ck0000100334-20221031



March 1, 2023
American Century Investments
Statement of Additional Information
American Century Mutual Funds, Inc.

Balanced Fund Select Fund Sustainable Equity Fund
Investor Class (TWBIX) Investor Class (TWCIX) Investor Class (AFDIX)
I Class (ABINX) I Class (TWSIX) I Class (AFEIX)
R5 Class (ABGNX) Y Class (ASLWX) Y Class (AFYDX)
A Class (TWCAX) A Class (AFDAX)
C Class (ACSLX) C Class (AFDCX)
Growth Fund R Class (ASERX) R Class (AFDRX)
Investor Class (TWCGX) R5 Class (ASLGX) R5 Class (AFDGX)
I Class (TWGIX) R6 Class (ASDEX) R6 Class (AFEDX)
Y Class (AGYWX) G Class (AFEGX)
A Class (TCRAX)
C Class (TWRCX)
R Class (AGWRX) Small Cap Growth Fund
Ultra® Fund
R5 Class (AGWUX) Investor Class (ANOIX) Investor Class (TWCUX)
R6 Class (AGRDX) I Class (ANONX) I Class (TWUIX)
G Class (ACIHX) Y Class (ANOYX) Y Class (AULYX)
A Class (ANOAX) A Class (TWUAX)
Heritage Fund C Class (ANOCX) C Class (TWCCX)
Investor Class (TWHIX) R Class (ANORX) R Class (AULRX)
I Class (ATHIX) R5 Class (ANOGX) R5 Class (AULGX)
Y Class (ATHYX) R6 Class (ANODX) R6 Class (AULDX)
A Class (ATHAX) G Class (ANOHX) G Class (AULNX)
C Class (AHGCX)
R Class (ATHWX)
R5 Class (ATHGX)
R6 Class (ATHDX)
G Class (ACILX)
This statement of additional information adds to the discussion in the funds’ prospectuses dated March 1, 2023, but is not a prospectus. The statement of additional information should be read in conjunction with the funds’ current prospectuses. If you would like a copy of a prospectus, please contact us at one of the addresses or telephone numbers listed on the back cover or visit American Century Investments’ website at americancentury.com.   
This statement of additional information incorporates by reference
certain information that appears in the funds’ annual and semiannual reports,
which are delivered to all investors. You may obtain a free copy
of the funds’ annual and semiannual reports by calling 1-800-345-2021.         
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 ©2023 American Century Proprietary Holdings, Inc. All rights reserved.





Table of Contents  
The Funds’ History 2 
Fund Investment Guidelines 4 
Growth, Heritage, Select, Small Cap Growth, Sustainable Equity and Ultra
Balanced
Fund Investments and Risks 5 
Investment Strategies and Risks
Investment Policies 24 
Temporary Defensive Measures 26 
Portfolio Turnover 26 
Disclosure of Portfolio Holdings 27 
Management 31 
The Board of Directors 31 
Officers 38 
Code of Ethics 38 
Proxy Voting Policies   38 
The Funds’ Principal Shareholders 39 
Service Providers 39 
Investment Advisor 39 
Portfolio Managers 43 
Transfer Agent and Administrator 46 
Sub-Administrator 47 
Distributor 47 
Custodian Bank 47 
Securities Lending Agent 47 
Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm 48 
Brokerage Allocation 48 
Regular Broker-Dealers 50 
Information About Fund Shares 50 
Multiple Class Structure 50 
Valuation of a Fund’s Securities 52 
Taxes 53 
Federal Income Tax 53 
State and Local Taxes 55 
Financial Statements 55 
   
Appendix A – Principal Shareholders A-1
Appendix B – Sales Charges and Payments to Dealers B-1
Appendix C – Buying and Selling Fund Shares C-1
Appendix D – Explanation of Fixed-Income Securities Ratings D-1
Appendix E – Proxy Voting Policies E-1






The Funds’ History
American Century Mutual Funds, Inc. is a registered open-end management investment company that was organized in 1957 as a Delaware corporation under the name Twentieth Century Investors, Inc. On July 2, 1990, the company reorganized as a Maryland corporation, and in January 1997 it changed its name to American Century Mutual Funds, Inc. Throughout this statement of additional information we refer to American Century Mutual Funds, Inc. as the corporation.
Each fund described in this statement of additional information is a separate series of the corporation and operates for many purposes as if it were an independent company. Each fund has its own investment objective, strategy, management team, assets, and tax identification and stock registration numbers.
Effective December 1, 2009, New Opportunities II Fund was renamed Small Cap Growth Fund. Effective August 10, 2016, Fundamental Equity was renamed Sustainable Equity.
Fund Ticker Symbol Inception Date
Balanced    
Investor Class TWBIX 10/20/1988
I Class ABINX 05/01/2000
R5 Class ABGNX 04/10/2017
Growth    
Investor Class TWCGX
10/31/19581
I Class TWGIX 06/16/1997
Y Class AGYWX 04/10/2017
A Class TCRAX 06/04/1997
C Class TWRCX 03/01/2010
R Class AGWRX 08/29/2003
R5 Class AGWUX 04/10/2017
R6 Class AGRDX 07/26/2013
G Class ACIHX 03/01/2022
Heritage    
Investor Class TWHIX 11/10/1987
I Class ATHIX 06/16/1997
Y Class ATHYX 04/10/2017
A Class ATHAX 07/11/1997
C Class AHGCX 06/26/2001
R Class ATHWX 09/28/2007
G Class ACILX 03/01/2022
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Fund Ticker Symbol Inception Date
R5 Class ATHGX 04/10/2017
R6 Class ATHDX 07/26/2013
Select    
Investor Class TWCIX
10/31/19581
I Class TWSIX 03/13/1997
Y Class ASLWX 04/10/2017
A Class TWCAX 08/08/1997
C Class ACSLX 01/31/2003
R Class ASERX 07/29/2005
R5 Class ASLGX 04/10/2017
R6 Class ASDEX 07/26/2013
Small Cap Growth    
Investor Class ANOIX 06/01/2001
I Class ANONX 05/18/2007
Y Class ANOYX 04/10/2017
A Class ANOAX 01/31/2003
C Class ANOCX 01/31/2003
R Class ANORX 09/28/2007
R5 Class ANOGX 04/10/2017
R6 Class ANODX 07/26/2013
G Class ANOHX 04/01/2019
Sustainable Equity    
Investor Class AFDIX 07/29/2005
I Class AFEIX 07/29/2005
Y Class AFYDX 04/10/2017
A Class AFDAX 11/30/2004
C Class AFDCX 11/30/2004
R Class AFDRX 07/29/2005
R5 Class AFDGX 04/10/2017
R6 Class AFEDX 04/01/2019
G Class AFEGX 04/01/2019
Ultra
Investor Class TWCUX 11/02/1981
I Class TWUIX 11/14/1996
Y Class AULYX 04/10/2017
A Class TWUAX 10/02/1996
C Class TWCCX 10/29/2001
R Class AULRX 08/29/2003
R5 Class AULGX 04/10/2017
R6 Class AULDX 07/26/2013
G Class
AULNX
08/01/2019
 
1 The fund’s actual inception date is October 31, 1958; however, the advisor implemented the fund’s current investment philosophy and practices June 30, 1971.
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Fund Investment Guidelines
This section explains the extent to which the funds’ advisor, American Century Investment Management, Inc. (ACIM), can use various investment vehicles and strategies in managing each fund’s assets. Descriptions of the investment techniques and risks associated with each appear in the section, Investment Strategies and Risks, which begins on page 5. In the case of the funds’ principal investment strategies, these descriptions elaborate upon discussions contained in the prospectuses.
Each fund is diversified as defined in the Investment Company Act of 1940 (the Investment Company Act). Diversified means that, with respect to 75% of its total assets, each fund will not invest more than 5% of its total assets in the securities of a single issuer or own more than 10% of the outstanding voting securities of a single issuer (other than U.S. government securities and securities of other investment companies).
To meet federal tax requirements for qualification as a regulated investment company, each fund must limit its investments so that at the close of each quarter of its taxable year
(1)no more than 25% of its total assets are invested in the securities of a single issuer (other than the U.S. government or a regulated investment company), and
(2)with respect to at least 50% of its total assets, no more than 5% of its total assets are invested in the securities of a single issuer (other than the U.S. government or a regulated investment company) and it does not own more than 10% of the outstanding voting securities of a single issuer.
Investments are varied according to what is judged advantageous under changing economic conditions. It is the advisor’s policy to retain maximum flexibility in management without restrictive provisions as to the proportion of one or another class of securities that may be held, subject to the investment restrictions described below. Subject to the specific limitations applicable to a fund, the fund management teams may invest the assets of each fund in varying amounts in other instruments when such a course is deemed appropriate in order to pursue a fund’s investment objective.  Unless otherwise noted, all investment restrictions described below and in each fund’s prospectus are measured at the time of the transaction in the security.  If market action affecting fund securities (including, but not limited to, appreciation, depreciation  or a credit rating event) causes a fund to exceed an investment restriction, the advisor is not required to take immediate action.  Under normal market conditions, however, the advisor’s policies and procedures indicate that the advisor will not make any purchases that will make the fund further outside the investment restriction.
Growth, Heritage, Select, Small Cap Growth, Sustainable Equity and Ultra  
In general, within the restrictions outlined here and in the funds’ prospectuses, the portfolio managers have broad powers to decide how to invest fund assets, including the power to hold them uninvested.
It is the advisor’s intention that each fund will generally consist of domestic and foreign common stocks, convertible securities and equity-equivalent securities. However, subject to the specific limitations applicable to a fund, the funds’ management teams may invest the assets of each fund in varying amounts in other instruments and may use other techniques, such as those reflected in the Fund Investments and Risks section, when such a course is deemed appropriate to pursue a fund’s investment objective. Senior securities that, in the opinion of the portfolio managers, are high-grade issues also may be purchased for defensive purposes.
So long as a sufficient number of acceptable securities are available, the portfolio managers intend to keep the funds fully invested, regardless of the movement of stock or bond prices generally. However, should a fund’s investment methodology fail to identify sufficient acceptable securities, or for any other reason including the desire to take a temporary defensive position, the funds may invest their assets in money market and other short-term securities. See Temporary Defensive Measures, page 26. In most circumstances, each fund’s actual level of cash and cash equivalents will be less than 10%. The managers may use futures contracts as a way to expose each fund’s cash assets to the market while maintaining liquidity. The managers may not leverage a fund’s portfolio without appropriately segregating assets to cover such positions. See Derivative Instruments, page 8, Futures and Options, page 11 and Short-Term Securities, page 22.   
Balanced
In general, within the restrictions outlined here and in the fund’s prospectus, the portfolio managers have broad powers to decide how to invest fund assets, including the power to hold them uninvested. As a matter of fundamental policy, the managers will invest approximately 60% of the fund’s portfolio in equity securities and the remainder in bonds and other fixed-income securities. The equity portion of the fund generally will be invested in equity securities of large capitalization companies. The fund’s investment approach may cause its equity portion to be more heavily invested in some industries than in others. However, it may not invest more than 25% of its net assets in companies whose principal business activities are in the same industry. In addition, as a diversified investment company, its investments in a single issue are limited, as described above in Fund Investment Guidelines. The portfolio managers also may purchase foreign securities, convertible securities, equity-equivalent securities, futures contracts and similar securities, and short-term securities.
The fixed-income portion of the fund generally will be invested in a diversified portfolio of high- and medium-grade government, corporate, mortgage-backed, asset-backed and similar securities. There are no maturity restrictions on the individual securities in
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which the fund invests. The fixed-income portion of the fund will have a weighted average maturity of three and a half years or longer. The managers will actively manage the portfolio, adjusting the portfolio’s weighted average maturity in response to expected changes in interest rates. During periods of rising interest rates, or when rates are expected to rise, a shorter-weighted average maturity may be adopted in order to reduce the effect of bond price declines on the fund’s net asset value. When interest rates are falling, or expected to fall, and bond prices rising, or expected to rise, a longer-weighted average portfolio maturity may be adopted.
To achieve its objective, the fixed-income portion of the fund may invest some or all of its assets in a diversified portfolio of high- and medium-grade debt securities payable in U.S. and up to 10% in foreign currencies. Non-investment-grade securities are subject to greater credit risk and consequently offer higher yields.
The fixed-income portion of the fund may invest no more than 5% of its assets in securities rated below investment grade. For a description of the fixed-income securities rating system, see Explanation of Fixed-Income Securities Ratings, in Appendix D. It also may invest in unrated securities if the portfolio managers determine that they are of equivalent credit quality. The fixed-income portion of Balanced also may invest in derivative instruments such as options, futures contracts, options on futures contracts, and swap agreements (including, but not limited to, credit default swap agreements), or in mortgage- or asset-backed securities, provided that such investments are in keeping with the fund’s investment objective. 
The fixed-income portion of Balanced may invest in U.S. dollar-denominated securities issued or guaranteed by the U.S. government and its agencies and instrumentalities. Specifically, it may invest in (1) direct obligations of the United States, such as Treasury bills, notes and bonds, which are supported by the full faith and credit of the United States; and (2) obligations (including mortgage-related securities) issued or guaranteed by agencies and instrumentalities of the U.S. government. These agencies and instrumentalities may include, but are not limited to the Government National Mortgage Association, Federal National Mortgage Association, Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation, Federal Farm Credit Banks, Federal Home Loan Banks and Resolution Funding Corporation. The securities of some of these agencies and instrumentalities, such as the Government National Mortgage Association, are guaranteed as to principal and interest by the U.S. Treasury, and other securities are supported by the right of the issuer, such as the Federal Home Loan Banks, to borrow from the Treasury. Other obligations, including those issued by the Federal National Mortgage Association and the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation, are supported only by the credit of the instrumentality.
Fund Investments and Risks
Investment Strategies and Risks
This section describes investment vehicles and techniques the portfolio managers can use in managing a fund’s assets. It also details the risks associated with each, because each investment vehicle and technique contributes to a fund’s overall risk profile.
Asset-Backed Securities (ABS)
ABS are structured like mortgage-backed securities, but instead of mortgage loans or interest in mortgage loans, the underlying assets may include, for example, such items as motor vehicle installment sales or installment loan contracts, leases of various types of real and personal property, home equity loans, student loans, small business loans, and receivables from credit card agreements. The ability of an issuer of ABS to enforce its security interest in the underlying assets may be limited. The value of an asset-backed security is affected by changes in the market’s perception of the assets backing the security, the creditworthiness of the servicing agent for the loan pool, the originator of the loans, or the financial institution providing any credit enhancement.
Payments of principal and interest passed through to holders of ABS are typically supported by some form of credit enhancement, such as a letter of credit, surety bond, limited guarantee by another entity or a priority to certain of the borrower’s other securities. The degree of credit enhancement varies, and generally applies to only a fraction of the asset-backed security’s par value until exhausted. If the credit enhancement of an asset-backed security held by the fund has been exhausted, and if any required payments of principal and interest are not made with respect to the underlying loans, the fund may experience losses or delays in receiving payment.
Some types of ABS may be less effective than other types of securities as a means of “locking in” attractive long-term interest rates. One reason is the need to reinvest prepayments of principal; another is the possibility of significant unscheduled prepayments resulting from declines in interest rates. These prepayments would have to be reinvested at lower rates. As a result, these securities may have less potential for capital appreciation during periods of declining interest rates than other securities of comparable maturities, although they may have a similar risk of decline in market value during periods of rising interest rates. Prepayments may also significantly shorten the effective maturities of these securities, especially during periods of declining interest rates. Conversely, during periods of rising interest rates, a reduction in prepayments may increase the effective maturities of these securities, subjecting them to a greater risk of decline in market value in response to rising interest rates than traditional debt securities, and, therefore, potentially increasing the volatility of the fund.
The risks of investing in ABS are ultimately dependent upon the repayment of loans by the individual or corporate borrowers. Although the fund would generally have no recourse against the entity that originated the loans in the event of default by a borrower, ABS typically are structured to mitigate this risk of default.
ABS are generally issued in more than one class, each with different payment terms. Multiple class ABS may be used as a method of providing credit support through creation of one or more classes whose right to payments is made subordinate to the right to such
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payments of the remaining class or classes. Multiple classes also may permit the issuance of securities with payment terms, interest rates or other characteristics differing both from those of each other and from those of the underlying assets. Examples include so-called strips (ABS entitling the holder to disproportionate interests with respect to the allocation of interest and principal of the assets backing the security), and securities with classes having characteristics such as floating interest rates or scheduled amortization of principal.
Bank Loans
Balanced may invest in bank loans, which include senior secured and unsecured floating rate loans of corporations, partnerships, or other entities. Typically, these loans hold a senior position in the borrower’s capital structure, may be secured by the borrower’s assets and have interest rates that reset frequently. These loans are usually rated non-investment grade by the rating agencies. An economic downturn generally leads to higher non-payment and default rates by borrowers, and a bank loan can lose a substantial part of its value due to these and other adverse conditions and events. However, as compared to junk bonds, senior floating rate loans are typically senior in the capital structure and are often secured by collateral of the borrower. A fund’s investments in bank loans are subject to credit risk, and there is no assurance that the liquidation of collateral would satisfy the claims of the borrower’s obligations in the event of non-payment of scheduled interest or principal, or that the collateral could be readily liquidated. The interest rates on many bank loans reset frequently, and therefore investors are subject to the risk that the return will be less than anticipated when the investment was first made. Most bank loans, like most investment grade bonds, are not traded on any national securities exchange. Bank loans generally have less liquidity than investment grade bonds and there may be less publicly available information about them.
A fund eligible to invest in bank loans may purchase bank loans from the primary market, from other lenders (sometimes referred to as loan assignments) or it may also acquire a participation interest in another lender’s portion of the bank loan. Large bank loans to corporations or governments may be shared or syndicated among several lenders, usually commercial or investment banks. A fund may participate in such syndicates, or can buy part of a loan, becoming a direct lender. Participation interests involve special types of risk, including liquidity risk and the risks of being a lender. Risks of being a lender include credit risk (the borrower’s ability to meet required principal and interest payments under the terms of the loan), industry risk (the borrower’s industry’s exposure to rapid change or regulation), financial risk (the effectiveness of the borrower’s financial policies and use of leverage), liquidity risk (the adequacy of the borrower’s back-up sources of cash), and collateral risk (the sufficiency of the collateral’s value to repay the loan in the event of non-payment or default by the borrower). If a fund purchases a participation interest, it may only be able to enforce its rights through the lender, and may assume the credit risk of the lender in addition to the credit risk of the borrower.
In addition, transactions in bank loans may take more than seven days to settle. As a result, the proceeds from the sale of bank loans may not be readily available to make additional investments or to meet the fund’s redemption obligations. To mitigate these risks, the fund monitors its short-term liquidity needs in light of the longer settlement period of bank loans. Some bank loan interests may not be registered under the Securities Act of 1933 and therefore not afforded the protections of the federal securities laws.
Collateralized Debt Obligations
The funds may also invest in collateralized debt obligations (CDOs), including collateralized loan obligations (CLOs), collateralized bond obligations (CBOs), and other similarly structured investments. CBOs and CLOs are types of asset backed securities. A CLO is a trust or other special purpose entity that is typically collateralized by a pool of loans, which may include, among others, U.S. and non-U.S. senior secured loans, senior unsecured loans, and subordinate corporate loans, including loans that may be rated below investment grade or equivalent unrated loans. A CBO is generally a trust which is backed by a diversified pool of high risk, below investment grade fixed income securities. The risks of an investment in a CDO depend largely on the type of the collateral backing the obligation and the class of the CDO in which a fund invests. CDOs are subject to credit, interest rate, valuation, prepayment and extension risks. These securities are also subject to risk of default on the underlying asset, particularly during periods of economic downturn. CDOs carry additional risks including, but not limited to, (i) the possibility that distributions from collateral securities will not be adequate to make interest or other payments, (ii) the collateral may decline in value or default, (iii) a fund may invest in CDOs that are subordinate to other classes, and (iv) the complex structure of the security may not be fully understood at the time of investment and may produce disputes with the issuer or unexpected investment results.
Convertible Securities
A convertible security is a bond, debenture, note, preferred stock or other security that may be converted into or exchanged for a prescribed amount of common stock of the same or a different issuer within a particular time period at a specified price or formula. A convertible security entitles the holder to receive the interest paid or accrued on debt or the dividend paid on preferred stock until the convertible security matures or is redeemed, converted or exchanged. Before conversion or exchange, such securities ordinarily provide a stream of income with generally higher yields than common stocks of the same or similar issuers, but lower than the yield on non-convertible debt. Of course, there can be no assurance of current income because issuers of convertible securities may default on their obligations. In addition, there can be no assurance of capital appreciation because the value of the underlying common stock will fluctuate. Because of the conversion feature, the managers consider some convertible securities to be equity equivalents.
The price of a convertible security will normally fluctuate in some proportion to changes in the price of the underlying asset. A convertible security is subject to risks relating to the activities of the issuer and/or general market and economic conditions. The
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stream of income typically paid on a convertible security may tend to cushion the security against declines in the price of the underlying asset. However, the stream of income causes fluctuations based upon changes in interest rates and the credit quality of the issuer. In general, the value of a convertible security is a function of (1) its yield in comparison with yields of other securities of comparable maturity and quality that do not have a conversion privilege and (2) its worth, at market value, if converted or exchanged into the underlying common stock. The price of a convertible security often reflects such variations in the price of the underlying common stock in a way that a non-convertible security does not. At any given time, investment value generally depends upon such factors as the general level of interest rates, the yield of similar nonconvertible securities, the financial strength of the issuer and the seniority of the security in the issuer’s capital structure.
A convertible security may be subject to redemption at the option of the issuer at a predetermined price. If a convertible security held by a fund is called for redemption, the fund would be required to permit the issuer to redeem the security and convert it to underlying common stock or to cash, or would sell the convertible security to a third party, which may have an adverse effect on the fund. A convertible security may feature a put option that permits the holder of the convertible security to sell that security back to the issuer at a predetermined price. A fund generally invests in convertible securities for their favorable price characteristics and total return potential and normally would not exercise an option to convert unless the security is called or conversion is forced.
Counterparty Risk
A fund will be exposed to the credit risk of the counterparties with which, or the brokers, dealers and exchanges through which, it deals, whether it engaged in exchange traded or off-exchange transactions.  If a fund’s futures commission merchant (FCM) becomes bankrupt or insolvent, or otherwise defaults on its obligations to the fund, the fund may not receive all amounts owed to it in respect of its trading, despite the clearinghouse fully discharging all of its obligations.  The Commodity Exchange Act requires an FCM to segregate all funds received from its customers with respect to regulated futures transactions from such FCM’s proprietary funds.  If an FCM were not to do so to the full extent required by law, the assets of an account might not be fully protected in the event of the bankruptcy of an FCM.  Furthermore, in the event of an FCM’s bankruptcy, a fund would be limited to recovering only a pro rata share of all available funds segregated on behalf of an FCM’s combined customer accounts, even though certain property specifically traceable to the fund (for example, U.S. Treasury bills deposited by the fund) was held by an FCM.  FCM bankruptcies have occurred in which customers were unable to recover from the FCM’s estate the full amount of their funds on deposit with such FCM and owing to them.  Such situations could arise due to various factors, or a combination of factors, including inadequate FCM capitalization, inadequate controls on customer trading and inadequate customer capital.  In addition, in the event of the bankruptcy or insolvency of a clearinghouse, the fund might experience a loss of funds deposited through its FCM as margin with the clearinghouse, a loss of unrealized profits on its open positions, and the loss of funds owed to it as realized profits on closed positions.  Such a bankruptcy or insolvency might also cause a substantial delay before the fund could obtain the return of funds owed to it by an FCM who was a member of such clearinghouse.
Because bi-lateral derivative transactions are traded between counterparties based on contractual relationships, a fund is subject to the risk that a counterparty will not perform its obligations under the related contracts.  Although each fund intends to enter into transactions only with counterparties which the advisor believes to be creditworthy, there can be no assurance that a counterparty will not default and that the funds will not sustain a loss on a transaction as a result. In situations where a fund is required to post margin or other collateral with a counterparty, the counterparty may fail to segregate the collateral or may commingle the collateral with the counterparty’s own assets.  As a result, in the event of the counterparty’s bankruptcy or insolvency, a fund’s collateral may be subject to the conflicting claims of the counterparty’s creditors, and a fund may be exposed to the risk of a court treating a fund as a general unsecured creditor of the counterparty, rather than as the owner of the collateral.
A fund is subject to the risk that issuers of the instruments in which it invests and trades may default on their obligations under those instruments, and that certain events may occur that have an immediate and significant adverse effect on the value of those instruments.  There can be no assurance that an issuer of an instrument in which a fund invests will not default, or that an event that has an immediate and significant adverse effect on the value of an instrument will not occur, and that a fund will not sustain a loss on a transaction as a result.
Transactions entered into by a fund may be executed on various U.S. and non-U.S. exchanges, and may be cleared and settled through various clearinghouses, custodians, depositories and prime brokers throughout the world.  Although a fund attempts to execute, clear and settle the transactions through entities the advisor believes to be sound, there can be no assurance that a failure by any such entity will not lead to a loss to a fund.
Cyber Security Risk
As the funds increasingly rely on technology and information systems to operate, they become susceptible to operational risks linked to security breaches in those information systems. Both calculated attacks and unintentional events can cause failures in the funds’ information systems. Cyber attacks can include acquiring unauthorized access to information systems, usually through hacking or the use of malicious software, for purposes of stealing assets or confidential information, corrupting data, or disrupting fund operations. Cyber attacks can also occur without direct access to information systems, for example by making network services unavailable to intended users. Cyber security failures by, or breaches of the information systems of, the advisor, distributors, broker-dealers, other service providers (including, but not limited to, index providers, fund accountants, custodians, transfer agents and administrators), or
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the issuers of securities the fund invests in may also cause disruptions and impact the funds’ business operations.  Breaches in information security may result in financial losses, interference with the funds’ ability to calculate NAV, impediments to trading, inability of fund shareholders to transact business, violations of applicable privacy and other laws, regulatory fines, penalties, reputational damage, reimbursement or other compensation costs, or additional compliance costs. Additionally, the funds may incur substantial costs to prevent future cyber incidents. The funds have business continuity plans in the event of, and risk management systems to help prevent, such cyber attacks, but these plans and systems have limitations including the possibility that certain risks have not been identified. Moreover, the funds do not control the cyber security plans and systems of our service providers and other third party business partners. The funds and their shareholders could be negatively impacted as a result.
Debt Securities
Each of the funds, other than Balanced, for which investing in debt securities is required, may invest in debt securities when the portfolio managers believe such securities represent an attractive investment for the fund. The funds may invest in debt securities for income, or as a defensive strategy when the managers believe adverse economic or market conditions exist.
The value of debt securities in which the funds may invest will fluctuate based upon changes in interest rates and the credit quality of the issuer. Except for Balanced, which may invest 5% of the fixed income portion of its assets in securities rated below investment-grade, debt securities generally will be limited to investment-grade obligations. Investment-grade means that at the time of purchase, such obligations are rated within the four highest categories by a nationally recognized statistical rating organization (for example, at least Baa by Moody’s Investors Service, Inc. or BBB by Standard & Poor’s Corporation), or, if not rated, are of equivalent investment quality as determined by the fund’s advisor. According to Moody’s, bonds rated Baa are medium-grade and possess some speculative characteristics. A BBB rating by S&P indicates S&P’s belief that a security exhibits a satisfactory degree of safety and capacity for repayment, but is more vulnerable to adverse economic conditions and changing circumstances.
A high-yield security is one that has been rated below the four highest categories used by a nationally recognized statistical rating organization, or determined by the investment advisor to be of similar quality. Issuers of these securities often have short financial histories or questionable credit. High-yield bonds, which are below investment grade and sometimes referred to as junk bonds, are regarded as predominantly speculative with respect to the issuer’s continuing ability to meet principal and interest payments.        
In addition, the value of a fund’s investments in fixed-income securities will change as prevailing interest rates change. In general, the prices of such securities vary inversely with interest rates. As prevailing interest rates fall, the prices of bonds and other securities that trade on a yield basis generally rise. When prevailing interest rates rise, bond prices generally fall. Depending upon the particular amount and type of fixed-income securities holdings of a fund, these changes may impact the net asset value of that fund’s shares.
Depositary Receipts 
American Depositary Receipts (ADRs) and Global Depositary Receipts (GDRs) are receipts representing ownership of shares of a foreign-based issuer held in trust by a bank or similar financial institution. These are designed for U.S. and global securities markets as alternatives to purchasing underlying securities in their corresponding national markets and currencies. ADRs and GDRs can be sponsored or unsponsored. 
Sponsored ADRs and GDRs are certificates in which a bank or financial institution participates with a custodian. Issuers of unsponsored ADRs and GDRs are not contractually obligated to disclose material information in the United States. Therefore, there may not be a correlation between such information and the market value of the unsponsored ADR or GDR. 
ADRs are dollar-denominated receipts representing interests in the securities of a foreign issuer. They are issued by U.S. banks and traded on exchanges or over the counter in the United States. Ordinary shares are shares of foreign issuers that are traded abroad and on a U.S. exchange. New York shares are shares that a foreign issuer has allocated for trading in the United States. ADRs, ordinary shares and New York shares all may be purchased with and sold for U.S. dollars, which protect the fund from the foreign settlement risks described under the section titled Foreign Securities, page 9. 
Derivative Instruments
To the extent permitted by its investment objectives and policies, each of the funds may invest in instruments that are commonly referred to as derivative instruments. Generally, a derivative instrument is a financial arrangement the value of which is based on, or derived from, a traditional security, asset, or market index. Examples of common derivative instruments include futures contracts, warrants, structured notes, credit default swaps, options contracts, swap transactions, forward currency contracts, and treasury futures, including foreign government bond futures. Certain derivative instruments are described more accurately as index/structured instruments. Index/structured instruments are derivative instruments whose value or performance is linked to other equity securities, currencies, interest rates, indices or other financial indicators (reference indices).
Some derivative instruments, such as mortgage-related and other asset-backed securities, are in many respects like any other investment, although they may be more volatile or less liquid than more traditional debt securities.
There are many different types of derivative instruments and many different ways to use them. Futures and options are commonly used for traditional hedging purposes to attempt to protect a fund from exposure to changing interest rates, securities prices, or
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currency exchange rates and for cash management purposes as a low-cost method of gaining exposure to a particular securities market without investing directly in those securities.
The return on a derivative instrument may increase or decrease, depending upon changes in the reference index or instrument to which it relates.
There are risks associated with investing in derivatives, including:
the risk that the underlying security, interest rate, market index or other financial asset will not move in the direction the portfolio managers anticipate or that the value of the structured or derivative instrument will not move or react to changes in the underlying security, interest rate, market index or other financial asset as anticipated;
the possibility that there may be no liquid secondary market, which may make it difficult or impossible to close out a position when desired;
the risk that daily limits on price fluctuations and speculative position limits on exchanges on which a fund may conduct its transactions in derivative instruments may prevent profitable liquidation of positions, subjecting a fund to the potential of greater losses;
the risk that adverse price movements in an instrument can result in a loss substantially greater than a fund’s initial investment;
the risk that a fund will have an obligation to deliver securities or currency pursuant to a derivatives transaction that such fund does not own at the inception of the derivatives trade;
the risk that the counterparty will fail to perform its obligations; and
the risk that a fund will be subject to higher volatility because some derivative instruments create leverage.
The funds’ Board of Directors has reviewed the advisor’s derivatives risk management program policy, which includes policies and procedures reasonably designed to manage a fund’s derivatives risk. Unless a fund qualifies as a limited derivatives user, the fund will be required to participate in the derivatives risk management program, which includes compliance with value-at-risk based leverage limits, oversight by a derivatives risk manager, and additional reporting and disclosure regarding its derivatives positions. A fund designated as a limited derivatives user has policies and procedures to manage its aggregate derivatives risk. The advisor will report on the derivatives risk management program to the Board of Directors on a quarterly basis. The derivatives risk management program complies with recently adopted Rule 18f-4. In connection with the adoption of Rule 18f-4, the SEC also eliminated the existing asset segregation framework for covering derivatives and certain financial instruments.
Equity Equivalents
In addition to investing in common stocks, the funds may invest in other equity securities and equity equivalents, including securities that permit a fund to receive an equity interest in an issuer, the opportunity to acquire an equity interest in an issuer, or the opportunity to receive a return on its investment that permits the fund to benefit from the growth over time in the equity of an issuer. Examples of equity securities and equity equivalents include common stock, preferred stock, securities convertible into common stock, stock futures contracts and stock index futures contracts.
Equity equivalents also may include securities whose value or return is derived from the value or return of a different security.
Foreign Securities
The funds may invest an unlimited portion of their assets in the securities of issuers located in foreign countries, including foreign governments, when these securities meet its standards of selection. In determining where a company is located, the portfolio managers will consider various factors, including where the company is headquartered, where the company’s principal operations are located, where a majority of the company’s revenues are derived, where the principal trading market is located and the country in which the company was legally organized. The weight given to each of these factors will vary depending on the circumstances in a given case.
The funds may make such investments either directly in foreign securities or indirectly by purchasing depositary receipts for foreign securities. Depositary receipts, depositary shares or similar instruments are securities that are listed on exchanges or quoted in the domestic over-the-counter markets in one country, but represent shares of issuers domiciled in another country. Direct investments in foreign securities may be made either on foreign securities exchanges or in the over-the-counter markets.
The funds consider a security to be a developed country security if its issuer is located in the following developed countries list, which is subject to change: Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bermuda, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Hong Kong, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, Singapore, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom and the United States. Securities of foreign issuers may trade in the U.S. or foreign securities markets.         
Investments in foreign securities may present certain risks, including:
Currency Risk. The value of the foreign investments held by the funds may be significantly affected by changes in currency exchange rates. The dollar value of a foreign security generally decreases when the value of the dollar rises against the foreign currency in which the security is denominated and tends to increase when the value of the dollar falls against such currency. In addition, the value of fund assets may be affected by losses and other expenses incurred in converting between various currencies in
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order to purchase and sell foreign securities, and by currency restrictions, exchange control regulation, currency devaluations and political developments.
Social, Political and Economic Risk. The economies of many of the countries in which the funds invest are not as developed as the economy of the United States and may be subject to significantly different forces. Political or social instability, expropriation, nationalization, confiscatory taxation and limitations on the removal of funds or other assets also could adversely affect the value of investments. Further, the funds may find it difficult or be unable to enforce ownership rights, pursue legal remedies or obtain judgments in foreign courts.
Regulatory Risk. Foreign companies generally are not subject to the regulatory controls imposed on U.S. issuers and, in general, there is less publicly available information about foreign securities than is available about domestic securities. Many foreign companies are not subject to uniform accounting, auditing and financial reporting standards, practices and requirements comparable to those applicable to domestic companies and there may be less stringent investor protection and disclosure standards in some foreign markets. Certain jurisdictions do not currently provide the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (“PCAOB”) with sufficient access to inspect audit work papers and practices, or otherwise do not cooperate with U.S. regulators, potentially exposing investors in U.S. capital markets to significant risks. Income from foreign securities owned by the funds may be reduced by a withholding tax at the source, which would reduce dividend income payable to shareholders.
Market and Trading Risk. Brokerage commission rates in foreign countries, which generally are fixed rather than subject to negotiation as in the United States, are likely to be higher. The securities markets in many of the countries in which the funds invest will have substantially less trading volume than the principal U.S. markets. As a result, the securities of some companies in these countries may be less liquid, more volatile and harder to value than comparable U.S. securities. Furthermore, one securities broker may represent all or a significant part of the trading volume in a particular country, resulting in higher trading costs and decreased liquidity due to a lack of alternative trading partners. There generally is less government regulation and supervision of foreign stock exchanges, brokers and issuers, which may make it difficult to enforce contractual obligations.
Clearance and Settlement Risk. Foreign securities markets also have different clearance and settlement procedures, and in certain markets there have been times when settlements have been unable to keep pace with the volume of securities transactions, making it difficult to conduct such transactions. Delays in clearance and settlement could result in temporary periods when assets of the funds are uninvested and no return is earned. The inability of the funds to make intended security purchases due to clearance and settlement problems could cause the funds to miss attractive investment opportunities. Inability to dispose of portfolio securities due to clearance and settlement problems could result either in losses to the funds due to subsequent declines in the value of the portfolio security or, if the fund has entered into a contract to sell the security, liability to the purchaser.
Ownership Risk. Evidence of securities ownership may be uncertain in many foreign countries. As a result, there is a risk that a fund’s trade details could be incorrectly or fraudulently entered at the time of the transaction, resulting in a loss to the fund.
Emerging Markets Risk. Each fund may invest its holdings in securities of issuers located in emerging market (developing) countries. The funds consider “emerging market countries” to include all countries that are not considered by the advisor to be developed countries, which are listed on page 9.   
Investing in securities of issuers in emerging market countries involves exposure to significantly higher risk than investing in countries with developed markets. Risks of investing in emerging markets countries may relate to lack of liquidity, market manipulation, limited reliable access to capital, and differing foreign investment structures. Emerging market countries may have economic structures that generally are less diverse and mature, and political systems that can be expected to be less stable than those of developed countries. Securities prices in emerging market countries can be significantly more volatile than in developed countries, reflecting the greater uncertainties of investing in lesser developed markets and economies. In particular, emerging market countries may have relatively unstable governments, and may present the risk of nationalization of businesses, expropriation, confiscatory taxation or in certain instances, reversion to closed-market, centrally planned economies. Such countries may also have less protection of property rights than developed countries.
The economies of emerging market countries may be based predominantly on only a few industries or may be dependent on revenues from particular commodities or on international aid or developmental assistance, may be highly vulnerable to changes in local or global trade conditions, and may suffer from extreme and volatile debt burdens or inflation rates. In addition, securities markets in emerging market countries may trade a relatively small number of securities and may be unable to respond effectively to increases in trading volume, potentially resulting in a lack of liquidity and in volatility in the price of securities traded on those markets. Also, securities markets in emerging market countries typically offer less regulatory protection for investors.
Sanctions. The U.S. may impose economic sanctions against companies in various sectors of certain countries. This could limit a fund’s investment opportunities in such countries, impairing the fund’s ability to invest in accordance with its investment strategy and/or to meet its investment objective. For example, a fund may be prohibited from investing in securities issued by companies subject to such sanctions. In addition, the sanctions may require a fund to freeze its existing investments in sanctioned companies, prohibiting the fund from selling or otherwise transacting in these investments. Current sanctions or the threat of potential sanctions may also impair the value or liquidity of affected securities and negatively impact a fund.
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In early 2022, the United States and countries throughout the world imposed economic sanctions on Russia in response to its military invasion of Ukraine. The sanctions are broad and include restrictions on the Russian government as well as Russian companies, individuals, and banking entities. The sanctions and other measures, such as boycotts or changes in consumer preferences, will likely cause declines in the value and liquidity of Russian securities, downgrades in the credit ratings of Russian securities, devaluation of Russia’s currency, and increased market volatility and disruption in Russia and throughout the world. Sanctions and similar measures, such as banning Russia from financial transaction systems that facilitate international transfers of funds, could limit or prevent the funds from selling and buying impacted securities both in Russia and in other markets. Such measures will likely cause significant delay in the settlement of impacted securities transactions or prevent settlement all together. The lack of available market prices for such securities may cause the funds to use fair value procedures to value certain securities. The consequences of the war and sanctions may negatively impact other regional and global economic markets. Additionally, Russia may take counter measures or engage in retaliatory actions—including cyberattacks and espionage—which could further disrupt global markets and supply chains. Companies in other countries that do business with Russia and the global commodities market for oil and natural gas, especially, will likely feel the impact of the sanctions. The sanctions, together with the potential for a wider armed or cyber conflict, could increase financial market volatility globally and negatively impact the funds’ performance beyond any direct exposure to Russian issuers or securities.
Forward Currency Exchange Contracts
Each fund may purchase and sell foreign currency on a spot (i.e., cash) basis and may engage in forward currency contracts, currency options and futures transactions for hedging or any other lawful purpose. See Derivative Instruments, page 8.      
The funds expect to use forward currency contracts under two circumstances:
(1)When the portfolio managers are purchasing or selling a security denominated in a foreign currency and wish to lock in the U.S. dollar price of that security, the portfolio managers would be able to enter into a forward currency contract to do so;
(2)When the portfolio managers believe that the currency of a particular foreign country may suffer a substantial decline against the U.S. dollar, a fund would be able to enter into a forward currency contract to sell foreign currency for a fixed U.S. dollar amount approximating the value of some or all of its portfolio securities either denominated in, or whose value is tied to, such foreign currency.
In the first circumstance, when a fund enters into a trade for the purchase or sale of a security denominated in a foreign currency, it may be desirable to establish (lock in) the U.S. dollar cost or proceeds. By entering into forward currency contracts in U.S. dollars for the purchase or sale of a foreign currency involved in an underlying security transaction, the fund will be able to protect itself against a possible loss between trade and settlement dates resulting from the adverse change in the relationship between the U.S. dollar and the subject foreign currency.
In the second circumstance, when the portfolio managers believe that the currency of a particular country may suffer a substantial decline relative to the U.S. dollar, a fund could enter into a forward currency contract to sell for a fixed dollar amount the amount in foreign currencies approximating the value of some or all of its portfolio securities either denominated in, or whose value is tied to, such foreign currency. The fund will generally cover outstanding forward contracts by maintaining liquid portfolio securities denominated in, or whose value is tied to, the currency underlying the forward contract or the currency being hedged.
The precise matching of forward currency contracts in the amounts and values of securities involved generally would not be possible because the future values of such foreign currencies will change as a consequence of market movements in the values of those securities between the date the forward currency contract is entered into and the date it matures. Predicting short-term currency market movements is extremely difficult, and the successful execution of short-term hedging strategy is highly uncertain. Normally, consideration of the prospect for currency parities will be incorporated into the long-term investment decisions made with respect to overall diversification strategies. However, the portfolio managers believe that it is important to have flexibility to enter into such forward currency contracts when they determine that a fund’s best interests may be served.
When the forward currency contract matures, the fund may either sell the portfolio security and make delivery of the foreign currency, or it may retain the security and terminate the obligation to deliver the foreign currency by purchasing an offsetting forward currency contract with the same currency trader that obligates the fund to purchase, on the same maturity date, the same amount of the foreign currency.
It is impossible to forecast with absolute precision the market value of portfolio securities at the expiration of the forward currency contract. Accordingly, it may be necessary for a fund to purchase additional foreign currency on the spot market (and bear the expense of such purchase) if the market value of the security is less than the amount of foreign currency the fund is obligated to deliver and if a decision is made to sell the security to make delivery of the foreign currency the fund is obligated to deliver.
Futures and Options
Each fund may enter into futures contracts, options or options on futures contracts. Futures contracts provide for the sale by one party and purchase by another party of a specific security at a specified future time and price. Generally, futures transactions will be used to: 
protect against a decline in market value of the fund’s securities (taking a short futures position),
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protect against the risk of an increase in market value for securities in which the fund generally invests at a time when the fund is not fully invested (taking a long futures position), or
provide a temporary substitute for the purchase of an individual security that may not be purchased in an orderly fashion.
Some futures and options strategies, such as selling futures, buying puts and writing calls, hedge a fund’s investments against price fluctuations. Other strategies, such as buying futures, writing puts and buying calls, tend to increase market exposure.
Although other techniques may be used to control a fund’s exposure to market fluctuations, the use of futures contracts may be a more effective means of hedging this exposure. While a fund pays brokerage commissions in connection with opening and closing out futures positions, these costs are lower than the transaction costs incurred in the purchase and sale of the underlying securities.
For example, the sale of a future by a fund means the fund becomes obligated to deliver the security (or securities, in the case of an index future) at a specified price on a specified date. The purchase of a future means the fund becomes obligated to buy the security (or securities) at a specified price on a specified date. The portfolio managers may engage in futures and options transactions, provided that the transactions are consistent with the fund’s investment objectives. The managers also may engage in futures and options transactions based on specific securities, such as U.S. Treasury bonds or notes. Futures contracts are traded on national futures exchanges. Futures exchanges and trading are regulated under the Commodity Exchange Act by the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC), a U.S. government agency.
Index futures contracts differ from traditional futures contracts in that when delivery takes place, no stocks or bonds change hands. Instead, these contracts settle in cash at the spot market value of the index. Although other types of futures contracts by their terms call for actual delivery or acceptance of the underlying securities, in most cases the contracts are closed out before the settlement date. A futures position may be closed by taking an opposite position in an identical contract (i.e., buying a contract that has previously been sold or selling a contract that has previously been bought).
Unlike when the fund purchases or sells a security, no price is paid or received by the fund upon the purchase or sale of the future. Initially, the fund will be required to deposit an amount of cash or securities equal to a varying specified percentage of the contract amount. This amount is known as initial margin. The margin deposit is intended to ensure completion of the contract (delivery or acceptance of the underlying security) if it is not terminated prior to the specified delivery date. A margin deposit does not constitute a margin transaction for purposes of the fund’s investment restrictions. Minimum initial margin requirements are established by the futures exchanges and may be revised.
In addition, brokers may establish margin deposit requirements that are higher than the exchange minimums. Cash held in the margin accounts generally is not income-producing. However, coupon bearing securities, such as Treasury bills and bonds, held in margin accounts generally will earn income. Subsequent payments to and from the broker, called variation margin, will be made on a daily basis as the price of the underlying security or index fluctuates, making the future more or less valuable, a process known as marking the contract to market. Changes in variation margin are recorded by the fund as unrealized gains or losses. At any time prior to expiration of the future, the fund may elect to close the position by taking an opposite position. A final determination of variation margin is then made; additional cash is required to be paid by or released to the fund and the fund realizes a loss or gain.
By buying a put option, a fund obtains the right (but not the obligation) to sell the instrument underlying the option at a fixed strike price and in return a fund pays the current market price for the option (known as the option premium). A fund may terminate its position in a put option it has purchased by allowing it to expire, by exercising the option or by entering into an offsetting transaction, if a liquid market exists. If the option is allowed to expire, a fund will lose the entire premium it paid. If a fund exercises a put option on a security, it will sell the instrument underlying the option at the strike price. The buyer of a typical put option can expect to realize a gain if the value of the underlying instrument falls substantially. However, if the price of the instrument underlying the option does not fall enough to offset the cost of purchasing the option, a put buyer can expect to suffer a loss limited to the amount of the premium paid, plus related transaction costs.
The features of call options are essentially the same as those of put options, except that the buyer of a call option obtains the right to purchase, rather than sell, the instrument underlying the option at the option’s strike price. The buyer of a typical call option can expect to realize a gain if the value of the underlying instrument increases substantially and can expect to suffer a loss if security prices do not rise sufficiently to offset the cost of the option.
When a fund writes a put option, it takes the opposite side of the transaction from the option’s buyer. In return for the receipt of the premium, a fund assumes the obligation to pay the strike price for the instrument underlying the option if the other party to the option chooses to exercise it. A fund may seek to terminate its position in a put option it writes before exercise by purchasing an offsetting option in the market at its current price. Otherwise, a fund must continue to be prepared to pay the strike price while the option is outstanding, regardless of price changes, and must continue to post margin as discussed below. If the price of the underlying instrument rises, a put writer would generally realize as profit the premium it received. If the price of the underlying instrument remains the same over time, it is likely that the writer will also profit, because it should be able to close out the option at a lower price. If the price of the underlying instrument falls, the put writer would expect to suffer a loss.
A fund writing a call option is obligated to sell or deliver the option’s underlying instrument in return for the strike price upon exercise of the option. Writing calls generally is a profitable strategy if the price of the underlying instrument remains the same or falls. A call
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writer offsets part of the effect of a price decline by receipt of the option premium, but gives up some ability to participate in security price increases. The writer of an exchange traded put or call option on a security, an index of securities or a futures contract is required to deposit cash or securities or a letter of credit as margin and to make mark to market payments of variation margin as the position becomes unprofitable.
Risks Related to Futures and Options Transactions
Futures and options prices can be volatile, and trading in these markets involves certain risks. If the portfolio managers apply a hedge at an inappropriate time or judge interest rate or equity market trends incorrectly, futures and options strategies may lower a fund’s return.
A fund could suffer losses if it is unable to close out its position because of an illiquid secondary market. Futures contracts may be closed out only on an exchange that provides a secondary market for these contracts, and there is no assurance that a liquid secondary market will exist for any particular futures contract at any particular time. Consequently, it may not be possible to close a futures position when the portfolio managers consider it appropriate or desirable to do so. In the event of adverse price movements, a fund would be required to continue making daily cash payments to maintain its required margin. If the fund had insufficient cash, it might have to sell portfolio securities to meet daily margin requirements at a time when the portfolio managers would not otherwise elect to do so. In addition, a fund may be required to deliver or take delivery of instruments underlying futures contracts it holds. The portfolio managers will seek to minimize these risks by limiting the futures contracts entered into on behalf of the funds to those traded on national futures exchanges and for which there appears to be a liquid secondary market.
A fund could suffer losses if the prices of its futures and options positions were poorly correlated with its other investments, or if securities underlying futures contracts purchased by a fund had different maturities than those of the portfolio securities being hedged. Such imperfect correlation may give rise to circumstances in which a fund loses money on a futures contract at the same time that it experiences a decline in the value of its hedged portfolio securities. A fund also could lose margin payments it has deposited with a margin broker, if, for example, the broker became bankrupt.
Most futures exchanges limit the amount of fluctuation permitted in futures contract prices during a single trading day. The daily limit establishes the maximum amount that the price of a futures contract may vary either up or down from the previous day’s settlement price at the end of the trading session. Once the daily limit has been reached in a particular type of contract, no trades may be made on that day at a price beyond the limit. However, the daily limit governs only price movement during a particular trading day and, therefore, does not limit potential losses. In addition, the daily limit may prevent liquidation of unfavorable positions. Futures contract prices have occasionally moved to the daily limit for several consecutive trading days with little or no trading, thereby preventing prompt liquidation of futures positions and subjecting some futures traders to substantial losses.
Options on Futures
By purchasing an option on a futures contract, a fund obtains the right, but not the obligation, to sell the futures contract (a put option) or to buy the contract (a call option) at a fixed strike price. A fund can terminate its position in a put option by allowing it to expire or by exercising the option. If the option is exercised, the fund completes the sale of the underlying security at the strike price. Purchasing an option on a futures contract does not require a fund to make margin payments unless the option is exercised.
Although they do not currently intend to do so, the funds may write (or sell) call options that obligate them to sell (or deliver) the option’s underlying instrument upon exercise of the option. While the receipt of option premiums would mitigate the effects of price declines, the funds would give up some ability to participate in a price increase on the underlying security. If a fund were to engage in options transactions, it would own the futures contract at the time a call were written and would keep the contract open until the obligation to deliver it pursuant to the call expired.
Restrictions on the Use of Futures Contracts and Options
Each fund may enter into futures contracts, options, options on futures contracts, or swap agreements as permitted by its investment policies and the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) rules. The advisor to each fund has claimed an exclusion from the definition of the term “commodity pool operator” under the Commodity Exchange Act and, therefore, the advisor is not subject to registration or regulation as a commodity pool operator under that Act with respect to its provision of services to each fund.
The CFTC recently adopted certain rule amendments that may impose additional limits on the ability of a fund to invest in futures contracts, options on futures, swaps, and certain other commodity interests if its investment advisor does not register with the CFTC as a “commodity pool operator” with respect to such fund. It is expected that the funds will be able to execute their investment strategies within the limits adopted by the CFTC’s rules. As a result, the advisor does not intend to register with the CFTC as a commodity pool operator on behalf of any of the funds. In the event that one of the funds engages in transactions that necessitate future registration with the CFTC, the advisor will register as a commodity pool operator and comply with applicable regulations with respect to that fund.
To the extent required by law, each fund will segregate cash, cash equivalents or other appropriate liquid securities on its records in an amount sufficient to cover its obligations under the futures contracts, options and swap agreements.
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Inflation-linked Securities
Balanced may purchase inflation-linked securities issued by the U.S. Treasury, U.S. government agencies and instrumentalities other than the U.S. Treasury, and entities other than the U.S. Treasury or U.S. government agencies and instrumentalities.
Inflation-linked securities are designed to offer a return linked to inflation, thereby protecting future purchasing power of the money invested in them. However, inflation-linked securities provide this protected return only if held to maturity. In addition, inflation-linked securities may not trade at par value. Real interest rates (the market rate of interest less the anticipated rate of inflation) change over time as a result of many factors, such as what investors are demanding as a true value for money. When real rates do change, inflation-linked securities prices will be more sensitive to these changes than conventional bonds, because these securities were sold originally based upon a real interest rate that is no longer prevailing. Should market expectations for real interest rates rise, the price of inflation-linked securities and the share price of a fund holding these securities will fall. Investors in the funds should be prepared to accept not only this share price volatility but also the possible adverse tax consequences it may cause.
An investment in securities featuring inflation-indexed principal and/or interest involves factors not associated with more traditional fixed-principal securities. Such factors include the possibility that the inflation index may be subject to significant changes, that changes in the index may or may not correlate to changes in interest rates generally or changes in other indices, or that the resulting interest may be greater or less than that payable on other securities of similar maturities. In the event of sustained deflation, it is possible that the amount of semiannual interest payments, the inflation-indexed principal of the security or the value of the stripped components will decrease. If any of these possibilities are realized, a fund’s net asset value could be negatively affected.
Inflation-linked Treasury Securities
Inflation-linked U.S. Treasury securities are U.S. Treasury securities with a final value and interest payment stream linked to the inflation rate. Inflation-linked U.S. Treasury securities may be issued in either note or bond form. Inflation-linked U.S. Treasury notes have maturities of at least one year, but not more than 10 years. Inflation-linked U.S. Treasury bonds have maturities of more than 10 years.
Inflation-linked U.S. Treasury securities may be attractive to investors seeking an investment backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. government that provides a return in excess of the rate of inflation. These securities were first sold in the U.S. market in January 1997. Inflation-linked U.S. Treasury securities are auctioned and issued on a quarterly basis.
Structure and Inflation Index – The principal value of inflation-linked U.S. Treasury securities will be adjusted to reflect changes in the level of inflation. The index for measuring the inflation rate for inflation-linked U.S. Treasury securities is the non-seasonally adjusted U.S. City Average All Items Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (Consumer Price Index) published monthly by the U.S. Department of Labor’s Bureau of Labor Statistics.
Semiannual coupon interest payments are made at a fixed percentage of the inflation-linked principal value. The coupon rate for the semiannual interest rate of each issuance of inflation-linked U.S. Treasury securities is determined at the time the securities are sold to the public (i.e., by competitive bids in the auction). The coupon rate will likely reflect real yields available in the U.S. Treasury market; real yields are the prevailing yields on U.S. Treasury securities with similar maturities, less then-prevailing inflation expectations. While a reduction in inflation will cause a reduction in the interest payment made on the securities, the repayment of principal at the maturity of the security is guaranteed by the U.S. Treasury to be no less than the original face or par amount of the security at the time of issuance.
Indexing Methodology - The principal value of inflation-linked U.S. Treasury securities will be indexed, or adjusted, to account for changes in the Consumer Price Index. Semiannual coupon interest payment amounts will be determined by multiplying the inflation-linked principal amount by one-half the stated rate of interest on each interest payment date.
Taxation - The taxation of inflation-linked U.S. Treasury securities is similar to the taxation of conventional bonds. Both interest payments and the difference between original principal and the inflation-indexed principal will be treated as interest income subject to taxation. Interest payments are taxable when received or accrued. The inflation adjustment to the principal is subject to tax in the year the adjustment is made, not at maturity of the security when the cash from the repayment of principal is received. If an upward adjustment has been made, investors in non-tax-deferred accounts will pay taxes on this amount currently. Decreases in the indexed principal can be deducted only from current or previous interest payments reported as income.
Inflation-linked U.S. Treasury securities therefore have a potential cash flow mismatch to an investor, because investors must pay taxes on the inflation-indexed principal before the repayment of principal is received. It is possible that, particularly for high income tax bracket investors, inflation-linked U.S. Treasury securities would not generate enough cash in a given year to cover the tax liability they could create. This is similar to the current tax treatment for zero-coupon bonds and other discount securities. If inflation-linked U.S. Treasury securities are sold prior to maturity, capital losses or gains are realized in the same manner as traditional bonds.
Investors in a fund will receive dividends that represent both the interest payments and the principal adjustments of the inflation-linked securities held in the fund’s portfolio. An investment in a fund may, therefore, be a means to avoid the cash flow mismatch associated with a direct investment in inflation-linked securities. For more information about taxes and their effect on you as an investor in the funds, see Taxes, page 53.  
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U.S. Government Agencies
A number of U.S. government agencies and instrumentalities other than the U.S. Treasury may issue inflation-linked securities. Some U.S. government agencies have issued inflation-linked securities whose design mirrors that of the inflation-linked U.S. Treasury securities described above.
Other Entities
Entities other than the U.S. Treasury or U.S. government agencies and instrumentalities may issue inflation-linked securities. While some entities have issued inflation-linked securities whose design mirrors that of the inflation-linked U.S. Treasury securities described above, others utilize different structures. For example, the principal value of these securities may be adjusted with reference to the Consumer Price Index, but the semiannual coupon interest payments are made at a fixed percentage of the original issue principal. Alternatively, the principal value may remain fixed, but the coupon interest payments may be adjusted with reference to the Consumer Price Index.
Initial Public Offerings
The funds may invest in initial public offerings (IPOs) of common stock or other equity securities issued by a company. The purchase of securities in an IPO may involve higher transaction costs than those associated with the purchase of securities already traded on exchanges or other established markets. In addition to the risks associated with equity securities generally, IPO securities may be subject to additional risk due to factors such as the absence of a prior public market, unseasoned trading and speculation, a potentially small number of securities available for trading, limited information about the issuer and other factors. These factors may cause IPO shares to be volatile in price. While a fund may hold IPO securities for a period of time, it may sell them in the aftermarket soon after the purchase, which could increase portfolio turnover and lead to increased expenses such as commissions and transaction costs. Investments in IPOs could have a magnified impact (either positive or negative) on performance if a fund’s assets are relatively small. The impact of IPOs on a fund’s performance may tend to diminish as assets grow.
Inverse Floaters
Balanced may invest in inverse floaters. An inverse floater is a type of derivative security that bears an interest rate that moves inversely to market interest rates. As market interest rates rise, the interest rate on inverse floaters goes down, and vice versa. Generally, this is accomplished by expressing the interest rate on the inverse floater as an above-market fixed rate of interest, reduced by an amount determined by reference to a market-based or bond-specific floating interest rate (as well as by any fees associated with administering the inverse floater program).
Inverse floaters may be issued in conjunction with an equal amount of Dutch Auction floating-rate bonds (floaters), or a market-based index may be used to set the interest rate on these securities. A Dutch Auction is an auction system in which the price of the security is gradually lowered until it meets a responsive bid and is sold. Floaters and inverse floaters may be brought to market by (1) a broker-dealer who purchases fixed-rate bonds and places them in a trust, or (2) an issuer seeking to reduce interest expenses by using a floater/inverse floater structure in lieu of fixed-rate bonds.
In the case of a broker-dealer structured offering (where underlying fixed-rate bonds have been placed in a trust), distributions from the underlying bonds are allocated to floater and inverse floater holders in the following manner: 
(i)Floater holders receive interest based on rates set at a six-month interval or at a Dutch Auction, which is typically held every 28 to 35 days. Current and prospective floater holders bid the minimum interest rate that they are willing to accept on the floaters, and the interest rate is set just high enough to ensure that all of the floaters are sold.
(ii)Inverse floater holders receive all of the interest that remains, if any, on the underlying bonds after floater interest and auction fees are paid. The interest rates on inverse floaters may be significantly reduced, even to zero, if interest rates rise.
Procedures for determining the interest payment on floaters and inverse floaters brought to market directly by the issuer are comparable, although the interest paid on the inverse floaters is based on a presumed coupon rate that would have been required to bring fixed-rate bonds to market at the time the floaters and inverse floaters were issued.
Where inverse floaters are issued in conjunction with floaters, inverse floater holders may be given the right to acquire the underlying security (or to create a fixed-rate bond) by calling an equal amount of corresponding floaters. The underlying security may then be held or sold. However, typically, there are time constraints and other limitations associated with any right to combine interests and claim the underlying security.
Floater holders subject to a Dutch Auction procedure generally do not have the right to put back their interests to the issuer or to a third party. If a Dutch Auction fails, the floater holder may be required to hold its position until the underlying bond matures, during which time interest on the floater is capped at a predetermined rate.
The secondary market for floaters and inverse floaters may be limited. The market value of inverse floaters tends to be significantly more volatile than fixed-rate bonds.
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Investment in Issuers with Limited Operating Histories
The funds may invest the following portions of their assets in the equity securities of issuers with limited operating histories: Balanced, Growth, Select, Sustainable Equity and Ultra up to 5%; Heritage and Small Cap Growth up to 10%. The managers consider an issuer to have a limited operating history if that issuer has a record of less than three years of continuous operation. The managers will consider periods of capital formation, incubation, consolidations, and research and development in determining whether a particular issuer has a record of three years of continuous operation.           
Investments in securities of issuers with limited operating histories may involve greater risks than investments in securities of more mature issuers. By their nature, such issuers present limited operating histories and financial information upon which the managers may base their investment decision on behalf of the funds. In addition, financial and other information regarding such issuers, when available, may be incomplete or inaccurate.
For purposes of this limitation, “issuers” refers to operating companies that issue securities for the purposes of issuing debt or raising capital as a means of financing their ongoing operations. It does not, however, refer to entities, corporate or otherwise, that are created for the express purpose of securitizing obligations or income streams. For example, a fund’s investments in a trust created for the purpose of pooling mortgage obligations would not be subject to the limitation.
LIBOR Transition Risk
The London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”) is a benchmark interest rate intended to be representative of the rate at which major international banks who are members of the British Bankers Association lend to one another over short-terms. Following manipulation allegations, financial institutions have started the process of phasing out the use of LIBOR. The transition process to a replacement rate or rates may lead to increased volatility or illiquidity in markets for instruments that currently rely on LIBOR. The transition may also result in a change in the value of certain instruments the funds hold or a change in the cost of temporary borrowing for the funds. As LIBOR is discontinued, the LIBOR replacement rate may be lower than market expectations, which could have an adverse impact on the value of preferred and debt-securities with floating or fixed-to-floating rate coupons. The transition away from LIBOR could result in losses to the funds.
Loans of Portfolio Securities
In order to realize additional income, a fund may lend its portfolio securities. Such loans may not exceed one-third of the fund’s total assets valued at market, however, this limitation does not apply to purchases of debt securities in accordance with the fund’s investment objectives, policies and limitations, or to repurchase agreements with respect to portfolio securities.
Cash received from the borrower as collateral through loan transactions may be invested in other eligible securities. Investing this cash subjects that investment to market appreciation or depreciation. If a borrower defaults on a securities loan because of insolvency or other reasons, the lending fund could experience delays or costs in recovering the securities it loaned; if the value of the loaned securities increased over the value of the collateral, the fund could suffer a loss. To minimize the risk of default on securities loans, the advisor adheres to guidelines prescribed by the Board of Directors governing lending of securities. These guidelines strictly govern: 
(1)the type and amount of collateral that must be received by the fund;
(2)the circumstances under which additions to that collateral must be made by borrowers;
(3)the return to be received by the fund on the loaned securities;
(4)the limitations on the percentage of fund assets on loan; and
(5)the credit standards applied in evaluating potential borrowers of portfolio securities.
In addition, the guidelines require that the fund have the option to terminate any loan of a portfolio security at any time and set requirements for recovery of securities from borrowers.
Mortgage-Backed Securities
Background
A mortgage-backed security represents an ownership interest in a pool of mortgage loans. The loans are made by financial institutions to finance home and other real estate purchases. As the loans are repaid, investors receive payments of both interest and principal.
Like fixed-income securities such as U.S. Treasury bonds, mortgage-backed securities pay a stated rate of interest during the life of the security. However, unlike a bond, which returns principal to the investor in one lump sum at maturity, mortgage-backed securities return principal to the investor in increments during the life of the security.
Because the timing and speed of principal repayments vary, the cash flow on mortgage-backed securities is irregular. If mortgage holders sell their homes, refinance their loans, prepay their mortgages or default on their loans, the principal is distributed pro rata to investors.
As with other fixed-income securities, the prices of mortgage-backed securities fluctuate in response to changing interest rates; when interest rates fall, the prices of mortgage-backed securities rise, and vice versa. Changing interest rates have additional significance for mortgage-backed securities investors, however, because they influence prepayment rates (the rates at which mortgage holders prepay
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their mortgages), which in turn affect the yields on mortgage-backed securities. When interest rates decline, prepayment rates generally increase. Mortgage holders take advantage of the opportunity to refinance their mortgages at lower rates with lower monthly payments. When interest rates rise, mortgage holders are less inclined to refinance their mortgages. The effect of prepayment activity on yield depends on whether the mortgage-backed security was purchased at a premium or at a discount.
A fund may receive principal sooner than it expected because of accelerated prepayments. Under these circumstances, the fund might have to reinvest returned principal at rates lower than it would have earned if principal payments were made on schedule. Conversely, a mortgage-backed security may exceed its anticipated life if prepayment rates decelerate unexpectedly. Under these circumstances, a fund might miss an opportunity to earn interest at higher prevailing rates.
GNMA Certificates
The Government National Mortgage Association (GNMA) is a wholly owned corporate instrumentality of the United States within the Department of Housing and Urban Development. The National Housing Act of 1934 (Housing Act), as amended, authorizes GNMA to guarantee the timely payment of interest and repayment of principal on certificates that are backed by a pool of mortgage loans insured by the Federal Housing Administration under the Housing Act, or by Title V of the Housing Act of 1949 (FHA Loans), or guaranteed by the Department of Veterans Affairs under the Servicemen’s Readjustment Act of 1944 (VA Loans), as amended, or by pools of other eligible mortgage loans. The Housing Act provides that the full faith and credit of the U.S. government is pledged to the payment of all amounts that may be required to be paid under any guarantee. GNMA has unlimited authority to borrow from the U.S. Treasury in order to meet its obligations under this guarantee.
GNMA certificates represent a pro rata interest in one or more pools of the following types of mortgage loans: (a) fixed-rate level payment mortgage loans; (b) fixed-rate graduated payment mortgage loans (GPMs); (c) fixed-rate growing equity mortgage loans (GEMs); (d) fixed-rate mortgage loans secured by manufactured (mobile) homes (MHs); (e) mortgage loans on multifamily residential properties under construction (CLCs); (f) mortgage loans on completed multifamily projects (PLCs); (g) fixed-rate mortgage loans that use escrowed funds to reduce the borrower’s monthly payments during the early years of the mortgage loans (buydown mortgage loans); and (h) mortgage loans that provide for payment adjustments based on periodic changes in interest rates or in other payment terms of the mortgage loans.
Fannie Mae Certificates
The Federal National Mortgage Association (FNMA or Fannie Mae) is a federally chartered and privately owned corporation established under the Federal National Mortgage Association Charter Act. Fannie Mae was originally established in 1938 as a U.S. government agency designed to provide supplemental liquidity to the mortgage market and was reorganized as a stockholder-owned and privately managed corporation by legislation enacted in 1968. Fannie Mae acquires capital from investors who would not ordinarily invest in mortgage loans directly and thereby expands the total amount of funds available for housing. This money is used to buy home mortgage loans from local lenders, replenishing the supply of capital available for mortgage lending.
Fannie Mae certificates represent a pro rata interest in one or more pools of FHA Loans, VA Loans, or, most commonly, conventional mortgage loans (i.e., mortgage loans that are not insured or guaranteed by a government agency) of the following types: (a) fixed-rate level payment mortgage loans; (b) fixed-rate growing equity mortgage loans; (c) fixed-rate graduated payment mortgage loans; (d) adjustable-rate mortgage loans; and (e) fixed-rate mortgage loans secured by multifamily projects.
Fannie Mae certificates entitle the registered holder to receive amounts representing a pro rata interest in scheduled principal and interest payments (at the certificate’s pass-through rate, which is net of any servicing and guarantee fees on the underlying mortgage loans), any principal prepayments, and a proportionate interest in the full principal amount of any foreclosed or otherwise liquidated mortgage loan. The full and timely payment of interest and repayment of principal on each Fannie Mae certificate is guaranteed by Fannie Mae; this guarantee is not backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. government. See Current Status of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac below.
Freddie Mac Certificates
The Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (FHLMC or Freddie Mac) is a corporate instrumentality of the United States created pursuant to the Emergency Home Finance Act of 1970 (FHLMC Act), as amended. Freddie Mac was established primarily for the purpose of increasing the availability of mortgage credit. Its principal activity consists of purchasing first-lien conventional residential mortgage loans (and participation interests in such mortgage loans) and reselling these loans in the form of mortgage-backed securities, primarily Freddie Mac certificates.
Freddie Mac certificates represent a pro rata interest in a group of mortgage loans (a Freddie Mac certificate group) purchased by Freddie Mac. The mortgage loans underlying Freddie Mac certificates consist of fixed- or adjustable-rate mortgage loans with original terms to maturity of between 10 and 30 years, substantially all of which are secured by first-liens on one- to four-family residential properties or multifamily projects. Each mortgage loan must meet standards set forth in the FHLMC Act. A Freddie Mac certificate group may include whole loans, participation interests in whole loans, undivided interests in whole loans, and participations composing another Freddie Mac certificate group.
Freddie Mac guarantees to each registered holder of a Freddie Mac certificate the timely payment of interest at the rate provided for by the certificate. Freddie Mac also guarantees ultimate collection of all principal on the related mortgage loans, without any offset or
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deduction, but generally does not guarantee the timely repayment of principal. Freddie Mac may remit principal at any time after default on an underlying mortgage loan, but no later than 30 days following (a) foreclosure sale, (b) payment of a claim by any mortgage insurer, or (c) the expiration of any right of redemption, whichever occurs later, and in any event no later than one year after demand has been made upon the mortgager for accelerated payment of principal. Obligations guaranteed by Freddie Mac are not backed by the full faith and credit pledge of the U.S. government. See Current Status of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac below.
Current Status of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac
Since September 2008, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac have operated under a conservatorship administered by the Federal Housing Finance Agency (FHFA). In addition, the U.S. Treasury has entered into senior preferred stock purchase agreements (SPSPAs) to provide additional financing to Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. Although the SPSPAs are intended to provide Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac with the necessary cash resources to meet their obligations, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac continue to operate as going concerns while in conservatorship, and each remains liable for all of its obligations, including its guaranty obligations, associated with its mortgage-backed securities.
The future status and role of Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac could be impacted by, among other things, the actions taken and restrictions placed on Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac by the FHFA in its role as conservator, the restrictions placed on Fannie Mae’s or Freddie Mac’s operations and activities under the senior preferred stock purchase agreements, market responses to developments at Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac, and future legislative, regulatory, or legal action that alters the operations, ownership, structure and/or mission of Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac, each of which may, in turn, impact the value of, and cash flows on, any securities guaranteed by Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac.
To-Be-Announced Mortgage-Backed Securities
To-be-announced (TBA) commitments are forward agreements for the purchase or sale of securities, which are described in greater detail under the heading When-Issued and Forward Commitment Agreements. A fund may gain exposure to mortgage-backed securities through TBA transactions. TBA mortgage-backed securities typically are debt securities structured by agencies such as Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. In a typical TBA mortgage transaction, certain terms (such as price) are fixed, with delayed payment and delivery on an agreed upon future settlement date. The specific mortgage-backed securities to be delivered are not typically identified at the trade date but the delivered security must meet specified terms (such as issuer, interest rate, and underlying mortgage terms). Consequently, TBA mortgage-backed transactions involve increased interest rate risk because the underlying mortgages may be less favorable at delivery than anticipated. TBA mortgage contracts also involve a risk of loss if the value of the underlying security to be purchased declines prior to delivery date. The yield obtained for such securities may be higher or lower than yields available in the market on delivery date. The funds may also take short positions in TBA investments. To enter a short sale of a TBA security, a fund effectively agrees to sell a security it does not own at a future date and price. The funds generally anticipate closing short TBA positions before delivery of the respective security is required, however if the fund is unable to close a position, the fund would have to purchase the securities needed to settle the short sale. Such purchases could be at a different price than anticipated, and the fund would lose or gain money based on the acquisition price.
Collateralized Mortgage Obligations (CMOs)
A CMO is a multiclass bond backed by a pool of mortgage pass-through certificates or mortgage loans. CMOs may be collateralized by (a) GNMA, Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac pass-through certificates; (b) unsecured mortgage loans insured by the Federal Housing Administration or guaranteed by the Department of Veterans’ Affairs; (c) unsecuritized conventional mortgages; or (d) any combination thereof.
In structuring a CMO, an issuer distributes cash flow from the underlying collateral over a series of classes called tranches. Each CMO is a set of two or more tranches, with average lives and cash flow patterns designed to meet specific investment objectives. The average life expectancies of the different tranches in a four-part deal, for example, might be two, five, seven and 20 years.
As payments on the underlying mortgage loans are collected, the CMO issuer pays the coupon rate of interest to the bondholders in each tranche. At the outset, scheduled and unscheduled principal payments go to investors in the first tranches. Investors in later tranches do not begin receiving principal payments until the prior tranches are paid off. This basic type of CMO is known as a sequential pay or plain vanilla CMO.
Some CMOs are structured so that the prepayment or market risks are transferred from one tranche to another. Prepayment stability is improved in some tranches if other tranches absorb more prepayment variability.
The final tranche of a CMO often takes the form of a Z-bond, also known as an accrual bond or accretion bond. Holders of these securities receive no cash until the earlier tranches are paid in full. During the period that the other tranches are outstanding, periodic interest payments are added to the initial face amount of the Z-bond but are not paid to investors. When the prior tranches are retired, the Z-bond receives coupon payments on its higher principal balance plus any principal prepayments from the underlying mortgage loans. The existence of a Z-bond tranche helps stabilize cash flow patterns in the other tranches. In a changing interest rate environment, however, the value of the Z-bond tends to be more volatile.
As CMOs have evolved, some classes of CMO bonds have become more prevalent. The planned amortization class (PAC) and targeted amortization class (TAC), for example, were designed to reduce prepayment risk by establishing a sinking-fund structure.
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PAC and TAC bonds assure to varying degrees that investors will receive payments over a predetermined period under various prepayment scenarios. Although PAC and TAC bonds are similar, PAC bonds are better able to provide stable cash flows under various prepayment scenarios than TAC bonds because of the order in which these tranches are paid.
The existence of a PAC or TAC tranche can create higher levels of risk for other tranches in the CMO because the stability of the PAC or TAC tranche is achieved by creating at least one other tranche — known as a companion bond, support or non-PAC bond — that absorbs the variability of principal cash flows. Because companion bonds have a high degree of average life variability, they generally pay a higher yield. A TAC bond can have some of the prepayment variability of a companion bond if there is also a PAC bond in the CMO issue.
Floating-rate CMO tranches (floaters) pay a variable rate of interest that is usually tied to a reference rate, such as the Secured Overnight Financing Rate (SOFR). Institutional investors with short-term liabilities, such as commercial banks, often find floating-rate CMOs attractive investments. Super floaters (which float a certain percentage above a reference rate) and inverse floaters (which float inversely to a reference rate) are variations on the floater structure that have highly variable cash flows.
Stripped Mortgage-Backed Securities
Stripped mortgage-backed securities are created by segregating the cash flows from underlying mortgage loans or mortgage securities to create two or more new securities, each with a specified percentage of the underlying security’s principal or interest payments. Mortgage-backed securities may be partially stripped so that each investor class receives some interest and some principal. When securities are completely stripped, however, all of the interest is distributed to holders of one type of security, known as an interest-only security, or IO, and all of the principal is distributed to holders of another type of security known as a principal-only security, or PO. Strips can be created in a pass-through structure or as tranches of a CMO.
The market values of IOs and POs are very sensitive to interest rate and prepayment rate fluctuations. POs, for example, increase (or decrease) in value as interest rates decline (or rise). The price behavior of these securities also depends on whether the mortgage collateral was purchased at a premium or discount to its par value. Prepayments on discount coupon POs generally are much lower than prepayments on premium coupon POs. IOs may be used to hedge a fund’s other investments because prepayments cause the value of an IO strip to move in the opposite direction from other mortgage-backed securities.
Commercial Mortgage-Backed Securities (CMBS)
CMBS are securities created from a pool of commercial mortgage loans, such as loans for hotels, shopping centers, office buildings, apartment buildings, and the like. Interest and principal payments from these loans are passed on to the investor according to a particular schedule of payments. They may be issued by U.S. government agencies or by private issuers. The credit quality of CMBS depends primarily on the quality of the underlying loans and on the structure of the particular deal. Generally, deals are structured with senior and subordinate classes. Multiple classes may permit the issuance of securities with payment terms, interest rates, or other characteristics differing both from those of each other and those of the underlying assets. Examples include classes having characteristics such as floating interest rates or scheduled amortization of principal. Rating agencies rate the individual classes of the deal based on the degree of seniority or subordination of a particular class and other factors. The value of these securities may change because of actual or perceived changes in the creditworthiness of individual borrowers, their tenants, the servicing agents, or the general state of commercial real estate and other factors.
Adjustable Rate Mortgage Securities
Adjustable rate mortgage securities (ARMs) have interest rates that reset at periodic intervals. Acquiring ARMs permits a fund to participate in increases in prevailing current interest rates through periodic adjustments in the coupons of mortgages underlying the pool on which ARMs are based. In addition, when prepayments of principal are made on the underlying mortgages during periods of rising interest rates, a fund can reinvest the proceeds of such prepayments at rates higher than those at which they were previously invested. Mortgages underlying most ARMs, however, have limits on the allowable annual or lifetime increases that can be made in the interest rate that the mortgagor pays. Therefore, if current interest rates rise above such limits over the period of the limitation, a fund holding an ARM does not benefit from further increases in interest rates. Moreover, when interest rates are in excess of coupon rates (i.e., the rates being paid by mortgagors) of the mortgages, ARMs behave more like fixed income securities and less like adjustable rate securities and are subject to the risks associated with fixed income securities. In addition, during periods of rising interest rates, increases in the coupon rate of adjustable rate mortgages generally lag current market interest rates slightly, thereby creating the potential for capital depreciation on such securities.
Mortgage Dollar Rolls
Balanced may enter into mortgage dollar rolls in which a fund sells mortgage-backed securities to financial institutions for delivery in the current month and simultaneously contracts to repurchase similar securities on a specified future date. During the period between the sale and repurchase (the “roll period”), the fund forgoes principal and interest paid on the mortgage-backed securities. The fund is compensated by the difference between the current sales price and the forward price for the future purchase (often referred to as the “drop”), as well as by the interest earned on the cash proceeds of the initial sale. The fund will use the proceeds generated from the transaction to invest in other securities that are permissible investments for the fund. Such investments may have a leveraging effect, increasing the volatility of the fund.
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For each mortgage dollar roll transaction, a fund will cover the roll by segregating on its books an offsetting cash position or a position of liquid securities of equivalent value.
A fund could suffer a loss if the contracting party fails to perform the future transaction and the fund is therefore unable to buy back the mortgage-backed securities it initially sold. The fund also takes the risk that the mortgage-backed securities that it repurchases at a later date will have less favorable market characteristics than the securities originally sold.
Municipal Bonds
Municipal bonds, which generally have maturities of more than one year when issued, are designed to meet longer-term capital needs. These securities have two principal classifications: general obligation bonds and revenue bonds.
General obligation (GO) bonds are issued by states, counties, cities, towns and regional districts to fund a variety of public projects, including construction of and improvements to schools, highways, and water and sewer systems. GO bonds are backed by the issuer’s full faith and credit based on its ability to levy taxes for the timely payment of interest and repayment of principal, although such levies may be constitutionally or statutorily limited as to rate or amount.
Revenue bonds are not backed by an issuer’s taxing authority; rather, interest and principal are secured by the net revenues from a project or facility. Revenue bonds are issued to finance a variety of capital projects, including construction or refurbishment of utility and waste disposal systems, highways, bridges, tunnels, air and seaport facilities and hospitals.
Industrial development bonds (IDBs), a type of revenue bond, are issued by or on behalf of public authorities to finance privately operated facilities. These bonds are used to finance business, manufacturing, housing, athletic and pollution control projects, as well as public facilities such as mass transit systems, air and seaport facilities and parking garages. Payment of interest and repayment of principal on an IDB depend solely on the ability of the facility’s operator to meet financial obligations, and on the pledge, if any, of the real or personal property financed. The interest earned on IDBs may be subject to the federal alternative minimum tax.
Some longer-term municipal bonds allow an investor to “put” or sell the security at a specified time and price to the issuer or other “put provider.” If a put provider fails to honor its commitment to purchase the security, the fund may have to treat the security’s final maturity as its effective maturity, lengthening the fund’s weighted average maturity and increasing the volatility of the fund.
Municipal Notes
Municipal notes are issued by state and local governments or government entities to provide short-term capital or to meet cash flow needs.
Tax anticipation notes (TANs) are issued in anticipation of seasonal tax revenues, such as ad valorem property, income, sales, use and business taxes, and are payable from these future taxes. TANs usually are general obligations of the issuer. General obligations are backed by the issuer’s full faith and credit based on its ability to levy taxes for the timely payment of interest and repayment of principal, although such levies may be constitutionally or statutorily limited as to rate or amount.
Revenue anticipation notes (RANs) are issued with the expectation that receipt of future revenues, such as federal revenue sharing or state aid payments, will be used to repay the notes. Typically, these notes also constitute general obligations of the issuer.
Bond anticipation notes (BANs) are issued to provide interim financing until long-term financing can be arranged. In most cases, the long-term bonds provide the money for repayment of the notes.
Other Investment Companies
Each of the funds may invest in other investment companies, such as closed-end investment companies, unit investment trusts, exchange traded funds (ETFs) and other open-end investment companies, provided that the investment is consistent with the fund’s investment policies and restrictions. Under the Investment Company Act, a fund’s investment in such securities, subject to certain exceptions, currently is limited to 
3% of the total voting stock of any one investment company;
5% of the fund’s total assets with respect to any one investment company; and
10% of a fund’s total assets in the aggregate.
Such exceptions may include reliance on Rule 12d1-4 of the Investment Company Act. Rule 12d1-4, subject to certain requirements, would permit a fund to invest in affiliated investment companies (other American Century mutual funds and ETFs) and unaffiliated investment companies in excess of the limitations described above.
A fund’s investments in other investment companies may include money market funds managed by the advisor. Investments in money market funds are not subject to the percentage limitations set forth above.
As a shareholder of another investment company, a fund would bear, along with other shareholders, its pro rata portion of the other investment company’s expenses, including advisory fees. These expenses would be in addition to the management fee that each fund bears directly in connection with its own operations. 
ETFs are a type of fund bought and sold on a securities exchange. An ETF trades like common stock and may be actively managed or index-based. A fund may purchase an ETF to temporarily gain exposure to a portion of the U.S. or a foreign market while awaiting
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purchase of underlying securities, to gain exposure to specific asset classes or sectors, or as a substitute for investing directly in securities. The risks of owning an ETF generally reflect the risks of owning the underlying securities. Additionally, because the price of ETF shares is based on market price rather than net asset value (NAV), shares may trade at a price greater than NAV (a premium) or less than NAV (a discount). A fund may also incur brokerage commissions, as well as the cost of the bid/ask spread, when purchasing or selling ETF shares.
Private Placement Securities
The funds may invest in private placement securities. Private placement securities are securities that are not registered under the Securities Act of 1933. They are generally eligible for sale only to certain eligible investors. Private placements often may offer attractive opportunities for investment not otherwise available on the open market.
Investments in private placements are generally considered to be illiquid. Privately placed securities may be difficult to sell promptly or at reasonable prices and might thereby cause a fund difficulty in satisfying redemption requests. In addition, less information may be available about companies that make private placements than about publicly offered companies and such companies may not be subject to the disclosure and other investor protection requirements that would be applicable if their securities were publicly traded. Privately placed securities are typically fair valued and generally have no secondary trading market; therefore, such investments may be more difficult to value than publicly traded securities. Difficulty in valuing a private placement may make it difficult to accurately determine a fund’s exposure to private placement investments, which could cause a fund to invest to a greater extent than permitted in illiquid investments and subject a fund to increased risks.
Repurchase Agreements
Each fund may invest in repurchase agreements when they present an attractive short-term return on cash that is not otherwise committed to the purchase of securities pursuant to the investment policies of that fund.
A repurchase agreement occurs when, at the time a fund purchases an interest-bearing obligation, the seller (a bank or a broker-dealer registered under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934) agrees to purchase it on a specified date in the future at an agreed-upon price. The repurchase price reflects an agreed-upon interest rate during the time the fund’s money is invested in the security.
Because the security purchased constitutes collateral for the repurchase obligation, a repurchase agreement can be considered a loan collateralized by the security purchased. The fund’s risk is the seller’s ability to pay the agreed-upon repurchase price on the repurchase date. If the seller defaults, the fund may incur costs in disposing of the collateral, which would reduce the amount realized thereon. If the seller seeks relief under the bankruptcy laws, the disposition of the collateral may be delayed or limited. To the extent the value of the security decreases, the fund could experience a loss.
The funds will limit repurchase agreement transactions to securities issued by the U.S. government and its agencies and instrumentalities, and will enter into such transactions with those banks and securities dealers who are deemed creditworthy by the funds’ advisor.
Repurchase agreements maturing in more than seven days would count toward a fund’s 15% limit on illiquid securities.
Restricted and Illiquid Securities
The funds may, from time to time, purchase restricted or illiquid securities, including Rule 144A securities, when they present attractive investment opportunities that otherwise meet the funds’ criteria for selection. Restricted securities include securities that cannot be sold to the public without registration under the Securities Act of 1933 or the availability of an exemption from registration, or that are “not readily marketable” because they are subject to other legal or contractual delays in or restrictions on resale. Rule 144A securities are securities that are privately placed with and traded among qualified institutional investors rather than the general public. Although Rule 144A securities are considered restricted securities, they are not necessarily illiquid.
With respect to securities eligible for resale under Rule 144A, the advisor will determine the liquidity of such securities pursuant to the fund's Liquidity Risk Management Program, approved by the Board of Directors in accordance with Rule 22e-4.
Because the secondary market for such securities is generally limited to certain qualified institutional investors, the liquidity of such securities may be limited accordingly and a fund may, from time to time, hold a Rule 144A or other security that is illiquid. In such an event, the portfolio managers will consider appropriate remedies to minimize the effect on such fund’s liquidity. Each of the funds may invest no more than 15% of the value of its assets in illiquid securities.
Short Sales
A fund may engage in short sales for cash management purposes only if, at the time of the short sale, the fund owns or has the right to acquire securities equivalent in kind and amount to the securities being sold short.
In a short sale, the seller does not immediately deliver the securities sold and is said to have a short position in those securities until delivery occurs. To make delivery to the purchaser, the executing broker borrows the securities being sold short on behalf of the seller. While the short position is maintained, the seller collateralizes its obligation to deliver the securities sold short in an amount equal to the proceeds of the short sale plus an additional margin amount established by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve. If a fund engages in a short sale, the fund’s custodian will segregate cash, cash equivalents or other appropriate liquid securities on its
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records in an amount sufficient to meet the purchase price. There will be certain additional transaction costs associated with short sales, but the fund will endeavor to offset these costs with income from the investment of the cash proceeds of short sales.
Short-Term Securities
In order to meet anticipated redemptions, anticipated purchases of additional securities for a fund’s portfolio, or, in some cases, for temporary defensive purposes, these funds may invest a portion of their assets in money market and other short-term securities. 
Examples of those securities include:
Securities issued or guaranteed by the U.S. government and its agencies and instrumentalities
Commercial Paper
Certificates of Deposit and Euro Dollar Certificates of Deposit
Bankers’ Acceptances
Short-term notes, bonds, debentures or other debt instruments
Repurchase agreements
Money market funds 
Swap Agreements
Each fund may invest in swap agreements, consistent with its investment objective and strategies. A fund may enter into a swap agreement in order to, for example, attempt to obtain or preserve a particular return or spread at a lower cost than obtaining a return or spread through purchases and/or sales of instruments in other markets; protect against currency fluctuations; attempt to manage duration to protect against any increase in the price of securities the fund anticipates purchasing at a later date; or gain exposure to certain markets in the most economical way possible. 
Swap agreements are two-party contracts entered into primarily by institutional investors for periods ranging from a few weeks to more than one year. In a standard “swap” transaction, two parties agree to exchange the returns (or differentials in rates of return) earned or realized on particular predetermined investments or instruments, which may be adjusted for an interest factor. The gross returns to be exchanged or “swapped” between the parties are generally calculated with respect to a “notional amount,” i.e., the return on or increase in value of a particular dollar amount invested at a particular interest rate, in a particular foreign currency, or in a “basket” of securities representing a particular index. Forms of swap agreements include, for example, interest rate swaps, under which fixed- or floating-rate interest payments on a specific principal amount are exchanged and total return swaps, under which one party agrees to pay the other the total return of a defined underlying asset (usually an index, including inflation indexes, stock, bond or defined portfolio of loans and mortgages) in exchange for fee payments, often a variable stream of cashflows based on a reference rate.
The funds may enter into credit default swap agreements to hedge an existing position by purchasing or selling credit protection. Credit default swaps enable an investor to buy/sell protection against a credit event of a specific issuer. The seller of credit protection against a security or basket of securities receives an up-front or periodic payment to compensate against potential default event(s). The fund may enhance returns by selling protection or attempt to mitigate credit risk by buying protection. Market supply and demand factors may cause distortions between the cash securities market and the credit default swap market.
Whether a fund’s use of swap agreements will be successful depends on the advisor’s ability to predict correctly whether certain types of investments are likely to produce greater returns than other investments. Interest rate swaps could result in losses if interest rate changes are not correctly anticipated by the fund. Total return swaps could result in losses if the reference index, security, or investments do not perform as anticipated by the fund. Credit default swaps could result in losses if the fund does not correctly evaluate the creditworthiness of the issuer on which the credit default swap is based. Because they are two-party contracts and because they may have terms of greater than seven days, swap agreements may be considered to be illiquid. Moreover, a fund bears the risk of loss of the amount expected to be received under a swap agreement in the event of the default or bankruptcy of a swap agreement counterparty. The funds will enter into swap agreements only with counterparties that meet certain standards of creditworthiness or that are cleared through a Derivatives Clearing Organization (“DCO”). Certain restrictions imposed on the funds by the Internal Revenue Code may limit the funds’ ability to use swap agreements.
The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the “Dodd-Frank Act”) and related regulatory developments require the clearing and exchange-trading of certain standardized derivative instruments that the CFTC and SEC have defined as “swaps.” The CFTC has implemented mandatory exchange-trading and clearing requirements under the Dodd-Frank Act and the CFTC continues to approve contracts for central clearing. Although exchange trading is designed to decrease counterparty risk, it does not do so entirely because the fund will still be subject to the credit risk of the central clearinghouse. Cleared swaps are subject to margin requirements imposed by both the central clearinghouse and the clearing member FCM. Uncleared swaps are now subject to posting and collecting collateral on a daily basis to secure mark-to-market obligations (variation margin). Swaps data reporting may subject a fund to administrative costs, and the safeguards established to protect trader anonymity may not function as expected. Exchange trading, central clearing, margin requirements, and data reporting regulations may increase a fund’s cost of hedging risk and, as a result, may affect shareholder returns.
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Tender Option Bonds
Tender Option Bonds (TOBs) were created to increase the supply of high-quality, short-term tax-exempt obligations, and thus they are of particular interest to money market funds.
TOBs are created by municipal bond dealers who purchase long-term tax-exempt bonds in the secondary market, place the certificates in trusts, and sell interests in the trusts with puts or other liquidity guarantees attached. The credit quality of the resulting synthetic short-term instrument is based on the put provider’s short-term rating and the underlying bond’s long-term rating.
There is some risk that a remarketing agent will renege on a tender option agreement if the underlying bond is downgraded or defaults. Because of this, the portfolio managers monitor the credit quality of bonds underlying the funds’ TOB holdings and intend to sell or put back any TOB if the rating on the underlying bond falls below the second-highest rating category designated by a rating agency.
U.S. Government Securities
U.S. Treasury bills, notes, zero-coupon bonds and other bonds are direct obligations of the U.S. Treasury, which has never failed to pay interest and repay principal when due. Treasury bills have initial maturities of one year or less, Treasury notes from two to 10 years, and Treasury bonds more than 10 years. Although U.S. Treasury securities carry little principal risk if held to maturity, the prices of these securities (like all debt securities) change between issuance and maturity in response to fluctuating market interest rates.
A number of U.S. government agencies and instrumentalities issue debt securities. These agencies generally are created by Congress to fulfill a specific need, such as providing credit to home buyers or farmers. Among these agencies are the Federal Home Loan Banks, the Federal Farm Credit Banks and the Resolution Funding Corporation.
Some agency securities are backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. government, and some are guaranteed only by the issuing agency. Agency securities typically offer somewhat higher yields than U.S. Treasury securities with similar maturities. However, these securities may involve greater risk of default than securities backed by the U.S. Treasury.
Interest rates on agency securities may be fixed for the term of the investment (fixed-rate agency securities) or tied to prevailing interest rates (floating-rate agency securities). Interest rate resets on floating-rate agency securities generally occur at intervals of one year or less, based on changes in a predetermined interest rate index.
Floating-rate agency securities frequently have caps limiting the extent to which coupon rates can be raised. The price of a floating-rate agency security may decline if its capped coupon rate is lower than prevailing market interest rates. Fixed- and floating-rate agency securities may be issued with a call date (which permits redemption before the maturity date). The exercise of a call may reduce an obligation’s yield to maturity.
Interest Rate Resets on Floating-Rate U.S. Government Agency Securities
Interest rate resets on floating-rate U.S. government agency securities generally occur at intervals of one year or less in response to changes in a predetermined interest rate index. There are two main categories of indices: those based on U.S. Treasury securities and those derived from a calculated measure, such as a cost-of-funds index. Commonly used indices include the three-month, six-month and one-year Treasury bill rates; the two-year Treasury note yield and the Eleventh District Federal Home Loan Bank Cost of Funds Index (EDCOFI). Fluctuations in the prices of floating-rate U.S. government agency securities are typically attributed to differences between the coupon rates on these securities and prevailing market interest rates between interest rate reset dates.
Variable and Floating-Rate Securities
Variable- and floating-rate securities, including variable-rate demand obligations (VRDOs) and floating-rate notes (FRNs), provide for periodic adjustments to the interest rate. The adjustments are generally based on an index-linked formula, or determined through a remarketing process.
These types of securities may be combined with a put or demand feature that permits the fund to demand payment of principal plus accrued interest from the issuer or a financial institution. Examples of VRDOs include variable-rate demand notes (VRDN) and variable rate demand preferreds (VRDP). VRDNs combine a demand feature with an interest rate reset mechanism designed to result in a market value for the security that approximates par. VRDNs are generally designed to meet the requirements of money market fund Rule 2a-7. VRDPs are issued by a closed-end fund that in turn invests primarily in portfolios of bonds. They feature a floating rate dividend set via a weekly remarketing and have a fixed term, mandatory redemption, and an unconditional par put option.
When-Issued and Forward Commitment Agreements
The funds may sometimes purchase new issues of securities on a when-issued or forward commitment basis in which the transaction price and yield are each fixed at the time the commitment is made, but payment and delivery occur at a future date.
For example, a fund may sell a security and at the same time make a commitment to purchase the same or a comparable security at a future date and specified price. Conversely, a fund may purchase a security and at the same time make a commitment to sell the same or a comparable security at a future date and specified price. These types of transactions are executed simultaneously in what are known as dollar-rolls, buy/sell back transactions, cash and carry, or financing transactions. For example, a broker-dealer may seek to purchase a particular security that a fund owns. The fund will sell that security to the broker-dealer and simultaneously enter into a
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forward commitment agreement to buy it back at a future date. This type of transaction generates income for the fund if the dealer is willing to execute the transaction at a favorable price in order to acquire a specific security.
When purchasing securities on a when-issued or forward commitment basis, a fund assumes the rights and risks of ownership, including the risks of price and yield fluctuations. Market rates of interest on debt securities at the time of delivery may be higher or lower than those contracted for on the when-issued security. Accordingly, the value of that security may decline prior to delivery, which could result in a loss to the fund. While the fund will make commitments to purchase or sell securities with the intention of actually receiving or delivering them, it may sell the securities before the settlement date if doing so is deemed advisable as a matter of investment strategy.
To the extent a fund remains fully invested or almost fully invested at the same time it has purchased securities on a when-issued basis, there will be greater fluctuations in its net asset value than if it solely set aside cash to pay for when-issued securities. When the time comes to pay for the when-issued securities, the fund will meet its obligations with available cash, through the sale of securities, or, although it would not normally expect to do so, by selling the when-issued securities themselves (which may have a market value greater or less than the fund’s payment obligation). Selling securities to meet when-issued or forward commitment obligations may generate taxable capital gains or losses.
Zero-Coupon and Step-Coupon Securities
The funds may purchase zero-coupon debt securities. Zero-coupon securities do not make regular cash interest payments, and are sold at a deep discount to their face value.
The funds may also purchase step-coupon or step-rate debt securities. Instead of having a fixed coupon for the life of the security, coupon or interest payments may increase to predetermined rates at future dates. The issuer generally retains the right to call the security. Some step-coupon securities are issued with no coupon payments at all during an initial period, and only become interest-bearing at a future date; these securities are sold at a deep discount to their face value.
Although zero-coupon and certain step-coupon securities may not pay current cash income, federal income tax law requires the holder to include in income each year the portion of any original issue discount and other noncash income on such securities accrued during that year. In order to continue to qualify for treatment as a regulated investment company under the Internal Revenue Code and avoid certain excise tax, the funds are required to make distributions of any original issue discount and other noncash income accrued for each year. Accordingly, the funds may be required to dispose of other portfolio securities, which may occur in periods of adverse market prices, in order to generate a case to meet these distribution requirements.
Investment Policies
Unless otherwise indicated, with the exception of the percentage limitations on borrowing, the policies described below apply at the time a fund enters into a transaction. Accordingly, any later increase or decrease beyond the specified limitation resulting from a change in a fund’s assets will not be considered in determining whether it has complied with its investment policies.
For purposes of a fund’s investment policies, the party identified as the “issuer” of a municipal security depends on the form and conditions of the security. When the assets and revenues of a political subdivision are separate from those of the government that created the subdivision and the security is backed only by the assets and revenues of the subdivision, the subdivision is deemed the sole issuer. Similarly, in the case of an Industrial Development Bond, if the bond were backed only by the assets and revenues of a non-governmental user, the non-governmental user would be deemed the sole issuer. If, in either case, the creating government or some other entity were to guarantee the security, the guarantee would be considered a separate security and treated as an issue of the guaranteeing entity.
Fundamental Investment Policies
The funds’ fundamental investment policies are set forth below. These investment policies, a fund’s investment objective set forth in its prospectus, and a fund’s status as diversified may not be changed without approval of a majority of the outstanding votes of shareholders of a fund. Under the Investment Company Act, the vote of a majority of the outstanding votes of shareholders means, the vote of (A) 67 percent or more of the voting securities present at a shareholder meeting, if the holders of more than 50 percent of the outstanding voting securities are present or represented by proxy; or (B) more than 50 percent of the outstanding voting securities, whichever is less.
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Subject Policy
Senior
Securities
A fund may not issue senior securities, except as permitted under the Investment Company Act.
Borrowing A fund may not borrow money, except that a fund may borrow for temporary or emergency purposes (not for leveraging or investment) in an amount not exceeding 33⅓% of the fund’s total assets (including the amount borrowed) less liabilities (other than borrowings).
Lending A fund may not lend any security or make any other loan if, as a result, more than 33⅓% of the fund’s total assets would be lent to other parties, except (i) through the purchase of debt securities in accordance with its investment objective, policies and limitations or (ii) by engaging in repurchase agreements with respect to portfolio securities.
Real Estate A fund may not purchase or sell real estate unless acquired as a result of ownership of securities or other instruments. This policy shall not prevent a fund from investing in securities or other instruments backed by real estate or securities of companies that deal in real estate or are engaged in the real estate business.
Concentration A fund may not concentrate its investments in securities of issuers in a particular industry (other than securities issued or guaranteed by the U.S. government or any of its agencies or instrumentalities).
Underwriting A fund may not act as an underwriter of securities issued by others, except to the extent that the fund may be considered an underwriter within the meaning of the Securities Act of 1933 in the disposition of restricted securities.
Commodities A fund may not purchase or sell physical commodities unless acquired as a result of ownership of securities or other instruments, provided that this limitation shall not prohibit the fund from purchasing or selling options and futures contracts or from investing in securities or other instruments backed by physical commodities.
Control A fund may not invest for purposes of exercising control over management.
For purposes of the investment policy relating to senior securities, a fund may borrow from any bank provided that immediately after any such borrowing there is asset coverage of at least 300% for all borrowings of such fund. In the event that such asset coverage falls below 300%, the fund shall, within three days thereafter (not including Sundays and holidays) or such longer period as the SEC may prescribe by rules and regulations, reduce the amount of its borrowings to an extent that the asset coverage of such borrowings is at least 300%. In addition, when a fund enters into certain transactions involving potential leveraging, it will hold offsetting positions or segregate assets to cover such obligations at levels consistent with the guidance of the SEC and its staff.
For purposes of the investment policies relating to lending and borrowing, the funds have received an exemptive order from the SEC regarding an interfund lending program. Under the terms of the exemptive order, the funds may borrow money from or lend money to other American Century Investments-advised funds that permit such transactions. All such transactions will be subject to the limits for borrowing and lending set forth above. The funds will borrow money through the program only when the costs are equal to or lower than the costs of short-term bank loans. Interfund loans and borrowings normally extend only overnight, but can have a maximum duration of seven days. The funds will lend through the program only when the returns are higher than those available from other short-term instruments (such as repurchase agreements). The funds may have to borrow from a bank at a higher interest rate if an interfund loan is called or not renewed. Any delay in repayment to a lending fund could result in a lost investment opportunity or additional borrowing costs.
For purposes of the investment policy relating to concentration, a fund shall not purchase any securities that would cause 25% or more of the value of the fund’s net assets at the time of purchase to be invested in the securities of one or more issuers conducting their principal business activities in the same industry, provided that
(a)there is no limitation with respect to obligations issued or guaranteed by the U.S. government, any state, territory or possession of the United States, the District of Columbia or any of their authorities, agencies, instrumentalities or political subdivisions and repurchase agreements secured by such obligations (except that an Industrial Development Bond backed only by the assets and revenues of a non-governmental user will be deemed to be an investment in the industry represented by such user),
(b)wholly owned finance companies will be considered to be in the industries of their parents if their activities are primarily related to financing the activities of their parents,
(c)utilities will be divided according to their services, for example, gas, gas transmission, electric and gas, electric, and telephone will each be considered a separate industry, and
(d)personal credit and business credit businesses will be considered separate industries.
Nonfundamental Investment Policies
In addition, the funds are subject to the following investment policies that are not fundamental and may be changed by the Board of Directors. 
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Subject Policy
Leveraging A fund may not purchase additional investment securities at any time during which outstanding borrowings exceed 5% of the total assets of the fund.
Liquidity A fund may not purchase any security or enter into a repurchase agreement if, as a result, more than 15% of its net assets would be invested in illiquid securities. Illiquid securities include repurchase agreements not entitling the holder to payment of principal and interest within seven days, and securities that are illiquid by virtue of legal or contractual restrictions on resale or the absence of a readily available market.
Short Sales A fund may not sell securities short, unless it owns or has the right to obtain securities equivalent in kind and amount to the securities sold short, and provided that transactions in futures contracts, options, and other derivative instruments are not deemed to constitute selling securities short.
Margin A fund may not purchase securities on margin, except to obtain such short-term credits as are necessary for the clearance of transactions, and provided that margin payments and other deposits in connection with transactions involving futures, options (puts, calls, etc.) swaps, shorts sales, forward contracts, commitment agreements, and other similar investment techniques shall not be deemed to constitute purchasing securities on margin.
Futures
and Options
A fund may enter into futures contracts and write and buy put and call options relating to futures contracts. A fund may not, however, enter into leveraged futures transactions if it would be possible for the fund to lose more than the notional value of the investment.
Issuers with
Limited
Operating
Histories
A fund may invest in the equity securities of issuers with limited operating histories. See Investment in Issuers with Limited Operating Histories under Fund Investments and Risks. An issuer is considered to have a limited operating history if that issuer has a record of less than three years of continuous operation. Periods of capital formation, incubation, consolidations, and research and development may be considered in determining whether a particular issuer has a record of three years of continuous operation.
   
The Investment Company Act imposes certain additional restrictions upon the funds’ ability to acquire securities issued by insurance companies, broker-dealers, underwriters or investment advisors, and upon transactions with affiliated persons as defined by the Act. It also defines and forbids the creation of cross and circular ownership. Neither the SEC nor any other agency of the federal or state government participates in or supervises the management of the funds or their investment practices or policies.
Temporary Defensive Measures
For temporary defensive purposes, each fund may invest in securities that may not fit its investment objective or its stated market. During a temporary defensive period, a fund may invest a portion of its assets in money market, cash, cash-equivalents or other short-term securities.
Examples of those securities include: 
securities issued or guaranteed by the U.S. government and its agencies and instrumentalities;
commercial paper;
interest-bearing bank accounts or certificates of deposit;
short-term notes, bonds, or other debt instruments;
repurchase agreements; and
money market funds.
To the extent a fund assumes a defensive position, it may not achieve its investment objective.
Portfolio Turnover
The portfolio turnover rate of each fund for its most recent fiscal year is included in the Fund Summary section of that fund’s prospectus. The portfolio turnover rate for each fund’s last five fiscal years (or a shorter period if the fund is less than five years old) is shown in the Financial Highlights tables in the prospectus. Variations in a fund’s portfolio turnover rate from year to year may be due to a fluctuating volume of shareholder purchase and redemption activity, varying market conditions, and/or changes in the managers’ investment outlook. Balanced Fund experienced increased portfolio turnover for the fiscal year ended October 31, 2021, due to changes in the portfolio management team and investment strategy for the equity portion of the fund.
The managers may sell securities without regard to the length of time the security has been held. Accordingly, each fund’s portfolio turnover rate may be substantial.
The portfolio managers intend to purchase a given security whenever they believe it will contribute to the stated objective of a particular fund. In order to achieve each fund’s investment objective, the managers may sell a given security regardless of the length of time it has been held in the portfolio, and regardless of the gain or loss realized on the sale. The managers may sell a portfolio security if they believe that the security is not fulfilling its purpose because, among other things, it did not live up to the managers’ expectations, because it may be replaced with another security holding greater promise, because it has reached its optimum potential,
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because of a change in the circumstances of a particular company or industry or in general economic conditions, or because of some combination of such reasons.
When a general decline in security prices is anticipated, the equity funds may decrease or eliminate entirely their equity positions and increase their cash positions, and when a general rise in price levels is anticipated, the equity funds may increase their equity positions and decrease their cash positions. However, it should be expected that the funds will, under most circumstances, be essentially fully invested in equity securities.
Because investment decisions are based on a particular security’s anticipated contribution to a fund’s investment objective, the managers believe that the rate of portfolio turnover is irrelevant when they determine that a change is required to pursue the fund’s investment objective. As a result, a fund’s annual portfolio turnover rate cannot be anticipated and may be higher than that of other mutual funds with similar investment objectives. Higher turnover would generate correspondingly greater brokerage commissions, which is a cost the funds pay directly. Portfolio turnover also may affect the character of capital gains realized and distributed by the fund, if any, because short-term capital gains are characterized as ordinary income.
Because the managers do not take portfolio turnover rate into account in making investment decisions, (1) the managers have no intention of maintaining any particular rate of portfolio turnover, whether high or low, and (2) the portfolio turnover rates in the past should not be considered as representative of the rates that will be attained in the future.
Disclosure of Portfolio Holdings
The advisor (ACIM) has adopted policies and procedures with respect to the disclosure of fund portfolio holdings and characteristics, which are described below.
Distribution to the Public
Month-end full portfolio holdings for each fund will generally be made available for distribution 15 days after the end of each calendar quarter for each of the preceding three months. This disclosure is in addition to the portfolio disclosure in annual and semiannual shareholder reports and the quarter-end portfolio disclosures on Form N-PORT. Such disclosures are filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission within 60 days of each fiscal quarter end and also posted on americancentury.com at approximately the same time the filings are made. The distribution of holdings after the above time periods is not limited.
On a monthly basis, top 10 holdings (on an absolute basis and relative to the appropriate benchmark) for each fund (except AC Alternatives Market Neutral Value Fund, which is limited to the top five pairs by type, as described below) will generally be made available for distribution 7 days after the end of each month, and will be posted on americancentury.com at approximately the same time.
Portfolio characteristics that are derived from portfolio holdings will be made available for distribution 7 days after the end of each month, or as soon thereafter as possible, which timeframe may vary by fund. Certain characteristics, as determined by the advisor, will be posted on americancentury.com monthly at approximately the time they are made available for distribution. Data derived from portfolio returns and any other characteristics not deemed confidential will be available for distribution at any time. The advisor may make determinations of confidentiality on a fund-by-fund basis, and may add or delete characteristics to or from those considered confidential at any time.
Any American Century Investments fund that sells securities short as an investment strategy will disclose full portfolio holdings in annual and semiannual shareholder reports and on Form N-PORT. These funds will make long and short holdings as of the end of a calendar quarter available for distribution 15 days after the end of each calendar quarter. These funds may also make limited disclosures as noted in the Single Event Requests section below. The distribution of holdings after the above time periods is not limited.
Examples of securities (both long and short) currently or previously held in a portfolio may be included in presentations or other marketing documents as soon as available. The inclusion of such examples is at the relevant portfolio’s team discretion.
So long as portfolio holdings are disclosed in accordance with the above parameters, the advisor makes no distinction among different categories of recipients, such as individual investors, institutional investors, intermediaries that distribute the funds’ shares, third-party service providers, rating and ranking organizations, and fund affiliates. Because this information is publicly available and widely disseminated, the advisor places no conditions or restrictions on, and does not monitor, its use. Nor does the advisor require special authorization for its disclosure.
Accelerated Disclosure
The advisor recognizes that certain parties, in addition to the advisor and its affiliates, may have legitimate needs for information about portfolio holdings and characteristics prior to the times prescribed above. Such accelerated disclosure is permitted under the circumstances described below.
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Ongoing Arrangements
Certain parties, such as investment consultants who provide regular analysis of fund portfolios for their clients and intermediaries who pass through information to fund shareholders, may have legitimate needs for accelerated disclosure. These needs may include, for example, the preparation of reports for customers who invest in the funds, the creation of analyses of fund characteristics for intermediary or consultant clients, the reformatting of data for distribution to the intermediary’s or consultant’s clients, and the review of fund performance for ERISA fiduciary purposes.
In such cases, accelerated disclosure is permitted if the service provider enters an appropriate non-disclosure agreement with the funds’ distributor in which it agrees to treat the information confidentially until the public distribution date and represents that the information will be used only for the legitimate services provided to its clients (i.e., not for trading). Non-disclosure agreements require the approval of an attorney in the advisor’s legal department. The advisor’s compliance department receives quarterly reports detailing which clients received accelerated disclosure, what they received, when they received it and the purposes of such disclosure. Compliance personnel are required to confirm that an appropriate non-disclosure agreement has been obtained from each recipient identified in the reports.
Those parties who have entered into non-disclosure agreements as of December 31, 2022, are as follows:
Aetna Inc.
Alight Solutions LLC
AllianceBernstein L.P.
American Fidelity Assurance Co.
Ameritas Life Insurance Corporation
AMP Capital Investors Limited
Annuity Investors Life Insurance Company
Aon Hewitt Investment Consulting
Athene Annuity & Life Assurance Company
AUL/American United Life Insurance Company
AXA Equitable Funds Management Group, LLC
Bell Globemedia Publishing
Bellwether Consulting, LLC
BNY Mellon Performance & Risk Analytics, LLC
Brighthouse Life Insurance Company
Callan Associates, Inc.
Calvert Asset Management Company, Inc.
Cambridge Associates, LLC
Cambridge Financial Services, Inc.
Capital Cities, LLC
CBIZ, Inc.
Charles Schwab & Co., Inc.
Choreo, LLC
Clearwater Analytics, LLC
Cleary Gull Inc.
Commerce Bank
Connecticut General Life Insurance Company
Corestone Investment Managers AG
Corning Incorporated
Curcio Webb LLC
Deutsche AM Distributors, Inc.
Eckler, Ltd.
Electra Information Systems, Inc.
Equitable Investment Management Group, LLC
EquiTrust Life Insurance Company
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Farm Bureau Life Insurance Company
Fidelity Workplace Services, LLC
FIL Investment Management
Finance-Doc Multimanagement AG
Fund Evaluation Group, LLC
Government Employees Pension Service
Great-West Financial Retirement Plan Services, LLC
GSAM Strategist Portfolios, LLC
The Guardian Life Insurance Company of America
Intel Corporation
InvesTrust Consulting, LLC
Iron Capital Advisors
Jefferson National Life Insurance Company
JLT Investment Management Limited
John Hancock Financial Services, Inc.
Kansas City Life Insurance Company
Kiwoom Asset Management
Kmotion, Inc.
Korea Investment Management Co. Ltd.
Korea Teachers Pension
Legal Super Pty Ltd.
The Lincoln National Life Insurance Company
Lipper Inc.
Marquette Associates
Massachusetts Mutual Life Insurance Company
Mercer Investment Management, Inc.
Merian Global Investors Limited
Merrill Lynch
Midland National Life Insurance Company
Minnesota Life Insurance Company
Modern Woodmen of America
Montana Board of Investments
Morgan Stanley Wealth Management
Morningstar Investment Management LLC
Morningstar, Inc.
Morningstar Investment Services, Inc.
MUFG Union Bank, NA
Mutual of America Life Insurance Company
National Life Insurance Company
Nationwide Financial
NEPC
The Newport Group
Nomura Asset Management U.S.A. Inc.
Nomura Securities International, Inc.
The Northern Trust Company
Northwestern Mutual Life Insurance Co.
NYLIFE Distributors, LLC
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Pacific Life Insurance Company
Principal Life Insurance Company
Prudential Financial
RidgeWorth Capital Management, Inc.
Rocaton Investment Advisors, LLC
RVK, Inc.
S&P Financial Communications
Säästöpankki (The Savings Banks)
Security Benefit Life Insurance Co.
Shinhan Asset Management
State Street Global Exchange
State Street Global Markets Canada Inc.
Stellantis
Symetra Life Insurance Company
Tokio Marine Asset Management Co., Ltd.
Towers Watson Investment Services, Inc.
Truist Bank
UBS Financial Services, Inc.
UBS Wealth Management
Univest Company
Valic Financial Advisors Inc.
VALIC Retirement Services Company
Vestek Systems, Inc.
Voya Retirement Insurance and Annuity Company
Wells Fargo Bank, N.A.
Wilshire Associates Incorporated
Zeno Consulting Group, LLC
Once a party has executed a non-disclosure agreement, it may receive any or all of the following data for funds in which its clients have investments or are actively considering investment:
(1) Full holdings (both long and short) quarterly as soon as reasonably available;
(2) Full holdings (long only) monthly as soon as reasonably available;
(3) Top 10 holdings (top 5 pairs for each type for AC Alternatives Market Neutral Value Fund) monthly as soon as reasonably available; and
(4) Portfolio attributes (such as sector or country weights), characteristics and performance attribution monthly as soon as reasonably available.
The types, frequency and timing of disclosure to such parties vary.
Single Event Requests
In certain circumstances, the advisor may provide fund holding information on an accelerated basis outside of an ongoing arrangement with manager-level or higher authorization. For example, from time to time the advisor may receive requests for proposals (RFPs) from consultants or potential clients that request information about a fund’s holdings on an accelerated basis. As long as such requests are on a one-time basis, and do not result in continued receipt of data, such information may be provided in the RFP. In these circumstances, top 15 long and short holdings may be disclosed 7 days after the end of each month. Such disclosure may be presented in paired trades, such as by showing a long holding in one sector or security and a corresponding short holding in another sector or security together to show a long/short strategy. Such information will be provided with a confidentiality legend and only in cases where the advisor has reason to believe that the data will be used only for legitimate purposes and not for trading.
Service Providers
Various service providers to the funds and the funds’ advisor must have access to some or all of the funds’ portfolio holdings information on an accelerated basis from time to time in the ordinary course of providing services to the funds. These service providers include the funds’ custodian (daily, with no lag), auditors (as needed) and brokers involved in the execution of fund trades
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(as needed). Additional information about these service providers and their relationships with the funds and the advisor are provided elsewhere in this statement of additional information. In addition, the funds’ investment advisor may use analytical systems provided by third party data aggregators who have access to the funds’ portfolio holdings daily, with no lag. These data aggregators enter into separate non-disclosure agreements after authorization by an appropriate officer of the advisor. The agreements with service providers and data aggregators generally require that they treat the funds’ portfolio holdings information confidentially until the public distribution date and represent that the information will be used only for the legitimate services it provides (i.e., not for trading).
Additional Safeguards
The advisor’s policies and procedures include a number of safeguards designed to control disclosure of portfolio holdings and characteristics so that such disclosure is consistent with the best interests of fund shareholders, including procedures to address conflicts between the interests of shareholders and those of the advisor and its affiliates. First, the frequency with which this information is disclosed to the public, and the length of time between the date of the information and the date on which the information is disclosed, are selected to minimize the possibility of a third party improperly benefiting from fund investment decisions to the detriment of fund shareholders. In the event that a request for portfolio holdings or characteristics creates a potential conflict of interest that is not addressed by the safeguards and procedures described above, the advisor’s procedures require that such requests may only be granted with the approval of the advisor’s legal department and the relevant chief investment officers. In addition, distribution of portfolio holdings information, including compliance with the advisor’s policies and the resolution of any potential conflicts that may arise, is monitored quarterly by the advisor’s compliance department. Finally, the funds’ Board of Directors exercises oversight of disclosure of the funds’ portfolio securities. The board has received and reviewed a summary of the advisor’s policy and is informed on a quarterly basis of any changes to or violations of such policy detected during the prior quarter.
Neither the advisor nor the funds receive any compensation from any party for the distribution of portfolio holdings information.
The advisor reserves the right to change its policies and procedures with respect to the distribution of portfolio holdings information at any time. There is no guarantee that these policies and procedures will protect the funds from the potential misuse of holdings information by individuals or firms in possession of such information.
Management
The Board of Directors
The individuals listed below serve as directors of the funds. Each director will continue to serve in this capacity until death, retirement, resignation or removal from office. The board has adopted a mandatory retirement age for directors who are not “interested persons,” as that term is defined in the Investment Company Act (independent directors). Independent directors shall retire on December 31 of the year in which they reach their 75th birthday.
Jonathan S. Thomas is an “interested person” because he currently serves as President and Chief Executive Officer of American Century Companies, Inc. (ACC), the parent company of American Century Investment Management, Inc. (ACIM or the advisor). The other directors (more than three-fourths of the total number) are independent. They are not employees, directors or officers of, and have no financial interest in, ACC or any of its wholly owned, direct or indirect, subsidiaries, including ACIM, American Century Investment Services, Inc. (ACIS) and American Century Services, LLC (ACS), and they do not have any other affiliations, positions or relationships that would cause them to be considered “interested persons” under the Investment Company Act. The directors serve in this capacity for seven (in the case of Jonathan S. Thomas, 16; and Stephen E. Yates, 8) registered investment companies in the American Century Investments family of funds.
The following table presents additional information about the directors. The mailing address for each director is 4500 Main Street, Kansas City, Missouri 64111. 
31




Name (Year of Birth)  
Position(s)
Held with
Funds  
Length of
Time Served  
Principal Occupation(s) During Past 5 Years  
Number of
American
Century
Portfolios
Overseen
by Director  
Other Directorships
Held During Past
5 Years  
Independent Directors  
       
Brian Bulatao
(1964)
Director  Since 2022
Chief Administrative Officer, Activision Blizzard, Inc. (2021 to present); Under Secretary of State for Management, U.S. Department of State (2018 to 2021); Chief Operating Officer, Central Intelligence Agency (2017 to 2018)
64 None
Thomas W. Bunn (1953) Director Since 2017 Retired 64 None
Chris H. Cheesman
(1962)
Director
Since 2019
Retired. Senior Vice President & Chief Audit Executive, AllianceBernstein (1999 to 2018)
64
Alleghany Corporation
(2021 to 2022)
Barry Fink
(1955)
Director Since 2012 (independent since 2016) Retired 64 None
Rajesh K. Gupta (1960)
Director
Since 2019
Partner Emeritus, SeaCrest Investment Management and SeaCrest Wealth Management (2019 to present); Chief Executive Officer and Chief Investment Officer, SeaCrest Investment Management (2006 to 2019);  Chief Executive Officer and Chief Investment Officer, SeaCrest Wealth Management (2008 to 2019)
64
None
Lynn Jenkins (1963)
Director
Since 2019
Consultant, LJ Strategies (2019 to present); United States Representative, U.S. House of Representatives (2009 to 2018)
64
MGP Ingredients, Inc. (2019 to 2021)
Jan M. Lewis
(1957)
Director and Board Chair Since 2011 (Board Chair since 2022) Retired 64 None
Gary C. Meltzer
(1963)
Director Since 2022
Advisor, Pontoro (2021 to present); Executive Advisor, Consultant and Investor, Harris Ariel Advisory LLC (2020 to present); Managing Partner, PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP (1985 to 2020)
64
ExcelFin Acquisition Corp., Apollo Realty Income Solutions, Inc.
Stephen E. Yates
(1948)
Director Since 2012 Retired 108 None
Interested Director  
     
Jonathan S. Thomas
(1963)
Director
Since 2007
President and Chief Executive Officer, ACC (2007 to present). Also serves as Chief Executive Officer, ACS; Director, ACC and other ACC subsidiaries
140 None
32




Qualifications of Directors
Generally, no one factor was decisive in the selection of the directors to the board. Qualifications considered by the board to be important to the selection and retention of directors include the following: (i) the individual’s business and professional experience and accomplishments; (ii) the individual’s educational background and accomplishments; (iii) the individual’s experience and expertise performing senior policy-making functions in business, government, education, accounting, law and/or administration; (iv) how the individual’s expertise and experience would contribute to the mix of relevant skills and experience on the board; (v) the individual’s ability to work effectively with the other members of the board; and (vi) the individual’s ability and willingness to make the time commitment necessary to serve as an effective director. In addition, the individuals’ ability to review and critically evaluate information, their ability to evaluate fund service providers, their ability to exercise good business judgment on behalf of fund shareholders, their prior service on the board, and their familiarity with the funds are considered important assets. 
When assessing potential new directors, the board has a policy of considering individuals from various and diverse backgrounds. Such diverse backgrounds may include differences in professional experience, education, individual skill sets and other individual attributes. Additional information about each director’s individual educational and professional experience (supplementing the information provided in the table above) follows and was considered as part of his or her nomination to, or retention on, the board.
Brian Bulatao: BS in Engineering Management, United States Military Academy at West Point; MBA from Harvard Business School; former military service followed by experience at McKinsey & Co. (global management consulting) and in the private equity industry; experience in senior management positions in government and the private sector
Thomas W. Bunn: BS in Business Administration, Wake Forest University; MBA in Finance, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; formerly Vice Chairman and President, KeyCorp (banking services); 31 years of experience in investment, commercial and corporate banking managing directorship roles with Bank of America
Chris H. Cheesman: BS in Business Administration (Accounting), Hofstra University; 32 years of experience in global financial services at AllianceBernstein; formerly, auditor with Price Waterhouse; Certified Public Accountant and Certified Financial Services Auditor
Barry Fink: BA in English and History, Binghamton University; Juris Doctorate, University of Michigan; formerly held leadership roles including chief operating officer with American Century Investments; formerly held leadership roles during a 20-year career with Morgan Stanley Investment Management; formerly asset management and securities law attorney at Seward & Kissel; serves on the Executive Committee of the Board of Directors of ICI Mutual Insurance Company
Rajesh K. Gupta: BS in Quantitative Analysis, New York University, Stern School of Business; MBA in Finance, New York University, Stern School of Business; formerly held leadership roles during 19-year career with Morgan Stanley Investment Management
Lynn Jenkins: BS in Accounting, Weber State University; AA in Business, Kansas State University; formerly, United States Representative; formerly, Kansas State Treasurer, Kansas State Senator and Kansas State Representative; 20 years of experience in finance and accounting, including as a certified public accountant
Jan M. Lewis: BS in Civil Engineering, University of Nebraska and MBA, Rockhurst College; Graduate Certificate in Financial Markets and Institutions, Boston University; formerly, President and Chief Executive Officer, Catholic Charities of Northeast Kansas (human services organization); formerly, President, BUCON, Inc. (full-service design-build construction company); 20 years of experience with Butler Manufacturing Company (metal buildings producer) and its subsidiaries
Gary C. Meltzer: BS in Accounting, Binghamton University; Certified Public Accountant; formerly held a variety of roles during 35 years of experience as business advisor and independent auditor providing high quality audits and value-added services with PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP
Jonathan S. Thomas: BA in Economics, University of Massachusetts; MBA, Boston College; formerly held senior leadership roles with Fidelity Investments, Boston Financial Services, Bank of America and Morgan Stanley; serves on the Board of Governors of the Investment Company Institute
Stephen E. Yates: BS and MS in Industrial Engineering, University of Alabama; formerly, Executive Vice President, Technology & Operations, Key Corp (banking services); formerly, President, USAA Information Technology Company (financial services); 33 years of experience in Information Technology; formerly, Director, Applied Industrial Technologies, Inc.
Responsibilities of the Board
The board is responsible for overseeing the advisor’s management and operations of the funds pursuant to the management agreements. Directors also have significant responsibilities under the federal securities laws. Among other things, they: 
oversee the performance of the funds;
oversee the quality of the advisory and shareholder services provided by the advisor and other service providers to the funds;
review annually the fees paid to the advisor for its services;
monitor potential conflicts of interest between the funds and their affiliates, including the advisor;     
33




oversee custody of assets and the valuation of securities; and
oversee the funds’ compliance program.
In performing their duties, board members receive detailed information about the funds, the advisor and other service providers to the funds regularly throughout the year, and meet at least quarterly with management of the advisor to review reports about fund operations. The directors’ role is to provide oversight and not to provide day-to-day management.
The board has all powers necessary or convenient to carry out its responsibilities. Consequently, the board may adopt bylaws providing for the regulation and management of the affairs of the funds and may amend and repeal them to the extent that such bylaws do not reserve that right to the funds’ shareholders. They may increase or reduce the number of board members and may, subject to the Investment Company Act, fill board vacancies. Board members also may elect and remove such officers and appoint and terminate such agents as they consider appropriate. They may establish and terminate committees consisting of two or more directors who may exercise the powers and authority of the board as determined by the directors. They may, in general, delegate such authority as they consider desirable to any officer of the funds, to any board committee and to any agent or employee of the funds or to any custodian, transfer agent, investor servicing agent, principal underwriter or other service provider for a fund.
To communicate with the board, or a member of the board, a shareholder should send a written communication addressed to the attention of the corporate secretary (the “Corporate Secretary”) at American Century funds, P.O. Box 418210, Kansas City, Missouri 64141-9210. Shareholders who prefer to communicate by email may send their comments to [email protected]. The Corporate Secretary will forward all such communications to each member of the Compliance and Shareholder Services Committee, or if applicable, the individual director(s) and/or committee chair named in the correspondence. However, if a shareholder communication is addressed exclusively to the funds’ independent directors, the Corporate Secretary will forward the communication to the Compliance and Shareholder Services Committee chair, who will determine the appropriate action.
Board Leadership Structure and Standing Board Committees
Jan M. Lewis currently serves as the independent board chair and has served in such capacity since 2022. All of the board’s members except for Jonathan S. Thomas are independent directors. The independent directors meet separately, as needed and at least in conjunction with each quarterly meeting of the board, to oversee fund activities, review contractual arrangements with service providers, review fund performance and meet periodically with the funds’ Chief Compliance Officer and fund auditors. They are advised by independent legal counsel. No independent director may serve as an officer or employee of a fund. The board has also established several committees, as described below. The board believes that the current leadership structure, with independent directors filling all but one position on the board, with an independent director serving as board chair, and with the board committees comprised only of independent directors, is appropriate and allows for independent oversight of the funds.
The board has an Audit Committee that approves the funds’ (or corporation’s) engagement of the independent registered public accounting firm and recommends approval of such engagement to the funds’ board. The committee also oversees the activities of the accounting firm, receives regular reports regarding fund accounting, oversees securities valuation by the advisor as valuation designee and receives regular reports from the advisor’s internal audit department. The Audit Committee meets with the corporation’s independent auditors to review and approve the scope and results of their professional services; to review the procedures for evaluating the adequacy of the corporation’s accounting controls; to consider the range of audit fees; and to make recommendations to the board regarding the engagement of the funds’ independent auditors. The committee currently consists of Chris H. Cheesman (chair), Barry Fink, Lynn M. Jenkins and Gary C. Meltzer. It met five times during the fiscal year ended October 31, 2022.      
The board has a Governance Committee that is responsible for reviewing board procedures and committee structures. The committee also considers and recommends individuals for nomination as directors. The names of potential director candidates may be drawn from a number of sources, including members of the board, management and shareholders. Shareholders may submit director nominations at any time to the Corporate Secretary, American Century funds, P.O. Box 418210, Kansas City, MO 64141-9210. When submitting nominations, shareholders should include the name, age and address of the candidate, as well as a detailed resume of the candidate’s qualifications and a signed statement from the candidate of his/her willingness to serve on the board. Shareholders submitting nominations should also include information concerning the number of fund shares and length of time held by the shareholder, and if applicable, similar information for the potential candidate. All nominations submitted by shareholders will be forwarded to the chair of the Governance Committee for consideration. The Corporate Secretary will maintain copies of such materials for future reference by the committee when filling board positions.
If this process yields more than one desirable candidate, the committee will rank them by order of preference depending on their qualifications and the funds’ needs. The candidate(s) may then be contacted to evaluate their interest and be interviewed by the full committee. Based upon its evaluation and any appropriate background checks, the committee will decide whether to recommend a candidate’s nomination to the board.
The Governance Committee also may recommend the creation of new committees, evaluate the membership structure of new and existing committees, consider the frequency and duration of board and committee meetings and otherwise evaluate the responsibilities,
34




processes, resources, performance and compensation of the board. The committee currently consists of Barry Fink (chair), Lynn M. Jenkins, Jan M. Lewis and Stephen E. Yates. It met four times during the fiscal year ended October 31, 2022.    
The board also has a Compliance and Shareholder Services Committee, which reviews the results of the funds’ compliance testing program, meets regularly with the funds’ Chief Compliance Officer, reviews shareholder communications, reviews quarterly reports regarding the quality of shareholder service provided by the advisor, and monitors implementation of the funds’ Code of Ethics. The committee currently consists of Thomas W. Bunn (chair), Brian Bulatao, Rajesh K. Gupta, Jan M. Lewis and Stephen E. Yates. It met four times during the fiscal year ended October 31, 2022.
The board has a Fund Performance Review Committee that meets quarterly to review the investment activities and strategies used to manage fund assets and monitor investment performance. The committee regularly receives reports from the advisor’s chief investment officer, portfolio managers and other investment personnel concerning the funds’ efforts to achieve their investment objectives. The committee also receives information regarding fund trading activities and monitors derivative usage. The Committee does not review individual security selections. The committee currently consists of Rajesh K. Gupta (chair), Brian Bulatao, Thomas W. Bunn, Chris H. Cheesman, Barry Fink, Lynn M. Jenkins, Jan M. Lewis, Gary C. Meltzer and Stephen E. Yates. The committee met four times during the fiscal year ended October 31, 2022.   
Risk Oversight by the Board
As previously disclosed, the board oversees the advisor’s management of the funds and meets at least quarterly with management of the advisor to review reports and receive information regarding fund operations. Risk oversight relating to the funds is one component of the board’s oversight and is undertaken in connection with the duties of the board. As described above, the board’s committees assist the board in overseeing various types of risks relating to the funds, including, but not limited to, investment risk, operational risk and enterprise risk. The board receives regular reports from each committee regarding the committee’s areas of oversight responsibility and, through those reports and its regular interactions with management of the advisor during and between meetings, analyzes, evaluates, and provides feedback on the advisor’s risk management processes. In addition, the board receives information regarding, and has discussions with senior management of the advisor about, the advisor’s enterprise risk management system and strategies, including an annual review of the advisor’s risk management practices. There can be no assurance that all elements of risk, or even all elements of material risk, will be disclosed to or identified by the board, or that the advisor’s risk management systems and strategies, and the board’s oversight thereof, will mitigate all elements of risk, or even all elements of material risk to the funds.
Board Compensation
For the fiscal year ended October 31, 2022, each independent director received the following compensation for his or her service to the funds and the American Century family of funds. Under the terms of the management agreement with the advisor, the funds are responsible for paying such fees and expenses. Neither Jonathan Thomas nor any officers of the funds receives compensation from the funds. Because Mr. Bulatao and Mr. Meltzer were not directors as of the fiscal year end, they are not included in the table below.
Name of Director
Total Compensation for Services as Director of
the Funds(1)
Total Compensation for Service as Directors/Trustees for the American
Century Investments Family of Funds(2)
Independent Directors  
Thomas W. Bunn $138,942 $343,500
Chris H. Cheesman

$138,942 $343,500
Barry Fink $138,942 $343,500
Rajesh K. Gupta $138,942 $343,500
Lynn Jenkins $135,868 $336,000
Jan M. Lewis $156,688 $388,000
John R. Whitten(3)
$23,045 $54,250
Stephen E. Yates $136,971 $452,167
1   Includes compensation paid to the directors for the fiscal year ended October 31, 2022, and also includes amounts deferred at the election of the directors under the American Century Mutual Funds’ Independent Directors’ Deferred Compensation Plan. 
2   Includes compensation paid to each director for his or her service as director/trustee for seven (in the case of Mr. Yates, eight) investment companies in the American Century Investments family of funds. The total amount of deferred compensation included in the table is as follows: Mr. Bunn, $0; Mr. Cheesman, $0; Mr. Fink, $0; Mr. Gupta, $0; Ms. Jenkins, $134,400; Ms. Lewis, $0; Mr. Whitten, $0; and Mr. Yates, $76,750. 
3 Mr. Whitten retired from the board on December 31, 2021.
None of the funds currently provides any pension or retirement benefits to the directors except pursuant to the American Century Mutual Funds’ Independent Directors’ Deferred Compensation Plan adopted by the corporation. Under the plan, the independent directors may defer receipt of all or any part of the fees to be paid to them for serving as directors of the funds. All deferred fees are credited to accounts established in the names of the directors. The amounts credited to each account then increase or decrease, as the case may be, in accordance with the performance of one or more American Century funds selected by the directors. The account
35




balance continues to fluctuate in accordance with the performance of the selected fund or funds until final payment of all amounts credited to the account. Directors are allowed to change their designation of funds from time to time. 
Generally, deferred fees are not payable to a director until the distribution date elected by the director in accordance with the terms of the plan. Such distribution date may be a date on or after the director’s retirement date, but may be an earlier date if the director agrees not to make any additional deferrals after such distribution date. Distributions may commence prior to the elected payment date for certain reasons specified in the plan, such as unforeseeable emergencies, death or disability. Directors may receive deferred fee account balances either in a lump sum payment or in substantially equal installment payments to be made over a period not to exceed 10 years. Upon the death of a director, all remaining deferred fee account balances are paid to the director’s beneficiary or, if none, to the director’s estate.
The plan is an unfunded plan and, accordingly, the funds have no obligation to segregate assets to secure or fund the deferred fees. To date, the funds have met all payment obligations under the plan. The rights of directors to receive their deferred fee account balances are the same as the rights of a general unsecured creditor of the funds. The plan may be terminated at any time by the administrative committee of the plan. If terminated, all deferred fee account balances will be paid in a lump sum.
36




Ownership of Fund Shares
The directors owned shares in the funds as of December 31, 2022 as shown in the table below.
Name of Director
  Jonathan S.
Thomas
Brian
 Bulatao
Thomas W.
 Bunn
Chris H.
 Cheesman
Barry
Fink
Dollar Range of Equity Securities in the Funds:
Balanced A A A A A
Growth E A A A A
Heritage E A A A A
Select E A A A A
Small Cap Growth E A A B A
Sustainable Equity C A A A A
Ultra E A E A A
Aggregate Dollar Range of Equity
Securities in all Registered Investment
Companies Overseen by Director
in Family of Investment Companies
E A E E E
Ranges: A—none, B—$1-$10,000, C—$10,001-$50,000, D—$50,001-$100,000, E—More than $100,000 
Name of Director
  Rajesh K.
Gupta
Lynn
 Jenkins
Jan M.
Lewis
Gary C.
Meltzer
Stephen E.
Yates
Dollar Range of Equity Securities in the Funds:
Balanced A E A A A
Growth A A E A A
Heritage A A D A E
Select A A D A A
Small Cap Growth A A D A A
Sustainable Equity A A A A A
Ultra A A A A E
Aggregate Dollar Range of Equity
Securities in all Registered Investment
Companies Overseen by Director
in Family of Investment Companies
E E E A E
Ranges: A—none, B—$1-$10,000, C—$10,001-$50,000, D—$50,001-$100,000, E—More than $100,000 

37




Beneficial Ownership of Affiliates by Independent Directors
No independent director or his or her immediate family members beneficially owned shares of the advisor, the funds’ principal underwriter or any other person directly or indirectly controlling, controlled by, or under common control with the advisor or the funds’ principal underwriter as of December 31, 2022.
Officers
The following table presents certain information about the executive officers of the funds. Each officer serves as an officer for 16 investment companies in the American Century family of funds. No officer is compensated for his or her service as an officer of the funds. The listed officers are interested persons of the funds and are appointed or re-appointed on an annual basis. The mailing address for each officer listed below is 4500 Main Street, Kansas City, Missouri 64111.
Name (Year
of Birth)
Offices with
the Funds
Principal Occupation(s) During the Past Five Years
Patrick Bannigan
(1965)
President since 2019
Executive Vice President and Director, ACC (2012 to present). Chief Financial Officer, Chief Accounting Officer and Treasurer, ACC (2015 to present); Also serves as President, ACS; Vice President, ACIM; Chief Financial Officer, Chief Accounting Officer and/or Director, ACIM, ACS and other ACC subsidiaries

R. Wes Campbell (1974)

Chief Financial Officer and Treasurer since 2018
Vice President, ACS, (2020 to present); Investment Operations and Investment Accounting, ACS (2000 to present)
Amy D. Shelton
(1964)
Chief Compliance
Officer and Vice President since 2014
Chief Compliance Officer, American Century funds (2014 to present); Chief Compliance Officer, ACIM (2014 to present); Chief Compliance Officer, ACIS (2009 to present). Also serves as Vice President, ACIS
John Pak
(1968)
General Counsel and
Senior Vice President since 2021
General Counsel and Senior Vice President, ACC (2021 to present); Also serves as General Counsel and Senior Vice President, ACIM, ACS and ACIS. Chief Legal Officer of Investment and Wealth Management, The Bank of New York Mellon (2014 to 2021)
David H.
Reinmiller
(1963)
Vice President
since 2000
Attorney, ACC (1994 to present). Also serves as Vice President, ACIM and ACS
Ward D.
Stauffer
(1960)
Secretary
since 2005
Attorney, ACC (2003 to present)
Code of Ethics
The funds, their investment advisor, principal underwriter and, if applicable, subadvisor have adopted codes of ethics under Rule 17j-1 of the Investment Company Act. They permit personnel subject to the codes to invest in securities, including securities that may be purchased or held by the funds, provided that they first obtain approval from the compliance department before making such investments.
Proxy Voting Policies
The advisor is responsible for exercising the voting rights associated with the securities purchased and/or held by the funds. The funds’ Board of Directors has approved the advisor’s proxy voting policies to govern the advisor’s proxy voting activities.
A copy of the advisor’s proxy voting policies is attached hereto as Appendix E. Information regarding how the advisor voted proxies relating to portfolio securities during the most recent 12-month period ended June 30 is available at americancentury.com/proxy. The advisor’s proxy voting record also is available on the SEC’s website at sec.gov.
38




The Funds’ Principal Shareholders
A list of the funds’ principal shareholders appears in Appendix A.
Service Providers
The funds have no employees. To conduct the funds’ day-to-day activities, the corporation has hired a number of service providers. Each service provider has a specific function to fill on behalf of the funds that is described below.
ACIM, ACS and ACIS are wholly owned, directly or indirectly, by ACC. The Stowers Institute for Medical Research (SIMR) controls ACC by virtue of its beneficial ownership of more than 25% of the voting securities of ACC. SIMR is part of a not-for-profit biomedical research organization dedicated to finding the keys to the causes, treatments and prevention of disease.
Investment Advisor
American Century Investment Management, Inc. (ACIM) serves as the investment advisor for each of the funds. A description of the responsibilities of the advisor appears in each prospectus under the heading Management.
Each class of each fund is subject to a contractual unified management fee based on a percentage of the daily net assets of such class. For more information about the unified management fee, see The Investment Advisor under the heading Management in each fund’s prospectus. The amount of the fee is calculated daily and paid monthly in arrears. For each fund with a stepped fee schedule, the rate of the fee is determined by applying the formula indicated in the table below. This formula takes into account the assets of the fund as well as certain assets, if any, of other clients of the advisor outside the American Century Investments fund family (such as subadvised funds and separate accounts), as well as exchange-traded funds managed by the advisor, that use very similar investment teams and strategies (strategy assets). The use of strategy assets, rather than fund assets alone, in calculating the fee rate for a particular fund could allow the fund to realize scheduled cost savings more quickly. However, it is possible that a fund’s strategy assets will not include assets of other accounts or that any such assets may not be sufficient to result in a lower fee rate. The management fee schedules for the funds appear below.

Fund Class Percentage of Strategy Assets
Balanced Investor 0.900% of the first $1 billion
0.800% over $1 billion
  I and R5 0.700% of the first $1 billion
0.600% over $1 billion
Growth Investor, A, C, and R 0.990% of the first $4 billion
0.970% of the next $4 billion
0.950% of the next $4 billion
0.930% of the next $4 billion
0.910% of the next $4 billion
0.890% of the next $5 billion
0.800% over $25 billion
  I and R5 0.790% of the first $4 billion
0.770% of the next $4 billion
0.750% of the next $4 billion
0.730% of the next $4 billion
0.710% of the next $4 billion
0.690% of the next $5 billion
0.600% over $25 billion
  Y, R6 and G 0.640% of the first $4 billion
0.620% of the next $4 billion
0.600% of the next $4 billion
0.580% of the next $4 billion
0.560% of the next $4 billion
0.540% of the next $5 billion
0.450% over $25 billion
Heritage Investor, A, C and R 1.000%
  I and R5 0.800%
  Y, R6 and G 0.650%
39




Fund Class Percentage of Strategy Assets
Select Investor, A, C and R 0.990% of the first $4 billion
0.970% of the next $4 billion
0.950% of the next $4 billion
0.930% of the next $4 billion
0.910% of the next $4 billion
0.890% of the next $5 billion
0.800% over $25 billion
  I and R5 0.790% of the first $4 billion
0.770% of the next $4 billion
0.750% of the next $4 billion
0.730% of the next $4 billion
0.710% of the next $4 billion
0.690% of the next $5 billion
0.600% over $25 billion
Y and R6 0.640% of the first $4 billion
0.620% of the next $4 billion
0.600% of the next $4 billion
0.580% of the next $4 billion
0.560% of the next $4 billion
0.540% of the next $5 billion
0.450% over $25 billion
Small Cap Growth Investor, A, C and R 1.500% of the first $250 million
1.250% of the next $250 million
1.150% of the next $250 million
1.100% over $750 million
  I and R5 1.300% of the first $250 million
1.050% of the next $250 million
0.950% of the next $250 million
0.900% over $750 million
Y, R6 and G 1.150% of the first $250 million
0.900% of the next $250 million
0.800% of the next $250 million
0.750% over $750 million
Sustainable Equity Investor, A, C and R 0.790% of the first $5 billion
0.765% of the next $5 billion
0.740% over $10 billion
  I and R5 0.590% of the first $5 billion
0.565% of the next $5 billion
0.540% over $10 billion
Y, R6 and G 0.440% of the first $5 billion
0.415% of the next $5 billion
0.390% over $10 billion
Ultra Investor, A, C and R 0.990% of the first $4 billion
0.970% of the next $4 billion
0.950% of the next $4 billion
0.930% of the next $4 billion
0.910% of the next $4 billion
0.890% of the next $5 billion
0.800% over $25 billion
40




Fund Class Percentage of Strategy Assets
  I and R5 0.790% of the first $4 billion
0.770% of the next $4 billion
0.750% of the next $4 billion
0.730% of the next $4 billion
0.710% of the next $4 billion
0.690% of the next $5 billion
0.600% over $25 billion
Y, R6 and G 0.640% of the first $4 billion
0.620% of the next $4 billion
0.600% of the next $4 billion
0.580% of the next $4 billion
0.560% of the next $4 billion
0.540% of the next $5 billion
0.450% over $25 billion

On each calendar day, each class of each fund accrues a management fee that is equal to the class’s management fee rate (as calculated pursuant to the above schedules) times the net assets of the class divided by 365 (366 in leap years). On the first business day of each month, the funds pay a management fee to the advisor for the previous month. The management fee is the sum of the daily fee calculations for each day of the previous month.
The management agreement between the corporation and the advisor shall continue in effect for a period of two years from its effective date (unless sooner terminated in accordance with its terms) and shall continue in effect from year to year thereafter for each fund so long as such continuance is approved at least annually by: 
(1)either the fund’s Board of Directors, or a majority of the outstanding voting securities of such fund (as defined in the Investment Company Act) and
(2)the vote of a majority of the directors of the fund who are not parties to the agreement or interested persons of the advisor, cast in person at a meeting called for the purpose of voting on such approval.
The management agreement states that the funds’ Board of Directors or a majority of the outstanding voting securities of each class of such fund may terminate the management agreement at any time without payment of any penalty on 60 days’ written notice to the advisor. The management agreement shall be automatically terminated if it is assigned.
The management agreement states the advisor shall not be liable to the funds or their shareholders for anything other than willful misfeasance, bad faith, gross negligence or reckless disregard of its obligations and duties.
The management agreement also provides that the advisor and its officers, directors and employees may engage in other business, render services to others, and devote time and attention to any other business whether of a similar or dissimilar nature.
Certain investments may be appropriate for the funds and also for other clients advised by the advisor. Investment decisions for the funds and other clients are made with a view to achieving their respective investment objectives after consideration of such factors as their current holdings, availability of cash for investment and the size of their investment generally. A particular security may be bought or sold for only one client or fund, or in different amounts and at different times for more than one but less than all clients or funds. A particular security may be bought for one client or fund on the same day it is sold for another client or fund, and a client or fund may hold a short position in a particular security at the same time another client or fund holds a long position. In addition, purchases or sales of the same security may be made for two or more clients or funds on the same date. The advisor has adopted procedures designed to ensure such transactions will be allocated among clients and funds in a manner believed by the advisor to be equitable to each. In some cases this procedure could have an adverse effect on the price or amount of the securities purchased or sold by a fund.
The advisor may aggregate purchase and sale orders of the funds with purchase and sale orders of its other clients when the advisor believes that such aggregation provides the best execution for the funds. The Board of Directors has approved the policy of the advisor with respect to the aggregation of portfolio transactions. To the extent equity trades are aggregated, shares purchased or sold are generally allocated to the participating portfolios pro rata based on order size. The advisor will not aggregate portfolio transactions of the funds unless it believes such aggregation is consistent with its duty to seek best execution on behalf of the funds and the terms of the management agreement. The advisor receives no additional compensation or remuneration as a result of such aggregation.
Unified management fees incurred by each fund for the fiscal periods ended October 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020, are indicated in the following tables.          
41




Unified Management Fees
Fund 2022 2021 2020
Balanced $8,528,045 $9,247,090 $8,163,813
Growth
 $99,049,683(1)
$109,327,252(7)
$86,155,014
Heritage
 $46,417,581(2)

$58,171,858 $44,748,645
Select
 $40,555,655(3)
 $43,376,106(8)
 $34,282,981(12)
Small Cap Growth
 $16,886,403(4)
 $16,956,923(9)

 $11,029,138(13)
Sustainable Equity
 $9,669,978(5)

 $9,055,774(10)

 $5,868,037(14)
Ultra
 $166,038,221(6)
 $181,547,155(11)
 $133,143,482(15)
 
1Amount shown reflects waiver by advisor of $7,011,878 in management fees.
2Amount shown reflects waiver by advisor of $3,779,579 in management fees.
3Amount shown reflects waiver by advisor of $1,614,656 in management fees.
4Amount shown reflects waiver by advisor of $2,612,250 in management fees.
5Amount shown reflects waiver by advisor of $8,801,650 in management fees.
6Amount shown reflects waiver by advisor of $2,512,502 in management fees.
7Amount shown reflects waiver by advisor of $367,870 in management fees.
8Amount shown reflects waiver by advisor of $1,054,000 in management fees.
9Amount shown reflects waiver by advisor of $2,839,327 in management fees.
10Amount shown reflects waiver by advisor of $9,440,368 in management fees.
11Amount shown reflects waiver by advisor of $235,683 in management fees.
12Amount shown reflects waiver by advisor of $716,482 in management fees.
13Amount shown reflects waiver by advisor of $1,694,098 in management fees.
14Amount shown reflects waiver by advisor of $6,245,688 in management fees.
15 Amount shown reflects waiver by advisor of $37 in management fees.



42




Portfolio Managers
Accounts Managed
The portfolio managers are responsible for the day-to-day management of various accounts, as indicated by the following table. None of these accounts have an advisory fee based on the performance of the account.
Accounts Managed (As of October 31, 2022)
   
Registered Investment
Companies (e.g., American Century Investments funds and American Century Investments- subadvised funds)
Other Pooled Investment Vehicles (e.g., commingled
trusts and 529 education savings plans)
Other Accounts (e.g., separate accounts and
corporate accounts
including incubation
strategies and
corporate money)
Jeffrey R. Bourke Number of Accounts 4 1 4
Assets
$16.5 billion(1)
$13.6 million $2 billion
Robert J. Bove Number of Accounts 5 0 1
Assets
$4.3 billion(2)
$0 $770.1 thousand
Rob Brookby Number of Accounts 4 0 1
Assets
$5.6 billion(3)
$0 $585.2 thousand
Justin M. Brown Number of Accounts 6 1 2
Assets
$14.9 billion(4)
$130.2 million $497.9 million
Robert Gahagan Number of Accounts 14 0 2
Assets
$19.0 billion(5)
$0 $438.3 million
Jason Greenblath Number of Accounts 10 1 1
Assets
$11.7 billion(5)
$48.2 million $88.0 million
Jeff Hoernemann Number of Accounts 1 0 4
Assets
$2.0 billion(6)
$0 $155.6 million
Christopher J. Krantz Number of Accounts 1 0 1
Assets
$3.7 billion(7)
$0 $202.8 million
Keith Lee Number of Accounts 6 3 5
Assets
$21.7 billion(8)
$337.5 million $1.5 billion
Michael Li Number of Accounts 7 4 9
Assets
$21.8 billion(8)
$343.4 million $3.6 billion
Scott Marolf Number of Accounts 3 1 1
Assets
$10.7 billion(9)
$130.2 million $497.1 million
Joseph Reiland Number of Accounts 8 1 2
Assets
$15.1 billion(4)
$130.2 million $497.9 million
Charles Tan Number of Accounts 11 0 1
Assets
$11.8 billion(5)
$0 $87.9 million
Jackie Wagner Number of Accounts 1 0 4
Assets
$2.0 billion(6)
$0 $155.6 million
Nalin Yogasundram Number of Accounts 4 0 1
Assets
$5.6 billion(3)
$0 $585.2 thousand
1 Includes $15.7 billion in Ultra.
2 Includes $834.2 million in Balanced and $3.0 billion in Sustainable Equity.
3 Includes $5.0 billion in Heritage.
4 Includes $3.0 billion in Sustainable Equity and $10.6 billion in Growth.
5 Includes $834.2 million in Balanced.
6 Includes $2.0 billion in Small Cap Growth.
7 Includes $3.7 billion in Select.
43




8 Includes $3.7 billion in Select and $15.7 billion in Ultra.
9 Includes $10.6 billion in Growth.
Potential Conflicts of Interest
Certain conflicts of interest may arise in connection with the management of multiple portfolios. Potential conflicts include, for example, conflicts among investment strategies, such as one portfolio buying or selling a security while another portfolio has a differing, potentially opposite position in such security. This may include one portfolio taking a short position in the security of an issuer that is held long in another portfolio (or vice versa). Other potential conflicts may arise with respect to the allocation of investment opportunities, which are discussed in more detail below. American Century Investments has adopted policies and procedures that are designed to minimize the effects of these conflicts.
Responsibility for managing American Century Investments client portfolios is organized according to investment discipline. Investment disciplines include, for example, disciplined equity, global growth equity, global value equity, global fixed income, multi-asset strategies, exchange traded funds, and Avantis Investors funds. Within each discipline are one or more portfolio teams responsible for managing specific client portfolios. Generally, client portfolios with similar strategies are managed by the same team using the same objective, approach, and philosophy. Accordingly, portfolio holdings, position sizes, and industry and sector exposures tend to be similar across similar portfolios, which minimizes the potential for conflicts of interest. In addition, American Century Investments maintains an ethical wall that restricts real time access to information regarding any portfolio’s transaction activities and positions to team members that have responsibility for a given portfolio or are within the same equity investment discipline. The ethical wall is intended to aid in preventing the misuse of portfolio holdings information and trading activity in the other disciplines.
For each investment strategy, one portfolio is generally designated as the “policy portfolio.” Other portfolios with similar investment objectives, guidelines and restrictions, if any, are referred to as “tracking portfolios.” When managing policy and tracking portfolios, a portfolio team typically purchases and sells securities across all portfolios that the team manages. American Century Investments’ trading systems include various order entry programs that assist in the management of multiple portfolios, such as the ability to purchase or sell the same relative amount of one security across several funds. In some cases a tracking portfolio may have additional restrictions or limitations that cause it to be managed separately from the policy portfolio. Portfolio managers make purchase and sale decisions for such portfolios alongside the policy portfolio to the extent the overlap is appropriate, and separately, if the overlap is not.
American Century Investments may aggregate orders to purchase or sell the same security for multiple portfolios when it believes such aggregation is consistent with its duty to seek best execution on behalf of its clients. Orders of certain client portfolios may, by investment restriction or otherwise, be determined not available for aggregation. American Century Investments has adopted policies and procedures to minimize the risk that a client portfolio could be systematically advantaged or disadvantaged in connection with the aggregation of orders. To the extent equity trades are aggregated, shares purchased or sold are generally allocated to the participating portfolios pro rata based on order size. Because initial public offerings (IPOs) are usually available in limited supply and in amounts too small to permit across-the-board pro rata allocations, American Century Investments has adopted special procedures designed to promote a fair and equitable allocation of IPO securities among clients over time. A centralized trading desk executes all fixed income securities transactions for Avantis ETFs and mutual funds. For all other funds in the American Century complex, portfolio teams are responsible for executing fixed income trades with broker/dealers in a predominantly dealer marketplace. Trade allocation decisions are made by the portfolio manager at the time of trade execution and orders entered on the fixed income order management system. There is an ethical wall between the Avantis trading desk and all other American Century traders. The Advisor’s Global Head of Trading monitors all trading activity for best execution and to make sure no set of clients is being systematically disadvantaged.
Finally, investment of American Century Investments’ corporate assets in proprietary accounts may raise additional conflicts of interest. To mitigate these potential conflicts of interest, American Century Investments has adopted policies and procedures intended to provide that trading in proprietary accounts is performed in a manner that does not give improper advantage to American Century Investments to the detriment of client portfolios.
Compensation
American Century Investments portfolio manager compensation is structured to align the interests of portfolio managers with those of the shareholders whose assets they manage. As of October 31, 2022, it includes the components described below, each of which is determined with reference to a number of factors such as overall performance, market competition, and internal equity.
Base Salary
Portfolio managers receive base pay in the form of a fixed annual salary.
Bonus
A significant portion of portfolio manager compensation takes the form of an annual incentive bonus which is determined by a combination of factors. One factor is investment performance of funds a portfolio manager manages. The mutual funds’ investment performance is generally measured by a combination of one-, three- and five-year pre-tax performance relative to various benchmarks
44




and/or internally-customized peer groups, such as those indicated below. The performance comparison periods may be adjusted based on a fund’s inception date or a portfolio manager’s tenure on the fund.
Fund Benchmarks
Peer Group (1)
Balanced S&P 500 Index
Bloomberg U.S. Aggregate Bond Index
Morningstar Allocation -- 50% to 70% Equity
Growth Russell 1000 Growth Index Morningstar Large Growth
Heritage Russell Midcap Growth Index Morningstar Mid-Cap Growth
Select Russell 1000 Growth Index Morningstar Large Growth
Small Cap Growth Russell 2000 Growth Index Morningstar Small Growth
Sustainable Equity S&P 500 Index Morningstar Large Blend
Ultra Russell 1000 Growth Index Morningstar Large Growth
1    Custom peer groups are constructed using all the funds in the indicated categories as a starting point. Funds are then eliminated from the peer group based on a standardized methodology designed to result in a final peer group that is both more stable over the long term (i.e., has less peer turnover) and that more closely represents the fund’s true peers based on internal investment mandates.
Portfolio managers may have responsibility for multiple American Century Investments mutual funds. In such cases, the performance of each is assigned a percentage weight appropriate for the portfolio manager’s relative levels of responsibility. Portfolio managers also may have responsibility for other types of managed portfolios or ETFs. If the performance of a managed account or ETF is considered for purposes of compensation, it is generally measured via the same criteria as an American Century Investments mutual fund (i.e., relative to the performance of a benchmark and/or peer group).
A second factor in the bonus calculation relates to the performance of a number of American Century Investments funds managed according to one of the following investment disciplines: global growth equity, global value equity, disciplined equity, global fixed-income, and multi-asset strategies. The performance of American Century ETFs may also be included for certain investment disciplines. Performance is measured for each product individually as described above and then combined to create an overall composite for the product group. These composites may measure one-year performance (equal weighted) or a combination of one-, three- and five-year performance (equal or asset weighted) depending on the portfolio manager’s responsibilities and products managed and the composite for certain portfolio managers may include multiple disciplines. This feature is designed to encourage effective teamwork among portfolio management teams in achieving long-term investment success for similarly styled portfolios.
A portion of portfolio managers’ bonuses may be discretionary and may be tied to factors such as profitability or individual performance goals, such as research projects and/or the development of new products.
Restricted Stock Plans
Portfolio managers are eligible for grants of restricted stock of ACC. These grants are discretionary, and eligibility and availability can vary from year to year. The size of an individual’s grant is determined by individual and product performance as well as other product-specific considerations such as profitability. Grants can appreciate/depreciate in value based on the performance of the ACC stock during the restriction period (generally three to four years).
Deferred Compensation Plans
Portfolio managers are eligible for grants of deferred compensation. These grants are used in very limited situations, primarily for retention purposes. Grants are fixed and can appreciate/depreciate in value based on the performance of the American Century Investments mutual funds in which the portfolio manager chooses to invest them.
Ownership of Securities
The following table indicates the dollar range of securities of each fund beneficially owned by the fund’s portfolio managers as of October 31, 2022. Certain portfolio managers serve on teams that oversee a number of funds in the same broad investment strategy and are not expected to invest in each fund.
45




Ownership of Securities
  Aggregate Dollar Range of Securities in Fund
Balanced
Robert J. Bove A
Justin Brown A
Robert V. Gahagan A
Jason Greenblath A
Joseph Reiland A
Charles Tan
A
Growth
Justin Brown
E(1)
Scott Marolf
E
Joseph Reiland G
Heritage
Rob Brookby F
Nalin Yogasundram E
Select
Christopher J. Krantz G
Keith Lee G
Michael Li E
Small Cap Growth
Jeff Hoernemann D
Jackie Wagner E
Sustainable Equity
Robert J. Bove E
Justin M. Brown D
Joseph Reiland G
Ultra
Jeffrey R. Bourke
A(2)
Keith Lee G
Michael Li G
Ranges: A – none; B – $1-$10,000; C – $10,001-$50,000; D – $50,001-$100,000; E – $100,001-$500,000; F – $500,001-$1,000,000; G – More than $1,000,000.
1 This figure excludes 401(k) investments in a collective trust vehicle that is managed substantially identically to Growth. Inclusion of such 401(k) investments would result in the amount categorized in the table as a F for Justin Brown.
2 This figure excludes 401(k) investments in a collective trust vehicle that is managed substantially identically to Ultra. Inclusion of such 401(k) investments would result in the amount categorized in the table as a F for Jeffrey Bourke.
Transfer Agent and Administrator
American Century Services, LLC (ACS), 4500 Main Street, Kansas City, Missouri 64111, serves as transfer agent and dividend-paying agent for the funds. It provides physical facilities, computer hardware and software and personnel for the day-to-day administration of the funds and the advisor. The advisor pays ACS’s costs for serving as transfer agent and dividend-paying agent for the funds out of the advisor’s unified management fee. For a description of this fee and the terms of its payment, see the above discussion under the caption Investment Advisor on page 39.
Proceeds from purchases of fund shares may pass through accounts maintained by the transfer agent at Commerce Bank, N.A. or UMB Bank, n.a. before being held at the fund’s custodian. Redemption proceeds also may pass from the custodian to the shareholder through such bank accounts.
From time to time, special services may be offered to shareholders who maintain higher share balances in our family of funds. These services may include the waiver of minimum investment requirements, expedited confirmation of shareholder transactions, newsletters and a team of personal representatives. Any expenses associated with these special services will be paid by the advisor.
46




Sub-Administrator
The advisor has entered into an Administration Agreement with State Street Bank and Trust Company (SSB) to provide certain fund accounting, fund financial reporting, tax and treasury/tax compliance services for the funds, including striking the daily net asset value for each fund. The advisor pays SSB a monthly fee as compensation for these services that is based on the total net assets of accounts in the American Century complex services by SSB. ACS does pay SSB for some additional services on a per fund basis. While ACS continues to serve as the administrator of the funds, SSB provides sub-administrative services that were previously undertaken by ACS.
Distributor
The funds’ shares are distributed by American Century Investment Services, Inc. (ACIS), a registered broker-dealer. The distributor is a wholly owned subsidiary of ACC and its principal business address is 4500 Main Street, Kansas City, Missouri 64111.
The distributor is the principal underwriter of the funds’ shares. The distributor makes a continuous, best-efforts underwriting of the funds’ shares. This means the distributor has no liability for unsold shares. The advisor pays ACIS’s costs for serving as principal underwriter of the funds’ shares out of the advisor’s unified management fee. For a description of this fee and the terms of its payment, see the above discussion under the caption Investment Advisor on page 39. ACIS does not earn commissions for distributing the funds’ shares.
Certain financial intermediaries unaffiliated with the distributor or the funds may perform various administrative and shareholder services for their clients who are invested in the funds. These services may include assisting with fund purchases, redemptions and exchanges, distributing information about the funds and their performance, preparing and distributing client account statements, and other administrative and shareholder services that would otherwise be provided by the distributor or its affiliates. The distributor may pay fees out of its own resources to such financial intermediaries for providing these services.
Custodian Bank
State Street Bank and Trust Company (SSB), State Street Financial Center, One Lincoln Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02111 serves as custodian of the funds’ cash and securities under a Master Custodian Agreement with the corporation. Foreign securities, if any, are held by foreign banks participating in a network coordinated by SSB. The custodian takes no part in determining the investment policies of the funds or in deciding which securities are purchased or sold by the funds. The funds, however, may invest in certain obligations of the custodian and may purchase or sell certain securities from or to the custodian.
Securities Lending Agent
State Street Bank and Trust Company (SSB) serves as securities lending agent for the funds pursuant to a Securities Lending Administration Agreement with the advisor. The following table provides the amounts of income and fees/compensation related to the funds’ securities lending activities during the most recent fiscal year:
Growth Heritage
Gross income from securities lending activities $3,983,721 $255,751
Fees and/or compensation paid by the fund for securities lending activities and related services:
Fees paid to securities lending agent from a revenue split
$393,101 $8,432
Fees paid for any cash collateral management service (including fees deducted from a pooled cash collateral reinvestment vehicle) that are not included in the revenue split
$11,222 $6,555
Administrative fees not included in the revenue split
$0 $0
Indemnification fee not included in the revenue split
$0 $0
Rebate (paid to borrower)
$45,284 $165,505
Other fees not included in revenue split
$0 $0
Aggregate fees/compensation for securities lending activities $449,607 $180,492
Net income from securities lending activities $3,534,114 $75,259
47




Select Small Cap Growth
Gross income from securities lending activities $102,084 $411,699
Fees and/or compensation paid by the fund for securities lending activities and related services:
Fees paid to securities lending agent from a revenue split
$3,842 $17,552
Fees paid for any cash collateral management service (including fees deducted from a pooled cash collateral reinvestment vehicle) that are not included in the revenue split
$1,359 $6,299
Administrative fees not included in the revenue split
$0 $0
Indemnification fee not included in the revenue split
$0 $0
Rebate (paid to borrower)
$63,858 $230,516
Other fees not included in revenue split
$0 $0
Aggregate fees/compensation for securities lending activities $69,059 $254,367
Net income from securities lending activities $33,025 $157,332

Sustainable Equity Ultra
Gross income from securities lending activities $9,096 $220,766
Fees and/or compensation paid by the fund for securities lending activities and related services:
Fees paid to securities lending agent from a revenue split
$909 $4,013
Fees paid for any cash collateral management service (including fees deducted from a pooled cash collateral reinvestment vehicle) that are not included in the revenue split
$3 $2,862
Administrative fees not included in the revenue split
$0 $0
Indemnification fee not included in the revenue split
$0 $0
Rebate (paid to borrower)
$0 $177,580
Other fees not included in revenue split
$0 $0
Aggregate fees/compensation for securities lending activities $913 $184,456
Net income from securities lending activities $8,183 $36,310
As the funds’ securities lending agent, SSB provides the following services: locating borrowers for fund securities, executing loans of portfolio securities pursuant to terms and parameters defined by the advisor and the Board of Directors, monitoring the daily value of the loaned securities and collateral, requiring additional collateral as necessary, managing cash collateral, and providing certain limited recordkeeping and accounting services.
Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
Deloitte & Touche LLP is the independent registered public accounting firm of the funds. The address of Deloitte & Touche LLP is 1100 Walnut Street, Kansas City, Missouri 64106. As the independent registered public accounting firm of the funds, Deloitte & Touche LLP provides services including auditing the annual financial statements and financial highlights for each fund.
Brokerage Allocation
The advisor places orders for equity portfolio transactions with broker-dealers, who receive commissions for their services. Generally, commissions relating to securities traded on foreign exchanges will be higher than commissions relating to securities traded on U.S. exchanges. The advisor purchases and sells fixed-income securities through principal transactions, meaning the advisor normally purchases securities on a net basis directly from the issuer or a primary market-maker acting as principal for the securities. The funds generally do not pay a stated brokerage commission on these transactions, although the purchase price for debt securities usually includes an undisclosed compensation. Purchases of securities from underwriters typically include a commission or concession paid by the issuer to the underwriter, and purchases from dealers serving as market-makers typically include a dealer’s mark-up (i.e., a spread between the bid and asked prices).
Under the management agreement between the funds and the advisor, the advisor has the responsibility of selecting brokers and dealers to execute portfolio transactions. The funds’ policy is to secure the most favorable prices and execution of orders on its
48




portfolio transactions. The advisor selects broker-dealers on their perceived ability to obtain “best execution” in effecting transactions in its clients’ portfolios. In selecting broker-dealers to effect portfolio transactions relating to equity securities, the advisor considers the full range and quality of a broker-dealer’s research and brokerage services, including, but not limited to, the following:
applicable commission rates and other transaction costs charged by the broker-dealer
value of research provided to the advisor by the broker-dealer (including economic forecasts, fundamental and technical advice on individual securities, market analysis, and advice, either directly or through publications or writings, as to the value of securities, availability of securities or of purchasers/sellers of securities)
timeliness of the broker-dealer’s trade executions
efficiency and accuracy of the broker-dealer’s clearance and settlement processes
broker-dealer’s ability to provide data on securities executions
financial condition of the broker-dealer
the quality of the overall brokerage and customer service provided by the broker-dealer
In transactions to buy and sell fixed-income securities, the selection of the broker- dealer is determined by the availability of the desired security and its offering price, as well as the broker-dealer’s general execution and operational and financial capabilities in the type of transaction involved. The advisor will seek to obtain prompt execution of orders at the most favorable prices or yields. The advisor does not consider the receipt of products or services other than brokerage or research services in selecting broker-dealers. 
On an ongoing basis, the advisor seeks to determine what levels of commission rates are reasonable in the marketplace. In evaluating the reasonableness of commission rates, the advisor considers: 
rates quoted by broker-dealers
the size of a particular transaction, in terms of the number of shares, dollar amount, and number of clients involved
the ability of a broker-dealer to execute large trades while minimizing market impact
the complexity of a particular transaction
the nature and character of the markets on which a particular trade takes place
the level and type of business done with a particular firm over a period of time
the ability of a broker-dealer to provide anonymity while executing trades
historical commission rates
rates that other institutional investors are paying, based on publicly available information
The brokerage commissions paid by the funds may exceed those that another broker-dealer might have charged for effecting the same transactions, because of the value of the brokerage and research services provided by the broker-dealer. Research services furnished by broker-dealers through whom the funds effect securities transactions may be used by the advisor in servicing all of its accounts, and not all such services may be used by the advisor in managing the portfolios of the funds.
Pursuant to its internal allocation procedures, the advisor regularly evaluates the brokerage and research services provided by each broker-dealer that it uses. On a periodic basis, members of the advisor’s portfolio management team assess the quality and value of research and brokerage services provided by each broker-dealer that provides execution services and research to the advisor for its clients’ accounts. The results of the periodic assessments are used to add or remove brokers from the approved brokers list, if needed, and to set research budgets for the following period.  Execution-only brokers are used where deemed appropriate.
In the fiscal years ended October 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020, the brokerage commissions including, as applicable, futures commissions, of each fund are listed in the following table.
Fund 2022 2021 2020
Balanced $58,988 $282,947 $195,903
Growth $1,098,077 $865,682 $1,414,170
Heritage $983,743 $1,102,238 $1,433,196
Select $209,469 $149,778 $234,431
Small Cap Growth $1,097,667 $1,283,722 $914,457
Sustainable Equity $188,517 $213,582 $317,649
Ultra $843,621 $546,049 $405,576
Brokerage commissions paid by a fund may vary significantly from year to year as a result of changing asset levels throughout the year, portfolio turnover, varying market conditions, and other factors. For example, decreased brokerage commissions applicable to Balanced Fund in the fiscal year ended October 31, 2022 correlated with a decreased portfolio turnover rate.
49




Regular Broker-Dealers
As of October 31, 2022, each of the funds listed below owned securities of its regular brokers or dealers (as defined by Rule 10b-1 under the Investment Company Act of 1940) or of their parent companies.
Fund Broker, Dealer or Parent
Value of Securities Owned As of
October 31, 2022
Balanced Ameriprise Financial Inc
$4,066,165
  Bank of America Corp. $4,840,153
Citigroup, Inc. $1,145,822
Deutsche Bank AG $633,896
Goldman Sachs Group Inc $2,009,904
  JPMorgan Chase & Co. $10,282,716
  Morgan Stanley $11,918,655
Royal Bank of Canada $467,983
Toronto-Dominion Bank $574,084
UBS AG $591,657
  Wells Fargo & Co. $948,219
Growth None
Heritage LPL Financial Holdings, Inc. $101,742,820
Select None
Small Cap Growth None
Sustainable Equity Ameriprise Financial, Inc. $23,682,611
  Bank of America Corp. $10,652,199
  JPMorgan Chase & Co. $45,630,241
Morgan Stanley
$48,230,750
Ultra JPMorgan Chase & Co.
$54,629,654
Information About Fund Shares
Each of the funds named on the front of this statement of additional information is a series of shares issued by the corporation, and shares of each fund have equal voting rights. In addition, each series (or fund) may be divided into separate classes. See Multiple Class Structure, which follows. Additional funds and classes may be added without a shareholder vote.
Each fund votes separately on matters affecting that fund exclusively. Voting rights are not cumulative, so investors holding more than 50% of the corporation’s (all funds’) outstanding shares may be able to elect a Board of Directors. The corporation undertakes dollar-based voting, meaning that the number of votes a shareholder is entitled to is based upon the dollar amount of the shareholder’s investment. The election of directors is determined by the votes received from all the corporation’s shareholders without regard to whether a majority of shares of any one fund voted in favor of a particular nominee or all nominees as a group.
The assets belonging to each series are held separately by the custodian and the shares of each series represent a beneficial interest in the principal, earnings and profit (or losses) of investments and other assets held for each series. Within their respective series, all shares have equal redemption rights. Each share, when issued, is fully paid and non-assessable.
Each shareholder has rights to dividends and distributions declared by the fund he or she owns and to the net assets of such fund, upon its liquidation or dissolution, proportionate to his or her share ownership interest in the fund.
Multiple Class Structure
The corporation’s Board of Directors has adopted a multiple class plan pursuant to Rule 18f-3 under the Investment Company Act. The plan is described in the prospectus of any fund that offers more than one class. Pursuant to such plan, the funds may issue the following classes of shares: Investor Class, I Class, Y Class, A Class, C Class, R Class, R5 Class, R6 Class and G Class. Not all funds offer all classes.
The Investor Class is made available to investors directly from American Century Investments and/or through some financial intermediaries. Additional information regarding eligibility for Investor Class shares may be found in the funds’ prospectuses. The I Class is made available to institutional shareholders or through financial intermediaries that provide various shareholder and administrative services. Y Class shares are available through financial intermediaries that offer fee-based advisory programs. The A and C Classes also are made available through financial intermediaries, for purchase by individual investors who receive advisory and personal services from the intermediary. The R Class is made available through financial intermediaries and is generally used in 401(k) and other retirement plans. The R5 and R6 Classes are generally available only to participants in employer-sponsored
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retirement plans where a financial intermediary provides recordkeeping services to plan participants. G Class shares are available for purchase only by funds advised by American Century Investments and other American Century advisory clients that are subject to a contractual fee for investment management services. The classes have different unified management fees as a result of their separate arrangements for shareholder services. In addition, the A, C and R Class shares each are subject to a separate Master Distribution and Individual Shareholder Services Plan (the A Class Plan, C Class Plan and R Class Plan, respectively, and collectively, the plans) described below. The plans have been adopted by the funds’ Board of Directors in accordance with Rule 12b-1 adopted by the SEC under the Investment Company Act.
Rule 12b-1
Rule 12b-1 permits an investment company to pay expenses associated with the distribution of its shares in accordance with a plan adopted by its Board of Directors and approved by its shareholders. Pursuant to such rule, the Board of Directors of the funds’ A, C and R Classes have approved and entered into the A Class Plan, C Class Plan and R Class Plan, respectively. The plans are described below.
In adopting the plans, the Board of Directors (including a majority of directors who are not interested persons of the funds, as defined in the Investment Company Act, hereafter referred to as the independent directors) determined that there was a reasonable likelihood that the plans would benefit the funds and the shareholders of the affected class. Some of the anticipated benefits include improved name recognition of the funds generally; and growing assets in existing funds, which helps retain and attract investment management talent, provides a better environment for improving fund performance, and can lower the total expense ratio for funds with stepped-fee schedules. Pursuant to Rule 12b-1, information about revenues and expenses under the plans is presented to the Board of Directors quarterly. Continuance of the plans must be approved by the Board of Directors, including a majority of the independent directors, annually. The plans may be amended by a vote of the Board of Directors, including a majority of the independent directors, except that the plans may not be amended to materially increase the amount to be spent for distribution without majority approval of the shareholders of the affected class. The plans terminate automatically in the event of an assignment and may be terminated upon a vote of a majority of the independent directors or by vote of a majority of outstanding shareholder votes of the affected class.
All fees paid under the plans will be made in accordance with Section 2830 of the Conduct Rules of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA).
The Share Class Plans
As described in the prospectuses, the A, C and R Class shares of the funds are made available to persons purchasing through broker-dealers, banks, insurance companies and other financial intermediaries that provide various administrative, shareholder and distribution services. In addition, the A, C, and R Classes are made available to participants in employer-sponsored retirement plans. The funds’ distributor enters into contracts with various banks, broker-dealers, insurance companies and other financial intermediaries, with respect to the sale of the funds’ shares and/or the use of the funds’ shares in various investment products or in connection with various financial services.
Certain recordkeeping and administrative services that would otherwise be performed by the funds’ transfer agent may be performed by a plan sponsor (or its agents) or by a financial intermediary for A, C and R Class investors. In addition to such services, the financial intermediaries provide various individual shareholder and distribution services.
To enable the funds’ shares to be made available through such plans and financial intermediaries, and to compensate them for such services, the funds’ Board of Directors has adopted the A, C and R Class Plans. Pursuant to the plans, the following fees are paid and described further below.
A Class
The A Class pays the funds’ distributor 0.25% annually of the average daily net asset value of the A Class shares. The distributor may use these fees to pay for certain ongoing shareholder and administrative services and for distribution services, including past distribution services. This payment is fixed at 0.25% and is not based on expenses incurred by the distributor.
C Class
The C Class pays the funds’ distributor 1.00% annually of the average daily net asset value of the funds’ C Class shares, 0.25% of which is paid for certain ongoing individual shareholder and administrative services and 0.75% of which is paid for distribution services, including past distribution services. This payment is fixed at 1.00% and is not based on expenses incurred by the distributor.
R Class
The R Class pays the funds’ distributor 0.50% annually of the average daily net asset value of the R Class shares. The distributor may use these fees to pay for certain ongoing shareholder and administrative services and for distribution services, including past distribution services. This payment is fixed at 0.50% and is not based on expenses incurred by the distributor.
During the fiscal year ended October 31, 2022, the aggregate amount of fees paid under each class plan was:
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  A Class C Class R Class
Growth $298,670 $107,851 $444,213
Heritage $660,556 $139,418 $138,078
Select $152,274 $34,123 $19,748
Small Cap Growth $258,154 $89,085 $49,693
Sustainable Equity $228,737 $124,262 $81,743
Ultra $506,818 $289,308 $186,007
The distributor then makes these payments to the financial intermediaries (including underwriters and broker-dealers, who may use some of the proceeds to compensate sales personnel) who offer the A, C and R Class shares for the services described below. No portion of these payments is used by the distributor to pay for advertising, printing costs or interest expenses.
Payments may be made for a variety of individual shareholder services, including, but not limited to: 
(a)providing individualized and customized investment advisory services, including the consideration of shareholder profiles and specific goals;
(b)creating investment models and asset allocation models for use by shareholders in selecting appropriate funds;
(c)conducting proprietary research about investment choices and the market in general;
(d)periodic rebalancing of shareholder accounts to ensure compliance with the selected asset allocation;
(e)consolidating shareholder accounts in one place;
(f)paying service fees for providing personal, continuing services to investors, as contemplated by the Conduct Rules of FINRA; and
(g)other individual services.
Individual shareholder services do not include those activities and expenses that are primarily intended to result in the sale of additional shares of the funds.
Distribution services include any activity undertaken or expense incurred that is primarily intended to result in the sale of A, C and R Class shares, which services may include but are not limited to:
(a)paying sales commissions, on-going commissions and other payments to brokers, dealers, financial institutions or others who sell A, C and R Class shares pursuant to selling agreements;
(b)compensating registered representatives or other employees of the distributor who engage in or support distribution of the funds’ A, C and R Class shares;
(c)paying and compensating expenses (including overhead and telephone expenses) of the distributor;
(d)printing prospectuses, statements of additional information and reports for other-than-existing shareholders;
(e)preparing, printing and distributing sales literature and advertising materials provided to the funds’ shareholders and prospective shareholders;
(f)receiving and answering correspondence from prospective shareholders, including distributing prospectuses, statements of additional information, and shareholder reports;
(g)providing facilities to answer questions from prospective shareholders about fund shares;
(h)complying with federal and state securities laws pertaining to the sale of fund shares;
(i)assisting shareholders in completing application forms and selecting dividend and other account options;
(j)providing other reasonable assistance in connection with the distribution of fund shares;
(k)organizing and conducting sales seminars and payments in the form of transactional and compensation or promotional incentives;
(l)profit on the foregoing; and
(m)such other distribution and services activities as the advisor determines may be paid for by the funds pursuant to the terms of the agreement between the corporation and the funds’ distributor and in accordance with Rule 12b1 of the Investment Company Act.
Valuation of a Fund’s Securities
The net asset value (NAV) for each class of each fund is calculated by adding the value of all portfolio securities and other assets attributable to the class, deducting liabilities and dividing the result by the number of shares of the class outstanding. Expenses and interest earned on portfolio securities are accrued daily.
All classes of the funds except the A Class are offered at their NAV. The A Class of the funds is offered at its public offering price, which is the net asset value plus the appropriate sales charge. This calculation may be expressed as a formula:
Offering Price = NAV/(1 – Sales Charge as a % of Offering Price)
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For example, if the NAV of a fund’s A Class shares is $5.00, the public offering price would be $5/(1-5.75%) = $5.31.
Each fund’s NAV is calculated as of the close of business of the New York Stock Exchange (the NYSE) each day the NYSE is open for business. The NYSE usually closes at 4 p.m. Eastern time. The NYSE typically observes the following holidays: New Year’s Day, Martin Luther King Jr. Day, Presidents’ Day, Good Friday, Memorial Day, Juneteenth National Independence Day, Independence Day, Labor Day, Thanksgiving Day and Christmas Day. Although the funds expect the same holidays to be observed in the future, the NYSE may modify its holiday schedule at any time.
Equity securities (including exchange-traded funds) and other equity instruments for which market quotations are readily available are valued at the last reported official closing price or sale price as of the time of valuation. Portfolio securities primarily traded on foreign securities exchanges that are open later than the NYSE are valued at the last sale price reported at the time the NAV is determined.
Trading in equity securities on European and Asian securities exchanges and over-the-counter markets is normally completed at various times before the close of business on each day that the NYSE is open. Model-derived fair value factors may be applied to the market quotations of certain foreign equity securities whose last closing price was before the time the NAV was determined. Factors are based on observable market data and are generally provided by an independent pricing service. Such factors are designed to estimate the price of the foreign equity security that would have prevailed at the time the NAV is determined.
Trading of these securities in foreign markets may not take place on every day that the NYSE is open. In addition, trading may take place in various foreign markets and on some electronic trading networks on Saturdays or on other days when the NYSE is not open and on which the funds’ NAVs are not calculated. Therefore, such calculations do not take place contemporaneously with the determination of the prices of many of the portfolio securities used in such calculation, and the value of the funds’ portfolios may be affected on days when shares of the funds may not be purchased or redeemed.
When market quotations are not readily available or are believed by the valuation designee to be unreliable, securities and other assets are valued at fair value as determined in accordance with its policies and procedures.
Debt securities are generally valued through valuations obtained from a commercial pricing service or at the most recent mean of the bid and asked prices provided by investment dealers in accordance with the valuation policies and procedures.
Pricing services will generally provide evaluated prices based on accepted industry conventions, which may require the pricing service to exercise its own discretion. Evaluated prices are commonly derived through utilization of market models that take into consideration various market factors, assumptions, and security characteristics including, but not limited to; trade data, quotations from broker-dealers and active market makers, relevant yield curve and spread data, related sector levels, creditworthiness, trade data or market information on comparable securities and other relevant security-specific information. Pricing services may exercise discretion including, but not limited to; selecting and designing the valuation methodology, determining the source and relevance of inputs and assumptions, and assessing price challenges received from its clients. Pricing services may provide prices when market quotations are not available or when certain pricing inputs may be stale. The use of different models or inputs may result in different pricing services determining a different price for the same security. Pricing services generally value fixed-income securities assuming orderly transactions of an institutional round lot size but may consider trades of smaller sizes in their models. The fund may hold or transact in such securities in smaller lot sizes, sometimes referred to as “odd-lots.” Securities may trade at different prices when transacted in different lot sizes. The methods used by the pricing services and the valuations so established are reviewed by the valuation designee under the oversight of the Board of Directors.
There are a number of pricing services available, and the valuation designee, on the basis of ongoing evaluation of these services, may use other pricing services or discontinue the use of any pricing service in whole or in part.
Securities maturing within 60 days of the valuation date may also be valued at cost, plus or minus any amortized discount or premium, unless it is determined that this would not result in fair valuation of a given security. Other assets and securities for which quotations are not readily available are valued in good faith in accordance with the valuation designee’s procedures
The value of any security or other asset denominated in a currency other than U.S. dollars is then converted to U.S. dollars at the prevailing foreign exchange rate at the time the fund’s NAV is determined. Securities that are neither listed on a securities exchange or traded over the counter may be priced using the mean of the bid and asked prices obtained from an independent broker who is an established market maker in the security.
Taxes
Federal Income Tax
Each fund intends to qualify annually as a regulated investment company (RIC) under Subchapter M of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the Code). RICs generally are not subject to federal and state income taxes. To qualify as a RIC a fund must, among other requirements, distribute substantially all of its net investment income and net realized capital gains (if any) to investors each year. If a fund were not eligible to be treated as a RIC, it would be liable for taxes at the fund level on all its income, significantly reducing its distributions to investors and eliminating investors’ ability to treat distributions received from the fund in the same
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manner in which they were realized by the fund. Under certain circumstances, the Code allows funds to cure deficiencies that would otherwise result in the loss of RIC status, including by paying a fund-level tax.
To qualify as a RIC, a fund must meet certain requirements of the Code, among which are requirements relating to sources of its income and diversification of its assets. A fund is also required to distribute 90% of its investment company taxable income each year. Additionally, a fund must declare dividends by December 31 of each year equal to at least 98% of ordinary income (as of December 31) and 98.2% of capital gains (as of October 31) to avoid the nondeductible 4% federal excise tax on any undistributed amounts.
A fund’s transactions in foreign currencies, forward contracts, options and futures contracts (including options and futures contracts on foreign currencies) will be subject to special provisions of the Code that, among other things, may affect the character of gains and losses realized by the fund (i.e., may affect whether gains or losses are ordinary or capital), accelerate recognition of income to the fund, defer fund losses, and affect the determination of whether capital gains and losses are characterized as long-term or short-term capital gains or losses. These rules could therefore affect the character, amount and timing of distributions to shareholders. These provisions also may require a fund to mark-to-market certain types of the positions in its portfolio (i.e., treat them as if they were sold), which may cause the fund to recognize income without receiving cash with which to make distributions in amounts necessary to satisfy the distribution requirements of the Code for relief from income and excise taxes. A fund will monitor its transactions and may make such tax elections as fund management deems appropriate with respect to these transactions.
A fund’s investment in foreign securities may be subject to withholding and other taxes imposed by foreign countries. However, tax conventions between certain countries and the United States may reduce or eliminate such taxes. Any foreign taxes paid by a fund will reduce its dividend distributions to investors.
If a fund purchases the securities of certain foreign investment entities called passive foreign investment companies (PFIC), capital gains on the sale of those holdings will be deemed ordinary income regardless of how long the fund holds the investment. The fund also may be subject to corporate income tax and an interest charge on certain dividends and capital gains earned from these investments, regardless of whether such income and gains are distributed to the fund. To avoid such tax and interest, the fund may elect to treat PFICs as sold on the last day of its fiscal year, mark-to-market these securities, and recognize any unrealized gains (or losses, to the extent of previously recognized gains) as ordinary income each year.
As of October 31, 2022, the funds in the table below had the following capital loss carryovers When a fund has a capital loss carryover, it does not make capital gains distributions until the loss has been offset. The Regulated Investment Company Modernization Act of 2010 allows the funds to carry forward capital losses incurred in future taxable years for an unlimited period.
Fund Unlimited
Balanced  $(45,499,914)
Growth -
Heritage $ (2,091,033)
Select -
Small Cap Growth $ (167,164,194)
Sustainable Equity -
Ultra -
If you have not complied with certain provisions of the Internal Revenue Code and Regulations, either American Century Investments or your financial intermediary is required by federal law to withhold and remit to the IRS the applicable federal withholding rate of reportable payments (which may include dividends, capital gains distributions and redemption proceeds). Those regulations require you to certify that the Social Security number or tax identification number you provide is correct and that you are not subject to withholding for previous under-reporting to the IRS. You will be asked to make the appropriate certification on your account application. Payments reported by us to the IRS that omit your Social Security number or tax identification number will subject us to a non-refundable penalty of $50, which will be charged against your account if you fail to provide the certification by the time the report is filed.
If fund shares are purchased through taxable accounts, distributions of either cash or additional shares of net investment income and net short-term capital gains are taxable to you as ordinary income, unless they are designated as qualified dividend income and you meet a minimum required holding period with respect to your shares of a fund, in which case such distributions are taxed at the same rate as long-term capital gains. Qualified dividend income is a dividend received by a fund from the stock of a domestic or qualifying foreign corporation, provided that the fund has held the stock for a required holding period and the stock was not on loan at the time of the dividend. The required holding period for qualified dividend income is met if the underlying shares are held more than 60 days in the 121-day period beginning 60 days prior to the ex-dividend date. Dividends received by the funds on shares of stock of domestic corporations may qualify for the 70% dividends received deduction when distributed to corporate shareholders to the extent that the fund held those shares for more than 45 days.   
Distributions from gains on assets held by the funds longer than 12 months are taxable as long-term gains regardless of the length of time you have held your shares in the fund. If you purchase shares in the fund and sell them at a loss within six months, your loss on
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the sale of those shares will be treated as a long-term capital loss to the extent of any long-term capital gains dividend you received on those shares.
Each fund may use the “equalization method” of accounting to allocate a portion of its earnings and profits to redemption proceeds. Although using this method generally will not affect a fund’s total returns, it may reduce the amount that a fund would otherwise distribute to continuing shareholders by reducing the effect of redemptions of fund shares on fund distributions to shareholders.
A redemption of shares of a fund (including a redemption made in an exchange transaction) will be a taxable transaction for federal income tax purposes and you generally will recognize gain or loss in an amount equal to the difference between the basis of the shares and the amount received. If a loss is realized on the redemption of fund shares, the reinvestment in additional fund shares within 30 days before or after the redemption may be subject to the “wash sale” rules of the Code, resulting in a postponement of the recognition of such loss for federal income tax purposes.
A 3.8% Medicare contribution tax is imposed on net investment income, including interest, dividends and capital gains, provided you meet specified income levels.
State and Local Taxes
Distributions by the funds also may be subject to state and local taxes, even if all or a substantial part of such distributions are derived from interest on U.S. government obligations which, if you received such interest directly, would be exempt from state income tax. However, most but not all states allow this tax exemption to pass through to fund shareholders when a fund pays distributions to its shareholders. You should consult your tax advisor about the tax status of such distributions in your state.
The information above is only a summary of some of the tax considerations affecting the funds and their U.S. shareholders. No attempt has been made to discuss individual tax consequences. A prospective investor should consult with his or her tax advisors or state or local tax authorities to determine whether the funds are suitable investments.
Financial Statements
The funds’ financial statements and financial highlights for the fiscal year ended October 31, 2022 have been audited by Deloitte & Touche LLP, independent registered public accounting firm. Their Reports of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm and the financial statements included in the annual reports of each of these funds for the fiscal year ended October 31, 2022, are incorporated herein by reference.  

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Appendix A – Principal Shareholders
As of January 31, 2023, the following shareholders owned more than 5% of the outstanding shares of a class of a fund. The table shows shares owned of record unless otherwise noted.   
Fund/
Class
Shareholder Percentage of Outstanding
Shares Owned Of Record
Balanced
Investor Class
  Charles Schwab & Co Inc
San Francisco, California
6%
  National Financial Services LLC
Jersey City, New Jersey
5%
I Class
  Charles Schwab & Co Inc
San Francisco, California
35%
  Empower Trust Co FBO Empower Benefit Plans
Greenwood, Colorado
27%