VANECK ETF TRUST
This Statement of Additional Information (“SAI”) is not a prospectus. It should be read in conjunction with the current prospectuses (each, a “Prospectus” and together, the “Prospectuses”) of each fund (each, a “Fund” and together, the “Funds”) listed below for the VanEck® ETF Trust (the “Trust”), relating to each of the series of the Trust listed below, as it may be revised from time to time.
Fund
Principal U.S.
Listing Exchange
Ticker
Fiscal Year End*
Prospectus Date
Statement of Additional Information
February 1, 2023, as revised on March 30, 2023, May 1, 2023, July 20, 2023, September 1, 2023, September 12, 2023, September 29, 2023 and November 16, 2023
Biotech ETF The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC BBH September 30th February 1st
Digital Transformation ETF The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC DAPP September 30th February 1st
Durable High Dividend ETF Cboe BZX Exchange, Inc. DURA September 30th February 1st
Energy Income ETF NYSE Arca, Inc. EINC September 30th February 1st
Environmental Services ETF NYSE Arca, Inc. EVX September 30th February 1st
Gaming ETF The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC BJK September 30th February 1st
Inflation Allocation ETF NYSE Arca, Inc. RAAX September 30th February 1st
Long/Flat Trend ETF NYSE Arca, Inc. LFEQ September 30th February 1st
Morningstar ESG Moat ETF Cboe BZX Exchange, Inc. MOTE September 30th February 1st
Morningstar Global Wide Moat ETF Cboe BZX Exchange, Inc. MOTG September 30th February 1st
Morningstar International Moat ETF Cboe BZX Exchange, Inc. MOTI September 30th February 1st
Morningstar SMID Moat ETF
Cboe BZX Exchange, Inc.
SMOT September 30th February 1st
Morningstar Wide Moat ETF Cboe BZX Exchange, Inc.
MOAT®
September 30th February 1st
Pharmaceutical ETF The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC PPH September 30th February 1st
Retail ETF The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC RTH September 30th February 1st
Semiconductor ETF The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC SMH September 30th February 1st
Social Sentiment ETF NYSE Arca, Inc. BUZZ September 30th February 1st
Video Gaming and eSports ETF The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC ESPO September 30th February 1st
Statement of Additional Information
May 1, 2023, as revised on July 20, 2023, September 1, 2023, September 12, 2023, September 29, 2023 and November 16, 2023
Africa Index ETF NYSE Arca, Inc. AFK December 31st May 1st
Agribusiness ETF NYSE Arca, Inc.
MOO®
December 31st May 1st
Bitcoin Strategy ETF Cboe BZX Exchange, Inc. XBTF December 31st May 1st
Brazil Small-Cap ETF NYSE Arca, Inc. BRF December 31st May 1st
ChiNext ETF1
NYSE Arca, Inc. CNXT December 31st May 1st
CLO ETF NYSE Arca, Inc. CLOI December 31st May 1st



Fund
Principal U.S.
Listing Exchange
Ticker
Fiscal Year End*
Prospectus Date
Digital India ETF NYSE Arca, Inc. DGIN December 31st May 1st
Egypt Index ETF NYSE Arca, Inc. EGPT December 31st May 1st
Future of Food ETF NYSE Arca, Inc. YUMY December 31st May 1st
Gold Miners ETF NYSE Arca, Inc.
GDX®
December 31st May 1st
Green Metals ETF NYSE Arca, Inc. GMET December 31st May 1st
India Growth Leaders ETF NYSE Arca, Inc. GLIN December 31st May 1st
Indonesia Index ETF NYSE Arca, Inc. IDX December 31st May 1st
Israel ETF NYSE Arca, Inc. ISRA December 31st May 1st
Junior Gold Miners ETF NYSE Arca, Inc.
GDXJ®
December 31st May 1st
Low Carbon Energy ETF NYSE Arca, Inc. SMOG December 31st May 1st
Natural Resources ETF NYSE Arca, Inc. HAP December 31st May 1st
Oil Refiners ETF NYSE Arca, Inc. CRAK December 31st May 1st
Oil Services ETF NYSE Arca, Inc. OIH December 31st May 1st
Rare Earth/Strategic Metals ETF NYSE Arca, Inc. REMX December 31st May 1st
Russia ETF2
Not Applicable RSX December 31st May 1st
Russia Small-Cap ETF2
Not Applicable RSXJ December 31st May 1st
Steel ETF NYSE Arca, Inc. SLX December 31st May 1st
Uranium+Nuclear Energy ETF NYSE Arca, Inc. NLR December 31st May 1st
Vietnam ETF Cboe BZX Exchange, Inc. VNM December 31st May 1st
Statement of Additional Information
September 1, 2023, as revised on September 12, 2023, September 29, 2023 and November 16, 2023
BDC Income ETF NYSE Arca, Inc. BIZD April 30th September 1st
CEF Muni Income ETF Cboe BZX Exchange, Inc. XMPT April 30th September 1st
China Bond ETF1
NYSE Arca, Inc. CBON April 30th September 1st
Dynamic High Income ETF NYSE Arca, Inc. INC April 30th September 1st
Emerging Markets High Yield Bond ETF NYSE Arca, Inc. HYEM April 30th September 1st
Fallen Angel High Yield Bond ETF The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC ANGL April 30th September 1st
Green Bond ETF NYSE Arca, Inc. GRNB April 30th September 1st
High Yield Muni ETF Cboe BZX Exchange, Inc. HYD April 30th September 1st
HIP Sustainable Muni ETF
Cboe BZX Exchange, Inc. SMI April 30th September 1st
IG Floating Rate ETF NYSE Arca, Inc. FLTR April 30th September 1st
Intermediate Muni ETF Cboe BZX Exchange, Inc. ITM April 30th September 1st
International High Yield Bond ETF NYSE Arca, Inc. IHY April 30th September 1st
J.P. Morgan EM Local Currency Bond ETF NYSE Arca, Inc. EMLC April 30th September 1st
Long Muni ETF Cboe BZX Exchange, Inc. MLN April 30th September 1st
Moody's Analytics BBB Corporate Bond ETF Cboe BZX Exchange, Inc. MBBB April 30th September 1st
Moody's Analytics IG Corporate Bond ETF Cboe BZX Exchange, Inc. MIG April 30th September 1st
Mortgage REIT Income ETF NYSE Arca, Inc. MORT April 30th September 1st
Preferred Securities ex Financials ETF NYSE Arca, Inc. PFXF April 30th September 1st
Short High Yield Muni ETF Cboe BZX Exchange, Inc. SHYD April 30th September 1st



Fund
Principal U.S.
Listing Exchange
Ticker
Fiscal Year End*
Prospectus Date
Short Muni ETF Cboe BZX Exchange, Inc. SMB April 30th September 1st
Statement of Additional Information
October 14, 2022, as revised on October 24, 2022, December 1, 2022, December 20, 2022, February 1, 2023, March 30, 2023, May 1, 2023, July 20, 2023, September 1, 2023, September 12, 2023, September 29, 2023 and November 16, 2023
Green Infrastructure ETF The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC RNEW September 30th October 14th
Statement of Additional Information
December 1, 2022, as revised on December 20, 2022, February 1, 2023, March 30, 2023, May 1, 2023, July 20, 2023, September 1, 2023, September 12, 2023, September 29, 2023 and November 16, 2023
Muni ETF 3
Cboe BZX Exchange, Inc.3
MUN April 30th December 1st
Statement of Additional Information
December 20, 2022, as revised on February 1, 2023, March 30, 2023, May 1, 2023, July 20, 2023, September 1, 2023, September 12, 2023, September 29, 2023 and November 16, 2023
Commodity Strategy ETF Cboe BZX Exchange, Inc. PIT September 30th December 20th
Statement of Additional Information
March 30, 2023, as revised on May 1, 2023, July 20, 2023, September 1, 2023, September 12, 2023, September 29, 2023 and November 16, 2023
Robotics ETF The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC IBOT September 30th March 30th
Statement of Additional Information
July 20, 2023, as revised on September 1, 2023, September 12, 2023, September 29, 2023 and November 16, 2023
CMCI Commodity Strategy ETF Cboe BZX Exchange, Inc. CMCI December 31st July 20th
Statement of Additional Information
 September 12, 2023, September 29, 2023 and November 16, 2023
Office and Commercial REIT ETF NYSE Arca, Inc. DESK December 31st September 12th
Statement of Additional Information
September 29, 2023, as revised on November 16, 2023
Ethereum Strategy ETF Cboe BZX Exchange, Inc. EFUT December 31st September 29th
Statement of Additional Information
November 16, 2023
Morningstar Wide Moat Growth ETF4
Cboe BZX Exchange, Inc.4
MGRO September 30th November 16th
Morningstar Wide Moat Value ETF4
Cboe BZX Exchange, Inc.4
MVAL September 30th November 16th
* Certain information provided in this SAI is indicated to be as of the end of a Fund’s last fiscal year or during a Fund’s last fiscal year. The term “last fiscal year” means the most recently completed fiscal year for each Fund.
1 Effective on or about January 12, 2024 (the “Effective Date”), China Asset Management (Hong Kong) Limited (the “China Sub-Adviser”) will no longer serve as a sub-adviser to each of the China Funds (as defined below). Accordingly, on the Effective Date, all references to the China Sub-Adviser in the SAI will be removed.
2 On September 29, 2022, the Board unanimously voted to approve a Plan of Liquidation and Termination of each of VanEck Russia ETF and VanEck Russia Small-Cap ETF (together, the “Russia Funds”), contingent on receiving any necessary relief from the SEC. On December 28, 2022, the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) granted exemptive relief to the Russia Funds permitting the Russia Funds to suspend the right of redemption with respect to their shares and, if necessary, postpone the date of payment of redemption proceeds with respect to redemption orders received but not yet paid until the Russia Funds complete the liquidation of their portfolios and distribute all their assets to remaining shareholders. The process of paying any proceeds of the liquidation was initiated on January 12, 2023. The Russia Funds will



make one or more liquidating distributions. It is possible that the liquidation of the Russia Funds will take an extended period of time if circumstances involving Russian securities do not improve. While the Russia Funds are in the process of liquidating their portfolios, each of the Russia Funds will hold cash and securities that may not be consistent with their investment objectives and strategies and are likely to incur higher tracking error than is typical for each Russia Fund. Furthermore, because of the delisting of the Russia Funds from Cboe BZX Exchange, Inc., and the liquidation of the Russia Funds, the Russia Funds are no longer exchange-traded funds, and there will be no trading market for your shares. Upon payment of the final liquidating distribution, it is anticipated that the Russia Funds will be terminated. MarketVector Indexes GmbH discontinued the MVIS® Russia Index and the MVIS® Russia Small-Cap Index on July 31, 2023.
3 VanEck Muni ETF has not commenced operations as of the date of this SAI. The Shares of VanEck Muni ETF are expected to be approved for listing, subject to notice of issuance, on the Cboe BZX Exchange, Inc.
4VanEck Morningstar Wide Moat Growth ETF and VanEck Morningstar Wide Moat Value ETF have not commenced operations as of the date of this SAI. The Shares of VanEck Morningstar Wide Moat Growth ETF and VanEck Morningstar Wide Moat Value ETF are expected to be approved for listing, subject to notice of issuance, on the Cboe BZX Exchange, Inc.
A copy of each Prospectus may be obtained without charge by writing to the Trust or the Distributor (defined herein). The Trust’s address is 666 Third Avenue, 9th Floor, New York, New York 10017. Capitalized terms used herein that are not defined have the same meaning as in the Prospectuses, unless otherwise noted. The audited financial statements, including the financial highlights, appearing in the Trust’s most recent Annual Report to shareholders for each Fund’s corresponding fiscal year end and filed electronically with the SEC, are incorporated by reference into the section of this SAI entitled “Financial Statements.” No other portions of any of the Trust’s Annual Reports are incorporated by reference or made part of this SAI.




TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
i


Page
Officer Information
ii


Page



iii


GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE TRUST
The Trust is an open-end management investment company. The Trust currently consists of 72 investment portfolios. This SAI relates to all Funds of the Trust as set forth on the cover page. The Trust was organized as a Delaware statutory trust on March 15, 2001. The shares of each Fund are referred to herein as “Shares.”
Each Fund that is classified as a “diversified” fund under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “1940 Act”) is required to meet certain diversification requirements under the 1940 Act. Each Fund that is classified as a “non-diversified” fund under the 1940 Act may invest a relatively high percentage of its assets in a smaller number of issuers or may invest a larger proportion of its assets in a single issuer. The following chart indicates the diversification classification for each Fund:
Fund Classification as Diversified or Non-Diversified
Municipal ETFs
CEF Muni Income ETF* Diversified
High Yield Muni ETF Diversified
HIP Sustainable Muni ETF Non-Diversified
Intermediate Muni ETF Diversified
Long Muni ETF Diversified
Muni ETF Non-Diversified
Short High Yield Muni ETF Diversified
Short Muni ETF Diversified
CLO/Equity/Fixed Income ETFs
BDC Income ETF Diversified
China Bond ETF Non-Diversified
CLO ETF Non-Diversified
Durable High Dividend ETF* Diversified
Dynamic High Income ETF Non-Diversified
Emerging Markets High Yield Bond ETF Diversified
Energy Income ETF Non-Diversified
Fallen Angel High Yield Bond ETF* Diversified
Green Bond ETF Diversified
IG Floating Rate ETF Non-Diversified
International High Yield Bond ETF Diversified
J.P. Morgan EM Local Currency Bond ETF Non-Diversified
Moody's Analytics BBB Corporate Bond ETF Non-Diversified
Moody's Analytics IG Corporate Bond ETF Non-Diversified
Mortgage REIT Income ETF Non-Diversified
Preferred Securities ex Financials ETF Non-Diversified
Thematic/Strategic Equity ETFs
Biotech ETF Non-Diversified
Digital Transformation ETF Non-Diversified
Environmental Services ETF Non-Diversified
Gaming ETF Non-Diversified
Green Infrastructure ETF Non-Diversified
Inflation Allocation ETF Diversified
Long/Flat Trend ETF* Diversified
1


Fund Classification as Diversified or Non-Diversified
Morningstar ESG Moat ETF Non-Diversified
Morningstar Global Wide Moat ETF* Diversified
Morningstar International Moat ETF* Diversified
Morningstar SMID Moat ETF Non-Diversified
Morningstar Wide Moat ETF* Diversified
Morningstar Wide Moat Growth ETF Non-Diversified
Morningstar Wide Moat Value ETF Non-Diversified
Pharmaceutical ETF Non-Diversified
Retail ETF Non-Diversified
Robotics ETF Non-Diversified
Semiconductor ETF Non-Diversified
Social Sentiment ETF Non-Diversified
Video Gaming and eSports ETF Non-Diversified
Bitcoin Strategy/Ethereum Strategy/Commodity Strategy/Natural Resources ETFs
Agribusiness ETF Non-Diversified
Bitcoin Strategy ETF Non-Diversified
CMCI Commodity Strategy ETF Non-Diversified
Commodity Strategy ETF Non-Diversified
Ethereum Strategy ETF Non-Diversified
Gold Miners ETF Non-Diversified
Green Metals ETF Non-Diversified
Future of Food ETF Non-Diversified
Junior Gold Miners ETF Non-Diversified
Low Carbon Energy ETF Non-Diversified
Natural Resources ETF Diversified
Office and Commercial REIT ETF Non-Diversified
Oil Refiners ETF Non-Diversified
Oil Services ETF Non-Diversified
Rare Earth/Strategic Metals ETF Non-Diversified
Steel ETF Non-Diversified
Uranium+Nuclear Energy ETF Non-Diversified
Country/Regional ETFs
Africa Index ETF Diversified
Brazil Small-Cap ETF Diversified
ChiNext ETF* Diversified
Digital India ETF Non-Diversified
Egypt Index ETF Non-Diversified
India Growth Leaders ETF*
Diversified
Indonesia Index ETF Non-Diversified
Israel ETF Non-Diversified
Russia ETF Non-Diversified
Russia Small-Cap ETF Non-Diversified
Vietnam ETF Non-Diversified
*Each of VanEck CEF Muni Income ETF, VanEck ChiNext ETF, VanEck Durable High Dividend ETF, VanEck Fallen Angel High Yield Bond ETF, VanEck India Growth Leaders ETF, VanEck Long/Flat Trend ETF, VanEck Morningstar Global Wide Moat ETF, VanEck Morningstar International Moat ETF and VanEck Morningstar Wide Moat ETF intends to be diversified in approximately the same
2


proportion as its underlying index is diversified. Each of VanEck CEF Muni Income ETF, VanEck ChiNext ETF, VanEck Durable High Dividend ETF, VanEck Fallen Angel High Yield Bond ETF, VanEck India Growth Leaders ETF, VanEck Long/Flat Trend ETF, VanEck Morningstar Global Wide Moat ETF, VanEck Morningstar International Moat ETF and VanEck Morningstar Wide Moat ETF may become non-diversified, as defined in the 1940 Act, solely as a result of a change in relative market capitalization or index weighting of one or more constituents of its underlying index.
The Funds offer and issue Shares at their net asset value (“NAV”) only in aggregations of a specified number of Shares (each, a “Creation Unit”). Similarly, Shares are redeemable by the Funds only in Creation Units, as further described in the chart below. The Shares of the Funds are listed on either NYSE Arca, Inc. (“NYSE Arca”), The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (“NASDAQ”) or the Cboe BZX Exchange, Inc. (“Cboe”) as set forth on the cover page of this SAI, and Shares of each Fund trade in the secondary market at market prices that may differ from the Shares’ NAV. NYSE Arca, NASDAQ and Cboe are each referred to as an “Exchange” and collectively, the “Exchanges.” The Trust reserves the right to permit or require a “cash” option for creations and redemptions of Shares (subject to applicable legal requirements) to the extent Shares are not created or redeemed wholly in cash.
3


Creation and Redemption Features
    The chart below sets forth certain relevant information regarding the creation and redemption features pertaining to each Fund.
Fund Name In
Kind
In
Cash
Partially In
Cash/Partially
In Kind
Primarily in
Cash/Partially
In Kind
Primarily In
Kind/Partially
in Cash
Standard Transaction
Fee*
Municipal ETFs
CEF Muni Income ETF X $250
High Yield Muni ETF X $250
HIP Sustainable Muni ETF X $250
Intermediate Muni ETF X $250
Long Muni ETF X $250
Muni ETF X $250
Short High Yield Muni ETF X $250
Short Muni ETF X $250
CLO/Equity/Fixed Income ETFs
BDC Income ETF X $250
China Bond ETF X $100
CLO ETF X $250
Durable High Dividend ETF X $250
Dynamic High Income ETF X $250
Emerging Markets High Yield Bond ETF X $800
Energy Income ETF X $250
Fallen Angel High Yield Bond ETF X $450
Green Bond ETF X $500
IG Floating Rate ETF X $200
International High Yield Bond ETF X $800
J.P. Morgan EM Local Currency Bond ETF X $1,000
Moody's Analytics BBB Corporate Bond ETF X $250
Moody's Analytics IG Corporate Bond ETF X $250
Mortgage REIT Income ETF X $250
Preferred Securities ex Financials ETF X $250
Thematic/Strategic Equity ETFs
Biotech ETF X $250
Digital Transformation ETF X $400
Environmental Services ETF X $250
Gaming ETF X $500
Green Infrastructure ETF X $250
Inflation Allocation ETF X $250
Long/Flat Trend ETF X $250
Morningstar ESG Moat ETF X $250
4


Fund Name In
Kind
In
Cash
Partially In
Cash/Partially
In Kind
Primarily in
Cash/Partially
In Kind
Primarily In
Kind/Partially
in Cash
Standard Transaction
Fee*
Morningstar Global Wide Moat ETF X $500
Morningstar International Moat ETF X $750
Morningstar SMID Moat ETF X $250
Morningstar Wide Moat ETF X $250
Morningstar Wide Moat Growth ETF X $250
Morningstar Wide Moat Value ETF X $250
Pharmaceutical ETF X $250
Retail ETF X $250
Robotics ETF X $400
Semiconductor ETF X $300
Social Sentiment ETF X $250
Video Gaming and eSports ETF X $500
Bitcoin Strategy/Commodity Strategy/Natural Resources ETFs
Agribusiness ETF X $500
Bitcoin Strategy ETF X $100
CMCI Commodity Strategy ETF X $100
Commodity Strategy ETF X $100
Ethereum Strategy ETF X $100
Gold Miners ETF X $500
Green Metals ETF X $400
Future of Food ETF X $500
Junior Gold Miners ETF X $750
Low Carbon Energy ETF X $500
Natural Resources ETF X $1,000
Office and Commercial REIT ETF X $250
Oil Refiners ETF X $500
Oil Services ETF X $300
Rare Earth/Strategic Metals ETF X $500
Steel ETF X $250
Uranium+Nuclear Energy ETF X $500
Country/Regional ETFs
Africa Index ETF X $750
Brazil Small-Cap ETF X $500
ChiNext ETF X $250
Digital India ETF X $250
Egypt Index ETF X $1,000
India Growth Leaders ETF
X $250
Indonesia Index ETF X $750
Israel ETF X $800
Russia ETF X $500
5


Fund Name In
Kind
In
Cash
Partially In
Cash/Partially
In Kind
Primarily in
Cash/Partially
In Kind
Primarily In
Kind/Partially
in Cash
Standard Transaction
Fee*
Russia Small-Cap ETF X $500
Vietnam ETF X $250
*Standard (fixed) Transaction Fee is payable to the Custodian (as defined herein); however, the Custodian may increase the standard (fixed) transaction fee for administration and settlement of non-standard orders requiring additional administrative processing by the Custodian. The Trust may also impose variable fees in connection with certain creation and redemption transactions. See the “Creation and Redemption of Creation Units” section below for additional information.
6


INVESTMENT POLICIES AND RESTRICTIONS
General
Each of VanEck Long/Flat Trend ETF (to the extent the Fund is holding shares of one or more exchange-traded funds (“ETFs”) rather than investing directly in the shares of the companies comprising the S&P 500 Index), VanEck CEF Muni Income ETF and VanEck Inflation Allocation ETF is a “fund of funds.” Each of VanEck CEF Muni Income ETF, VanEck Inflation Allocation ETF and VanEck Long/Flat Trend ETF invests all or a portion of its assets in other funds it invests in (the “Underlying Funds”). The performance of VanEck CEF Muni Income ETF is dependent on the performance of the Underlying Funds. VanEck CEF Muni Income ETF will be subject to the risks of the Underlying Funds’ investments. Because the investment characteristics of VanEck CEF Muni Income ETF will correspond directly to those of the Underlying Funds, the following applies to both VanEck CEF Muni Income ETF and the Underlying Funds, as applicable, and except where otherwise indicated, this SAI uses the term “Fund,” when referring to VanEck CEF Muni Income ETF to mean VanEck CEF Muni Income ETF and the Underlying Funds, as applicable. The VanEck Inflation Allocation ETF invests all or a portion of its assets in exchange traded products that are registered under the federal securities laws (“Exchange Traded Products”), including ETFs and exchange-traded notes (“ETNs”). The performance of VanEck Inflation Allocation ETF is dependent on the performance of the Exchange Traded Products. VanEck Inflation Allocation ETF will be subject to the risks of the Exchange Traded Products’ investments. The performance of VanEck Long/Flat Trend ETF (to the extent the Fund is holding shares of one or more ETFs rather than investing directly in the shares of the companies comprising the S&P 500 Index) is dependent on the performance of the ETFs it invests in. VanEck Long/Flat Trend ETF will be subject to the risks of the ETFs' investments.
VanEck CEF Muni Income ETF, VanEck China Bond ETF, VanEck Emerging Markets High Yield Bond ETF, VanEck Fallen Angel High Yield Bond ETF, VanEck Green Bond ETF, VanEck High Yield Muni ETF, VanEck Intermediate Muni ETF, VanEck International High Yield Bond ETF, VanEck IG Floating Rate ETF, VanEck J.P. Morgan EM Local Currency Bond ETF, VanEck Long Muni ETF, VanEck Moody's Analytics BBB Corporate Bond ETF, VanEck Moody's Analytics IG Corporate Bond ETF, VanEck Muni ETF, VanEck Short High Yield Muni ETF and VanEck Short Muni ETF are each defined as a “Fixed Income Fund” and collectively as the “Fixed Income Funds.”
VanEck India Growth Leaders ETF seeks to achieve its investment objective by investing substantially all of its assets in a wholly-owned subsidiary in Mauritius, MV SCIF Mauritius, a private company limited by shares incorporated in Mauritius (the “Mauritius Subsidiary”), that has the same investment objective as VanEck India Growth Leaders ETF. Because the investment characteristics of VanEck India Growth Leaders ETF will correspond directly to those of the Mauritius Subsidiary (which is managed by and its decisions are taken by its independent Board of Directors), the following applies to both VanEck India Growth Leaders ETF and the Mauritius Subsidiary, as applicable, and except where otherwise indicated, this SAI uses the term “Fund” when referring to VanEck India Growth Leaders ETF to mean VanEck India Growth Leaders ETF and/or the Mauritius Subsidiary, as applicable.
VanEck Bitcoin Strategy ETF pursues its investment strategy primarily by investing in standardized, cash-settled bitcoin futures contracts (“Bitcoin Futures”) traded on commodity exchanges registered with the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (“CFTC”). Currently, the only commodity exchange registered with the CFTC on which Bitcoin Futures are traded is the Chicago Mercantile Exchange (the “CME”). The Fund seeks to invest in Bitcoin Futures so that the total value of the bitcoin to which the Fund has economic exposure is approximately 100% of the total assets of the Fund (the “Target Exposure”). In addition, the Fund expects to have significant holdings of U.S. Treasuries, other U.S. government obligations, money market funds and funds that invest in short-term bonds, cash and cash-like equivalents (e.g., high quality commercial paper and similar instruments that are rated investment grade or, if unrated, of comparable quality, as the Adviser determines), mortgage-backed securities issued or guaranteed by U.S. government agencies, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises of the U.S. government (whether or not the securities are U.S. government securities), municipal debt securities, Treasury inflation-protected securities, sovereign debt obligations of non-U.S. countries, and repurchase agreements. If the Fund is unable to achieve the Target Exposure because it is approaching or has exceeded position limits or because of liquidity or other constraints, the Fund may invest in equity securities of “bitcoin-related companies.” For these purposes, bitcoin-related companies are companies listed on a U.S. stock exchange that the Adviser believes provide returns that generally correspond, or are closely related, to the performance of bitcoin or Bitcoin Futures. For example, the Fund may invest in U.S. listed companies engaged in digital asset mining or offering digital asset trading platforms. The Fund currently only intends to invest in the securities and instruments discussed above. Any discussion in this SAI regarding any other type of investment not included in this paragraph does not apply to the Fund.
VanEck CLO ETF seeks to achieve its investment objective by investing, under normal circumstances, primarily in investment grade-rated debt tranches of collateralized loan obligations (“CLOs”) of any maturity. Investment grade CLOs are rated inclusive and above BBB- by S&P Global Ratings or Baa3 Moody’s Investors Service, Inc. (or equivalent rating issued by a nationally recognized statistical rating organization (“NRSRO”)), or if unrated, determined to be of comparable credit quality by the Adviser (as defined below) and/or PineBridge Investments, LLC, the Fund’s sub-adviser (the “CLO Sub-Adviser”).
7


VanEck Commodity Strategy ETF seeks to achieve its investment objective by investing, under normal circumstances, in exchange-traded commodity futures contracts, exchange-traded and over-the-counter (“OTC”) commodity-linked instruments, and pooled investment vehicles, including exchange-traded products that provide exposure to commodities (“Commodities Instruments”) and cash and certain fixed income investments.
VanEck Dynamic High Income ETF is an actively managed ETF that seeks to achieve its investment objective by investing, under normal circumstances, in exchange-traded products (“ETPs”) that are registered under the applicable federal securities laws and that invest in securities that generate income. The Fund may also invest in U.S. Treasury securities under normal circumstances. While Van Eck Associates Corporation (“VEAC”) currently anticipates that the ETPs that the Fund may invest in will primarily be ETFs managed VEAC, Van Eck Absolute Return Advisers Corporation (“VEARA”) or their affiliates, the Fund may also invest in affiliated and unaffiliated ETPs, which could include ETFs and closed-end funds that invest in income generating asset classes. The performance of the Fund is largely dependent on the performance of, and the Fund will be subject to the risks of, such other funds that the Fund invests in.
VanEck CMCI Commodity Strategy ETF seeks to achieve its investment objective by investing under normal circumstances in instruments that derive their value from the performance of the Index. In seeking to replicate the Index, the Fund invests in (i) commodity-linked derivative instruments, including commodity index-linked notes, swap agreements, commodity futures contracts and options on futures contracts that provide economic exposure to the investment returns of the commodities markets, as represented by the Index and its constituents and in (ii) bonds, debt securities and other fixed income instruments issued by various U.S. public- or private-sector entities.
VanEck Ethereum Strategy ETF pursues its investment strategy primarily by investing in standardized, cash-settled Ether (“ETH”) futures contracts (“ETH Futures”) traded on commodity exchanges registered with the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (“CFTC”). Currently, the only ETH Futures the Fund intends to invest in are those traded on the Chicago Mercantile Exchange (the “CME”). The Fund seeks to invest in ETH Futures so that the total value of the ETH to which the Fund has economic exposure is approximately 100% to 125% of the total assets of the Fund (the “Target Exposure”) in order to account for the Fund’s accrued tax liabilities. The Fund is not seeking a levered return to ETH. In addition, the Fund expects to have significant holdings of U.S. Treasuries, other U.S. government obligations, money market funds and funds that invest in short-term bonds, cash and cash-like equivalents (e.g., high quality commercial paper and similar instruments that are rated investment grade or, if unrated, of comparable quality, as the Adviser determines), mortgage-backed securities issued or guaranteed by U.S. government agencies, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises of the U.S. government (whether or not the securities are U.S. government securities), municipal debt securities, Treasury inflation-protected securities, sovereign debt obligations of non-U.S. countries, and repurchase agreements. If the Fund is unable to achieve the Target Exposure because it is approaching or has exceeded position limits or because of liquidity or other constraints, the Fund may invest in equity securities of “ETH-related companies.” For these purposes, ETH-related companies are companies, including investment companies, listed on a U.S. stock exchange that the Adviser believes provide returns that generally correspond, or are closely related, to the performance of ETH or ETH Futures. For example, the Fund may invest in U.S. listed companies engaged in digital asset mining or offering digital asset trading platforms. The Fund currently only intends to invest in the securities and instruments discussed above. Any discussion in this SAI regarding any other type of investment not included in this paragraph does not apply to the Fund.

Municipal Securities
Certain Funds may invest in securities issued by states, municipalities and other political subdivisions, agencies, authorities and instrumentalities of states and multi-state agencies or authorities. Municipal securities share the attributes of debt/fixed income securities in general, but are generally issued by states, municipalities and other political subdivisions, agencies, authorities and instrumentalities of states and multi-state agencies or authorities. The municipal securities that each Fund may purchase include general obligation bonds and limited obligation bonds (or revenue bonds), including industrial development bonds issued pursuant to former federal tax law. General obligation bonds are obligations involving the credit of an issuer possessing taxing power and are payable from such issuer’s general revenues and not from any particular source. Limited obligation bonds are payable only from the revenues derived from a particular facility or class of facilities or, in some cases, from the proceeds of a special excise or other specific revenue source. Tax-exempt industrial development bonds generally are also revenue bonds and thus are not payable from the issuer’s general revenues. The credit and quality of industrial development bonds are usually related to the credit of the corporate user of the facilities. Payment of interest on and repayment of principal of such bonds is the responsibility of the corporate user (and/or any guarantor). In addition, certain Funds may invest in lease obligations. Lease obligations may take the form of a lease or an installment purchase contract issued by public authorities to acquire a wide variety of equipment and facilities. The securities of state and municipal governments and their political subdivisions are not considered to be issued by members of any industry.
Investments in municipal securities are subject to the risk that the issuer could default on its obligations. Such a default could result from the inadequacy of the sources or revenues from which interest and principal payments are to be made, including property tax collections, sales tax revenue, income tax revenue and local, state and federal government
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funding, or the assets collateralizing such obligations. Municipal securities and their issuers may be more susceptible to downgrade, default, and bankruptcy as a result of recent periods of economic stress. During and following the economic downturn beginning in 2008, several municipalities have filed for bankruptcy protection or have indicated that they may seek bankruptcy protection in the future. In addition, many states and municipalities have been adversely impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic as a result of declines in revenues and increased expenditures required to manage and mitigate the outbreak. Revenue bonds, including private activity bonds, are backed only by specific assets or revenue sources and not by the full faith and credit of the governmental issuer.

Repurchase Agreements
The Funds may invest in repurchase agreements with commercial banks, brokers or dealers to generate income from their excess cash balances and to invest securities lending cash collateral. A repurchase agreement is an agreement under which a Fund acquires a money market instrument (generally a security issued by the U.S. Government or an agency thereof, a banker’s acceptance or a certificate of deposit) from a seller, subject to resale to the seller at an agreed-upon price and date (normally, the next business day). A repurchase agreement may be considered a loan collateralized by securities. The resale price reflects an agreed upon interest rate effective for the period the instrument is held by a Fund and is unrelated to the interest rate on the underlying instrument.
In these repurchase agreement transactions, the securities acquired by a Fund (including accrued interest earned thereon) must have a total value at least equal to the value of the repurchase agreement and are held by the Trust’s custodian bank until repurchased. In addition, the Trust’s Board of Trustees (“Board” or “Trustees”) has established guidelines and standards for review of the creditworthiness of any bank, broker or dealer counterparty to a repurchase agreement with each Fund. No more than an aggregate of 15% of each Fund’s net assets will be invested in repurchase agreements having maturities longer than seven days.
The use of repurchase agreements involves certain risks. For example, if the other party to the agreement defaults on its obligation to repurchase the underlying security at a time when the value of the security has declined, the Funds may incur a loss upon disposition of the security. If the other party to the agreement becomes insolvent and subject to liquidation or reorganization under the Bankruptcy Code or other laws, a court may determine that the underlying security is collateral not within the control of a Fund and, therefore, the Fund may incur delays in disposing of the security and/or may not be able to substantiate its interest in the underlying security and may be deemed an unsecured creditor of the other party to the agreement.

Reverse Repurchase Agreements
The Funds may enter into reverse repurchase agreements with respect to its portfolio investments subject to the investment restrictions set forth herein. Reverse repurchase agreements involve the sale of securities held by a Fund with an agreement by the Fund to repurchase the securities at an agreed upon price, date and interest payment. The use by a Fund of reverse repurchase agreements involves the risks of leverage since the proceeds derived from such reverse repurchase agreements may be invested in additional securities. Reverse repurchase agreements involve the risk that the market value of the securities acquired in connection with the reverse repurchase agreement may decline below the price of the securities a Fund has sold but is obligated to repurchase. Also, reverse repurchase agreements involve the risk that the market value of the securities retained in lieu of sale by the Fund in connection with the reverse repurchase agreement may decline in price.
If the buyer of securities under a reverse repurchase agreement files for bankruptcy or becomes insolvent, such buyer or its trustee or receiver may receive an extension of time to determine whether to enforce a Fund's obligation to repurchase the securities, and the Fund's use of the proceeds of the reverse repurchase agreement may effectively be restricted pending such decision. Also, a Fund would bear the risk of loss to the extent that the proceeds of the reverse repurchase agreement are less than the value of the securities subject to such agreement.

In October 2020, the SEC adopted a final rule related to the use of derivatives, short sales, reverse repurchase agreements and certain other transactions by registered investment companies (the “derivatives rule”). Under the derivatives rule, when a fund trades reverse repurchase agreements or similar financing transactions, including certain tender option bonds, it needs to aggregate the amount of indebtedness associated with the reverse repurchase agreements or similar financing transactions with the aggregate amount of any other senior securities representing indebtedness (e.g., bank borrowings, if applicable) when calculating a fund’s asset coverage ratio or treat all such transactions as derivatives transactions. See “SEC Regulatory Matters” below.
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Futures Contracts and Options
Futures contracts generally provide for the future purchase or sale of a specified instrument, index or commodity at a specified future time and at a specified price. Stock or bond index futures contracts and other types of futures contracts are settled daily with a payment by the Fund (or exchange) to an exchange (or Fund) of a cash amount based on the difference between the level of the stock or bond index or underlying instrument specified in the contract from one day to the next. Futures contracts are standardized as to maturity date and underlying instrument and are traded on futures exchanges. The Funds may use futures contracts and options on futures contracts which (i) in the case of all Funds other than VanEck Bitcoin Strategy ETF, VanEck CLO ETF, VanEck CMCI Commodity Strategy ETF, VanEck Commodity Strategy ETF, VanEck Dynamic High Income ETF, VanEck Ethereum Strategy ETF, VanEck Future of Food ETF, VanEck HIP Sustainable Muni ETF and VanEck Inflation Allocation ETF, VEAC (the “Adviser” with respect to all Funds other than VanEck Bitcoin Strategy ETF, VanEck CMCI Commodity Strategy ETF, VanEck Commodity Strategy ETF, VanEck Ethereum Strategy ETF and VanEck Inflation Allocation ETF) believes to be representative of each Fund’s respective benchmark index (each, an “Index”), (ii) in the case of VanEck CLO ETF, VanEck Dynamic High Income ETF, VanEck Future of Food ETF, and VanEck HIP Sustainable Muni ETF, VEAC believes to be appropriate and (iii) in the case of VanEck Bitcoin Strategy ETF, VanEck CMCI Commodity Strategy ETF, VanEck Commodity Strategy ETF, VanEck Ethereum Strategy ETF and VanEck Inflation Allocation ETF, VEARA (the “Adviser” with respect to VanEck Bitcoin Strategy ETF, VanEck CMCI Commodity Strategy ETF, VanEck Commodity Strategy ETF, VanEck Ethereum Strategy ETF and VanEck Inflation Allocation ETF and, together with VEAC, the “Advisers”) believes to be appropriate based on other indices or combinations of indices.
An option is a contract that provides the holder of the option the right to buy or sell shares or other assets at a fixed price, within a specified period of time. An American call option gives the option holder the right to buy the underlying security from the option writer at the option exercise price at any time prior to the expiration of the option. A European call option gives the option holder the right to buy the underlying security from the option writer only on the option expiration date. An American put option gives the option holder the right to sell the underlying security to the option writer at the option exercise price at any time prior to the expiration of the option. A European put option gives the option holder the right to sell the underlying security to the option writer at the option exercise price only on the option expiration date.
Although futures contracts (other than cash settled futures contracts, including most stock or bond index futures contracts) by their terms call for actual delivery or acceptance of the underlying instrument or commodity, in most cases the contracts are closed out before the maturity date without the making or taking of delivery. Closing out an open futures position is done by taking an opposite position (buying the same contract which was previously sold or selling the same contract previously purchased) in an identical contract to terminate the position. Brokerage commissions are incurred when a futures contract position is opened or closed.
Futures traders are required to make a margin deposit (typically in cash or government securities) with a broker or custodian to initiate and maintain open positions in futures contracts. A margin deposit is intended to assure completion of the contract (delivery or acceptance of the underlying instrument or commodity or payment of the cash settlement amount) if it is not terminated prior to the specified delivery date. Brokers may establish deposit requirements that are higher than the exchange minimums. Futures contracts are customarily purchased and sold on margin deposits that may vary.
After a futures contract position is opened, the value of the contract is marked-to-market daily. If the futures contract price changes to the extent that the margin on deposit does not satisfy margin requirements, payment of additional “variation” margin will be required.
Conversely, a change in the contract value may reduce the required margin, resulting in a repayment of excess margin to the contract holder. Variation margin payments are made to and from the futures broker for as long as the contract remains open. The Funds expect to earn interest income on their margin deposits in the form of cash.
The Funds may use futures contracts and options thereon, together with positions in cash and money market instruments, to simulate full investment in each Fund’s respective Index. Under such circumstances, the Adviser and/or China Asset Management (Hong Kong) Limited (the “China Sub-Adviser”, and together with the CLO Sub-Adviser, the “Sub-Advisers”) as applicable, may seek to utilize other instruments that it believes to be correlated to each Fund’s respective Index components or a subset of the components. Liquid futures contracts may not be currently available for the Index of each Fund.
Positions in futures contracts and options may be closed out only on an exchange that provides a secondary market therefor. However, there can be no assurance that a liquid secondary market will exist for any particular futures contract or option at any specific time. Thus, it may not be possible to close a futures or options position. In the event of adverse price movements, the Funds would continue to be required to make daily cash payments to maintain its required margin. In such situations, if a Fund has insufficient cash, it may have to sell portfolio securities to meet daily margin requirements at a time
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when it may be disadvantageous to do so. In addition, the Funds may be required to make delivery of the instruments underlying futures contracts they have sold.
The Funds may seek to minimize the risk that they will be unable to close out a futures or options contract by only entering into futures and options for which there appears to be a liquid secondary market.
The risk of loss in trading futures contracts or uncovered call options in some strategies (e.g., selling uncovered stock index futures contracts) is potentially unlimited. The Funds do not plan to use futures and options contracts in this way. The risk of a futures position may still be large as traditionally measured due to the low margin deposits required. In many cases, a relatively small price movement in a futures contract may result in immediate and substantial loss or gain to the investor relative to the size of a required margin deposit.
Utilization of futures transactions by certain Funds involves the risk of imperfect or even negative correlation to each Fund’s respective Index if the index underlying the futures contracts differs from the Index. There is also the risk of loss by the Funds of margin deposits in the event of the bankruptcy or other similar insolvency with respect to a broker with whom a Fund has an open position in the futures contract or option.
Certain financial futures exchanges limit the amount of fluctuation permitted in futures contract prices during a single trading day. The daily limit establishes the maximum amount that the price of a futures contract may vary either up or down from the previous day’s settlement price at the end of a trading session. Once the daily limit has been reached in a particular type of contract, no trades may be made on that day at a price beyond that limit. The daily limit governs only price movements during a particular trading day and therefore does not limit potential losses, because the limit may prevent the liquidation of unfavorable positions. Futures contract prices have occasionally moved to the daily limit for several consecutive trading days with little or no trading, thereby preventing prompt liquidation of future positions and subjecting some futures traders to substantial losses.
Except as otherwise specified in the Funds’ Prospectuses or this SAI, there are no limitations on the extent to which the Funds may engage in transactions involving futures and options thereon. With respect to certain Funds, under applicable Indian securities regulations, there are position limits on foreign portfolio investor (“FPI”) investments in index futures and index futures contracts on a particular underlying index under the Foreign Portfolio Investors Regulations, 2019 (“FPI Regulations”) of the Securities and Exchange Board of India (“SEBI”). The Funds also are required to comply with the derivatives rule when they engage in transactions involving futures and options thereon. See “SEC Regulatory Matters” below.

Swaps
OTC swap agreements are contracts between parties in which one party agrees to make payments to the other party based on the change in market value or level of a specified index or asset. In return, the other party agrees to make payments to the first party based on the return of a different specified index or asset, usually an interest rate. Although OTC swap agreements entail the risk that a party will default on its payment obligations thereunder, each Fund seeks to reduce this risk generally by receiving (or paying) collateral daily and entering into agreements that involve payments no less frequently than quarterly. The net amount of the excess, if any, of a Fund’s obligations over its entitlements with respect to each swap is accrued on a daily basis and an amount of cash or highly liquid securities having an aggregate value at least equal to the accrued excess is maintained in an account at the Trust’s custodian bank.
In addition, certain Funds may enter into interest rate swaps and credit default swaps. Interest rate swaps are typically exchange-traded contracts in which a party agrees to make periodic payments on certain referenced interest rates (e.g., a fixed rate or a floating rate) applied to a specified notional amount. A credit default swap on a security is a bilateral contract that enables an investor to buy or sell protection against a defined-issuer credit event. Credit default swaps referencing fixed income indices are generally traded on exchanges. Certain Funds may enter into credit default swap agreements either as a buyer or a seller. A Fund may buy protection to attempt to mitigate the risk of default or credit quality deterioration in one or more of its individual holdings or in a segment of the fixed income securities market to which it has exposure, or to take a “short” position in individual bonds or market segments which it does not own. A Fund may sell protection in an attempt to gain exposure to the credit quality characteristics of particular bonds or market segments without investing directly in those bonds or market segments. As the protection seller in a credit default swap, a Fund effectively adds economic leverage to its portfolio because, in addition to being subject to investment exposure on its total net assets, the Fund is subject to investment exposure on the notional amount of the swap.
The use of such swap agreements involves certain risks. For example, if the counterparty under an OTC swap agreement defaults on its obligation to make payments due from it as a result of its bankruptcy or otherwise, the Funds may lose such payments altogether or collect only a portion thereof, which collection could involve costs or delays.
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The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the “Dodd-Frank Act”) and related regulatory developments require the clearing and exchange-trading of certain standardized OTC derivative instruments that the CFTC and the SEC defined as “swaps” and “security-based swaps,” respectively. Mandatory exchange-trading and clearing is occurring on a phased-in basis based on the type of market participant and CFTC approval of contracts for central clearing and exchange trading. In a cleared swap, a Fund’s ultimate counterparty is a central clearinghouse rather than a swap dealer, bank or other financial institution. A Fund enters into cleared swaps through an executing broker. Such transactions are then submitted for clearing and, if cleared, will be held at regulated futures commission merchants (“FCMs”) that are members of the clearinghouse that serves as the central counterparty. When a Fund enters into a cleared swap, it must deliver to the central counterparty (via an FCM) an amount referred to as “initial margin.” Initial margin requirements are determined by the central counterparty, but an FCM may require additional initial margin above the amount required by the central counterparty. During the term of the swap agreement, a “variation margin” amount may also be required to be paid by a Fund or may be received by the Fund in accordance with margin controls set for such accounts, depending upon changes in the price of the underlying reference asset subject to the swap agreement. At the conclusion of the term of the swap agreement, if a Fund has a loss equal to or greater than the margin amount, the margin amount is paid to the FCM along with any loss in excess of the margin amount. If a Fund has a loss of less than the margin amount, the excess margin is returned to the Fund. If a Fund has a gain, the full margin amount and the amount of the gain is paid to the Fund.
Central clearing is designed to reduce counterparty credit risk compared to uncleared swaps because central clearing interposes the central clearinghouse as the counterparty to each participant’s swap, but it does not eliminate those risks completely. There is also a risk of loss by a Fund of the initial and variation margin deposits in the event of bankruptcy of the FCM with which the Fund has an open position in a swap contract. The assets of a Fund may not be fully protected in the event of the bankruptcy of the FCM or central counterparty because the Fund might be limited to recovering only a pro rata share of all available funds and margin segregated on behalf of an FCM’s customers or central counterparty’s clearing members. If the FCM does not provide accurate reporting, a Fund is also subject to the risk that the FCM could use the Fund’s assets, which are held in an omnibus account with assets belonging to the FCM’s other customers, to satisfy its own financial obligations or the payment obligations of another customer to the central counterparty. Certain swaps have begun trading on exchanges called swap execution facilities. Exchange-trading is expected to, but may not necessarily, increase the liquidity of swaps trading.
In addition, with respect to cleared swaps, a Fund may not be able to obtain as favorable terms as it would be able to negotiate for an uncleared swap. In addition, an FCM may unilaterally impose position limits or additional margin requirements for certain types of swaps in which a Fund may invest. Central counterparties and FCMs generally can require termination of existing cleared swap transactions at any time, and can also require increases in margin above the margin that is required at the initiation of the swap agreement. Margin requirements for cleared swaps vary on a number of factors, and the margin required under the rules of the clearinghouse and FCM may be in excess of the collateral required to be posted by a Fund to support its obligations under a similar uncleared swap. However, regulators recently adopted rules imposing certain margin requirements, including minimums and required daily margin transfers on uncleared swaps.
The Funds are also subject to the risk that, after entering into a cleared swap with an executing broker, no FCM or central counterparty is willing or able to clear the transaction. In such an event, the central counterparty would void the trade. Before a Fund can enter into a new trade, market conditions may become less favorable to the Fund.
The Adviser will continue to monitor developments regarding trading and execution of cleared swaps on exchanges, particularly to the extent regulatory changes affect a Fund’s ability to enter into swap agreements and the costs and risks associated with such investments.
SEBI has prohibited FPIs (in their capacity as issuers of offshore derivative instruments (“ODIs”)) from issuing ODIs that have derivatives as their underlying instruments, unless such exposure is for hedging purposes. ODIs are defined under the FPI Regulations as any instrument issued overseas by an FPI against securities held by it that are listed or proposed to be listed on any recognized stock exchange in India or unlisted debt securities or securitized debt instruments as its underlying instrument.

SEC Regulatory Matters
Subject to certain exceptions, the derivatives rule requires a Fund to trade derivatives and other transactions that create future payment or delivery obligations subject to a value-at-risk (“VaR”) leverage limit and certain derivatives risk management program and reporting requirements. Generally, these requirements apply unless a fund satisfies a “limited derivatives users” exception that is included in the derivatives rule. Under the derivatives rule, when a fund trades reverse repurchase agreements or similar financing transactions, including certain tender option bonds, it needs to aggregate the amount of indebtedness associated with the reverse repurchase agreements or similar financing transactions with the aggregate amount of any other senior securities representing indebtedness (e.g., bank borrowings, if applicable) when calculating a Fund’s asset coverage ratio
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or treat all such transactions as derivatives transactions. Reverse repurchase agreements or similar financing transactions aggregated with other indebtedness do not need to be included in the calculation of whether a fund satisfies the limited derivatives users exception, but for funds subject to the VaR testing requirement, reverse repurchase agreements and similar financing transactions must be included for purposes of such testing whether treated as derivatives transactions or not. In addition, under the derivatives rule, a Fund is permitted to invest in a security on a when-issued or forward-settling basis, or with a non-standard settlement cycle, and the transaction will be deemed not to involve a senior security under the 1940 Act, provided that (i) the Fund intends to physically settle the transaction and (ii) the transaction will settle within 35 days of its trade date (the “Delayed-Settlement Securities Provision”). A Fund may otherwise engage in such transactions that do not meet the conditions of the Delayed-Settlement Securities Provision so long as the Fund treats any such transaction as a “derivatives transaction” for purposes of compliance with the derivatives rule. Furthermore, under the derivatives rule, a Fund will be permitted to enter into an unfunded commitment agreement, and such unfunded commitment agreement will not be subject to the asset coverage requirements under the 1940 Act, if the Fund reasonably believes, at the time it enters into such agreement, that it will have sufficient cash and cash equivalents to meet its obligations with respect to all such agreements as they come due. The Advisers cannot predict the effects of these regulations on the Funds. The Advisers intend to monitor developments and seek to manage each Fund in a manner consistent with achieving the Fund’s investment objective.
In October 2020, the SEC adopted certain regulatory changes and took other actions related to the ability of an investment company to invest in another investment company. These changes include, among other things, amendments to Rule 12d1-1, the rescission of Rule 12d1-2, the adoption of Rule 12d1-4, and the rescission of certain exemptive relief issued by the SEC permitting such investments in excess of statutory limits. Compliance with these new requirements commenced in January 2022.

Warrants and Subscription Rights
Warrants are equity securities in the form of options issued by a corporation which give the holder the right, but not the obligation, to purchase stock, usually at a price that is higher than the market price at the time the warrant is issued. A purchaser takes the risk that the warrant may expire worthless because the market price of the common stock fails to rise above the price set by the warrant.

Currency Forwards
A currency forward transaction is a contract to buy or sell a specified quantity of currency at a specified date in the future at a specified price which may be any fixed number of days from the date of the contract agreed upon by the parties at a price set at the time of the contract. Currency forward contracts may be used to increase or reduce exposure to currency price movements.
The use of currency forward transactions involves certain risks. For example, if the counterparty under the contract defaults on its obligation to make payments due from it as a result of its bankruptcy or otherwise, a Fund may lose such payments altogether or collect only a portion thereof, which collection could involve costs or delays.
In early 2018, SEBI and the Reserve Bank of India (the “RBI”) introduced new regulation that permits FPIs to take long or short positions without having to establish underlying exposure up to a single limit of $100 million or its equivalent, across all currency pairs involving Indian rupees combined across all stock exchanges in India. FPIs are required to ensure that their short positions on all stock exchanges across all contracts in foreign currency-Indian rupee (“FCY-INR”) pairs do not exceed $100 million. In the event an FPI breaches the short position limit, a stock exchange shall restrict the FPI from increasing its existing short positions or creating new short positions in the currency pair until such time the FPI is in compliance with the existing requirements. To take long positions in excess of $100 million in all contracts in FCY-INR pairs, FPIs are required to have an underlying exposure in Indian debt or equity securities, including units of equity or debt funds.
The Funds also are required to comply with the derivatives rule when they engage in currency forward transactions that create future Fund payment or delivery obligations. See “SEC Regulatory Matters”above.

Convertible Securities
A convertible security is a bond, debenture, note, preferred stock, right, warrant or other security that may be converted into or exchanged for a prescribed amount of common stock or other security of the same or a different issuer or into cash within a particular period of time at a specified price or formula. A convertible security generally entitles the holder to receive interest paid or accrued on debt securities or the dividend paid on preferred stock until the convertible security matures or is redeemed, converted or exchanged. Before conversion, convertible securities generally have characteristics similar to both debt and equity securities. The value of convertible securities tends to decline as interest rates rise and,
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because of the conversion feature, tends to vary with fluctuations in the market value of the underlying securities. Convertible securities ordinarily provide a stream of income with generally higher yields than those of common stock of the same or similar issuers. Convertible securities generally rank senior to common stock in a corporation’s capital structure but are usually subordinated to comparable nonconvertible securities. Convertible securities generally do not participate directly in any dividend increases or decreases of the underlying securities although the market prices of convertible securities may be affected by any dividend changes or other changes in the underlying securities.

Initial Public Offerings
A Fund may invest in initial public offerings (“IPOs”) of common stock or other primary or secondary syndicated offerings of equity or debt securities issued by a corporate issuer. A purchase of IPO securities often involves higher transaction costs than those associated with the purchase of securities already traded on exchanges or markets. IPO securities are subject to market risk and liquidity risk. The market value of recently issued IPO securities may fluctuate considerably due to factors such as the absence of a prior public market, unseasoned trading and speculation, a potentially small number of securities available for trading, limited information about the issuer, and other factors. A Fund may hold IPO securities for a period of time, or may sell them soon after the purchase. Investments in IPOs could have a magnified impact – either positive or negative – on a Fund’s performance while a Fund’s assets are relatively small. The impact of an IPO on a Fund’s performance may tend to diminish as a Fund’s assets grow. In circumstances when investments in IPOs make a significant contribution to the Fund’s performance, there can be no assurance that similar contributions from IPOs will continue in the future.

Special Purpose Acquisition Companies
A Fund may invest in stock, warrants, and other securities of special purpose acquisition companies (“SPACs”) or similar special purpose entities. A SPAC is typically a publicly traded company that raises investment capital via an IPO for the purpose of acquiring the equity securities of one or more existing companies (or interests therein) via merger, combination, acquisition or other similar transactions. A Fund may acquire an interest in a SPAC in an IPO or a secondary market transaction.
Unless and until an acquisition is completed, a SPAC generally invests its assets (less a portion retained to cover expenses) in U.S. government securities, money market securities and cash. To the extent the SPAC is invested in cash or similar securities, this may negatively affect a Fund’s performance. Because SPACs and similar entities are in essence blank check companies without operating history or ongoing business other than seeking acquisitions, the value of their securities is particularly dependent on the ability of the entity’s management to identify and complete a profitable acquisition. There is no guarantee that the SPACs in which a Fund invests will complete an acquisition or that any acquisitions that are completed will be profitable. Some SPACs may pursue acquisitions only within certain industries or regions, which may increase the volatility of their prices. In addition, these securities, which are typically traded in the over-the-counter market, may be considered illiquid and/or be subject to restrictions on resale.
Other risks of investing in SPACs include that a significant portion of the monies raised by the SPAC may be expended during the search for a target transaction; an attractive transaction may not be identified at all (or any requisite approvals may not be obtained) and the SPAC may dissolve and be required to return any remaining monies to shareholders, causing a Fund to incur the opportunity cost of missed investment opportunities a Fund otherwise could have benefited from; a transaction once identified or effected may prove unsuccessful and an investment in the SPAC may lose value; the warrants or other rights with respect to the SPAC held by a Fund may expire worthless or may be repurchased or retired by the SPAC at an unfavorable price; and an investment in a SPAC may be diluted by additional later offerings of interests in the SPAC or by other investors exercising existing rights to purchase shares of the SPAC. In addition, a SPAC target company may have limited operating experience, a smaller size, limited product lines, markets, distribution channels and financial and managerial resources. Investing in the securities of smaller companies involves greater risk, and portfolio price volatility.

Market Risk
    A Fund could lose money over short periods due to short-term market movements and over longer periods during more prolonged market downturns. The prices of the securities in a Fund are subject to the risks associated with investing in the securities market, including general economic conditions, sudden and unpredictable drops in value, exchange trading suspensions and closures and public health risks. Market risk arises mainly from uncertainty about future values of financial instruments and may be influenced by price, currency and interest rate movements. These risks may be magnified if certain social, political, economic and other conditions and events (such as natural disasters, epidemics and pandemics, terrorism, conflicts and social unrest) adversely interrupt the global economy; in these and other circumstances, such events or developments might affect companies world-wide. As global systems, economies and financial markets are increasingly
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interconnected, events that occur in one country, region or financial market will, more frequently, adversely impact issuers in other countries, regions or markets. During a general market downturn, multiple asset classes may be negatively affected.  Changes in market conditions and interest rates generally do not have the same impact on all types of securities and instruments.
Economies and financial markets throughout the world have experienced periods of increased volatility, uncertainty and distress. To the extent these conditions continue, the risks associated with an investment in the Fund, including those described below, could be heightened and the Fund’s investments (and thus a shareholder’s investment in the Fund) may be particularly susceptible to sudden and substantial losses, reduced yield or income or other adverse developments.

Floating Rate LIBOR Risk
Certain financial instruments in which a Fund invests may pay interest based on, or otherwise have payments tied to, the London Inter-bank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”), Euro Interbank Offered Rate, Secured Overnight Financing Rate (“SOFR”), Sterling Overnight Interbank Average Rate (“SONIA”) and other similar types of reference rates (each, a “Reference Rate”). Due to the uncertainty regarding the future utilization of LIBOR and the nature of any replacement rate, the potential effect of a transition away from LIBOR on a Fund or the financial instruments in which a Fund invests cannot yet be fully determined.
All Sterling, Japanese Yen, Swiss Franc, Euro and certain U.S. dollar LIBOR settings ceased to be published at the end of 2021 and the remaining U.S. dollar LIBOR settings will no longer be published after June 30, 2023. Certain U.S. dollar LIBOR settings will continue to be published on a non-representative synthetic basis until September 30, 2024. A Fund may continue to invest in instruments that reference or otherwise use such Reference Rates until they cease to be published due to favorable liquidity or pricing. These events and any additional regulatory or market changes may have an adverse impact on a Fund or its investments.
In anticipation of the transition away from LIBOR, regulators and market participants have worked to identify or develop successor Reference Rates (e.g., the SOFR, which is likely to replace U.S. dollar LIBOR and spreads (if any) to be utilized in existing contracts or instruments as part of the transition away from LIBOR. Spreads (if any) to be utilized in existing contracts or instruments may be amended through government regulations, market-wide protocols, fallback contractual provisions, bespoke negotiations or amendments or otherwise. Nonetheless, the termination of certain Reference Rates presents risks to the Funds. It is not possible to exhaustively identify or predict the effect of any such changes, any establishment of alternative Reference Rates or any other reforms to Reference Rates that may be enacted in the United States or elsewhere. The elimination of a Reference Rate or any other changes or reforms to the determination or supervision of Reference Rates may affect the value, liquidity, volatility or return on certain Fund investments and may result in costs to a Fund, including costs incurred in connection with closing out positions and entering into new trades, adversely impacting a Fund’s overall financial condition or results of operations. The impact of any successor or substitute Reference Rate, if any, will vary on an investment-by-investment basis, and any differences may be material and/or create material economic mismatches. The successor or substitute Reference Rate and any adjustments selected may negatively impact a Fund’s investments, performance or financial condition, including in ways unforeseen by the Advisers. In addition, any successor or substitute Reference Rate and any pricing adjustments imposed by a regulator or by counterparties or otherwise may adversely affect a Fund’s performance and/or NAV, and may expose a Fund to additional tax, accounting and regulatory risks.

Structured Notes
A structured note is a derivative security for which the amount of principal repayment and/or interest payments is based on the movement of one or more “factors.” These factors include, but are not limited to, currency exchange rates, interest rates (such as the prime lending rate or LIBOR), referenced bonds and stock indices. Some of these factors may or may not correlate to the total rate of return on one or more underlying instruments referenced in such notes. Investments in structured notes involve risks including interest rate risk, credit risk and market risk. Depending on the factor(s) used and the use of multipliers or deflators, changes in interest rates and movement of such factor(s) may cause significant price fluctuations. Structured notes may be less liquid than other types of securities and more volatile than the reference factor underlying the note.

Participation Notes
Participation notes (“P-Notes”) are issued by banks or broker-dealers and are designed to offer a return linked to the performance of a particular underlying equity security or market. P-Notes can have the characteristics or take the form of various instruments, including, but not limited to, certificates or warrants. The holder of a P-Note that is linked to a particular underlying security may, among other things, be entitled to receive any dividends paid in connection with the underlying security. However, the holder of a P-Note generally does not receive voting rights as it would if it directly owned the
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underlying security. P-Notes constitute direct, general and unsecured contractual obligations of the banks or broker-dealers that issue them, which therefore subject the subscriber to counterparty risk, as discussed below. Investments in P-Notes involve certain risks in addition to those associated with a direct investment in the underlying foreign securities or foreign securities markets whose return they seek to replicate. For instance, there can be no assurance that the trading price of a P-Note will equal the value of the underlying foreign security or foreign securities market that it seeks to replicate. As the purchaser of a P-Note, a Fund is relying on the creditworthiness of the counterparty issuing the P-Note and has no rights under a P-Note against the issuer of the underlying security. Therefore, if such counterparty were to become insolvent, a Fund would lose its investment. The risk that a Fund may lose its investments due to the insolvency of a single counterparty may be amplified to the extent the Fund purchases P-Notes issued by one issuer or a small number of issuers. P-Notes also include transaction costs in addition to those applicable to a direct investment in securities. In addition, a Fund’s use of P-Notes may cause the Fund’s performance to deviate from the performance of the portion of the Index to which the Fund is gaining exposure through subscription to P-Notes.
Due to liquidity and transfer restrictions, the secondary markets on which P-Notes are traded may be less liquid than the markets for other securities, which may lead to the absence of readily available market quotations for securities in a Fund’s portfolio and may cause the value of the P-Notes to decline. The ability of a Fund to value its securities becomes more difficult and the Adviser’s and/or Sub-Advisers’ judgment in the application of fair value procedures may play a greater role in the valuation of a Fund’s securities due to reduced availability of reliable objective pricing data. Consequently, while such determinations will be made in good faith, it may nevertheless be more difficult for a Fund to accurately assign a daily value to such securities.
P-Notes in India eligible for subscription by certain Funds must be issued by banks or broker-dealers that are registered with the SEBI as a Category I FPI as defined under the SEBI FPI Regulations to issue offshore derivative instruments (“ODIs”) and are subject to eligibility requirements and transfer restrictions. For more information, please see “Investment Policies and Restrictions - Swaps.”

Indian SEBI Takeover Regulations
Under the provisions of the SEBI (Substantial Acquisition of Shares and Takeovers) Regulations, 2011 (“Takeover Code”), any acquirer who acquires, together with persons acting in concert with him, 5% or more of the shares or voting rights of a listed public Indian company, is required to notify the company and the stock exchanges on which the shares of such company are listed about its holding within the prescribed time period (including changes in holdings by more than certain thresholds).
Upon the acquisition of 25% or more of shares or voting rights or an acquisition of control of the company, whether directly or indirectly, the acquirer is required to make an open offer to the other shareholders offering to purchase at least 26% of all the outstanding shares of the company at an offer price as determined pursuant to the provisions of the Takeover Code.

Collateralized Loan Obligations
A CLO is a type of structured credit typically organized as a trust or other special purpose vehicle. The CLO issues debt and equity interests and uses the proceeds from this issuance to acquire a portfolio of bank loans. The underlying loans are generally senior-secured/first-priority loans; however, the CLO may also include an allowance for second-lien and/or unsecured debt. Additionally, the underlying loans may include domestic and foreign senior secured loans, senior unsecured loans and subordinate corporate loans, some of which may individually be below investment grade or the equivalent if unrated. The portfolio of underlying loans is actively managed by the CLO manager for a fixed period of time (“reinvestment period”). During the reinvestment period, the CLO manager may buy and sell individual loans to create trading gains or mitigate losses. The CLO portfolio will generally be required to adhere to certain diversification rules established by the CLO issuer to mitigate against the risk of concentrated defaults within a given industry or sector. After a specified period of time, the majority owner of equity interests in the CLO may seek to call the CLO’s outstanding debt or refinance its position. If not called or refinanced, when the reinvestment period ends, the CLO uses cash flows from the underlying loans to pay down the outstanding debt tranches and wind up the CLO’s operations.

Interests in the CLOs are divided into two or more separate debt and equity tranches, each with a different credit rating and risk/return profile based upon its priority of claim on the cashflows produced by the underlying loan pool. Tranches are categorized as senior, mezzanine and subordinated/equity, according to their degree of credit risk. If there are defaults or the CLO’s collateral otherwise underperforms, scheduled payments to senior tranches take precedence over those of mezzanine tranches, and scheduled payments to mezzanine tranches take precedence over those to subordinated/equity tranches. The riskiest portion is the “Equity” tranche, which bears the bulk of defaults from the loans in the CLO and serves to protect the
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other, more senior tranches from default in all but the most severe circumstances. Senior and mezzanine tranches are typically rated, with the former receiving ratings of A/A to AAA/Aaa and the latter receiving ratings of B/B2 to BBB/Baa2. The ratings reflect both the credit quality of underlying collateral as well as how much protection a given tranche is afforded by tranches that are subordinate to it. Normally, CLOs are privately offered and sold, and thus are not registered under the securities laws. CLOs themselves, and the loan obligations underlying the CLOs, are typically subject to certain restrictions on transfer and sale, potentially making them less liquid than other types of securities. Additionally, when VanEck CLO ETF purchases a newly issued CLO directly from the issuer (rather than from the secondary market), there will be a delayed settlement period, during which time the liquidity of the CLO may be further reduced. During periods of limited liquidity and higher price volatility, VanEck CLO ETF’s ability to acquire or dispose of CLOs at a price and time VanEck CLO ETF deems advantageous may be severely impaired. CLOs are generally considered to be long-term investments and there is no guarantee that an active secondary market will exist or be maintained for any given CLO. CLOs are typically structured such that, after a specified period of time, the majority investor in the equity tranche can call (i.e., redeem) the security in full. VanEck CLO ETF may not be able to accurately predict when or which of VanEck CLO ETF’s CLO investments will be called, resulting in VanEck CLO ETF having to reinvest the proceeds in unfavorable circumstances, resulting in a decline in VanEck CLO ETF’s income. As interest rates decrease, issuers of the underlying loan obligations may refinance any floating rate loans, which will result in a reduction in the principal value of the CLO’s portfolio and require VanEck CLO ETF to reinvest cash at inopportune times. Conversely, as interest rates rise, borrowers with floating rate loans may experience difficulty in making payments, resulting and delinquencies and defaults, which will result in a reduction in cash flow to the CLO and the CLO’s investors.

Future Developments
The Funds may take advantage of opportunities in the area of options, futures contracts, options on futures contracts, warrants, swaps and any other investments which are not presently contemplated for use or which are not currently available, but which may be developed, to the extent such investments are considered suitable for a Fund by the Advisers or Sub-Advisers.

Investment Restrictions
The Trust and the Board of Directors of the Mauritius Subsidiary (to the extent that such restrictions are applicable to the VanEck India Growth Leaders ETF) have adopted the following investment restrictions as fundamental policies with respect to each Fund (and the Mauritius Subsidiary), unless otherwise noted. These restrictions cannot be changed with respect to a Fund (or the Mauritius Subsidiary) without the approval of the holders of a majority of such Fund’s (or Mauritius Subsidiary’s) outstanding voting securities. For purposes of the 1940 Act, a majority of the outstanding voting securities of a Fund means the vote, at an annual or a special meeting of the security holders of the Trust, of the lesser of (1) 67% or more of the voting securities of the Fund present at such meeting, if the holders of more than 50% of the outstanding voting securities of the Fund are present or represented by proxy, or (2) more than 50% of the outstanding voting securities of the Fund. Similar voting requirements apply with respect to a change in the fundamental investment policies of the Mauritius Subsidiary. If VanEck India Growth Leaders ETF, as an investor in the Mauritius Subsidiary, is requested to vote on a change in the fundamental investment policies of the Mauritius Subsidiary, the Fund will either call a meeting of its shareholders and will vote its shares in the Mauritius Subsidiary in accordance with instructions it receives from its shareholders or otherwise vote as required under the 1940 Act.
The following investment restrictions are applicable to each Fund (unless otherwise noted) except the VanEck Energy Income ETF:
1.Each Fund may not make loans, except that a Fund may (i) lend portfolio securities, (ii) enter into repurchase agreements, (iii) purchase all or a portion of an issue of debt securities, bank loan or participation interests, bank certificates of deposit, bankers’ acceptances, debentures or other securities, whether or not the purchase is made upon the original issuance of the securities and (iv) participate in an interfund lending program with other registered investment companies;
2.Each Fund may not borrow money, except as permitted under the 1940 Act, and as interpreted or modified by regulation from time to time;
3.Each Fund may not issue senior securities except as permitted under the 1940 Act, and as interpreted or modified by regulation from time to time;
4.Each of VanEck Africa Index ETF, VanEck BDC Income ETF, VanEck Brazil Small-Cap ETF, VanEck CEF Muni Income ETF, VanEck ChiNext ETF, VanEck Durable High Dividend ETF, VanEck Emerging Markets High Yield Bond ETF, VanEck Fallen Angel High Yield Bond ETF, VanEck High Yield Muni ETF, VanEck India Growth Leaders ETF, VanEck Intermediate Muni ETF, VanEck International High
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Yield Bond ETF, VanEck Long/Flat Trend ETF, VanEck Long Muni ETF, VanEck Morningstar Global Wide Moat ETF, VanEck Morningstar International Moat ETF, VanEck Morningstar Wide Moat ETF, VanEck Natural Resources ETF, VanEck Short High Yield Muni ETF and VanEck Short Muni ETF may not invest in a manner inconsistent with its classification as a “diversified company” as provided by (i) the 1940 Act, as amended from time to time, (ii) the rules and regulations promulgated by the SEC under the 1940 Act, as amended from time to time, or (iii) an exemption or other relief applicable to the Fund from the provisions of the 1940 Act, as amended from time to time;
5.VanEck Africa Index ETF, VanEck Agribusiness ETF, VanEck Brazil Small-Cap ETF, VanEck Environmental Services ETF, VanEck Gaming ETF, VanEck Gold Miners ETF, VanEck High Yield Muni ETF, VanEck Indonesia ETF, VanEck Intermediate Muni ETF, VanEck Long Muni ETF, VanEck Low Carbon Energy ETF, VanEck Natural Resources ETF, VanEck Russia ETF, VanEck Short Muni ETF, VanEck Steel ETF, VanEck Uranium+Nuclear Energy ETF and VanEck Vietnam ETF may not purchase a security (other than obligations of the U.S. Government, its agencies or instrumentalities) if, as a result, 25% or more of its total assets would be invested in a single issuer;
6.Each Fund may not purchase or sell real estate, except that a Fund may (i) invest in securities of issuers that invest in real estate or interests therein; (ii) invest in mortgage-related securities and other securities that are secured by real estate or interests therein; and (iii) hold and sell real estate acquired by the Fund as a result of the ownership of securities;
7.Each Fund may not engage in the business of underwriting securities issued by others, except to the extent that the Fund may be considered an underwriter within the meaning of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), in the disposition of restricted securities or in connection with its investments in other investment companies;
8.Each Fund may not purchase or sell commodities, unless acquired as a result of owning securities or other instruments, but it may purchase, sell or enter into financial options and futures, forward and spot currency contracts, swap transactions and other financial contracts or derivative instruments and may invest in securities or other instruments backed by commodities. In addition, VanEck Gold Miners ETF may invest up to 25% of its total assets in gold and silver coins, which are legal tender in the country of issue and gold and silver bullion, and palladium and platinum group metals bullion; and
9.Each Fund (except VanEck BDC Income ETF, VanEck Biotech ETF, VanEck Bitcoin Strategy ETF, VanEck CLO ETF, VanEck CMCI Commodity Strategy ETF, VanEck Commodity Strategy ETF, VanEck Digital India ETF, VanEck Digital Transformation ETF, VanEck Ethereum Strategy ETF, VanEck Future of Food ETF, VanEck Gold Miners ETF, VanEck Green Infrastructure ETF, VanEck Green Metals ETF, VanEck HIP Sustainable Muni ETF, VanEck Low Carbon Energy ETF, VanEck Moody's Analytics BBB Corporate Bond ETF, VanEck Moody's Analytics IG Corporate Bond ETF, VanEck Morningstar ESG Moat ETF, VanEck Morningstar SMID Moat ETF, VanEck Morningstar Wide Moat Growth ETF, VanEck Morningstar Wide Moat Value ETF, VanEck Mortgage REIT Income ETF, VanEck Muni ETF, VanEck Office and Commercial REIT ETF, VanEck Oil Services ETF, VanEck Pharmaceutical ETF, VanEck Inflation Allocation ETF, VanEck Retail ETF, VanEck Robotics ETF, VanEck Semiconductor ETF and VanEck Social Sentiment ETF) may not purchase any security if, as a result of that purchase, 25% or more of its total assets would be invested in securities of issuers having their principal business activities in the same industry, except that the Fund may invest 25% or more of the value of its total assets in securities of issuers in any one industry or group of industries if the index that the Fund replicates concentrates in an industry or group of industries. Each of VanEck HIP Sustainable Muni ETF and VanEck Inflation Allocation ETF may not purchase any security if, as a result of that purchase, 25% or more of its total assets would be invested in securities of issuers having their principal business activities in the same industry. VanEck Bitcoin Strategy ETF may not concentrate (i.e., hold more than 25% of its assets in the stocks of a single industry or group of industries) its investments in issuers of one or more particular industries, except that the Fund may invest more than 25% of its total assets in investments that provide exposure to bitcoin and/or Bitcoin Futures. VanEck Gold Miners ETF may not purchase any security if, as a result of that purchase, 25% or more of its total assets would be invested in securities of issuers having their principal business activities in the same industry except that the Fund will invest 25% or more of its total assets in the gold-mining industry. VanEck Low Carbon Energy ETF may not purchase any security if, as a result of that purchase, 25% or more of its total assets would be invested in securities of issuers having their principal business activities in the same industry except that the Fund will invest 25% or more of its total assets in the alternative energy industry. Each of VanEck BDC Income ETF, VanEck Biotech ETF, VanEck Mortgage REIT Income ETF, VanEck Oil Services ETF, VanEck Pharmaceutical ETF, VanEck Retail ETF and VanEck Semiconductor ETF may not purchase any security if, as a result of that purchase, 25% or more of its total assets would be invested in securities of issuers having their principal business activities in the same industry, except that the
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Fund will invest 25% or more of the value of its total assets in securities of issuers in any one industry or group of industries if the index that the Fund replicates concentrates in an industry or group of industries. Each of VanEck CMCI Commodity Strategy ETF, VanEck Digital India ETF, VanEck Digital Transformation ETF, VanEck Green Infrastructure ETF, VanEck Green Metals ETF, VanEck Moody's Analytics BBB Corporate Bond ETF, VanEck Moody's Analytics IG Corporate Bond ETF, VanEck Morningstar ESG Moat ETF, VanEck Morningstar SMID Moat ETF, VanEck Morningstar Wide Moat Growth ETF, VanEck Morningstar Wide Moat Value ETF, VanEck Muni ETF, VanEck Office and Commercial REIT ETF, VanEck Robotics ETF and VanEck Social Sentiment ETF may not purchase any security if, as a result of that purchase, 25% or more of its total assets would be invested in securities of issuers having their principal business activities in the same industry, except that the Fund may invest 25% or more of the value of its total assets in securities of issuers in any one industry or group of industries if the index that the Fund tracks concentrates in an industry or group of industries. VanEck Future of Food ETF may not purchase any security if, as a result of that purchase, 25% or more of its total assets would be invested in securities of issuers having their principal business activities in the same industry or group of industries, except that the Fund will invest 25% or more of its total assets in the food technology, precision agriculture, and agricultural sustainability group of industries. VanEck CLO ETF and VanEck Dynamic High Income ETF may not purchase any security if, as a result of that purchase, 25% or more of its total assets would be invested in securities of issuers having their principal business activities in the same industry or group of industries. VanEck Commodity Strategy ETF may not purchase any security if, as a result of that purchase, 25% or more of its total assets would be invested in securities of issuers having their principal business activities in the same industry or group of industries, except that the Fund may invest 25% or more of its total assets in investments that provide exposure to commodities. VanEck Ethereum Strategy ETF may not purchase any security if, as a result of that purchase, 25% or more of its total assets would be invested in securities of issuers having their principal business activities in one or more industries, except that the Fund will invest more than 25% of its total assets in investments that provide exposure to ETH and/or ETH Futures. These limits do not apply to securities issued or guaranteed by the U.S. Government, its agencies or instrumentalities.

In addition, each of VanEck High Yield Muni ETF, VanEck Intermediate Muni ETF, VanEck Long Muni ETF, VanEck Short High Yield Muni ETF and VanEck Short Muni ETF (collectively, the “Municipal Funds”) has adopted a fundamental investment policy to invest at least 80% of its assets in investments suggested by its name. For purposes of this policy, the term “assets” means net assets plus the amount of borrowings for investment purposes. Accordingly, each Municipal Fund will invest at least 80% of its assets in municipal securities. Each of VanEck CEF Muni Income ETF, VanEck HIP Sustainable Muni ETF and VanEck Muni ETF has adopted a fundamental investment policy to invest at least 80% of its total assets in investments the income from which is exempt from U.S. federal income tax (other than the Alternative Minimum Tax (“AMT”)). For purposes of this policy, the term “total assets” means net assets plus the amount of any borrowings for investment purposes. Each of VanEck CEF Muni Income ETF, VanEck HIP Sustainable Muni ETF and VanEck Muni ETF may count securities that generate income subject to the AMT toward the 80% investment requirement.
In addition to the investment restrictions (and with respect to the Municipal Funds, VanEck CEF Muni Income ETF, VanEck HIP Sustainable Muni ETF and VanEck Muni ETF, the applicable policy) adopted as fundamental policies as set forth above, each Fund (except the VanEck Energy Income ETF) observes the following non-fundamental investment restrictions, which may be changed by the Board without a shareholder vote. Under these restrictions:
1.Each Fund will not invest in securities which are “illiquid” securities if the result is that more than 15% of the Fund’s net assets would be invested in such securities.
2.Each Fund will not make short sales of securities.
3.Each Fund (except for VanEck HIP Sustainable Muni ETF and VanEck Inflation Allocation ETF) will not purchase any security on margin, except for such short-term loans as are necessary for clearance of securities transactions. The deposit or payment by a Fund of initial or variation margin in connection with futures contracts or related options thereon is not considered the purchase of a security on margin. Each of VanEck HIP Sustainable Muni ETF and VanEck Inflation Allocation ETF will not purchase any security on margin, except for such short-term loans as are necessary for clearance of securities transactions. The deposit or payment by each of VanEck HIP Sustainable Muni ETF and VanEck Inflation Allocation ETF of initial or variation margin in connection with futures contracts, options on futures contracts or other derivative instruments shall not constitute the purchase of a security on margin.
4.Each Fund will not participate in a joint or joint-and-several basis in any trading account in securities, although transactions for the Funds and any other account under common or affiliated management may be combined or allocated between a Fund and such account.
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In addition to the fundamental and non-fundamental investment restrictions set forth above, each of VanEck Agribusiness ETF, VanEck Biotech ETF, VanEck Brazil Small-Cap ETF, VanEck Emerging Markets High Yield Bond ETF, VanEck Gold Miners ETF, VanEck Green Bond ETF, VanEck Indonesia Index ETF, VanEck International High Yield Bond ETF, VanEck J.P. Morgan EM Local Currency Bond ETF, VanEck Junior Gold Miners ETF, VanEck Moody's Analytics BBB Corporate Bond ETF, VanEck Moody's Analytics IG Corporate Bond ETF, VanEck Morningstar Wide Moat ETF, VanEck Natural Resources ETF, VanEck Oil Services ETF, VanEck Pharmaceutical ETF, VanEck Preferred Securities ex Financials ETF, VanEck Rare Earth/Strategic Metals ETF, VanEck Russia ETF, VanEck Steel ETF and VanEck Semiconductor ETF observes the following additional restrictions, which may be changed by the Board without a shareholder vote: under normal market conditions (i) any borrowings by the Fund will be on a temporary basis and will not exceed 10% of the Fund’s net assets; and (ii) the Fund’s investments in the securities of other pooled investment vehicles will not exceed 10% of the Fund’s net assets. For purposes of restriction (ii), real estate investment trusts are not considered to be pooled investment vehicles. In addition, each of VanEck Gold Miners ETF, VanEck India Growth Leaders ETF, VanEck Junior Gold Miners ETF, VanEck Low Carbon Energy ETF and VanEck Semiconductor ETF will invest at least 51% of its net assets in equity securities. This may be changed by the Board without a shareholder vote.
If a percentage limitation is adhered to at the time of investment or contract, a later increase or decrease in percentage resulting from any change in value or total or net assets will not result in a violation of such restriction, except that the percentage limitation with respect to the borrowing of money described above in fundamental restriction 2 will be continuously complied with.
With respect to fundamental restriction 2, the 1940 Act permits each Fund to borrow money from banks in an amount up to one-third of its total assets (including the amount borrowed) less its liabilities (not including any borrowings but including the fair market value at the time of computation of any other senior securities then outstanding). Each Fund may also borrow an additional 5% of its total assets without regard to the foregoing limitation for temporary purposes such as clearance of portfolio transactions. Practices and investments that may involve leverage but are not considered to be borrowings are not subject to the policy.
With respect to fundamental restriction 3, the 1940 Act prohibits each Fund from issuing senior securities, except that the Fund may borrow money in amounts of up to one-third of the Fund’s total assets from banks for any purpose. Each Fund may also borrow money or engage in economically similar transactions if those transactions do not constitute “senior securities” under the 1940 Act. The policy above will be interpreted not to prevent collateral arrangements with respect to swaps, options, forward or futures contracts or other derivatives, or the posting of initial or variation margin.
With respect to fundamental restriction 4, each of VanEck CEF Muni Income ETF, VanEck ChiNext ETF, VanEck Durable High Dividend ETF, VanEck Fallen Angel High Yield Bond ETF, VanEck India Growth Leaders ETF, VanEck Long/Flat Trend ETF, VanEck Morningstar Global Wide Moat ETF, VanEck Morningstar International Moat ETF and VanEck Morningstar Wide Moat ETF intends to be diversified in approximately the same proportion as its underlying index is diversified. Each of VanEck CEF Muni Income ETF, VanEck ChiNext ETF, VanEck Durable High Dividend ETF, VanEck Fallen Angel High Yield Bond ETF, VanEck India Growth Leaders ETF, VanEck Long/Flat Trend ETF, VanEck Morningstar Global Wide Moat ETF, VanEck Morningstar International Moat ETF and VanEck Morningstar Wide Moat ETF may become non-diversified, as defined in the 1940 Act, solely as a result of a change in relative market capitalization or index weighting of one or more constituents of its underlying index. With respect to fundamental restriction 9, investment companies are not considered to be part of an industry. Additionally, the securities of state and municipal governments and their political subdivisions are not considered to be issued by members of any industry. With respect to VanEck Ethereum Strategy ETF, to the extent such Fund invests in a private activity municipal security whose principal and interest payments are derived principally from the assets and revenues of a non-government issuer, the Fund will seek to determine the industry to which such private activity municipal investment should be allocated when determining the Fund’s compliance with its concentration policy. In accordance with each of VanEck CLO ETF’s, VanEck Dynamic High Income ETF’s, VanEck Inflation Allocation ETF’s and VanEck Long/Flat Trend ETF’s principal investment strategies as set forth in its Prospectus, each of VanEck CLO ETF, VanEck Dynamic High Income ETF, VanEck Inflation Allocation ETF and VanEck Long/Flat Trend ETF may invest its assets in underlying investment companies. Although each of VanEck CLO ETF, VanEck Dynamic High Income ETF, VanEck Inflation Allocation ETF and VanEck Long/Flat Trend ETF does not have a policy to concentrate its investments in a particular industry, 25% or more of VanEck CLO ETF’s, VanEck Dynamic High Income ETF’s, VanEck Inflation Allocation ETF’s and VanEck Long/Flat Trend ETF’s total assets may be indirectly exposed to a particular industry or group of related industries through its investment in one or more underlying investment companies.
VanEck Future of Food ETF may also invest up to 20% of its net assets in special purpose vehicles such as SPACs, IPOs, and securities issued by other investment companies, including ETFs and foreign investment companies. The Fund may also invest in money market funds, but these investments are not subject to this limitation. The Fund may invest in SPACs, IPOs, and ETFs to participate in, or gain exposure to, certain market industries, or when direct investments in certain countries are not permitted or available.
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Each of VanEck CLO ETF, VanEck Dynamic High Income ETF, VanEck Future of Food ETF and VanEck Inflation Allocation ETF may invest its remaining assets in securities, which may include but may not be limited to, money market instruments or funds which reinvest exclusively in money market instruments, stocks that are in the relevant market and/or in combinations of certain stock index futures contracts, options on such futures contracts, stock options, stock index options, options on the Shares, and stock index swaps and swaptions. These investments may be made to invest uncommitted cash balances or, in limited circumstances, to assist in meeting shareholder redemptions of Creation Units. Each of VanEck CLO ETF, VanEck Dynamic High Income ETF, VanEck Future of Food ETF and VanEck Inflation Allocation ETF may also invest in money market instruments for cash management purposes or as part of a temporary defensive strategy to protect against potential stock market declines.
VanEck Bitcoin Strategy ETF expects to invest its remaining assets in any one or more of the following to provide liquidity, serve as margin or collateralize the Fund’s investments in Bitcoin Futures: U.S. Treasuries, other U.S. government obligations, money market funds and funds that invest in short-term bonds, cash and cash-like equivalents (e.g., high quality commercial paper and similar instruments that are rated investment grade or, if unrated, of comparable quality, as the Adviser determines), mortgage-backed securities issued or guaranteed by U.S. government agencies, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises of the U.S. government (whether or not the securities are U.S. government securities), municipal debt securities, Treasury inflation-protected securities, sovereign debt obligations of non-U.S. countries, and repurchase agreements.
VanEck Commodity Strategy ETF expects to invest its assets in any one or more of the following to provide liquidity, serve as margin or collateralize the Fund’s investments in certain Commodities Instruments: U.S. Treasuries, other U.S. government obligations, money market funds and funds that invest in short-term bonds, cash and cash-like equivalents (e.g., high quality commercial paper and similar instruments that are rated investment grade or, if unrated, of comparable quality, as the Adviser determines), mortgage-backed securities issued or guaranteed by U.S. government agencies, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises of the U.S. government (whether or not the securities are U.S. government securities), municipal debt securities, Treasury inflation-protected securities, sovereign debt obligations of non-U.S. countries, and repurchase agreements.
VanEck Ethereum Strategy ETF expects to invest its remaining assets in any one or more of the following to provide liquidity, serve as margin or collateralize the Fund’s investments in ETH Futures: U.S. Treasuries, other U.S. government obligations, money market funds and funds that invest in short-term bonds, cash and cash-like equivalents (e.g., high quality commercial paper and similar instruments that are rated investment grade or, if unrated, of comparable quality, as the Adviser determines), mortgage-backed securities issued or guaranteed by U.S. government agencies, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises of the U.S. government (whether or not the securities are U.S. government securities), municipal debt securities, Treasury inflation-protected securities, sovereign debt obligations of non-U.S. countries, and repurchase agreements.
Each Fixed Income Fund may invest its remaining assets in securities not included in its respective Index, municipal bonds (with respect to VanEck CEF Muni Income ETF), money market instruments, repurchase agreements or funds which reinvest exclusively in money market instruments, convertible securities (with respect to VanEck Green Bond ETF), structured notes (notes on which the amount of principal repayment and interest payments are based on the movement of one or more specified factors, such as the movement of a particular stock or stock index) (with respect to VanEck Green Bond ETF), certain derivatives (with respect to VanEck Green Bond ETF), in bonds that are in the relevant market but not the Fund’s respective Index and/or in combinations of certain bond index futures contracts, options on such futures contracts, bond options, bond index options, options on the Shares, and bond index swaps and swaptions, each with a view towards providing each Fund with exposure to the securities in its respective Index.
Each Fund (other than the Fixed Income Funds, VanEck Bitcoin Strategy ETF, VanEck CLO ETF, VanEck Commodity Strategy ETF, VanEck Dynamic High Income ETF, VanEck Ethereum Strategy ETF, VanEck Future of Food ETF, VanEck HIP Sustainable Muni ETF and VanEck Inflation Allocation ETF) may invest its remaining assets in securities not included in its respective Index, which may include but is not limited to money market instruments or funds which reinvest exclusively in money market instruments, in stocks that are in the relevant market but not its Index, and/or in combinations of certain stock index futures contracts, options on such futures contracts, stock options, stock index options, options on the Shares, and stock index swaps and swaptions, each with a view towards providing each Fund with exposure to the securities in its respective Index.
These investments may be made to invest uncommitted cash balances or, in limited circumstances, to assist in meeting shareholder redemptions of Creation Units. Each Fund (except VanEck Bitcoin Strategy ETF, VanEck CLO ETF, VanEck Commodity Strategy ETF, VanEck Dynamic High Income ETF, VanEck Ethereum Strategy ETF, VanEck Future of Food ETF, VanEck HIP Sustainable Muni ETF and VanEck Inflation Allocation ETF) does not take temporary defensive positions that are inconsistent with its investment objective of seeking to replicate/track (as applicable) its Index.


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The following fundamental investment restrictions are applicable to only the VanEck Energy Income ETF. The VanEck Energy Income ETF may not:
1.Concentrate its investments in an industry or group of industries (i.e., hold 25% or more of its total assets in the stocks of a particular industry or group of industries), except that the Fund will concentrate to approximately the same extent that its Index concentrates in the stocks of such particular industry or group of industries. For purposes of this limitation, securities of the U.S. government (including its agencies and instrumentalities), repurchase agreements collateralized by U.S. government securities and securities of state or municipal governments and their political subdivisions are not considered to be issued by members of any industry.
2.Borrow money or issue senior securities (as defined under the 1940 Act), except to the extent permitted under the 1940 Act, the rules and regulations thereunder or any exemption therefrom, as such statute, rules or regulations may be amended or interpreted from time to time.
3.Make loans, except to the extent permitted under the 1940 Act, the rules and regulations thereunder or any exemption therefrom, as such statute, rules or regulations may be amended or interpreted from time to time.
4.Purchase or sell commodities or real estate, except to the extent permitted under the 1940 Act, the rules and regulations thereunder or any exemption therefrom, as such statute, rules or regulations may be amended or interpreted from time to time.
5.Underwrite securities issued by other persons, except to the extent permitted under the 1940 Act, the rules and regulations thereunder or any exemption therefrom, as such statute, rules or regulations may be amended or interpreted from time to time.
In addition to the investment restrictions adopted as fundamental policies as set forth above, the VanEck Energy Income ETF observes the following non-fundamental investment restrictions, which may be changed by the Board without a shareholder vote. Under these restrictions:
1.The Fund will not invest in securities which are “illiquid” securities if the result is that more than 15% of a Fund’s net assets would be invested in such securities.
If a percentage limitation is adhered to at the time of investment or contract, a later increase or decrease in percentage resulting from any change in value or total or net assets will not result in a violation of such restriction, except that the percentage limitation with respect to the borrowing of money described above in fundamental restriction 2 will be continuously complied with.
With respect to fundamental restriction 2, the 1940 Act permits the Fund to borrow money from banks in an amount up to one-third of its total assets (including the amount borrowed) less its liabilities (not including any borrowings but including the fair market value at the time of computation of any other senior securities then outstanding). The Fund may also borrow an additional 5% of its total assets without regard to the foregoing limitation for temporary purposes such as clearance of portfolio transactions. Practices and investments that may involve leverage but are not considered to be borrowings are not subject to the policy.
With respect to fundamental restriction 2, the 1940 Act prohibits the Fund from issuing senior securities, except that a Fund may borrow money in amounts of up to one-third of the Fund’s total assets from banks for any purpose. The Fund may also borrow money or engage in economically similar transactions if those transactions do not constitute “senior securities” under the 1940 Act. The policy above will be interpreted not to prevent collateral arrangements with respect to swaps, options, forward or futures contracts or other derivatives, or the posting of initial or variation margin.
The VanEck Energy Income ETF may invest its remaining assets in securities not included in its Index, which may include but is not limited to money market instruments or funds which reinvest exclusively in money market instruments, in stocks that are in the relevant market but not the Fund’s Index, and/or in combinations of certain stock index futures contracts, options on such futures contracts, stock options, stock index options, options on the Shares, and stock index swaps and swaptions, each with a view towards providing the Fund with exposure to the securities in its Index. These investments may be made to invest uncommitted cash balances or, in limited circumstances, to assist in meeting shareholder redemptions of Creation Units. The Fund does not take temporary defensive positions that are inconsistent with its investment objective of seeking to replicate its Index.



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Indian Investment Restrictions
The investment restrictions described below only apply to investments in Indian issuers made by VanEck India Growth Leaders ETF (or the Mauritius Subsidiary) and VanEck Digital India ETF.
Each of the Mauritius Subsidiary and VanEck Digital India ETF is registered as a Category I FPI with the SEBI. As such, the universe of permissible investments for these entities is limited pursuant to FPI Regulations and other applicable regulations.
FPIs are not allowed to short sell in the Indian market except in certain limited circumstances as specified by the SEBI. Further, sales against open purchases are not permitted for FPIs and FPIs can sell such securities only after their settlement.
The extent to which percentage positions may be taken in index options and index futures by the Mauritius Subsidiary and VanEck Digital India ETF would be restricted to the limits prescribed by applicable regulators from time to time. Separately, there are multiple restrictions including regarding ownership and use of derivatives as a result of applicable Indian regulations.

SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS AND RISKS
A discussion of the risks associated with an investment in each Fund is contained in each Fund’s Prospectus under the headings “Summary Information—Principal Risks of Investing in the Fund” with respect to the applicable Fund and “Additional Information About the Funds’ Investment Strategies and Risks—Risks of Investing in the Funds.” The discussion below supplements, and should be read in conjunction with, such sections of each Fund’s Prospectus.

General
An investment in each Fund should be made with an understanding that the value of the Fund’s portfolio securities may fluctuate in accordance with changes in the financial condition of the issuers of the portfolio securities, the value of securities generally and other factors.
(All Funds except VanEck Bitcoin Strategy ETF, VanEck CLO ETF, VanEck CMCI Commodity Strategy ETF, VanEck Commodity Strategy ETF, VanEck Dynamic High Income ETF, VanEck Ethereum Strategy ETF, VanEck Future of Food ETF, VanEck HIP Sustainable Muni ETF and VanEck Inflation Allocation ETF)
An investment in each Fixed Income Fund should be made with an understanding of the risks inherent in an investment in fixed income securities. An issuer may have the right to redeem or “call” a bond before maturity, in which case the investor may have to reinvest the proceeds at lower market rates. Most bonds bear interest income at a “coupon” rate that is fixed for the life of the bond. The value of a fixed rate bond usually rises when market interest rates fall, and falls when market interest rates rise. Accordingly, a fixed rate bond’s yield (income as a percent of the bond’s current value) may differ from its coupon rate as its value rises or falls. Other types of bonds bear income at an interest rate that is adjusted periodically. Because of their adjustable interest rates, the values of “floating-rate” or “variable-rate” bonds generally fluctuate less in response to market interest rate movements than the value of similar fixed rate bonds. The Fixed Income Funds may treat some of these bonds as having a shorter maturity for purposes of calculating the weighted average maturity of its investment portfolio. Generally, prices of higher quality issues tend to fluctuate more with changes in market interest rates than prices of lower quality issues and prices of longer maturity issues tend to fluctuate more than prices of shorter maturity issues. Bonds may be senior or subordinated obligations. Senior obligations generally have the first claim on a corporation’s earnings and assets and, in the event of liquidation, are paid before subordinated obligations. Bonds may be unsecured (backed only by the issuer’s general creditworthiness) or secured (also backed by specified collateral).
An investment in each Fund (other than the Fixed Income Funds) should be made with an understanding of the risks inherent in an investment in equity securities, including the risk that the financial condition of issuers may become impaired or that the general condition of the stock market may deteriorate (either of which may cause a decrease in the value of the portfolio securities and thus in the value of Shares). Common stocks are susceptible to general stock market fluctuations and to volatile increases and decreases in value as market confidence in and perceptions of their issuers change. These investor perceptions are based on various and unpredictable factors, including expectations regarding government, economic, monetary and fiscal policies, inflation and interest rates, economic expansion or contraction, and global or regional political, economic and banking crises. Holders of common stocks incur more risk than holders of preferred stocks and debt obligations because common stockholders, as owners of the issuer, have generally inferior rights to receive payments from the issuer in comparison with the rights of creditors of, or holders of debt obligations or preferred stocks issued by, the issuer. Further, unlike debt securities which typically have a stated principal amount payable at maturity (whose value, however, will be subject to market fluctuations prior thereto), or preferred stocks which typically have a liquidation preference and which
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may have stated optional or mandatory redemption provisions, common stocks have neither a fixed principal amount nor a maturity. Common stock values are subject to market fluctuations as long as the common stock remains outstanding. In the event that the securities in a Fund’s Index (except with respect to the Fixed Income Funds) are not listed on a national securities exchange, the principal trading market for some may be in the over the counter market. The existence of a liquid trading market for certain securities may depend on whether dealers will make a market in such securities. There can be no assurance that a market will be made or maintained or that any such market will be or remain liquid. The price at which securities may be sold and the value of a Fund’s Shares (except with respect to the Fixed Income Funds) will be adversely affected if trading markets for a Fund’s portfolio securities (except with respect to the Fixed Income Funds) are limited or absent or if bid/ask spreads are wide.
With the exception of VanEck Bitcoin Strategy ETF, VanEck CLO ETF, VanEck Commodity Strategy ETF, VanEck Dynamic High Income ETF, VanEck Ethereum Strategy ETF, VanEck Future of Food ETF, VanEck HIP Sustainable Muni ETF and VanEck Inflation Allocation ETF, the Funds are not actively managed by traditional methods, and therefore the adverse financial condition of any one issuer may not result in the elimination of its securities from the securities held by a Fund unless the securities of such issuer are removed from its respective Index.
An investment in each Fund should be made with an understanding that the Fund will not be able to replicate/track (as applicable) exactly the performance of its respective Index because the total return generated by the securities will be reduced by transaction costs incurred in adjusting the actual balance of the securities and other Fund expenses, whereas such transaction costs and expenses are not included in the calculation of its respective Index. In addition, certain Funds’ use of a representative sampling approach may cause each such Fund to not be as well correlated with the return of its respective Index as would be the case if the Fund purchased all of the securities in its respective Index in the proportions represented in such Index. The risk of non-correlation may be higher than other ETFs which utilize a sampling approach to the extent that a Fund invests a portion of its assets in securities that have economic characteristics that are substantially identical to the securities comprising its respective Index, but which are not included in such Index. It is also possible that for periods of time, a Fund may not fully replicate the performance of its respective Index due to the temporary unavailability of certain Index securities in the secondary market or due to other extraordinary circumstances. Such events are unlikely to continue for an extended period of time because the Fund is required to correct such imbalances by means of adjusting the composition of the securities. It is also possible that the composition of a Fund may not exactly replicate the composition of its respective Index if the Fund has to adjust its portfolio holdings in order to continue to qualify as a regulated investment company (“RIC”) under the U.S. Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Internal Revenue Code”), or, in the case of VanEck BDC Income ETF, to comply with the provisions of the 1940 Act that limit the amount the Fund and its affiliates, in the aggregate, can invest in any one business development company.
Each Fund (other than the Fixed Income Funds) is subject to the risks of an investment in an economic sector or industry in which the Fund’s Index is highly concentrated. In addition, because it is the policy of each Fund (other than the Fixed Income Funds) to generally invest in the securities that comprise the Fund’s respective Index, the portfolio of securities (“Fund Securities”) held by such Fund (other than the Fixed Income Funds) also will be concentrated in that economic sector or industry.
Regulatory developments affecting the exchange-traded and OTC derivatives markets may impair a Fund’s ability to manage or hedge its investment portfolio through the use of derivatives. The Dodd-Frank Act and the rules promulgated thereunder may limit the ability of a Fund to enter into one or more exchange-traded or OTC derivatives transactions.
(All Funds except VanEck BDC Income ETF, VanEck Bitcoin Strategy ETF, VanEck CEF Muni Income ETF, VanEck CMCI Commodity Strategy ETF, VanEck Commodity Strategy ETF, VanEck Ethereum Strategy ETF, VanEck Inflation Allocation ETF, VanEck Mortgage REIT Income ETF and VanEck Office and Commercial REIT ETF)
VEAC, on behalf of the Funds, has filed a notice of eligibility with the National Futures Association claiming an exclusion from the definition of the term “commodity pool operator” (“CPO”) pursuant to CFTC Regulation 4.5, as promulgated under the Commodity Exchange Act (“CEA”), with respect to the Funds’ operations. Therefore, neither the Funds nor VEAC (with respect to the Funds) is subject to registration or regulation as a commodity pool or CPO under the CEA. If a Fund becomes subject to these requirements, a Fund may incur additional compliance and other expenses.
Each Fund’s use of derivatives may also be limited by the requirements of the Internal Revenue Code for qualification as a RIC for U.S. federal income tax purposes.
With respect to investments in swap transactions, commodity futures, commodity options or certain other derivatives used for purposes other than bona fide hedging purposes, an investment company must meet one of the following tests under the amended regulations in order to claim an exemption from being considered a “commodity pool” or CPO. First, the aggregate initial margin and premiums required to establish an investment company’s positions in such investments may not exceed five percent (5%) of the liquidation value of the investment company’s portfolio (after accounting for unrealized
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profits and unrealized losses on any such investments). Alternatively, the aggregate net notional value of such instruments, determined at the time of the most recent position established, may not exceed one hundred percent (100%) of the liquidation value of the investment company’s portfolio (after accounting for unrealized profits and unrealized losses on any such positions). In addition to meeting one of the foregoing trading limitations, the investment company may not market itself as a commodity pool or otherwise as a vehicle for trading in the commodity futures, commodity options or swaps and derivatives markets. In the event that an Adviser is required to register as a CPO, the disclosure and operations of the Funds would need to comply with all applicable CFTC regulations. Compliance with these additional registration and regulatory requirements would increase operational expenses. Other potentially adverse regulatory initiatives could also develop.
(VanEck BDC Income ETF, VanEck CEF Muni Income ETF, VanEck Mortgage REIT Income ETF and VanEck Office and Commercial REIT ETF only)
Each of VanEck BDC Income ETF, VanEck CEF Muni Income ETF, VanEck Mortgage REIT Income ETF and VanEck Office and Commercial REIT ETF has claimed a temporary exemption from the definition of the term CPO under the CEA, and therefore, is not currently subject to registration or regulation as commodity pools under the CEA. When the temporary exemption expires, to the extent VanEck BDC Income ETF, VanEck CEF Muni Income ETF, VanEck Mortgage REIT Income ETF or VanEck Office and Commercial REIT ETF are not otherwise eligible to claim an exclusion from CFTC regulation, VanEck BDC Income ETF, VanEck CEF Muni Income ETF, VanEck Mortgage REIT Income ETF or VanEck Office and Commercial REIT ETF, as applicable, may determine to operate subject to CFTC regulation and may incur additional expenses.

Specific Risks Applicable to the Municipal Funds, VanEck CEF Muni Income ETF, VanEck HIP Sustainable Muni ETF and VanEck Muni ETF
Municipal Securities Risk. Municipal securities are subject to the risk that litigation, legislation or other political events, local business or economic conditions, credit rating downgrades or the bankruptcy, of the issuer could have a significant effect on an issuer’s ability to make payments of principal and/or interest or otherwise affect the value of such securities. In addition, there is a risk that, as a result of the recent economic crisis, the ability of any issuer to pay, when due, the principal or interest on its municipal bonds may be materially affected. Certain municipalities may have difficulty meeting their obligations due to, among other reasons, changes in underlying demographics.
Municipal securities can be significantly affected by political changes as well as uncertainties in the municipal market related to government regulation, taxation, legislative changes or the rights of municipal security holders. Because many municipal securities are issued to finance similar projects, especially those relating to education, health care, transportation, utilities and water and sewer, conditions in those sectors can affect the overall municipal market. In addition, changes in the financial condition of an individual municipal insurer can affect the overall municipal market. Municipal instruments may be susceptible to periods of economic stress, which could affect the market values and marketability of many or all municipal obligations of issuers in a state, U.S. territory, or possession. For example, the COVID-19 pandemic has significantly stressed the financial resources of many municipal issuers, which may impair a municipal issuer’s ability to meet its financial obligations when due and could adversely impact the value of its bonds, which could negatively impact the performance of the Funds. A number of municipalities have had significant financial problems recently, and these and other municipalities could, potentially, continue to experience significant financial problems resulting from lower tax revenues and/or decreased aid from state and local governments in the event of an economic downturn. This could potentially decrease the Fund’s income or hurt its ability to preserve capital and liquidity. Municipal securities may include revenue bonds, which are generally backed by revenue from a specific project or tax. The issuer of a revenue bond makes interest and principal payments from revenues generated from a particular source or facility, such as a tax on particular property or revenues generated from a municipal water or sewer utility or an airport. Revenue bonds generally are not backed by the full faith and credit and general taxing power of the issuer. Municipal securities backed by current or anticipated revenues from a specific project or specific assets can be negatively affected by the discontinuance of the taxation supporting the project or assets or the inability to collect revenues for the project or from the assets due to factors such as lower property tax collections as a result of lower home values, lower sales tax revenues as a result of consumers cutting back spending and lower income tax revenue as a result of a higher unemployment rate. In addition, since some municipal obligations may be secured or guaranteed by banks and other institutions, the risk to the Fund could increase if the banking or financial sector suffers an economic downturn and/or if the credit ratings of the institutions issuing the guarantee are downgraded or at risk of being downgraded by a national rating organization.
If the IRS determines that an issuer of a municipal security has not complied with applicable tax requirements, interest from the security could become taxable and the security could decline significantly in value.
The market for municipal bonds may be less liquid than for taxable bonds. There may also be less publicly available information on the financial condition of issuers of municipal securities than for public corporations. This means that it may be harder to buy and sell municipal securities, especially on short notice, and municipal securities may be more difficult for a
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Fund (and the Underlying Funds in which VanEck CEF Muni Income ETF invest) to value accurately than securities of public corporations. Since the Fund (and the Underlying Funds in which VanEck CEF Muni Income ETF invest) invest a significant portion of their portfolio in municipal securities, each Fund’s (and each Underlying Fund’s) portfolio may have greater exposure to liquidity risk than a fund that invests in non-municipal securities. In addition, the value and liquidity of many municipal securities have decreased as a result of the recent financial crisis, which has also adversely affected many municipal securities issuers and may continue to do so. The markets for many credit instruments, including municipal securities, have experienced periods of illiquidity and extreme volatility since the latter half of 2007. In response to the global economic downturn, governmental cost burdens may be reallocated among federal, state and local governments. In addition, issuers of municipal securities may seek protection under the bankruptcy or similar laws. For example, Chapter 9 of the Bankruptcy Code provides a financially distressed municipality protection from its creditors while it develops and negotiates a plan for reorganizing its debts. “Municipality” is defined broadly by the Bankruptcy Code as a “political subdivision or public agency or instrumentality of a state” and may include various issues of securities in which the Fund invests. The reorganization of a municipality’s debts may include extending debt maturities, reducing the amount of principal or interest, refinancing the debt or taking other measures, which may significantly affect the rights of creditors and the value of the securities issued by the municipality and the value of a Fund’s investments.
Many state and local governments that issue municipal securities are currently under significant economic and financial stress and may not be able to satisfy their obligations. The taxing power of any governmental entity may be limited and an entity’s credit may depend on factors which are beyond the entity’s control.
Education Bond Risk. In general, there are two types of education-related bonds: those issued to finance projects for public and private colleges and universities, and those representing pooled interests in student loans. Bonds issued to supply educational institutions with funds are subject to the risk of unanticipated revenue decline, primarily the result of decreasing student enrollment or decreasing state and federal funding. Among the factors that may lead to declining or insufficient revenues are restrictions on students’ ability to pay tuition, availability of state and federal funding, and general economic conditions. Student loan revenue bonds are generally offered by state (or sub-state) authorities or commissions and are backed by pools of student loans. Underlying student loans may be guaranteed by state guarantee agencies and may be subject to reimbursement by the United States Department of Education through its guaranteed student loan program. Others may be private, uninsured loans made to parents or students which are supported by reserves or other forms of credit enhancement. Recoveries of principal due to loan defaults may be applied to redemption of bonds or may be used to re-lend, depending on program latitude and demand for loans. Cash flows supporting student loan revenue bonds are impacted by numerous factors, including the rate of student loan defaults, seasoning of the loan portfolio and student repayment deferral periods of forbearance. Other risks associated with student loan revenue bonds include potential changes in federal legislation regarding student loan revenue bonds, state guarantee agency reimbursement and continued federal interest and other program subsidies currently in effect.
Electric Utilities Bond Risk. The electric utilities industry has been experiencing, and may continue to experience, increased competitive pressures. Federal legislation may open transmission access to any electricity supplier, although it is not presently known to what extent competition will evolve. Other risks include: (a) the availability and cost of fuel; (b) the availability and cost of capital; (c) the effects of conservation on energy demand; (d) the effects of rapidly changing environmental, safety and licensing requirements, and other federal, state and local regulations, (e) timely and sufficient rate increases and governmental limitations on rates charged to customers; (f) the effects of opposition to nuclear power; (g) increases in operating costs; and (h) obsolescence of existing equipment, facilities and products.
General Obligation Bond Risk. General obligation bonds are not backed by revenues from a specific project or source. Instead, general obligation bonds are backed by the “full faith and credit” of the issuer, which has the power to tax residents to pay bondholders. Timely payments depend on the issuer’s credit quality, ability to raise tax revenues and ability to maintain an adequate tax base.
Health Care Bond Risk. The health care industry is subject to regulatory action by a number of private and governmental agencies, including federal, state and local governmental agencies. A major source of revenues for the health care industry is payments from Medicare and Medicaid programs. As a result, the industry is sensitive to legislative changes and reductions in governmental spending for such programs. Numerous other factors may also affect the industry and the value and credit quality of health care bonds, such as general and local economic conditions, demand for services, expenses (including malpractice insurance premiums) and competition among health care providers. The following elements may adversely affect health care facility operations: the implementation of national and/or state-specific health insurance exchanges; other national, state or local health care reform measures; medical and technological advances which dramatically alter the need for health services or the way in which such services are delivered; changes in medical coverage which alter the traditional fee-for-service revenue stream; efforts by employers, insurers, and governmental agencies to reduce the costs of health insurance and health care services; and increases and decreases in the cost and availability of medical products.
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Housing Bond Risk. Housing revenue bonds are generally issued by a state, county, city, local housing authority or other public agency. They generally are secured by the revenues derived from mortgages purchased with the proceeds of the bond issue. It is extremely difficult to predict the supply of available mortgages to be purchased with the proceeds of an issue or the future cash flow from the underlying mortgages. Consequently, there are risks that proceeds will exceed supply, resulting in early retirement of bonds, or that homeowner repayments will create an irregular cash flow. Many factors may affect the financing of multi-family housing projects, including acceptable completion of construction, proper management, occupancy and rent levels, economic conditions and changes to current laws and regulations.
Industrial Development Bond Risk. Industrial development bonds are revenue bonds issued by or on behalf of public authorities to obtain funds to finance various public and/or privately operated facilities, including those for business and manufacturing, housing, sports, pollution control, airport, mass transit, port and parking facilities. These bonds are normally secured only by the revenues from the project and not by state or local government tax payments. Consequently, the credit quality of these securities is dependent upon the ability of the user of the facilities financed by the bonds and any guarantor to meet its financial obligations. Payment of interest on and repayment of principal of such bonds are the responsibility of the user and/or any guarantor. These bonds are subject to a wide variety of risks, many of which relate to the nature of the specific project. Generally, the value and credit quality of these bonds are sensitive to the risks related to an economic slowdown.
There is no guarantee that a Fund’s income will be exempt from federal or state income taxes. Events occurring after the date of issuance of a municipal bond or after a Fund’s acquisition of a municipal bond may result in a determination that interest on that bond is includible in gross income for U.S. federal income tax purposes retroactively to its date of issuance. Such a determination may cause a portion of prior distributions by a Fund to its shareholders to be taxable to those shareholders in the year of receipt. Federal or state changes in income or alternative minimum tax rates or in the tax treatment of municipal bonds may make municipal bonds less attractive as investments and cause them to lose value.
Lease Obligations Risk. Lease obligations may have risks not normally associated with general obligation or other revenue bonds. Leases and installment purchase or conditional sale contracts (which may provide for title to the leased asset to pass eventually to the issuer) have developed as a means for governmental issuers to acquire property and equipment without the necessity of complying with the constitutional statutory requirements generally applicable for the issuance of debt. Certain lease obligations contain “non-appropriation” clauses that provide that the governmental issuer has no obligation to make future payments under the lease or contract unless money is appropriated for that purpose by the appropriate legislative body on an annual or other periodic basis. Consequently, continued lease payments on those lease obligations containing “non-appropriation” clauses are dependent on future legislative actions. If these legislative actions do not occur, the holders of the lease obligation may experience difficulty in exercising their rights, including disposition of the property. In such circumstances, a Fund might not recover the full principal amount of the obligation.
Municipal Market Disruption Risk. The value of municipal securities may be affected by uncertainties in the municipal market related to legislation or litigation involving the taxation of municipal securities or the rights of municipal securities holders in the event of a bankruptcy. Proposals to restrict or eliminate the federal income tax exemption for interest on municipal securities are introduced before Congress from time to time. Proposals also may be introduced before state legislatures that would affect the state tax treatment of a municipal fund’s distributions. If such proposals were enacted, the availability of municipal securities and the value of a municipal fund’s holdings would be affected. Municipal bankruptcies are relatively rare, and certain provisions of the U.S. Bankruptcy Code governing such bankruptcies are unclear and remain untested. Further, the application of state law to municipal issuers could produce varying results among the states or among municipal securities issuers within a state. These legal uncertainties could affect the municipal securities market generally, certain specific segments of the market, or the relative credit quality of particular securities. There is also the possibility that as a result of litigation or other conditions, the power or ability of issuers to meet their obligations for the payment of interest and principal on their municipal securities may be materially affected or their obligations may be found to be invalid or unenforceable. Such litigation or conditions may from time to time have the effect of introducing uncertainties in the market for municipal securities or certain segments thereof, or of materially affecting the credit risk with respect to particular bonds. Adverse economic, business, legal or political developments might affect all or a substantial portion of the Funds’ municipal securities in the same manner. Any of these effects could have a significant impact on the prices of some or all of the municipal securities held by a Fund.
Resource Recovery Bond Risk. Resource recovery bonds are a type of revenue bond issued to build facilities such as solid waste incinerators or waste-to-energy plants. Typically, a private corporation is involved, at least during the construction phase, and the revenue stream is secured by fees or rents paid by municipalities for use of the facilities. These bonds are normally secured only by the revenues from the project and not by state or local government tax receipts. Consequently, the credit quality of these securities is dependent upon the ability of the user of the facilities financed by the bonds and any guarantor to meet its financial obligations. The viability of a resource recovery project, environmental protection regulations, and project operator tax incentives may affect the value and credit quality of resource recovery bonds.
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Special Tax Bond Risk. Special tax bonds are usually backed and payable through a single tax, or series of special taxes such as incremental property taxes. The failure of the tax levy to generate adequate revenue to pay the debt service on the bonds may cause the value of the bonds to decline. Adverse conditions and developments affecting a particular project may result in lower revenues to the issuer of the municipal securities, which may adversely affect the value of a Fund’s portfolio.
Tobacco Bond Risk. Tobacco settlement revenue bonds are generally neither general nor legal obligations of a state or any of its political subdivisions and neither the full faith and credit nor the taxing power nor any other assets or revenues of a state or of any political subdivision will be pledged to the payment of any such bonds. In addition, tobacco companies’ profits from the sale of tobacco products are inherently variable and difficult to estimate. There can be no guarantee that tobacco companies will earn enough revenues to cover the payments due under tobacco bonds. The revenues of tobacco companies may be adversely affected by the adoption of new legislation and/or by litigation.
Transportation Bond Risk. Transportation debt may be issued to finance the construction of airports, toll roads, highways or other transit facilities. Airport bonds are dependent on the general stability of the airline industry and on the stability of a specific carrier who uses the airport as a hub. Air traffic generally follows broader economic trends and is also affected by the price and availability of fuel. Toll road bonds are also affected by the cost and availability of fuel as well as toll levels, the presence of competing roads and the general economic health of an area. Fuel costs and availability also affect other transportation-related securities, as do the presence of alternate forms of transportation, such as public transportation. Municipal securities that are issued to finance a particular transportation project often depend solely on revenues from that project to make principal and interest payments. Adverse conditions and developments affecting a particular project may result in lower revenues to the issuer of the municipal securities.
Water and Sewer Bond Risk. Water and sewer revenue bonds are often considered to have relatively secure credit as a result of their issuer’s importance, monopoly status and generally unimpeded ability to raise rates. Despite this, lack of water supply due to insufficient rain, run-off or snow pack is a concern that has led to past defaults. Further, public resistance to rate increases, costly environmental litigation, and federal environmental mandates are challenges faced by issuers of water and sewer bonds.

Specific Risks Applicable to the VanEck Russia ETF and VanEck Russia Small-Cap ETF
Risks Related to Russian Invasion of Ukraine. In late February 2022, Russian military forces invaded Ukraine, significantly amplifying already existing geopolitical tensions among Russia, Ukraine, Europe, NATO, and the West. Russia’s invasion, the responses of countries and political bodies to Russia’s actions, and the potential for wider conflict may increase financial market volatility and could have severe adverse effects on regional and global economic markets, including the markets for certain securities and commodities such as oil and natural gas. Following Russia’s actions, various countries, including the U.S., Canada, the United Kingdom, Germany, and France, as well as the European Union, issued broad-ranging economic sanctions against Russia. The sanctions consist of the prohibition of trading in certain Russian securities and engaging in certain private transactions, the prohibition of doing business with certain Russian corporate entities, large financial institutions, officials and oligarchs, and the freezing of Russian assets. The sanctions include a commitment by certain countries and the European Union to remove selected Russian banks from the Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunications, commonly called “SWIFT,” the electronic network that connects banks globally, and imposed restrictive measures to prevent the Russian Central Bank from undermining the impact of the sanctions. A number of large corporations and U.S. states have also announced plans to divest interests or otherwise curtail business dealings with certain Russian businesses.
The imposition of these current sanctions (and potential further sanctions in response to continued Russian military activity) and other actions undertaken by countries and businesses may adversely impact various sectors of the Russian economy, including but not limited to, the financials, energy, metals and mining, engineering, and defense and defense-related materials sectors. Such actions also may result in a weakening of the ruble, a downgrade of Russia’s credit rating, and the decline of the value and liquidity of Russian securities, and could impair the ability of a Fund to buy, sell, receive, or deliver those securities. Moreover, the measures could adversely affect global financial and energy markets and thereby negatively affect the value of a Fund's investments beyond any direct exposure to Russian issuers or those of adjoining geographic regions. In response to sanctions, the Russian Central Bank raised its interest rates and banned sales of local securities by foreigners, which may include a Fund. Russia may take additional counter measures or retaliatory actions, which may further impair the value and liquidity of Russian securities and Fund investments. Such actions could, for example, include restricting gas exports to other countries, seizure of U.S. and European residents' assets, conducting cyberattacks on other governments, corporations or individuals, or undertaking or provoking other military conflict elsewhere in Europe, any of which could exacerbate negative consequences on global financial markets and the economy. The actions discussed above could have a negative effect on the performance of Funds that have exposure to Russia. While diplomatic efforts have been ongoing, the conflict between Russia
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and Ukraine is currently unpredictable and has the potential to result in broadened military actions. The duration of ongoing hostilities and corresponding sanctions and related events cannot be predicted and may result in a negative impact on performance and the value of Fund investments, particularly as it relates to Russia exposure.
The Funds are in the process of liquidating their assets and winding up their business pursuant to the Plan of Liquidation and Termination and will be unable to meet their investment objectives. Due to difficulties transacting in impacted securities, a Fund may experience challenges liquidating the applicable positions as part of the Fund’s liquidation. Additionally, due to current and potential future sanctions or potential market closure impacting the ability to trade Russian securities, a Fund may experience higher transaction costs. Furthermore, any exposure that a Fund may have to Russian counterparties or counterparties that are otherwise impacted by sanctions also could negatively impact the Fund’s portfolio.

Tax Risks
As with any investment, you should consider how your investment in Shares of a Fund will be taxed. The tax information in the Prospectus and SAI is provided as general information. You should consult your own tax professional about the tax consequences of an investment in Shares of a Fund.

U.S. Federal Tax Treatment of Certain Futures Contracts and Option Contracts
Each Fund may be required for federal income tax purposes to mark-to-market and recognize as income for each taxable year its net unrealized gains and losses on certain regulated futures contracts and option contracts (“Section 1256 Contracts”) as of the end of the year as well as those actually realized during the year. Gain or loss from Section 1256 Contracts will be 60% long-term and 40% short-term capital gain or loss. Application of this rule may alter the timing and character of distributions to shareholders. Each Fund may be required to defer the recognition of losses on futures contracts or certain option contracts to the extent of any unrecognized gains on related positions held by the Fund.
In order for a Fund to continue to qualify for U.S. federal income tax treatment as a RIC, at least 90% of its gross income for a taxable year must be derived from qualifying income, i.e., dividends, interest, income derived from loans of securities, income derived from interests in qualified publicly traded partnerships (which generally are partnerships that are traded on an established securities market or readily tradable on a secondary market (or the substantial equivalent thereof), other than partnerships that derive 90% of their income from interest, dividends and other permitted RIC income), gains from the sale of securities or of foreign currencies or other income derived with respect to the Fund’s business of investing in securities. It is anticipated that any net gain realized from the closing out of futures contracts or certain option contracts will be considered gain from the sale of securities and therefore will be qualifying income for purposes of the 90% requirement.
Each Fund (except for VanEck Bitcoin Strategy ETF and VanEck Ethereum Strategy ETF) distributes to shareholders annually any net capital gains which have been recognized for U.S. federal income tax purposes (including unrealized gains at the end of the Fund’s fiscal year on certain futures transactions and certain option contracts). Such distributions are combined with distributions of capital gains realized on each Fund’s other investments and shareholders are advised on the nature of the distributions.
For VanEck Bitcoin Strategy ETF and VanEck Ethereum Strategy ETF, each Fund may be required for federal income tax purposes to mark-to-market and recognize as income for each taxable year its net unrealized gains and losses on certain futures contracts and option contracts as of the end of the year as well as those actually realized during the year. Gain or loss from futures contracts required to be marked-to-market will be 60% long-term and 40% short-term capital gain or loss, although all of each Fund's income and gains will be taxed at the same rate. Application of this rule may alter the timing and character of distributions to shareholders. The VanEck Bitcoin Strategy ETF may be required to defer the recognition of losses on Bitcoin Futures, to the extent of any unrecognized gains on related positions held by the Fund. The VanEck Ethereum Strategy ETF may be required to defer the recognition of losses on ETH Futures, to the extent of any unrecognized gains on related positions held by the Fund.

Concentration Considerations
To the extent that a Fund’s investments are concentrated in a particular sector or sectors or industry or group of industries, the Fund will be subject to the risk that economic, political or other conditions that have a negative effect on that sector or industry will negatively impact the Fund to a greater extent than if the Fund’s assets were invested in a wider variety
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of sectors or industries. The securities of state and municipal governments and their political subdivisions are not considered to be issued by members of any industry.
(VanEck Bitcoin Strategy ETF and VanEck Ethereum Strategy ETF only)

Since VanEck Bitcoin Strategy ETF's assets will have concentrated economic exposure to bitcoin and Bitcoin Futures, the Fund's performance may be disproportionately affected by poor performance in bitcoin. By having concentrated economic exposure to bitcoin and Bitcoin Futures, the Fund is subject to the risk that economic, political, regulatory or other conditions that have a negative effect on bitcoin, Bitcoin Futures and/or the digital asset industry may negatively impact the Fund.

Since VanEck Ethereum Strategy ETF's assets will have concentrated economic exposure to ETH and ETH Futures, the Fund's performance may be disproportionately affected by poor performance in ETH. By having concentrated economic exposure to ETH and ETH Futures, the Fund is subject to the risk that economic, political, regulatory or other conditions that have a negative effect on ETH, ETH Futures and/or the digital asset industry may negatively impact the Fund.

Cyber Security
The Funds, their service providers, each Exchange and Authorized Participants (defined below) are susceptible to cyber security risks that include, among other things, theft, unauthorized monitoring, release, misuse, loss, destruction or corruption of confidential and highly restricted data; denial of service attacks; unauthorized access to relevant systems, compromises to networks or devices that the Funds and their service providers use to service the Fund’s operations; or operational disruption or failures in the physical infrastructure or operating systems that support the Funds and their service providers. Cyber attacks against or security breakdowns of the Funds, their service providers, an Exchange or Authorized Participants may adversely impact the Funds and their shareholders, potentially resulting in, among other things, financial losses; the inability of Fund shareholders to transact business and the Fund to process transactions; inability to calculate the Fund’s NAV; violations of applicable privacy and other laws; regulatory fines, penalties, reputational damage, reimbursement or other compensation costs; and/or additional compliance costs. The Fund may incur additional costs for cyber security risk management and remediation purposes. In addition, cyber security risks may also impact issuers of securities in which a Fund invests, which may cause the Fund’s investment in such issuers to lose value. There can be no assurance that the Funds, their service providers, an Exchange or Authorized Participants will not suffer losses relating to cyber attacks or other information security breaches in the future.

Securities Lending
The Funds, except VanEck Bitcoin Strategy ETF and VanEck Ethereum Strategy ETF, may lend securities to approved borrowers, including affiliates of the Funds’ securities lending agent, State Street Bank and Trust Company (“State Street”). VanEck Bitcoin Strategy ETF may only lend its investments in bitcoin-related companies, U.S. Treasuries and other U.S. government obligations. VanEck Ethereum Strategy ETF may only lend its investments in ETH-related companies, U.S. Treasuries and other U.S. government obligations. Securities lending allows a Fund to retain ownership of the securities loaned and, at the same time, earn additional income. The borrower provides cash or non-cash collateral equal to at least 102% (105% for foreign securities) of the value of the securities loaned. Collateral is maintained by State Street on behalf of the Funds. Cash received as collateral through loan transactions is generally invested in shares of a money market fund. Investing this cash subjects that investment, as well as the securities loaned, to market appreciation or depreciation. Non-cash collateral consists of securities issued or guaranteed by the United States government or one of its agencies and cannot be re-hypothecated by the Funds. The SEC provided guidance in connection with the derivatives rule discussed above regarding the use of securities lending collateral that may limit the Funds from engaging in certain uses of cash and non-cash collateral. The Funds maintain the ability to vote or consent on proxy proposals involving material events affecting securities loaned. If the borrower defaults on its obligation to return the securities loaned because of insolvency or other reasons, a Fund could experience delays and costs in recovering the securities loaned or in gaining access to the collateral. These delays and costs could be greater for foreign securities. If a Fund is not able to recover the securities loaned, the collateral may be sold and a replacement investment may be purchased in the market. The value of the collateral could decrease below the value of the replacement investment by the time the replacement investment is purchased.

Inability to Pass Through Deduction from MLPs (VanEck Energy Income ETF only)
Individuals and certain other non-corporate entities are generally eligible for a 20% deduction with respect to certain taxable income from master limited partnerships (“MLPs”) through 2025. The VanEck Energy Income ETF does not have the regulatory authority to pass through MLP net income, if any, or the 20% deduction to Fund shareholders. As a result, in
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comparison, investors investing directly in MLPs would be eligible for the 20% deduction for MLP net income from these investments while investors investing in MLPs held indirectly through the Fund would not be eligible for the 20% deduction for their share of such taxable income.

Risks Relating to VanEck Digital India ETF and VanEck India Growth Leaders ETF
Tax Risks. The taxation of income and capital gains of the VanEck Digital India ETF and VanEck India Growth Leaders ETF is subject to the fiscal laws and practices of different jurisdictions. Any of those jurisdictions may change their fiscal laws and practices (or interpretation thereof) and enforcement policies, possibly with retroactive effect. The VanEck India Growth Leaders ETF’s investment in the Mauritius Subsidiary involves certain tax risks. Changes to the Double Taxation Avoidance Treaty (the “Treaty”) between Mauritius and India (or its interpretation) may adversely affect the ability of the Mauritius Subsidiary to realize efficiently income or capital gains. Consequently, it is possible that Mauritius Subsidiary may face unfavorable tax treatment, which may materially adversely affect the value of its investments or the feasibility of making investments in India.
The Mauritius Subsidiary is a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Trust in Mauritius. The following tax risks are relevant to the Mauritius Subsidiary and, where indicated, to VanEck Digital India ETF.
a.Indirect Transfer Risk: Indian capital gains tax can be imposed on income arising from the transfer of shares in a company registered outside India which derives, directly or indirectly, its value substantially from the assets located in India. For more information about this issue, please see “Taxation of Indirect Transfer of Indian Assets” in the “Taxes” section of this SAI. Being a Category I FPI, the Mauritius Subsidiary and VanEck Digital India ETF are currently exempt from the application of these rules. In case of loss of the Mauritius Subsidiary's and/or VanEck Digital India ETF's registration as a Category I FPI or changes in Indian rules, the Mauritius Subsidiary, VanEck India Growth Leaders ETF, VanEck Digital India ETF and their investors could be subject to the indirect transfer tax provisions in the future.
b.Exposure to Permanent Establishment (PE): While the Fund believes that the activities of the Mauritius Subsidiary or VanEck Digital India ETF should not create a PE of the Mauritius Subsidiary or VanEck Digital India ETF in India, the Indian tax authorities may claim that these activities have resulted in a PE of the Mauritius Subsidiary or VanEck Digital India ETF in India. Under such circumstances, the profits of the Mauritius Subsidiary or VanEck Digital India ETF to the extent attributable to the PE would be subject to taxation in India.
c.General Anti-Avoidance Rules (“GAAR”): GAAR, as contained in the Indian Income Tax Act, 1961 (“ITA 1961”), became effective April 1, 2017. GAAR empowers the tax authorities to investigate and declare an arrangement as an “impermissible avoidance arrangement” and, consequently, the authorities can disregard entities in a structure, reallocate income and expenditure between parties to the arrangement, alter the tax residence of such entities and the legal situs of assets involved, treat debt as equity and vice versa. An “impermissible avoidance arrangement” is an arrangement entered into with the main purpose of obtaining a tax benefit and satisfying one or more of the following: (a) non-arm’s length dealings; (b) misuse or abuse of the provisions of the domestic income tax provisions; (c) lack of commercial substance; or (d) arrangement similar to that employed for non-bona fide purposes.
If the Indian Tax authorities deem the Mauritius Subsidiary’s structure to be an “impermissible avoidance     arrangement,” then the Mauritius Subsidiary may not be able to claim benefits under the Treaty. Inability of the Mauritius Subsidiary to claim the tax benefits under the Treaty could have an adverse impact on the tax liabilities of the Mauritius Subsidiary, and would likely have an adverse impact on the returns to the Fund.
d.Renegotiation of the India-Mauritius Double Taxation Avoidance Treaty: India and Mauritius signed a protocol (“2016 Protocol”) on May 10, 2016 amending the Treaty. The 2016 Protocol gives India a source-based right to tax capital gains which arise from alienation of shares of an Indian resident company acquired by a Mauritian tax resident (as opposed to the previous residence-based tax regime under the Treaty). However, the 2016 Protocol provides for grandfathering of investments and stipulates that the revised position shall only be applicable to investments made on or after April 1, 2017. There can be no assurance that the terms of the Treaty will not be further amended in the future or be subject to a different interpretation or that the Mauritius Subsidiary will continue to be deemed a tax resident by Mauritius, allowing it favorable tax treatment. Any further changes in the provisions of the Treaty or in its applicability to the Mauritius Subsidiary could result in the imposition of withholding and other taxes on the Mauritius Subsidiary by India, which would reduce the return to the Fund on its investments.
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e.Exposure to Place of Effective Management (“POEM”) risk:
While the VanEck Digital India ETF and Mauritius Subsidiary believe that their activities or the activities of the Adviser described in the Prospectus or this SAI should not lead to a situation where the POEM of the VanEck Digital India ETF, Mauritius Subsidiary or the Adviser is considered to be in India, there may be a risk that the Indian tax authorities will claim that these activities have resulted in a POEM of the VanEck Digital India ETF, Mauritius Subsidiary and/or the Adviser in India. If for any reason the activities are held to be a POEM of the VanEck Digital India ETF, Mauritius Subsidiary and/or the Adviser in India, then the worldwide profits of the VanEck Digital India ETF or Mauritius Subsidiary would be subject to taxation in India.
f.Limitations on the Mauritius Subsidiary’s Ability to Make Distributions or Pay Redemption Proceeds to the Fund. Certain limitations under the Mauritius Companies Act 2001 may adversely affect the ability of the Mauritius Subsidiary and the VanEck India Growth Leaders ETF to make distributions or pay the redemption proceeds to the investors. If VanEck India Growth Leaders ETF’s ability to make distributions is adversely affected, VanEck India Growth Leaders ETF may be unable to satisfy distribution requirements applicable to RICs under the Internal Revenue Code, and be subject to income and/or excise tax at the Fund level. See “Taxes.”
g.Mauritius Subsidiary Risks. The Fund may cease utilizing the Mauritius Subsidiary in the future or the use of the Subsidiary as intended may not be possible. Ceasing to utilize the Mauritius Subsidiary could result in realized gains for the Fund, in capital gains tax liability and other tax liability in India and Mauritius and in other associated liabilities.

Special Risk Considerations of Investing in China (VanEck China Bond ETF and VanEck ChiNext ETF (together, the “China Funds”) only)

Investments in securities of Chinese issuers involve risks and special considerations not typically associated with investments in the U.S. securities markets, including the following:
Political and Economic Risk. The economy of China differs from the economies of most developed countries in many respects, including the level of government involvement, its state of development, its growth rate, control of foreign exchange, and allocation of resources. The economy of China’s growth has been uneven both geographically and among various sectors of the economy. Economic growth has also been accompanied by periods of high inflation. The PRC government has implemented various measures from time to time to control inflation and restrain the rate of economic growth.
For more than 30 years, the PRC government has carried out economic reforms to achieve decentralization and utilization of market forces to develop the economy of the PRC. These reforms have resulted in significant economic growth and social progress. There can, however, be no assurance that the PRC government will continue to pursue such economic policies or, if it does, that those policies will continue to be successful. Any such adjustment and modification of those economic policies may have an adverse impact on the securities market in the PRC as well as the underlying securities of a Fund’s Index. Further, the PRC government may from time to time adopt corrective measures to control the growth of the PRC economy which may also have an adverse impact on the capital growth and performance of a Fund.
Political changes, social instability and adverse diplomatic developments in the PRC could result in the imposition of additional government restrictions including expropriation of assets, confiscatory taxes or nationalization of some or all of the property held by the issuers of a Fund’s A-share investments or contained in a Fund’s Index.
Market volatility caused by potential regional or territorial conflicts, including military conflicts, either in response to internal social unrest or conflicts with other countries, popular unrest associated with demands for improved political, economic and social conditions, the impact of regional conflict on the economy and hostile relations with neighboring countries, or natural or other disasters, may have an adverse impact on the performance of the Fund.
The laws, regulations, including the investment regulations allowing RQFIIs (and QFIIs) to invest in A-shares, government policies and political and economic climate in China may change with little or no advance notice. Any such change could adversely affect market conditions and the performance of the Chinese economy and, thus, the value of the A-shares in a Fund’s portfolio.
Since 1949, the PRC has been a socialist state controlled by the Communist party. China has only recently opened up to foreign investment and has only begun to permit private economic activity. There is no guarantee that the Chinese
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government will not revert from its current open-market economy to the economic policy of central planning that it implemented prior to 1978.
Under the economic reforms implemented by the Chinese government, the Chinese economy has experienced tremendous growth, developing into one of the largest economies in the world. There is no assurance, however, that such growth will be sustained in the future.
The Chinese government continues to be an active participant in many economic sectors through ownership positions and regulation. The allocation of resources in China is subject to a high level of government control. The Chinese government strictly regulates the payment of foreign currency denominated obligations and sets monetary policy. Through its policies, the government may provide preferential treatment to particular industries or companies. The policies set by the government could have a substantial adverse effect on the Chinese economy and a Fund’s investments.
The Chinese economy is export-driven and highly reliant on trade, and much of China’s growth in recent years has been the result of focused investments in economic sectors intended to produce goods and services for export purposes. The performance of the Chinese economy may differ favorably or unfavorably from the U.S. economy in such respects as growth of gross domestic product, rate of inflation, currency revaluation, capital reinvestment, resource self-sufficiency and balance of payments position. Adverse changes to the economic conditions of its primary trading partners, such as the United States, Japan and South Korea, would adversely impact the Chinese economy and a Fund’s investments. International trade tensions involving China and its trading counterparties may arise from time to time which can result in trade tariffs, embargoes, sanctions, investment restrictions, trade limitations, trade wars and other negative consequences. Such actions and consequences may ultimately result in a significant reduction in international trade, an oversupply of certain manufactured goods, devaluations of existing inventories and potentially the failure of individual companies and/or large segments of China’s export industry with a potentially severe negative impact to a Fund.
Moreover, the current slowdown or any future recessions in other significant economies of the world, such as the United States, the European Union and certain Asian countries, may adversely affect economic growth in China. An economic downturn in China would adversely impact a Fund’s investments.
Inflation. Economic growth in China has also historically been accompanied by periods of high inflation. Rising inflation may, in the future, adversely affect the performance of the Chinese economy and a Fund’s investments.
Tax Changes. The Chinese system of taxation is not as well settled as that of the United States. China has implemented a number of tax reforms in recent years and may amend or revise its existing tax laws and/or procedures in the future, possibly with retroactive effect. Changes in applicable Chinese tax law, such as the cessation of tax exemptions in respect of investments in A-shares via RQFII and/or the Stock Connect, could reduce the after-tax profits of the Fund, directly or indirectly, including by reducing the after-tax profits of companies in China in which a Fund invests. Uncertainties in Chinese tax rules could result in unexpected tax liabilities for the Fund. Should legislation limit U.S. investors’ ability to invest in specific Chinese companies through A-shares or other share class listings that are part of the underlying holdings, these shares may be excluded from Fund holdings. In addition, changes in the Chinese tax system may have retroactive effects.
Nationalization and Expropriation. After the formation of the Chinese socialist state in 1949, the Chinese government renounced various debt obligations and nationalized private assets without providing any form of compensation. There can be no assurance that the Chinese government will not take similar actions in the future. Accordingly, an investment in a Fund involves a risk of a total loss.
Hong Kong Policy. As part of Hong Kong’s transition from British to Chinese sovereignty in 1997, China agreed to allow Hong Kong to maintain a high degree of autonomy with regard to its political, legal and economic systems for a period of at least 50 years. China controls matters that relate to defense and foreign affairs. Under the agreement, China does not tax Hong Kong, does not limit the exchange of the Hong Kong dollar for foreign currencies and does not place restrictions on free trade in Hong Kong. However, there is no guarantee that China will continue to honor the agreement, and China may change its policies regarding Hong Kong at any time. As of July 2020, the Chinese Standing Committee of the National People's Congress enacted the Law of the People's Republic of China on Safeguarding National Security in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. As of the same month, Hong Kong is no longer afforded preferential economic treatment by the United States under US law, and there is uncertainty as to how the economy of Hong Kong will be affected. Any further changes in PRC’s policies could adversely affect market conditions and the performance of the Hong Kong economy and, thus, the value of securities in the Fund’s portfolio.
Any such change could adversely affect market conditions and the performance of the Chinese economy and, thus, the value of securities in the Fund’s portfolio. Furthermore, as demonstrated by Hong Kong protests in recent years over political, economic, and legal freedoms, and the Chinese government's response to them, there continues to exist political uncertainty within Hong Kong.
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Chinese Securities Markets. The securities markets in China have a limited operating history and are not as developed as those in the United States. These markets tend to have had greater volatility than markets in the United States and some other countries. In addition, there is less regulation and monitoring of Chinese securities markets and the activities of investors, brokers and other participants than in the United States. Accordingly, issuers of securities in China are not subject to the same degree of regulation as are U.S. issuers with respect to such matters as insider trading rules, tender offer regulation, stockholder proxy requirements and the requirements mandating timely disclosure of information. During periods of significant market volatility, the Chinese government has, from time to time, intervened in its domestic securities markets to a greater degree than would be typical in more developed markets. Stock markets in China are in the process of change and further development. This may lead to trading volatility, unpredictable trading suspensions, difficulty in the settlement and recording of transactions and difficulty in interpreting and applying the relevant regulations. These risks may be more pronounced for the A-share market than for Chinese securities markets generally because the A-share market is subject to greater government restrictions and control, including trading suspensions, as described in greater detail above.
Available Disclosure About Chinese Companies. Disclosure and regulatory standards in emerging market countries, such as China, are in many respects less stringent than U.S. standards. There is substantially less publicly available information about Chinese issuers than there is about U.S. issuers. The Chinese government has taken positions that prevent the United States Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (“PCAOB”) from inspecting the audit work and practices of accounting firms in mainland China and Hong Kong for compliance with U.S. law and professional standards. Audits performed by PCAOB-registered accounting firms in mainland China and Hong Kong may be less reliable than those performed by firms subject to PCAOB inspection. Therefore, disclosure of certain material information may not be made, and less information may be available to a Fund and other investors than would be the case if a Fund’s investments were restricted to securities of U.S. issuers. Chinese issuers are subject to accounting, auditing and financial standards and requirements that differ, in some cases significantly, from those applicable to U.S. issuers. In particular, the assets and profits appearing on the financial statements of a Chinese issuer may not reflect its financial position or results of operations in the way they would be reflected had such financial statements been prepared in accordance with U.S. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles. As a result, there is substantially greater risk that disclosures will be incomplete or misleading and, in the event of investor harm, that there will be substantially less access to recourse, in comparison to U.S. domestic companies. Furthermore, under amendments to the Sarbanes-Oxley Act enacted in December 2020, which requires that the PCAOB be permitted to inspect the accounting firm of a U.S.-listed Chinese issuer, Chinese companies with securities listed on U.S. exchanges may be delisted if the PCAOB is unable to inspect the accounting firm.
Chinese Corporate and Securities Law. The regulations on investments and repatriation of capital by QFIIs and RQFIIs are relatively new. As a result, the application and interpretation of such investment regulations are relatively untested. In addition, PRC authorities have broad discretion in this regard. A Fund’s rights with respect to its investments in A-shares through Stock Connect or the China Sub-Adviser’s RQFII license will not be governed by U.S. law, and instead will be governed by Chinese law. China operates under a civil law system, in which court precedent is not binding. Because there is no binding precedent to interpret existing statutes, there is uncertainty regarding the implementation of existing law.
Legal principles relating to corporate affairs and the validity of corporate procedures, directors’ fiduciary duties and liabilities and stockholders’ rights often differ from those that may apply in the United States and other countries. Chinese laws providing protection to investors, such as laws regarding the fiduciary duties of officers and directors, are undeveloped and will not provide investors, such as a Fund, with protection in all situations where protection would be provided by comparable law in the United States. China lacks a national set of laws that address all issues that may arise with regard to a foreign investor such as a Fund.
It may therefore be difficult for a Fund to enforce its rights as an investor under Chinese corporate and securities laws, and it may be difficult or impossible for a Fund to obtain a judgment in court. Moreover, as Chinese corporate and securities laws continue to develop, these developments may adversely affect foreign investors, such as a Fund.

Special Risk Considerations of Investing in A-shares (the China Funds only)

Each Fund’s investments in A-shares via the Stock Connect are limited by the market-wide quotas imposed by Stock Connect. In addition, there may be significant restrictions on the repatriation of gains and income related to the China Sub-Adviser’s RQFII license that may affect a Fund’s ability to satisfy redemption requests. Currently, there are two stock exchanges in mainland China, the Shanghai and Shenzhen Stock Exchanges, and there is one stock exchange in Hong Kong. The Shanghai and Shenzhen Stock Exchanges are supervised by the China Securities Regulatory Commission (“CSRC”) and are highly automated with trading and settlement executed electronically. The Shanghai and Shenzhen Stock Exchanges are more volatile than the major securities markets in the United States. In comparison to the mainland Chinese securities markets, the securities markets in Hong Kong are relatively well developed and active.
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Because restrictions continue to exist, including daily quotas, and capital therefore cannot flow freely into the A-share market, it is possible that in the event of a market disruption, the liquidity of the A-share market and trading prices of A-shares could be more severely affected than the liquidity and trading prices of markets where securities are freely tradable and capital therefore flows more freely. A Fund cannot predict the nature or duration of such a market disruption or the impact that it may have on the A-share market and the short-term and long-term prospects of its investments in the A-share market.
The A-share market may be considered volatile with a risk of suspension of trading in a particular security or government intervention. Securities on the A-share market, including one or more securities in an Index, may be suspended from trading without an indication of how long the suspension will last, which may impair the liquidity of such securities.
The Chinese government has in the past taken actions that benefited holders of A-shares. As A-shares become more available to foreign investors, such as a Fund, the Chinese government may be less likely to take action that would benefit holders of A-shares. In addition, there is no guarantee that the China Sub-Adviser will continue to maintain its RQFII if the RQFII license is eliminated by SAFE at some point in the future. A Fund cannot predict what would occur if an RQFII license of the China Sub-Adviser were eliminated, although such an occurrence would likely have a material adverse effect on a Fund.
From time to time, certain of the companies in which a Fund expects to invest may operate in, or have dealings with, countries subject to sanctions or embargoes imposed by the U.S. Government and the United Nations and/or countries identified by the U.S. Government as state sponsors of terrorism. A company may suffer damage to its reputation if it is identified as a company which operates in, or has dealings with, countries subject to sanctions or embargoes imposed by the U.S. Government and the United Nations and/or countries identified by the U.S. Government as state sponsors of terrorism. As an investor in such companies, a Fund will be indirectly subject to those risks.
Investment Restrictions. The Chinese government limits foreign investment in the securities of certain Chinese issuers entirely if foreign investment is banned in respect of the industry in which the relevant Chinese issuers are conducting their business. These restrictions or limitations may have adverse effects on the liquidity and performance of the Fund holdings as compared to the performance of its Index. This may increase the risk of tracking error and may adversely affect a Fund’s ability to achieve its investment objective.
Tax Risk. For a discussion regarding the tax risks applicable to the Fund’s investments in A-shares, please see “PRC Taxation” below.
The sale or transfer by the China Sub-Adviser of A-shares or B-shares will be subject to PRC Stamp Duty.
It is unclear how China’s business tax may apply to activities of an RQFII and how such application may be affected by tax treaty provisions. A Fund’s shareholder’s ability to claim a credit for certain Chinese taxes may be limited under general U.S. tax principles. There is no guarantee that the temporary tax exemption or non-taxable treatment with respect to assets traded via QFIIs and RQFIIs described below will continue to apply. Such uncertainties may operate to the advantage or disadvantage of investors and may result in an increase or decrease in NAV of the Fund.
Risk of Loss of Favorable U.S. Tax Treatment. Each Fund intends to distribute annually all or substantially all of its investment company taxable income and net capital gain. However, if a Fund does not repatriate funds associated with direct investment in A-shares on a timely basis, it may be unable to satisfy the distribution requirements required to qualify for the favorable tax treatment otherwise generally afforded to RICs under the Internal Revenue Code. If a Fund fails to qualify for any taxable year as a RIC, the Fund would be treated as a corporation subject to U.S. federal income tax, thereby subjecting any income earned by the Fund to tax at the corporate level currently at a 21% U.S. federal tax rate and, when such income is distributed, to a further tax at the shareholder level to the extent of the Fund’s current or accumulated earnings and profits. In addition, the Fund would not be eligible for a deduction for dividends paid to shareholders. Furthermore, the Fund could be required to recognize unrealized gains, pay taxes and make distributions (any of which could be subject to interest charges) before re-qualifying for taxation as a RIC. See below under “Taxes” for more information.
Tax on Retained Income and Gains. To the extent a Fund does not distribute to shareholders all of its investment company taxable income and net capital gain in a given year, it will be required to pay U.S. federal income and excise tax on the retained income and gains, thereby reducing the Fund’s return. A Fund may elect to treat its net capital gain as having been distributed to shareholders. In that case, shareholders of record on the last day of the Fund’s taxable year will be required to include their attributable share of the retained gain in income for the year as a long-term capital gain despite not actually receiving the dividend, and will be entitled to a tax credit or refund for the tax deemed paid on their behalf by the Fund as well as an increase in the basis of their shares to reflect the difference between their attributable share of the gain and the related credit or refund.
Foreign Exchange Control. The Chinese government heavily regulates the domestic exchange of foreign currencies within China. Chinese law requires that all domestic transactions must be settled in RMB, places significant restrictions on the
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remittance of foreign currency and strictly regulates currency exchange from RMB. Under SAFE regulations, Chinese corporations may only purchase foreign currencies through government approved banks. In general, Chinese companies must receive approval from or register with the Chinese government before investing in certain capital account items, including direct investments and loans, and must thereafter maintain separate foreign exchange accounts for the capital items. Foreign investors may only exchange foreign currencies at specially authorized banks after complying with documentation requirements. These restrictions may adversely affect a Fund and its investments. There may not be sufficient amounts of RMB for a Fund to be fully invested because the Fund has to convert U.S. dollars received from the purchase of Creation Units into RMB to purchase RMB denominated investments. It should also be noted that that the PRC government’s policies on exchange control and repatriation restrictions are subject to change, and any such change may adversely impact a Fund. There can be no assurance that the RMB exchange rate will not fluctuate widely against the US dollar or any other foreign currency in the future. Under exceptional circumstances, payment of redemptions and/or dividend payment in RMB may be delayed due to the exchange controls and restrictions applicable to RMB.
Custody Risks of Investing in A-shares. Industrial and Commercial Bank of China Limited (“ICBC” or the “PRC sub-custodian”), which is approved by CSRC and SAFE as a qualified RQFII custodian, has been appointed to provide custody services to the Funds’ assets invested in A-shares and investments in the PRC. The PRC sub-custodian maintains the Funds’ RMB deposit accounts and oversees the Funds’ investments in A-shares to ensure compliance with the rules and regulations of the CSRC and the People’s Bank of China. A-shares that are traded on the Shanghai or Shenzhen Stock Exchange are dealt and held in book-entry form through the CSDCC. The securities purchased by the China Sub-Adviser, in its capacity as a RQFII, on behalf of a Fund, will be received by the CSDCC as credited to a securities trading account maintained by the PRC sub-custodian in the joint names of the Fund and the China Sub-Adviser, and the Fund will pay the cost of the account. The China Sub-Adviser may not use the account for any other purpose than for maintaining the Fund’s assets. However, given that the securities trading account will be maintained in the joint names of the China Sub-Adviser and the Fund, the Fund’s assets may not be as well protected as they would be if it were possible for them to be registered and held solely in the name of the Fund. In particular, there is a risk that creditors of the China Sub-Adviser may assert that the securities are owned by the China Sub-Adviser and not the Fund, and that a court would uphold such an assertion, in which case creditors of the China Sub-Adviser could seize assets of the Fund.
Investment via Stock Connect is subject to similar custody risks. Securities purchased by the Fund through Stock Connect will be held via a book entry in an omnibus account in the name of HKSCC, Hong Kong’s clearing entity, at CSDCC. The Fund’s ownership interest in Stock Connect securities will not be reflected directly in the book entry with CSDCC and will instead only be reflected on the books of its Hong Kong sub-custodian.
Investors should also note that cash deposits in a Fund’s account with the PRC sub-custodian will not be segregated from the proprietary assets of the PRC sub-custodian or the assets of its other clients. Therefore, to the extent a Fund’s assets are commingled, the cash deposits will be vulnerable in the event of a liquidation or bankruptcy by the PRC sub-custodian. Under such circumstances, a Fund will not have any proprietary rights to the cash deposited in the account, and the Fund will become an unsecured creditor, and would have no priority over the claims of any other unsecured creditors to the assets of the PRC sub-custodian. A Fund may encounter difficulties or delays in recovering such debt, or may not be able to recover it in full or at all, in which case the Fund will suffer losses.
Use of Brokers. CSRC and SAFE regulations specify that all securities traded by the China Sub-Adviser, as a licensed RQFII, on behalf of a Fund must be executed through one of the specified brokers per exchange. As a result, the China Sub-Adviser will have less flexibility to choose among brokers on behalf of a Fund than is typically the case for investment managers.
Foreign Currency Considerations. Emerging markets such as China can experience high rates of inflation, deflation and currency devaluation. The value of the RMB may be subject to a high degree of fluctuation due to, among other things, changes in interest rates, the effects of monetary policies issued by the PRC, the United States, foreign governments, central banks or supranational entities, the imposition of currency controls or other national or global political or economic developments. Each Fund invests a significant portion of its assets in investments denominated in RMB and the income received by each Fund will principally be in RMB. A Fund’s exposure to the RMB and changes in value of the RMB versus the U.S. dollar may result in reduced returns for the Fund. Moreover, a Fund may incur costs in connection with conversions between U.S. dollars and RMB. The RMB is currently not a freely convertible currency. The value of the RMB is based on a managed floating exchange rate based on market supply and demand with reference to a basket of foreign currencies. The daily trading price of the RMB is allowed to float within a narrow band around the central parity published by the People’s Bank of China. The Chinese government’s imposition of restrictions on the repatriation of RMB out of mainland China may limit the depth of the offshore RMB market and reduce the liquidity of a Fund’s investments. These restrictions as well as any accelerated appreciation or depreciation of RMB may adversely affect a Fund and its investments. Under exceptional circumstances, payment of redemptions and/or dividend payment in RMB may be delayed due to the exchange controls and restrictions applicable to RMB.
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Each Fund’s assets are expected to be primarily invested in the A-shares of Chinese issuers and the income received by each Fund will be principally in RMB. Meanwhile, each Fund will compute and expects to distribute its income in U.S. dollars, and the computation of income will be made on the date that the income is earned by the Fund at the foreign exchange rate in effect on that date. Therefore, if the value of the RMB falls relative to the U.S. dollar between the earning of the income and the time at which a Fund converts the RMB to U.S. dollars, the Fund may be required to liquidate certain positions in order to make distributions if the Fund has insufficient cash in U.S. dollars to meet distribution requirements under the Internal Revenue Code. The liquidation of investments, if required, may also have an adverse impact on a Fund’s performance.
Furthermore, a Fund may incur costs in connection with conversions between U.S. dollars and RMB. Foreign exchange dealers realize a profit based on the difference between the prices at which they are buying and selling various currencies. Thus, a dealer normally will offer to sell a foreign currency to a Fund at one rate, while offering a lesser rate of exchange should the Fund desire immediately to resell that currency to the dealer. A Fund will conduct its foreign currency exchange transactions either on a spot (i.e., cash) basis at the spot rate prevailing in the foreign currency exchange market, or through entering into forward, futures or options contracts to purchase or sell foreign currencies.
RMB can be further categorized into onshore RMB (“CNY”), which can be traded only in the PRC, and offshore RMB (“CNH”), which can be traded outside the PRC. CNY and CNH are traded at different exchange rates and their exchange rates may not move in the same direction. Although there has been a growing amount of RMB held offshore, CNH cannot be freely remitted into the PRC and is subject to certain restrictions, and vice versa. A Fund may also be adversely affected by the exchange rates between CNY and CNH. In addition, there may not be sufficient amounts of RMB for a Fund to be fully invested because the Fund has to convert U.S. dollars received from the purchase of Creation Units into RMB to purchase A-shares, and this may result in settlement delays and increased tracking error. A Fund will be required to remit CNH to settle the purchase of A-shares by the Fund from time to time. In the event such remittance is disrupted, a Fund will not be able to fully replicate its Index by investing in the relevant A-shares, which may lead to increased tracking error. Moreover, the trading and settlement of RMB-denominated securities are recent developments in Hong Kong and there is no assurance that problems will not be encountered with the systems or that other logistical problems will not arise.
Currently, there is no market in China in which the Funds may engage in hedging transactions to minimize RMB foreign exchange risk, and there can be no guarantee that instruments suitable for hedging currency will be available to the Funds in China at any time in the future. In the event that in the future it becomes possible to hedge RMB currency risk in China, a Fund may seek to protect the value of some portion or all of its portfolio holdings against currency risks by engaging in hedging transactions. In that case, such Fund may enter into forward currency exchange contracts and currency futures contracts and options on such futures contracts, as well as purchase put or call options on currencies, in China. Currency hedging would involve special risks, including possible default by the other party to the transaction, illiquidity and, to the extent the Adviser’s and/or the China Sub-Adviser’s view as to certain market movements is incorrect, the risk that the use of hedging could result in losses greater than if they had not been used. The use of currency transactions could result in a Fund’s incurring losses as a result of the imposition of exchange controls, exchange rate regulation, suspension of settlements or the inability to deliver or receive a specified currency.
Disclosure of Interests and Short Swing Profit Rule. A Fund may be subject to shareholder disclosure of interest regulations promulgated by the CSRC. These regulations currently require a Fund to make certain public disclosures when the Fund and parties acting in concert with the Fund acquire 5% or more of the issued securities of a listed company (which include A-shares and B-shares of the listed company). If the reporting requirement is triggered, a Fund will be required to report information which includes, but is not limited to: (a) information about the Fund and the type and extent of its holdings in the company; (b) a statement of the Fund’s purposes for the investment and whether the Fund intends to increase its holdings over the following 12-month period; (c) a statement of the Fund’s historical investments in the company over the previous six months; (d) the time of, and other information relating to, the transaction that triggered the Fund’s holding in the listed company reaching the 5% reporting threshold; and (e) other information that may be required by the CSRC or the stock exchange. Additional information may be required if a Fund and its concerted parties constitute the largest shareholder or actual controlling shareholder of the listed company. The report must be made to the CSRC, the stock exchange, the invested company, and the CSRC local representative office where the listed company is located. A Fund would also be required to make a public announcement through a media outlet designated by the CSRC. The public announcement must contain the same content as the official report.
The relevant PRC regulations presumptively treat all affiliated investors and investors under common control as parties acting in concert. As such, under a conservative interpretation of these regulations, a Fund may be deemed as a “concerted party” of other funds managed by the Adviser and its affiliates and/or the China Sub-Adviser and its affiliates and therefore may be subject to the risk that the Fund’s holdings may be required to be reported in the aggregate with the holdings of such other funds should the aggregate holdings trigger the reporting threshold under the PRC law.
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If the 5% shareholding threshold is triggered by a Fund and parties acting in concert with the Fund, the Fund would be required to file its report within three days of the date the threshold is reached. During the time limit for filing the report, a trading freeze applies and the Fund would not be permitted to make subsequent trades in the invested company’s securities. Any such trading freeze may negatively impact a Fund’s performance, if the Fund would otherwise make trades during that period but is prevented from doing so by the regulation.
Once a Fund and parties acting in concert reach the 5% trading threshold as to any listed company, any subsequent incremental increase or decrease of 5% or more will trigger a further reporting requirement and an additional three-day trading freeze, and also an additional freeze on trading within two days of the Fund’s report and announcement of the incremental change. These trading freezes may undermine a Fund’s performance as described above. Also, Shanghai Stock Exchange requirements currently require a Fund and parties acting in concert, once they have reached the 5% threshold, to disclose whenever their shareholding drops below this threshold (even as a result of trading which is less than the 5% incremental change that would trigger a reporting requirement under the relevant CSRC regulation).
CSRC regulations also contain additional disclosure (and tender offer) requirements that apply when an investor and parties acting in concert reach thresholds of 20% and greater than 30% shareholding in a company. Because no single underlying foreign investor investing through a RQFII or QFII (e.g., a Fund) may currently hold more than 10% of the total outstanding shares in one listed company, it is currently unlikely that a Fund’s trading would trigger the more detailed reporting or tender offer requirements at the higher thresholds.
Subject to the interpretation of PRC courts and PRC regulators, the operation of the PRC short swing profit rule may be applicable to the trading of a Fund with the result that where the holdings of the Fund (possibly with the holdings of other accounts managed by the Adviser or China Sub-Adviser) exceed 5% of the total issued shares of a listed company, the Fund may not reduce its holdings in the company within six months of the last purchase of shares of the company. If a Fund violates the rule, it may be required by the listed company to return any profits realized from such trading to the listed company. In addition, the rule limits the ability of a Fund to repurchase securities of the listed company within six months of such sale. Moreover, under PRC civil procedures, a Fund’s assets may be frozen to the extent of the claims made by the company in question. If the operation of the PRC short swing profit rule is triggered as described above, it may greatly impair the performance of a Fund.

RQFII Program Risk (the China Funds only)
The Adviser allocates a portion of VanEck ChiNext ETF’s assets to an unaffiliated sub-adviser with a Renminbi Qualified Foreign Institutional Investor (“RQFII”) license for purposes of investing in China A-shares (“A-shares”). The Adviser allocates a portion of VanEck China Bond ETF’s assets to an unaffiliated sub-adviser with an RQFII license for purposes of investing in Renminbi (“RMB”) denominated debt obligations issued within the People’s Republic of China (“PRC”). The China Sub-Adviser currently acts as the sub-adviser for the China Funds for these purposes.
Pursuant to PRC and RQFII regulations, SAFE is vested with the power to impose regulatory sanctions if the China Sub-Adviser, in its capacity as RQFII, or the PRC sub-custodian violates any provision of the RQFII regulations. Any such violations could result in the revocation of the China Sub-Adviser’s RQFII license or other regulatory sanctions and may adversely impact the China Funds’ ability to invest in A-shares. Such restriction may result in a rejection of applications or a suspension of dealings in the China Funds.
If SAFE revokes the China Sub-Adviser’s RQFII license, it may affect the ability of the China Funds to effectively pursue their respective investment strategy.
The China Sub-Adviser’s RQFII status could be suspended or revoked. There can be no assurance that the China Sub-Adviser will continue to maintain its RQFII. In the event the China Sub-Adviser is unable to maintain its RQFII status, and the Adviser is not able to retain another or an additional sub-adviser with an RQFII license (or, in the case of VanEck China Bond ETF, to identify other methods to invest in RMB Bonds), the China Funds may be unable to gain exposure to A-shares or RMB Bonds through the RQFII program. In such event it is possible that the trading price of the China Funds’ Shares on the Exchange will be at a significant premium or discount to the NAV (which may also increase tracking error of the Fund) and could experience significant redemptions. Also there is no assurance that redemption requests of the China Funds will be processed in a timely manner due to changes in RQFII regulations.
Further, the Adviser will rely on the arrangements entered into between the RQFII with its respective PRC sub-custodian with respect to the custody of its, and therefore a China Fund’s, assets in Chinese securities, and their PRC brokers in relation to the execution of transactions in A-shares, in the PRC markets. The China Funds may, therefore, incur losses due to the acts or omissions of the PRC brokers or the PRC sub-custodians in the execution or settlement of any transaction, or in the transfer of any funds or securities.
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The current regulations on RQFII and the A-share market include rules on investment restrictions and limitation on foreign ownership or holdings applicable to the China Funds. Transaction sizes for RQFIIs are relatively large, with the corresponding heightened risk of exposure to decreased market liquidity and significant price volatility leading to possible adverse effects on the timing and pricing of acquisition or disposal of securities.
Although the regulations on RQFII have been revised to relax regulatory restrictions on offshore capital management by RQFIIs (including removal of RQFII quota limits and simplifying the repatriation of investment proceeds), it is a very new development that is subject to uncertainties in the implementation in practice, especially at early stages. The application and interpretation of such investment regulations are therefore relatively untested and there is no certainty as to how they will be applied as the PRC authorities and regulators have been given wide discretion in such investment regulations and there is no precedent or certainty as to how such discretion may be exercised now or in the future. The future application and/or interpretation of such regulations may create difficulties with respect to the manner in which the China Funds seek to invest in A-shares and/or RMB Bonds in furtherance of its investment objective.
The China Sub-Adviser, as a licensed RQFII, is currently permitted to repatriate RMB daily and is not subject to RMB repatriation restrictions, though it will need to prepare a tax payment commitment letter in respect of each repatriation of profit and capital. A repatriation of profit and capital at winding up is still subject to a tax audit. There is no assurance that RQFIIs may not be subject to restrictions or prior approval requirements in the future. Any additional restrictions imposed on the China Sub-Adviser or RQFIIs generally may have an adverse effect on the Fund’s ability to invest directly in RMB Bonds and its ability to meet redemption requests. There are also risks associated with the taxation of RQFIIs. Please refer to the section titled “PRC Taxation” below for more details.

PRC Custodian Risks
Where a China Fund invests in fixed income securities and/or eligible securities through the RQFII, such securities will be maintained by a local custodian pursuant to PRC regulations through appropriate securities accounts and such other relevant depositories in such name as may be permitted or required in accordance with PRC law.
The PRC custodian should have procedures to safe-keep the assets of the relevant China Fund. The securities accounts should generally be maintained and recorded in the joint name of the RQFII and the China Fund and segregated from the other assets of the PRC custodian. However, the RQFII regulations are subject to the interpretation of the relevant authorities in the PRC.
Any securities acquired by the China Funds held by the RQFII will be maintained by the PRC custodian and should be registered in the joint names of the RQFII and the relevant China Fund and for the sole benefit and use of such China Fund. Although the RQFII should be the party entitled to the securities, the related security may still be vulnerable to a claim by a liquidator of the RQFII and may not be as well protected as if they were registered solely in the name of the respective China Fund.
In addition, investors should note that cash deposited in the cash account of the relevant China Fund with the relevant PRC custodian will not be segregated but will be a debt owing from the PRC custodian to the relevant China Fund as a depositor. Such cash will be co-mingled with cash belonging to other clients of that local custodian. In the event of bankruptcy or liquidation of the local custodian, the relevant China Fund will not have any proprietary rights to the cash deposited in such cash account, and the relevant China Fund will become an unsecured creditor, ranking equal with all other unsecured creditors, of the PRC custodian. The relevant China Fund may face difficulty and/or encounter delays in recovering such debt, or may not be able to recover it in full or at all, in which case the relevant China Fund will suffer losses.

Stock Connect Program Risks (VanEck ChiNext ETF, VanEck Green Metals ETF and VanEck Rare Earth/Strategic Metals ETF only)
VanEck ChiNext ETF, VanEck Green Metals ETF and VanEck Rare Earth/Strategic Metals ETF may invest in A-shares listed and traded on the Shanghai Stock Exchange and the Shenzhen Stock Exchange through the Shanghai-Hong Kong Stock Connect Program and the Shenzhen-Hong Kong Stock Connect Program (together, “Stock Connect”), or on such other stock exchanges in China which participate in Stock Connect from time to time or in the future. Trading through Stock Connect is subject to a number of restrictions that may affect a Fund’s investments and returns. For example, purchases of A-shares through Stock Connect are subject to a daily quota which does not belong to the Fund and can only be utilised on a first-come-first-serve basis. Once the daily quota is exceeded, buy orders may be rejected. The Fund's ability to invest in A-shares may therefore be limited. In addition, investments made through Stock Connect are subject to trading, clearance and settlement procedures that are relatively untested in the PRC, which could pose risks to a Fund. Furthermore, securities purchased via Stock Connect will be held via a book entry omnibus account in the name of Hong Kong Securities Clearing Company Limited (“HKSCC”), Hong Kong’s clearing entity, at the China Securities Depository and Clearing Corporation
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Limited (“CSDCC”). A Fund’s ownership interest in Stock Connect securities will not be reflected directly in book entry with CSDCC and will instead only be reflected on the books of its Hong Kong sub-custodian. A Fund may therefore depend on HKSCC’s ability or willingness as record-holder of Stock Connect securities to enforce the Fund’s shareholder rights. PRC law did not historically recognize the concept of beneficial ownership; while PRC regulations and the Hong Kong Stock Exchange have issued clarifications and guidance supporting the concept of beneficial ownership via Stock Connect, the interpretation of beneficial ownership in the PRC by regulators and courts may continue to evolve. Moreover, Stock Connect A-shares generally may not be sold, purchased or otherwise transferred other than through Stock Connect in accordance with applicable rules.
A primary feature of Stock Connect is the application of the home market’s laws and rules applicable to investors in A-shares. Therefore, a Fund’s investments in Stock Connect A-shares are generally subject to PRC securities regulations and listing rules, among other restrictions. The Stock Exchange of Hong Kong, Shenzhen Stock Exchange (“SZSE”) and Shanghai Stock Exchange (“SSE”) reserve the right to suspend trading if necessary for ensuring an orderly and fair market and managing risks prudently, which could adversely affect a Fund’s ability to access the mainland China market. A stock may be recalled from the scope of eligible SSE securities or SZSE securities for trading via the Stock Connects for various reasons, and in such event, the stock can only be sold but is restricted from being bought. Stock Connect is only available on days when markets in both the PRC and Hong Kong are open, which may limit the Fund’s ability to trade when it would be otherwise attractive to do so.
Uncertainties in permanent PRC tax rules governing the taxation of income and gains from investments in Stock Connect A-shares could result in unexpected tax liabilities for the Fund. Please refer to the section titled “PRC taxation” below.
A Fund may, through the Stock Connect, access securities listed on the ChiNext Market and STAR Board of the SZSE. Listed companies on the ChiNext Market and STAR Board are usually of an emerging nature with smaller operating scale. Listed companies on the ChiNext Market and STAR Board are subject to wider price fluctuation limits and due to higher entry thresholds for investors, may have limited liquidity, compared to other boards. They are subject to higher fluctuation in stock prices and liquidity and have higher risks and turnover ratios than companies listed on the main board of the SZSE. Securities listed on the ChiNext Market may be overvalued and such exceptionally high valuation may not be sustainable. Stock prices may be more susceptible to manipulation due to fewer circulating shares. It may be more common and faster for companies listed on the ChiNext Market to delist. This may have an adverse impact on a Fund if the companies that they invest in are delisted. Also, the rules and regulations regarding companies listed on the ChiNext Market and STAR Board are less stringent in terms of profitability and share capital than those on the main board. Investments in the ChiNext Market and STAR Board may result in significant losses for a Fund and its investors. STAR Board is a newly established board and may have a limited number of listed companies during the initial stage. Investments in STAR board may be concentrated in a small number of stocks and subject the Fund to higher concentration risk.
The Stock Connect only operates on days when both the PRC and Hong Kong markets are open for trading and when banks in both markets are open on the corresponding settlement days. So it is possible that there are occasions when it is a normal trading day for the PRC market but the Fund cannot carry out any China A-shares trading via the Stock Connect. The Fund may be subject to a risk of price fluctuations in China A-shares during the time when any of the Stock Connect is not trading as a result.
PRC regulations require that before an investor sells any share, there should be sufficient shares in the account; otherwise the SSE or SZSE will reject the sell order concerned. SEHK will carry out pre-trade checking on China A-shares sell orders of its participants (i.e. the stock brokers) to ensure there is no over-selling. If the Fund intends to sell certain China A-shares it holds, it must transfer those China A-shares to the respective accounts of its broker(s) before the market opens on the day of selling (“trading day”). If it fails to meet this deadline, it will not be able to sell those shares on the trading day. Because of this requirement, the Fund may not be able to dispose of its holdings of China A-shares in a timely manner.
The Stock Connect program is a relatively new program and may be subject to further interpretation and guidance. There can be no assurance as to the program’s continued existence or whether future developments regarding the program may restrict or adversely affect a Fund’s investments or returns. In addition, the application and interpretation of the laws and regulations of Hong Kong and the PRC, and the rules, policies or guidelines published or applied by relevant regulators and exchanges in respect of the Stock Connect program are uncertain, and they may have a detrimental effect on a Fund’s investments and returns. Moreover, the rules and regulations may have potential retrospective effect. There can be no assurance that the Stock Connects will not be abolished. Investments in mainland China markets through the Stock Connects may adversely affect the Fund as a result of such changes.


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Risk of Investing through the CIBM Direct Access Program (VanEck China Bond ETF only)
The China interbank bond market (“CIBM”) is an OTC market established in 1997, and accounts for a substantial portion of outstanding bond values of the total trading volume in the PRC. On CIBM, domestic institutional investors and certain foreign institutional investors can trade, on a one-to-one quote-driven basis, sovereign bonds, government bonds, corporate bonds, bond repo, bond lending, bills issued by the People’s Bank of China (“PBOC”) and other financial debt instruments.
CIBM is regulated and supervised by the PBOC. The PBOC is responsible for, among others, promulgating the applicable CIBM listing, trading and operating rules, and supervising the market operators of CIBM.
Beginning in 2016, eligible foreign institutional investors can conduct trading on the CIBM under a program established by the PBOC (“CIBM Direct Access Program”) subject to other rules and regulations as promulgated by the PRC authorities. There is no trading quota limitation.
The Fund’s investments in bonds through the CIBM Direct Access Program will be subject to a number of additional risks and restrictions that may affect the Fund’s investments and returns.
The CIBM Direct Access Program is relatively new. Laws, rules, regulations, policies, notices, circulars or guidelines relating to the CIBM Direct Access Program as published or applied by the PBOC and other PRC authorities are untested and are subject to change from time to time. There can be no assurance that the CIBM Direct Access Program will not be restricted, suspended or abolished. If such event occurs, the Fund’s ability to invest in the CIBM through the CIBM Direct Access Program will be adversely affected, and if the Fund is unable to adequately access the CIBM through other means, the Fund’s ability to achieve its investment objective will be adversely affected.
Under the prevailing PRC regulations, eligible foreign institutional investors who wish to invest directly in CIBM through the CIBM Direct Access Program may do so through an onshore settlement agent, who would be responsible for making the relevant filings and account opening with the relevant authorities. The Fund is therefore subject to the risk of default or errors on the part of such agent. Cash deposited in the cash account of the Fund with the relevant onshore settlement agent will not be segregated. In the event of the bankruptcy or liquidation of the onshore settlement agent, the Fund will not have any proprietary rights to the cash deposited in such cash account and may face difficulty and/or encounter delays in recovering such assets, or may not be able to recover it in full or at all, in which case the Fund will suffer losses.
Market volatility and potential lack of liquidity due to low trading volume of certain debt securities in the China interbank bond market may result in prices of certain debt securities traded on such market fluctuating significantly. The Fund is therefore subject to liquidity and volatility risks. The bid and offer spreads of the prices of such securities may be large, and the Fund may therefore incur significant trading and realization costs and may even suffer losses when selling such investments.
The Fund is also exposed to risks associated with settlement procedures and default of counterparties. The counterparty which has entered into a transaction with the Fund may default in its obligation to settle the transaction by delivery of the relevant security or by payment for value. Although there is no quota limitation regarding investment via the CIBM Direct Access Program, the Fund is required to make further filings with the PBOC if it wishes to increase its anticipated investment size. There is no guarantee the PBOC will accept such further filings. In the event any further filings for an increase in the anticipated investment size are not accepted by the PBOC, the Fund’s ability to invest in the CIBM will be limited and the performance of the relevant Sub-Fund may be unfavorably affected as a result.
Investing in the CIBM is also subject to certain restrictions imposed by the PRC authorities on fund remittance and repatriation which may potentially affect the Fund’s performance and liquidity. Any non-compliance with or failure to meet the fund remittance and repatriation requirements may result in regulatory sanctions which in turn may have an adverse impact on the portion of the Fund’s investment via the CIBM Direct Access Program. Further, there is no assurance that the fund remittance and repatriation requirements in relation to investment in CIBM will not be changed as a result of change in government policies or foreign exchange control policies. The Fund may incur loss in the event such change in the fund remittance and repatriation requirements in relation to investment in CIBM occurs.

Bond Connect Risks (VanEck China Bond ETF only)
The “Mutual Bond Market Access between Mainland China and Hong Kong” (“Bond Connect”) program is an initiative established to facilitate investors from Mainland China and Hong Kong to trade in each other’s bond markets through connection between the Mainland China and Hong Kong financial institutions.
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Under the prevailing PRC regulations, eligible foreign investors will be allowed to invest in the bonds available on the CIBM through the northbound trading of the Bond Connect (“Northbound Trading Link”). There will be no investment quota for the Northbound Trading Link.
Under the Northbound Trading Link, eligible foreign investors are required to appoint the China Foreign Exchange Trade System & National Interbank Funding Centre (“CFETS”) or other institutions recognized by the PBOC as registration agents to apply for registration with the PBOC.
Eligible foreign investors may submit trade requests for bonds circulated in the CIBM through the Northbound Trading Link provided by offshore electronic bond trading platforms, which will in turn transmit their requests for quotation to CFETS. CFETS will send the requests for quotation to a number of approved onshore dealers (including market makers and others engaged in the market-making business) in Mainland China. The approved onshore dealers will respond to the requests for quotation via CFETS, and CFETS will send their responses to those eligible foreign investors through the same offshore electronic bond trading platforms. Once the eligible foreign investor accepts the quotation, the trade is concluded on CFETS.
On the other hand, the settlement and custody of bond securities traded in the CIBM under the Bond Connect will be done through the settlement and custody link between an offshore custody agent and onshore custodian and clearing institutions in Mainland China. In August 2018, the Bond Connect enhanced its settlement system to fully implement real-time delivery-versus-payment settlement of trades, which has resulted in increased adoption of the Bond Connect by investors. However, there is a risk that Chinese regulators may alter all or part of the structure and terms of, as well as a China Fund’s access to, the Bond Connect in the future or eliminate it altogether, which may limit or prevent the Fund from investing directly in or selling its bond securities. Pursuant to the prevailing regulations in Mainland China, all bonds traded by eligible foreign investors will be registered in the name of the Central Moneymarkets Unit of the Hong Kong Monetary Authority (“CMU”), which will hold such bonds as a nominee owner.
The Bond Connect is relatively new. Laws, rules, regulations, policies, notices, circulars or guidelines relating to the Bond Connect as published or applied by any of the Bond Connect Authorities (as defined below) are untested and are subject to change from time to time. There can be no assurance that the Bond Connect will not be restricted, suspended or abolished. If such event occurs, the Fund’s ability to invest in the CIBM through the Bond Connect will be adversely affected, and if the Fund is unable to adequately access the CIBM through other means, the Fund’s ability to achieve its investment objective will be adversely affected.
Under the prevailing regulations, eligible foreign investors who wish to participate in the Bond Connect may do so through an offshore custody agent, registration agent or other third parties (as the case may be), who would be responsible for making the relevant filings and account opening with the relevant authorities. The Fund is therefore subject to the risk of default or errors on the part of such agents.
Trading through the Bond Connect is performed through newly developed trading platforms and operational systems. There is no assurance that such systems will function properly (in particular, under extreme market conditions) or will continue to be adapted to changes and developments in the market. In the event that the relevant systems fails to function properly, trading through the Bond Connect may be disrupted. The Fund’s ability to trade through the Bond Connect (and hence to pursue its investment strategy) may therefore be adversely affected. In addition, where the Fund invests in the CIBM through the Bond Connect, it may be subject to risks of delays inherent in the order placing and/or settlement.
The CMU (i.e. the HKMA) is the “nominee holder” of the bonds acquired by the Fund through the Bond Connect. Whilst the Bond Connect Authorities have expressly stated that investors will enjoy the rights and interests of the bonds acquired through the Bond Connect in accordance with applicable laws, the exercise and the enforcement of beneficial ownership rights over such bonds in the courts in China is yet to be tested. In addition, in the event that the nominee holder becomes insolvent, such bonds may form part of the pool of assets of the nominee holder available for distribution to its creditors and the Fund, as a beneficial owner, may have no rights whatsoever in respect thereof.

Chinese Variable Interest Entities Risks
Chinese operating companies sometimes rely on variable interest entity (“VIE”) structures to raise capital from non-Chinese investors. In a VIE structure, a China-based operating company establishes an entity (typically offshore) that enters into service and other contracts with the Chinese company designed to provide economic exposure to the company. The offshore entity then issues exchange-traded shares that are sold to the public, including non-Chinese investors (such as a Fund). Shares of the offshore entity are not equity ownership interests in the Chinese operating company and therefore the ability of the offshore entity to control the activities of the Chinese company are limited and the Chinese company may engage in activities that negatively impact investment value. The VIE structure is designed to provide the offshore entity (and in turn, investors in the entity) with economic exposure to the Chinese company that replicates equity ownership, without actual equity
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ownership. VIE structures are used due to Chinese government prohibitions on foreign ownership of companies in certain industries and it is not clear that the contracts are enforceable or that the structures will otherwise work as intended.
Intervention by the Chinese government with respect to VIE structures could adversely affect the Chinese operating company’s performance, the enforceability of the offshore entity’s contractual arrangements with the Chinese company and the value of the offshore entity’s shares. Further, if the Chinese government determines that the agreements establishing the VIE structure do not comply with Chinese law and regulations, including those related to prohibitions on foreign ownership, the Chinese government could subject the Chinese company to penalties, revocation of business and operating licenses or forfeiture of ownership interests. The offshore entity’s control over the Chinese company may also be jeopardized if certain legal formalities are not observed in connection with the agreements, if the agreements are breached or if the agreements are otherwise determined not to be enforceable. If any of the foregoing were to occur, the market value of a Fund’s associated portfolio holdings would likely fall, causing substantial investment losses for the Fund.
In addition, Chinese companies listed on U.S. exchanges, including ADRs and companies that rely on VIE structures, may be delisted if they do not meet U.S. accounting standards and auditor oversight requirements. Delisting could significantly decrease the liquidity and value of the securities of these companies, decrease the ability of a Fund to invest in such securities and increase the cost of the Fund if it is required to seek alternative markets in which to invest in such securities.

Specific Risks Applicable to VanEck Bitcoin Strategy ETF
Under normal circumstances, the Fund will invest in Bitcoin Futures traded on commodity exchanges registered with the CFTC. Currently, the only commodity exchange registered with the CFTC on which Bitcoin Futures are traded is the CME.
The Fund is an actively managed ETF that does not seek to replicate the performance of a specified index.
Bitcoin Futures. Futures contracts are financial contracts the value of which depends on, or is derived from, the underlying reference asset. In the case of Bitcoin Futures, the underlying reference asset is bitcoin. Futures contracts may be physically-settled or cash-settled. The only futures contracts in which the Fund invests are cash-settled Bitcoin Futures. “Cash-settled” means that when the relevant futures contract expires, if the value of the underlying asset exceeds the futures contract price, the seller pays to the purchaser cash in the amount of that excess, and if the futures contract price exceeds the value of the underlying asset, the purchaser pays to the seller cash in the amount of that excess. In a cash-settled futures contract on bitcoin, the amount of cash to be paid is equal to the difference between the value of the bitcoin underlying the futures contract at the close of the last trading day of the contract and the futures contract price specified in the agreement. The CME has specified that the value of bitcoin underlying Bitcoin Futures traded on the CME will be determined by reference to a volume-weighted average of bitcoin trading prices on multiple bitcoin trading platforms. Margin requirements for Bitcoin Futures traded on the CME or other futures exchanges may be substantially higher than margin requirements for many other types of futures contracts. If the Fund is unable to meet its investment objective, the Fund’s returns may be lower than expected. Additionally, these collateral requirements may require the Fund to liquidate its position when it otherwise would not do so.
Futures contracts exhibit “futures basis,” which refers to the difference between the current market value of the underlying bitcoin (the “spot” price) and the price of the cash-settled futures contracts. A negative futures basis exists when cash-settled bitcoin futures contracts generally trade at a premium to the current market value of bitcoin. If a negative futures basis exists, the Fund’s investments in bitcoin futures contracts will generally underperform a direct investment in bitcoin, and, therefore, it may be more difficult for the Fund to maintain the Target Exposure.
Bitcoin Reference Rate. The CME CF Bitcoin Reference Rate (“BRR”) is a daily reference rate of the U.S. Dollar price of one bitcoin, and serves as the underlying rate used to determine the final settlement of CME-traded Bitcoin Futures contracts. The BRR was introduced on November 14, 2016 to provide market participants with a reliable credible source for the price of bitcoin and intended to facilitate the creation of financial products based on bitcoin.
The BRR is calculated by the aggregation of executed trade flow of major bitcoin spot exchanges during a specific one-hour calculation window. All relevant transactions are added to a joint list, recording the trade price and size for each transaction. This one-hour window is then partitioned into twelve, five-minute intervals. For each partition, the volume-weighted median trade price is calculated from the trade prices and sizes of all relevant transactions, i.e. across all constituent exchanges. The BRR is then given by the equally-weighted average of the volume-weighted medians of all partitions. Calculation rules are geared toward a maximum of transparency and replicability in the underlying spot markets.
Regulatory Aspects of Investments in Futures. VEARA has registered as a CPO with the CFTC. VEARA’s investment decisions may need to be modified, and commodity contract positions held by the Fund may have to be liquidated at disadvantageous times or prices, to avoid exceeding position limits established by the CFTC, potentially subjecting the Fund to substantial losses. The regulation of commodity transactions in the United States is subject to ongoing modification by
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government, self-regulatory and judicial action. The effect of any future regulatory change on the Fund is impossible to predict, but could be substantial and adverse to the Fund.
Derivatives Rule. The Fund is required to comply with the derivatives rule when it engages in transactions involving futures and other derivatives involving future Fund payment or delivery obligations. See “SEC Regulatory Matters” above.

Specific Risks Applicable to VanEck Ethereum Strategy ETF
Under normal circumstances, the Fund will invest in ETH Futures traded on commodity exchanges registered with the CFTC. Currently, the only ETH Futures the Fund intends to invest in are those traded on the CME.

The Fund is an actively managed ETF that does not seek to replicate the performance of a specified index.
ETH Futures. Futures contracts are financial contracts the value of which depends on, or is derived from, the underlying reference asset. In the case of ETH Futures, the underlying reference asset is ETH. Futures contracts may be physically-settled or cash-settled. The only futures contracts in which the Fund invests are cash-settled ETH Futures. “Cash-settled” means that when the relevant futures contract expires, if the value of the underlying asset exceeds the futures contract price, the seller pays to the purchaser cash in the amount of that excess, and if the futures contract price exceeds the value of the underlying asset, the purchaser pays to the seller cash in the amount of that excess. In a cash-settled futures contract on ETH, the amount of cash to be paid is equal to the difference between the value of the ETH underlying the futures contract at the close of the last trading day of the contract and the futures contract price specified in the agreement. The CME has specified that the value of ETH underlying ETH Futures traded on the CME will be determined by reference to a volume-weighted average of ETH trading prices on multiple trading platforms. Margin requirements for ETH Futures traded on the CME or other futures exchanges may be substantially higher than margin requirements for many other types of futures contracts. If the Fund is unable to meet its investment objective, the Fund’s returns may be lower than expected. Additionally, these collateral requirements may require the Fund to liquidate its position when it otherwise would not do so.
Futures contracts exhibit “futures basis,” which refers to the difference between the current market value of the underlying ETH (the “spot” price) and the price of the cash-settled futures contracts. A negative futures basis exists when cash-settled ETH futures contracts generally trade at a premium to the current market value of ETH. If a negative futures basis exists, the Fund’s investments in ETH futures contracts will generally underperform a direct investment in ETH, and, therefore, it may be more difficult for the Fund to maintain the Target Exposure.
ETH Reference Rate. ETH Futures commenced trading on the CME Globex electronic trading platform on February 8, 2021under the ticker symbol "ETH". CME-traded Ether Futures are cash-settled in U.S. dollars, based on the CME CF Ether Reference Rate. The CME CF Ether Reference Rate is a volume-weighted composite of U.S. dollar-ether trading activity on the constituent trading platforms. The constituent trading platforms are selected by CF Benchmarks based on the constituent trading platform criteria.
Each constituent trading platform is reviewed annually by an oversight committee established by CF Benchmarks to confirm that the constituent trading platform continues to meet all criteria. CF Benchmarks and the CME CF Ether Reference Rate are subject to United Kingdom Financial Conduct Authority Regulation.
Regulatory Aspects of Investments in Futures. VEARA has registered as a CPO with the CFTC. VEARA’s investment decisions may need to be modified, and commodity contract positions held by the Fund may have to be liquidated at disadvantageous times or prices, to avoid exceeding position limits established by the CFTC, potentially subjecting the Fund to substantial losses. The regulation of commodity transactions in the United States is subject to ongoing modification by government, self-regulatory and judicial action. The effect of any future regulatory change on the Fund is impossible to predict, but could be substantial and adverse to the Fund.
Derivatives Rule. The Fund is required to comply with the derivatives rule when it engages in transactions involving futures and other derivatives involving future Fund payment or delivery obligations. See “SEC Regulatory Matters” above.

Specific Risks Applicable to VanEck CMCI Commodity Strategy ETF, VanEck Commodity Strategy ETF and VanEck Inflation Allocation ETF
Under normal circumstances, VanEck Inflation Allocation ETF, through a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Fund, invests in Exchange Traded Products that invest in commodities and Commodities Instruments. Under normal circumstances, each of VanEck CMCI Commodity Strategy ETF and VanEck Commodity Strategy ETF invests in certain Commodities Instruments through a wholly-owned subsidiary. The Funds’ wholly-owned subsidiaries are collectively referred to as the “Cayman Subsidiaries.”
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Cayman Subsidiaries. Each Fund’s investment in its Cayman Subsidiary will generally not exceed 25% of the value of the Fund’s total assets at each quarter-end of the Fund's fiscal year. Each Cayman Subsidiary may invest in Commodities Instruments, as described under “Commodities Instruments” below. Because each Fund may invest a substantial portion of its assets in its Cayman Subsidiary, which may hold certain of the investments described in the Fund’s Prospectus and this SAI, each Fund may be considered to be investing indirectly in those investments through its Cayman Subsidiary. Therefore, except as otherwise noted, for purposes of this disclosure, references to a Fund’s investments strategies and risks include those of its Cayman Subsidiary.
The Cayman Subsidiaries are not registered under the 1940 Act and are not directly subject to its investor protections, except as noted in each Fund’s Prospectus or this SAI. However, each Cayman Subsidiary is wholly-owned and controlled by its Fund and is advised by VEARA. The Trust’s Board of Trustees has oversight responsibility for the investment activities of the Funds, including its investment in the Cayman Subsidiaries, and each Fund’s role as the sole shareholder of its Cayman Subsidiary. The Cayman Subsidiaries will also enter into separate contracts for the provision of custody, transfer agency, and accounting agent services with the same service providers or with affiliates of the same service providers that provide those services to its Fund.
Changes in the laws of the United States (where the Funds are organized) and/or the Cayman Islands (where the Cayman Subsidiaries are incorporated) could prevent a Fund and/or its Cayman Subsidiary from operating as described in its Prospectus and this SAI and could negatively affect the Fund and its shareholders. For example, the Cayman Islands currently does not impose certain taxes on the Cayman Subsidiaries, including income and capital gains tax, among others. If Cayman Islands laws were changed to require the Cayman Subsidiaries to pay Cayman Islands taxes, the investment returns of the Funds would likely decrease.
The financial statements of each Cayman Subsidiary will be consolidated with its Fund’s financial statements in the Fund’s annual and semi-annual reports.
Commodities Instruments. Each Fund gains exposure to Commodities Instruments primarily through its Cayman Subsidiary. Additional information on the Cayman Subsidiaries is set forth under “Cayman Subsidiaries” above. Additional information regarding specific Commodities Instruments is set forth below. The Funds, either directly or through the Cayman Subsidiaries, may also gain exposure to Commodities Instruments through investment in certain investment companies, including ETFs, and in ETNs.
Each Fund may invest up to 25% of its total assets in its Cayman Subsidiary, portions of which will be committed as “initial” and “variation” margin to secure the Cayman Subsidiary’s positions in Commodities Instruments. These assets are placed in accounts maintained by the Fund’s Cayman Subsidiary at the Cayman Subsidiary’s clearing broker or FCM, and are held in cash or invested in U.S. Treasury bills and other direct or guaranteed debt obligations of the U.S. government maturing within less than one year at the time of investment.
In the event that the securities are not listed on a national securities exchange, the principal trading market for some may be in the OTC market. The existence of a liquid trading market for certain securities may depend on whether dealers will make a market in such securities. There can be no assurance that a market will be made or maintained or that any such market will be or remain liquid. The price at which securities may be sold and the value of the Funds’ Shares will be adversely affected if trading markets for the Funds’ portfolio securities are limited or absent or if bid/ask spreads are wide.
Each Fund may also invest in securities issued by other investment companies, equity securities, fixed income securities and money market instruments, including repurchase agreements. For temporary defensive purposes, each Fund may invest without limit in money market instruments, including repurchase agreements or other funds which invest exclusively in money market instruments.
Each Fund except VanEck CMCI Commodity Strategy ETF is an actively managed ETF that does not seek to replicate the performance of a specified index.
Regulatory developments affecting the exchange-traded and OTC derivatives markets may impair a Fund’s ability to manage or hedge its investment portfolio through the use of derivatives. The Dodd-Frank Act and the rules promulgated thereunder may limit the ability of a Fund to enter into one or more exchange-traded or OTC derivatives transactions.
Changes in the laws or regulations of the United States or the Cayman Islands, including any changes to applicable tax laws and regulations, could impair the ability of a Fund to achieve its investment objective and could increase the operating expenses of the Fund or its Cayman Subsidiary. CFTC regulations require an investment adviser of a registered investment company to register with the CFTC as a CPO if the investment company either markets itself as a vehicle for trading commodity interests or conducts more than a de minimis amount of speculative trading in commodity interests. Based on each Fund’s and its Cayman Subsidiary’s current investment strategies, each Fund and its Cayman Subsidiary are each a “commodity pool” and VEARA, which is currently registered with the CFTC as a CPO and commodity trading adviser under
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the CEA, is considered a CPO with respect to each Fund and its Cayman Subsidiary. Accordingly, each Fund and VEARA are subject to dual regulation by the CFTC and the SEC. Pursuant to certain CFTC regulations, each Fund and VEARA have elected to meet the requirements of certain CFTC regulations by complying with specific SEC rules and regulations relating to disclosure and reporting requirements. The CFTC could deem a Fund or VEARA in violation of an applicable CFTC regulation if the Fund or VEARA failed to comply with a related SEC regulatory requirement. In addition, the Funds and VEARA will remain subject to certain CFTC-mandated disclosure, reporting and recordkeeping regulations with respect to the Funds and the Cayman Subsidiaries. Compliance with the CFTC regulations could increase a Fund’s expenses, adversely affecting the Fund’s total return.
In addition, the CFTC or the SEC could at any time alter the regulatory requirements governing the use of commodity index-linked notes, commodity futures, options on commodity futures or swap transactions by investment companies, which could result in the inability of a Fund to achieve its investment objective through its current strategies. Amendments to position limits rules the CFTC has adopted that establish certain new and amended position limits for 25 specified physical commodity futures and related options contracts traded on exchanges, other futures contracts and related options directly or indirectly linked to such 25 specified contracts, and any OTC transactions that are economically equivalent to the 25 specified contracts have become effective. VEARA will need to consider whether the exposure created under these contracts (if applicable) might exceed the new and amended limits, and the limits may constrain the ability of the Fund to use such contracts. The amendments also modify the bona fide hedging exemption for which certain swap dealers were previously eligible, which could limit the amount of speculative OTC transaction capacity each such swap dealer would have available for a Fund.
Each Fund and its Cayman Subsidiary may utilize futures contracts. The use of futures is subject to applicable regulations of the SEC, the several exchanges upon which they are traded, the CFTC and various state regulatory authorities.
Futures Contracts. Each Fund may purchase and sell futures contracts. Each Fund (directly or through its Cayman Subsidiary) may invest in commodity futures contracts. Commodity futures contracts are generally based upon commodities within the six principal commodity groups: energy, industrial metals, agriculture, precious metals, foods and fibers, and livestock. The price of a commodity futures contract will reflect the storage costs of purchasing the commodity. These storage costs include the time value of money invested in the commodity plus the actual costs of storing the commodity less any benefits from ownership of the commodity that are not obtained by the holder of a futures contract (this is sometimes referred to as the “convenience yield”). To the extent that these storage costs change for an underlying commodity while the Fund is in a long position on that commodity, the value of the futures contract may change proportionately.
Commodity futures contracts are traded on futures exchanges. These futures exchanges offer a central marketplace in which to transact futures contracts, a clearing corporation to process trades, a standardization of expiration dates and contract sizes, and the availability of a secondary market. Futures markets also specify the terms and conditions of delivery as well as the maximum permissible price movement during a trading session. Additionally, the commodity futures exchanges may have position limit rules that limit the amount of futures contracts that any one party may hold in a particular commodity at any point in time. These position limit rules are designed to prevent any one participant from controlling a significant portion of the market. In the commodity futures markets, the exchange clearing corporation takes the other side in all transactions, either buying or selling directly to the market participants. The clearinghouse acts as the counterparty to all exchange-traded futures contracts, that is, a Fund’s or its Cayman Subsidiary’s obligation is to the clearinghouse, and the Fund or its Cayman Subsidiary will look to the clearinghouse to satisfy the Fund’s or its Cayman Subsidiary’s rights under a commodity futures contract.
Transaction costs are incurred when a futures contract is bought or sold and margin deposits must be maintained. A futures contract may be satisfied by delivery or purchase, as the case may be, of the instrument or by payment of the change in the cash value of the index. More commonly, futures contracts are closed out prior to delivery by entering into an offsetting transaction in a matching futures contract. Although the value of an index might be a function of the value of certain specified securities, no physical delivery of those securities is made. If the offsetting purchase price is less than the original sale price, a gain will be realized; if it is more, a loss will be realized. Conversely, if the offsetting sale price is more than the original purchase price, a gain will be realized; if it is less, a loss will be realized. The transaction costs must also be included in these calculations. There can be no assurance, however, that a Fund or its Cayman Subsidiary will be able to enter into an offsetting transaction with respect to a particular futures contract at a particular time. If a Fund or its Cayman Subsidiary is not able to enter into an offsetting transaction, the Fund or its Cayman Subsidiary will continue to be required to maintain the margin deposits on the futures contract.
Margin is the amount of funds that must be deposited by a Fund or its Cayman Subsidiary with its custodian or FCM in a segregated account in the name of the FCM in order to initiate futures trading and to maintain the Fund’s or its Cayman Subsidiary’s open positions in futures contracts. A margin deposit is intended to ensure a Fund’s or its Cayman Subsidiary’s performance of the futures contract. The margin required for a particular futures contract is set by the exchange on which the futures contract is traded and may be significantly modified from time to time by the exchange during the term of the futures contract. Futures contracts are customarily purchased and sold on margins that may vary.
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If the price of an open futures contract changes (by increase in the case of a sale or by decrease in the case of a purchase) so that the loss on the futures contract reaches a point at which the margin on deposit does not satisfy margin requirements, the broker will require an increase in the margin. However, if the value of a position increases because of favorable price changes in the futures contract so that the margin deposit exceeds the required margin, the broker will pay the excess to a Fund or its Cayman Subsidiary. In computing daily net asset value, a Fund or its Cayman Subsidiary will mark to market the current value of its open futures contracts. A Fund and its Cayman Subsidiary expect to earn interest income on their margin deposits.
Because of the low margin deposits required, futures trading involves an extremely high degree of leverage. As a result, a relatively small price movement in a futures contract may result in immediate and substantial loss, as well as gain, to the investor. For example, if at the time of purchase, 10% of the value of the futures contract is deposited as margin, a subsequent 10% decrease in the value of the futures contract would result in a total loss of the margin deposit, before any deduction for the transaction costs, if the account were then closed out. A 15% decrease would result in a loss equal to 150% of the original margin deposit, if the futures contract were closed out. Thus, a purchase or sale of a futures contract may result in losses in excess of the amount initially invested in the futures contract. However, a Fund or its Cayman Subsidiary would presumably have sustained comparable losses if, instead of investing in the futures contract, it had invested in the underlying financial instrument and sold it after the decline.
Most U.S. futures exchanges limit the amount of fluctuation permitted in futures contract prices during a single trading day. The daily limit establishes the maximum amount that the price of a futures contract may vary either up or down from the previous day’s settlement price at the end of a trading session. Once the daily limit has been reached in a particular type of futures contract, no trades may be made on that day at a price beyond that limit. The daily limit governs only price movement during a particular trading day and therefore does not limit potential losses, because the limit may prevent the liquidation of unfavorable positions. Futures contract prices have occasionally moved to the daily limit for several consecutive trading days with little or no trading, thereby preventing prompt liquidation of futures positions and subjecting some futures traders to substantial losses. Despite the daily price limits on various futures exchanges, the price volatility of commodity futures contracts has been historically greater than that for traditional securities such as stocks and bonds. To the extent that a Fund or its Cayman Subsidiary invests in commodity futures contracts, the assets of the Fund and the Cayman Subsidiary, and therefore the prices of Fund shares, may be subject to greater volatility.
There can be no assurance that a liquid market will exist at a time when a Fund or its Cayman Subsidiary seeks to close out a futures contract. A Fund or its Cayman Subsidiary would continue to be required to meet margin requirements until the position is closed, possibly resulting in a decline in the Fund’s net asset value. There can be no assurance that an active secondary market will develop or continue to exist.
Regulatory Aspects of Investments in Futures. VEARA has registered as a CPO with the CFTC. VEARA’s investment decisions may need to be modified, and commodity contract positions held by a Fund and/or its Cayman Subsidiary may have to be liquidated at disadvantageous times or prices, to avoid exceeding position limits established by the CFTC, potentially subjecting the Fund to substantial losses. The regulation of commodity transactions in the United States is subject to ongoing modification by government, self-regulatory and judicial action. The effect of any future regulatory change on a Fund is impossible to predict, but could be substantial and adverse to the Fund.
Derivatives Rule. The Fund is required to comply with the derivatives rule when it engages in transactions involving futures and oher derivatives involving future Fund payment or delivery obligations. VEARA cannot predict the effects of these requirements on the Fund. VEARA intends to monitor developments and seek to manage the Fund in a manner consistent with achieving the Fund’s investment objective. See “SEC Regulatory Matters” above.
Federal Income Tax Treatment of Investments in the Cayman Subsidiaries. Each Fund must derive at least 90% of its gross income from certain qualifying sources of income in order to qualify as a RIC under the Internal Revenue Code. The IRS issued a revenue ruling in December 2005 which concluded that income and gains from certain commodity-linked derivatives are not qualifying income under subchapter M of the Internal Revenue Code. As a result, a Fund’s ability to invest directly in commodity-linked futures contracts or swaps or in certain exchange-traded trusts that hold commodities as part of its investment strategy is limited by the requirement that it receive no more than ten percent (10%) of its gross income from such investments. The IRS has issued private letter rulings to other taxpayers in which the IRS specifically concluded that income derived from a fund’s investment in a controlled foreign corporation (“CFC”) also will constitute qualifying income to the fund, even if the CFC itself owns commodity-linked futures contracts or swaps. A private letter ruling cannot be used or cited as precedent and is binding on the IRS only for the taxpayer that receives it. The Funds have not obtained a ruling from the IRS with respect to their investments or their structure. The IRS has currently suspended the issuance of private letter rulings relating to the tax treatment of income generated by investments in a subsidiary. The IRS has issued regulations that generally treat a fund’s income inclusion with respect to an investment in a non-U.S. company generating investment income as qualifying income if there is a current-year distribution out of the earnings and profits of the non-U.S. company that are
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attributable to such income inclusion, or if the income inclusion is derived with respect to the fund’s business of investing in stocks and securities. Each Fund intends to treat its income from its Cayman Subsidiary as qualifying income without any such ruling from the IRS. There can be no assurance that the IRS will not change its position with respect to some or all of these issues or if the IRS did so, that a court would not sustain the IRS’s position. Furthermore, the tax treatment of each Fund’s investments in its Cayman Subsidiary may be adversely affected by future legislation, court decisions, future IRS guidance or Treasury regulations. If the IRS were to change its position or otherwise determine that income derived from a Fund’s investment in its Cayman Subsidiary does not constitute qualifying income and if such positions were upheld, or if future legislation, court decisions, future IRS guidance or Treasury regulations were to adversely affect the tax treatment of such investments, the Fund might cease to qualify as a RIC and would be required to reduce its exposure to such investments which could result in difficulty in implementing its investment strategy. If a Fund did not qualify as a RIC for any taxable year, the Fund’s taxable income would be subject to tax at the Fund level at regular corporate tax rates (without reduction for distributions to shareholders) and to a further tax at the shareholder level when such income is distributed. In such event, in order to re-qualify for taxation as a RIC, the Fund may be required to recognize unrealized gains, pay substantial taxes and interest and make certain distributions.
Cayman Subsidiaries. Investments in the Cayman Subsidiaries are expected to provide the Funds with exposure to the commodity markets within the limitations of subchapter M of the Internal Revenue Code and recent IRS revenue rulings and regulations, as discussed above under “Federal Income Tax Treatment of Investments in the Cayman Subsidiaries” and below under “Taxes.” Each Cayman Subsidiary is a company organized under the laws of the Cayman Islands and is overseen by its own board of directors. Each Fund is the sole shareholder of its Cayman Subsidiary, and it is not currently expected that shares of the Cayman Subsidiaries will be sold or offered to other investors. It is expected that the Cayman Subsidiaries will primarily invest in Commodities Instruments. To the extent that a Fund invests in its Cayman Subsidiary, the Fund may be subject to the risks associated with such Commodities Instruments.
While the Cayman Subsidiaries may be considered similar to investment companies, they are not registered under the 1940 Act and, unless otherwise noted in each Fund’s Prospectus and this SAI, are not subject to all of the investor protections of the 1940 Act and other U.S. regulations. Changes in the laws of the United States and/or the Cayman Islands could result in the inability of a Fund and/or its Cayman Subsidiary to operate as described in the Fund’s Prospectus and this SAI and could eliminate or severely limit the Fund’s ability to invest in its Cayman Subsidiary which may adversely affect the Fund and its shareholders.

EXCHANGE LISTING AND TRADING
A discussion of exchange listing and trading matters associated with an investment in each Fund is contained in each Fund’s Prospectus under the headings “Summary Information—Principal Risks of Investing in the Fund” with respect to the applicable Fund, “Additional Information About the Funds’ Investment Strategies and Risks—Risks of Investing in the Funds,” “Shareholder Information—Determination of NAV” and “Shareholder Information—Buying and Selling Exchange-Traded Shares.” The discussion below supplements, and should be read in conjunction with, such sections of each Fund’s Prospectus.
The Shares of each Fund are listed on NYSE Arca, NASDAQ or Cboe and trade in the secondary market at prices that may differ to some degree from their NAV. An Exchange may but is not required to remove the Shares of the Funds from listing if: (1) following the initial twelve-month period beginning upon the commencement of trading of the Funds, there are fewer than 50 beneficial holders of the Shares, (2) the Exchange becomes aware that the Funds are no longer eligible to operate in reliance on Rule 6c-11 under the 1940 Act, (3) the Funds no longer comply with certain listing exchange rules, or (4) such other event shall occur or condition exists that, in the opinion of the Exchange, makes further dealings on the Exchange inadvisable. In addition, the Exchange will remove the Shares from listing and trading upon termination of the Trust. There can be no assurance that the requirements of the Exchange necessary to maintain the listing of Shares of the Funds will continue to be met.
As in the case of other securities traded on an Exchange, brokers’ commissions on secondary market transactions in Shares of each of the Funds will be based on negotiated commission rates at customary levels.
In order to provide investors with a basis to gauge whether the market price of the Shares on the Exchange is approximately consistent with the current value of the assets of a Fund on a per Share basis, an “intra-day indicative value” (“IIV” and also known as the Indicative Optimized Portfolio Value) for a Fund may be disseminated through the facilities of the Consolidated Tape Association’s Network B. IIVs are disseminated during regular Exchange trading hours. The Funds are not involved in or responsible for the calculation or dissemination of the IIVs and make no warranty as to the accuracy of the IIVs.
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The IIV has a securities component and a cash component reflecting cash and other assets that may be held by the Funds. The securities values included in the IIV are the values of the Deposit Securities (as defined below under the heading “Creation and Redemption of Creation Units—Fund Deposit”) for the Funds. While the IIV reflects the approximate current value of the Deposit Securities required to be deposited in connection with the purchase of a Creation Unit, it does not necessarily reflect the precise composition of the current portfolio of securities held by the Funds at a particular point in time because the current portfolio of each Fund may include securities that are not a part of the current Deposit Securities. Therefore, while each Fund’s IIV may be disseminated during the Exchange trading hours, it should not be viewed as a real-time update of the Fund’s NAV, which is calculated only once a day.
The cash component included in the IIV could consist of estimated accrued interest, dividends and other income, less expenses. If applicable, the IIV also reflects changes in currency exchange rates between the U.S. dollar and the applicable currency.

BOARD OF TRUSTEES OF THE TRUST
Trustees and Officers of the Trust
The Board of the Trust consists of six Trustees, five of whom are not “interested persons” (as defined in the 1940 Act) of the Trust (the “Independent Trustees”). Mr. Peter J. Sidebottom, an Independent Trustee, serves as Chairperson of the Board. The Board is responsible for overseeing the management and operations of the Trust, including general supervision of the duties performed by the Advisers and other service providers to the Trust. The Advisers are responsible for the day-to-day administration and business affairs of the Trust.
The Board believes that each Trustee’s experience, qualifications, attributes or skills on an individual basis and in combination with those of the other Trustees lead to the conclusion that the Board possesses the requisite skills and attributes to carry out its oversight responsibilities with respect to the Trust. The Board believes that the Trustees’ ability to review, critically evaluate, question and discuss information provided to them, to interact effectively with the Advisers, other service providers, counsel and independent auditors, and to exercise effective business judgment in the performance of their duties, support this conclusion. The Board also has considered the following experience, qualifications, attributes and/or skills, among others, of its members in reaching its conclusion: such person’s character and integrity; length of service as a board member of the Trust; such person’s willingness to serve and willingness and ability to commit the time necessary to perform the duties of a Trustee; and, as to each Trustee other than Mr. van Eck, his status as not being an “interested person” (as defined in the 1940 Act) of the Trust. In addition, the following specific experience, qualifications, attributes and/or skills apply as to each Trustee: Mr. Chow, significant business and financial experience, particularly in the investment management industry, experience with trading and markets through his involvement with the Pacific Stock Exchange, and service as a chief executive officer, board member, partner or executive officer of various businesses and non-profit organizations; Ms. Hesslein, business and financial experience, particularly in the investment management industry, and service as a president, board member and/or executive officer of various businesses; Mr. Short, business and financial experience, particularly in the investment management industry, and service as a president, board member or executive officer of various businesses; Mr. Sidebottom, business and financial experience, particularly in the investment management industry, and service as partner and/or executive officer of various businesses; Mr. Stamberger, extensive business and financial experience as founder, president and CEO of SmartBrief, Inc., and previous service as the Senior Vice President of B2B, Future Plc, a global media company; and Mr. van Eck, business and financial experience, particularly in the investment management industry, and service as a president, executive officer and/or board member of various businesses, including VEAC, Van Eck Securities Corporation (“VESC”), and VEARA. References to the experience, qualifications, attributes and skills of Trustees are pursuant to requirements of the SEC, do not constitute holding out of the Board or any Trustee as having any special expertise or experience, and shall not impose any greater responsibility or liability on any such person or on the Board by reason thereof.
The Trustees of the Trust, their addresses, positions with the Trust, year of birth, term of office and length of time served, principal occupations during the past five years, the number of portfolios in the Fund Complex overseen by each Trustee and other directorships, if any, held by the Trustees, are set forth below.

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Independent Trustees
Name, Address1
and Year of Birth
Position(s)
Held with
the Trust
Term of Office2
and Length of
Time Served
Principal Occupation(s)
During Past Five Years
Number of
Portfolios in
Fund Complex3
Overseen
Other Directorships
Held Outside the Fund Complex3 During Past Five Years
David H. Chow, 1957*† Trustee
Since 2006
Founder and CEO, DanCourt Management LLC (financial/strategy consulting firm and Registered Investment Adviser),
March 1999 to present.
72
Trustee, Berea College of Kentucky, May 2009 to present and currently Chairman of the Investment Committee; Trustee, MainStay Fund
Complex4, January 2016 to present and currently Chairman of the Investment Committee. Formerly, Member of the Governing Council of the Independent Directors Council, October 2012 to September 2020.
Laurie A. Hesslein, 1959*†
Trustee

Since 2019 Citigroup, Managing Director and Business Head, Local Consumer Lending North America, and CEO and President, CitiFinancial Servicing LLC (2013 - 2017). 72 Formerly, Trustee, First Eagle Senior Loan Fund, March 2017 to December 2021; and Trustee, Eagle Growth and Income Opportunities Fund, March 2017 to December 2020.
R. Alastair Short, 1953*† Trustee Since 2006 President, Apex Capital Corporation (personal investment vehicle). 83 Chairman and Independent Director, EULAV Asset Management; Lead Independent Director, Total Fund Solution; Independent Director, Contingency Capital, LLC; Trustee, Kenyon Review; Trustee, Children's Village. Formerly, Independent Director, Tremont offshore funds.
Peter J. Sidebottom, 1962*† Chairperson
Trustee
Since 2022
Since 2012
Global Lead Partner, Financial Services Strategy, Accenture, January 2021 to present; Lead Partner, North America Banking and Capital Markets Strategy, Accenture, May 2017 to December 2021. 72 Formerly, Board Member, Special Olympics, New Jersey, November 2011 to September 2013; Director, The Charlotte Research Institute, December 2000 to 2009; Board Member, Social Capital Institute, University of North Carolina Charlotte, November 2004 to January 2012; Board Member, NJ- CAN, July 2014 to 2016.
Richard D. Stamberger, 1959*† Trustee Since 2006 Senior Vice President, B2B, Future Plc (a global media company), July 2020 to August 2022; President, CEO and co-founder, SmartBrief, Inc., 1999 to 2020. 83 Director, Food and Friends, Inc., 2013 to present.
________________________
1The address for each Trustee and officer is 666 Third Avenue, 9th Floor, New York, New York 10017.
2Each Trustee serves until resignation, death, retirement or removal. Officers are elected yearly by the Trustees.
3The Fund Complex consists of the VanEck Funds, VanEck VIP Trust and the Trust.
4The MainStay Fund Complex consists of MainStay Funds, MainStay Funds Trust, MainStay VP Funds Trust and MainStay MacKay Defined Term Municipal Opportunities Fund.
*    Member of the Audit Committee.
†    Member of the Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee.

Interested Trustee
Name, Address1
and Year of Birth
Position(s)
Held with
the Trust
Term of Office2
and Length of
Time Served
Principal Occupation(s)
During Past Five Years
Number of
Portfolios in
Fund Complex3
Overseen
Other Directorships
Held Outside the Fund Complex3 During Past Five Years
Jan F. van Eck, 19634
Trustee, Chief Executive Officer and President Trustee (Since 2006); Chief Executive Officer and President (Since 2009) Director, President
and Chief Executive
Officer of VEAC,
VEARA and VESC;
Officer and/or
Director of other
companies affiliated
with VEAC and/or
the Trust.
83 Director, National Committee on US-China Relations.
____________________

1The address for each Trustee and officer is 666 Third Avenue, 9th Floor, New York, New York 10017.
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2Each Trustee serves until resignation, death, retirement or removal. Officers are elected yearly by the Trustees.
3The Fund Complex consists of the VanEck Funds, VanEck VIP Trust and the Trust.
4“Interested person” of the Trust within the meaning of the 1940 Act. Mr. van Eck is an officer of VEAC, VEARA and VESC.

Officer Information
The Officers of the Trust, their addresses, positions with the Trust, year of birth and principal occupations during the past five years are set forth below.
Officer’s Name, Address1
and Year of Birth
Position(s) Held
with the Trust
Term of
Office2 and
Length of
Time Served
Principal Occupation(s) During Past Five
Years
Matthew A. Babinsky, 1983 Vice President and Assistant Secretary Vice President (Since 2023); Assistant Secretary (Since 2016) Vice President, Associate General Counsel and Assistant Secretary of VEAC, VEARA and VESC; Officer of other investment companies advised by VEAC and VEARA. Formerly, Assistant Vice President of VEAC, VEARA and VESC.
Russell G. Brennan, 1964 Assistant Vice President and Assistant Treasurer Since 2008 Assistant Vice President of VEAC; Officer of other investment companies advised by VEAC and VEARA.
Charles T. Cameron, 1960 Vice President Since 2006 Portfolio Manager of VEAC; Officer and/or Portfolio Manager of other investment companies advised by VEAC and VEARA. Formerly, Director of Trading of VEAC.
John J. Crimmins, 1957 Vice President, Treasurer, Chief Financial Officer and Principal Accounting Officer Vice President, Chief Financial Officer and Principal Accounting Officer (Since 2012); Treasurer (Since 2009) Vice President of VEAC and VEARA; Officer of other investment companies advised by VEAC and VEARA. Formerly, Vice President of VESC.
Susan Curry, 1966 Assistant Vice President Since 2022 Assistant Vice President of VEAC, VEARA and VESC; Formerly, Managing Director, Legg Mason, Inc.
Eduardo Escario, 1975 Vice President Since 2012 Regional Director, Business Development/Sales for Southern Europe and South America of VEAC.
F. Michael Gozzillo, 1965 Chief Compliance Officer Since 2018 Vice President and Chief Compliance Officer of VEAC and VEARA; Chief Compliance Officer of VESC; Officer of other investment companies advised by VEAC and VEARA. Formerly, Chief Compliance Officer of City National Rochdale, LLC and City National Rochdale Funds.
Laura Hamilton, 1977 Vice President Since 2019 Assistant Vice President of VEAC and VESC; Officer of other investment companies advised by VEAC and VEARA. Formerly, Operations Manager of Royce & Associates.
Nicholas Jackson, 1974 Assistant Vice President Since 2018 Director, Business Development of VanEck Australia Pty Ltd. Formerly, Vice President, Business Development of VanEck Australia Pty Ltd.
Laura I. Martínez, 1980