periodically direct the broker-dealer to pay third party research providers for research.
Brokerage and research services provided by brokers are used for the benefit of all of the investment adviser’s or subadviser’s clients and not solely or necessarily for the benefit of the Trust. The investment adviser or subadvisers attempt to evaluate the quality of brokerage and research services provided by brokers. Results of this effort are sometimes used by the investment adviser or subadvisers as a consideration in the selection of brokers to execute portfolio transactions.
The investment advisory fee that the Trust pays on behalf of each Fund to MML Advisers will not be reduced as a consequence of an investment adviser’s or subadviser’s receipt of brokerage and research services. To the extent the Trust’s portfolio transactions are used to obtain such services, the brokerage commissions paid by the Trust will exceed those that might otherwise be paid, provided that the investment adviser or subadviser determines in good faith that such excess amounts are reasonable in relation to the services provided. Such services would be useful and of value to an investment adviser or subadviser in serving both the Trust and other clients and, conversely, such services obtained by the placement of brokerage business of other clients would be useful to an investment adviser or subadviser in carrying out its obligations to the Trust.
Subject to the overriding objective of obtaining the best execution of orders, the Funds may use broker-dealer affiliates of their respective investment adviser or subadvisers to effect portfolio brokerage transactions under procedures adopted by the Trustees. Pursuant to these procedures, the commission, fee, or other remuneration paid to the affiliated broker-dealer in connection with a portfolio brokerage transaction effected on a securities exchange must be reasonable and fair in comparison to those of other broker-dealers for comparable transactions involving similar securities being purchased or sold on a securities exchange during a comparable time period. This standard would allow the affiliated broker or dealer to receive no more than the remuneration which would be expected to be received by an unaffiliated broker.
The Funds may allocate brokerage transactions to broker-dealers (including affiliates of their respective investment adviser or subadvisers) who have entered into arrangements with the Trust under which the broker-dealer allocates a portion of the commissions paid back to the Fund. The transaction quality must, however, be comparable to that of other qualified broker-dealers.
The revised European Union (“EU”) Markets in Financial Instruments Directive (“MiFID II”), which became effective January 3, 2018, requires EU investment managers in the scope of the EU Markets in Financial Instruments Directive to pay for research services from brokers and dealers directly out of their own resources or by establishing “research payment accounts” for each client, rather than through client commissions. MiFID II’s research requirements present various compliance and operational considerations for investment advisers and broker-dealers serving clients in both the United States and the EU. It is possible that an investment adviser or subadviser subject to MiFID II will cause a Fund to pay for research services through client commissions in circumstances where the investment adviser or subadviser is prohibited from causing its other client accounts to do so, including where the investment adviser or subadviser aggregates trades on behalf of a Fund and those other client accounts. In such situations, the Fund would bear the additional amounts for the research services and the Fund’s investment adviser’s or subadviser’s other client accounts would not, although the investment adviser’s or subadviser’s other client accounts might nonetheless benefit from those research services.
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The following table discloses the brokerage commissions paid by the following Funds for the fiscal years ended September 30, 2022, September 30, 2021, and September 30, 2020:
Fiscal Year ended
September 30, 2022
Fiscal Year ended
September 30, 2021
Fiscal Year ended
September 30, 2020
MM Equity Asset Fund
$ 50,320 $ 118,044 $ 116,443
MM Select T. Rowe Price Bond Asset Fund
$ 38,558 $ 39,510 $ 37,032
MM Select T. Rowe Price Emerging Markets Bond
Fund
$ 1,196 $ 2,482 $ 1,026
MM Select T. Rowe Price Large Cap Blend Fund
$ 801,832 $ 405,245 $ 591,020
MM Select T. Rowe Price Limited Duration
Inflation Focused Bond Fund
$ 42,778 $ 12,226 $ 20,819
MM Select T. Rowe Price Real Assets Fund
$ 91,213 $ 79,851 $ 26,469
MM Select T. Rowe Price Small and Mid Cap
Blend Fund
$ 206,549 $ 726,968 $ 190,902
MM Select T. Rowe Price U.S. Treasury
Long-Term Index Fund
$ 19,115 $ 8,245 $ 13,897
Portfolio Turnover - The MM Select T. Rowe Price Large Cap Blend Fund experienced increased portfolio turnover during the fiscal year ended September 30, 2022 as a result of volatility during the period, which provided the Fund’s subadviser with the opportunity to tactically increase/decrease exposure to specific market segments based on a six to eighteen month outlook. For example, the subadviser trimmed an overweight to domestic value equities in early 2022 to capitalize on profits following outperformance of the style.
The MM Select T. Rowe Price Bond Asset Fund experienced increased portfolio turnover during the fiscal year ended September 30, 2021 as a result of adding more to Treasuries and agency mortgage-backed securiteis and reducing exposure to corporate credit and commercial mortgage-backed securities.
The MM Select T. Rowe Price U.S. Treasury Long-Term Index Fund experienced decreased portfolio turnover during the fiscal year ended September 30, 2021 as a result of a return to a more normalized portfolio turnover. Portfolio turnover was higher during fiscal year 2020 than it was during fiscal year 2021 due to a tactical decision by T. Rowe Price to significantly reduce the Fund’s holdings in long-term U.S. Treasury securities.
The following table discloses, for those Funds that paid brokerage commissions to an affiliate of its investment adviser or subadviser, the total amount of brokerage commissions paid by each such Fund to affiliates for the past three fiscal years and, for the fiscal year ended 2022, the percentage of the Fund’s aggregate brokerage commissions paid to affiliates and the percentage of the Fund’s aggregate dollar amount of transactions involving the payment of commissions effected through affiliates.
Fiscal Year ended September 30, 2022
Fiscal Year
ended
September 30,
2021
Fiscal Year
ended
September 30,
2020
Affiliated Broker/Dealer
Aggregate
Commissions
Paid
Percentage
Paid to
Affiliates
Percentage of
Dollar
Amount of
Transactions
Involving
Payment of
Commissions
to Affiliates
Aggregate
Commissions
Paid
Aggregate
Commissions
Paid
Jefferies LLC
MM Select T. Rowe Price Large Cap Blend
Fund1
$ 29,790 3.72% 4.19% $ 17,611 $ 24,047
MM Select T. Rowe Price Real Assets Fund 1
$ 5,170 5.67% 2.64% $ 2,842 $ 2,223
MM Select T. Rowe Price Small and Mid Cap
Blend Fund1
$ 7,522 3.64% 3.13% $ 5,917 $ 6,724
?
1
Includes affiliated trading platforms of Jefferies LLC.
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The following table discloses, for those Funds that had trades directed to a broker or dealer during the fiscal year ended September 30, 2022 because of research services provided, the dollar value of transactions placed by each such Fund with such brokers and dealers during the fiscal year ended September 30, 2022 to recognize “brokerage and research” services, and commissions paid for such transactions:
Dollar Value of
Those Transactions
Amount of
Commissions
MM Equity Asset Fund
$ 315,805,470 $ 48,924
The following table discloses, for those Funds that held se