American Funds Retirement Income Portfolio SeriesSM

Part B
Statement of Additional Information

January 1, 2023

This document is not a prospectus but should be read in conjunction with the current prospectus of American Funds Retirement Income Portfolio Series (the “series”) dated January 1, 2023. Except where the context indicates otherwise, all references herein to the “fund” apply to each of the funds listed below. You may obtain a prospectus from your financial professional, by calling American Funds Service Company® at (800) 421-4225 or by writing to the series at the following address:

American Funds Retirement Income Portfolio Series
Attention: Secretary

6455 Irvine Center Drive
Irvine, California 92618

Certain privileges and/or services described below may not be available to all shareholders (including shareholders who purchase shares at net asset value through eligible retirement plans) depending on the shareholder’s investment dealer or retirement plan recordkeeper. Please see your financial professional, investment dealer, plan recordkeeper or employer for more information.

               
 

Class A

Class C

Class T

Class F-1

Class F-2

Class F-3

Class R-1

American Funds® Retirement Income Portfolio – Conservative

NAARX

NGCRX

TFACX

FAFWX

FDFWX

FICWX

RARPX

American Funds® Retirement Income Portfolio – Moderate

NBARX

NBCRX

TAFNX

FBFWX

FHFWX

FIMWX

RBRPX

American Funds® Retirement Income Portfolio – Enhanced

NDARX

NDCRX

TAFEX

FCFWX

FGFWX

FIEWX

RCRPX

               
 

Class R-2

Class R-2E

Class R-3

Class R-4

Class R-5E

Class R-5

Class R-6

American Funds Retirement Income Portfolio – Conservative

RDRPX

RGRPX

RJRPX

RMRPX

RROPX

RQRPX

RTRPX

American Funds Retirement Income Portfolio – Moderate

RERPX

RHRPX

RKRPX

RNRPX

RRPPX

RRRPX

RURPX

American Funds Retirement Income Portfolio – Enhanced

RFRPX

RIRPX

RLRPX

RPRPX

RRQPX

RXRPX

RVRPX

 

Table of Contents

   

Item

Page no.

   

Description of certain securities, investment techniques and risks

2

Fund policies

35

Management of the series

37

Execution of portfolio transactions

68

Disclosure of portfolio holdings

69

Price of shares

71

Taxes and distributions

74

Purchase and exchange of shares

77

Sales charges

82

Sales charge reductions and waivers

85

Selling shares

90

Shareholder account services and privileges

91

General information

94

Appendix

105

Investment portfolio
Financial statements

American Funds Retirement Income Portfolio Series — Page 1


Description of certain securities, investment techniques and risks

The descriptions below are intended to supplement the material in the prospectus under “Investment objectives, strategies and risks” and “Information regarding underlying funds,” which provide information about the series, the funds and the underlying funds.

The funds

The following descriptions of securities, investment techniques and risks apply to each of the funds.

Investment techniques relating to the funds in the series — In addition to its investments in the underlying funds, a portion of each fund’s assets, which will normally be less than 20%, may be held in cash or cash equivalents, including but not limited to obligations of banks, such as time deposits, or invested in high-quality taxable short-term securities of up to one year in maturity. Such investments may include: (a) obligations of the U.S. Treasury; (b) obligations of agencies and instrumentalities of the U.S. government; (c) money market instruments, such as certificates of deposit issued by domestic banks, corporate commercial paper, and bankers' acceptances; and (d) repurchase agreements.

Each fund may take temporary defensive measures in response to adverse market, economic, political, or other conditions as determined by the adviser. Such measures could include, but are not limited to, investments in cash (including foreign currency) or cash equivalents, including, but not limited to, obligations of banks (including certificates of deposit, bankers’ acceptances, time deposits and repurchase agreements), commercial paper, short-term notes, U.S. Government Securities and related repurchase agreements. There is no limit on the extent to which each fund may take temporary defensive measures. In taking such measures, each fund may fail to achieve its investment objective.

Investment techniques relating to the underlying funds — Because the following is a combined summary of investment strategies of all of the underlying funds, certain matters described herein will only apply to your fund to the extent it is invested in an underlying fund that engages in such a strategy. Unless a strategy or policy described below is specifically prohibited by the investment restrictions explained in the fund’s prospectus or the “Fund policies” section of this SAI, or by applicable law, each fund in the series may invest in underlying funds which engage in each of the practices described below.

The underlying funds may experience difficulty liquidating certain portfolio securities during significant market declines or periods of heavy redemptions.

Cash and cash equivalents — In addition to its investments in the underlying funds, a portion of the fund’s assets may hold cash or invest in cash equivalents. Cash equivalents include, but are not limited to: (a) commercial paper; (b) short-term bank obligations (for example, certificates of deposit, bankers’ acceptances (time drafts on a commercial bank where the bank accepts an irrevocable obligation to pay at maturity)) or bank notes; (c) savings association and savings bank obligations (for example, bank notes and certificates of deposit issued by savings banks or savings associations); (d) securities of the U.S. government, its agencies or instrumentalities that mature, or that may be redeemed, in one year or less; (e) higher quality corporate bonds and notes that mature, or that may be redeemed, in one year or less; and (f) shares of money market funds. Cash and cash equivalents may be denominated in U.S. dollars, non-U.S. currencies or multinational currency units.

There is no limit on the extent to which the fund may take temporary defensive measures. In taking such measures, the fund may fail to achieve its investment objective.

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Allocation – The funds consist of allocations of funds selected solely from proprietary funds managed by the investment adviser. No other funds or investments were considered in the construction of any fund.

The underlying funds

The following is a combined summary of investment strategies of all the underlying funds. Certain matters described below will only apply to a fund in the series to the extent such fund is invested in an underlying fund that engages in such a strategy. Unless a strategy or policy described below is specifically prohibited by the investment restrictions explained in a fund’s prospectus or the “Fund policies” section of this statement of additional information, or by applicable law, each fund in the series may invest in underlying funds, which engage in each of the practices described below. The value of the fund will fluctuate as the values of the underlying funds change.

Market conditions – The value of, and the income generated by, the securities in which the underlying funds invest may decline, sometimes rapidly or unpredictably, due to factors affecting certain issuers, particular industries or sectors, or the overall markets. Rapid or unexpected changes in market conditions could cause the underlying funds to liquidate its holdings at inopportune times or at a loss or depressed value. The value of a particular holding may decrease due to developments related to that issuer, but also due to general market conditions, including real or perceived economic developments such as changes in interest rates, credit quality, inflation, or currency rates, or generally adverse investor sentiment. The value of a holding may also decline due to factors that negatively affect a particular industry or sector, such as labor shortages, increased production costs, or competitive conditions.

Global economies and financial markets are highly interconnected, and conditions and events in one country, region or financial market may adversely impact issuers in a different country, region or financial market. Furthermore, local, regional and global events such as war, acts of terrorism, social unrest, natural disasters, the spread of infectious illness or other public health threats could also adversely impact issuers, markets and economies, including in ways that cannot necessarily be foreseen. The underlying funds could be negatively impacted if the value of a portfolio holding were harmed by such conditions or events.

Significant market disruptions, such as those caused by pandemics, natural or environmental disasters, war, acts of terrorism, or other events, can adversely affect local and global markets and normal market operations. Market disruptions may exacerbate political, social, and economic risks. Additionally, market disruptions may result in increased market volatility; regulatory trading halts; closure of domestic or foreign exchanges, markets, or governments; or market participants operating pursuant to business continuity plans for indeterminate periods of time. Such events can be highly disruptive to economies and markets and significantly impact individual companies, sectors, industries, markets, currencies, interest and inflation rates, credit ratings, investor sentiment, and other factors affecting the value of the fund’s investments and operation of the fund. These events could disrupt businesses that are integral to the fund’s operations or impair the ability of employees of fund service providers to perform essential tasks on behalf of the fund.

Governmental and quasi-governmental authorities may take a number of actions designed to support local and global economies and the financial markets in response to economic disruptions. Such actions may include a variety of significant fiscal and monetary policy changes, including, for example, direct capital infusions into companies, new monetary programs and significantly lower interest rates. These actions may result in significant expansion of public debt and may result in greater market risk. Additionally, an unexpected or quick reversal of these policies, or the ineffectiveness of these policies, could negatively impact overall investor sentiment and further increase volatility in securities markets.

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Equity securities — An underlying fund may invest in equity securities. Equity securities represent an ownership position in a company. Equity securities held by an underlying fund typically consist of common stocks and may also include securities with equity conversion or purchase rights. The prices of equity securities fluctuate based on, among other things, events specific to their issuers and market, economic and other conditions. For example, prices of these securities can be affected by financial contracts held by the issuer or third parties (such as derivatives) relating to the security or other assets or indices. Holders of equity securities are not creditors of the issuer. If an issuer liquidates, holders of equity securities are entitled to their pro rata share of the issuer’s assets, if any, after creditors (including the holders of fixed income securities and senior equity securities) are paid.

There may be little trading in the secondary market for particular equity securities, which may adversely affect an underlying fund’s ability to value accurately or dispose of such equity securities. Adverse publicity and investor perceptions, whether or not based on fundamental analysis, may decrease the value and/or liquidity of equity securities.

Debt instruments — An underlying fund may invest in debt securities. Debt securities, also known as “fixed income securities,” are used by issuers to borrow money. Bonds, notes, debentures, asset-backed securities (including those backed by mortgages), and loan participations and assignments are common types of debt securities. Generally, issuers pay investors periodic interest and repay the amount borrowed either periodically during the life of the security and/or at maturity. Some debt securities, such as zero coupon bonds, do not pay current interest, but are purchased at a discount from their face values and their values accrete over time to face value at maturity. Some debt securities bear interest at rates that are not fixed, but that vary with changes in specified market rates or indices. The market prices of debt securities fluctuate depending on such factors as interest rates, credit quality and maturity. In general, market prices of debt securities decline when interest rates rise and increase when interest rates fall. These fluctuations will generally be greater for longer-term debt securities than for shorter-term debt securities. Prices of these securities can also be affected by financial contracts held by the issuer or third parties (such as derivatives) relating to the security or other assets or indices. Borrowers that are in bankruptcy or restructuring may never pay off their indebtedness, or they may pay only a small fraction of the amount owed. Direct indebtedness of countries, particularly developing countries, also involves a risk that the governmental entities responsible for the repayment of the debt may be unable, or unwilling, to pay interest and repay principal when due.

Certain additional risk factors relating to debt securities are discussed below:

Sensitivity to interest rate and economic changes — Debt securities may be sensitive to economic changes, political and corporate developments, and interest rate changes. In addition, during an economic downturn or a period of rising interest rates, issuers that are highly leveraged may experience increased financial stress that could adversely affect their ability to meet projected business goals, to obtain additional financing and to service their principal and interest payment obligations. Periods of economic change and uncertainty also can be expected to result in increased volatility of market prices and yields of certain debt securities and derivative instruments. As discussed under “Market conditions” above in this statement of additional information, governments and quasi-governmental authorities may take actions to support local and global economies and financial markets during periods of economic crisis, including direct capital infusions into companies, new monetary programs and significantly lower interest rates. Such actions may expose fixed income markets to heightened volatility and may reduce liquidity for certain investments, which could cause the value of an underlying fund’s portfolio to decline.

Payment expectations — Debt securities may contain redemption or call provisions. If an issuer exercises these provisions in a lower interest rate market, an underlying fund may have to replace the security with a lower yielding security, resulting in decreased income to investors. If the issuer of a debt security defaults on its obligations to pay interest or principal or is the

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subject of bankruptcy proceedings, an underlying fund may incur losses or expenses in seeking recovery of amounts owed to it.

Liquidity and valuation — There may be little trading in the secondary market for particular debt securities, which may affect adversely an underlying fund’s ability to value accurately or dispose of such debt securities. Adverse publicity and investor perceptions, whether or not based on fundamental analysis, may decrease the value and/or liquidity of debt securities.

Credit ratings for debt securities provided by rating agencies reflect an evaluation of the safety of principal and interest payments, not market value risk. The rating of an issuer is a rating agency’s view of past and future potential developments related to the issuer and may not necessarily reflect actual outcomes. There can be a lag between the time of developments relating to an issuer and the time a rating is assigned and updated. The investment adviser considers these ratings of securities as one of many criteria in making its investment decisions.

Bond rating agencies may assign modifiers (such as +/–) to ratings categories to signify the relative position of a credit within the rating category. Investment policies that are based on ratings categories should be read to include any security within that category, without giving consideration to the modifier except where otherwise provided. See the Appendix to this statement of additional information for more information about credit ratings.

Securities with equity and debt characteristics — Certain securities have a combination of equity and debt characteristics. Such securities may at times behave more like equity than debt or vice versa.

Preferred stock — Preferred stock represents an equity interest in an issuer that generally entitles the holder to receive, in preference to common stockholders and the holders of certain other stocks, dividends and a fixed share of the proceeds resulting from a liquidation of the issuer. Preferred stocks may pay fixed or adjustable rates of return, and preferred stock dividends may be cumulative or non-cumulative and participating or non-participating. Cumulative dividend provisions require all or a portion of prior unpaid dividends to be paid before dividends can be paid to the issuer’s common stockholders, while prior unpaid dividends on non-cumulative preferred stock are forfeited. Participating preferred stock may be entitled to a dividend exceeding the issuer’s declared dividend in certain cases, while non-participating preferred stock is entitled only to the stipulated dividend. Preferred stock is subject to issuer-specific and market risks applicable generally to equity securities. As with debt securities, the prices and yields of preferred stocks often move with changes in interest rates and the issuer’s credit quality. Additionally, a company’s preferred stock typically pays dividends only after the company makes required payments to holders of its bonds and other debt. Accordingly, the price of preferred stock will usually react more strongly than bonds and other debt to actual or perceived changes in the issuing company’s financial condition or prospects. Preferred stock of smaller companies may be more vulnerable to adverse developments than preferred stock of larger companies.

Convertible securities — A convertible security is a debt obligation, preferred stock or other security that may be converted, within a specified period of time and at a stated conversion rate, into common stock or other equity securities of the same or a different issuer. The conversion may occur automatically upon the occurrence of a predetermined event or at the option of either the issuer or the security holder. Under certain circumstances, a convertible security may also be called for redemption or conversion by the issuer after a particular date and at predetermined price specified upon issue. If a convertible security held by an underlying fund is called for redemption or conversion, the underlying fund could be required to tender the security for redemption, convert it into the underlying common stock, or sell it to a third party.

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The holder of a convertible security is generally entitled to participate in the capital appreciation resulting from a market price increase in the issuer’s common stock and to receive interest paid or accrued until the convertible security matures or is redeemed, converted or exchanged. Before conversion, convertible securities have characteristics similar to non-convertible debt or preferred securities, as applicable. Convertible securities rank senior to common stock in an issuer’s capital structure and, therefore, normally entail less risk than the issuer’s common stock. However, convertible securities may also be subordinate to any senior debt obligations of the issuer, and, therefore, an issuer’s convertible securities may entail more risk than such senior debt obligations. Convertible securities usually offer lower interest or dividend yields than non-convertible debt securities of similar credit quality because of the potential for capital appreciation. In addition, convertible securities are often lower-rated securities.

Because of the conversion feature, the price of a convertible security will normally fluctuate in some proportion to changes in the price of the underlying asset, and, accordingly, convertible securities are subject to risks relating to the activities of the issuer and/or general market and economic conditions. The income component of a convertible security may cushion the security against declines in the price of the underlying asset but may also cause the price of the security to fluctuate based upon changes in interest rates and the credit quality of the issuer. As with a straight fixed income security, the price of a convertible security tends to increase when interest rates decline and decrease when interest rates rise. Like the price of a common stock, the price of a convertible security also tends to increase as the price of the underlying stock rises and to decrease as the price of the underlying stock declines.

Hybrid securities — A hybrid security is a type of security that also has equity and debt characteristics. Like equities, which have no final maturity, a hybrid security may be perpetual. On the other hand, like debt securities, a hybrid security may be callable at the option of the issuer on a date specified at issue. Additionally, like common equities, which may stop paying dividends at virtually any time without violating any contractual terms or conditions, hybrids typically allow for issuers to withhold payment of interest until a later date or to suspend coupon payments entirely without triggering an event of default. Hybrid securities are normally at the bottom of an issuer’s debt capital structure because holders of an issuer’s hybrid securities are structurally subordinated to the issuer’s senior creditors. In bankruptcy, hybrid security holders should only get paid after all senior creditors of the issuer have been paid but before any disbursements are made to the issuer’s equity holders. Accordingly, hybrid securities may be more sensitive to economic changes than more senior debt securities. Such securities may also be viewed as more equity-like by the market when the issuer or its parent company experiences financial difficulties.

Contingent convertible securities, which are also known as contingent capital securities, are a form of hybrid security that are intended to either convert into equity or have their principal written down upon the occurrence of certain trigger events. One type of contingent convertible security has characteristics designed to absorb losses, by providing that the liquidation value of the security may be adjusted downward to below the original par value or written off entirely under certain circumstances. For instance, if losses have eroded the issuer’s capital level below a specified threshold, the liquidation value of the security may be reduced in whole or in part. The write-down of the security’s par value may occur automatically and would not entitle holders to institute bankruptcy proceedings against the issuer. In addition, an automatic write-down could result in a reduced income rate if the dividend or interest payment associated with the security is based on the security’s par value. Such securities may, but are not required to, provide for circumstances under which the liquidation value of the security may be adjusted back up to par, such as an improvement in capitalization or earnings. Another type of contingent convertible security provides for mandatory conversion of the security into common shares of the issuer under certain circumstances. The mandatory conversion might

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relate, for example, to the issuer’s failure to maintain a capital minimum. Since the common stock of the issuer may not pay a dividend, investors in such instruments could experience reduced yields (or no yields at all) and conversion would deepen the subordination of the investor, effectively worsening the investor’s standing in the case of the issuer’s insolvency. An automatic write-down or conversion event with respect to a contingent convertible security will typically be triggered by a reduction in the issuer’s capital level, but may also be triggered by regulatory actions, such as a change in regulatory capital requirements, or by other factors.

Warrants and rights — Warrants and rights may be acquired by an underlying fund in connection with other securities or separately. Warrants generally entitle, but do not obligate, their holder to purchase other equity or fixed income securities at a specified price at a later date. Rights are similar to warrants but typically have a shorter duration and are issued by a company to existing holders of its stock to provide those holders the right to purchase additional shares of stock at a later date. Warrants and rights do not carry with them the right to dividends or voting rights with respect to the securities that they entitle their holder to purchase, and they do not represent any rights in the assets of the issuing company. Additionally, a warrant or right ceases to have value if it is not exercised prior to its expiration date. As a result, warrants and rights may be considered more speculative than certain other types of investments. Changes in the value of a warrant or right do not necessarily correspond to changes in the value of its underlying security. The price of a warrant or right may be more volatile than the price of its underlying security, and they therefore present greater potential for capital appreciation and capital loss. The effective price paid for warrants or rights added to the subscription price of the related security may exceed the value of the subscribed security’s market price, such as when there is no movement in the price of the underlying security. The market for warrants or rights may be very limited and it may be difficult to sell them promptly at an acceptable price.

Investing in smaller capitalization stocks — An underlying fund may invest in the stocks of smaller capitalization companies. Investing in smaller capitalization stocks can involve greater risk than is customarily associated with investing in stocks of larger, more established companies. For example, smaller companies often have limited product lines, limited operating histories, limited markets or financial resources, may be dependent on one or a few key persons for management and can be more susceptible to losses. Also, their securities may be less liquid or illiquid (and therefore have to be sold at a discount from current prices or sold in small lots over an extended period of time), may be followed by fewer investment research analysts and may be subject to wider price swings, thus creating a greater chance of loss than securities of larger capitalization companies.

Investing outside the U.S. — Securities of issuers domiciled outside the United States, or with significant operations or revenues outside the United States, may lose value because of adverse political, social, economic or market developments (including social instability, regional conflicts, terrorism and war) in the countries or regions in which the issuers are domiciled, operate or generate revenue. These issuers may also be more susceptible to actions of foreign governments such as the imposition of price controls, sanctions, or punitive taxes that could adversely impact the value of these securities. To the extent an underlying fund invests in securities that are denominated in currencies other than the U.S. dollar, these securities may also lose value due to changes in foreign currency exchange rates against the U.S. dollar and/or currencies of other countries. Securities markets in certain countries may be more volatile or less liquid than those in the United States. Investments outside the United States may also be subject to different accounting practices and different regulatory, legal, auditing, financial reporting and recordkeeping standards and practices, and may be more difficult to value, than those in the United States. In addition, the value of investments outside the United States may be reduced by foreign taxes, including foreign withholding taxes on interest and dividends. Further, there may be increased risks of delayed settlement of securities purchased or sold by the fund, which could impact the liquidity of the fund’s portfolio. The risks of investing outside the United States may be heightened in connection with investments in emerging markets.

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Additional costs could be incurred in connection with an underlying fund’s investment activities outside the United States. Brokerage commissions may be higher outside the United States, and an underlying fund will bear certain expenses in connection with its currency transactions. Furthermore, increased custodian costs may be associated with maintaining assets in certain jurisdictions.

Investing in emerging markets — Investing in emerging markets may involve risks in addition to and greater than those generally associated with investing in the securities markets of developed countries. For instance, emerging market countries tend to have less developed political, economic and legal systems than those in developed countries. Accordingly, the governments of these countries may be less stable and more likely to intervene in the market economy, for example, by imposing capital controls, nationalizing a company or industry, placing restrictions on foreign ownership and on withdrawing sale proceeds of securities from the country, and/or imposing punitive taxes that could adversely affect the prices of securities. Information regarding issuers in emerging markets may be limited, incomplete or inaccurate, and such issuers may not be subject to regulatory, accounting, auditing, and financial reporting and recordkeeping standards comparable to those to which issuers in more developed markets are subject. An underlying fund’s rights with respect to its investments in emerging markets, if any, will generally be governed by local law, which may make it difficult or impossible for the underlying fund to pursue legal remedies or to obtain and enforce judgments in local courts. In addition, the economies of these countries may be dependent on relatively few industries, may have limited access to capital and may be more susceptible to changes in local and global trade conditions and downturns in the world economy. Securities markets in these countries can also be relatively small and have substantially lower trading volumes. As a result, securities issued in these countries may be more volatile and less liquid, and may be more difficult to value, than securities issued in countries with more developed economies and/or markets. Less certainty with respect to security valuations may lead to additional challenges and risks in calculating the underlying fund’s net asset value. Additionally, emerging markets are more likely to experience problems with the clearing and settling of trades and the holding of securities by banks, agents and depositories that are less established than those in developed countries.

In countries where direct foreign investment is limited or prohibited, an underlying fund may invest in operating companies based in such countries through an offshore intermediary entity that, based on contractual agreements, seeks to replicate the rights and obligations of direct equity ownership in such operating company. Because the contractual arrangements do not in fact bestow an underlying fund with actual equity ownership in the operating company, these investment structures may limit the underlying fund’s rights as an investor and create significant additional risks. For example, local government authorities may determine that such structures do not comply with applicable laws and regulations, including those relating to restrictions on foreign ownership. In such event, the intermediary entity and/or the operating company may be subject to penalties, revocation of business and operating licenses or forfeiture of foreign ownership interests, and an underlying fund’s economic interests in the underlying operating company and its rights as an investor may not be recognized, resulting in a loss to the underlying fund and its shareholders. In addition, exerting control through contractual arrangements may be less effective than direct equity ownership, and a company may incur substantial costs to enforce the terms of such arrangements, including those relating to the distribution of the underlying funds among the entities. These special investment structures may also be disregarded for tax purposes by local tax authorities, resulting in increased tax liabilities, and an underlying fund’s control over – and distributions due from – such structures may be jeopardized if the individuals who hold the equity interest in such structures breach the terms of the agreements. While these structures may be widely used to circumvent limits on foreign ownership in certain jurisdictions, there is no assurance that they will be upheld by local regulatory authorities or that disputes regarding the same will be resolved consistently.

Although there is no universally accepted definition, the investment adviser generally considers an emerging market to be a market that is in the earlier stages of its industrialization cycle with a low per capita gross domestic product (“GDP”) and a low market capitalization to GDP ratio relative to those in

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the United States and the European Union, and would include markets commonly referred to as “frontier markets.”

In determining the domicile of an issuer, the underlying fund’s investment adviser will generally look to the domicile determination of a leading provider of global indexes, such as Morgan Stanley Capital International. However, the adviser in its discretion also may take into account such factors as where the issuer’s securities are listed and where the issuer is legally organized, maintains principal corporate offices, conducts its principal operations, generates revenues and/or has credit risk exposure.

Investing through Stock Connect — An underlying fund may invest in China A-shares of certain Chinese companies listed and traded on the Shanghai Stock Exchange (“SSE”) and on the Shenzhen Stock Exchange (“SZSE”, and together, the “Exchanges”) through the Shanghai-Hong Kong Stock Connect Program and the Shenzhen-Hong Kong Stock Connect Program, respectively (together, “Stock Connect”). Stock Connect is a securities trading and clearing program developed by the Exchange of Hong Kong, the Exchanges and the China Securities Depository and Clearing Corporation Limited. Stock Connect facilitates foreign investment in the People’s Republic of China (“PRC”) via brokers in Hong Kong. Persons investing through Stock Connect are subject to PRC regulations and Exchange listing rules, among others. These could include limitations on or suspension of trading. These regulations are relatively new and subject to changes which could adversely impact an underlying fund’s rights with respect to the securities. For example, a stock may be recalled from the scope of securities traded on the SSE or SZSE eligible for trading via Stock Connect for various reasons, and in such event the stock can be sold but is restricted from being bought.  In such event, the investment adviser’s ability to implement an underlying fund’s investment strategies may be adversely affected. As Stock Connect is still relatively new, investments made through Stock Connect are subject to relatively new trading, clearance and settlement procedures and there are no assurances that the necessary systems to run the program will function properly. In addition, Stock Connect is subject to aggregate and daily quota limitations on purchases and permitted price fluctuations.  As a result, an underlying fund may experience delays in transacting via Stock Connect and there can be no assurance that a liquid market on the Exchanges will exist. Since Stock Connect only operates on days when both the Chinese and Hong Kong markets are open for trading, and banking services are available in both markets on the corresponding settlement days, an underlying fund’s ownership interest in securities traded through Stock Connect may not be reflected directly and an underlying fund may be subject to the risk of price fluctuations in China A-shares when Stock Connect is not open to trading. Changes in Chinese tax rules may also adversely affect an underlying fund’s performance. An underlying fund’s shares are held in an omnibus account and registered in nominee name. Please also see the sections on risks relating to investing outside the U.S. and investing in emerging markets.

Certain risk factors related to emerging markets

Currency fluctuations — Certain emerging markets’ currencies have experienced and in the future may experience significant declines against the U.S. dollar. For example, if the U.S. dollar appreciates against foreign currencies, the value of the underlying fund’s emerging markets securities holdings would generally depreciate and vice versa. Further, the fund may lose money due to losses and other expenses incurred in converting various currencies to purchase and sell securities valued in currencies other than the U.S. dollar, as well as from currency restrictions, exchange control regulation and currency devaluations.

Government regulation — Certain developing countries lack uniform accounting, auditing and financial reporting and disclosure standards, have less governmental supervision of financial markets than in the United States, and may not honor legal rights or protections enjoyed by investors in the United States. Certain governments may be more unstable and present greater risks of nationalization or restrictions on foreign ownership of local companies. Repatriation of investment income, capital and the proceeds of sales by foreign investors may require governmental registration and/or approval in some developing countries. While an underlying

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fund will only invest in markets where these restrictions are considered acceptable by the investment adviser, a country could impose new or additional repatriation restrictions after the underlying fund’s investment. If this happened, the underlying fund’s response might include, among other things, applying to the appropriate authorities for a waiver of the restrictions or engaging in transactions in other markets designed to offset the risks of decline in that country. Such restrictions will be considered in relation to the underlying fund’s liquidity needs and other factors. Further, some attractive equity securities may not be available to the underlying fund if foreign shareholders already hold the maximum amount legally permissible.

While government involvement in the private sector varies in degree among developing countries, such involvement may in some cases include government ownership of companies in certain sectors, wage and price controls or imposition of trade barriers and other protectionist measures. With respect to any developing country, there is no guarantee that some future economic or political crisis will not lead to price controls, forced mergers of companies, expropriation, or creation of government monopolies to the possible detriment of the underlying fund’s investments.

Fluctuations in inflation rates — Rapid fluctuations in inflation rates may have negative impacts on the economies and securities markets of certain emerging market countries.

Less developed securities markets — Emerging markets may be less well-developed and regulated than other markets. These markets have lower trading volumes than the securities markets of more developed countries and may be unable to respond effectively to increases in trading volume. Consequently, these markets may be substantially less liquid than those of more developed countries, and the securities of issuers located in these markets may have limited marketability. These factors may make prompt liquidation of substantial portfolio holdings difficult or impossible at times.

Settlement risks — Settlement systems in developing countries are generally less well organized than those of developed markets. Supervisory authorities may also be unable to apply standards comparable to those in developed markets. Thus, there may be risks that settlement may be delayed and that cash or securities belonging to the underlying fund may be in jeopardy because of failures of or defects in the systems. In particular, market practice may require that payment be made before receipt of the security being purchased or that delivery of a security be made before payment is received. In such cases, default by a broker or bank (the “counterparty”) through whom the transaction is effected might cause the underlying fund to suffer a loss. An underlying fund will seek, where possible, to use counterparties whose financial status is such that this risk is reduced. However, there can be no certainty that the underlying fund will be successful in eliminating this risk, particularly as counterparties operating in developing countries frequently lack the standing or financial resources of those in developed countries. There may also be a danger that, because of uncertainties in the operation of settlement systems in individual markets, competing claims may arise with respect to securities held by or to be transferred to the underlying fund.

Limited market information — An underlying fund may encounter problems assessing investment opportunities in certain emerging markets in light of limitations on available information and different accounting, auditing and financial reporting standards. For example, due to jurisdictional limitations, the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (“PCAOB”), which regulates auditors of U.S. reporting companies, may be unable to inspect the audit work and practices of PCAOB-registered auditing firms in certain developing countries. As a result, there is greater risk that financial records and information relating to an issuer’s operations in developing countries will be incomplete or misleading, which may negatively impact the fund’s investments in such company. When faced with limited market information, the underlying fund’s investment adviser will seek alternative sources of information, and to the extent the

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investment adviser is not satisfied with the sufficiency or accuracy of the information obtained with respect to a particular market or security, the underlying fund will not invest in such market or security.

Taxation — Taxation of dividends, interest and capital gains received by an underlying fund varies among developing countries and, in some cases, is comparatively high. In addition, developing countries typically have less well-defined tax laws and procedures and such laws may permit retroactive taxation so that an underlying fund could become subject in the future to local tax liability that it had not reasonably anticipated in conducting its investment activities or valuing its assets.

Fraudulent securities — Securities purchased by an underlying fund may subsequently be found to be fraudulent or counterfeit, resulting in a loss to the underlying fund.

Remedies — Developing countries may offer less protection to investors than U.S. markets and, in the event of investor harm, there may be substantially less recourse available to an underlying fund and its shareholders. In addition, as a matter of law or practicality, an underlying fund and its shareholders - as well as U.S. regulators - may encounter substantial difficulties in obtaining and enforcing judgments and other actions against non-U.S. individuals and companies.

Depositary receipts — Depositary receipts are securities that evidence ownership interests in, and represent the right to receive, a security or a pool of securities that have been deposited with a bank or trust depository. An underlying fund may invest in American Depositary Receipts (“ADRs”), European Depositary Receipts (“EDRs”), Global Depositary Receipts (“GDRs”), and other similar securities. For ADRs, the depository is typically a U.S. financial institution and the underlying securities are issued by a non-U.S. entity. For other depositary receipts, the depository may be a non-U.S. or a U.S. entity, and the underlying securities may be issued by a non-U.S. or a U.S. entity. Depositary receipts will not necessarily be denominated in the same currency as their underlying securities. Generally, ADRs are issued in registered form, denominated in U.S. dollars, and designed for use in the U.S. securities markets. Other depositary receipts, such as EDRs and GDRs, may be issued in bearer form, may be denominated in either U.S. dollars or in non-U.S. currencies, and are primarily designed for use in securities markets outside the United States. ADRs, EDRs and GDRs can be sponsored by the issuing bank or trust company or the issuer of the underlying securities. Although the issuing bank or trust company may impose charges for the collection of dividends and the conversion of such securities into the underlying securities, generally no fees are imposed on the purchase or sale of these securities other than transaction fees ordinarily involved with trading stock. Such securities may be less liquid or may trade at a lower price than the underlying securities of the issuer. Additionally, the issuers of securities underlying depositary receipts may not be obligated to timely disclose information that is considered material under the securities laws of the United States. Therefore, less information may be available regarding these issuers than about the issuers of other securities and there may not be a correlation between such information and the market value of the depositary receipts.

Currency transactions — An underlying fund may enter into currency transactions on a spot (i.e., cash) basis at the prevailing rate in the currency exchange market to provide for the purchase or sale of a currency needed to purchase a security denominated in such currency. In addition, an underlying fund may enter into forward currency contracts and may purchase and sell options on currencies to protect against changes in currency exchange rates, to increase exposure to a particular foreign currency, to shift exposure to currency fluctuations from one currency to another or to seek to increase returns. A forward currency contract is an obligation to purchase or sell a specific currency at a future date, which may be any fixed number of days from the date of the contract agreed upon by the parties, at a price set at the time of the contract. Some forward currency contracts, called non-deliverable forwards or NDFs, do not call for physical delivery of the currency and are instead settled through cash payments. Forward currency contracts are typically privately negotiated and traded in the interbank market

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between large commercial banks (or other currency traders) and their customers. Although forward contracts entered into by an underlying fund will typically involve the purchase or sale of a currency against the U.S. dollar, the underlying fund also may purchase or sell a non-U.S. currency against another non-U.S. currency.

An underlying fund may also purchase or write put and call options on foreign currencies on exchanges or in the OTC market. A put option on a foreign currency gives the purchaser of the option the right to sell a foreign currency at the exercise price until the option expires. A call option on a foreign currency gives the purchaser of the option the right to purchase the currency at the exercise price until the option expires. Currency options, to the extent not exercised, will expire and the underlying fund, as the purchaser, would experience a loss to the extent of the premium paid for the option. Instead of purchasing a call option to hedge against an anticipated increase in the dollar cost of securities to be acquired, the underlying fund could write a put option on the relevant currency, which, if exchange rates move in the manner projected, will expire unexercised and allow the underlying fund to hedge such increased cost up to the amount of the premium. As in the case of other types of options, however, writing a currency option will provide a hedge only up to the amount of the premium, and only if exchange rates move in the expected direction. If this does not occur, the option may be exercised and the underlying fund would be required to purchase or sell the underlying currency at a loss that may not be offset by the amount of the premium. Through the writing of options on foreign currencies, the underlying fund also may be required to forego all or a portion of the benefit that might otherwise have been obtained from favorable movements in exchange rates. OTC options are bilateral contracts that are individually negotiated and they are generally less liquid than exchange-traded options. Although this type of arrangement allows the purchaser or writer greater flexibility to tailor an option to its needs, OTC options generally involve credit risk to the counterparty, whereas for exchange-traded options, credit risk is mutualized through the involvement of the applicable clearing house. Currency options traded on exchanges may be subject to position limits, which may limit the ability of the underlying fund to reduce currency risk using such options. To the extent that the U.S. options markets are closed while the markets for the underlying currencies remain open, substantial price and rate movements may take place in the currency markets that cannot be reflected in the U.S. options markets. See also “Options” for a general description of investment techniques and risks relating to options.

Currency exchange rates generally are determined by forces of supply and demand in the foreign exchange markets and the relative merits of investment in different countries as viewed from an international perspective. Currency exchange rates, as well as foreign currency transactions, can also be affected unpredictably by intervention by U.S. or foreign governments or central banks or by currency controls or political developments in the United States or abroad. Such intervention or other events could prevent an underlying fund from entering into foreign currency transactions, force an underlying fund to exit such transactions at an unfavorable time or price or result in penalties to an underlying fund, any of which may result in losses to an underlying fund.

Generally, an underlying fund will not attempt to protect against all potential changes in exchange rates and the use of forward contracts does not eliminate the risk of fluctuations in the prices of the underlying securities. If the value of the underlying securities declines or the amount of an underlying fund’s commitment increases because of changes in exchange rates, the underlying fund may need to provide additional cash or securities to satisfy its commitment under the forward contract. An underlying fund is also subject to the risk that it may be delayed or prevented from obtaining payments owed to it under the forward contract as a result of the insolvency or bankruptcy of the counterparty with which it entered into the forward contract or the failure of the counterparty to comply with the terms of the contract.

The realization of gains or losses on foreign currency transactions will usually be a function of the investment adviser’s ability to accurately estimate currency market movements. Entering into forward currency transactions may change the underlying fund’s exposure to currency exchange rates and

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could result in losses to the underlying fund if currencies do not perform as expected by the fund’s investment adviser. For example, if the underlying fund’s investment adviser increases a fund’s exposure to a foreign currency using forward contracts and that foreign currency’s value declines, the underlying fund may incur a loss. In addition, while entering into forward currency transactions could minimize the risk of loss due to a decline in the value of the hedged currency, it could also limit any potential gain that may result from an increase in the value of the currency. See also the “Derivatives” section under "Description of certain securities, investment techniques and risks" for a general description of investment techniques and risks relating to derivatives, including certain currency forwards and currency options.

Forward currency contracts may give rise to leverage, or exposure to potential gains and losses in excess of the initial amount invested. Leverage magnifies gains and losses and could cause an underlying fund to be subject to more volatility than if it had not been leveraged, thereby resulting in a heightened risk of loss. Forward currency contracts are considered derivatives. Accordingly, under the SEC’s rule applicable to an underlying fund’s use of derivatives, the underlying fund’s obligations with respect to these instruments will depend on the underlying fund’s aggregate usage of and exposure to derivatives, and the underlying fund’s usage of forward currency contracts is subject to written policies and procedures reasonably designed to manage the underlying fund’s derivatives risk.

Forward currency transactions also may affect the character and timing of income, gain, or loss recognized by the underlying fund for U.S. tax purposes. The use of forward currency contracts could result in the application of the mark-to-market provisions of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the "Code") and may cause an increase (or decrease) in the amount of taxable dividends paid by an underlying fund.

Indirect exposure to cryptocurrencies – Cryptocurrencies are currencies which exist in a digital form and may act as a store of wealth, a medium of exchange or an investment asset. There are thousands of cryptocurrencies, such as bitcoin. Although the underlying funds have no current intention of directly investing in cryptocurrencies, some issuers have begun to accept cryptocurrency for payment of services, use cryptocurrencies as reserve assets or invest in cryptocurrencies, and the underlying funds may invest in securities of such issuers. An underlying fund may also invest in securities of issuers which provide cryptocurrency-related services.

Cryptocurrencies are subject to fluctuations in value. Cryptocurrencies are not backed by any government, corporation or other identified body. Rather, the value of a cryptocurrency is determined by other factors, such as the perceived future prospects or the supply and demand for such cryptocurrency in the global market for the trading of cryptocurrency. Such trading markets are unregulated and may be more exposed to operational or technical issues as well as fraud or manipulation in comparison to established, regulated exchanges for securities, derivatives and traditional currencies. The value of a cryptocurrency may decline precipitously (including to zero) for a variety of reasons, including, but not limited to, regulatory changes, a loss of confidence in its network or a change in user preference to other cryptocurrencies. An issuer that owns cryptocurrencies may experience custody issues, and may lose its cryptocurrency holdings through theft, hacking, or technical glitches in the applicable blockchain. An underlying fund may experience losses as a result of the decline in value of its securities of issuers that own cryptocurrencies or which provide cryptocurrency-related services. If an issuer that owns cryptocurrencies intends to pay a dividend using such holdings or to otherwise make a distribution of such holdings to its stockholders, such dividends or distributions may face regulatory, operational and technical issues.

Factors affecting the further development of cryptocurrency include, but are not limited to: continued worldwide growth of, or possible cessation of or reversal in, the adoption and use of cryptocurrencies and other digital assets; the developing regulatory environment relating to cryptocurrencies, including the characterization of cryptocurrencies as currencies, commodities, or securities, the tax treatment of cryptocurrencies, and government and quasi-government regulation or restrictions on, or regulation of

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access to and operation of, cryptocurrency networks and the exchanges on which cryptocurrencies trade, including anti-money laundering regulations and requirements; perceptions regarding the environmental impact of a cryptocurrency; changes in consumer demographics and public preferences; general economic conditions; maintenance and development of open-source software protocols; the availability and popularity of other forms or methods of buying and selling goods and services; the use of the networks supporting digital assets, such as those for developing smart contracts and distributed applications; and general risks tied to the use of information technologies, including cyber risks. A hack or failure of one cryptocurrency may lead to a loss in confidence in, and thus decreased usage and/or value of, other cryptocurrencies.

Obligations backed by the “full faith and credit” of the U.S. government — U.S. government obligations include the following types of securities:

U.S. Treasury securities — U.S. Treasury securities include direct obligations of the U.S. Treasury, such as Treasury bills, notes and bonds. For these securities, the payment of principal and interest is unconditionally guaranteed by the U.S. government, and thus they are of high credit quality. Such securities are subject to variations in market value due to fluctuations in interest rates and in government policies, but, if held to maturity, are expected to be paid in full (either at maturity or thereafter).

Federal agency securities — The securities of certain U.S. government agencies and government-sponsored entities are guaranteed as to the timely payment of principal and interest by the full faith and credit of the U.S. government. Such agencies and entities include, but are not limited to, the Federal Financing Bank (“FFB”), the Government National Mortgage Association (“Ginnie Mae”), the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (“VA”), the Federal Housing Administration (“FHA”), the Export-Import Bank of the United States (“Exim Bank”), the U.S. International Development Finance Corporation (“DFC”), the Commodity Credit Corporation (“CCC”) and the U.S. Small Business Administration (“SBA”).

Other federal agency obligations — Additional federal agency securities are neither direct obligations of, nor guaranteed by, the U.S. government. These obligations include securities issued by certain U.S. government agencies and government-sponsored entities. However, they generally involve some form of federal sponsorship: some operate under a congressional charter; some are backed by collateral consisting of “full faith and credit” obligations as described above; some are supported by the issuer’s right to borrow from the Treasury; and others are supported only by the credit of the issuing government agency or entity. These agencies and entities include, but are not limited to: the Federal Home Loan Banks, the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (“Freddie Mac”), the Federal National Mortgage Association (“Fannie Mae”), the Tennessee Valley Authority and the Federal Farm Credit Bank System.

In 2008, Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae were placed into conservatorship by their new regulator, the Federal Housing Finance Agency (“FHFA”). Simultaneously, the U.S. Treasury made a commitment of indefinite duration to maintain the positive net worth of both firms. As conservator, the FHFA has the authority to repudiate any contract either firm has entered into prior to the FHFA’s appointment as conservator (or receiver should either firm go into default) if the FHFA, in its sole discretion determines that performance of the contract is burdensome and repudiation would promote the orderly administration of Fannie Mae’s or Freddie Mac’s affairs. While the FHFA has indicated that it does not intend to repudiate the guaranty obligations of either entity, doing so could adversely affect holders of their mortgage-backed securities. For example, if a contract were repudiated, the liability for any direct compensatory damages would accrue to the entity’s conservatorship estate and could only be satisfied to the extent the estate had available assets. As a result, if interest payments on Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac mortgage-backed securities held by the fund were reduced because underlying borrowers failed to make payments or such payments were not advanced by a loan servicer, the fund’s only recourse

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might be against the conservatorship estate, which might not have sufficient assets to offset any shortfalls.

The FHFA, in its capacity as conservator, has the power to transfer or sell any asset or liability of Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac. The FHFA has indicated it has no current intention to do this; however, should it do so a holder of a Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac mortgage-backed security would have to rely on another party for satisfaction of the guaranty obligations and would be exposed to the credit risk of that party.

Certain rights provided to holders of mortgage-backed securities issued by Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac under their operative documents may not be enforceable against the FHFA, or enforcement may be delayed during the course of the conservatorship or any future receivership. For example, the operative documents may provide that upon the occurrence of an event of default by Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac, holders of a requisite percentage of the mortgage-backed security may replace the entity as trustee. However, under the Federal Housing Finance Regulatory Reform Act of 2008, holders may not enforce this right if the event of default arises solely because a conservator or receiver has been appointed.

Pass-through securities — An underlying fund may invest in various debt obligations backed by pools of mortgages, corporate loans or other assets including, but not limited to, residential mortgage loans, home equity loans, mortgages on commercial buildings, consumer loans and equipment leases. Principal and interest payments made on the underlying asset pools backing these obligations are typically passed through to investors, net of any fees paid to any insurer or any guarantor of the securities. Pass-through securities may have either fixed or adjustable coupons. The risks of an investment in these obligations depend in part on the type of the collateral securing the obligations and the class of the instrument in which the fund invests. These securities include:

Mortgage-backed securities — These securities may be issued by U.S. government agencies and government-sponsored entities, such as Ginnie Mae, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, and by private entities. The payment of interest and principal on mortgage-backed obligations issued by U.S. government agencies may be guaranteed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. government (in the case of Ginnie Mae), or may be guaranteed by the issuer (in the case of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac). However, these guarantees do not apply to the market prices and yields of these securities, which vary with changes in interest rates.

Mortgage-backed securities issued by private entities are structured similarly to those issued by U.S. government agencies. However, these securities and the underlying mortgages are not guaranteed by any government agencies and the underlying mortgages are not subject to the same underwriting requirements. These securities generally are structured with one or more types of credit enhancements such as insurance or letters of credit issued by private companies. Borrowers on the underlying mortgages are usually permitted to prepay their underlying mortgages. Prepayments can alter the effective maturity of these instruments. In addition, delinquencies, losses or defaults by borrowers can adversely affect the prices and volatility of these securities. Such delinquencies and losses can be exacerbated by declining or flattening housing and property values. This, along with other outside pressures, such as bankruptcies and financial difficulties experienced by mortgage loan originators, decreased investor demand for mortgage loans and mortgage-related securities and increased investor demand for yield, can adversely affect the value and liquidity of mortgage-backed securities.

Adjustable rate mortgage-backed securities — Adjustable rate mortgage-backed securities (“ARMS”) have interest rates that reset at periodic intervals. Acquiring ARMS permits an underlying fund to participate in increases in prevailing current interest rates through periodic adjustments in the coupons of mortgages underlying the pool on which ARMS are based. Such

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ARMS generally have higher current yield and lower price fluctuations than is the case with more traditional fixed income debt securities of comparable rating and maturity. In addition, when prepayments of principal are made on the underlying mortgages during periods of rising interest rates, an underlying fund can reinvest the proceeds of such prepayments at rates higher than those at which they were previously invested. Mortgages underlying most ARMS, however, have limits on the allowable annual or lifetime increases that can be made in the interest rate that the mortgagor pays. Therefore, if current interest rates rise above such limits over the period of the limitation, an underlying fund, when holding an ARMS, does not benefit from further increases in interest rates. Moreover, when interest rates are in excess of coupon rates (i.e., the rates being paid by mortgagors) of the mortgages, ARMS behave more like fixed income securities and less like adjustable rate securities and are subject to the risks associated with fixed income securities. In addition, during periods of rising interest rates, increases in the coupon rate of adjustable rate mortgages generally lag current market interest rates slightly, thereby creating the potential for capital depreciation on such securities.

Collateralized mortgage obligations (CMOs) — CMOs are also backed by a pool of mortgages or mortgage loans, which are divided into two or more separate bond issues. CMOs issued by U.S. government agencies are backed by agency mortgages, while privately issued CMOs may be backed by either government agency mortgages or private mortgages. Payments of principal and interest are passed through to each bond issue at varying schedules resulting in bonds with different coupons, effective maturities and sensitivities to interest rates. Some CMOs may be structured in a way that when interest rates change, the impact of changing prepayment rates on the effective maturities of certain issues of these securities is magnified. CMOs may be less liquid or may exhibit greater price volatility than other types of mortgage or asset-backed securities.

Commercial mortgage-backed securities — These securities are backed by mortgages on commercial property, such as hotels, office buildings, retail stores, hospitals and other commercial buildings. These securities may have a lower prepayment uncertainty than other mortgage-related securities because commercial mortgage loans generally prohibit or impose penalties on prepayments of principal. In addition, commercial mortgage-related securities often are structured with some form of credit enhancement to protect against potential losses on the underlying mortgage loans. Many of the risks of investing in commercial mortgage-backed securities reflect the risks of investing in the real estate securing the underlying mortgage loans, including the effects of local and other economic conditions on real estate markets, the ability of tenants to make rental payments and the ability of a property to attract and retain tenants. Commercial mortgage-backed securities may be less liquid or exhibit greater price volatility than other types of mortgage or asset-backed securities and may be more difficult to value.

Asset-backed securities — These securities are backed by other assets such as credit card, automobile or consumer loan receivables, retail installment loans or participations in pools of leases. Credit support for these securities may be based on the underlying assets and/or provided through credit enhancements by a third party. The values of these securities are sensitive to changes in the credit quality of the underlying collateral, the credit strength of the credit enhancement, changes in interest rates and at times the financial condition of the issuer. Obligors of the underlying assets also may make prepayments that can change effective maturities of the asset-backed securities. These securities may be less liquid and more difficult to value than other securities.

Collateralized bond obligations (CBOs) and collateralized loan obligations (CLOs) — A CBO is a trust typically backed by a diversified pool of fixed-income securities, which may include high risk, lower rated securities. A CLO is a trust typically collateralized by a pool of loans, which may include, among others, senior secured loans, senior unsecured loans, and subordinate

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corporate loans, including lower rated loans. CBOs and CLOs may charge management fees and administrative expenses.

For both CBOs and CLOs, the cash flows from the trust are split into two or more portions, called tranches, varying in risk and yield. The riskiest and highest yielding portion is the “equity” tranche which bears the bulk of any default by the bonds or loans in the trust and is constructed to protect the other, more senior tranches from default. Since they are partially protected from defaults, the more senior tranches typically have higher ratings and lower yields than the underlying securities in the trust and can be rated investment grade. Despite the protection from the equity tranche, the more senior tranches can still experience substantial losses due to actual defaults of the underlying assets, increased sensitivity to defaults due to impairment of the collateral or the more junior tranches, market anticipation of defaults, as well as potential general aversions to CBO or CLO securities as a class. Normally, these securities are privately offered and sold, and thus, are not registered under the securities laws. CBOs and CLOs may be less liquid, may exhibit greater price volatility and may be more difficult to value than other securities.

“IOs” and “POs” are issued in portions or tranches with varying maturities and characteristics. Some tranches may only receive the interest paid on the underlying mortgages (IOs) and others may only receive the principal payments (POs). The values of IOs and POs are extremely sensitive to interest rate fluctuations and prepayment rates, and IOs are also subject to the risk of early repayment of the underlying mortgages that will substantially reduce or eliminate interest payments.

Loan assignments and participations — An underlying fund may invest in loans or other forms of indebtedness that represent interests in amounts owed by corporations or other borrowers (collectively “borrowers”). The investment adviser defines debt securities to include investments in loans, such as loan assignments and participations. Loans may be originated by the borrower in order to address its working capital needs, as a result of a reorganization of the borrower’s assets and liabilities (recapitalizations), to merge with or acquire another company (mergers and acquisitions), to take control of another company (leveraged buy-outs), to provide temporary financing (bridge loans), or for other corporate purposes. Most corporate loans are variable or floating rate obligations.

Some loans may be secured in whole or in part by assets or other collateral. In other cases, loans may be unsecured or may become undersecured by declines in the value of assets or other collateral securing such loan. The greater the value of the assets securing the loan the more the lender is protected against loss in the case of nonpayment of principal or interest. Loans made to highly leveraged borrowers may be especially vulnerable to adverse changes in economic or market conditions and may involve a greater risk of default.

Some loans may represent revolving credit facilities or delayed funding loans, in which a lender agrees to make loans up to a maximum amount upon demand by the borrower during a specified term. These commitments may have the effect of requiring the underlying fund to increase its investment in a company at a time when it might not otherwise decide to do so (including at a time when the company’s financial condition makes it unlikely that such amounts will be repaid).

Some loans may represent debtor-in-possession financings (commonly known as “DIP financings”). DIP financings are arranged when an entity seeks the protections of the bankruptcy court under Chapter 11 of the U.S. Bankruptcy Code. These financings allow the entity to continue its business operations while reorganizing under Chapter 11. Such financings constitute senior liens on unencumbered collateral (i.e., collateral not subject to other creditors’ claims). There is a risk that the entity will not emerge from Chapter 11 and will be forced to liquidate its assets under Chapter 7 of the U.S. Bankruptcy Code. In the event of liquidation, the underlying fund’s only recourse will be against the collateral securing the DIP financing.

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The investment adviser generally makes investment decisions based on publicly available information, but may rely on non-public information if necessary. Borrowers may offer to provide lenders with material, non-public information regarding a specific loan or the borrower in general. The investment adviser generally chooses not to receive this information. As a result, the investment adviser may be at a disadvantage compared to other investors that may receive such information. The investment adviser’s decision not to receive material, non-public information may impact the investment adviser’s ability to assess a borrower’s requests for amendments or waivers of provisions in the loan agreement. However, the investment adviser may on a case-by-case basis decide to receive such information when it deems prudent. In these situations the investment adviser may be restricted from trading the loan or buying or selling other debt and equity securities of the borrower while it is in possession of such material, non-public information, even if such loan or other security is declining in value.

An underlying fund normally acquires loan obligations through an assignment from another lender, but also may acquire loan obligations by purchasing participation interests from lenders or other holders of the interests. When the underlying fund purchases assignments, it acquires direct contractual rights against the borrower on the loan. An underlying fund acquires the right to receive principal and interest payments directly from the borrower and to enforce its rights as a lender directly against the borrower. However, because assignments are arranged through private negotiations between potential assignees and potential assignors, the rights and obligations acquired by a underlying fund as the purchaser of an assignment may differ from, and be more limited than, those held by the assigning lender. Loan assignments are often administered by a financial institution that acts as agent for the holders of the loan, and the underlying fund may be required to receive approval from the agent and/or borrower prior to the purchase of a loan. Risks may also arise due to the inability of the agent to meet its obligations under the loan agreement.

Loan participations are loans or other direct debt instruments that are interests in amounts owed by the borrower to another party. They may represent amounts owed to lenders or lending syndicates, to suppliers of goods or services, or to other parties. An underlying fund will have the right to receive payments of principal, interest and any fees to which it is entitled only from the lender selling the participation and only upon receipt by the lender of the payments from the borrower. In connection with purchasing participations, the underlying fund generally will have no right to enforce compliance by the borrower with the terms of the loan agreement relating to the loan, nor any rights of set-off against the borrower. In addition, the underlying fund may not directly benefit from any collateral supporting the loan in which it has purchased the participation and the underlying fund will have to rely on the agent bank or other financial intermediary to apply appropriate credit remedies. As a result, the underlying fund will be subject to the credit risk of both the borrower and the lender that is selling the participation. In the event of the insolvency of the lender selling a participation, a underlying fund may be treated as a general creditor of the lender and may not benefit from any set-off between the lender and the borrower.

Loan assignments and participations are generally subject to legal or contractual restrictions on resale and are not currently listed on any securities exchange or automatic quotation system. Risks may arise due to delayed settlements of loan assignments and participations. The investment adviser expects that most loan assignments and participations purchased for an underlying fund will trade on a secondary market. However, although secondary markets for investments in loans are growing among institutional investors, a limited number of investors may be interested in a specific loan. It is possible that loan participations, in particular, could be sold only to a limited number of institutional investors. If there is no active secondary market for a particular loan, it may be difficult for the investment adviser to sell the fund’s interest in such loan at a price that is acceptable to it and to obtain pricing information on such loan.

Investments in loan participations and assignments present the possibility that an underlying fund could be held liable as a co-lender under emerging legal theories of lender liability. In addition, if the loan is foreclosed, an underlying fund could be part owner of any collateral and could bear the costs

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and liabilities of owning and disposing of the collateral. In addition, some loan participations and assignments may not be rated by major rating agencies and may not be protected by securities laws.

Unfunded commitment agreements — An underlying fund may enter into unfunded commitment agreements to make certain investments, including unsettled bank loan purchase transactions. Under the SEC’s rule applicable to an underlying fund’s use of derivatives, unfunded commitment agreements are not derivatives transactions. An underlying fund will only enter into such unfunded commitment agreements if an underlying fund reasonably believes, at the time it enters into such agreement, that it will have sufficient cash and cash equivalents to meet its obligations with respect to all of its unfunded commitment agreements as they come due.

Inflation-linked bonds — An underlying fund may invest in inflation-linked bonds issued by governments, their agencies or instrumentalities and corporations.

The principal amount of an inflation-linked bond is adjusted in response to changes in the level of an inflation index, such as the Consumer Price Index for Urban Consumers (“CPURNSA”). If the index measuring inflation falls, the principal value or coupon of these securities will be adjusted downward. Consequently, the interest payable on these securities will be reduced. Also, if the principal value of these securities is adjusted according to the rate of inflation, the adjusted principal value repaid at maturity may be less than the original principal. In the case of U.S. Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities (“TIPS”), currently the only inflation-linked security that is issued by the U.S Treasury, the principal amounts are adjusted daily based upon changes in the rate of inflation (as currently represented by the non-seasonally adjusted CPURNSA, calculated with a three-month lag). TIPS may pay interest semi-annually, equal to a fixed percentage of the inflation-adjusted principal amount. The interest rate on these bonds is fixed at issuance, but over the life of the bond this interest may be paid on an increasing or decreasing principal amount that has been adjusted for inflation. The current market value of TIPS is not guaranteed and will fluctuate. However, the U.S. government guarantees that, at maturity, principal will be repaid at the higher of the original face value of the security (in the event of deflation) or the inflation adjusted value.

Other non-U.S. sovereign governments also issue inflation-linked securities that are tied to their own local consumer price indexes and that offer similar deflationary protection. In certain of these non-U.S. jurisdictions, the repayment of the original bond principal upon the maturity of an inflation-linked bond is not guaranteed, allowing for the amount of the bond repaid at maturity to be less than par. Corporations also periodically issue inflation-linked securities tied to CPURNSA or similar inflationary indexes. While TIPS and non-U.S. sovereign inflation-linked securities are currently the largest part of the inflation-linked market, an underlying fund may invest in corporate inflation-linked securities.

The value of inflation-linked securities is expected to change in response to the changes in real interest rates. Real interest rates, in turn, are tied to the relationship between nominal interest rates and the rate of inflation. If inflation were to rise at a faster rate than nominal interest rates, real interest rates would decline, leading to an increase in value of the inflation-linked securities. In contrast, if nominal interest rates were to increase at a faster rate than inflation, real interest rates might rise, leading to a decrease in value of inflation-linked securities. There can be no assurance, however, that the value of inflation-linked securities will be directly correlated to the changes in interest rates. If interest rates rise due to reasons other than inflation, investors in these securities may not be protected to the extent that the increase is not reflected in the security’s inflation measure.

The interest rate for inflation-linked bonds is fixed at issuance as a percentage of this adjustable principal. Accordingly, the actual interest income may both rise and fall as the principal amount of the bonds adjusts in response to movements of the consumer price index. For example, typically interest income would rise during a period of inflation and fall during a period of deflation.

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The market for inflation-linked securities may be less developed or liquid, and more volatile, than certain other securities markets. There is a limited number of inflation-linked securities currently available for an underlying fund to purchase, making the market less liquid and more volatile than the U.S. Treasury and agency markets.

Variable and floating rate obligations — The interest rates payable on certain securities and other instruments in which an underlying fund may invest may not be fixed but may fluctuate based upon changes in market interest rates or credit ratings. Variable and floating rate obligations bear coupon rates that are adjusted at designated intervals, based on the then current market interest rates or credit ratings. The rate adjustment features tend to limit the extent to which the market value of the obligations will fluctuate. When an underlying fund holds variable or floating rate securities, a decrease in market interest rates will adversely affect the income received from such securities and the net asset value of the fund’s shares.

The London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”) is one of the most widely used interest rate benchmarks and is intended to represent the rate at which contributing banks may obtain short-term borrowings from each other in the London interbank market. On July 27, 2017, the U.K. Financial Conduct Authority (“FCA”), which regulates LIBOR, announced that the FCA will no longer persuade or compel banks to submit rates for the calculation of LIBOR after 2021. On March 5, 2021, the FCA and ICE Benchmark Administration, Limited (IBA), the administrator of LIBOR, announced that the publication of the one-week and two-month USD LIBOR maturities and non-USD LIBOR maturities will cease immediately after December 31, 2021, with the remaining USD LIBOR maturities ceasing immediately after June 30, 2023. As a result, LIBOR may no longer be available or may no longer be deemed an appropriate reference rate upon which to determine the interest rate on certain loans, bonds, derivatives and other instruments in the fund’s portfolio.

Public and private sector industry initiatives have been underway to identify new or alternative reference rates to be used in place of LIBOR. In the US, the Alternative Reference Rates Committee (ARCC), a group of market participants convened to help ensure a successful transition away from USD LIBOR, has identified the Secured Overnight Financing Rate (“SOFR”), which is intended to be a broad measure of secured overnight U.S. Treasury repo rates, as its preferred alternative rate. Working groups and regulators in other countries have suggested other alternative rates for their markets. There is no assurance that the composition or characteristics of any such alternative reference rate will be similar to or produce the same value or economic equivalence as LIBOR or that instruments using an alternative rate will have the same volume or liquidity. This, in turn, may affect the value or return on certain of the underlying funds’ investments, result in costs incurred in connection with closing out positions and entering into new trades and reduce the effectiveness of related fund transactions such as hedges. Relatedly, there are outstanding contracts governing bonds and other instruments which reference LIBOR that are due to mature beyond the LIBOR cessation date. These “legacy contracts” will need to be transitioned to an alternative reference rate, and a failure to do so may adversely impact the security (for example, under existing contract language the instrument could fall back to a fixed rate or have no fallback rate) and create contractual uncertainty, as well as market and litigation risk. Although there are ongoing efforts among certain government entities and other organizations to address these uncertainties, the ultimate effectiveness of such efforts is not yet known. These risks may also apply with respect to potential changes in connection with other interbank offering rates (e.g., Euribor) and other indices, rates and values that may be used as “benchmarks” and are the subject of recent regulatory reform.

Reinsurance related notes and bonds — An underlying fund may invest in reinsurance related notes and bonds. These instruments, which are typically issued by special purpose reinsurance companies, transfer an element of insurance risk to the note or bond holders. For example, such a note or bond could provide that the reinsurance company would not be required to repay all or a portion of the principal value of the note or bond if losses due to a catastrophic event under the policy (such as a major hurricane) exceed certain dollar thresholds. Consequently, an underlying fund may lose the

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entire amount of its investment in such bonds or notes if such an event occurs and losses exceed certain dollar thresholds. In this instance, investors would have no recourse against the insurance company. These instruments may be issued with fixed or variable interest rates and rated in a variety of credit quality categories by the rating agencies.

Forward commitment, when issued and delayed delivery transactions — An underlying fund may enter into commitments to purchase or sell securities at a future date. When an underlying fund agrees to purchase such securities, it assumes the risk of any decline in value of the security from the date of the agreement. If the other party to such a transaction fails to deliver or pay for the securities, the underlying fund could miss a favorable price or yield opportunity, or could experience a loss.

Certain underlying funds may enter into roll transactions, such as a mortgage dollar roll where an underlying fund sells mortgage-backed securities for delivery in the current month and simultaneously contracts to repurchase substantially similar (same type, coupon, and maturity) securities on a specified future date, at a pre-determined price. During the period between the sale and repurchase (the “roll period”), an underlying fund forgoes principal and interest paid on the mortgage-backed securities. An underlying fund is compensated by the difference between the current sales price and the lower forward price for the future purchase (often referred to as the “drop”), if any, as well as by the interest earned on the cash proceeds of the initial sale. An underlying fund could suffer a loss if the contracting party fails to perform the future transaction and an underlying fund is therefore unable to buy back the mortgage-backed securities it initially sold. An underlying fund also takes the risk that the mortgage-backed securities that it repurchases at a later date will have less favorable market characteristics than the securities originally sold (e.g., greater prepayment risk). These transactions are accounted for as purchase and sale transactions, which contribute to an underlying fund’s portfolio turnover rate.

With to be announced (TBA) transactions, the particular securities (i.e., specified mortgage pools) to be delivered or received are not identified at the trade date, but are “to be announced” at a later settlement date. However, securities to be delivered must meet specified criteria, including face value, coupon rate and maturity, and be within industry-accepted “good delivery” standards.

An underlying fund will not use these transactions for the purpose of leveraging. Although these transactions will not be entered into for leveraging purposes, the underlying fund temporarily could be in a leveraged position (because it may have an amount greater than its net assets subject to market risk). Should market values of the underlying fund’s portfolio securities decline while the underlying fund is in a leveraged position, greater depreciation of its net assets would likely occur than if it were not in such a position. An underlying fund will not borrow money to settle these transactions and, therefore, will liquidate other portfolio securities in advance of settlement if necessary to generate additional cash to meet its obligations. After a transaction is entered into, an underlying fund may still dispose of or renegotiate the transaction. Additionally, prior to receiving delivery of securities as part of a transaction, an underlying fund may sell such securities.

Under the SEC’s rule applicable to the underlying fund's use of derivatives, when issued, forward-settling and nonstandard settlement cycle securities, as well as TBAs and roll transactions, will be treated as derivatives unless the fund intends to physically settle these transactions and the transactions will settle within 35 days of their respective trade dates.

Repurchase agreements — An underlying fund may enter into repurchase agreements, or “repos”, under which the underlying fund buys a security and obtains a simultaneous commitment from the seller to repurchase the security at a specified time and price. Because the security purchased constitutes collateral for the repurchase obligation, a repo may be considered a loan by an underlying fund that is collateralized by the security purchased. Repos permit an underlying fund to maintain liquidity and earn income over periods of time as short as overnight.

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The seller must maintain with a custodian collateral equal to at least the repurchase price, including accrued interest. In tri-party repos, a third party custodian, called a clearing bank, facilitates repo clearing and settlement, including by providing collateral management services. However, as an alternative to tri-party repos, an underlying fund could enter into bilateral repos, where the parties themselves are responsible for settling transactions.

An underlying fund will only enter into repos involving securities of the type in which it could otherwise invest. If the seller under the repo defaults, the underlying fund may incur a loss if the value of the collateral securing the repo has declined and may incur disposition costs and delays in connection with liquidating the collateral. If bankruptcy proceedings are commenced with respect to the seller, realization of the collateral by the underlying fund may be delayed or limited.

Derivatives — In pursuing its investment objective, the underlying fund may invest in derivative instruments. A derivative is a financial instrument, the value of which depends on, or is otherwise derived from, another underlying variable. Most often, the variable underlying a derivative is the price of a traded asset, such as a traditional cash security (e.g., a stock or bond), a currency or a commodity; however, the value of a derivative can be dependent on almost any variable, from the level of an index or a specified rate to the occurrence (or non-occurrence) of a credit event with respect to a specified reference asset. In addition to investing in forward currency contracts and currency options, as described under “Currency transactions,” the underlying fund may take positions in futures contracts and options on futures contracts and swaps, each of which is a derivative instrument described in greater detail below.

Derivative instruments may be distinguished by the manner in which they trade: some are standardized instruments that trade on an organized exchange while others are individually negotiated and traded in the over-the-counter (OTC) market. Derivatives also range broadly in complexity, from simple derivatives to more complex instruments. As a general matter, however, all derivatives — regardless of the manner in which they trade or their relative complexities — entail certain risks, some of which are different from, and potentially greater than, the risks associated with investing directly in traditional cash securities.

As is the case with traditional cash securities, derivative instruments are generally subject to counterparty credit risk; however, in some cases, derivatives may pose counterparty risks greater than those posed by cash securities. The use of derivatives involves the risk that a loss may be sustained by the underlying fund as a result of the failure of the underlying fund’s counterparty to make required payments or otherwise to comply with its contractual obligations. For some derivatives, though, the value of — and, in effect, the return on — the instrument may be dependent on both the individual credit of the underlying fund’s counterparty and on the credit of one or more issuers of any underlying assets. If the underlying fund does not correctly evaluate the creditworthiness of its counterparty and, where applicable, of issuers of any underlying reference assets, the underlying fund’s investment in a derivative instrument may result in losses. Further, if an underlying fund’s counterparty were to default on its obligations, the underlying fund’s contractual remedies against such counterparty may be subject to applicable bankruptcy and insolvency laws, which could affect the underlying fund’s rights as a creditor and delay or impede the underlying fund’s ability to receive the net amount of payments that it is contractually entitled to receive. Derivative instruments are subject to additional risks, including operational risk (such as documentation issues, settlement issues and systems failures) and legal risk (such as insufficient documentation, insufficient capacity or authority of a counterparty, and issues with the legality or enforceability of a contract).

The value of some derivative instruments in which the underlying fund invests may be particularly sensitive to changes in prevailing interest rates, currency exchange rates or other market conditions. Like the underlying fund’s other investments, the ability of the underlying fund to successfully utilize such derivative instruments may depend in part upon the ability of the underlying fund’s investment adviser to accurately forecast interest rates and other economic factors. The success of the underlying

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fund’s derivative investment strategy will also depend on the investment adviser’s ability to assess and predict the impact of market or economic developments on the derivative instruments in which the underlying fund invests, in some cases without having had the benefit of observing the performance of a derivative under all possible market conditions. If the investment adviser incorrectly forecasts such factors and has taken positions in derivative instruments contrary to prevailing market trends, or if the investment adviser incorrectly predicts the impact of developments on a derivative instrument, the underlying fund could suffer losses.

Certain derivatives may also be subject to liquidity and valuation risks. The potential lack of a liquid secondary market for a derivative (and, particularly, for an OTC derivative, including swaps and OTC options) may cause difficulty in valuing or selling the instrument. If a derivative transaction is particularly large or if the relevant market is illiquid, as is often the case with many privately-negotiated OTC derivatives, the underlying fund may not be able to initiate a transaction or to liquidate a position at an advantageous time or price. Particularly when there is no liquid secondary market for the underlying fund’s derivative positions, the underlying fund may encounter difficulty in valuing such illiquid positions. The value of a derivative instrument does not always correlate perfectly with its underlying asset, rate or index, and many derivatives, and OTC derivatives in particular, are complex and often valued subjectively. Improper valuations can result in increased cash payment requirements to counterparties or a loss of value to the underlying fund.

Because certain derivative instruments may obligate the underlying fund to make one or more potential future payments, which could significantly exceed the value of the underlying fund’s initial investments in such instruments, derivative instruments may also have a leveraging effect on the underlying fund’s portfolio. Certain derivatives have the potential for unlimited loss, irrespective of the size of the underlying fund’s investment in the instrument. When an underlying fund leverages its portfolio, investments in that underlying fund will tend to be more volatile, resulting in larger gains or losses in response to market changes.

The underlying fund’s compliance with the SEC’s rule applicable to the underlying fund’s use of derivatives may limit the ability of the underlying fund to use derivatives as part of its investment strategy. The rule deems an underlying fund that uses derivatives only in a limited manner as a limited derivatives user and requires that such underlying fund adopt and implement written policies and procedures reasonably designed to manage the underlying fund’s derivatives risks. The rule also requires that an underlying fund that uses derivatives in more than a limited manner adopt a derivatives risk management program, appoint a derivatives risk manager and comply with an outer limit on leverage based on value at risk, or “VaR”. VaR is an estimate of an instrument’s or portfolio’s potential losses over a given time horizon (i.e., 20 trading days) and at a specified confidence level (i.e., 99%). VaR will not provide, and is not intended to provide, an estimate of an instrument’s or portfolio’s maximum potential loss amount. For example, a VaR of 5% with a specified confidence level of 99% would mean that a VaR model estimates that 99% of the time an underlying fund would not be expected to lose more than 5% of its total assets over the given time period. However, 1% of the time, the underlying fund would be expected to lose more than 5% of its total assets, and in such a scenario the VaR model does not provide an estimate of the extent of this potential loss. The derivatives rule may not be effective in limiting the underlying fund’s risk of loss, as measurements of VaR rely on historical data and may not accurately measure the degree of risk reflected in the underlying fund’s derivatives or other investments. An underlying fund is generally required to satisfy the rule’s outer limit on leverage by limiting the underlying fund’s VaR to 200% of the VaR of a designated reference portfolio that does not utilize derivatives each business day. If an underlying fund does not have an appropriate designated reference portfolio in light of the underlying fund’s investments, investment objectives and strategy, an underlying fund must satisfy the rule’s outer limit on leverage by limiting the underlying fund’s VaR to 20% of the value of the underlying fund’s net assets each business day.

Options — The underlying fund may invest in option contracts, including options on futures and options on currencies, as described in more detail under “Futures and Options on

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Futures” and “Currency Transactions,” respectively. An option contract is a contract that gives the holder of the option, in return for a premium payment, the right to buy from (in the case of a call) or sell to (in the case of a put) the writer of the option the reference instrument underlying the option (or the cash value of the instrument underlying the option) at a specified exercise price. The writer of an option on a security has the obligation, upon exercise of the option, to cash settle or deliver the underlying currency or instrument upon payment of the exercise price (in the case of a call) or to cash settle or take delivery of the underlying currency or instrument and pay the exercise price (in the case of a put).

By purchasing a put option, the underlying fund obtains the right (but not the obligation) to sell the currency or instrument underlying the option (or to deliver the cash value of the instrument underlying the option) at a specified exercise price, which is also referred to as the strike price. In return for this right, the underlying fund pays the current market price, or the option premium, for the option. The underlying fund may terminate its position in a put option by allowing the option to expire or by exercising the option. If the option is allowed to expire, the underlying fund will lose the entire amount of the option premium paid. If the option is exercised, the underlying fund completes the sale of the underlying instrument (or cash settles) at the strike price. The underlying fund may also terminate a put option position by entering into opposing close-out transactions in advance of the option expiration date.

As a buyer of a put option, the underlying fund can expect to realize a gain if the price of the underlying currency or instrument falls substantially. However, if the price of the underlying currency or instrument does not fall enough to offset the cost of purchasing the option, the underlying fund can expect to suffer a loss, albeit a loss limited to the amount of the option premium plus any applicable transaction costs.

The features of call options are essentially the same as those of put options, except that the purchaser of a call option obtains the right (but not the obligation) to purchase, rather than sell, the underlying currency or instrument (or cash settle) at the specified strike price. The buyer of a call option typically attempts to participate in potential price increases of the underlying currency or instrument with risk limited to the cost of the option if the price of the underlying currency or instrument falls. At the same time, the call option buyer can expect to suffer a loss if the price of the underlying currency or instrument does not rise sufficiently to offset the cost of the option.

The writer of a put or call option takes the opposite side of the transaction from the option purchaser. In return for receipt of the option premium, the writer assumes the obligation to pay or receive the strike price for the option’s underlying currency or instrument if the other party to the option chooses to exercise it. The writer may seek to terminate a position in a put option before exercise by entering into opposing close-out transactions in advance of the option expiration date. If the market for the relevant put option is not liquid, however, the writer must be prepared to pay the strike price while the option is outstanding, regardless of price changes.

If the price of the underlying currency or instrument rises, a put writer would generally expect to profit, although its gain would be limited to the amount of the premium it received. If the price of the underlying currency or instrument remains the same over time, it is likely that the writer would also profit because it should be able to close out the option at a lower price. This is because an option’s value decreases with time as the currency or instrument approaches its expiration date. If the price of the underlying currency or instrument falls, the put writer would expect to suffer a loss. This loss should be less than the loss from purchasing the underlying currency or instrument directly, however, because the premium received for writing the option should mitigate the effects of the decline.

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Writing a call option obligates the writer to, upon exercise of the option, deliver the option’s underlying currency or instrument in return for the strike price or to make a net cash settlement payment, as applicable. The characteristics of writing call options are similar to those of writing put options, except that writing call options is generally a profitable strategy if prices remain the same or fall. The potential gain for the option seller in such a transaction would be capped at the premium received.

Several risks are associated with transactions in options on currencies, securities and other instruments (referred to as the “underlying instruments”). For example, there may be significant differences between the underlying instruments and options markets that could result in an imperfect correlation between these markets, which could cause a given transaction not to achieve its objectives. When a put or call option on a particular underlying instrument is purchased to hedge against price movements in a related underlying instrument, for example, the price to close out the put or call option may move more or less than the price of the related underlying instrument.

Options prices can diverge from the prices of their underlying instruments for a number of reasons. Options prices are affected by such factors as current and anticipated short-term interest rates, changes in the volatility of the underlying instrument, and the time remaining until expiration of the contract, which may not affect security prices in the same way. Imperfect correlation may also result from differing levels of demand in the options markets and the markets for the underlying instruments, from structural differences in how options and underlying instruments are traded, or from imposition of daily price fluctuation limits or trading halts. The underlying fund may purchase or sell options contracts with a greater or lesser value than the underlying instruments it wishes to hedge or intends to purchase in order to attempt to compensate for differences in volatility between the contract and the underlying instruments, although this may not be successful. If price changes in the underlying fund’s options positions are less correlated with its other investments, the positions may fail to produce anticipated gains or result in losses that are not offset by gains in other investments.

There is no assurance that a liquid market will exist for any particular options contract at any particular time. Options may have relatively low trading volumes and liquidity if their strike prices are not close to the current prices of the underlying instruments. In addition, exchanges may establish daily price fluctuation limits for exchange-traded options contracts and may halt trading if a contract’s price moves upward or downward more than the limit in a given day. On volatile trading days when the price fluctuation limit is reached or a trading halt is imposed, it may be impossible to enter into new positions or to close out existing positions. If the market for a contract is not liquid because of price fluctuation limits or otherwise, it could prevent prompt liquidation of unfavorable positions and could potentially require the underlying fund to hold a position until delivery or expiration regardless of changes in its value.

Combined positions involve purchasing and writing options in combination with each other, or in combination with futures or forward contracts, in order to adjust the risk and return profile of the underlying fund’s overall position. For example, purchasing a put option and writing a call option on the same underlying instrument could construct a combined position with risk and return characteristics similar to selling a futures contract (but with leverage embedded). Another possible combined position would involve writing a call option at one strike price and buying a call option at a lower strike price to reduce the risk of the written call option in the event of a substantial price increase. Because such combined options positions involve multiple trades, they result in higher transaction costs and may be more difficult to open and close out.

Futures and options on futures — The underlying fund may enter into futures contracts and options on futures contracts to seek to manage the underlying fund’s interest rate sensitivity by

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increasing or decreasing the duration of the underlying fund or a portion of the underlying fund’s portfolio. A futures contract is an agreement to buy or sell a security or other financial instrument (the “reference asset”) for a set price on a future date. An option on a futures contract gives the holder of the option the right to buy or sell a position in a futures contract from or to the writer of the option, at a specified price on or before the specified expiration date. Futures contracts and options on futures contracts are standardized, exchange-traded contracts, and, when such contracts are bought or sold, the underlying fund will incur brokerage fees and will be required to maintain margin deposits.

Unlike when the underlying fund purchases or sells a security, such as a stock or bond, no price is paid or received by the underlying fund upon the purchase or sale of a futures contract. When the underlying fund enters into a futures contract, the underlying fund is required to deposit with its futures broker, known as a futures commission merchant (FCM), a specified amount of liquid assets in a segregated account in the name of the FCM at the applicable derivatives clearinghouse or exchange. This amount, known as initial margin, is set by the futures exchange on which the contract is traded and may be significantly modified during the term of the contract. The initial margin is in the nature of a performance bond or good faith deposit on the futures contract, which is returned to the underlying fund upon termination of the contract, assuming all contractual obligations have been satisfied. Additionally, on a daily basis, the underlying fund pays or receives cash, or variation margin, equal to the daily change in value of the futures contract. Variation margin does not represent a borrowing or loan by the underlying fund but is instead a settlement between the underlying fund and the FCM of the amount one party would owe the other if the futures contract expired. In computing daily net asset value, the underlying fund will mark-to-market its open futures positions. An underlying fund is also required to deposit and maintain margin with an FCM with respect to put and call options on futures contracts written by the underlying fund. Such margin deposits will vary depending on the nature of the underlying futures contract (and related initial margin requirements), the current market value of the option, and other futures positions held by the underlying fund. In the event of the bankruptcy or insolvency of an FCM that holds margin on behalf of the underlying fund, the underlying fund may be entitled to return of margin owed to it only in proportion to the amount received by the FCM’s other customers, potentially resulting in losses to the underlying fund. An event of bankruptcy or insolvency at a clearinghouse or exchange holding initial margin could also result in losses for the underlying fund.

When the underlying fund invests in futures contracts and options on futures contracts and deposits margin with an FCM, the underlying fund becomes subject to so-called “fellow customer” risk – that is, the risk that one or more customers of the FCM will default on their obligations and that the resulting losses will be so great that the FCM will default on its obligations and margin posted by one customer, such as the underlying fund, will be used to cover a loss caused by a different defaulting customer. Applicable rules generally prohibit the use of one customer’s funds to meet the obligations of another customer and limit the ability of an FCM to use margin posed by non-defaulting customers to satisfy losses caused by defaulting customers. As a general matter, an FCM is required to use its own funds to meet a defaulting customer’s obligations. While a customer’s loss would likely need to be substantial before non-defaulting customers would be exposed to loss on account of fellow customer risk, applicable rules nevertheless permit the commingling of margin and do not limit the mutualization of customer losses from investment losses, custodial failures, fraud or other causes. If the loss is so great that, notwithstanding the application of an FCM’s own funds, there is a shortfall in the amount of customer funds required to be held in segregation, the FCM could default and be placed into bankruptcy. Under these circumstances, bankruptcy law provides that non-defaulting customers will share pro rata in any shortfall. A shortfall in customer segregated funds may also make the transfer of the accounts of non-defaulting customers to another FCM more difficult.

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Although certain futures contracts, by their terms, require actual future delivery of and payment for the reference asset, in practice, most futures contracts are usually closed out before the delivery date by offsetting purchases or sales of matching futures contracts. Closing out an open futures contract purchase or sale is effected by entering into an offsetting futures contract sale or purchase, respectively, for the same aggregate amount of the identical reference asset and the same delivery date. If the offsetting purchase price is less than the original sale price (in each case taking into account transaction costs, including brokerage fees), the underlying fund realizes a gain; if it is more, the underlying fund realizes a loss. Conversely, if the offsetting sale price is more than the original purchase price (in each case taking into account transaction costs, including brokerage fees), the underlying fund realizes a gain; if it is less, the underlying fund realizes a loss.

The underlying fund may purchase and write call and put options on futures. A futures option gives the holder the right, in return for the premium paid, to assume a long position (call) or short position (put) in a futures contract at a specified exercise price at any time during the period of the option. Upon exercise of a call option, the holder acquires a long position in the futures contract, and the writer is assigned the opposite short position. The opposite is true in the case of a put option. A call option is “in the money” if the value of the futures contract that is the subject of the option exceeds the exercise price. A put option is “in the money” if the exercise price exceeds the value of the futures contract that is the subject of the option. See also “Options” above for a general description of investment techniques and risks relating to options.

The value of a futures contract tends to increase and decrease in tandem with the value of its underlying reference asset. Purchasing futures contracts will, therefore, tend to increase the underlying fund’s exposure to positive and negative price fluctuations in the reference asset, much as if the underlying fund had purchased the reference asset directly. When the underlying fund sells a futures contract, by contrast, the value of its futures position will tend to move in a direction contrary to the market for the reference asset. Accordingly, selling futures contracts will tend to offset both positive and negative market price changes, much as if the reference asset had been sold.

There is no assurance that a liquid market will exist for any particular futures or futures options contract at any particular time. Futures exchanges may establish daily price fluctuation limits for futures contracts and may halt trading if a contract’s price moves upward or downward more than the limit in a given day. On volatile trading days, when the price fluctuation limit is reached and a trading halt is imposed, it may be impossible to enter into new positions or close out existing positions. If the market for a futures contract is not liquid because of price fluctuation limits or other market conditions, the underlying fund may be prevented from promptly liquidating unfavorable futures positions and the underlying fund could be required to continue to hold a position until delivery or expiration regardless of changes in its value, potentially subjecting the underlying fund to substantial losses. Additionally, the underlying fund may not be able to take other actions or enter into other transactions to limit or reduce its exposure to the position. Under such circumstances, the underlying fund would remain obligated to meet margin requirements until the position is cleared. As a result, the underlying fund’s access to other assets posted as margin for its futures positions could also be impaired.

Although futures exchanges generally operate similarly in the United States and abroad, foreign futures exchanges may follow trading, settlement and margin procedures that are different than those followed by futures exchanges in the United States. Futures and futures options contracts traded outside the United States may not involve a clearing mechanism or related guarantees and may involve greater risk of loss than U.S.-traded contracts, including potentially greater risk of losses due to insolvency of a futures broker, exchange member, or other party that may owe initial or variation margin to the underlying fund. Margin

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requirements on foreign futures exchanges may be different than those of futures exchanges in the United States, and, because initial and variation margin payments may be measured in foreign currency, a futures or futures options contract traded outside the United States may also involve the risk of foreign currency fluctuations.

Swaps — The underlying fund may enter into swaps, which are two-party contracts entered into primarily by institutional investors for a specified time period. In a typical swap transaction, two parties agree to exchange the returns earned or realized from one or more underlying assets or rates of return.

Swaps can be traded on a swap execution facility (SEF) and cleared through a central clearinghouse (cleared), traded over-the-counter (OTC) and cleared, or traded bilaterally and not cleared. For example, standardized interest rate swaps and credit default swap indices are traded on SEFs and cleared. Other forms of swaps, such as total return swaps, are entered into on a bilateral basis. Because clearing interposes a central clearinghouse as the ultimate counterparty to each participant’s swap, and margin is required to be exchanged under the rules of the clearinghouse, central clearing is intended to decrease (but not eliminate) counterparty risk relative to uncleared bilateral swaps. To the extent the underlying fund enters into bilaterally negotiated swap transactions, the underlying fund will enter into swaps only with counterparties that meet certain credit standards and have agreed to specific collateralization procedures; however, if the counterparty’s creditworthiness deteriorates rapidly and the counterparty defaults on its obligations under the swap or declares bankruptcy, the underlying fund may lose any amount it expected to receive from the counterparty. In addition, bilateral swaps are subject to certain regulatory margin requirements that mandate the posting and collection of minimum margin amounts, which may result in the underlying fund and its counterparties posting higher margin amounts for bilateral swaps than would otherwise be the case.

The term of a swap can be days, months or years and certain swaps may be less liquid than others. If a swap transaction is particularly large or if the relevant market is illiquid, it may not be possible to initiate a transaction or liquidate a position at an advantageous time or price, which may result in significant losses.

Swaps can take different forms. The underlying fund may enter into the following types of swaps:

Interest rate swaps — An underlying fund may enter into interest rate swaps to seek to manage the interest rate sensitivity of the underlying fund by increasing or decreasing the duration of the underlying fund or a portion of the underlying fund’s portfolio. An interest rate swap is an agreement between two parties to exchange or swap payments based on changes in an interest rate or rates. Typically, one interest rate is fixed and the other is variable based on a designated short-term interest rate such as the Secured Overnight Financing Rate (SOFR), prime rate or other benchmark, or on an inflation index such as the U.S. Consumer Price Index (which is a measure that examines the weighted average of prices of a basket of consumer goods and services and measures changes in the purchasing power of the U.S. dollar and the rate of inflation). In other types of interest rate swaps, known as basis swaps, the parties agree to swap variable interest rates based on different designated short-term interest rates. Interest rate swaps generally do not involve the delivery of securities or other principal amounts. Rather, cash payments are exchanged by the parties based on the application of the designated interest rates to a notional amount, which is the predetermined dollar principal of the trade upon which payment obligations are computed. Accordingly, an underlying fund’s current obligation or right under the

American Funds Retirement Income Portfolio Series — Page 28


swap is generally equal to the net amount to be paid or received under the swap based on the relative value of the position held by each party.

In addition to the risks of entering into swaps discussed above, the use of interest rate swaps involves the risk of losses if interest rates change.

Total return swaps — The underlying fund may enter into total return swaps in order to gain exposure to a market or security without owning or taking physical custody of such security or investing directly in such market. A total return swap is an agreement in which one party agrees to make periodic payments to the other party based on the change in market value of the assets underlying the contract during the specified term in exchange for periodic payments based on a fixed or variable interest rate or the total return from other underlying assets. The asset underlying the contract may be a single security, a basket of securities or a securities index. Like other swaps, the use of total return swaps involves certain risks, including potential losses if a counterparty defaults on its payment obligations to the underlying fund or the underlying assets do not perform as anticipated. There is no guarantee that entering into a total return swap will deliver returns in excess of the interest costs involved and, accordingly, the underlying fund’s performance may be lower than would have been achieved by investing directly in the underlying assets.

Credit default swap indices — In order to assume exposure to a diversified portfolio of credits or to hedge against existing credit risks, an underlying fund may invest in credit default swap indices, including CDX and iTraxx indices (collectively referred to as “CDSIs”). A CDSI is based on a portfolio of credit default swaps with similar characteristics, such as credit default swaps on high-yield bonds. In a typical CDSI transaction, one party — the protection buyer — is obligated to pay the other party — the protection seller — a stream of periodic payments over the term of the contract. If a credit event, such as a default or restructuring, occurs with respect to any of the underlying reference obligations, the protection seller must pay the protection buyer the loss on those credits. Also, if a restructuring credit event occurs in an iTraxx index, the underlying fund as protection buyer may receive a single name credit default swap (CDS) contract representing the relevant constituent.

An underlying fund may enter into a CDSI transaction as either protection buyer or protection seller. If the underlying fund is a protection buyer, it would pay the counterparty a periodic stream of payments over the term of the contract and would not recover any of those payments if no credit events were to occur with respect to any of the underlying reference obligations. However, if a credit event did occur, the underlying fund, as a protection buyer, would have the right to deliver the referenced debt obligations or a specified amount of cash, depending on the terms of the applicable agreement, and to receive the par value of such debt obligations from the counterparty protection seller. As a protection seller, the underlying fund would receive fixed payments throughout the term of the contract if no credit events were to occur with respect to any of the underlying reference obligations. If a credit event were to occur, however, the value of any deliverable obligation received by the underlying fund, coupled with the periodic payments previously received by the underlying fund, may be less than the full notional value that the underlying fund, as a protection seller, pays to the counterparty protection buyer, effectively resulting in a loss of value to the underlying fund. Furthermore, as a protection seller, the underlying fund would effectively add leverage to its portfolio because it would have investment exposure to the notional amount of the swap transaction.

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The use of CDSI, like all other swaps, is subject to certain risks, including the risk that an underlying fund’s counterparty will default on its obligations. If such a default were to occur, any contractual remedies that the underlying fund might have may be subject to applicable bankruptcy laws, which could delay or limit the underlying fund’s recovery. Thus, if an underlying fund’s counterparty to a CDSI transaction defaults on its obligation to make payments thereunder, the underlying fund may lose such payments altogether or collect only a portion thereof, which collection could involve substantial costs or delays.

Additionally, when an underlying fund invests in a CDSI as a protection seller, the underlying fund will be indirectly exposed to the creditworthiness of issuers of the underlying reference obligations in the index. If the investment adviser to the underlying fund does not correctly evaluate the creditworthiness of issuers of the underlying instruments on which the CDSI is based, the investment could result in losses to the underlying fund.

Equity-linked notes — An underlying fund may purchase equity-linked notes to enhance the current income of its portfolio. Equity-linked notes are hybrid instruments that are specially designed to combine the characteristics of one or more reference securities — usually a single stock, a stock index or a basket of stocks — and a related equity derivative, such as a put or call option, in a single note form. For example, an equity-linked note that refers to the stock of an issuer may be the economic equivalent of holding a position in that stock and simultaneously selling a call option on that stock with a strike price greater than the current stock price. The holder of the note would be exposed to decreases in the price of the equity to the same extent as if it held the equity directly. However, if the stock appreciated in value, the noteholder would only benefit from stock price increases up to the strike price (i.e., the point at which the holder of the call option would be expected to exercise its right to buy the underlying stock). Additionally, the terms of an equity-linked note may provide for periodic interest payments to holders at either a fixed or floating rate.

As described in the example above, the return on an equity-linked note is generally tied to the performance of the underlying reference security or securities. In addition to any interest payments made during the term of the note, at maturity, the noteholder usually receives a return of principal based on the capital appreciation of the linked securities. Depending on the terms of the issuance, the maximum principal amount to be repaid on the equity-linked note may be capped. For example, in consideration for greater current income or yield, a noteholder may forego its participation in the capital appreciation of the underlying equity assets above a predetermined price limit. Alternatively, if the linked securities have depreciated in value, or if their price fluctuates outside of a preset range, the noteholder may receive only the principal amount of the note, or may lose the principal invested in the equity-linked note entirely.

The price of an equity-linked note is derived from the value of the underlying linked securities. The level and type of risk involved in the purchase of an equity-linked note by an underlying fund is similar to the risk involved in the purchase of the underlying linked securities. However, the value of an equity-linked note is also dependent on the individual credit of the issuer of the note, which, in the case of an unsecured note, will generally be a major financial institution, and, in the case of a collateralized note, will generally be a trust or other special purpose vehicle or finance subsidiary established by a major financial institution for the limited purpose of issuing the note. An investment in an equity-linked note bears the risk that the issuer of the note will default or become bankrupt. In such an event, an underlying fund may have difficulty being repaid, or may fail to be repaid, the principal amount of, or income from, its investment. Like other structured products, equity-linked notes are frequently secured by collateral consisting of a combination of debt or related equity securities to which payments under the notes are linked. If so secured, an underlying fund would look to this underlying collateral for satisfaction of claims in the event that the issuer of an equity-linked note defaulted under the terms of the note. However, depending on the law of the jurisdictions in which an issuer is organized and in

American Funds Retirement Income Portfolio Series — Page 30


which the note is issued, in the event of default, an underlying fund may incur substantial expenses in seeking recovery under an equity-linked note, and may have limited legal recourse in attempting to do so.

Equity-linked notes are often privately placed and may not be rated, in which case an underlying fund will be more dependent than would otherwise be the case on the ability of the investment adviser to evaluate the creditworthiness of the issuer, the underlying security, any collateral features of the note, and the potential for loss due to market and other factors. Ratings of issuers of equity-linked notes refer only to the creditworthiness of the issuer and strength of related collateral arrangements or other credit supports, and do not take into account, or attempt to rate, any potential risks of the underlying equity securities. An underlying fund’s successful use of equity-linked notes will usually depend on the investment adviser’s ability to accurately forecast movements in the prices of the underlying securities. Should the prices of the underlying securities move in an unexpected manner, or should the structure of a note respond to market conditions differently than anticipated, an underlying fund may not achieve the anticipated benefits of the investment in the equity-linked note, and the underlying fund may realize losses, which could be significant and could include the underlying fund’s entire principal investment in the note.

Equity-linked notes are generally designed for the over-the-counter institutional investment market, and the secondary market for equity-linked notes may be limited. The lack of a liquid secondary market may have an adverse effect on the ability of an underlying fund to accurately value and/or sell the equity-linked notes in its portfolio.

Maturity — The maturity of a debt instrument is normally its ultimate maturity date unless it is likely that a maturity shortening device (such as a call, put, refunding or redemption provision) will cause the debt instrument to be repaid. The investment adviser seeks to anticipate movements in interest rates and may adjust the maturity distribution of an underlying fund’s portfolio accordingly. Keeping in mind the underlying fund’s objective, the investment adviser may increase the underlying fund’s exposure to price volatility when it appears likely to increase current income without undue risk of capital losses. The investment adviser will consider the impact on effective maturity of potential changes in the financial condition of issuers and in market interest rates in making investment selections for the underlying fund. Under normal market conditions, longer term securities yield more than shorter term securities, but are subject to greater price fluctuations.

Inverse floating rate notes — An underlying fund may invest in inverse floating rate notes (a type of derivative instrument). These notes have rates that move in the opposite direction of prevailing interest rates. A change in prevailing interest rates will often result in a greater change in these instruments’ interest rates. As a result, these instruments may have a greater degree of volatility than other types of interest-bearing securities.

Real estate investment trusts — Real estate investment trusts ("REITs"), which primarily invest in real estate or real estate-related loans, may issue equity or debt securities. Equity REITs own real estate properties, while mortgage REITs hold construction, development and/or long-term mortgage loans. The values of REITs may be affected by changes in the value of the underlying property of the trusts, the creditworthiness of the issuer, property taxes, interest rates, tax laws and regulatory requirements, such as those relating to the environment. Both types of REITs are dependent upon management skill and the cash flows generated by their holdings, the real estate market in general and the possibility of failing to qualify for any applicable pass-through tax treatment or failing to maintain any applicable exemptive status afforded under relevant laws.

Cash and cash equivalents — An underlying fund may hold cash or invest in cash equivalents. Cash equivalents include, but are not limited to: (a) shares of money market or similar funds managed by the investment adviser or its affiliates; (b) shares of other money market funds; (c) commercial paper; (d)

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short-term bank obligations (for example, certificates of deposit, bankers’ acceptances (time drafts on a commercial bank where the bank accepts an irrevocable obligation to pay at maturity)) or bank notes; (e) savings association and savings bank obligations (for example, bank notes and certificates of deposit issued by savings banks or savings associations); (f) securities of the U.S. government, its agencies or instrumentalities that mature, or that may be redeemed, in one year or less; and (g) higher quality corporate bonds and notes that mature, or that may be redeemed, in one year or less. Cash and cash equivalents may be denominated in U.S. dollars, non-U.S. currencies or multinational currency units.

Commercial paper — An underlying fund may purchase commercial paper. Commercial paper refers to short-term promissory notes issued by a corporation to finance its current operations. Such securities normally have maturities of thirteen months or less and, though commercial paper is often unsecured, commercial paper may be supported by letters of credit, surety bonds or other forms of collateral. Maturing commercial paper issuances are usually repaid by the issuer from the proceeds of new commercial paper issuances. As a result, investment in commercial paper is subject to rollover risk, or the risk that the issuer cannot issue enough new commercial paper to satisfy its outstanding commercial paper. Like all fixed income securities, commercial paper prices are susceptible to fluctuations in interest rates. If interest rates rise, commercial paper prices will decline and vice versa. However, the short-term nature of a commercial paper investment makes it less susceptible to volatility than many other fixed income securities because interest rate risk typically increases as maturity lengths increase. Commercial paper tends to yield smaller returns than longer-term corporate debt because securities with shorter maturities typically have lower effective yields than those with longer maturities. As with all fixed income securities, there is a chance that the issuer will default on its commercial paper obligations and commercial paper may become illiquid or suffer from reduced liquidity in these or other situations.

Commercial paper in which an underlying fund may invest includes commercial paper issued in reliance on the exemption from registration afforded by Section 4(a)(2) of the 1933 Act. Section 4(a)(2) commercial paper has substantially the same price and liquidity characteristics as commercial paper generally, except that the resale of Section 4(a)(2) commercial paper is limited to institutional investors who agree that they are purchasing the paper for investment purposes and not with a view to public distribution. Technically, such a restriction on resale renders Section 4(a)(2) commercial paper a restricted security under the 1933 Act. In practice, however, Section 4(a)(2) commercial paper typically can be resold as easily as any other unrestricted security held by the fund. Accordingly, Section 4(a)(2) commercial paper has been generally determined to be liquid under procedures adopted by the underlying fund’s board of trustees.

Restricted or illiquid securities — An underlying fund may purchase securities subject to restrictions on resale. Restricted securities may only be sold pursuant to an exemption from registration under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “1933 Act”), or in a registered public offering. Where registration is required, the holder of a registered security may be obligated to pay all or part of the registration expense and a considerable period may elapse between the time it decides to seek registration and the time it may be permitted to sell a security under an effective registration statement. Difficulty in selling such securities may result in a loss to the underlying fund or cause it to incur additional administrative costs.

Some underlying fund holdings (including some restricted securities) may be deemed illiquid if the underlying fund expects that a reasonable portion of the holding cannot be sold in seven calendar days or less without the sale significantly changing the market value of the investment. The determination of whether a holding is considered illiquid is made by the underlying fund’s adviser under a liquidity risk management program adopted by the underlying fund’s board and administered by the underlying fund’s adviser. The underlying fund may incur significant additional costs in disposing of illiquid securities.

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Cybersecurity risks — With the increased use of technologies such as the Internet to conduct business, the fund and each of the underlying funds have become potentially more susceptible to operational and information security risks through breaches in cybersecurity. In general, a breach in cybersecurity can result from either a deliberate attack or an unintentional event. Cybersecurity breaches may involve, among other things, “ransomware” attacks, injection of computer viruses or malicious software code, or the use of vulnerabilities in code to gain unauthorized access to digital information systems, networks or devices that are used directly or indirectly by the fund or its service providers through “hacking” or other means. Cybersecurity risks also include the risk of losses of service resulting from external attacks that do not require unauthorized access to a fund’s systems, networks or devices. For example, denial-of-service attacks on the investment adviser’s or an affiliate’s website could effectively render a fund’s network services unavailable to fund shareholders and other intended end-users. Any such cybersecurity breaches or losses of service may, among other things, cause a fund to lose proprietary information, suffer data corruption or lose operational capacity, or may result in the misappropriation, unauthorized release or other misuse of a fund’s assets or sensitive information (including shareholder personal information or other confidential information), the inability of fund shareholders to transact business, or the destruction of a fund’s physical infrastructure, equipment or operating systems. These, in turn, could cause the fund to violate applicable privacy and other laws and incur or suffer regulatory penalties, reputational damage, additional costs (including compliance costs) associated with corrective measures and/or financial loss. While the fund, each of the underlying funds and their investment adviser have established business continuity plans and risk management systems designed to prevent or reduce the impact of cybersecurity attacks, there are inherent limitations in such plans and systems due in part to the ever-changing nature of technology and cybersecurity attack tactics, and there is a possibility that certain risks have not been adequately identified or prepared for.

In addition, cybersecurity failures by or breaches of a fund’s or an underlying fund’s third-party service providers (including, but not limited to, a fund’s investment adviser, subadviser, transfer agent, custodian, administrators and other financial intermediaries, as applicable) may disrupt the business operations of the service providers and of the fund, potentially resulting in financial losses, the inability of fund shareholders to transact business with the fund and of the fund to process transactions, the inability of the fund to calculate its net asset value, violations of applicable privacy and other laws, rules and regulations, regulatory fines, penalties, reputational damage, reimbursement or other compensatory costs and/or additional compliance costs associated with implementation of any corrective measures. The fund, each underlying fund and their respective shareholders could be negatively impacted as a result of any such cybersecurity breaches, and there can be no assurance that a fund will not suffer losses relating to cybersecurity attacks or other informational security breaches affecting the fund’s third-party service providers in the future, particularly as a fund cannot control any cybersecurity plans or systems implemented by such service providers.

Cybersecurity risks may also impact issuers of securities in which the underlying funds invest, which may cause an underlying fund’s investments in such issuers to lose value.

Inflation/Deflation risk — The underlying fund may be subject to inflation and deflation risk. Inflation risk is the risk that the present value of assets or income from investments will be less in the future as inflation decreases the value of money. As inflation increases, the present value of the underlying funds’ assets can decline. Deflation risk is the risk that prices throughout the economy decline over time. Deflation may have an adverse effect on the creditworthiness of issuers and may make issuer default more likely, which may result in a decline in the value of the underlying funds’ assets.

Affiliated investment companies — An underlying fund may purchase shares of certain other investment companies managed by the investment adviser or its affiliates (“Central Funds”). The risks of owning another investment company are similar to the risks of investing directly in the securities in which that investment company invests. Investments in other investment companies could allow the underlying fund to obtain the benefits of a more diversified portfolio than might otherwise be available

American Funds Retirement Income Portfolio Series — Page 33


through direct investments in a particular asset class, and will subject the underlying fund to the risks associated with the particular asset class or asset classes in which an underlying fund invests. However, an investment company may not achieve its investment objective or execute its investment strategy effectively, which may adversely affect the underlying fund’s performance. Any investment in another investment company will be consistent with the underlying fund’s objective(s) and applicable regulatory limitations. Central Funds do not charge management fees. As a result, the underlying fund does not bear additional management fees when investing in Central Funds, but the underlying fund does bear its proportionate share of Central Fund expenses.

* * * * * *

Portfolio turnover — Portfolio changes will be made without regard to the length of time particular investments may have been held. Short-term trading profits are not the fund’s objective, and changes in its investments are generally accomplished gradually, though short-term transactions may occasionally be made.

Fixed income securities are generally traded on a net basis and usually neither brokerage commissions nor transfer taxes are involved. Transaction costs are usually reflected in the spread between the bid and asked price.

A fund’s portfolio turnover rate would equal 100% if each security in the fund’s portfolio were replaced once per year. See “Financial Highlights” in the prospectus for the fund’s annual portfolio turnover rate for each of the last five fiscal years where available.

     
 

Fiscal year

Portfolio turnover rate*

American Funds Retirement Income Portfolio — Conservative

2022

15%

2021

17

American Funds Retirement Income Portfolio — Moderate

2022

7

2021

23

American Funds Retirement Income Portfolio — Enhanced

2022

6

2021

18

* Increases (or decreases) in turnover were due to increased (or decreased) trading activity during the period.

American Funds Retirement Income Portfolio Series — Page 34


Fund policies

All percentage limitations in the following fund policies are considered at the time securities are purchased and are based on each fund’s net assets unless otherwise indicated. None of the following policies involving a maximum percentage of assets will be considered violated unless the excess occurs immediately after, and is caused by, an acquisition by the fund. In managing a fund, the fund’s investment adviser may apply more restrictive policies than those listed below.

Fundamental policies — The series has adopted the following policies with respect to each fund, which may not be changed without approval by holders of a majority of the fund’s outstanding shares. Such majority is currently defined in the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “1940 Act”), as the vote of the lesser of (a) 67% or more of the voting securities present at a shareholder meeting, if the holders of more than 50% of the outstanding voting securities are present in person or by proxy, or (b) more than 50% of the outstanding voting securities.

1. Except as permitted by (i) the 1940 Act and the rules and regulations thereunder, or other successor law governing the regulation of registered investment companies, or interpretations or modifications thereof by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”), SEC staff or other authority of competent jurisdiction, or (ii) exemptive or other relief or permission from the SEC, SEC staff or other authority of competent jurisdiction, a fund may not:

a. Borrow money;

b. Issue senior securities;

c. Underwrite the securities of other issuers;

d. Purchase or sell real estate or commodities;

e. Make loans; or

f. Purchase the securities of any issuer if, as a result of such purchase, such fund’s investments would be concentrated in any particular industry.

2. A fund may not invest in companies for the purpose of exercising control or management.

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Additional information about each fund‘s policies — The information below is not part of the funds’ fundamental or nonfundamental policies. This information is intended to provide a summary of what is currently required or permitted by the 1940 Act and the rules and regulations thereunder, or by the interpretive guidance thereof by the SEC or SEC staff, for particular fundamental policies of the funds. Information is also provided regarding the fund’s current intention with respect to certain investment practices permitted by the 1940 Act.

For purposes of fundamental policy 1a, each fund may borrow money in amounts of up to 33-1/3% of its total assets from banks for any purpose. Additionally, each fund may borrow up to 5% of its total assets from banks or other lenders for temporary purposes (a loan is presumed to be for temporary purposes if it is repaid within 60 days and is not extended or renewed). The percentage limitations in this policy are considered at the time of borrowing and thereafter.

For purposes of fundamental policy 1b, a senior security does not include any promissory note or evidence of indebtedness if such loan is for temporary purposes only and in an amount not exceeding 5% of the value of the total assets of a fund at the time the loan is made (a loan is presumed to be for temporary purposes if it is repaid within 60 days and is not extended or renewed). Further, a fund is permitted to enter into derivatives and certain other transactions, notwithstanding the prohibitions and restrictions on the issuance of senior securities under the 1940 Act, in accordance with current SEC rules and interpretations.

For purposes of fundamental policy 1c, the policy will not apply to a fund to the extent such fund may be deemed an underwriter within the meaning of the 1933 Act in connection with the purchase and sale of fund portfolio securities in the ordinary course of pursuing its investment objectives and strategies.

For purposes of fundamental policy 1e, each fund may not lend more than 33-1/3% of its total assets, provided that this limitation shall not apply to the funds’ purchase of debt obligations.

For purposes of fundamental policy 1f, each fund may not invest more than 25% of its total assets in the securities of issuers in a particular industry. For purposes of calculating compliance with restrictions on industry concentrations, each fund will look through to the securities held by the underlying funds in which it invests. This policy does not apply to investments in securities of the U.S. government, its agencies or government sponsored enterprises or repurchase agreements with respect thereto. Each fund may, however, invest substantially all of its assets in one or more investment companies managed by Capital Research and Management Company.

American Funds Retirement Income Portfolio Series — Page 36


Management of the series

Board of trustees and officers

Independent trustees1

The series’ nominating and governance committee and board select independent trustees with a view toward constituting a board that, as a body, possesses the qualifications, skills, attributes and experience to appropriately oversee the actions of the series’ service providers, decide upon matters of general policy and represent the long-term interests of fund shareholders. In doing so, they consider the qualifications, skills, attributes and experience of the current board members, with a view toward maintaining a board that is diverse in viewpoint, experience, education and skills.

The series seeks independent trustees who have high ethical standards and the highest levels of integrity and commitment, who have inquiring and independent minds, mature judgment, good communication skills, and other complementary personal qualifications and skills that enable them to function effectively in the context of the series’ board and committee structure and who have the ability and willingness to dedicate sufficient time to effectively fulfill their duties and responsibilities.

Each independent trustee has a significant record of accomplishments in governance, business, not-for-profit organizations, government service, academia, law, accounting or other professions. Although no single list could identify all experience upon which the series’ independent trustees draw in connection with their service, the following table summarizes key experience for each independent trustee. These references to the qualifications, attributes and skills of the trustees are pursuant to the disclosure requirements of the SEC, and shall not be deemed to impose any greater responsibility or liability on any trustee or the board as a whole. Notwithstanding the accomplishments listed below, none of the independent trustees is considered an “expert” within the meaning of the federal securities laws with respect to information in the series’ registration statement.

American Funds Retirement Income Portfolio Series — Page 37


         

Name, year of birth and position with series (year first elected as a trustee2)

Principal occupation(s)
during the
past five years

Number of
portfolios
in fund
complex
overseen
by trustee

Other directorships3 held by trustee during the
past five years

Other relevant experience

Francisco G. Cigarroa, MD, 1957
Trustee (2021)

Professor of Surgery, University of Texas Health San Antonio; Trustee, Ford Foundation; Clayton Research Scholar, Clayton Foundation for Biomedical Research

88

None

· Corporate board experience

· Service on boards of community and nonprofit organizations

· MD

Nariman Farvardin, 1956
Trustee (2018)

President, Stevens Institute of Technology

93

None

· Senior management experience, educational institution

· Corporate board experience

· Professor, electrical and computer engineering

· Service on advisory boards and councils for educational, nonprofit and governmental organizations

· MS, PhD, electrical engineering

Jennifer C. Feikin, 1968
Trustee (2022)

Business Advisor; previously held positions at Google, AOL, 20th Century Fox and McKinsey & Company; Trustee, The Nature Conservancy of Utah; former Trustee, The Nature Conservancy of California

97

Hertz Global Holdings, Inc.

· Senior corporate management experience

· Corporate board experience

· Business consulting experience

· Service on advisory and trustee boards for charitable and nonprofit organizations

· JD

Leslie Stone Heisz, 1961
Trustee (2022)

Former Managing Director, Lazard (retired, 2010); Director, Kaiser Permanente (California public benefit corporation); former Lecturer, UCLA Anderson School of Management

97

Director, Edwards Lifesciences; Trustee, Public Storage

· Senior corporate management experience, investment banking

· Business consulting experience

· Corporate board experience

· Service on advisory and trustee boards for charitable and nonprofit organizations

· MBA

American Funds Retirement Income Portfolio Series — Page 38


         

Name, year of birth and position with series (year first elected as a trustee2)

Principal occupation(s)
during the
past five years

Number of
portfolios
in fund
complex
overseen
by trustee

Other directorships3 held by trustee during the
past five years

Other relevant experience

Mary Davis Holt, 1950
Trustee (2015-2016; 2017)

Principal, Mary Davis Holt Enterprises, LLC (leadership development consulting); former Partner, Flynn Heath Holt Leadership, LLC (leadership consulting); former COO, Time Life Inc. (1993–2003)

89

None

· Service as chief operations officer, global media company

· Senior corporate management experience

· Corporate board experience

· Service on advisory and trustee boards for educational, business and nonprofit organizations

· MBA

Merit E. Janow, 1958
Trustee (2015)

Dean Emerita and Professor of Practice, International Economic Law & International Affairs, Columbia University, School of International and Public Affairs

99

Aptiv (autonomous and green vehicle technology); Mastercard Incorporated

Former director of Trimble Inc. (software, hardware and services technology) (until 2021)

· Service with Office of the U.S. Trade Representative and U.S. Department of Justice

· Corporate board experience

· Service on advisory and trustee boards for charitable, educational and nonprofit organizations

· Experience as corporate lawyer

· JD

Margaret Spellings, 1957
Chair of the Board (Independent and Non-Executive) (2015)

President and CEO, Texas 2036; former President, Margaret Spellings & Company (public policy and strategic consulting); former President, The University of North Carolina

93

None

· Former U.S. Secretary of Education, U.S. Department of Education

· Former Assistant to the President for Domestic Policy, The White House

· Former senior advisor to the Governor of Texas

· Service on advisory and trustee boards for charitable and nonprofit organizations

American Funds Retirement Income Portfolio Series — Page 39


         

Name, year of birth and position with series (year first elected as a trustee2)

Principal occupation(s)
during the
past five years

Number of
portfolios
in fund
complex
overseen
by trustee

Other directorships3 held by trustee during the
past five years

Other relevant experience

Alexandra Trower, 1964
Trustee (2018)

Former Executive Vice President, Global Communications and Corporate Officer, The Estée Lauder Companies

88

None

· Service on trustee boards for charitable and nonprofit organizations

· Senior corporate management experience

· Branding

Paul S. Williams, 1959
Trustee (2020)

Former Partner/Managing Director, Major, Lindsey & Africa (executive recruiting firm)

88

Air Transport Services Group, Inc. (aircraft leasing and air cargo transportation); Compass Minerals, Inc. (producer of salt and specialty fertilizers); Public Storage, Inc.

Former director of Essendant, Inc. (business products wholesaler) (until 2019); Romeo Power, Inc. (manufacturer of batteries for electric vehicles) (until 2022)

· Senior corporate management experience

· Corporate board experience

· Corporate governance experience

· Service on trustee boards for charitable and educational nonprofit organizations

· Securities law expertise

· JD

American Funds Retirement Income Portfolio Series — Page 40


Interested trustee(s)4,5

Interested trustees have similar qualifications, skills and attributes as the independent trustees. Interested trustees are senior executive officers and/or directors of Capital Research and Management Company or its affiliates. Such management roles with the series‘ service providers also permit the interested trustees to make a significant contribution to the series’ board.

       

Name, year of birth
and position with series
(year first elected
as a trustee/officer2)

Principal occupation(s)
during the
past five years
and positions
held with affiliated
entities or the
Principal Underwriter
of the series

Number of
portfolios
in fund
complex
overseen
by trustee

Other
directorships3
held by trustee
during the
past five years

Michael C. Gitlin, 1970
Trustee (2019)

Partner – Capital Fixed Income Investors, Capital Research and Management Company; Vice Chairman and Director, Capital Research and Management Company; Director, The Capital Group Companies, Inc.*

88

None

Bradley J. Vogt, 1965
Trustee (2015)

Partner – Capital Research Global Investors, Capital Research and Management Company; Partner – Capital Research Global Investors, Capital Bank and Trust Company*

30

None

Other officers5

   

Name, year of birth
and position with series
(year first elected
as an officer2)

Principal occupation(s) during the past five years
and positions held with affiliated entities
or the Principal Underwriter of the series

Andrew B. Suzman, 1967
President (2015)

Partner – Capital World Investors, Capital Research and Management Company; Partner – Capital World Investors, Capital Bank and Trust Company*

Walt Burkley, 1966
Principal Executive Officer (2015)

Senior Vice President and Senior Counsel – Fund Business Management Group, Capital Research and Management Company; Director, Capital Research Company*; Director, Capital Research and Management Company

Michael W. Stockton, 1967
Executive Vice President (2021)

Senior Vice President – Fund Business Management Group, Capital Research and Management Company

Alan N. Berro, 1960
Senior Vice President (2015)

Partner – Capital World Investors, Capital Research and Management Company; Partner – Capital World Investors, Capital Bank and Trust Company*; Director, The Capital Group Companies, Inc.*

Michelle J. Black, 1971
Senior Vice President (2020)

Partner – Capital Solutions Group, Capital Research and Management Company

Samir Mathur, 1965
Senior Vice President (2020)

Partner – Capital Solutions Group, Capital Research and Management Company

Wesley K. Phoa, 1966
Senior Vice President (2015)

Partner – Capital Fixed Income Investors, Capital Bank and Trust Company*; Partner – Capital Solutions Group, Capital Research and Management Company

American Funds Retirement Income Portfolio Series — Page 41


   

Name, year of birth
and position with series
(year first elected
as an officer2)

Principal occupation(s) during the past five years
and positions held with affiliated entities
or the Principal Underwriter of the series

John R. Queen, 1965
Senior Vice President (2020)

Partner – Capital Fixed Income Investors, Capital Research and Management Company; Senior Vice President, Capital Group Private Client Services, Inc.*

William L. Robbins, 1968
Senior Vice President (2020)

Partner – Capital International Investors, Capital Research and Management Company; Partner – Capital International Investors, Capital Bank and Trust Company*; Chair and Director, Capital Group International, Inc.*

Maria Manotok, 1974
Vice President (2015)

Senior Vice President and Senior Counsel – Fund Business Management Group, Capital Research and Management Company; Chair, Senior Vice President, Senior Counsel and Director, Capital International, Inc.*; Senior Vice President, Secretary and Director, Capital Group Companies Global*; Senior Vice President, Secretary and Director, Capital Group International, Inc.*

Steven I. Koszalka, 1964
Secretary (2015)

Vice President – Fund Business Management Group, Capital Research and Management Company

Gregory F. Niland, 1971
Treasurer (2015)

Vice President – Investment Operations, Capital Research and Management Company

Susan K. Countess, 1966
Assistant Secretary (2015)

Associate – Fund Business Management Group, Capital Research and Management Company

Sandra Chuon, 1972
Assistant Treasurer (2019)

Vice President – Investment Operations, Capital Research and Management Company

Brian C. Janssen, 1972
Assistant Treasurer (2015)

Senior Vice President – Investment Operations, Capital Research and Management Company

* Company affiliated with Capital Research and Management Company.

1 The term independent trustee refers to a trustee who is not an “interested person” of the series within the meaning of the 1940 Act.

2 Trustees and officers of the series serve until their resignation, removal or retirement.

3 This includes all directorships/trusteeships (other than those in the American Funds or other funds managed by Capital Research and Management Company or its affiliates) that are held by each trustee as a director/trustee of a public company or a registered investment company. Unless otherwise noted, all directorships/trusteeships are current.

4 The term interested trustee refers to a trustee who is an “interested person” of the series within the meaning of the 1940 Act, on the basis of his or her affiliation with the series’ investment adviser, Capital Research and Management Company, or affiliated entities (including the series’ principal underwriter).

5 All of the trustees and/or officers listed are officers and/or directors/trustees of one or more of the other funds for which Capital Research and Management Company serves as investment adviser.

The address for all trustees and officers of the series is 333 South Hope Street, 55th Floor, Los Angeles, California 90071, Attention: Secretary.

American Funds Retirement Income Portfolio Series — Page 42


Fund shares owned by trustees as of December 31, 2021:

         

Name

Dollar range1,2
of fund
shares owned
in series

Aggregate
dollar range1
of shares
owned in
all funds
overseen
by trustee in
same family of
investment companies as the series

Dollar
range1,2 of
independent
trustees
deferred compensation3 allocated
to series

Aggregate
dollar
range1,2 of
independent
trustees
deferred
compensation3 allocated to
all funds
overseen
by trustee in
same family of
investment companies as the series

Independent trustees

Francisco G. Cigarroa

None

None

$10,001 – $50,000

Over $100,000

Nariman Farvardin

None

Over $100,000

N/A

Over $100,000

Jennifer C. Feikin4

N/A

Over $100,000

N/A

N/A

Leslie Stone Heisz5

N/A

Over $100,000

N/A

N/A

Mary Davis Holt

None

Over $100,000

N/A

N/A

Merit E. Janow

None

Over $100,000

N/A

$50,001 – $100,000

Margaret Spellings

None

Over $100,000

N/A

Over $100,000

Alexandra Trower

None

Over $100,000

$50,001 – $100,000

Over $100,000

Paul S. Williams

None

Over $100,000

N/A

Over $100,000

     

Name

Dollar range1,2
of fund
shares owned
in series

Aggregate
dollar range1
of shares
owned2 in
all funds overseen
by trustee
in same family of
investment companies
as the series

Interested trustees

Michael C. Gitlin

None

Over $100,000

Bradley J. Vogt

Over $100,000

Over $100,000

1 Ownership disclosure is made using the following ranges: None; $1 – $10,000; $10,001 – $50,000; $50,001 – $100,000; and Over $100,000. The amounts listed for interested trustees include shares owned through The Capital Group Companies, Inc. retirement plan and 401(k) plan.

2 N/A indicates that the listed individual, as of December 31, 2021, was not a trustee of a particular fund, did not allocate deferred compensation to the fund or did not participate in the deferred compensation plan.

3 Eligible trustees may defer their compensation under a nonqualified deferred compensation plan. Amounts deferred by the trustee accumulate at an earnings rate determined by the total return of one or more American Funds as designated by the trustee.

4 Ms. Feikin was elected to the board effective December 5, 2022.

5 Ms. Heisz was elected to the board effective December 5, 2022.

American Funds Retirement Income Portfolio Series — Page 43


Trustee compensation — No compensation is paid by the series to any officer or trustee who is a director, officer or employee of the investment adviser or its affiliates. Except for the independent trustees listed in the “Board of trustees and officers — Independent trustees” table under the “Management of the series” section in this statement of additional information, all other officers and trustees of the series are directors, officers or employees of the investment adviser or its affiliates. The board typically meets either individually or jointly with the boards of one or more other such funds with substantially overlapping board membership (in each case referred to as a “board cluster”). The series typically pays each independent trustee an annual retainer fee based primarily on the total number of board clusters which that independent trustee serves. Board and committee chairs receive additional fees for their services.

The series and the other funds served by each independent trustee each pay a portion of these fees.

No pension or retirement benefits are accrued as part of series expenses. Generally, independent trustees may elect, on a voluntary basis, to defer all or a portion of their fees through a deferred compensation plan in effect for the series. The series also reimburses certain expenses of the independent trustees.

Trustee compensation earned during the fiscal year ended October 31, 2022:

     

Name

Aggregate compensation
(including voluntarily
deferred compensation1)
from the series

Total compensation (including
voluntarily deferred
compensation1)
from all funds managed by
Capital Research and
Management
Company or its affiliates

Francisco G. Cigarroa2

$1,550

$324,750

James G. Ellis
(retired December 31, 2022)

1,204

505,375

Nariman Farvardin2

986

465,482

Jennifer C. Feikin
(service began December 5, 2022)

N/A

166,000

Leslie Stone Heisz
(service began December 5, 2022)

N/A

166,625

Mary Davis Holt

1,109

373,250

R. Clark Hooper2
(retired December 31, 2021)

321

123,044

Merit E. Janow2

938

503,476

Margaret Spellings2

1,154

504,476

Alexandra Trower2

1,587

332,750

Paul S. Williams2

1,553

325,250

1 Amounts may be deferred by eligible trustees under a nonqualified deferred compensation plan adopted by the series in 2015. Deferred amounts accumulate at an earnings rate determined by the total return of one or more American Funds as designated by the trustees. Compensation shown in this table for the fiscal year ended October 31, 2022 does not include earnings on amounts deferred in previous fiscal years.

2 Since the deferred compensation plan’s adoption, the total amount of deferred compensation accrued by the series (plus earnings thereon) through the end of the 2022 fiscal year for participating trustees is as follows: Francisco G. Cigarroa ($1,062), Nariman Farvardin ($4,981), R. Clark Hooper ($2,324), Merit E. Janow ($348), Margaret Spellings ($1,474), Alexandra Trower ($6,124) and Paul S. Williams ($1,175). Amounts deferred and accumulated earnings thereon are not funded and are general unsecured liabilities of the series until paid to the trustees.

American Funds Retirement Income Portfolio Series — Page 44


Series organization and the board of trustees — The series, an open-end, diversified management investment company, was organized as a Delaware statutory trust on April 28, 2015. All series operations are supervised by the series' board of trustees which meets periodically and performs duties required by applicable state and federal laws.

Delaware law charges trustees with the duty of managing the business affairs of the trust. Trustees are considered to be fiduciaries of the trust and owe duties of care and loyalty to the trust and its shareholders.

Independent board members are paid certain fees for services rendered to the series as described above. They may elect to defer all or a portion of these fees through a deferred compensation plan in effect for the series.

The series currently consists of separate funds which have separate assets and liabilities, and invest in separate investment portfolios. The board of trustees may create additional funds in the future. Income, direct liabilities and direct operating expenses of a fund will be allocated directly to that fund and general liabilities and expenses of the series will be allocated among the funds in proportion to the total net assets of each fund.

Each fund has several different classes of shares. Shares of each class represent an interest in the same investment portfolio. Each class has pro rata rights as to voting, redemption, dividends and liquidation, except that each class bears different distribution expenses and may bear different transfer agent fees and other expenses properly attributable to the particular class as approved by the board of trustees and set forth in the series’ rule 18f-3 Plan. Each class’ shareholders have exclusive voting rights with respect to the respective class’ rule 12b-1 plans adopted in connection with the distribution of shares and on other matters in which the interests of one class are different from interests in another class. Shares of all classes of the series vote together on matters that affect all classes in substantially the same manner. Each class votes as a class on matters that affect that class alone. In addition, the trustees have the authority to establish new series and classes of shares, and to split or combine outstanding shares into a greater or lesser number, without shareholder approval.

The series does not hold annual meetings of shareholders. However, significant matters that require shareholder approval, such as certain elections of board members or a change in a fundamental investment policy, will be presented to shareholders at a meeting called for such purpose. Shareholders have one vote per share owned.

The series’ declaration of trust and by-laws, as well as separate indemnification agreements with independent trustees, provide in effect that, subject to certain conditions, the series will indemnify its officers and trustees against liabilities or expenses actually and reasonably incurred by them relating to their service to the series. However, trustees are not protected from liability by reason of their willful misfeasance, bad faith, gross negligence or reckless disregard of the duties involved in the conduct of their office.

Certain trustees and officers of the series may also serve in similar positions with some of the underlying funds. Thus, if the interests of one of the funds in the series and the underlying funds were ever to diverge, it is possible that an issue could arise and affect how the trustees and officers fulfill their fiduciary duties to that fund. The series has been structured to minimize these concerns. However, conceivably, a situation could occur where proper action for one of the funds in the series could be adverse to the interests of an underlying fund, or the reverse. If such a possibility arises, the trustees and officers of the affected funds and Capital Research and Management Company will carefully analyze the situation and take all steps they believe reasonable to minimize and, where possible, eliminate the potential issue.

American Funds Retirement Income Portfolio Series — Page 45


Removal of trustees by shareholders — At any meeting of shareholders, duly called and at which a quorum is present, shareholders may, by the affirmative vote of the holders of two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast, remove any trustee from office and may elect a successor or successors to fill any resulting vacancies for the unexpired terms of removed trustees. In addition, the trustees of the series will promptly call a meeting of shareholders for the purpose of voting upon the removal of any trustees when requested in writing to do so by the record holders of at least 10% of the outstanding shares.

Leadership structure — The board’s chair is currently an independent trustee who is not an “interested person” of the series within the meaning of the 1940 Act. The board has determined that an independent chair facilitates oversight and enhances the effectiveness of the board. The independent chair’s duties include, without limitation, generally presiding at meetings of the board, approving board meeting schedules and agendas, leading meetings of the independent trustees in executive session, facilitating communication with committee chairs, and serving as the principal independent trustee contact for series management and counsel to the independent trustees and the series.

Risk oversight — Day-to-day management of the series, including risk management, is the responsibility of the series’ contractual service providers, including the series’ investment adviser, principal underwriter/distributor and transfer agent. Each of these entities is responsible for specific portions of the series’ operations, including the processes and associated risks relating to the series‘ investments, integrity of cash movements, financial reporting, operations and compliance. The board of trustees oversees the service providers’ discharge of their responsibilities, including the processes they use to manage relevant risks. In that regard, the board receives reports regarding the operations of the series’ service providers, including risks. For example, the board receives reports from investment professionals regarding risks related to the series‘ investments and trading. The board also receives compliance reports from the series’ and the investment adviser’s chief compliance officers addressing certain areas of risk.

Committees of the series’ board, which are comprised of independent board members, none of whom is an “interested person” of the fund within the meaning of the 1940 Act, as well as joint committees of independent board members of funds managed by Capital Research and Management Company, also explore risk management procedures in particular areas and then report back to the full board. For example, the series’ audit committee oversees the processes and certain attendant risks relating to financial reporting, valuation of series assets, and related controls. Similarly, a joint review and advisory committee oversees certain risk controls relating to the fund’s transfer agency services.

Not all risks that may affect the series can be identified or processes and controls developed to eliminate or mitigate their effect. Moreover, it is necessary to bear certain risks (such as investment-related risks) to achieve each series‘ objectives. As a result of the foregoing and other factors, the ability of the series’ service providers to eliminate or mitigate risks is subject to limitations.

Committees of the board of trustees — The series has an audit committee comprised of Francisco G. Cigarroa, Leslie Stone Heisz, Mary Davis Holt and Paul S. Williams. The committee provides oversight regarding the series’ accounting and financial reporting policies and practices, its internal controls and the internal controls of the series’ principal service providers. The committee acts as a liaison between the series’ independent registered public accounting firm and the full board of trustees. The audit committee held five meetings during the 2022 fiscal year.

The series has a contracts committee comprised of all of its independent board members. The committee’s principal function is to request, review and consider the information deemed necessary to evaluate the terms of certain agreements between the series and its investment adviser or the investment adviser’s affiliates, such as the Investment Advisory and Service Agreement, Principal Underwriting Agreement, Administrative Services Agreement and Plans of Distribution adopted pursuant to rule 12b-1 under the 1940 Act, that the series may enter into, renew or continue, and to

American Funds Retirement Income Portfolio Series — Page 46


make its recommendations to the full board of trustees on these matters. The contracts committee held one meeting during the 2022 fiscal year.

The series has a nominating and governance committee comprised of Nariman Farvardin, Jennifer C. Feikin, Merit E. Janow, Margaret Spellings and Alexandra Trower. The committee periodically reviews such issues as the board’s composition, responsibilities, committees, compensation and other relevant issues, and recommends any appropriate changes to the full board of trustees. The committee also coordinates annual self-assessments of the board and evaluates, selects and nominates independent trustee candidates to the full board of trustees. While the committee normally is able to identify from its own and other resources an ample number of qualified candidates, it will consider shareholder suggestions of persons to be considered as nominees to fill future vacancies on the board. Such suggestions must be sent in writing to the nominating and governance committee of the series, addressed to the series’ secretary, and must be accompanied by complete biographical and occupational data on the prospective nominee, along with a written consent of the prospective nominee for consideration of his or her name by the committee. The nominating and governance committee held two meetings during the 2022 fiscal year.

The independent board members of the series have oversight responsibility for the series and certain other funds managed by the investment adviser. As part of their oversight responsibility for these funds, each independent board member sits on one of three fund review committees comprised solely of independent board members. The three committees are divided by portfolio type. Each committee functions independently and is not a decision making body. The purpose of the committees is to assist the board of each series in the oversight of the investment management services provided by the investment adviser. In addition to regularly monitoring and reviewing investment results, investment activities and strategies used to manage the fund’s assets, the committees also receive reports from the investment adviser’s Principal Investment Officers for the funds, portfolio managers and other investment personnel concerning efforts to achieve the fund’s investment objectives. Each committee reports to the full board of the series.

Proxy voting procedures and principles — The series’ investment adviser, in consultation with the series’ board, has adopted Proxy Voting Procedures and Principles (the “Principles”) for funds in the series as well as their underlying funds with respect to voting proxies of securities held by such funds. The series and its investment adviser, Capital Research and Management Company, are committed to acting in the best interests of the shareholders of each fund in the series. Each fund in the series will principally invest in other American Funds. If an underlying fund has a shareholder meeting, the investment adviser will generally engage an independent, third-party fiduciary to vote the proxy. In the unlikely event that a fund should have to vote a proxy that is not a proxy of an underlying fund, the fund will vote in accordance with the Principles.

Information regarding how the series and each underlying fund voted proxies relating to portfolio securities during the 12-month period ended June 30 of each year will be available on or about September 1 of such year (a) without charge, upon request by calling American Funds Service Company at (800) 421-4225, (b) on the Capital Group website at capitalgroup.com and (c) on the SEC’s website at sec.gov. A copy of the full Principles is available upon request, free of charge, by calling American Funds Service Company or visiting the Capital Group website.

American Funds Retirement Income Portfolio Series — Page 47


Principal fund shareholders — The following tables identify those investors who own of record, or are known by the series to own beneficially, 5% or more of any class of its shares as of the opening of business on December 1, 2022. Unless otherwise indicated, the ownership percentages below represent ownership of record rather than beneficial ownership.

American Funds Retirement Income Portfolio – Conservative

       

NAME AND ADDRESS

OWNERSHIP

OWNERSHIP PERCENTAGE

EDWARD D JONES & CO
FOR THE BENEFIT OF CUSTOMERS
OMNIBUS ACCOUNT
SAINT LOUIS MO

RECORD

CLASS A

14.50%

     
     
     

LPL FINANCIAL
--OMNIBUS CUSTOMER ACCOUNT--
SAN DIEGO CA

RECORD

CLASS A

7.62

 

CLASS C

11.51

 

CLASS F-1

5.76

 

CLASS F-2

16.85

   

CLASS R-2

16.21

       

PERSHING LLC
OMNIBUS ACCOUNT
JERSEY CITY NJ

RECORD

CLASS A

6.93

 

CLASS C

8.62

 

CLASS F-2

15.34

 

CLASS F-3

13.39

       

WELLS FARGO CLEARING SERVICES LLC
SPECIAL CUSTODY ACCT FOR THE
EXCLUSIVE BENEFIT OF CUSTOMER
SAINT LOUIS MO

RECORD

CLASS A

6.74

 

CLASS C

15.37

 

CLASS F-1

10.04

     

NATIONAL FINANCIAL SERVICES LLC
FOR EXCLUSIVE BENEFIT OF OUR CUSTOMERS
OMNIBUS ACCOUNT
JERSEY CITY NJ

RECORD

CLASS A

6.03

 

CLASS C

8.01

 

CLASS F-1

32.19

 

CLASS F-2

20.90

 

CLASS F-3

18.84

       

STIFEL NICOLAUS & CO INC
EXCLUSIVE BENEFIT OF CUSTOMERS
OMNIBUS ACCOUNT
SAINT LOUIS MO

RECORD

CLASS C

8.22

     
     
     

RAYMOND JAMES
OMNIBUS FOR MUTUAL FUNDS
HOUSE ACCOUNT
ST PETERSBURG FL

RECORD

CLASS C

6.83

 

CLASS F-2

10.44

 

CLASS R-3

19.57

     

CHARLES SCHWAB & CO INC
SPECIAL CUSTODY ACCT FOR EXCLUSIVE
BENEFIT OF CUSTOMERS - RIA ACCT #1
SAN FRANCISCO CA

RECORD

CLASS F-1

11.23

     
     
     

UBS WM USA
OMNIBUS ACCOUNT
WEEHAWKEN NJ

RECORD

CLASS F-2

7.06

     
     

American Funds Retirement Income Portfolio Series — Page 48


       

NAME AND ADDRESS

OWNERSHIP

OWNERSHIP PERCENTAGE

CHARLES SCHWAB & CO INC
SPECIAL CUSTODY ACCT FBO CUSTOMERS #2
SAN FRANCISCO CA

RECORD

CLASS F-3

22.86

 

CLASS R-4

16.22

     

LINCOLN INVESTMENT PLANNING LLC
FBO LINCOLN CUSTOMERS
OMNIBUS ACCOUNT
FT WASHINGTON PA

RECORD

CLASS F-3

19.96

     
     
     
       

CHARLES SCHWAB & CO INC
OMNIBUS ACCOUNT #3
SAN FRANCISCO CA

RECORD

CLASS F-3

17.66

     
     

TD AMERITRADE INC FOR THE
EXCLUSIVE BENEFIT OF OUR CLIENTS
OMNIBUS ACCOUNT
OMAHA NE

RECORD

CLASS F-3

5.56

 

CLASS R-5

40.53

     
     

RETIREMENT PLAN #1
MANHATTAN BCH CA

BENEFICIAL

CLASS R-1

45.39

     

RETIREMENT PLAN #2
ST PETERSBURG FL

BENEFICIAL

CLASS R-1

38.43

     

LONG TERM SOLUTIONS
RETIREMENT PLAN
FARGO ND

RECORD
BENEFICIAL

CLASS R-2

45.94

     

CENTERS FOR THE DEVELOPMENTALLY DIS
401K PLAN
FARGO ND

RECORD
BENEFICIAL

CLASS R-2

6.91

   
     

PORTAGE INTERNAL MEDICINE
401K PLAN
KENT OH

RECORD
BENEFICIAL

CLASS R-2

6.62

   
     

THREE PHASE ELECTRIC
401K PLAN
GREENWOOD VLG CO

RECORD
BENEFICIAL

CLASS R-2E

72.48

   
   

METRO FIRE EQUIPMENT
401K PLAN
GREENWOOD VLG CO

RECORD
BENEFICIAL

CLASS R-2E

16.88

   
   

CAPITAL RESEARCH & MANAGEMENT COMPANY
CORPORATE ACCOUNT
LOS ANGELES CA

RECORD

CLASS R-2E

7.65

     
     

MATRIX TRUST COMPANY CUST FBO
MASTER CONTROL RETIREMENT PLAN
401K PLAN #2
DENVER CO

RECORD
BENEFICIAL

CLASS R-3

26.40

   
     
     

NARLIS DENTAL
401K PLAN
DENVER CO

RECORD
BENEFICIAL

CLASS R-3

10.85

   
     

American Funds Retirement Income Portfolio Series — Page 49


       

NAME AND ADDRESS

OWNERSHIP

OWNERSHIP PERCENTAGE

EMPOWER TRUST COMPANY, LLC
401K PLAN
GREENWOOD VLG CO

RECORD
BENEFICIAL

CLASS R-3

10.28

CLASS R-6

10.59

     

401K PLAN
NEEDHAM MA

BENEFICIAL

CLASS R-3

5.70

     

DCGT TRUSTEE & OR CUSTODIAN
FBO PLIC VARIOUS RETIREMENT PLANS
OMNIBUS
DES MOINES IA

RECORD

CLASS R-4

29.68

 

CLASS R-6

5.71

     
     

RETIREMENT PLAN #3
SALT LAKE CTY UT

BENEFICIAL

CLASS R-4

15.86

     

RIDGEVIEW INDUSTRIES
401K PLAN
GREENWOOD VLG CO

RECORD
BENEFICIAL

CLASS R-4

13.12

   
     

RELIANCE TRUST CO TTEE
ACCESS LARGE MARKET
ACCOUNT
ATLANTA GA

RECORD

CLASS R-4

6.93

     
     
     

ADP ACCESS PRODUCT
401K PLAN
BOSTON MA

RECORD
BENEFICIAL

CLASS R-5

57.45

   
     

SUNSET MOULDING COMPANY
401K PLAN
GREENWOOD VLG CO

RECORD
BENEFICIAL

CLASS R-5E

45.10

   
     

INDIVIDUAL INVESTOR
ARLINGTON VA

BENEFICIAL

CLASS R-5E

29.86

     

NATIONAL FINANCIAL SERVICES LLC
401K PLAN
JERSEY CITY NJ

RECORD
BENEFICIAL

CLASS R-6

15.01

   
     

ST PAUL ELECTRICAL CONSTRUCTION
401K PLAN
PHOENIX AZ

RECORD
BENEFICIAL

CLASS R-6

13.74

   
     

UA LOCAL 393
401K PLAN
PHOENIX AZ

RECORD
BENEFICIAL

CLASS R-6

8.62

   
     

American Funds Retirement Income Portfolio Series — Page 50


American Funds Retirement Income Portfolio – Moderate

       

NAME AND ADDRESS

OWNERSHIP

OWNERSHIP PERCENTAGE

EDWARD D JONES & CO
FOR THE BENEFIT OF CUSTOMERS
OMNIBUS ACCOUNT
SAINT LOUIS MO

RECORD

CLASS A

12.66%

     
     
     

LPL FINANCIAL
--OMNIBUS CUSTOMER ACCOUNT--
SAN DIEGO CA

RECORD

CLASS A

9.69

 

CLASS C

11.63

 

CLASS F-1

12.51

 

CLASS F-2

11.45

   

CLASS R-2

28.47

       

NATIONAL FINANCIAL SERVICES LLC
FOR EXCLUSIVE BENEFIT OF OUR CUSTOMERS
OMNIBUS ACCOUNT
JERSEY CITY NJ

RECORD

CLASS A

6.57

 

CLASS C

9.46

 

CLASS F-1

13.19

 

CLASS F-2

22.26

 

CLASS F-3

6.96

       

PERSHING LLC
OMNIBUS ACCOUNT
JERSEY CITY NJ

RECORD

CLASS A

5.84

 

CLASS C

9.89

 

CLASS F-1

10.09

 

CLASS F-2

17.64

 

CLASS F-3

28.49

 

CLASS R-4

21.40

       

WELLS FARGO CLEARING SERVICES LLC
SPECIAL CUSTODY ACCT FOR THE
EXCLUSIVE BENEFIT OF CUSTOMER
SAINT LOUIS MO

RECORD

CLASS A

5.28

 

CLASS C

10.27

 

CLASS F-1

5.60

     

RAYMOND JAMES
OMNIBUS FOR MUTUAL FUNDS
HOUSE ACCOUNT
ST PETERSBURG FL

RECORD

CLASS C

7.08

 

CLASS F-2

6.28

     
     

STIFEL NICOLAUS & CO INC
EXCLUSIVE BENEFIT OF CUSTOMERS
OMNIBUS ACCOUNT
SAINT LOUIS MO

RECORD

CLASS C

6.25

     
     
     

CHARLES SCHWAB & CO INC
SPECIAL CUSTODY ACCT FOR EXCLUSIVE
BENEFIT OF CUSTOMERS - RIA ACCT #1
SAN FRANCISCO CA

RECORD

CLASS F-1

11.06

     
     
     

UBS WM USA
OMNIBUS ACCOUNT
WEEHAWKEN NJ

RECORD

CLASS F-2

6.21

     
     

CHARLES SCHWAB & CO INC
OMNIBUS ACCOUNT #2
SAN FRANCISCO CA

RECORD

CLASS F-3

35.92

     
     

American Funds Retirement Income Portfolio Series — Page 51


       

NAME AND ADDRESS

OWNERSHIP

OWNERSHIP PERCENTAGE

CHARLES SCHWAB & CO INC
SPECIAL CUSTODY ACCT FBO CUSTOMERS #3
SAN FRANCISCO CA

RECORD

CLASS F-3

12.52

     
     

TD AMERITRADE INC FOR THE
EXCLUSIVE BENEFIT OF OUR CLIENTS
OMNIBUS ACCOUNT
OMAHA NE

RECORD

CLASS F-3

7.19

     
     
     

LINCOLN INVESTMENT PLANNING LLC
FBO LINCOLN CUSTOMERS
OMNIBUS ACCOUNT
FT WASHINGTON PA

RECORD

CLASS F-3

6.25

     
     
     

NEVADA DISTILLING CO LLC
401K PLAN
LAS VEGAS NV

RECORD
BENEFICIAL

CLASS R-1

55.89

   
     

SAI INC
RETIREMENT PLAN
ST PETERSBURG FL

RECORD
BENEFICIAL

CLASS R-1

15.87

   
     

LINDSAY CONSTRUCTION INC
RETIREMENT PLAN
CHADDS FORD PA

RECORD
BENEFICIAL

CLASS R-1

9.94

   
     

WEST SENECA CENTRAL SCHOOLS (NY) 40
403B PLAN
DENVER CO

RECORD
BENEFICIAL

CLASS R-1

5.20

   
     

US BANCORP INVESTMENTS INC
RETIREMENT PLAN
SAINT PAUL MN

RECORD
BENEFICIAL

CLASS R-2

30.78

   
     

401K PLAN #1
FARGO ND

BENEFICIAL

CLASS R-2

10.23

     

TRIDENT TECHNICAL COLL (OH)
403B PLAN
DENVER CO

RECORD
BENEFICIAL

CLASS R-2E

81.20

   
     

CAPITAL RESEARCH & MANAGEMENT COMPANY
CORPORATE ACCOUNT
LOS ANGELES CA

RECORD

CLASS R-2E

18.79

 

CLASS R-5E

5.13

     

NEW HORIZON FOODS INC
RETIREMENT PLAN
UNION CITY CA

RECORD
BENEFICIAL

CLASS R-3

27.38

   
     

VESTERGAARD COMPANY INC
401K PLAN
DE PERE WI

RECORD
BENEFICIAL

CLASS R-3

24.65

   
     

NORTHWEST RESOURCES II INC
401K PLAN
TUMWATER WA

RECORD
BENEFICIAL

CLASS R-3

8.86

   
     

401K PLAN #2
GLASTONBURY CT

BENEFICIAL

CLASS R-3

6.04

     

401K PLAN #3
ENTERPRISE OR

BENEFICIAL

CLASS R-3

5.61

     

American Funds Retirement Income Portfolio Series — Page 52


       

NAME AND ADDRESS

OWNERSHIP

OWNERSHIP PERCENTAGE

SQUARE METHODS CORP
RETIREMENT PLAN
ASHBURN VA

RECORD
BENEFICIAL

CLASS R-4

37.28

   
     

MISSIONSQUARE
401K PLAN #1
LONGBOAT KEY FL

RECORD
BENEFICIAL

CLASS R-4

11.49

   
     

MISSIONSQUARE
401K PLAN #2
LONGBOAT KEY FL

RECORD
BENEFICIAL

CLASS R-4

5.90

   
     

SALEM-KEIZER PS, OR SD 24J(OR)
403B PLAN
DENVER CO

RECORD
BENEFICIAL

CLASS R-4

5.28

   
     

COLE 1301 SOLUTIONS
RETIREMENT PLAN
SUGAR HILL NH

RECORD
BENEFICIAL

CLASS R-4

5.13

   
     

PENTEGRA TRUST COMPANY AS CUSTODIAN
C/O RETIREMENT SYSTEM CONSULTANTS
403B PLAN
SHELTON CT

RECORD
BENEFICIAL

CLASS R-5

86.91

   
     
     

401K PLAN #4
MODESTO CA

BENEFICIAL

CLASS R-5

10.74

     

INDIVIDUAL INVESTOR
ATHENS PA

BENEFICIAL

CLASS R-5E

37.07

     

RETIREMENT PLAN
GREENWOOD VLG CO

BENEFICIAL

CLASS R-5E

34.58

     

APPLIED GRAPHICS
401K PLAN
HAVERHILL MA

RECORD
BENEFICIAL

CLASS R-5E

6.78

   
     

GENERAL PAVEMENT MANAGEMENT INC
401K PLAN
GREENWOOD VILLAGE CO

RECORD
BENEFICIAL

CLASS R-6

48.93

   
     

EMPOWER TRUST COMPANY, LLC
401K PLAN
GREENWOOD VLG CO

RECORD
BENEFICIAL

CLASS R-6

17.98

   
     

ADP ACCESS PRODUCT
401K PLAN
BOSTON MA

RECORD
BENEFICIAL

CLASS R-6

15.56

   
     

American Funds Retirement Income Portfolio Series — Page 53


American Funds Retirement Income Portfolio – Enhanced

       

NAME AND ADDRESS

OWNERSHIP

OWNERSHIP PERCENTAGE

EDWARD D JONES & CO
FOR THE BENEFIT OF CUSTOMERS
OMNIBUS ACCOUNT
SAINT LOUIS MO

RECORD

CLASS A

12.60%

     
     
     

PERSHING LLC
OMNIBUS ACCOUNT
JERSEY CITY NJ


RECORD

CLASS A

6.49

 

CLASS C

12.45

 

CLASS F-1

10.99

 

CLASS F-2

13.97

 

CLASS F-3

30.18

 

CLASS R-2

6.25

 

CLASS R-3

6.96

 

CLASS R-4

18.15

       

LPL FINANCIAL
--OMNIBUS CUSTOMER ACCOUNT--
SAN DIEGO CA

RECORD

CLASS A

6.21

 

CLASS C

6.74

 

CLASS F-2

9.21

   

CLASS R-2

14.80

       

NATIONAL FINANCIAL SERVICES LLC
FOR EXCLUSIVE BENEFIT OF OUR CUSTOMERS
OMNIBUS ACCOUNT
JERSEY CITY NJ

RECORD

CLASS A

6.07

 

CLASS C

7.34

 

CLASS F-1

5.77

 

CLASS F-2

17.27

 

CLASS F-3

10.27

       

WELLS FARGO CLEARING SERVICES LLC
SPECIAL CUSTODY ACCT FOR THE
EXCLUSIVE BENEFIT OF CUSTOMER
SAINT LOUIS MO

RECORD

CLASS A

5.74

 

CLASS C

15.77

 

CLASS F-1

8.05

     

RAYMOND JAMES
OMNIBUS FOR MUTUAL FUNDS
HOUSE ACCOUNT
ST PETERSBURG FL

RECORD

CLASS C

11.12

 

CLASS F-2

9.02

 

CLASS R-3

5.49

     

STIFEL NICOLAUS & CO INC
EXCLUSIVE BENEFIT OF CUSTOMERS
OMNIBUS ACCOUNT
SAINT LOUIS MO

RECORD

CLASS C

6.73

     
     
     

CHARLES SCHWAB & CO INC
SPECIAL CUSTODY ACCT FOR EXCLUSIVE
BENEFIT OF CUSTOMERS - RIA ACCT #1
SAN FRANCISCO CA

RECORD

CLASS F-1

48.40

     
     
     

TD AMERITRADE INC FOR THE
EXCLUSIVE BENEFIT OF OUR CLIENTS
OMNIBUS ACCOUNT
OMAHA NE

RECORD

CLASS F-2

16.07

     
     
     

American Funds Retirement Income Portfolio Series — Page 54


       

NAME AND ADDRESS

OWNERSHIP

OWNERSHIP PERCENTAGE

UBS WM USA
OMNIBUS ACCOUNT
WEEHAWKEN NJ

RECORD

CLASS F-2

5.71

     
     

CHARLES SCHWAB & CO INC
OMNIBUS ACCOUNT #2
SAN FRANCISCO CA

RECORD

CLASS F-3

22.18

     
     

LINCOLN INVESTMENT PLANNING LLC
FBO LINCOLN CUSTOMERS
OMNIBUS ACCOUNT
FT WASHINGTON PA

RECORD

CLASS F-3

16.57

     
     
     

CHARLES SCHWAB & CO INC
SPECIAL CUSTODY ACCT FBO CUSTOMERS #3
SAN FRANCISCO CA

RECORD

CLASS F-3

14.46

     
     

ISHITANI HEALTH CENTER
RETIREMENT PLAN
FORT LEE NJ

RECORD
BENEFICIAL

CLASS R-1

50.17

   
     

SAI INC
RETIREMENT PLAN
ST PETERSBURG FL

RECORD
BENEFICIAL

CLASS R-1

29.99

   
     

RETIREMENT PLAN #1
HOUSTON TX

BENEFICIAL

CLASS R-1

14.68

     

SHORELINE PLUMBING CO
RETIREMENT PLAN
CORP CHRISTI TX

RECORD
BENEFICIAL

CLASS R-2

30.09

   
     

JORDAN REALTY ADVISORS
RETIREMENT PLAN
PITTSBURGH PA

RECORD
BENEFICIAL

CLASS R-2

25.49

   
     

CROFTON PHARMACY LLC
RETIREMENT PLAN
CROFTON KY

RECORD
BENEFICIAL

CLASS R-2

7.49

   
     

RETIRMENT PLAN #2
WELLINGTON FL

BENEFICIAL

CLASS R-2

6.64

     

CPC INTEREST LLC
401K PLAN
FARGO ND

RECORD
BENEFICIAL

CLASS R-2

6.19

   
     

GOLD ELECTRIC INC
401K PLAN
GREENWOOD VILLAGE CO

RECORD
BENEFICIAL

CLASS R-2E

67.81

   
     

ADP ACCESS PRODUCT
401K PLAN
BOSTON MA

RECORD
BENEFICIAL

CLASS R-2E

25.02

CLASS R-6

6.82

     

TRIDENT TECHNICAL COLL (OH)
403B PLAN
DENVER CO

RECORD
BENEFICIAL

CLASS R-2E

5.08

   
     

THE WINERY AT BULL RUN LLC
RETIREMENT PLAN
CENTREVILLE VA

RECORD
BENEFICIAL

CLASS R-3

31.65

   
     

American Funds Retirement Income Portfolio Series — Page 55


       

NAME AND ADDRESS

OWNERSHIP

OWNERSHIP PERCENTAGE

ERIE NIAGARA NEUROSURGERY PLLC
401K PLAN
GREENWOOD VLG CO

RECORD
BENEFICIAL

CLASS R-3

14.08

   
   

SAVANNAH FOOT CLINIC
RETIREMENT PLAN
CORINTH MS

RECORD
BENEFICIAL

CLASS R-3

8.30

   
     

401K PLAN
MIDLAND MI

BENEFICIAL

CLASS R-4

36.50

     

RETIREMENT PLAN #3
WESTLAKE VLG CA

BENEFICIAL

CLASS R-4

27.18

     

RBC CAPITAL MARKETS LLC
MUTUAL FUND OMNIBUS PROCESSING
OMNIBUS
MINNEAPOLIS MN

RECORD

CLASS R-4

8.45

     
     
     

CAPITAL RESEARCH & MANAGEMENT COMPANY
CORPORATE ACCOUNT
LOS ANGELES CA

RECORD

CLASS R-5

100.00

     
     

RETIREMENT PLAN #4
GREENWOOD VLG CO

BENEFICIAL

CLASS R-5E

43.26

     

TIAA, FSB CUST/TTEE FBO:
RETIREMENT PLANS FOR WHICH
TIAA ACTS AS RECORDKEEPER
401K PLAN
SAINT LOUIS MO

RECORD
BENEFICIAL

CLASS R-5E

40.82

   
     
     
     

INDIVIDUAL INVESTOR
ALPHARETTA GA

BENEFICIAL

CLASS R-5E

9.64

     

CBH HOLDINGS LLC
RETIREMENT PLAN
N CHESTERFLD VA

RECORD
BENEFICIAL

CLASS R-6

71.66

   
     

RLFV LLC
RETIREMENT PLAN
GROVE CITY PA

RECORD
BENEFICIAL

CLASS R-6

7.90

   
     

Because Class T shares are not currently offered to the public, Capital Research and Management Company, the series‘ investment adviser, owns 100% of the series’ outstanding Class T shares.

As of December 1, 2022, the officers and trustees of the series, as a group, owned beneficially or of record less than 1% of the outstanding shares of the series.

Unless otherwise noted, references in this statement of additional information to Class F shares or Class R shares refer to all F share classes or all R share classes, respectively.

American Funds Retirement Income Portfolio Series — Page 56


Investment adviser — Capital Research and Management Company, the series’ investment adviser, founded in 1931, maintains research facilities in the United States and abroad (Geneva, Hong Kong, London, Los Angeles, Mumbai, New York, San Francisco, Singapore, Tokyo, Toronto and Washington, D.C.). These facilities are staffed with experienced investment professionals. The investment adviser is located at 333 South Hope Street, Los Angeles, CA 90071. It is a wholly owned subsidiary of The Capital Group Companies, Inc., a holding company for several investment management subsidiaries. Capital Research and Management Company manages equity assets through three equity investment divisions and fixed income assets through its fixed income investment division, Capital Fixed Income Investors. The three equity investment divisions — Capital World Investors, Capital Research Global Investors and Capital International Investors — make investment decisions independently of one another. Portfolio managers in Capital International Investors rely on a research team that also provides investment services to institutional clients and other accounts advised by affiliates of Capital Research and Management Company. The investment adviser, which is deemed under the Commodity Exchange Act (the “CEA”) to be the operator of the fund, has claimed an exclusion from the definition of the term commodity pool operator under the CEA with respect to the series and, therefore, is not subject to registration or regulation as such under the CEA with respect to the series.

The investment adviser has adopted policies and procedures that address issues that may arise as a result of an investment professional’s management of the fund and other funds and accounts. Potential issues could involve allocation of investment opportunities and trades among funds and accounts, use of information regarding the timing of fund trades, investment professional compensation and voting relating to portfolio securities. The investment adviser believes that its policies and procedures are reasonably designed to address these issues.

Compensation of investment professionals — The series is managed by a Portfolio Solutions Committee consisting of investment professionals employed by Capital Research and Management Company. The investment professionals serving on the Portfolio Solutions Committee are paid competitive salaries by Capital Research and Management Company. In addition, they may receive bonuses based on qualitative considerations, such as an individual’s contribution to the organization, which would include service on the Portfolio Solutions Committee and service as a portfolio manager to an underlying fund. Members of the Portfolio Solutions Committee may also serve as portfolio managers on underlying funds in which the series invests and to that extent, a quantitative component of their bonus is based on their individual portfolio results within those funds. Investment professionals also may participate in profit-sharing plans. The relative mix of compensation represented by bonuses, salary and profit-sharing plans will vary depending on the individual’s portfolio results, contributions to the organization and other factors.

Investment professional fund holdings and other managed accounts — As described below, investment professionals may personally own shares of the funds. In addition, investment professionals may manage portions of other mutual funds or accounts advised by Capital Research and Management Company or its affiliates.

American Funds Retirement Income Portfolio Series — Page 57


The following table reflects information as of October 31, 2022:

               

Investment professional

Dollar range
of fund
shares
owned1

Number
of other
registered
investment
companies (RICs)
for which
investment professional manages
(assets of RICs
in billions)2

Number
of other
pooled
investment
vehicles (PIVs)
that investment professional manages
(assets of PIVs
in billions)2

Number
of other
accounts
that investment professional manages
(assets of
other accounts
in billions)2,3

Andrew B. Suzman

None4

17

$312.0

2

$2.60

None

Alan N. Berro

None4

22

$435.2

3

$3.41

None

Michelle J. Black

None4

16

$282.1

1

$8.14

None

Samir Mathur

None4

16

$282.1

1

$8.14

None

Wesley K. Phoa

None4

16

$282.1

1

$8.14

None

John R. Queen

None4

18

$423.9

3

$2.74

80

$0.33

William L. Robbins

None4

19

$186.1

2

$1.33

1,690

$20.50

1 Ownership disclosure is made using the following ranges: None; $1 – $10,000; $10,001 – $50,000; $50,001 – $100,000; $100,001 – $500,000; $500,001 – $1,000,000; and Over $1,000,000.

2 Indicates other RIC(s), PIV(s) or other accounts managed by Capital Research and Management Company or its affiliates for which the investment professional also has significant day to day management responsibilities. Assets noted are the total net assets of the RIC(s), PIV(s) or other accounts and are not the total assets managed by the individual, which is a substantially lower amount. No RIC, PIV or other account has an advisory fee that is based on the performance of the RIC, PIV or other account, unless otherwise noted.

3 Personal brokerage accounts of portfolio managers and their families are not reflected.

4 Tax considerations for the investment professional may influence the investment professional’s decision to own shares of the fund.

The fund’s investment adviser has adopted policies and procedures to mitigate material conflicts of interest that may arise in connection with a portfolio manager’s management of the fund, on the one hand, and investments in the other pooled investment vehicles and other accounts, on the other hand, such as material conflicts relating to the allocation of investment opportunities that may be suitable for both the fund and such other accounts.

American Funds Retirement Income Portfolio Series — Page 58


Investment Advisory and Service Agreement — The Investment Advisory and Service Agreement (the “Agreement”) between the series and the investment adviser will continue in effect until April 30, 2023, unless sooner terminated, and may be renewed from year to year thereafter, provided that any such renewal has been specifically approved at least annually by (a) the board of trustees, or by the vote of a majority (as defined in the 1940 Act) of the outstanding voting securities of the series, and (b) the vote of a majority of trustees who are not parties to the Agreement or interested persons (as defined in the 1940 Act) of any such party, in accordance with applicable laws and regulations. The Agreement provides that the investment adviser has no liability to the series for its acts or omissions in the performance of its obligations to the series not involving willful misfeasance, bad faith, gross negligence or reckless disregard of its obligations under the Agreement. The Agreement also provides that either party has the right to terminate it, without penalty, upon 60 days’ written notice to the other party, and that the Agreement automatically terminates in the event of its assignment (as defined in the 1940 Act). In addition, the Agreement provides that the investment adviser may delegate all, or a portion of, its investment management responsibilities to one or more subsidiary advisers approved by the series’ board, pursuant to an agreement between the investment adviser and such subsidiary. Any such subsidiary adviser will be paid solely by the investment adviser out of its fees.

In addition to providing investment advisory services, the investment adviser furnishes the services and pays the compensation and travel expenses of persons to perform the series’ executive, administrative, clerical and bookkeeping functions, and provides suitable office space, necessary small office equipment and utilities, general purpose accounting forms, supplies and postage used at the series’ offices. The series will pay all expenses not assumed by the investment adviser, including, but not limited to: custodian, stock transfer and dividend disbursing fees and expenses; shareholder recordkeeping and administrative expenses; costs of the designing, printing and mailing of reports, prospectuses, proxy statements and notices to its shareholders; taxes; expenses of the issuance and redemption of fund shares (including stock certificates, registration and qualification fees and expenses); expenses pursuant to the series’ plans of distribution (described below); legal and auditing expenses; compensation, fees and expenses paid to independent trustees; association dues; costs of stationery and forms prepared exclusively for the series; and costs of assembling and storing shareholder account data.

American Funds Retirement Income Portfolio Series — Page 59


Since each fund pursues its investment objective by investing in other mutual funds, you will bear your proportionate share of a fund's operating expenses and also, indirectly, the operating expenses of the underlying funds in which the fund invests.

The following table provides the annual advisory fee rates for each of the potential underlying funds excluding any waivers or reimbursements as disclosed in each fund’s most recent prospectus.

   

Underlying American Funds

Annual fee rate

AMCAP Fund

0.29%

American Balanced Fund

0.21

American Funds Global Balanced Fund

0.44

American Funds Inflation Linked Bond Fund

0.25

American Funds Mortgage Fund

0.20

American Funds Multi-Sector Income Fund

0.33

American Funds Strategic Bond Fund

0.28

American High-Income Trust

0.26

American Mutual Fund

0.23

The Bond Fund of America

0.16

Capital Income Builder

0.22

Capital World Growth and Income Fund

0.37

The Income Fund of America

0.22

U.S. Government Securities Fund

0.20

American Funds Retirement Income Portfolio Series — Page 60


Administrative services — The investment adviser and its affiliates provide certain administrative services for shareholders of the series’ Class A, C, T, F and R shares. Administrative services are provided by the investment adviser and its affiliates to help assist third parties providing non-distribution services to fund shareholders. These services include providing in-depth information on the fund and market developments that impact fund investments. Administrative services also include, but are not limited to, coordinating, monitoring and overseeing third parties that provide services to series shareholders.

These services are provided pursuant to an Administrative Services Agreement (the “Administrative Agreement”) between the series and the investment adviser relating to the series’ Class A, C, T, F and R shares. The Administrative Agreement will continue in effect until April 30, 2023, unless sooner renewed or terminated, and may be renewed from year to year thereafter, provided that any such renewal has been specifically approved by the vote of a majority of the members of the series’ board who are not parties to the Administrative Agreement or interested persons (as defined in the 1940 Act) of any such party. The series may terminate the Administrative Agreement at any time by vote of a majority of independent board members. The investment adviser has the right to terminate the Administrative Agreement upon 60 days’ written notice to the series. The Administrative Agreement automatically terminates in the event of its assignment (as defined in the 1940 Act). The funds are not assessed an administrative services fee for administrative services provided to the series. However, the investment adviser receives an administrative services fee at the annual rate of .03% of the average daily net assets from the R-6 shares of the underlying funds (which could be increased as described in the current prospectus of the applicable underlying funds) for its provision of administrative services. Administrative services fees are paid monthly and accrued daily.

Principal Underwriter and plans of distribution — American Funds Distributors, Inc. (the “Principal Underwriter”) is the principal underwriter of the series’ shares. The Principal Underwriter is located at 333 South Hope Street, Los Angeles, CA 90071; 6455 Irvine Center Drive, Irvine, CA 92618; 3500 Wiseman Boulevard, San Antonio, TX 78251; and 12811 North Meridian Street, Carmel, IN 46032.

The Principal Underwriter receives revenues relating to sales of the fund’s shares, as follows:

· For Class A shares, the Principal Underwriter receives commission revenue consisting of the balance of the Class A sales charge remaining after the allowances by the Principal Underwriter to investment dealers.

· For Class C shares, the Principal Underwriter receives any contingent deferred sales charges that apply during the first year after purchase.

In addition, the fund reimburses the Principal Underwriter for advancing immediate service fees to qualified dealers and financial professionals upon the sale of Class C shares. The fund also reimburses the Principal Underwriter for service fees paid on a quarterly basis to intermediaries, such as qualified dealers or financial professionals, in connection with investments in Class T, F-1, R-1, R-2, R-2E, R-3 and R-4 shares.

American Funds Retirement Income Portfolio Series — Page 61


Commissions, revenue or service fees retained by the Principal Underwriter after allowances or compensation to dealers were:

American Funds Retirement Income Portfolio — Conservative

       
 

Fiscal year

Commissions,
revenue
or fees retained

Allowance or
compensation
to dealers

Class A

2022

2021

2020

$346,000

509,000

365,000

$1,392,000

2,102,000

1,562,000

Class C

2022

2021

2020

104,000

219,000

404,000

312,000

American Funds Retirement Income Portfolio — Moderate

       
 

Fiscal year

Commissions,
revenue
or fees retained

Allowance or
compensation
to dealers

Class A

2022

2021

2020

$308,000

378,000

359,000

$1,227,000

1,540,000

1,493,000

Class C

2022

2021

2020

35,000

39,000

128,000

140,000

American Funds Retirement Income Portfolio — Enhanced

       
 

Fiscal year

Commissions,
revenue
or fees retained

Allowance or
compensation
to dealers

Class A

2022

2021

2020

$339,000

339,000

272,000

$1,379,000

1,389,000

1,107,000

Class C

2022

2021

2020

32,000

72,000

97,000

146,000

121,000

Plans of distribution — The series has adopted plans of distribution (the “Plans”) pursuant to rule 12b-1 under the 1940 Act. The Plans permit the series to expend amounts to finance any activity primarily intended to result in the sale of fund shares, provided the series’ board of trustees has approved the category of expenses for which payment is being made.

Each Plan is specific to a particular share class of the series. As the series has not adopted a Plan for Class F-2, F-3, R-5E, R-5 or R-6, no 12b-1 fees are paid from Class F-2, F-3, R-5E, R-5 or R-6 share assets and the following disclosure is not applicable to these share classes.

Payments under the Plans may be made for service-related and/or distribution-related expenses. Service-related expenses include paying service fees to qualified dealers. Distribution-related expenses include commissions paid to qualified dealers. The amounts actually paid under the Plans for the past fiscal year, expressed as a percentage of each fund’s average daily net assets attributable to the applicable share class, are disclosed in the prospectus under “Fees and expenses of the fund.” Further information regarding the amounts available under each Plan is in the “Plans of Distribution” section of the prospectus.

American Funds Retirement Income Portfolio Series — Page 62


Following is a brief description of the Plans:

Class A — For Class A shares, up to .25% of the series’ average daily net assets attributable to such shares is reimbursed to the Principal Underwriter for paying service-related expenses, and the balance available under the applicable Plan may be paid to the Principal Underwriter for distribution-related expenses. The series may annually expend up to .30% for Class A shares under the applicable Plan.

Distribution-related expenses for Class A shares include dealer commissions and wholesaler compensation paid on sales of shares of $1 million or more purchased without a sales charge. Commissions on these “no load” purchases (which are described in further detail under the “Sales Charges” section of this statement of additional information) in excess of the Class A Plan limitations and not reimbursed to the Principal Underwriter during the most recent fiscal quarter are recoverable for 15 months, provided that the reimbursement of such commissions does not cause the series to exceed the annual expense limit. After 15 months, these commissions are not recoverable.

Class T — For Class T shares, the fund may annually expend up to .50% under the applicable Plan; however, the fund’s board of trustees has approved payments to the Principal Underwriter of: up to .25% of the fund’s average daily net assets attributable to Class T shares for paying service-related expenses.

Other share classes — The Plans for each of the other share classes that have adopted Plans provide for payments to the Principal Underwriter for paying service-related and distribution-related expenses of up to the following amounts of the series’ average daily net assets attributable to such shares:

       




Share class


Service
related
payments1


Distribution
related
payments1

Total
allowable
under
the Plans2

Class C

0.25%

0.75%

1.00%

Class F-1

0.25

0.50

Class R-1

0.25

0.75

1.00

Class R-2

0.25

0.50

1.00

Class R-2E

0.25

0.35

0.85

Class R-3

0.25

0.25

0.75

Class R-4

0.25

0.50

1 Amounts in these columns represent the amounts approved by the board of trustees under the applicable Plan.

2 The series may annually expend the amounts set forth in this column under the current Plans with the approval of the board of trustees.

Payment of service fees — For purchases of less than $1 million, payment of service fees to investment dealers generally begins accruing immediately after establishment of an account in Class A or C shares. For purchases of $1 million or more, payment of service fees to investment dealers generally begins accruing 12 months after establishment of an account in Class A shares. Service fees are not paid on certain investments made at net asset value including accounts established by registered representatives and their family members as described in the “Sales charges” section of the prospectus.

American Funds Retirement Income Portfolio Series — Page 63


During the 2022 fiscal year, 12b-1 expenses accrued and paid, and if applicable, unpaid, were:

American Funds Retirement Income Portfolio — Conservative

     
 

12b-1 expenses

12b-1 unpaid liability
outstanding

Class A

$2,990,000

$245,000

Class C

1,491,000

113,000

Class T

Class F-1

75,000

6,000

Class R-1

18,000

1,000

Class R-2

11,000

1,000

Class R-2E

1,000

—*

Class R-3

14,000

1,000

Class R-4

19,000

3,000

*Amount less than $1,000.

American Funds Retirement Income Portfolio — Moderate

     
 

12b-1 expenses

12b-1 unpaid liability
outstanding

Class A

$3,215,000

$258,000

Class C

1,125,000

86,000

Class T

Class F-1

51,000

4,000

Class R-1

18,000

1,000

Class R-2

18,000

2,000

Class R-2E

—*

—*

Class R-3

15,000

8,000

Class R-4

4,000

—*

*Amount less than $1,000.

American Funds Retirement Income Portfolio — Enhanced

     
 

12b-1 expenses

12b-1 unpaid liability
outstanding

Class A

$3,366,000

$295,000

Class C

963,000

73,000

Class T

Class F-1

65,000

5,000

Class R-1

8,000

1,000

Class R-2

27,000

2,000

Class R-2E

2,000

—*

Class R-3

16,000

2,000

Class R-4

9,000

8,000

*Amount less than $1,000.

American Funds Retirement Income Portfolio Series — Page 64


Approval of the Plans — As required by rule 12b-1 and the 1940 Act, the Plans (together with the Principal Underwriting Agreement) have been approved by the full board of trustees and separately by a majority of the independent trustees of the series who have no direct or indirect financial interest in the operation of the Plans or the Principal Underwriting Agreement. In addition, the selection and nomination of independent trustees of the series are committed to the discretion of the independent trustees during the existence of the Plans.

Potential benefits of the Plans to the series and its shareholders include enabling shareholders to obtain advice and other services from a financial professional at a reasonable cost, the likelihood that the Plans will stimulate sales of the series benefiting the investment process through growth or stability of assets and the ability of shareholders to choose among various alternatives in paying for sales and service. The Plans may not be amended to materially increase the amount spent for distribution without shareholder approval. Plan expenses are reviewed quarterly by the board of trustees and the Plans must be renewed annually by the board of trustees.

A portion of the series’ 12b-1 expense is paid to financial professionals to compensate them for providing ongoing services. If you have questions regarding your investment in the fund or need assistance with your account, please contact your financial professional. If you need a financial professional, please call American Funds Distributors at (800) 421-4120 for assistance.

American Funds Retirement Income Portfolio Series — Page 65


Other compensation to dealers — As of March 31, 2022, the top dealers (or their affiliates) that American Funds Distributors anticipates will receive additional compensation (as described in the prospectus) include:

   

Advisor Group

 

FSC Securities Corporation