RNS Number : 6522F
HSBC Holdings PLC
11 March 2020
 

Financial statements

 

229 Financial statements

240 Notes on the financial statements

 

HSBC MyDeal

We launched MyDeal to make the deal execution process in our primary capital markets business more efficient. The customer can access the secured platform on mobile or online and receive real-time information of a deal throughout its life cycle. This includes logistics, investor feedback and book-building data.

MyDeal became available to customers in early 2019. By the end of 2019, we had used the platform in a number of jurisdictions to manage more than 84 deals with a combined value of $47.5 billion. It has received positive feedback from customers.

 

 


Financial statements

 

Page

Consolidated income statement

229

Consolidated statement of comprehensive income

230

Consolidated balance sheet

231

Consolidated statement of cash flows

232

Consolidated statement of changes in equity

233

HSBC Holdings income statement

236

HSBC Holdings statement of comprehensive income

236

HSBC Holdings balance sheet

237

HSBC Holdings statement of cash flows

238

HSBC Holdings statement of changes in equity

239


Consolidated income statement

for the year ended 31 December

 

 

2019

2018

2017

 

Notes*

$m

$m

$m

Net interest income

 

30,462

 

30,489

 

28,176

 

-  interest income1,2

 

54,695

 

49,609

 

40,995

 

-  interest expense3

 

(24,233

)

(19,120

)

(12,819

)

Net fee income

2

12,023

 

12,620

 

12,811

 

-  fee income

 

15,439

 

16,044

 

15,853

 

-  fee expense

 

(3,416

)

(3,424

)

(3,042

)

Net income from financial instruments held for trading or managed on a fair value basis

3

10,231

 

9,531

 

8,426

 

Net income/(expense) from assets and liabilities of insurance businesses, including related derivatives, measured at fair value through profit or loss

3

3,478

 

(1,488

)

2,836

 

Changes in fair value of designated debt and related derivatives4

3

90

 

(97

)

155

 

Changes in fair value of other financial instruments mandatorily measured at fair value through profit or loss

3

812

 

695

 

N/A

Gains less losses from financial investments

 

335

 

218

 

1,150

 

Net insurance premium income

4

10,636

 

10,659

 

9,779

 

Other operating income

 

2,957

 

960

 

443

 

Total operating income

 

71,024

 

63,587

 

63,776

 

Net insurance claims and benefits paid and movement in liabilities to policyholders

4

(14,926

)

(9,807

)

(12,331

)

Net operating income before change in expected credit losses and other credit impairment charges/Loan impairment charges and other credit risk provisions

 

56,098

 

53,780

 

51,445

 

Change in expected credit losses and other credit impairment charges

 

(2,756

)

(1,767

)

N/A

Loan impairment charges and other credit risk provisions

 

N/A

N/A

(1,769

)

Net operating income

 

53,342

 

52,013

 

49,676

 

Employee compensation and benefits

5

(18,002

)

(17,373

)

(17,315

)

General and administrative expenses

 

(13,828

)

(15,353

)

(15,707

)

Depreciation and impairment of property, plant and equipment and right-of-use assets5

 

(2,100

)

(1,119

)

(1,166

)

Amortisation and impairment of intangible assets

 

(1,070

)

(814

)

(696

)

Goodwill impairment

21

(7,349

)

-

 

-

 

Total operating expenses

 

(42,349

)

(34,659

)

(34,884

)

Operating profit

 

10,993

 

17,354

 

14,792

 

Share of profit in associates and joint ventures

18

2,354

 

2,536

 

2,375

 

Profit before tax

 

13,347

 

19,890

 

17,167

 

Tax expense

7

(4,639

)

(4,865

)

(5,288

)

Profit for the year

 

8,708

 

15,025

 

11,879

 

Attributable to:

 

 

 

 

-  ordinary shareholders of the parent company

 

5,969

 

12,608

 

9,683

 

-  preference shareholders of the parent company

 

90

 

90

 

90

 

-  other equity holders

 

1,324

 

1,029

 

1,025

 

-  non-controlling interests

 

1,325

 

1,298

 

1,081

 

Profit for the year

 

8,708

 

15,025

 

11,879

 

 

 

$

$

$

Basic earnings per ordinary share

9

0.30

 

0.63

 

0.48

 

Diluted earnings per ordinary share

9

0.30

 

0.63

 

0.48

 

*   For Notes on the financial statements, see page 240.

1   Interest income includes $45,708m (2018: $42,130m) of interest recognised on financial assets measured at amortised cost and $8,259m (2018: $7,020m) of interest recognised on financial assets measured at fair value through other comprehensive income.

2   Interest revenue calculated using the effective interest method comprises interest recognised on financial assets measured at either amortised cost or fair value through other comprehensive income.

3   Interest expense includes $21,922m (2018: $16,972m) of interest on financial instruments, excluding interest on financial liabilities held for trading or designated or otherwise mandatorily measured at fair value.

4   The debt instruments, issued for funding purposes, are designated under the fair value option to reduce an accounting mismatch.

5   Includes depreciation of the right-of-use assets of $912m (2018: nil). Right-of-use assets have been recognised from 1 January 2019 following the adoption of IFRS 16. Comparatives have not been restated.


Consolidated statement of comprehensive income

for the year ended 31 December

 

2019

2018

2017

 

$m

$m

$m

Profit for the year

8,708

 

15,025

 

11,879

 

Other comprehensive income/(expense)

 

 

 

Items that will be reclassified subsequently to profit or loss when specific conditions are met:

 

 

 

Available-for-sale investments

N/A

N/A

146

 

-  fair value gains

N/A

N/A

1,227

 

-  fair value gains reclassified to the income statement

N/A

N/A

(1,033

)

-  amounts reclassified to the income statement in respect of impairment losses

N/A

N/A

93

 

-  income taxes

N/A

N/A

(141

)

Debt instruments at fair value through other comprehensive income

1,152

 

(243

)

N/A

-  fair value gains/(losses)

1,793

 

(168

)

N/A

-  fair value gains transferred to the income statement on disposal

(365

)

(95

)

N/A

-  expected credit recoveries/(losses) recognised in the income statement

109

 

(94

)

N/A

-  income taxes

(385

)

114

 

N/A

Cash flow hedges

206

 

19

 

(192

)

-  fair value gains/(losses)

551

 

(267

)

(1,046

)

-  fair value (gains)/losses reclassified to the income statement

(286

)

317

 

833

 

-  income taxes

(59

)

(31

)

21

 

Share of other comprehensive income/(expense) of associates and joint ventures

21

 

(64

)

(43

)

-  share for the year

21

 

(64

)

(43

)

Exchange differences

1,044

 

(7,156

)

9,077

 

-  other exchange differences

1,044

 

(7,156

)

8,939

 

-  income tax attributable to exchange differences

-

 

-

 

138

 

Items that will not be reclassified subsequently to profit or loss:

 

 

 

Remeasurement of defined benefit asset/liability

13

 

(329

)

2,419

 

-  before income taxes

(17

)

(388

)

3,440

 

-  income taxes

30

 

59

 

(1,021

)

Changes in fair value of financial liabilities designated at fair value upon initial recognition arising from changes in own credit risk

(2,002

)

2,847

 

(2,024

)

-  before income taxes

(2,639

)

3,606

 

(2,409

)

-  income taxes

637

 

(759

)

385

 

Equity instruments designated at fair value through other comprehensive income

366

 

(27

)

N/A

-  fair value gains/(losses)

364

 

(71

)

N/A

-  income taxes

2

 

44

 

N/A

Effects of hyperinflation

217

 

283

 

N/A

Other comprehensive income/(expense) for the period, net of tax

1,017

 

(4,670

)

9,383

 

Total comprehensive income for the year

9,725

 

10,355

 

21,262

 

Attributable to:

 

 

 

-  ordinary shareholders of the parent company

6,838

 

8,083

 

18,914

 

-  preference shareholders of the parent company

90

 

90

 

90

 

-  other equity holders

1,324

 

1,029

 

1,025

 

-  non-controlling interests

1,473

 

1,153

 

1,233

 

Total comprehensive income for the year

9,725

 

10,355

 

21,262

 

 


Consolidated balance sheet

 

 

At

 

 

31 Dec

31 Dec

 

 

2019

2018

 

Notes*

$m

$m

Assets

 

 

 

Cash and balances at central banks

 

154,099

 

162,843

 

Items in the course of collection from other banks

 

4,956

 

5,787

 

Hong Kong Government certificates of indebtedness

 

38,380

 

35,859

 

Trading assets

11

254,271

 

238,130

 

Financial assets designated and otherwise mandatorily measured at fair value through profit or loss

14

43,627

 

41,111

 

Derivatives

15

242,995

 

207,825

 

Loans and advances to banks

 

69,203

 

72,167

 

Loans and advances to customers

 

1,036,743

 

981,696

 

Reverse repurchase agreements - non-trading

 

240,862

 

242,804

 

Financial investments

16

443,312

 

407,433

 

Prepayments, accrued income and other assets

22

136,680

 

110,571

 

Current tax assets

 

755

 

684

 

Interests in associates and joint ventures

18

24,474

 

22,407

 

Goodwill and intangible assets

21

20,163

 

24,357

 

Deferred tax assets

7

4,632

 

4,450

 

Total assets

 

2,715,152

 

2,558,124

 

Liabilities and equity

 

 

 

Liabilities

 

 

 

Hong Kong currency notes in circulation

 

38,380

 

35,859

 

Deposits by banks

 

59,022

 

56,331

 

Customer accounts

 

1,439,115

 

1,362,643

 

Repurchase agreements - non-trading

 

140,344

 

165,884

 

Items in the course of transmission to other banks

 

4,817

 

5,641

 

Trading liabilities

23

83,170

 

84,431

 

Financial liabilities designated at fair value

24

164,466

 

148,505

 

Derivatives

15

239,497

 

205,835

 

Debt securities in issue

25

104,555

 

85,342

 

Accruals, deferred income and other liabilities

26

118,156

 

97,380

 

Current tax liabilities

 

2,150

 

718

 

Liabilities under insurance contracts

4

97,439

 

87,330

 

Provisions

27

3,398

 

2,920

 

Deferred tax liabilities

7

3,375

 

2,619

 

Subordinated liabilities

28

24,600

 

22,437

 

Total liabilities

 

2,522,484

 

2,363,875

 

Equity

 

 

 

Called up share capital

31

10,319

 

10,180

 

Share premium account

31

13,959

 

13,609

 

Other equity instruments

 

20,871

 

22,367

 

Other reserves

 

2,127

 

1,906

 

Retained earnings

 

136,679

 

138,191

 

Total shareholders' equity

 

183,955

 

186,253

 

Non-controlling interests

 

8,713

 

7,996

 

Total equity

 

192,668

 

194,249

 

Total liabilities and equity

 

2,715,152

 

2,558,124

 

*   For Notes on the financial statements, see page 240.

The accompanying notes on pages 240 to 322 and the audited sections in: 'Risk' on pages 73 to 151, 'Capital' on pages 152 to 155, and 'Directors' remuneration report' on pages 184 to 210 form an integral part of these financial statements.

These financial statements were approved by the Board of Directors on 18 February 2020 and signed on its behalf by:

 

 

 

Mark E Tucker

 

 

Ewen Stevenson

Group Chairman

 

Group Chief Financial Officer


Consolidated statement of cash flows

for the year ended 31 December

 

2019

2018

2017

 

$m

$m

$m

Profit before tax

13,347

 

19,890

 

17,167

 

Adjustments for non-cash items:

 

 

 

Depreciation, amortisation and impairment1

10,519

 

1,933

 

1,862

 

Net gain from investing activities

(399

)

(126

)

(1,152

)

Share of profits in associates and joint ventures

(2,354

)

(2,536

)

(2,375

)

Gain on disposal of subsidiaries, businesses, associates and joint ventures

(929

)

-

 

(79

)

Change in expected credit losses gross of recoveries and other credit impairment charges

3,012

 

2,280

 

N/A

Loan impairment losses gross of recoveries and other credit risk provisions

N/A

N/A

2,603

 

Provisions including pensions

2,423

 

1,944

 

917

 

Share-based payment expense

478

 

450

 

500

 

Other non-cash items included in profit before tax

(2,297

)

(1,303

)

(381

)

Elimination of exchange differences2

(3,742

)

4,930

 

(20,757

)

Changes in operating assets and liabilities

 

 

 

Change in net trading securities and derivatives

(18,910

)

20,855

 

(13,615

)

Change in loans and advances to banks and customers

(53,760

)

(44,071

)

(108,984

)

Change in reverse repurchase agreements - non-trading

(7,390

)

(25,399

)

(37,281

)

Change in financial assets designated and otherwise mandatorily measured at fair value

(2,308

)

(1,515

)

(5,303

)

Change in other assets

(21,863

)

6,766

 

(6,570

)

Change in deposits by banks and customer accounts

79,163

 

(5,745

)

102,457

 

Change in repurchase agreements - non-trading

(25,540

)

35,882

 

41,044

 

Change in debt securities in issue

19,268

 

18,806

 

(1,369

)

Change in financial liabilities designated at fair value

20,068

 

4,500

 

8,508

 

Change in other liabilities

23,124

 

(2,187

)

13,514

 

Dividends received from associates

633

 

910

 

740

 

Contributions paid to defined benefit plans

(533

)

(332

)

(685

)

Tax paid

(2,267

)

(3,417

)

(3,175

)

Net cash from operating activities

29,743

 

32,515

 

(12,414

)

Purchase of financial investments

(445,907

)

(399,458

)

(357,264

)

Proceeds from the sale and maturity of financial investments

413,186

 

386,056

 

418,352

 

Net cash flows from the purchase and sale of property, plant and equipment

(1,343

)

(1,196

)

(1,167

)

Net cash flows from purchase/(disposal) of customer and loan portfolios

1,118

 

(204

)

6,756

 

Net investment in intangible assets

(2,289

)

(1,848

)

(1,285

)

Net cash flow on disposal of subsidiaries, businesses, associates and joint ventures

(83

)

4

 

165

 

Net cash from investing activities

(35,318

)

(16,646

)

65,557

 

Issue of ordinary share capital and other equity instruments

-

 

6,001

 

5,196

 

Cancellation of shares

(1,000

)

(1,998

)

(3,000

)

Net sales/(purchases) of own shares for market-making and investment purposes

141

 

133

 

(67

)

Redemption of preference shares and other equity instruments

-

 

(6,078

)

-

 

Subordinated loan capital repaid3

(4,210

)

(4,077

)

(3,574

)

Dividends paid to shareholders of the parent company and non-controlling interests

(9,773

)

(10,762

)

(9,005

)

Net cash from financing activities

(14,842

)

(16,781

)

(10,450

)

Net increase/(decrease) in cash and cash equivalents

(20,417

)

(912

)

42,693

 

Cash and cash equivalents at 1 Jan4

312,911

 

323,718

 

263,324

 

Exchange differences in respect of cash and cash equivalents

1,248

 

(9,895

)

17,701

 

Cash and cash equivalents at 31 Dec4, 5

293,742

 

312,911

 

323,718

 

Cash and cash equivalents comprise:

 

 

 

-  cash and balances at central banks

154,099

 

162,843

 

180,624

 

-  items in the course of collection from other banks

4,956

 

5,787

 

6,628

 

-  loans and advances to banks of one month or less

41,626

 

39,460

 

61,973

 

-  reverse repurchase agreements with banks of one month or less

65,370

 

74,702

 

58,850

 

-  treasury bills, other bills and certificates of deposit less than three months

20,132

 

21,685

 

11,593

 

-  cash collateral and net settlement accounts

12,376

 

14,075

 

10,900

 

-  less: items in the course of transmission to other banks

(4,817

)

(5,641

)

(6,850

)

Cash and cash equivalents at 31 Dec4, 5

293,742

 

312,911

 

323,718

 

Interest received was $58,627m (2018: $45,291m; 2017: $41,676m), interest paid was $27,384m (2018: $14,172m; 2017: $10,962m) and dividends received (excluding dividends received from associates, which are presented separately above) were $2,369m (2018: $1,702m; 2017: $2,225m).

1   The impact of the right-of-use assets recognised under IFRS 16 at the beginning of 2019 is not recognised in 2018 and 2017. This also includes the impact of a $7.3bn goodwill impairment in 2019. 

2   Adjustment to bring changes between opening and closing balance sheet amounts to average rates. This is not done on a line-by-line basis, as details cannot be determined without unreasonable expense.

 3  Subordinated liabilities changes during the year are attributable to repayments of $(4.2)bn (2018: $(4.1)bn; 2017: $(3.6)bn) of securities. Non-cash changes during the year included foreign exchange gains/(losses) of $0.6bn (2018: $(0.6)bn; 2017: $(0.6)bn) and fair value gains/(losses) of $1.4bn (2018: $(1.4)bn; 2017: $(1.2)bn).

4   In 2019, HSBC included settlement accounts with bank counterparties of one month or less on a net basis. Comparatives have been re-presented and also include the net impact of other cash equivalents not previously included in cash and cash equivalents. The net effect of these changes increased cash and cash equivalents by $11.8bn in 2018 and decreased cash and cash equivalents by $(13.7)bn in 2017.

5   At 31 December 2019, $35,735m (2018: $26,282m; 2017: $39,830m) was not available for use by HSBC, of which $19,353m (2018: $19,755m; 2017: $21,424m) related to mandatory deposits at central banks.


Consolidated statement of changes in equity

for the year ended 31 December

 

 

 

 

Other reserves

 

 

 

 

Called up share capital and share premium

Other
equity
instru-ments

Retained
earnings3,4

Financial assets at FVOCI reserve

Cash flow
hedging
reserve

Foreign
exchange
reserve

Merger 
and other reserves4,6

Total
share-
holders'
equity

Non-
controlling
interests

Total
equity

 

$m

$m

$m

$m

$m

$m

$m

$m

$m

$m

At 1 Jan 2019

23,789

 

22,367

 

138,191

 

(1,532

)

(206

)

(26,133

)

29,777

 

186,253

 

7,996

 

194,249

 

Profit for the year

-

 

-

 

7,383

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

7,383

 

1,325

 

8,708

 

Other comprehensive income
(net of tax)

-

 

-

 

(1,759

)

1,424

 

204

 

1,000

 

-

 

869

 

148

 

1,017

 

-  debt instruments at fair value through other comprehensive income

-

 

-

 

-

 

1,146

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

1,146

 

6

 

1,152

 

- equity instruments designated at fair value through other comprehensive income

-

 

-

 

-

 

278

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

278

 

88

 

366

 

-  cash flow hedges

-

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

204

 

-

 

-

 

204

 

2

 

206

 

-  changes in fair value of financial liabilities designated at fair value upon initial recognition arising from changes in own credit risk

-

 

-

 

(2,002

)

-

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

(2,002

)

-

 

(2,002

)

-  remeasurement of defined benefit asset/liability

-

 

-

 

5

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

5

 

8

 

13

 

-  share of other comprehensive income of associates and joint ventures

-

 

-

 

21

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

21

 

-

 

21

 

-  effects of hyperinflation

-

 

-

 

217

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

217

 

-

 

217

 

-  exchange differences

-

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

1,000

 

-

 

1,000

 

44

 

1,044

 

Total comprehensive income for the year

-

 

-

 

5,624

 

1,424

 

204

 

1,000

 

-

 

8,252

 

1,473

 

9,725

 

Shares issued under employee remuneration and share plans

557

 

-

 

(495

)

-

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

62

 

-

 

62

 

Shares issued in lieu of dividends and amounts arising thereon

-

 

-

 

2,687

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

2,687

 

-

 

2,687

 

Dividends to shareholders

-

 

-

 

(11,683

)

-

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

(11,683

)

(777

)

(12,460

)

Redemption of securities2

-

 

(1,496

)

(12

)

-

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

(1,508

)

-

 

(1,508

)

Transfers7

-

 

-

 

2,475

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

(2,475

)

-

 

-

 

-

 

Cost of share-based payment arrangements

-

 

-

 

478

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

478

 

-

 

478

 

Cancellation of shares9

(68

)

-

 

(1,000

)

-

 

-

 

-

 

68

 

(1,000

)

-

 

(1,000

)

Other movements

-

 

-

 

414

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

414

 

21

 

435

 

At 31 Dec 2019

24,278

 

20,871

 

136,679

 

(108

)

(2

)

(25,133

)

27,370

 

183,955

 

8,713

 

192,668

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



 

 

Consolidated statement of changes in equity (continued)

 

 

 

 

Other reserves

 

 

 

 

Called up share capital and share premium

Other
equity
instru-ments

Retained
earnings3,4

Financial assets at FVOCI reserve5

Cash flow
hedging
reserve

Foreign
exchange
reserve

Merger 
and other reserves4,6

Total
share-
holders'
equity

Non-
controlling
interests

Total
equity

 

$m

$m

$m

$m

$m

$m

$m

$m

$m

$m

At 31 Dec 2017

20,337

 

22,250

 

139,999

 

(350

)

(222

)

(19,072

)

27,308

 

190,250

 

7,621

 

197,871

 

Impact on transition to IFRS 910

-

 

-

 

(585

)

(1,021

)

-

 

-

 

-

 

(1,606

)

(41

)

(1,647

)

At 1 Jan 2018

20,337

 

22,250

 

139,414

 

(1,371

)

(222

)

(19,072

)

27,308

 

188,644

 

7,580

 

196,224

 

Profit for the year

-

 

-

 

13,727

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

13,727

 

1,298

 

15,025

 

Other comprehensive income
(net of tax)

-

 

-

 

2,765

 

(245

)

16

 

(7,061

)

-

 

(4,525

)

(145

)

(4,670

)

-  debt instruments at fair value through other comprehensive income

-

 

-

 

-

 

(245

)

-

 

-

 

-

 

(245

)

2

 

(243

)

- equity instruments designated at fair value through other comprehensive income

-

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

(27

)

(27

)

-  cash flow hedges

-

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

16

 

-

 

-

 

16

 

3

 

19

 

-  changes in fair value of financial liabilities designated at fair value upon initial recognition arising from changes in own credit risk

-

 

-

 

2,847

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

2,847

 

-

 

2,847

 

-  remeasurement of defined benefit asset/liability

-

 

-

 

(301

)

-

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

(301

)

(28

)

(329

)

-  share of other comprehensive income of associates and joint ventures

-

 

-

 

(64

)

-

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

(64

)

-

 

(64

)

-  effects of hyperinflation

-

 

-

 

283

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

283

 

-

 

283

 

-  exchange differences

-

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

(7,061

)

-

 

(7,061

)

(95

)

(7,156

)

Total comprehensive income for the year

-

 

-

 

16,492

 

(245

)

16

 

(7,061

)

-

 

9,202

 

1,153

 

10,355

 

Shares issued under employee remuneration and share plans

721

 

-

 

(610

)

-

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

111

 

-

 

111

 

Shares issued in lieu of dividends and amounts arising thereon

-

 

-

 

1,494

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

1,494

 

-

 

1,494

 

Capital securities issued1

-

 

5,968

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

5,968

 

-

 

5,968

 

Dividends to shareholders

-

 

-

 

(11,547

)

-

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

(11,547

)

(710

)

(12,257

)

Redemption of securities2

-

 

(5,851

)

(237

)

-

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

(6,088

)

-

 

(6,088

)

Transfers7

-

 

-

 

(2,200

)

-

 

-

 

-

 

2,200

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

Cost of share-based payment arrangements

-

 

-

 

450

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

450

 

-

 

450

 

Cancellation of shares8,9

2,731

 

-

 

(4,998

)

-

 

-

 

-

 

269

 

(1,998

)

-

 

(1,998

)

Other movements

-

 

-

 

(67

)

84

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

17

 

(27

)

(10

)

At 31 Dec 2018

23,789

 

22,367

 

138,191

 

(1,532

)

(206

)

(26,133

)

29,777

 

186,253

 

7,996

 

194,249

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

At 1 Jan 2017

22,715

 

17,110

 

136,795

 

(477

)

(27

)

(28,038

)

27,308

 

175,386

 

7,192

 

182,578

 

Profit for the year

-

 

-

 

10,798

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

10,798

 

1,081

 

11,879

 

Other comprehensive income
(net of tax)

-

 

-

 

328

 

131

 

(194

)

8,966

 

-

 

9,231

 

152

 

9,383

 

-  available-for-sale investments

-

 

-

 

-

 

131

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

131

 

15

 

146

 

-  cash flow hedges

-

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

(194

)

-

 

-

 

(194

)

2

 

(192

)

-  changes in fair value of financial liabilities designated at fair value due to movement in own credit risk

-

 

-

 

(2,024

)

-

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

(2,024

)

-

 

(2,024

)

-  remeasurement of defined benefit asset/liability

-

 

-

 

2,395

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

2,395

 

24

 

2,419

 

-  share of other comprehensive income of associates and joint ventures

-

 

-

 

(43

)

-

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

(43

)

-

 

(43

)

-  exchange differences

-

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

8,966

 

-

 

8,966

 

111

 

9,077

 

Total comprehensive income for
the year

-

 

-

 

11,126

 

131

 

(194

)

8,966

 

-

 

20,029

 

1,233

 

21,262

 

Shares issued under employee remuneration and share plans

622

 

-

 

(566

)

-

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

56

 

-

 

56

 

Shares issued in lieu of dividends and amounts arising thereon

-

 

-

 

3,206

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

3,206

 

-

 

3,206

 

Capital securities issued1

-

 

5,140

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

5,140

 

-

 

5,140

 

Dividends to shareholders

-

 

-

 

(11,551

)

-

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

(11,551

)

(660

)

(12,211

)

Cost of share-based payment arrangements

-

 

-

 

500

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

500

 

-

 

500

 

Cancellation of shares9

(3,000

)

-

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

(3,000

)

-

 

(3,000

)

Other movements

-

 

-

 

489

 

(4

)

(1

)

-

 

-

 

484

 

(144

)

340

 

At 31 Dec 2017

20,337

 

22,250

 

139,999

 

(350

)

(222

)

(19,072

)

27,308

 

190,250

 

7,621

 

197,871

 

 

     In 2018, HSBC Holdings issued $4,150m, £1,000m and SGD750m of perpetual subordinated contingent convertible capital securities on which there were $60m of external issuance costs, $49m of intra-Group issuance costs and $11m of tax benefits. In 2017, HSBC Holdings issued $3,000m, SGD1,000m and €1,250m of perpetual subordinated contingent convertible capital securities, on which there were $14m of external issuance costs, $37m of intra-Group issuance costs and $10m of tax benefits. Under IFRSs these issuance costs and tax benefits are classified as equity.

2   During 2019, HSBC Holdings redeemed $1,500m 5.625% perpetual subordinated capital securities on which there were $12m of external issuance costs. In 2018, HSBC Holdings redeemed $2,200m 8.125% perpetual subordinated capital securities and its $3,800m 8.000% perpetual subordinated capital securities, Series 2, on which there were $172m of external issuance costs and $23m of intra-Group issuance costs wound down. Under IFRSs external issuance costs are classified as equity.

3   At 31 December 2019, retained earnings included 432,108,782 treasury shares (2018: 379,926,645; 2017: 360,590,019). In addition, treasury shares are also held within HSBC's Insurance business retirement funds for the benefit of policyholders or beneficiaries within employee trusts for the settlement of shares expected to be delivered under employee share schemes or bonus plans, and the market-making activities in Global Markets.

4   Cumulative goodwill amounting to $5,138m has been charged against reserves in respect of acquisitions of subsidiaries prior to 1 January 1998, including $3,469m charged against the merger reserve arising on the acquisition of HSBC Bank plc. The balance of $1,669m has been charged against retained earnings.

5   The $350m at 31 December 2017 represents the IAS 39 available-for-sale fair value reserve as at 31 December 2017.

6   Statutory share premium relief under section 131 of the Companies Act 1985 (the 'Act') was taken in respect of the acquisition of HSBC Bank plc in 1992, HSBC France in 2000 and HSBC Finance Corporation in 2003, and the shares issued were recorded at their nominal value only. In HSBC's consolidated financial statements, the fair value differences of $8,290m in respect of HSBC France and $12,768m in respect of HSBC Finance Corporation were recognised in the merger reserve. The merger reserve created on the acquisition of HSBC Finance Corporation subsequently became attached to HSBC Overseas Holdings (UK) Limited ('HOHU'), following a number of intra-Group reorganisations. During 2009, pursuant to section 131 of the Companies Act 1985, statutory share premium relief was taken in respect of the rights issue and $15,796m was recognised in the merger reserve. 

7   Permitted transfers from the merger reserve to retained earnings were made when the investment in HSBC Overseas Holdings (UK) Limited was previously impaired. In 2018, a part reversal of this impairment resulted in a transfer from retained earnings back to the merger reserve of $2,200m. At 31 December 2019, an additional impairment of $2,475m was recognised and a permitted transfer of this amount was made from the merger reserve to retained earnings.

8   This includes a re-presentation of the cancellation of shares to retained earnings and capital redemption reserve in respect of the 2017 share buy-back, under which retained earnings have been reduced by $3,000m, called up capital and share premium increased by $2,836m and other reserves increased by $164m.

9   For further details, refer to Note 31 in the Annual Report and Accounts 2019. In August 2019, HSBC announced a share buy-back of up to $1.0bn, which was completed in September 2019. In May 2018, HSBC announced a share buy-back of up to $2.0bn, which was completed in August 2018. In February 2017, HSBC announced a share buy-back of up to $1.0bn, which was completed in April 2017. In July 2017, HSBC announced a share buy-back of up to $2.0bn, which was completed in November 2017. Shares bought back from these buy-back programmes have been cancelled.

10  The impact of transitioning to IFRS 9 at 1 January 2018 on the consolidated financial statements of HSBC was a decrease in net assets of $1.6bn, arising from a decrease of $2.2bn from additional impairment allowances, a decrease of $0.9bn from our associates reducing their net assets, an increase of $1.1bn from the remeasurement of financial assets and liabilities as a consequence of classification changes and an increase in net deferred tax assets of $0.4bn.


HSBC Holdings income statement

for the year ended 31 December

 

 

2019

2018

2017

 

Notes*

$m

$m

$m

Net interest expense

 

(2,554

)

(1,112

)

(383

)

-  interest income

 

1,249

 

2,193

 

2,185

 

-  interest expense

 

(3,803

)

(3,305

)

(2,568

)

Fee (expense)/income

 

(2

)

0

 

2

 

Net income from financial instruments held for trading or managed on a fair value basis

 

3

1,477

 

245

 

(181

)

Changes in fair value of designated debt and related derivatives1

3

(360

)

(77

)

103

 

Changes in fair value of other financial instruments mandatorily measured at fair value through profit or loss

 

3

1,659

 

43

 

-

 

Gains less losses from financial investments

 

-

 

4

 

154

 

Dividend income from subsidiaries2

 

15,117

 

55,304

 

10,039

 

Other operating income

 

1,293

 

960

 

769

 

Total operating income

 

16,630

 

55,367

 

10,503

 

Employee compensation and benefits

5

(37

)

(37

)

(54

)

General and administrative expenses

 

(4,772

)

(4,507

)

(4,911

)

Reversal of impairment/(impairment) of subsidiaries3

 

 

(2,562

)

2,064

 

(63

)

Total operating expenses

 

(7,371

)

(2,480

)

(5,028

)

Profit before tax

 

9,259

 

52,887

 

5,475

 

Tax (charge)/credit

 

(218

)

(62

)

64

 

Profit for the year

 

9,041

 

52,825

 

5,539

 

*   For Notes on the financial statements, see page 240.

1   The debt instruments, issued for funding purposes, are designated under the fair value option to reduce an accounting mismatch.

2   The 2018 year included $44,893m (2019: nil) return on capital from HSBC Finance (Netherlands) resulting from restructuring the Group's Asia operation to meet resolution and recovery requirements.

3   The 2019 year includes $2,475m impairment of HSBC Overseas Holdings (UK) Limited (2018: reversal of $2,200m).

 


HSBC Holdings statement of comprehensive income

for the year ended 31 December

 

2019

2018

2017

 

$m

$m

$m

Profit for the year

9,041

 

52,825

 

5,539

 

Other comprehensive income/(expense)

 

 

 

Items that will be reclassified subsequently to profit or loss when specific conditions are met:

 

 

 

Financial investments in HSBC undertakings

-

 

-

 

(53

)

-  fair value gains/(losses)

-

 

-

 

(70

)

-  income taxes

-

 

-

 

17

 

Items that will not be reclassified subsequently to profit or loss:

 

 

 

Changes in fair value of financial liabilities designated at fair value upon initial recognition arising from changes in own credit risk

 

(396

)

865

 

(828

)

-  before income taxes

(573

)

1,090

 

(1,007

)

-  income taxes

177

 

(225

)

179

 

Other comprehensive (expense)/income for the year, net of tax

(396

)

865

 

(881

)

Total comprehensive income for the year

8,645

 

53,690

 

4,658

 

 


HSBC Holdings balance sheet

 

 

31 Dec 2019

31 Dec 2018

 

Notes*

$m

$m

Assets

 

 

 

Cash and balances with HSBC undertakings

 

2,382

 

3,509

 

Financial assets with HSBC undertakings designated and otherwise mandatorily measured at fair value

 

61,964

 

23,513

 

Derivatives

15

2,002

 

707

 

Loans and advances to HSBC undertakings

 

10,218

 

56,144

 

Financial investments

 

16,106

 

-

 

Prepayments, accrued income and other assets

 

559

 

126

 

Current tax assets

 

203

 

594

 

Investments in subsidiaries1

 

161,473

 

160,231

 

Intangible assets

 

333

 

357

 

Deferred tax assets

 

-

 

-

 

Total assets at 31 Dec

 

255,240

 

245,181

 

Liabilities and equity

 

 

 

Liabilities

 

 

 

Amounts owed to HSBC undertakings

 

464

 

949

 

Financial liabilities designated at fair value

24

30,303

 

25,049

 

Derivatives

15

2,021

 

2,159

 

Debt securities in issue

25

56,844

 

50,800

 

Accruals, deferred income and other liabilities

 

1,915

 

994

 

Subordinated liabilities

28

18,361

 

17,715

 

Deferred tax liabilities

 

288

 

162

 

Total liabilities

 

110,196

 

97,828

 

Equity

 

 

 

Called up share capital

31

10,319

 

10,180

 

Share premium account

 

13,959

 

13,609

 

Other equity instruments

 

20,743

 

22,231

 

Other reserves

 

37,539

 

39,899

 

Retained earnings

 

62,484

 

61,434

 

Total equity

 

145,044

 

147,353

 

Total liabilities and equity at 31 Dec

 

255,240

 

245,181

 

*   For Notes on the financial statements, see page 240.

1   The 2018 year included $56,587m (2019: nil) capital injection to HSBC Asia Holdings Limited.

 

The accompanying notes on pages 240 to 322 and the audited sections in: 'Global businesses and geographical regions' on pages 56 to 71, 'Risk' on pages 73 to 151, 'Capital' on pages 152 to 155 and 'Directors' remuneration report' on pages 184 to 210 form an integral part of these financial statements.

These financial statements were approved by the Board of Directors on 18 February 2020 and signed on its behalf by:

 

 

 

 

 

Mark E Tucker

 

 

Ewen Stevenson

Group Chairman

 

Group Chief Financial Officer

 


HSBC Holdings statement of cash flows

for the year ended 31 December

 

2019

2018

2017

 

$m

$m

$m

Profit before tax

9,259

 

52,887

 

5,475

 

Adjustments for non-cash items

2,657

 

(46,878

)

(17

)

-  depreciation, amortisation and impairment/expected credit losses

72

 

70

 

33

 

-  share-based payment expense

1

 

-

 

(2

)

-  other non-cash items included in profit before tax1

2,584

 

(46,948

)

(48

)

Changes in operating assets and liabilities

 

 

 

Change in loans to HSBC undertakings

41,471

 

7,293

 

(1,122

)

Change in financial assets with HSBC undertakings designated and otherwise mandatorily measured at fair value

(38,451

)

(7,305

)

(11,944

)

Change in financial investments in HSBC undertakings

-

 

-

 

(1,775

)

Change in net trading securities and net derivatives

(1,433

)

758

 

(2,183

)

Change in other assets

(437

)

231

 

134

 

Change in financial investments

(70

)

-

 

-

 

Change in debt securities in issue

1,899

 

(1,094

)

1,020

 

Change in financial liabilities designated at fair value

1,227

 

(740

)

954

 

Change in other liabilities

437

 

(1,883

)

721

 

Tax received

459

 

301

 

443

 

Net cash from operating activities

17,018

 

3,570

 

(8,294

)

Purchase of financial investments

 

(19,293

)

-

 

-

 

Proceeds from the sale and maturity of financial investments

6,755

 

-

 

1,165

 

Net cash outflow from acquisition of or increase in stake of subsidiaries

(3,721

)

(8,992

)

(89

)

Repayment of capital from subsidiaries

-

 

3,627

 

4,070

 

Net investment in intangible assets

(44

)

(121

)

(150

)

Net cash from investing activities

(16,303

)

(5,486

)

4,996

 

Issue of ordinary share capital and other equity instruments

500

 

6,652

 

5,647

 

Redemption of other equity instruments

-

 

(6,093

)

-

 

Purchase of treasury shares

-

 

-

 

-

 

Cancellation of shares

(1,006

)

(1,998

)

(3,000

)

Subordinated loan capital issued

-

 

-

 

-

 

Subordinated loan capital repaid

(4,107

)

(1,972

)

(1,184

)

Debt securities issued

10,817

 

19,513

 

11,433

 

Debt securities repaid

-

 

(1,025

)

-

 

Dividends paid on ordinary shares

(7,582

)

(8,693

)

(6,987

)

Dividends paid to holders of other equity instruments

(1,414

)

(1,360

)

(1,359

)

Net cash from financing activities

(2,792

)

5,024

 

4,550

 

Net increase/(decrease) in cash and cash equivalents

(2,077

)

3,108

 

1,252

 

Cash and cash equivalents at 1 January

8,057

 

4,949

 

3,697

 

Cash and cash equivalents at 31 Dec2

5,980

 

8,057

 

4,949

 

Cash and cash equivalents comprise:

 

 

 

-  cash at bank with HSBC undertakings

 

2,382

 

3,509

 

1,985

 

-  loans and advances to banks of one month or less

102

 

4,548

 

2,964

 

-  treasury and other eligible bills

3,496

 

-

 

-

 

Interest received was $2,216m (2018: $2,116m; 2017: $2,103m), interest paid was $3,819m (2018: $3,379m; 2017: $2,443m) and dividends received were $15,117m (2018: $10,411m; 2017: $10,039m).

1   The 2018 year included $44,893m (2019: nil) return on capital from HSBC Finance (Netherlands) resulting from restructuring the Group's Asia operation to meet resolution and recovery requirements.

2   In 2019, HSBC included settlement accounts with bank counterparties of one month or less on a net basis. Comparatives have been re-presented and also include other cash equivalents not included in 2018 cash and cash equivalents. The net effect of these changes increased cash and cash equivalents by $1,548m in 2018 and had no impact in 2017.

 


HSBC Holdings statement of changes in equity

for the year ended 31 December

 

 

 

 

 

Other reserves

 

 

Called up

share

capital

Share

premium

Other

equity

instruments

Retained earnings1,2

Financial assets at FVOCI reserve

Merger and other reserves2

Total

shareholders'

equity

 

$m

$m

$m

$m

$m

$m

$m

At 1 Jan 2019

10,180

 

13,609

 

22,231

 

61,434

 

-

 

39,899

 

147,353

 

Profit for the year

-

 

-

 

-

 

9,041

 

-

 

-

 

9,041

 

Other comprehensive income (net of tax)

-

 

-

 

-

 

(396

)

-

 

-

 

(396

)

-  changes in fair value of financial liabilities designated at fair value upon initial recognition arising from changes in own credit risk

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

(396

)

-

 

-

 

(396

)

Total comprehensive income for the year

-

 

-

 

-

 

8,645

 

-

 

-

 

8,645

 

Shares issued under employee share plans

36

 

521

 

-

 

(56

)

-

 

-

 

501

 

Shares issued in lieu of dividends and amounts arising thereon

171

 

(171

)

-

 

2,687

 

-

 

-

 

2,687

 

Cancellation of shares3

(68

)

-

 

-

 

(1,000

)

-

 

68

 

(1,000

)

Capital securities issued

-

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

Dividends to shareholders

-

 

-

 

-

 

(11,683

)

-

 

-

 

(11,683

)

Redemption of capital securities

-

 

-

 

(1,488

)

(20

)

-

 

-

 

(1,508

)

Transfers5

-

 

-

 

-

 

2,475

 

-

 

(2,475

)

-

 

Other movements

-

 

-

 

-

 

2

 

-

 

47

 

49

 

At 31 Dec 2019

10,319

 

13,959

 

20,743

 

62,484

 

-

 

37,539

 

145,044

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

At 31 Dec 2017

10,160

 

10,177

 

22,107

 

23,903

 

59

 

37,381

 

103,787

 

Impact on transition to IFRS 9

-

 

-

 

-

 

949

 

(59

)

-

 

890

 

At 1 Jan 2018

10,160

 

10,177

 

22,107

 

24,852

 

-

 

37,381

 

104,677

 

Profit for the year

-

 

-

 

-

 

52,825

 

-

 

-

 

52,825

 

Other comprehensive income (net of tax)

-

 

-

 

-

 

865

 

-

 

-

 

865

 

-  changes in fair value of financial liabilities designated at fair value due to movement in own credit risk

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

865

 

-

 

-

 

865

 

Total comprehensive income for the year

-

 

-

 

-

 

53,690

 

-

 

-

 

53,690

 

Shares issued under employee share plans

42

 

679

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

721

 

Shares issued in lieu of dividends and amounts arising thereon

83

 

(83

)

-

 

1,494

 

-

 

-

 

1,494

 

Cancellation of shares4

(105

)

2,836

 

-

 

(4,998

)

-

 

269

 

(1,998

)

Capital securities issued

-

 

-

 

5,967

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

5,967

 

Dividends to shareholders

-

 

-

 

-

 

(11,547

)

-

 

-

 

(11,547

)

Redemption of capital securities

-

 

-

 

(5,843

)

(236

)

-

 

-

 

(6,079

)

Transfers5

-

 

-

 

-

 

(2,200

)

-

 

2,200

 

-

 

Other movements

-

 

-

 

-

 

379

 

-

 

49

 

428

 

At 31 Dec 2018

10,180

 

13,609

 

22,231

 

61,434

 

-

 

39,899

 

147,353

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

At 1 Jan 2017

10,096

 

12,619

 

17,004

 

27,656

 

112

 

37,371

 

104,858

 

Profit for the year

-

 

-

 

-

 

5,539

 

-

 

-

 

5,539

 

Other comprehensive income (net of tax)

-

 

-

 

-

 

(828

)

(53

)

-

 

(881

)

-  available-for-sale investments

-

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

(53

)

-

 

(53

)

-  changes in fair value of financial liabilities designated at fair value due to movement in own credit risk

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

(828

)

-

 

-

 

(828

)

Total comprehensive income for the year

-

 

-

 

-

 

4,711

 

(53

)

-

 

4,658

 

Shares issued under employee share plans

38

 

584

 

-

 

(52

)

-

 

-

 

570

 

Shares issued in lieu of dividends and amounts arising thereon

190

 

(190

)

-

 

3,205

 

-

 

-

 

3,205

 

Cancellation of shares

(164

)

(2,836

)

-

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

(3,000

)

Capital securities issued

-

 

-

 

5,103

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

5,103

 

Dividends to shareholders

-

 

-

 

-

 

(11,551

)

-

 

-

 

(11,551

)

Cost of share-based payment arrangements

-

 

-

 

-

 

(2

)

-

 

-

 

(2

)

Other movements

-

 

-

 

-

 

(64

)

-

 

10

 

(54

)

At 31 Dec 2017

10,160

 

10,177

 

22,107

 

23,903

 

59

 

37,381

 

103,787

 

Dividends per ordinary share at 31 December 2019 were $0.51 (2018: $0.51; 2017: $0.51).

 

1   At 31 December 2019, retained earnings included 326,191,804 ($2,543m) of treasury shares (2018: 326,503,319 ($2,546m); 2017: 326,843,840 ($2,542m)).

2   HSBC Holdings distributable reserves at 31 December 2019 of $31,656m (2018: $30,705m) represents realised profits for the year included in retained earnings of $11,516m (2018: $14,974m) and in merger reserve of $15,731m (2018: $15,731m). The distributable reserves are lower than retained earnings of $62,484m (2018: $61,434m). In 2018, $44,893m (2019: nil) represented income generated from restructuring the Group's Asia operation to meet resolution and recovery requirements, which does not form part of distributable reserves.

3   In August 2019, HSBC announced a share buy-back of up to $1.0bn, which was completed in September 2019.

4   The 2018 year included a re-presentation of the cancellation of shares to retained earnings and capital redemption reserve in respect of the 2017 share buy-back, under which retained earnings has been reduced by $3,000m, share premium increased by $2,836m and other reserves increased by $164m.

5   Permitted transfers from the merger reserve to retained earnings were made when the investment in HSBC Overseas Holdings (UK) Limited was previously impaired. In 2018, a part reversal of this impairment resulted in a transfer from retained earnings back to the merger reserve of $2,200m. At 31 December 2019, an additional impairment of $2,475m was recognised and a permitted transfer of this amount was made from the merger reserve to retained earnings. 



Notes on the financial statements

 

 

Page

 

 

 

Page

1

Basis of preparation and significant accounting policies

240

 

21

Goodwill and intangible assets

 

289

2

Net fee income

251

 

22

Prepayments, accrued income and other assets

292

3

Net income/(expense) from financial instruments measured at fair value through profit or loss

252

 

23

Trading liabilities

292

 

24

Financial liabilities designated at fair value

292

4

Insurance business

252

 

25

Debt securities in issue

293

5

Employee compensation and benefits

253

 

26

Accruals, deferred income and other liabilities

293

6

Auditors' remuneration

259

 

27

Provisions

293

7

Tax

259

 

28

Subordinated liabilities

295

8

Dividends

261

 

29

Maturity analysis of assets, liabilities and off-balance sheet commitments

298

9

Earnings per share

262

 

10

Segmental analysis

263

 

30

Offsetting of financial assets and financial liabilities

304

11

Trading assets

265

 

31

Called up share capital and other equity instruments

305

12

Fair values of financial instruments carried at fair value

266

 

32

Contingent liabilities, contractual commitments and guarantees

307

13

Fair values of financial instruments not carried at fair value

273

 

33

Finance lease receivables

 

308

14

Financial assets designated and otherwise mandatorily measured at fair value through profit or loss

274

 

34

Legal proceedings and regulatory matters

308

 

35

Related party transactions

312

15

Derivatives

275

 

36

Events after the balance sheet date

314

16

Financial investments

279

 

37

HSBC Holdings' subsidiaries, joint ventures and associates

314

17

Assets pledged, collateral received and assets transferred

282

 

 

 

 

18

Interests in associates and joint ventures

283

 

 

 

 

19

Investments in subsidiaries

 

286

 

 

 

 

20

Structured entities

287

 

 

 

 



1

Basis of preparation and significant accounting policies


1.1     Basis of preparation

(a)      Compliance with International Financial Reporting Standards

The consolidated financial statements of HSBC and the separate financial statements of HSBC Holdings have been prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards ('IFRSs') as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board ('IASB'), including interpretations issued by the IFRS Interpretations Committee, and as endorsed by the European Union ('EU'). Interest Rate Benchmark Reform: Amendments to IFRS 9 and IAS 39 'Financial Instruments', was endorsed in January 2020 and has been early adopted as set out below. Therefore, there were no unendorsed standards effective for the year ended 31 December 2019 affecting these consolidated and separate financial statements, and HSBC's application of IFRSs results in no differences between IFRSs as issued by the IASB and IFRSs as endorsed by the EU.

Standards adopted during the year ended 31 December 2019

IFRS 16 'Leases' 

On 1 January 2019, we adopted the requirements of IFRS 16 retrospectively. The cumulative effect of initially applying the standard was recognised as an adjustment to the opening balance of retained earnings at that date. Comparatives were not restated. The adoption of the standard increased assets by $5bn and increased financial liabilities by the same amount with no effect on net assets or retained earnings.

On adoption of IFRS 16, we recognised lease liabilities in relation to leases that had previously been classified as 'operating leases' in accordance with IAS 17 'Leases'. These liabilities were recognised in 'other liabilities' and measured at the present value of the remaining lease payments, discounted at the lessee's incremental borrowing rate at 1 January 2019. The associated right of use ('ROU') assets were recognised in 'other assets' and measured at the amount equal to the lease liability, adjusted by the amount of any prepaid or accrued lease payments or provisions for onerous leases recognised on the balance sheet at 31 December 2018. In addition, the following practical expedients permitted by the standard were applied:

•    reliance was placed on previous assessments on whether leases were onerous;

•    operating leases with a remaining lease term of less than 12 months at 1 January 2019 were treated as short-term leases; and

•    initial direct costs were not included in the measurement of ROU assets for leases previously accounted for as operating leases.

The differences between IAS 17 and IFRS 16 are summarised in the table below:                  

Leases were classified as either finance or operating leases. Payments made under operating leases were charged to profit or loss on a straight-line basis over the period of the lease.

Leases are recognised as an ROU asset and a corresponding liability at the date at which the leased asset is made available for use. Lease payments are allocated between the liability and finance cost. The finance cost is charged to profit or loss over the lease term so as to produce a constant period rate of interest on the remaining balance of the liability. The ROU asset is depreciated over the shorter of the ROU asset's useful economic life and the lease term on a straight-line basis.

In determining the lease term, we consider all facts and circumstances that create an economic incentive to exercise an extension option or not exercise a termination option over the planning horizon of five years.

In general, it is not expected that the discount rate implicit in the lease is available so the lessee's incremental borrowing rate is used. This is the rate that the lessee would have to pay to borrow the funds necessary to obtain an asset of a similar value in a similar economic environment with similar terms and conditions. The rates are determined for each economic environment in which we operate and for each term by adjusting swap rates with funding spreads (own credit spread) and cross-currency basis where appropriate.

 

Interest Rate Benchmark Reform: Amendments to IFRS 9 and IAS 39 'Financial Instruments'

Amendments to IFRS 9 and IAS 39 issued in September 2019 modify specific hedge accounting requirements so that entities apply those hedge accounting requirements assuming that the interest rate benchmark on which the hedged cash flows and cash flows of the hedging instrument are based is not altered as a result of interest rate benchmark reform. These amendments replace the need for specific judgements to determine whether certain hedge accounting relationships that hedge the variability of cash flows or interest rate risk exposures for periods after the interest rate benchmarks are expected to be reformed or replaced continue to qualify for hedge accounting as at 31 December 2019. For example, in the context of cash flow hedging, the amendments require the interest rate benchmark on which the hedged cash flows are based, or on which the cash flows of the hedging instrument are based, to be assumed to be unaltered over the period of the documented hedge relationship, while uncertainty over the interest rate benchmark reform exists. The IASB is expected to provide further guidance on the implication for hedge accounting during the reform process and after the reform uncertainty is resolved.

These amendments apply from 1 January 2020 with early adoption permitted. HSBC has adopted the amendments that apply to IAS 39 from 1 January 2019 and has made the additional disclosures as required by the amendments. Further information is included in Note 15.

Amendment to IAS 12 'Income Taxes' and other changes

An amendment to IAS 12 was issued in December 2017 as part of the annual improvement cycle. The amendment clarifies that an entity should recognise the tax consequences of dividends where the transactions or events that generated the distributable profits are recognised. This amendment was applied on 1 January 2019 and had no material impact. Comparatives have not been restated.

In addition, HSBC has adopted a number of interpretations and amendments to standards, which have had an insignificant effect on the consolidated financial statements of HSBC and the separate financial statements of HSBC Holdings. In 2018, HSBC adopted IFRS 9 and made voluntary presentation changes, including to certain financial liabilities, which contain both deposit and derivative components, and to cash collateral, margin and settlement accounts. The impact of this is included in the HSBC Holdings statement of changes in equity for that year end and 2017 comparatives were not restated.

(b)      Differences between IFRSs and Hong Kong Financial Reporting Standards

There are no significant differences between IFRSs and Hong Kong Financial Reporting Standards in terms of their application to HSBC, and consequently there would be no significant differences had the financial statements been prepared in accordance with Hong Kong Financial Reporting Standards. The 'Notes on the financial statements', taken together with the 'Report of the Directors', include the aggregate of all disclosures necessary to satisfy IFRSs and Hong Kong reporting requirements.

(c)      Future accounting developments

Minor amendments to IFRSs

The IASB has published a number of minor amendments to IFRSs that are effective from 1 January 2020, some of which have been endorsed for use in the EU. HSBC expects they will have an insignificant effect, when adopted, on the consolidated financial statements of HSBC and the separate financial statements of HSBC Holdings.

Major new IFRSs

IFRS 17 'Insurance Contracts'

IFRS 17 'Insurance Contracts' was issued in May 2017 and sets out the requirements that an entity should apply in accounting for insurance contracts it issues and reinsurance contracts it holds. IFRS 17 is currently effective from 1 January 2021. However, the IASB is considering delaying the mandatory implementation date by one year and may make additional changes to the standard. The Group is in the process of implementing IFRS 17. Industry practice and interpretation of the standard are still developing and there may be changes to it. Therefore the likely impact of its implementation remains uncertain.

(d)      Foreign currencies

HSBC's consolidated financial statements are presented in US dollars because the US dollar and currencies linked to it form the major currency bloc in which HSBC transacts and funds its business. The US dollar is also HSBC Holdings' functional currency because the US dollar and currencies linked to it are the most significant currencies relevant to the underlying transactions, events and conditions of its subsidiaries, as well as representing a significant proportion of its funds generated from financing activities.

Transactions in foreign currencies are recorded at the rate of exchange on the date of the transaction. Assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are translated at the rate of exchange at the balance sheet date, except non-monetary assets and liabilities measured at historical cost, which are translated using the rate of exchange at the initial transaction date. Exchange differences are included in other comprehensive income or in the income statement depending on where the gain or loss on the underlying item is recognised.

In the consolidated financial statements, the assets, liabilities and results of foreign operations, whose functional currency is not US dollars, are translated into the Group's presentation currency at the reporting date. Exchange differences arising are recognised in other comprehensive income. On disposal of a foreign operation, exchange differences previously recognised in other comprehensive income are reclassified to the income statement.

(e)      Presentation of information

Certain disclosures required by IFRSs have been included in the sections marked as ('Audited') in this Annual Report and Accounts 2019 as follows:

•    disclosures concerning the nature and extent of risks relating to insurance contracts and financial instruments are included in the 'Report of the Directors: Risk' on pages 73 to 151;

•    the 'Own funds disclosure' included in the 'Report of the Directors: Capital' on pages 152 to 155; and

•    disclosures relating to HSBC's securitisation activities and structured products are included in the 'Report of the Directors: Risk' on pages 73 to 151.

In accordance with the policy to provide disclosures that help investors and other stakeholders understand the Group's performance, financial position and changes to them, the information provided in the 'Notes on the financial statements' and the 'Report of the Directors' goes beyond the minimum levels required by accounting standards, statutory and regulatory requirements and listing rules.

In addition, HSBC follows the UK Finance Disclosure Code ('the UKF Disclosure Code'). The UKF Disclosure Code aims to increase the quality and comparability of UK banks' disclosures and sets out five disclosure principles together with supporting guidance agreed in 2010. In line with the principles of the UKF Disclosure Code, HSBC assesses good practice recommendations issued from time to time by relevant regulators and standard setters, and will assess the applicability and relevance of such guidance, enhancing disclosures where appropriate.

(f)      Critical accounting estimates and judgements

The preparation of financial information requires the use of estimates and judgements about future conditions. In view of the inherent uncertainties and the high level of subjectivity involved in the recognition or measurement of items, highlighted as the 'critical accounting estimates and judgements' in section 1.2 below, it is possible that the outcomes in the next financial year could differ from those on which management's estimates are based. This could result in materially different estimates and judgements from those reached by management for the purposes of these financial statements. Management's selection of HSBC's accounting policies that contain critical estimates and judgements reflects the materiality of the items to which the policies are applied and the high degree of judgement and estimation uncertainty involved.

(g)      Segmental analysis

HSBC's Chief Operating Decision Maker is the Group Chief Executive, who is supported by the rest of the Group Management Board ('GMB'), which operates as a general management committee under the direct authority of the Board. Operating segments are reported in a manner consistent with the internal reporting provided to the Group Chief Executive and the GMB.

Measurement of segmental assets, liabilities, income and expenses is in accordance with the Group's accounting policies. Segmental income and expenses include transfers between segments, and these transfers are conducted at arm's length. Shared costs are included in segments on the basis of the actual recharges made.

(h)      Going concern

The financial statements are prepared on a going concern basis, as the Directors are satisfied that the Group and parent company have the resources to continue in business for the foreseeable future. In making this assessment, the Directors have considered a wide range of information relating to present and future conditions, including future projections of profitability, cash flows and capital resources.


1.2     Summary of significant accounting policies

(a)      Consolidation and related policies

Investments in subsidiaries

Where an entity is governed by voting rights, HSBC consolidates when it holds - directly or indirectly - the necessary voting rights to pass resolutions by the governing body. In all other cases, the assessment of control is more complex and requires judgement of other factors, including having exposure to variability of returns, power to direct relevant activities, and whether power is held as agent or principal.

Business combinations are accounted for using the acquisition method. The amount of non-controlling interest is measured either at fair value or at the non-controlling interest's proportionate share of the acquiree's identifiable net assets. This election is made for each business combination.

HSBC Holdings' investments in subsidiaries are stated at cost less impairment losses.

Goodwill

Goodwill is allocated to cash-generating units ('CGUs') for the purpose of impairment testing, which is undertaken at the lowest level at which goodwill is monitored for internal management purposes. HSBC's CGUs are based on geographical regions subdivided by global business, except for Global Banking and Markets, for which goodwill is monitored on a global basis.

Impairment testing is performed at least once a year, or whenever there is an indication of impairment, by comparing the recoverable amount of a CGU with its carrying amount.

Goodwill is included in a disposal group if the disposal group is a CGU to which goodwill has been allocated or it is an operation within such a CGU. The amount of goodwill included in a disposal group is measured on the basis of the relative values of the operation disposed of and the portion of the CGU retained.

Critical accounting estimates and judgements

The review of goodwill for impairment reflects management's best estimate of the future cash flows of the CGUs and the rates used to discount these cash flows, both of which are subject to uncertain factors as follows:

•      The accuracy of forecast cash flows is subject to a high degree of uncertainty in volatile market conditions. Where such circumstances are determined to exist, management re-tests goodwill for impairment more frequently than once a year when indicators of impairment exist. This ensures that the assumptions on which the cash flow forecasts are based continue to reflect current market conditions and management's best estimate of future business prospects

•      The future cash flows of the CGUs are sensitive to the cash flows projected for the periods for which detailed forecasts are available and to assumptions regarding the long-term pattern of sustainable cash flows thereafter. Forecasts are compared with actual performance and verifiable economic data, but they reflect management's view of future business prospects at the time of the assessment

•      The rates used to discount future expected cash flows can have a significant effect on their valuation, and are based on the costs of capital assigned to individual CGUs. The cost of capital percentage is generally derived from a capital asset pricing model, which incorporates inputs reflecting a number of financial and economic variables, including the risk-free interest rate in the country concerned and a premium for the risk of the business being evaluated. These variables are subject to fluctuations in external market rates and economic conditions beyond management's control

•      Key assumptions used in estimating goodwill impairment are described in Note 21

HSBC sponsored structured entities

HSBC is considered to sponsor another entity if, in addition to ongoing involvement with the entity, it had a key role in establishing that entity or in bringing together relevant counterparties so the transaction that is the purpose of the entity could occur. HSBC is generally not considered a sponsor if the only involvement with the entity is merely administrative.

Interests in associates and joint arrangements

Joint arrangements are investments in which HSBC, together with one or more parties, has joint control. Depending on HSBC's rights and obligations, the joint arrangement is classified as either a joint operation or a joint venture. HSBC classifies investments in entities over which it has significant influence, and that are neither subsidiaries nor joint arrangements, as associates.

HSBC recognises its share of the assets, liabilities and results in a joint operation. Investments in associates and interests in joint ventures are recognised using the equity method. The attributable share of the results and reserves of joint ventures and associates is included in the consolidated financial statements of HSBC based on either financial statements made up to 31 December or pro-rated amounts adjusted for any material transactions or events occurring between the date the financial statements are available and 
31 December.

Investments in associates and joint ventures are assessed at each reporting date and tested for impairment when there is an indication that the investment may be impaired. Goodwill on acquisitions of interests in joint ventures and associates is not tested separately for impairment, but is assessed as part of the carrying amount of the investment.

Critical accounting estimates and judgements

The most significant critical accounting judgements and estimates relate to the assessment of impairment of our investment in Bank of Communications Co. Limited ('BoCom'), which involves estimations of value in use:

 

•      Management's best estimate of BoCom's earnings are based on management's explicit forecasts over the short to medium term and the capital maintenance charge, which is management's forecast of the earnings that need to be withheld in order for BoCom to meet regulatory requirements over the forecast period, both of which are subject to uncertain factors

•      Key assumptions used in estimating BoCom's value in use, the sensitivity of the value in use calculations to different assumptions and a sensitivity analysis that shows the changes in key assumptions that would reduce the excess of value in use over the carrying amount (the 'headroom') to nil are described in Note 18

(b)      Income and expense

Operating income

Interest income and expense

Interest income and expense for all financial instruments, excluding those classified as held for trading or designated at fair value, are recognised in 'Interest income' and 'Interest expense' in the income statement using the effective interest method. However, as an exception to this, interest on debt instruments issued by HSBC for funding purposes that are designated under the fair value option to reduce an accounting mismatch and on derivatives managed in conjunction with those debt instruments is included in interest expense.

Interest on credit-impaired financial assets is recognised using the rate of interest used to discount the future cash flows for the purpose of measuring the impairment loss.

Non-interest income and expense

HSBC generates fee income from services provided at a fixed price over time, such as account service and card fees, or when HSBC delivers a specific transaction at a point in time, such as broking services and import/export services. With the exception of certain fund management and performance fees, all other fees are generated at a fixed price. Fund management and performance fees can be variable depending on the size of the customer portfolio and HSBC's performance as fund manager. Variable fees are recognised when all uncertainties are resolved. Fee income is generally earned from short-term contracts with payment terms that do not include a significant financing component.

HSBC acts as principal in the majority of contracts with customers, with the exception of broking services. For most brokerage trades, HSBC acts as agent in the transaction and recognises broking income net of fees payable to other parties in the arrangement.

HSBC recognises fees earned on transaction-based arrangements at a point in time when it has fully provided the service to the customer. Where the contract requires services to be provided over time, income is recognised on a systematic basis over the life of the agreement.

Where HSBC offers a package of services that contains multiple non-distinct performance obligations, such as those included in account service packages, the promised services are treated as a single performance obligation. If a package of services contains distinct performance obligations, such as those including both account and insurance services, the corresponding transaction price is allocated to each performance obligation based on the estimated stand-alone selling prices.

Dividend income is recognised when the right to receive payment is established. This is the ex-dividend date for listed equity securities, and usually the date when shareholders approve the dividend for unlisted equity securities.

Net income/(expense) from financial instruments measured at fair value through profit or loss includes the following:

•    'Net income from financial instruments held for trading or managed on a fair value basis': This comprises net trading income, which includes all gains and losses from changes in the fair value of financial assets and financial liabilities held for trading and other financial instruments managed on a fair value basis, together with the related interest income, expense and dividends, excluding the effect of changes in the credit risk of liabilities managed on a fair value basis. It also includes all gains and losses from changes in the fair value of derivatives that are managed in conjunction with financial assets and liabilities measured at fair value through profit or loss.

•    'Net income/(expense) from assets and liabilities of insurance businesses, including related derivatives, measured at fair value through profit or loss': This includes interest income, interest expense and dividend income in respect of financial assets and liabilities measured at fair value through profit or loss; and those derivatives managed in conjunction with the above that can be separately identifiable from other trading derivatives.

•    'Changes in fair value of designated debt instruments and related derivatives': Interest paid on debt instruments and interest cash flows on related derivatives is presented in interest expense where doing so reduces an accounting mismatch.

•    'Changes in fair value of other financial instruments mandatorily measured at fair value through profit or loss': This includes interest on instruments that fail the solely payments of principal and interest test, see (d) below.

The accounting policies for insurance premium income are disclosed in Note 1.2(j).

(c)      Valuation of financial instruments

All financial instruments are initially recognised at fair value. Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. The fair value of a financial instrument on initial recognition is generally its transaction price (that is, the fair value of the consideration given or received). However, if there is a difference between the transaction price and the fair value of financial instruments whose fair value is based on a quoted price in an active market or a valuation technique that uses only data from observable markets, HSBC recognises the difference as a trading gain or loss at inception (a 'day 1 gain or loss'). In all other cases, the entire day 1 gain or loss is deferred and recognised in the income statement over the life of the transaction until the transaction matures, is closed out, the valuation inputs become observable or HSBC enters into an offsetting transaction.

The fair value of financial instruments is generally measured on an individual basis. However, in cases where HSBC manages a group of financial assets and liabilities according to its net market or credit risk exposure, the fair value of the group of financial instruments is measured on a net basis but the underlying financial assets and liabilities are presented separately in the financial statements, unless they satisfy the IFRS offsetting criteria.

Critical accounting estimates and judgements

The majority of valuation techniques employ only observable market data. However, certain financial instruments are classified on the basis of valuation techniques that feature one or more significant market inputs that are unobservable, and for them, the measurement of fair value is more judgemental:

•      An instrument in its entirety is classified as valued using significant unobservable inputs if, in the opinion of management, a significant proportion of the instrument's inception profit or greater than 5% of the instrument's valuation is driven by unobservable inputs

•      'Unobservable' in this context means that there is little or no current market data available from which to determine the price at which an arm's length transaction would be likely to occur. It generally does not mean that there is no data available at all upon which to base a determination of fair value (consensus pricing data may, for example, be used)

•      Details on the Group's level 3 financial instruments and the sensitivity of their valuation to the effect of applying reasonable possible alternative assumptions in determining their fair value are set out in Note 12

(d)      Financial instruments measured at amortised cost

Financial assets that are held to collect the contractual cash flows and which contain contractual terms that give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest are measured at amortised cost. Such financial assets include most loans and advances to banks and customers and some debt securities. In addition, most financial liabilities are measured at amortised cost. HSBC accounts for regular way amortised cost financial instruments using trade date accounting. The carrying value of these financial assets at initial recognition includes any directly attributable transactions costs. If the initial fair value is lower than the cash amount advanced, such as in the case of some leveraged finance and syndicated lending activities, the difference is deferred and recognised over the life of the loan through the recognition of interest income.

HSBC may commit to underwriting loans on fixed contractual terms for specified periods of time. When the loan arising from the lending commitment is expected to be held for trading, the commitment to lend is recorded as a derivative. When HSBC intends to hold the loan, the loan commitment is included in the impairment calculations set out below.

Non-trading reverse repurchase, repurchase and similar agreements

When debt securities are sold subject to a commitment to repurchase them at a predetermined price ('repos'), they remain on the balance sheet and a liability is recorded in respect of the consideration received. Securities purchased under commitments to resell ('reverse repos') are not recognised on the balance sheet and an asset is recorded in respect of the initial consideration paid. Non-trading repos and reverse repos are measured at amortised cost. The difference between the sale and repurchase price or between the purchase and resale price is treated as interest and recognised in net interest income over the life of the agreement.

Contracts that are economically equivalent to reverse repo or repo agreements (such as sales or purchases of debt securities entered into together with total return swaps with the same counterparty) are accounted for similarly to, and presented together with, reverse repo or repo agreements.

(e)      Financial assets measured at fair value through other comprehensive income

Financial assets held for a business model that is achieved by both collecting contractual cash flows and selling and which contain contractual terms that give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest are measured at fair value through other comprehensive income ('FVOCI'). These comprise primarily debt securities. They are recognised on the trade date when HSBC enters into contractual arrangements to purchase and are normally derecognised when they are either sold or redeemed. They are subsequently remeasured at fair value and changes therein (except for those relating to impairment, interest income and foreign currency exchange gains and losses) are recognised in other comprehensive income until the assets are sold. Upon disposal, the cumulative gains or losses in other comprehensive income are recognised in the income statement as 'Gains less losses from financial instruments'. Financial assets measured at FVOCI are included in the impairment calculations set out below and impairment is recognised in profit or loss.

(f)      Equity securities measured at fair value with fair value movements presented in other comprehensive income

The equity securities for which fair value movements are shown in other comprehensive income are business facilitation and other similar investments where HSBC holds the investments other than to generate a capital return. Gains or losses on the derecognition of these equity securities are not transferred to profit or loss. Otherwise, equity securities are measured at fair value through profit or loss (except for dividend income, which is recognised in profit or loss).

(g)      Financial instruments designated at fair value through profit or loss

Financial instruments, other than those held for trading, are classified in this category if they meet one or more of the criteria set out below and are so designated irrevocably at inception:

•    the use of the designation removes or significantly reduces an accounting mismatch;

•    a group of financial assets and liabilities or a group of financial liabilities is managed and its performance is evaluated on a fair value basis, in accordance with a documented risk management or investment strategy; and

•    the financial liability contains one or more non-closely related embedded derivatives.

Designated financial assets are recognised when HSBC enters into contracts with counterparties, which is generally on trade date, and are normally derecognised when the rights to the cash flows expire or are transferred. Designated financial liabilities are recognised when HSBC enters into contracts with counterparties, which is generally on settlement date, and are normally derecognised when extinguished. Subsequent changes in fair values are recognised in the income statement in 'Net income from financial instruments held for trading or managed on a fair value basis' or 'Net income/(expense) from assets and liabilities of insurance businesses, including related derivatives, measured at fair value through profit or loss' except for the effect of changes in the liabilities' credit risk, which is presented in 'Other comprehensive income', unless that treatment would create or enlarge an accounting mismatch in profit or loss.

Under the above criterion, the main classes of financial instruments designated by HSBC are:

•    Debt instruments for funding purposes that are designated to reduce an accounting mismatch: The interest and/or foreign exchange exposure on certain fixed-rate debt securities issued has been matched with the interest and/or foreign exchange exposure on certain swaps as part of a documented risk management strategy.

•    Financial assets and financial liabilities under unit-linked and non-linked investment contracts: A contract under which HSBC does not accept significant insurance risk from another party is not classified as an insurance contract, other than investment contracts with discretionary participation features ('DPF'), but is accounted for as a financial liability. Customer liabilities under linked and certain non-linked investment contracts issued by insurance subsidiaries are determined based on the fair value of the assets held in the linked funds. If no fair value designation was made for the related assets, at least some of the assets would otherwise be measured at either fair value through other comprehensive income or amortised cost. The related financial assets and liabilities are managed and reported to management on a fair value basis. Designation at fair value of the financial assets and related liabilities allows changes in fair values to be recorded in the income statement and presented in the same line.

•    Financial liabilities that contain both deposit and derivative components: These financial liabilities are managed and their performance evaluated on a fair value basis.

(h)      Derivatives

Derivatives are financial instruments that derive their value from the price of underlying items such as equities, interest rates or other indices. Derivatives are recognised initially and are subsequently measured at fair value through profit or loss. Derivatives are classified as assets when their fair value is positive or as liabilities when their fair value is negative. This includes embedded derivatives in financial liabilities, which are bifurcated from the host contract when they meet the definition of a derivative on a stand-alone basis.

Where the derivatives are managed with debt securities issued by HSBC that are designated at fair value, the contractual interest is shown in 'Interest expense' together with the interest payable on the issued debt.

Hedge accounting

When derivatives are not part of fair value designated relationships, if held for risk management purposes they are designated in hedge accounting relationships where the required criteria for documentation and hedge effectiveness are met. HSBC uses these derivatives or, where allowed, other non-derivative hedging instruments in fair value hedges, cash flow hedges or hedges of net investments in foreign operations as appropriate to the risk being hedged.

Fair value hedge

Fair value hedge accounting does not change the recording of gains and losses on derivatives and other hedging instruments, but results in recognising changes in the fair value of the hedged assets or liabilities attributable to the hedged risk that would not otherwise be recognised in the income statement. If a hedge relationship no longer meets the criteria for hedge accounting, hedge accounting is discontinued and the cumulative adjustment to the carrying amount of the hedged item is amortised to the income statement on a recalculated effective interest rate, unless the hedged item has been derecognised, in which case it is recognised in the income statement immediately.

Cash flow hedge

The effective portion of gains and losses on hedging instruments is recognised in other comprehensive income and the ineffective portion of the change in fair value of derivative hedging instruments that are part of a cash flow hedge relationship is recognised immediately in the income statement within 'Net income from financial instruments held for trading or managed on a fair value basis'. The accumulated gains and losses recognised in other comprehensive income are reclassified to the income statement in the same periods in which the hedged item affects profit or loss. When a hedge relationship is discontinued, or partially discontinued, any cumulative gain or loss recognised in other comprehensive income remains in equity until the forecast transaction is recognised in the income statement. When a forecast transaction is no longer expected to occur, the cumulative gain or loss previously recognised in other comprehensive income is immediately reclassified to the income statement.

Net investment hedge

Hedges of net investments in foreign operations are accounted for in a similar way to cash flow hedges. The effective portion of gains and losses on the hedging instrument is recognised in other comprehensive income and other gains and losses are recognised immediately in the income statement. Gains and losses previously recognised in other comprehensive income are reclassified to the income statement on the disposal, or part disposal, of the foreign operation.

Derivatives that do not qualify for hedge accounting

Non-qualifying hedges are derivatives entered into as economic hedges of assets and liabilities for which hedge accounting was not applied.

(i)       Impairment of amortised cost and FVOCI financial assets

Expected credit losses ('ECL') are recognised for loans and advances to banks and customers, non-trading reverse repurchase agreements, other financial assets held at amortised cost, debt instruments measured at FVOCI, and certain loan commitments and financial guarantee contracts. At initial recognition, allowance (or provision in the case of some loan commitments and financial guarantees) is required for ECL resulting from default events that are possible within the next 12 months, or less, where the remaining life is less than 12 months ('12-month ECL'). In the event of a significant increase in credit risk, allowance (or provision) is required for ECL resulting from all possible default events over the expected life of the financial instrument ('lifetime ECL'). Financial assets where 
12-month ECL is recognised are considered to be 'stage 1'; financial assets that are considered to have experienced a significant increase in credit risk are in 'stage 2'; and financial assets for which there is objective evidence of impairment so are considered to be in default or otherwise credit impaired are in 'stage 3'. Purchased or originated credit-impaired financial assets ('POCI') are treated differently, as set out below.

Credit impaired (stage 3)

HSBC determines that a financial instrument is credit impaired and in stage 3 by considering relevant objective evidence, primarily whether:

•    contractual payments of either principal or interest are past due for more than 90 days;

•    there are other indications that the borrower is unlikely to pay, such as when a concession has been granted to the borrower for economic or legal reasons relating to the borrower's financial condition; and

•    the loan is otherwise considered to be in default.

If such unlikeliness to pay is not identified at an earlier stage, it is deemed to occur when an exposure is 90 days past due, even where regulatory rules permit default to be defined based on 180 days past due. Therefore, the definitions of credit impaired and default are aligned as far as possible so that stage 3 represents all loans that are considered defaulted or otherwise credit impaired.

Interest income is recognised by applying the effective interest rate to the amortised cost amount, i.e. gross carrying amount less ECL allowance.

Write-off

Financial assets (and the related impairment allowances) are normally written off, either partially or in full, when there is no realistic prospect of recovery. Where loans are secured, this is generally after receipt of any proceeds from the realisation of security. In circumstances where the net realisable value of any collateral has been determined and there is no reasonable expectation of further recovery, write-off may be earlier.

Renegotiation

Loans are identified as renegotiated and classified as credit impaired when we modify the contractual payment terms due to significant credit distress of the borrower. Renegotiated loans remain classified as credit impaired until there is sufficient evidence to demonstrate a significant reduction in the risk of non-payment of future cash flows and retain the designation of renegotiated until maturity or derecognition.

A loan that is renegotiated is derecognised if the existing agreement is cancelled and a new agreement is made on substantially different terms, or if the terms of an existing agreement are modified such that the renegotiated loan is a substantially different financial instrument. Any new loans that arise following derecognition events in these circumstances are considered to be POCI and will continue to be disclosed as renegotiated loans.

Other than originated credit-impaired loans, all other modified loans could be transferred out of stage 3 if they no longer exhibit any evidence of being credit impaired and, in the case of renegotiated loans, there is sufficient evidence to demonstrate a significant reduction in the risk of non-payment of future cash flows over the minimum observation period, and there are no other indicators of impairment. These loans could be transferred to stage 1 or 2 based on the mechanism as described below by comparing the risk of a default occurring at the reporting date (based on the modified contractual terms) and the risk of a default occurring at initial recognition (based on the original, unmodified contractual terms). Any amount written off as a result of the modification of contractual terms would not be reversed.

Loan modifications that are not credit impaired

Loan modifications that are not identified as renegotiated are considered to be commercial restructuring. Where a commercial restructuring results in a modification (whether legalised through an amendment to the existing terms or the issuance of a new loan contract) such that HSBC's rights to the cash flows under the original contract have expired, the old loan is derecognised and the new loan is recognised at fair value. The rights to cash flows are generally considered to have expired if the commercial restructure is at market rates and no payment-related concession has been provided.

Significant increase in credit risk (stage 2)

An assessment of whether credit risk has increased significantly since initial recognition is performed at each reporting period by considering the change in the risk of default occurring over the remaining life of the financial instrument. The assessment explicitly or implicitly compares the risk of default occurring at the reporting date compared with that at initial recognition, taking into account reasonable and supportable information, including information about past events, current conditions and future economic conditions. The assessment is unbiased, probability-weighted, and to the extent relevant, uses forward-looking information consistent with that used in the measurement of ECL. The analysis of credit risk is multifactor. The determination of whether a specific factor is relevant and its weight compared with other factors depends on the type of product, the characteristics of the financial instrument and the borrower, and the geographical region. Therefore, it is not possible to provide a single set of criteria that will determine what is considered to be a significant increase in credit risk, and these criteria will differ for different types of lending, particularly between retail and wholesale. However, unless identified at an earlier stage, all financial assets are deemed to have suffered a significant increase in credit risk when 
30 days past due. In addition, wholesale loans that are individually assessed, which are typically corporate and commercial customers, and included on a watch or worry list, are included in stage 2.

For wholesale portfolios, the quantitative comparison assesses default risk using a lifetime probability of default ('PD'), which encompasses a wide range of information including the obligor's customer risk rating ('CRR'), macroeconomic condition forecasts and credit transition probabilities. For origination CRRs up to 3.3, significant increase in credit risk is measured by comparing the average PD for the remaining term estimated at origination with the equivalent estimation at the reporting date. The quantitative measure of significance varies depending on the credit quality at origination as follows:

0.1-1.2

15bps

2.1-3.3

30bps

 

For CRRs greater than 3.3 that are not impaired, a significant increase in credit risk is considered to have occurred when the origination PD has doubled. The significance of changes in PD was informed by expert credit risk judgement, referenced to historical credit migrations and to relative changes in external market rates.

For loans originated prior to the implementation of IFRS 9, the origination PD does not include adjustments to reflect expectations of future macroeconomic conditions since these are not available without the use of hindsight. In the absence of this data, origination PD must be approximated assuming through-the-cycle ('TTC') PDs and TTC migration probabilities, consistent with the instrument's underlying modelling approach and the CRR at origination. For these loans, the quantitative comparison is supplemented with additional CRR deterioration-based thresholds, as set out in the table below:

0.1

5 notches

1.1-4.2

4 notches

4.3-5.1

3 notches

5.2-7.1

2 notches

7.2-8.2

1 notch

8.3

0 notch

Further information about the 23-grade scale used for CRR can be found on page 85.

For certain portfolios of debt securities where external market ratings are available and credit ratings are not used in credit risk management, the debt securities will be in stage 2 if their credit risk increases to the extent they are no longer considered investment grade. Investment grade is where the financial instrument has a low risk of incurring losses, the structure has a strong capacity to meet its contractual cash flow obligations in the near term, and adverse changes in economic and business conditions in the longer term may, but will not necessarily, reduce the ability of the borrower to fulfil their contractual cash flow obligations.

For retail portfolios, default risk is assessed using a reporting date 12-month PD derived from credit scores, which incorporates all available information about the customer. This PD is adjusted for the effect of macroeconomic forecasts for periods longer than 
12 months and is considered to be a reasonable approximation of a lifetime PD measure. Retail exposures are first segmented into homogeneous portfolios, generally by country, product and brand. Within each portfolio, the stage 2 accounts are defined as accounts with an adjusted 12-month PD greater than the average 12-month PD of loans in that portfolio 12 months before they become 30 days past due. The expert credit risk judgement is that no prior increase in credit risk is significant. This portfolio-specific threshold identifies loans with a PD higher than would be expected from loans that are performing as originally expected, and higher than what would have been acceptable at origination. It therefore approximates a comparison of origination to reporting date PDs.

Unimpaired and without significant increase in credit risk (stage 1)

ECL resulting from default events that are possible within the next 12 months ('12-month ECL') are recognised for financial instruments that remain in stage 1.

Purchased or originated credit impaired

Financial assets that are purchased or originated at a deep discount that reflects the incurred credit losses are considered to be POCI. This population includes the recognition of a new financial instrument following a renegotiation where concessions have been granted for economic or contractual reasons relating to the borrower's financial difficulty that otherwise would not have been considered. The amount of change-in-lifetime ECL is recognised in profit or loss until the POCI is derecognised, even if the lifetime ECL are less than the amount of ECL included in the estimated cash flows on initial recognition.

Movement between stages

Financial assets can be transferred between the different categories (other than POCI) depending on their relative increase in credit risk since initial recognition. Financial instruments are transferred out of stage 2 if their credit risk is no longer considered to be significantly increased since initial recognition based on the assessments described above. Except for renegotiated loans, financial instruments are transferred out of stage 3 when they no longer exhibit any evidence of credit impairment as described above. Renegotiated loans that are not POCI will continue to be in stage 3 until there is sufficient evidence to demonstrate a significant reduction in the risk of non-payment of future cash flows, observed over a minimum one-year period and there are no other indicators of impairment. For loans that are assessed for impairment on a portfolio basis, the evidence typically comprises a history of payment performance against the original or revised terms, as appropriate to the circumstances. For loans that are assessed for impairment on an individual basis, all available evidence is assessed on a case-by-case basis.

Measurement of ECL

The assessment of credit risk and the estimation of ECL are unbiased and probability-weighted, and incorporate all available information that is relevant to the assessment including information about past events, current conditions and reasonable and supportable forecasts of future events and economic conditions at the reporting date. In addition, the estimation of ECL should take into account the time value of money.

In general, HSBC calculates ECL using three main components: a probability of default, a loss given default ('LGD') and the exposure at default ('EAD').

The 12-month ECL is calculated by multiplying the 12-month PD, LGD and EAD. Lifetime ECL is calculated using the lifetime PD instead. The 12-month and lifetime PDs represent the probability of default occurring over the next 12 months and the remaining maturity of the instrument respectively.

The EAD represents the expected balance at default, taking into account the repayment of principal and interest from the balance sheet date to the default event together with any expected drawdowns of committed facilities. The LGD represents expected losses on the EAD given the event of default, taking into account, among other attributes, the mitigating effect of collateral value at the time it is expected to be realised and the time value of money.

HSBC leverages the Basel II IRB framework where possible, with recalibration to meet the differing IFRS 9 requirements as set out in the following table:

PD

•    Through the cycle (represents long-run average PD throughout a full economic cycle)

•    The definition of default includes a backstop of 90+ days past due, although this has been modified to 180+ days past due for some portfolios, particularly UK and US mortgages

•    Point in time (based on current conditions, adjusted to take into account estimates of future conditions that will impact PD)

•    Default backstop of 90+ days past due for all portfolios

EAD

•    Cannot be lower than current balance

•    Amortisation captured for term products

LGD

•    Downturn LGD (consistent losses expected to be suffered during a severe but plausible economic downturn)

•    Regulatory floors may apply to mitigate risk of underestimating downturn LGD due to lack of historical data

•    Discounted using cost of capital

•    All collection costs included

•    Expected LGD (based on estimate of loss given default including the expected impact of future economic conditions such as changes in value of collateral)

•    No floors

•    Discounted using the original effective interest rate of the loan

•    Only costs associated with obtaining/selling collateral included

Other

 

•    Discounted back from point of default to balance sheet date

While 12-month PDs are recalibrated from Basel II models where possible, the lifetime PDs are determined by projecting the 12-month PD using a term structure. For the wholesale methodology, the lifetime PD also takes into account credit migration, i.e. a customer migrating through the CRR bands over its life.

The ECL for wholesale stage 3 is determined on an individual basis using a discounted cash flow ('DCF') methodology. The expected future cash flows are based on the credit risk officer's estimates as at the reporting date, reflecting reasonable and supportable assumptions and projections of future recoveries and expected future receipts of interest. Collateral is taken into account if it is likely that the recovery of the outstanding amount will include realisation of collateral based on the estimated fair value of collateral at the time of expected realisation, less costs for obtaining and selling the collateral. The cash flows are discounted at a reasonable approximation of the original effective interest rate. For significant cases, cash flows under four different scenarios are probability-weighted by reference to the economic scenarios applied more generally by the Group and the judgement of the credit risk officer in relation to the likelihood of the workout strategy succeeding or receivership being required. For less significant cases, the effect of different economic scenarios and work-out strategies is approximated and applied as an adjustment to the most likely outcome.

Period over which ECL is measured

Expected credit loss is measured from the initial recognition of the financial asset. The maximum period considered when measuring ECL (be it 12-month or lifetime ECL) is the maximum contractual period over which HSBC is exposed to credit risk. For wholesale overdrafts, credit risk management actions are taken no less frequently than on an annual basis and therefore this period is to the expected date of the next substantive credit review. The date of the substantive credit review also represents the initial recognition of the new facility. However, where the financial instrument includes both a drawn and undrawn commitment and the contractual ability to demand repayment and cancel the undrawn commitment does not serve to limit HSBC's exposure to credit risk to the contractual notice period, the contractual period does not determine the maximum period considered. Instead, ECL is measured over the period HSBC remains exposed to credit risk that is not mitigated by credit risk management actions. This applies to retail overdrafts and credit cards, where the period is the average time taken for stage 2 exposures to default or close as performing accounts, determined on a portfolio basis and ranging from between two and six years. In addition, for these facilities it is not possible to identify the ECL on the loan commitment component separately from the financial asset component. As a result, the total ECL is recognised in the loss allowance for the financial asset unless the total ECL exceeds the gross carrying amount of the financial asset, in which case the ECL is recognised as a provision.

Forward-looking economic inputs

HSBC applies multiple forward-looking global economic scenarios determined with reference to external forecast distributions representative of our view of forecast economic conditions. This approach is considered sufficient to calculate unbiased expected loss in most economic environments. In certain economic environments, additional analysis may be necessary and may result in additional scenarios or adjustments, to reflect a range of possible economic outcomes sufficient for an unbiased estimate. The detailed methodology is disclosed in 'Measurement uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of ECL estimates' on page 92.

Critical accounting estimates and judgements

The calculation of the Group's ECL under IFRS 9 requires the Group to make a number of judgements, assumptions and estimates. The most significant are set out below:

•      Defining what is considered to be a significant increase in credit risk

•      Determining the lifetime and point of initial recognition of overdrafts and credit cards

•      Selecting and calibrating the PD, LGD and EAD models, which support the calculations, including making reasonable and supportable judgements about how models react to current and future economic conditions

•      Selecting model inputs and economic forecasts, including determining whether sufficient and appropriately weighted economic forecasts are incorporated to calculate unbiased expected loss

•      The sections marked as audited on pages 92 to 103, 'Measurement uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of ECL estimates' set out the assumptions used in determining ECL and provide an indication of the sensitivity of the result to the application of different weightings being applied to different economic assumptions

(j)      Insurance contracts

A contract is classified as an insurance contract where HSBC accepts significant insurance risk from another party by agreeing to compensate that party on the occurrence of a specified uncertain future event. An insurance contract may also transfer financial risk, but is accounted for as an insurance contract if the insurance risk is significant. In addition, HSBC issues investment contracts with discretionary participation features ('DPF'), which are also accounted for as insurance contracts as required by IFRS 4 'Insurance Contracts'.

Net insurance premium income

Premiums for life insurance contracts are accounted for when receivable, except in unit-linked insurance contracts where premiums are accounted for when liabilities are established.

Reinsurance premiums are accounted for in the same accounting period as the premiums for the direct insurance contracts to which they relate.

Net insurance claims and benefits paid and movements in liabilities to policyholders

Gross insurance claims for life insurance contracts reflect the total cost of claims arising during the year, including claim handling costs and any policyholder bonuses allocated in anticipation of a bonus declaration.

Maturity claims are recognised when due for payment. Surrenders are recognised when paid or at an earlier date on which, following notification, the policy ceases to be included within the calculation of the related insurance liabilities. Death claims are recognised when notified.

Reinsurance recoveries are accounted for in the same period as the related claim.

Liabilities under insurance contracts

Liabilities under non-linked life insurance contracts are calculated by each life insurance operation based on local actuarial principles. Liabilities under unit-linked life insurance contracts are at least equivalent to the surrender or transfer value, which is calculated by reference to the value of the relevant underlying funds or indices.

Future profit participation on insurance contracts with DPF

Where contracts provide discretionary profit participation benefits to policyholders, liabilities for these contracts include provisions for the future discretionary benefits to policyholders. These provisions reflect the actual performance of the investment portfolio to date and management's expectation of the future performance of the assets backing the contracts, as well as other experience factors such as mortality, lapses and operational efficiency, where appropriate. The benefits to policyholders may be determined by the contractual terms, regulation, or past distribution policy.

Investment contracts with DPF

While investment contracts with DPF are financial instruments, they continue to be treated as insurance contracts as required by IFRS 4. The Group therefore recognises the premiums for these contracts as revenue and recognises as an expense the resulting increase in the carrying amount of the liability.

In the case of net unrealised investment gains on these contracts, whose discretionary benefits principally reflect the actual performance of the investment portfolio, the corresponding increase in the liabilities is recognised in either the income statement or other comprehensive income, following the treatment of the unrealised gains on the relevant assets. In the case of net unrealised losses, a deferred participating asset is recognised only to the extent that its recoverability is highly probable. Movements in the liabilities arising from realised gains and losses on relevant assets are recognised in the income statement.

Present value of in-force long-term insurance business

HSBC recognises the value placed on insurance contracts and investment contracts with DPF, which are classified as long-term and in-force at the balance sheet date, as an asset. The asset represents the present value of the equity holders' interest in the issuing insurance companies' profits expected to emerge from these contracts written at the balance sheet date. The present value of in-force business ('PVIF') is determined by discounting those expected future profits using appropriate assumptions in assessing factors such as future mortality, lapse rates and levels of expenses, and a risk discount rate that reflects the risk premium attributable to the respective contracts. The PVIF incorporates allowances for both non-market risk and the value of financial options and guarantees. The PVIF asset is presented gross of attributable tax in the balance sheet and movements in the PVIF asset are included in 'Other operating income' on a gross of tax basis.

(k)     Employee compensation and benefits

Share-based payments

HSBC enters into both equity-settled and cash-settled share-based payment arrangements with its employees as compensation for the provision of their services.

The vesting period for these schemes may commence before the legal grant date if the employees have started to render services in respect of the award before the legal grant date, where there is a shared understanding of the terms and conditions of the arrangement. Expenses are recognised when the employee starts to render service to which the award relates.

Cancellations result from the failure to meet a non-vesting condition during the vesting period, and are treated as an acceleration of vesting recognised immediately in the income statement. Failure to meet a vesting condition by the employee is not treated as a cancellation, and the amount of expense recognised for the award is adjusted to reflect the number of awards expected to vest.

Post-employment benefit plans

HSBC operates a number of pension schemes including defined benefit, defined contribution and post-employment benefit schemes.

Payments to defined contribution schemes are charged as an expense as the employees render service.

Defined benefit pension obligations are calculated using the projected unit credit method. The net charge to the income statement mainly comprises the service cost and the net interest on the net defined benefit asset or liability, and is presented in operating expenses.

Remeasurements of the net defined benefit asset or liability, which comprise actuarial gains and losses, return on plan assets excluding interest and the effect of the asset ceiling (if any, excluding interest), are recognised immediately in other comprehensive income. The net defined benefit asset or liability represents the present value of defined benefit obligations reduced by the fair value of plan assets, after applying the asset ceiling test, where the net defined benefit surplus is limited to the present value of available refunds and reductions in future contributions to the plan.

The cost of obligations arising from other post-employment plans are accounted for on the same basis as defined benefit pension plans.

Critical accounting estimates and judgements

The most significant critical accounting judgements and estimates relate to the determination of key assumptions applied in calculating the defined benefit pension obligation for the principal plan.

 

•      A range of assumptions could be applied, and different assumptions could significantly alter the defined benefit obligation and the amounts recognised in profit or loss or OCI.

•      The calculation of the defined benefit pension obligation includes assumptions with regard to the discount rate, inflation rate, pension payments and deferred pensions, pay and mortality. Management determines these assumptions in consultation with the plan's actuaries.

•      Key assumptions used in calculating the defined benefit pension obligation for the principal plan and the sensitivity of the calculation to different assumptions are described in Note 5

 

 

(l)       Tax

Income tax comprises current tax and deferred tax. Income tax is recognised in the income statement except to the extent that it relates to items recognised in other comprehensive income or directly in equity, in which case the tax is recognised in the same statement as the related item appears.

Current tax is the tax expected to be payable on the taxable profit for the year and on any adjustment to tax payable in respect of previous years. HSBC provides for potential current tax liabilities that may arise on the basis of the amounts expected to be paid to the tax authorities.

Deferred tax is recognised on temporary differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities in the balance sheet, and the amounts attributed to such assets and liabilities for tax purposes. Deferred tax is calculated using the tax rates expected to apply in the periods in which the assets will be realised or the liabilities settled.

Current and deferred tax are calculated based on tax rates and laws enacted, or substantively enacted, by the balance sheet date.

Critical accounting estimates and judgements

The recognition of deferred tax assets depends on judgements

•      Assessing the probability and sufficiency of future taxable profits, future reversals of existing taxable temporary differences and ongoing tax planning strategies

•      In the absence of a history of taxable profits, assessing the expected future profitability and the applicability of tax planning strategies, including corporate reorganisations

 

(m)     Provisions, contingent liabilities and guarantees

Provisions

Provisions are recognised when it is probable that an outflow of economic benefits will be required to settle a present legal or constructive obligation that has arisen as a result of past events and for which a reliable estimate can be made.

Critical accounting estimates and judgements

The recognition and measurement of provisions requires the Group to make a number of judgements, assumptions and estimates. The most significant are set out below:

•      Determining whether a present obligation exists. Professional advice is taken on the assessment of litigation and similar obligations

•      Provisions for legal proceedings and regulatory matters typically require a higher degree of judgement than other types of provisions. When matters are at an early stage, accounting judgements can be difficult because of the high degree of uncertainty associated with determining whether a present obligation exists, and estimating the probability and amount of any outflows that may arise. As matters progress, management and legal advisers evaluate on an ongoing basis whether provisions should be recognised, revising previous estimates as appropriate. At more advanced stages, it is typically easier to make estimates around a better defined set of possible outcomes

•      Provisions for legal proceedings and regulatory matters remain very sensitive to the assumptions used in the estimate. There could be a wider range of possible outcomes for any pending legal proceedings, investigations or inquiries. As a result it is often not practicable to quantify a range of possible outcomes for individual matters. It is also not practicable to meaningfully quantify ranges of potential outcomes in aggregate for these types of provisions because of the diverse nature and circumstances of such matters and the wide range of uncertainties involved

•      Provisions for customer remediation also require significant levels of estimation. The amounts of provisions recognised depend on a number of different assumptions, such as the volume of inbound complaints, the projected period of inbound complaint volumes, the decay rate of complaint volumes, the populations identified as systemically mis-sold and the number of policies per customer complaint. More information about these assumptions is included in Note 27

Contingent liabilities, contractual commitments and guarantees

Contingent liabilities

Contingent liabilities, which include certain guarantees and letters of credit pledged as collateral security, and contingent liabilities related to legal proceedings or regulatory matters, are not recognised in the financial statements but are disclosed unless the probability of settlement is remote.

Financial guarantee contracts

Liabilities under financial guarantee contracts that are not classified as insurance contracts are recorded initially at their fair value, which is generally the fee received or present value of the fee receivable.

HSBC Holdings has issued financial guarantees and similar contracts to other Group entities. HSBC elects to account for certain guarantees as insurance contracts in HSBC Holdings' financial statements, in which case they are measured and recognised as insurance liabilities. This election is made on a contract-by-contract basis, and is irrevocable.


2

Net fee income

 

Net fee income by global business

 

2019

 

Retail
Banking and
Wealth
Management

Commercial
Banking

Global
Banking and
Markets

Global Private
Banking

Corporate Centre

Total

 

$m

$m

$m

$m

$m

$m

Funds under management

1,295

 

120

 

460

 

302

 

-

 

2,177

 

Account services

890

 

654

 

365

 

101

 

(7

)

2,003

 

Cards

1,602

 

358

 

15

 

-

 

-

 

1,975

 

Credit facilities

75

 

785

 

743

 

15

 

-

 

1,618

 

Broking income

366

 

40

 

532

 

119

 

-

 

1,057

 

Unit trusts

921

 

22

 

2

 

90

 

-

 

1,035

 

Underwriting

-

 

6

 

821

 

3

 

(1

)

829

 

Remittances

73

 

362

 

311

 

4

 

(3

)

747

 

Global custody

90

 

18

 

564

 

45

 

-

 

717

 

Imports/exports

-

 

497

 

164

 

1

 

-

 

662

 

Insurance agency commission

324

 

20

 

1

 

32

 

-

 

377

 

Other

1,097

 

891

 

2,362

 

193

 

(2,301

)

2,242

 

Fee income

6,733

 

3,773

 

6,340

 

905

 

(2,312

)

15,439

 

Less: fee expense

(1,861

)

(370

)

(3,287

)

(134

)

2,236

 

(3,416

)

Net fee income

4,872

 

3,403

 

3,053

 

771

 

(76

)

12,023

 

 

 

2018

2017

 

Retail

Banking and

Wealth
Management

Commercial
Banking

Global
Banking and
Markets

Global Private
Banking

Corporate Centre

Total

Total

 

$m

$m

$m

$m

$m

$m

$m

Funds under management

1,383

 

134

 

421

 

284

 

(1

)

2,221

 

2,188

 

Account services

991

 

748

 

332

 

106

 

-

 

2,177

 

2,244

 

Cards

1,575

 

370

 

16

 

-

 

(5

)

1,956

 

1,994

 

Credit facilities

71

 

824

 

813

 

16

 

(1

)

1,723

 

1,718

 

Broking income

494

 

44

 

533

 

139

 

-

 

1,210

 

1,191

 

Unit trusts

937

 

25

 

3

 

73

 

-

 

1,038

 

1,010

 

Underwriting

1

 

10

 

708

 

4

 

-

 

723

 

829

 

Remittances

96

 

357

 

320

 

5

 

-

 

778

 

759

 

Global custody

100

 

18

 

584

 

35

 

(1

)

736

 

692

 

Imports/exports

3

 

532

 

176

 

2

 

(4

)

709

 

736

 

Insurance agency commission

354

 

23

 

1

 

27

 

(1

)

404

 

410

 

Other

1,110

 

858

 

2,362

 

186

 

(2,147

)

2,369

 

2,082

 

Fee income

7,115

 

3,943

 

6,269

 

877

 

(2,160

)

16,044

 

15,853

 

Less: fee expense

(1,917

)

(388

)

(3,040

)

(135

)

2,056

 

(3,424

)

(3,042

)

Net Fee income

5,198

 

3,555

 

3,229

 

742

 

(104

)

12,620

 

12,811

 

Net fee income includes $6,647m of fees earned on financial assets that are not at fair value through profit or loss (other than amounts included in determining the effective interest rate) (2018: $7,522m; 2017: $7,577m), $1,450m of fees payable on financial liabilities that are not at fair value through profit or loss (other than amounts included in determining the effective interest rate) (2018: $1,682m; 2017: $1,475m), $3,110m of fees earned on trust and other fiduciary activities (2018: $3,165m; 2017: $3,088m) and $237m of fees payable relating to trust and other fiduciary activities (2018: $175m; 2017: $134m).


3

Net income from financial instruments measured at fair value through profit or loss

 

 

 

 

2019

2018

2017

 

Footnotes

$m

$m

$m

Net income/(expense) arising on:

 

 

 

 

Net trading activities

1

16,121

 

6,982

 

8,236

 

Other instruments managed on a fair value basis

1

(5,890

)

2,549

 

190

 

Net income from financial instruments held for trading or managed on a fair value basis

 

10,231

 

9,531

 

8,426

 

Financial assets held to meet liabilities under insurance and investment contracts

 

3,830

 

(1,585

)

3,211

 

Liabilities to customers under investment contracts

 

(352

)

97

 

(375

)

Net income/(expense) from assets and liabilities of insurance businesses, including related derivatives, measured at fair value through profit or loss

 

3,478

 

(1,488

)

2,836

 

Derivatives managed in conjunction with HSBC's issued debt securities

 

2,561

 

(626

)

(343

)

Other changes in fair value

 

(2,471

)

529

 

498

 

Changes in fair value of designated debt and related derivatives

2

90

 

(97

)

155

 

Changes in fair value of other financial instruments mandatorily measured at fair value through profit or loss

 

812

 

695

 

N/A

Year ended 31 Dec

 

14,611

 

8,641

 

11,417

 

1   At 1 January 2018 we changed our accounting policy for financial liabilities that contain both deposit and derivative components. As a result, net income from these instruments is reported in 'Other instruments managed on a fair value basis' rather than 'Trading activities'. Comparative periods have not been re-presented.

2   The debt instruments, issued for funding purposes, are designated under the fair value option to reduce an accounting mismatch.


HSBC Holdings

 

2019

2018

2017

 

$m

$m

$m

Net income/(expense) arising on:

 

 

 

-  trading activities

(559

)

(176

)

(392

)

-  other instruments managed at on a fair value basis

2,036

 

421

 

211

 

Net income from financial instruments held for trading or managed on a fair value basis

1,477

 

245

 

(181

)

-  Derivatives managed in conjunction with HSBC Holdings-issued debt securities

764

 

(337

)

292

 

-  Other changes in fair value

(1,124

)

260

 

(189

)

Changes in fair value of designated debt and related derivatives

(360

)

(77

)

103

 

Changes in fair value of other financial instruments mandatorily measured at fair value through profit or loss

1,659

 

43

 

-

 

Year ended 31 Dec

2,776

 

211

 

(78

)


4

Insurance business

 

Net insurance premium income

 

Non-linked insurance

 Linked life insurance

Investment contracts with DPF1

Total

 

$m

$m

$m

$m

Gross insurance premium income

9,353

 

489

 

2,266

 

12,108

 

Reinsurers' share of gross insurance premium income

(1,465

)

(7

)

-

 

(1,472

)

Year ended 31 Dec 2019

7,888

 

482

 

2,266

 

10,636

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gross insurance premium income

8,616

 

422

 

2,300

 

11,338

 

Reinsurers' share of gross insurance premium income

(672

)

(7

)

-

 

(679

)

Year ended 31 Dec 2018

7,944

 

415

 

2,300

 

10,659

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gross insurance premium income

8,424

 

351

 

2,027

 

10,802

 

Reinsurers' share of gross insurance premium income

(1,016

)

(7

)

-

 

(1,023

)

Year ended 31 Dec 2017

7,408

 

344

 

2,027

 

9,779

 

1   Discretionary participation features.


Net insurance claims and benefits paid and movement in liabilities to policyholders

 

Non-linked insurance

Linked life insurance

Investment contracts with DPF1


Total

 

$m

$m

$m

$m

Gross claims and benefits paid and movement in liabilities

11,305

 

1,217

 

3,810

 

16,332

 

-  claims, benefits and surrenders paid

3,783

 

900

 

1,921

 

6,604

 

-  movement in liabilities

7,522

 

317

 

1,889

 

9,728

 

Reinsurers' share of claims and benefits paid and movement in liabilities

(1,402

)

(4

)

-

 

(1,406

)

-  claims, benefits and surrenders paid

(411

)

(17

)

-

 

(428

)

-  movement in liabilities

(991

)

13

 

-

 

(978

)

Year ended 31 Dec 2019

9,903

 

1,213

 

3,810

 

14,926

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gross claims and benefits paid and movement in liabilities

8,943

 

(446

)

1,724

 

10,221

 

-  claims, benefits and surrenders paid

3,852

 

1,088

 

1,869

 

6,809

 

-  movement in liabilities

5,091

 

(1,534

)

(145

)

3,412

 

Reinsurers' share of claims and benefits paid and movement in liabilities

(605

)

191

 

-

 

(414

)

-  claims, benefits and surrenders paid

(311

)

(181

)

-

 

(492

)

-  movement in liabilities

(294

)

372

 

-

 

78

 

Year ended 31 Dec 2018

8,338

 

(255

)

1,724

 

9,807

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gross claims and benefits paid and movement in liabilities

8,894

 

1,413

 

2,901

 

13,208

 

-  claims, benefits and surrenders paid

2,883

 

1,044

 

2,002

 

5,929

 

-  movement in liabilities

6,011

 

369

 

899

 

7,279

 

Reinsurers' share of claims and benefits paid and movement in liabilities

(942

)

65

 

-

 

(877

)

-  claims, benefits and surrenders paid

(297

)

(223

)

-

 

(520

)

-  movement in liabilities

(645

)

288

 

-

 

(357

)

Year ended 31 Dec 2017

7,952

 

1,478

 

2,901

 

12,331

 

1   Discretionary participation features.


Liabilities under insurance contracts

 

 

 Non-linked insurance

 Linked life insurance

Investment contracts with DPF1

Total

 

Footnotes

$m

$m

$m

$m

Gross liabilities under insurance contracts at 1 Jan 2019

 

57,283

 

5,789

 

24,258

 

87,330

 

Claims and benefits paid

 

(3,804

)

(900

)

(1,900

)

(6,604

)

Increase in liabilities to policyholders

 

11,326

 

1,217

 

3,789

 

16,332

 

Exchange differences and other movements

2

519

 

45

 

(183

)

381

 

Gross liabilities under insurance contracts at 31 Dec 2019

 

65,324

 

6,151

 

25,964

 

97,439

 

Reinsurers' share of liabilities under insurance contracts

 

(3,521

)

(71

)

-

 

(3,592

)

Net liabilities under insurance contracts at 31 Dec 2019

 

61,803

 

6,080

 

25,964

 

93,847

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gross liabilities under insurance contracts at 1 Jan 2018

 

52,112

 

7,548

 

26,007

 

85,667

 

Impact on transition to IFRS 9

 

 

(69

)

-

 

-

 

(69

)

Claims and benefits paid

 

(3,852

)

(1,088

)

(1,869

)

(6,809

)

Increase in liabilities to policyholders

 

8,943

 

(446

)

1,724

 

10,221

 

Exchange differences and other movements

2

149

 

(225

)

(1,604

)

(1,680

)

Gross liabilities under insurance contracts at 31 Dec 2018

 

57,283

 

5,789

 

24,258

 

87,330

 

Reinsurers' share of liabilities under insurance contracts

 

(2,438

)

(68

)

-

 

(2,506

)

Net liabilities under insurance contracts at 31 Dec 2018

 

54,845

 

5,721

 

24,258

 

84,824

 

1   Discretionary participation features.

2   'Exchange differences and other movements' includes movements in liabilities arising from net unrealised investment gains recognised in other comprehensive income.

The key factors contributing to the movement in liabilities to policyholders included movements in the market value of assets supporting policyholder liabilities, death claims, surrenders, lapses, liabilities to policyholders created at the initial inception of the policies, the declaration of bonuses and other amounts attributable to policyholders.


5

Employee compensation and benefits

 

 

2019

2018

2017

 

$m

$m

$m

Wages and salaries

15,581

 

14,751

 

15,227

 

Social security costs

1,472

 

1,490

 

1,419

 

Post-employment benefits

949

 

1,132

 

669

 

Year ended 31 Dec

18,002

 

17,373

 

17,315

 


Average number of persons employed by HSBC during the year by global business

 

Footnotes

2019

2018

2017

Retail Banking and Wealth Management

 

141,044

 

135,239

 

134,021

 

Commercial Banking

 

46,416

 

48,757

 

46,716

 

Global Banking and Markets

 

51,127

 

48,990

 

49,100

 

Global Private Banking

 

7,099

 

8,206

 

7,817

 

Corporate Centre

1

1,369

 

1,658

 

7,134

 

Year ended 31 Dec

 

247,055

 

242,850

 

244,788

 

1   The reduction in the average number of people employed was due to the completion of the cost to achieve transformation programme at the end of 2017.

Average number of persons employed by HSBC during the year by geographical region

 

2019

2018

2017

Europe

66,392

 

67,007

 

70,301

 

Asia

133,624

 

127,992

 

125,004

 

Middle East and North Africa

9,798

 

9,798

 

10,408

 

North America

16,615

 

17,350

 

18,610

 

Latin America

20,626

 

20,703

 

20,465

 

Year ended 31 Dec

247,055

 

242,850

 

244,788

 


Reconciliation of total incentive awards granted to income statement charge

 

2019

2018

2017

 

$m

$m

$m

Total incentive awards approved for the current year

3,341

 

3,473

 

3,303

 

Less: deferred bonuses awarded, expected to be recognised in future periods

(337

)

(351

)

(337

)

Total incentives awarded and recognised in the current year

3,004

 

3,122

 

2,966

 

Add: current year charges for deferred bonuses from previous years

327

 

322

 

336

 

Other

(55

)

(70

)

(78

)

Income statement charge for incentive awards

3,276

 

3,374

 

3,224

 


Share-based payments

'Wages and salaries' includes the effect of share-based payments arrangements, of which $478m were equity settled (2018: $450m; 2017: $500m), as follows:

 

2019

2018

2017

 

$m

$m

$m

Conditional share awards

521

499

520

Savings-related and other share award option plans

30

23

26

Year ended 31 Dec

551

522

546


HSBC share awards

Deferred share awards (including annual incentive awards, LTI awards delivered in shares) and  Group Performance Share Plans ('GPSP')

•     An assessment of performance over the relevant period ending on 31 December is used to determine the amount of the award to be granted.
•                Deferred awards generally require employees to remain in employment over the vesting period and are generally not subject to performance conditions after the grant date. An exception to these are the LTI, which is subject to performance conditions.
•                Deferred share awards generally vest over a period of three, five or seven years.
•                Vested shares may be subject to a retention requirement post-vesting. GPSP awards are retained until cessation of employment.
•                Awards are subject to a malus provision prior to vesting.
•                Awards granted to Material Risk Takers from 2015 onwards are subject to clawback post-vesting.

International Employee Share Purchase Plan ('ShareMatch')

•     The plan was first introduced in Hong Kong in 2013 and now includes employees based in 27 jurisdictions.
•                Shares are purchased in the market each quarter up to a maximum value of £750, or the equivalent in local currency.
•                Matching awards are added at a ratio of one free share for every three purchased.
•                Matching awards vest subject to continued employment and the retention of the purchased shares for a maximum period of two years and nine months.


Movement on HSBC share awards

 

2019

2018

 

Number

Number

 

(000s)

(000s)

Conditional share awards outstanding at 1 Jan

94,897

 

104,525

 

Additions during the year

71,858

 

61,569

 

Released in the year

(67,737

)

(67,899

)

Forfeited in the year

(1,963

)

(3,298

)

Conditional share awards outstanding at 31 Dec

97,055

 

94,897

 

Weighted average fair value of awards granted ($)

7.89

 

7.66

 


HSBC share option plans

Savings-related share option plans ('Sharesave')

•     From 2014, employees eligible for the UK plan could save up to £500 per month with the option to use the savings to acquire shares.
•                These are generally exercisable within six months following either the third or fifth anniversary of the commencement of a three-year or five-year contract, respectively.
•                The exercise price is set at a 20% (2018: 20%) discount to the market value immediately preceding the date of invitation.

Calculation of fair values

The fair values of share options are calculated using a Black-Scholes model. The fair value of a share award is based on the share price at the date of the grant.


Movement on HSBC share option plans

 

 

Savings-related
share option plans

 

 

Number

WAEP1

 

Footnotes

(000s)

£

Outstanding at 1 Jan 2019

 

57,065

 

4.92

 

Granted during the year

2

32,130

 

4.69

 

Exercised during the year

3

(11,806

)

4.40

 

Expired during the year

 

(11,321

)

5.46

 

Forfeited during the year

 

(1,008

)

4.99

 

Outstanding at 31 Dec 2019

 

65,060

 

4.81

 

Of which exercisable

 

2,149

 

4.53

 

Weighted average remaining contractual life (years)

 

2.77

 

 

 

 

 

 

Outstanding at 1 Jan 2018

 

64,670

 

4.49

 

Granted during the year

2

20,501

 

5.45

 

Exercised during the year

3

(23,260

)

4.14

 

Expired during the year

 

(3,148

)

5.20

 

Forfeited during the year

 

(1,698

)

4.53

 

Outstanding at 31 Dec 2018

 

57,065

 

4.92

 

Of which exercisable

 

3,513

 

4.09

 

Weighted average remaining contractual life (years)

 

2.59

 

 

1   Weighted average exercise price.

2   The weighted average fair value of options granted during the year was $1.36 (2018: $1.40).

3   The weighted average share price at the date the options were exercised was $7.99 (2018: $8.28).


Post-employment benefit plans

The Group operates pension plans throughout the world for its employees. 'Pension risk' on page 134 contains details of the policies and practices associated with these pension plans. Some are defined benefit plans, of which the largest is the HBUK section of the HSBC Bank (UK) Pension Scheme ('the principal plan').

The principal plan has changed from being the combined HSBC Bank (UK) Pension Scheme to being only the HBUK section of the scheme. This is because the HSBC Bank (UK) Pension Scheme was fully sectionalised in 2018 to meet the requirements of the Banking Reform Act.

HSBC holds on its balance sheet the net surplus or deficit, which is the difference between the fair value of plan assets and the discounted value of scheme liabilities at the balance sheet date for each plan. Surpluses are only recognised to the extent that they are recoverable through reduced contributions in the future or through potential future refunds from the schemes. In assessing whether a surplus is recoverable, HSBC has considered its current right to obtain a future refund or a reduction in future contributions.

The principal plan

The principal plan has a defined benefit section and a defined contribution section. The defined benefit section was closed to future benefit accrual in 2015, with defined benefits earned by employees at that date continuing to be linked to their salary while they remain employed by HSBC. The plan is overseen by an independent corporate trustee, who has a fiduciary responsibility for the operation of the plan. Its assets are held separately from the assets of the Group.

The investment strategy of the plan is to hold the majority of assets in bonds, with the remainder in a diverse range of investments. It also includes some interest rate swaps to reduce interest rate risk and inflation swaps to reduce inflation risk.

The latest funding valuation of the plan at 31 December 2016 was carried out by Colin G Singer of Willis Towers Watson Limited, who is a Fellow of the UK Institute and Faculty of Actuaries, using the projected unit credit method. At that date, the market value of the plan's assets was £28.8bn ($38.1bn) and this exceeded the value placed on its liabilities on an ongoing basis by £1.4bn ($1.9bn), giving a funding level of 105%. These figures include defined contribution assets amounting to £2.0bn ($2.6bn). The main differences between the assumptions used for assessing the defined benefit liabilities for this funding valuation and those used for IAS 19 are more prudent assumptions for discount rate, inflation rate and life expectancy. The next funding valuation will have an effective date of 31 December 2019.

Although the plan was in surplus at the valuation date, HSBC continues to make further contributions to the plan to support a lower-risk investment strategy over the longer term. The remaining contributions are £160m ($212m) in each of 2020 and 2021.The main employer of the principal plan is HSBC UK Bank plc, with additional support from HSBC Holdings plc. The HSBC Bank (UK) Pension Scheme is fully sectionalised and no entities outside the ring fence participate in the HBUK section of the scheme. The sectionalisation, which took place in 2018, did not materially affect the overall funding position of the plan.


The actuary also assessed the value of the liabilities if the plan was to be stopped and an insurance company asked to secure all future pension payments. This is generally larger than the amount needed on the ongoing basis described above because an insurance company would use more prudent assumptions and include an explicit allowance for the future administrative expenses of the plan. Under this approach, the amount of assets needed was estimated to be £37bn ($49bn) at 31 December 2016.


Guaranteed minimum pension equalisation

Following a judgment issued by the High Court of Justice of England and Wales in 2018, we estimated the financial effect of equalising benefits in respect of guaranteed minimum pension ('GMP') equalisation, and any potential conversion of GMPs into non-GMP benefits, to be an approximate 0.9% increase in the principal plan's liabilities, or £187m ($239m). This was recognised in the income statement in 2018. We continue to assess the impact of GMP equalisation, although no further amounts have been recognised in 2019.

Income statement charge

 

2019

2018

2017

 

$m

$m

$m

Defined benefit pension plans

176

 

355

 

100

 

Defined contribution pension plans

758

 

756

 

603

 

Pension plans

934

 

1,111

 

703

 

Defined benefit and contribution healthcare plans

15

 

21

 

(34

)

Year ended 31 Dec

949

 

1,132

 

669

 


Net assets/(liabilities) recognised on the balance sheet in respect of defined benefit plans

 

Fair value of
plan assets

Present value of defined benefit
obligations

Effect of
limit on plan
surpluses

Total

 

$m

$m

$m

$m

Defined benefit pension plans

47,567

 

(40,582

)

(16

)

6,969

 

Defined benefit healthcare plans

121

 

(580

)

-

 

(459

)

At 31 Dec 2019

47,688

 

(41,162

)

(16

)

6,510

 

Total employee benefit liabilities (within Note 26 'Accruals, deferred income and other liabilities')

 

 

 

(1,771

)

Total employee benefit assets (within Note 22 'Prepayments, accrued income and other assets')

 

 

 

8,280

 

 

 

 

 

 

Defined benefit pension plans

42,799

 

(36,583

)

(35

)

6,181

 

Defined benefit healthcare plans

110

 

(524

)

-

 

(414

)

At 31 Dec 2018

42,909

 

(37,107

)

(35

)

5,767

 

Total employee benefit liabilities (within Note 26 'Accruals, deferred income and other liabilities')

 

 

 

(2,167

)

Total employee benefit assets (within Note 22 'Prepayments, accrued income and other assets')

 

 

 

7,934

 


HSBC Holdings

Employee compensation and benefit expense in respect of HSBC Holdings' employees in 2019 amounted to $37m (2018: $37m). The average number of persons employed during 2019 was 60 (2018: 43). Employees who are members of defined benefit pension plans are principally members of either the HSBC Bank (UK) Pension Scheme or the HSBC International Staff Retirement Benefits Scheme. HSBC Holdings pays contributions to such plans for its own employees in accordance with the schedules of contributions determined by the trustees of the plans and recognises these contributions as an expense as they fall due.


Defined benefit pension plans


Net asset/(liability) under defined benefit pension plans

 

Fair value of plan assets

Present value of defined benefit obligations

Effect of the asset ceiling

Net defined benefit asset/(liability)

 

Principal1

plan

Other

plans

Principal1

plan

Other

plans

Principal1

plan

Other

plans

Principal1

plan

Other

plans

 

$m

$m

$m

$m

$m

$m

$m

$m

At 1 Jan 2019

34,074

 

8,725

 

(26,616

)

(9,967

)

-

 

(35

)

7,458

 

(1,277

)

Service cost

-

 

-

 

(64

)

(246

)

-

 

-

 

(64

)

(246

)

-  current service cost

-

 

-

 

(40

)

(183

)

-

 

-

 

(40

)

(183

)

-  past service cost and gains/(losses) from settlements

-

 

-

 

(24

)

(63

)

-

 

-

 

(24

)

(63

)

Net interest income/(cost) on the net defined benefit asset/(liability)

939

 

269

 

(728

)

(293

)

-

 

-

 

211

 

(24

)

Remeasurement effects recognised in other comprehensive income

2,205

 

867

 

(2,548

)

(521

)

-

 

20

 

(343

)

366

 

-  return on plan assets (excluding interest income)

2,205

 

870

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

2,205

 

870

 

-  actuarial gains/(losses)

-

 

-

 

(2,548

)

(1,348

)

-

 

-

 

(2,548

)

(1,348

)

-  other changes

-

 

(3

)

-

 

827

 

-

 

20

 

-

 

844

 

Exchange differences

1,300

 

181

 

(1,036

)

(180

)

-

 

(1

)

264

 

-

 

Benefits paid

(1,014

)

(620

)

1,014

 

694

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

74

 

Other movements2

370

 

271

 

(180

)

89

 

-

 

-

 

190

 

360

 

At 31 Dec 2019

37,874

 

9,693

 

(30,158

)

(10,424

)

-

 

(16

)

7,716

 

(747

)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

At 1 Jan 2018

37,747

 

9,518

 

(29,552

)

(10,537

)

-

 

(37

)

8,195

 

(1,056

)

Service cost

-

 

-

 

(293

)

(202

)

-

 

-

 

(293

)

(202

)

-  current service cost

-

 

-

 

(44

)

(179

)

-

 

-

 

(44

)

(179

)

-  past service cost and losses from settlements

-

 

-

 

(249

)

(23

)

-

 

-

 

(249

)

(23

)

Net interest income/(cost) on the net defined benefit asset/(liability)

955

 

235

 

(743

)

(265

)

-

 

(1

)

212

 

(31

)

Remeasurement effects recognised in other comprehensive income

(1,478

)

(591

)

1,153

 

440

 

-

 

-

 

(325

)

(151

)

-  return on plan assets (excluding interest income)

(1,478

)

(591

)

-

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

(1,478

)

(591

)

-  actuarial gains

-

 

-

 

1,153

 

403

 

-

 

-

 

1,153

 

403

 

-  other changes

-

 

-

 

-

 

37

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

37

 

Exchange differences

(2,002

)

(187

)

1,565

 

122

 

-

 

3

 

(437

)

(62

)

Benefits paid

(1,132

)

(544

)

1,132

 

550

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

6

 

Other movements2

(16

)

294

 

122

 

(75

)

-

 

-

 

106

 

219

 

At 31 Dec 2018

34,074

 

8,725

 

(26,616

)

(9,967

)

-

 

(35

)

7,458

 

(1,277

)

1     Refer to page 255 for details on the principal plan.

2   Other movements include contributions by HSBC, contributions by employees, administrative costs and taxes paid by plan.


 

HSBC expects to make $384m of contributions to defined benefit pension plans during 2020. Benefits expected to be paid from the plans to retirees over each of the next five years, and in aggregate for the five years thereafter, are as follows:

Benefits expected to be paid from plans

 

 

2020

2021

2022

2023

2024

2025-2029

 

 

$m

$m

$m

$m

$m

$m

The principal plan1,2

 

1,081

 

1,113

 

1,145

 

1,178

 

1,212

 

6,611

 

Other plans1

 

471

 

525

 

521

 

486

 

479

 

2,332

 

1   The duration of the defined benefit obligation is 18.1 years for the principal plan under the disclosure assumptions adopted (2018: 17.0 years) and 13.2 years for all other plans combined (2018: 12.3 years).

2   Refer to page 255 for details on the principal plan.


Fair value of plan assets by asset classes

 

31 Dec 2019

31 Dec 2018

 

Value

Quoted
market price
in active
market

No quoted
market price
in active
market

Thereof
HSBC1

Value

Quoted
market price
in active
market

No quoted
market price
in active
market

Thereof
HSBC1

 

$m

$m

$m

$m

$m

$m

$m

$m

The principal plan2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fair value of plan assets

37,874

 

33,921

 

3,953

 

-

 

34,074

 

30,670

 

3,404

 

-

 

-  equities

662

 

312

 

350

 

-

 

3,152

 

3,152

 

-

 

-

 

-  bonds

31,699

 

31,699

 

-

 

-

 

26,509

 

26,509

 

-

 

-

 

-  derivatives

2,052

 

-

 

2,052

 

-

 

2,030

 

-

 

2,030

 

-

 

-  other

3,461

 

1,910

 

1,551

 

-

 

2,383

 

1,009

 

1,374

 

-

 

Other plans

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fair value of plan assets

9,693

 

8,702

 

991

 

1,422

 

8,725

 

7,425

 

1,300

 

1,216

 

-  equities

2,065

 

1,455

 

610

 

2

 

2,186

 

1,265

 

921

 

2

 

-  bonds

6,608

 

6,376

 

232

 

8

 

5,707

 

5,559

 

148

 

7

 

-  derivatives

-

 

-

 

-

 

1,183

 

37

 

-

 

37

 

1,034

 

-  other

1,020

 

871

 

149

 

229

 

795

 

601

 

194

 

173

 

1   The fair value of plan assets includes derivatives entered into with HSBC Bank plc as detailed in Note 35.

2   Refer to page 255 for details on the principal plan.


Post-employment defined benefit plans' principal actuarial financial assumptions

HSBC determines the discount rates to be applied to its obligations in consultation with the plans' local actuaries, on the basis of current average yields of high-quality (AA-rated or equivalent) debt instruments with maturities consistent with those of the defined benefit obligations.


Key actuarial assumptions for the principal plan1

 

Discount rate

Inflation rate

Rate of increase for pensions

Rate of pay increase

 

%

%

%

%

UK

 

 

 

 

At 31 Dec 2019

2.00

 

3.10

 

2.90

 

3.65

 

At 31 Dec 2018

2.80

 

3.40

 

3.10

 

3.65

 

1   Refer to page 255 for details on the principal plan.


Mortality tables and average life expectancy at age 604 for the principal plan3

 

Mortality

table

Life expectancy at age 604 for

a male member currently:

Life expectancy at age 604 for

a female member currently:

 

 

Aged 60

Aged 40

Aged 60

Aged 40

UK

 

 

 

 

 

At 31 Dec 2019

SAPS S21

28.0

29.4

28.2

29.8

At 31 Dec 2018

SAPS S22

28.1

29.6

28.4

30.0

1   Self-administered pension scheme ('SAPS') S2 table (males: 'Normal health pensioners' version; females: 'All pensioners' version) with a multiplier of 0.94 for male and 1.15 for female pensioners. Improvements are projected in accordance with the continual mortality investigation ('CMI') 2018 core projection model with an initial addition to improvements of 0.25% per annum and a long-term rate of improvement of 1.25% per annum. Separate tables have been applied to lower-paid pensioners and dependant members.

2   Self-administered pension scheme ('SAPS') S2 table (males: 'Normal health pensioners' version; females: 'All pensioners' version) with a multiplier of 0.94 for male and 1.15 for female pensioners. Improvements are projected in accordance with the continual mortality investigation ('CMI') 2017 core projection model with a long-term rate of improvement of 1.25% per annum. Separate tables have been applied to lower-paid pensioners and dependant members.

3   Refer to page 255 for details on the principal plan.

4   The presentation of the mortality table has been updated to show life expectancies at the age of 60 rather than 65 as presented in prior years to better reflect market disclosure practices. The prior year data have been updated accordingly.


The effect of changes in key assumptions on the principal plan1

 

Impact on HBUK section of the HSBC Bank (UK) Pension Scheme obligation

 

Financial impact of increase

Financial impact of decrease

 

2019

2018

2019

2018

 

$m

$m

$m

$m

Discount rate - increase/decrease of 0.25%

(1,305

)

(1,078

)

1,395

 

1,149

 

Inflation rate - increase/decrease of 0.25%

781

 

726

 

(738

)

(716

)

Pension payments and deferred pensions - increase/decrease of 0.25%

1,100

 

1,181

 

(1,026

)

(1,112

)

Pay - increase/decrease of 0.25%

73

 

28

 

(72

)

(29

)

Change in mortality - increase of 1 year

1,267

 

995

 

N/A

N/A

1   Refer to page 255 for details on the principal plan.


Directors' emoluments

Details of Directors' emoluments, pensions and their interests are disclosed in the Directors' remuneration report on page 184.


6

Auditor's remuneration

 

 

 

2019

2018

2017

 

 

$m

$m

$m

Audit fees payable to PwC

 

85.2

86.6

84.8

Other audit fees payable

 

0.9

0.9

1.2

Year ended 31 Dec

 

86.1

87.5

86.0


Fees payable by HSBC to PwC

 

 

2019

2018

2017

 

Footnotes

$m

$m

$m

Fees for HSBC Holdings' statutory audit

1

15.7

 

16.4

 

15.1

 

Fees for other services provided to HSBC

 

95.0

 

103.1

 

114.6

 

-  audit of HSBC's subsidiaries

 

69.5

 

70.2

 

69.7

 

-  audit-related assurance services

2

10.0

 

11.4

 

10.8

 

-  other assurance services

3

12.2

 

13.5

 

25.2

 

-  taxation compliance services

 

1.6

 

1.4

 

1.2

 

-  taxation advisory services

 

-

 

0.1

 

-

 

-  other non-audit services

3

1.7

 

6.5

 

7.7

 

Year ended 31 Dec

 

110.7

 

119.5

 

129.7

 

1   Fees payable to PwC for the statutory audit of the consolidated financial statements of HSBC and the separate financial statements of HSBC Holdings. They include amounts payable for services relating to the consolidation returns of HSBC Holdings' subsidiaries, which are clearly identifiable as being in support of the Group audit opinion.

2   Including services for assurance and other services that relate to statutory and regulatory filings, including comfort letters and interim reviews.

3   Including permitted services relating to attestation reports on internal controls of a service organisation primarily prepared for and used by third party end user.

No fees were payable by HSBC to PwC as principal auditor for the following types of services: internal audit services and services related to litigation, recruitment and remuneration.


Fees payable by HSBC's associated pension schemes to PwC

 

 

2019

2018

2017

 

 

$000

$000

$000

Audit of HSBC's associated pension schemes

 

250

 

172

 

260

 

Audit-related assurance services

 

-

 

-

 

4

 

Year ended 31 Dec

 

250

 

172

 

264

 

No fees were payable by HSBC's associated pension schemes to PwC as principal auditor for the following types of services: internal audit services, other assurance services, services related to corporate finance transactions, valuation and actuarial services, litigation, recruitment and remuneration, and information technology.

In addition to the above, the estimated fees paid to PwC by third parties associated with HSBC amount to $17.2m (2018: $14.0m; 2017: $3.5m). In these cases, HSBC is connected with the contracting party and may therefore be involved in appointing PwC. These fees arise from services such as auditing mutual funds managed by HSBC and reviewing the financial position of corporate concerns that borrow from HSBC.

Fees payable for non-audit services for HSBC Holdings are not disclosed separately because such fees are disclosed on a consolidated basis for the HSBC Group.


7

Tax


Tax expense

 

 

2019

2018

2017

 

Footnotes

$m

$m

$m

Current tax

1

3,768

 

4,195

 

4,264

 

-  for this year

 

3,689

 

4,158

 

4,115

 

-  adjustments in respect of prior years

 

79

 

37

 

149

 

Deferred tax

 

871

 

670

 

1,024

 

-  origination and reversal of temporary differences

 

684

 

656

 

(228

)

-  effect of changes in tax rates

 

(11

)

17

 

1,337

 

-  adjustments in respect of prior years

 

198

 

(3

)

(85

)

Year ended 31 Dec

2

4,639

 

4,865

 

5,288

 

1   Current tax included Hong Kong profits tax of $1,413m (2018: $1,532m; 2017: $1,350m). The Hong Kong tax rate applying to the profits of subsidiaries assessable in Hong Kong was 16.5% (2018: 16.5%; 2017: 16.5%).

2   In addition to amounts recorded in the income statement, a tax charge of $6m (2018: credit of $234m) was recorded directly to equity.


Tax reconciliation

The tax charged to the income statement differs from the tax charge that would apply if all profits had been taxed at the UK corporation tax rate as follows:

 

2019

2018

2017

 

$m

%

Profit before tax

13,347

 

 

19,890

 

 

17,167

 

 

Tax expense

 

 

 

 

 

 

Taxation at UK corporation tax rate of 19.00% (2018: 19.00%; 2017: 19.25%)

2,536

 

19.0

 

3,779

 

19.0

 

3,305

 

19.25

 

Impact of differently taxed overseas profits in overseas locations

253

 

1.9

 

264

 

1.3

 

407

 

2.3

 

Items increasing tax charge in 2019:

 

 

 

 

 

 

-  non-deductible goodwill write-down

1,421

 

10.7

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

-  local taxes and overseas withholding taxes

484

 

3.6

 

437

 

2.2

 

618

 

3.6

 

-  other permanent disallowables

481

 

3.6

 

396

 

2.0

 

400

 

2.3

 

-  non-deductible UK customer compensation

382

 

2.9

 

16

 

0.1

 

166

 

1.0

 

-  UK tax losses not recognised

364

 

2.7

 

435

 

2.2

 

70

 

0.4

 

-  adjustments in respect of prior period liabilities

277

 

2.1

 

34

 

0.2

 

64

 

0.4

 

-  bank levy

184

 

1.4

 

191

 

1.0

 

180

 

1.0

 

-  impacts of hyperinflation

29

 

0.2

 

78

 

0.4

 

-

 

-

 

-  UK banking surcharge

29

 

0.2

 

229

 

1.1

 

136

 

0.8

 

-  non-UK movements in unrecognised deferred tax

12

 

0.1

 

32

 

0.2

 

(16

)

(0.1

)

-  non-deductible regulatory settlements

5

 

-

 

153

 

0.8

 

(132

)

(0.8

)

-  deferred tax remeasurement due to US federal tax rate reduction

-

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

1,288

 

7.5

 

Items reducing tax charge in 2019:

 

 

 

 

 

 

-  non-taxable income and gains

(844

)

(6.3

)

(691

)

(3.5

)

(766

)

(4.4

)

-  effect of profits in associates and joint ventures

(467

)

(3.5

)

(492

)

(2.5

)

(481

)

(2.8

)

-  deductions for AT1 coupon payments

(263

)

(2.0

)

-

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

-  non-taxable gain on dilution of shareholding in SABB

(181

)

(1.3

)

-

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

-  impact of changes in tax rates

(11

)

(0.1

)

17

 

0.1

 

49

 

0.3

 

-  other items

(52

)

(0.4

)

(13

)

(0.1

)

-

 

-

 

Year ended 31 Dec

4,639

 

34.8

 

4,865

 

24.5

 

5,288

 

30.8

 


The Group's profits are taxed at different rates depending on the country or territory in which the profits arise. The key applicable tax rates for 2019 include Hong Kong (16.5%), the US (21%) and the UK (19%). If the Group's profits were taxed at the statutory rates of the countries in which the profits arose, then the tax rate for the year would have been 20.90% (2018: 20.30%). The effective tax rate for the year was 34.8% (2018: 24.5%). The effective tax rate for 2019 was significantly higher than for 2018 as 2019 included a non-deductible impairment of goodwill of $7.3bn.

Following an amendment to IAS 12 effective 1 January 2019, the income tax consequences of distributions, including AT1 coupon payments, are recorded in the income statement tax expense. Prior periods have not been restated.

Accounting for taxes involves some estimation because the tax law is uncertain and its application requires a degree of judgement, which authorities may dispute. Liabilities are recognised based on best estimates of the probable outcome, taking into account external advice where appropriate. We do not expect significant liabilities to arise in excess of the amounts provided. HSBC only recognises current and deferred tax assets where recovery is probable.


Movement of deferred tax assets and liabilities

 

 

Loan
impairment
provisions

Unused tax
losses and
tax credits

Derivatives, FVOD1
and other
investments

Insurance
business

Expense
provisions

Fixed assets

Retirement obligations

Other

Total

 

Footnotes

$m

$m

$m

$m

$m

$m

$m

$m

$m

Assets

 

982

 

1,156

 

492

 

-

 

629

 

1,151

 

-

 

738

 

5,148

 

Liabilities

 

-

 

-

 

(376

)

(1,271

)

-

 

-

 

(1,387

)

(283

)

(3,317

)

At 1 Jan 2019

 

982

 

1,156

 

116

 

(1,271

)

629

 

1,151

 

(1,387

)

455

 

1,831

 

Income statement

 

45

 

266

 

(386

)

(303

)

(18

)

(185

)

(149

)

(141

)

(871

)

Other comprehensive income

 

-

 

-

 

544

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

30

 

(391

)

183

 

Equity

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

Foreign exchange and other adjustments

 

(44

)

(8

)

147

 

(47

)

39

 

36

 

(107

)

98

 

114

 

At 31 Dec 2019

 

983

 

1,414

 

421

 

(1,621

)

650

 

1,002

 

(1,613

)

21

 

1,257

 

Assets

2

983

 

1,414

 

979

 

-

 

650

 

1,002

 

-

 

422

 

5,450

 

Liabilities

2

-

 

-

 

(558

)

(1,621

)

-

 

-

 

(1,613

)

(401

)

(4,193

)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Assets

 

713

 

1,373

 

1,282

 

-

 

643

 

1,201

 

352

 

760

 

6,324

 

Liabilities

 

-

 

-

 

(93

)

(1,182

)

-

 

-

 

(1,387

)

(968

)

(3,630

)

At 1 Jan 2018

 

713

 

1,373

 

1,189

 

(1,182

)

643

 

1,201

 

(1,035

)

(208

)

2,694

 

IFRS 9 transitional adjustment

 

358

 

-

 

(411

)

-

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

459

 

406

 

Income statement

 

(72

)

(203

)

51

 

(104

)

19

 

(68

)

35

 

(328

)

(670

)

Other comprehensive income

 

-

 

-

 

(722

)

-

 

-

 

-

 

25

 

165

 

(532

)

Equity

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

(15

)

(8

)

(23

)

Foreign exchange and other adjustments

 

(17

)

(14

)

9

 

15

 

(33

)

18

 

(397

)

375

 

(44

)

At 31 Dec 2018

 

982

 

1,156

 

116

 

(1,271

)

629

 

1,151

 

(1,387

)

455

 

1,831

 

Assets

2

982

 

1,156

 

492

 

-

 

629

 

1,151

 

-

 

738

 

5,148

 

Liabilities

2

-

 

-

 

(376

)

(1,271

)

-

 

-

 

(1,387

)

(283

)

(3,317

)

1   Fair value of own debt.

2   After netting off balances within countries, the balances as disclosed in the accounts are as follows: deferred tax assets $4,632m (2018: $4,450m) and deferred tax liabilities $3,375m (2018: $2,619m).


In applying judgement in recognising deferred tax assets, management has critically assessed all available information, including future business profit projections and the track record of meeting forecasts.

The net deferred tax asset of $1.3bn (2018: $1.8bn) includes $2.8bn (2018: $3.0bn) of deferred tax assets relating to the US, of which $1.1bn relates to US tax losses that expire in 14 to 18 years. Management expects the US deferred tax asset to be substantially recovered in six to seven years, with the majority recovered in the first five years. The most recent financial forecasts approved by management cover a five-year period and the forecasts have been extrapolated beyond five years by assuming that performance remains constant after the fifth year.

Unrecognised deferred tax

The amount of gross temporary differences, unused tax losses and tax credits for which no deferred tax asset is recognised in the balance sheet was $8.3bn (2018: $7.2bn). This amount includes unused UK corporation tax losses of $6.2bn (2018: $4.6bn) which are not recognised due to uncertainty regarding the availability of sufficient future taxable profits against which to recover them. Of the total amounts unrecognised, $6.4bn (2018: $4.7bn) had no expiry date, $1.3bn (2018: $1.3bn) was scheduled to expire within 10 years and the remaining balance is expected to expire after 10 years.

Deferred tax is not recognised in respect of the Group's investments in subsidiaries and branches where HSBC is able to control the timing of remittance or other realisation and where remittance or realisation is not probable in the foreseeable future. The aggregate temporary differences relating to unrecognised deferred tax liabilities arising on investments in subsidiaries and branches is $13.4bn  (2018: $13.2bn) and the corresponding unrecognised deferred tax liability is $1.0bn (2018: $0.9bn).


8

Dividends


Dividends to shareholders of the parent company

 

2019

2018

2017

 

Per
share

Total

Settled
in scrip

Per
share

Total

Settled
in scrip

Per
share

Total

Settled
in scrip

 

$

$m

$m

$

$m

$m

$

$m

$m

Dividends paid on ordinary shares

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In respect of previous year:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

-  fourth interim dividend

0.21

 

4,206

 

1,160

 

0.21

 

4,197

 

393

 

0.21

 

4,169

 

1,945

 

In respect of current year:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

-  first interim dividend

0.10

 

2,013

 

375

 

0.10

 

2,008

 

213

 

0.10

 

2,005

 

826

 

-  second interim dividend

0.10

 

2,021

 

795

 

0.10

 

1,990

 

181

 

0.10

 

2,014

 

193

 

-  third interim dividend

0.10

 

2,029

 

357

 

0.10

 

1,992

 

707

 

0.10

 

2,005

 

242

 

Total

0.51

 

10,269

 

2,687

 

0.51

 

10,187

 

1,494

 

0.51

 

10,193

 

3,206

 

Total dividends on preference shares classified as equity (paid quarterly)

62.00

 

90

 

 

62.00

 

90

 

 

62.00

 

90

 

 

Total coupons on capital securities classified as equity

 

1,324

 

 

 

1,270

 

 

 

1,268

 

 

Dividends to shareholders

 

11,683

 

 

 

11,547

 

 

 

11,551

 

 


Total coupons on capital securities classified as equity

 

 

 

2019

2018

2017

 

 

 

 

Total

Total

Total

 

Footnotes

First call date

Per security

$m

$m

$m

Perpetual subordinated capital securities

1, 3

 

 

 

 

 

$2,200m issued at 8.125%

 

Apr 2013

$0.000

 

-

 

89

 

179

 

$3,800m issued at 8.000%

 

Dec 2015

$0.000

 

-

 

76

 

304

 

Perpetual subordinated contingent convertible securities

2, 3

 

 

 

 

 

$1,500m issued at 5.625%

4

Nov 2019

$56.250

 

84

 

84

 

84

 

$2,000m issued at 6.875%

 

Jun 2021

$68.750

 

138

 

138

 

138

 

$2,250m issued at 6.375%

 

Sep 2024

$63.750

 

143

 

143

 

143

 

$2,450m issued at 6.375%

 

Mar 2025

$63.750

 

156

 

156

 

156

 

$3,000m issued at 6.000%

 

May 2027

$60.000

 

180

 

180

 

90

 

$2,350m issued at 6.250%

 

Mar 2023

$62.500

 

147

 

73

 

-

 

$1,800m issued at 6.500%

 

Mar 2028

$65.000

 

117

 

59

 

-

 

€1,500m issued at 5.250%

 

Sep 2022

€52.500

 

88

 

95

 

89

 

€1,000m issued at 6.000%

 

Sep 2023

€60.000

 

66

 

72

 

68

 

€1,250m issued at 4.750%

 

July 2029

€47.500

 

68

 

70

 

-

 

SGD1,000m issued at 4.700%

 

Jun 2022

SGD47.000

 

34

 

35

 

17

 

£1,000m issued at 5.875%

 

Sep 2026

£58.750

 

75

 

-

 

-

 

SGD750m issued at 5%

 

Sep 2023

SGD50.000

 

28

 

-

 

-

 

Total

 

 

 

1,324

 

1,270

 

1,268

 

1   Discretionary coupons are paid quarterly on the perpetual subordinated capital securities, in denominations of $25 per security.

2   Discretionary coupons are paid semi-annually on the perpetual subordinated contingent convertible securities, in denominations of each security's issuance currency 1,000 per security.

3   Further details of these securities can be found in Note 31.

4   This security was called by HSBC Holdings on 22 November 2019 and was redeemed and cancelled on 17 January 2020. Between the date of exercise of the call option and the redemption, this security was considered to be a subordinated liability. Refer to Note 31 for further details on additional tier 1 securities.


After the end of the year, the Directors declared a fourth interim dividend in respect of the financial year ended 31 December 2019 of $0.21 per ordinary share, a distribution of approximately $4,266m. The fourth interim dividend will be payable on 14 April 2020 to holders on the Principal Register in the UK, the Hong Kong Overseas Branch Register or the Bermuda Overseas Branch Register on 28 February 2020. No liability was recorded in the financial statements in respect of the fourth interim dividend for 2019.

On 6 January 2020, HSBC paid a coupon on its €1,250m subordinated capital securities, representing a total distribution of €30m ($33m).   No liability was recorded in the balance sheet at 31 December 2019 in respect of this coupon payment.


9

Earnings per share

Basic earnings per ordinary share is calculated by dividing the profit attributable to ordinary shareholders of the parent company by the weighted average number of ordinary shares outstanding, excluding own shares held. Diluted earnings per ordinary share is calculated by dividing the basic earnings, which require no adjustment for the effects of dilutive potential ordinary shares, by the weighted average number of ordinary shares outstanding, excluding own shares held, plus the weighted average number of ordinary shares that would be issued on conversion of dilutive potential ordinary shares.


Profit attributable to the ordinary shareholders of the parent company

 

2019

2018

2017

 

$m

$m

$m

Profit attributable to shareholders of the parent company

7,383

 

13,727

 

10,798

 

Dividend payable on preference shares classified as equity

(90

)

(90

)

(90

)

Coupon payable on capital securities classified as equity

(1,324

)

(1,029

)

(1,025

)

Year ended 31 Dec

5,969

 

12,608

 

9,683

 


Basic and diluted earnings per share

 

 

2019

2018

2017

 

 

Profit

Number
of shares

Per
 share

Profit

Number
of shares

Per
share

Profit

Number
of shares

Per
share

 

Footnotes

$m

(millions)

$

$m

(millions)

$

$m

(millions)

$

Basic

1

5,969

 

20,158

 

0.30

 

12,608

 

19,896

 

0.63

 

9,683

 

19,972

 

0.48

 

Effect of dilutive potential ordinary shares

 

 

75

 

 

 

87

 

 

 

100

 

 

Diluted

1

5,969

 

20,233

 

0.30

 

12,608

 

19,983

 

0.63

 

9,683

 

20,072

 

0.48

 

1   Weighted average number of ordinary shares outstanding (basic) or assuming dilution (diluted).

The number of anti-dilutive employee share options excluded from the weighted average number of dilutive potential ordinary shares is 1.1m  (2018: nil; 2017: nil).



 


 


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