Wasatch Funds Trust

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STATEMENT OF ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

WASATCH FUNDS TRUST

505 Wakara Way, 3rd Floor

Salt Lake City, UT 84108

 

         Investor Class            Institutional Class

Wasatch Core Growth Fund®

   WGROX    WIGRX

Wasatch Emerging India Fund ®

   WAINX    WIINX

Wasatch Emerging Markets Select Fund®

   WAESX    WIESX

Wasatch Emerging Markets Small Cap Fund®

   WAEMX    WIEMX

Wasatch Frontier Emerging Small Countries Fund®

   WAFMX    WIFMX

Wasatch Global Opportunities Fund®

   WAGOX    WIGOX

Wasatch Global Select Fund®

   WAGSX    WGGSX

Wasatch Global Value Fund®

   FMIEX    WILCX

Wasatch Greater China Fund®

   WAGCX    WGGCX

Wasatch International Growth Fund®

   WAIGX    WIIGX

Wasatch International Opportunities Fund®

   WAIOX    WIIOX

Wasatch International Select Fund®

   WAISX    WGISX

Wasatch Long/Short Alpha FundTM

   WALSX    WGLSX

Wasatch Micro Cap Fund®

   WMICX    WGICX

Wasatch Micro Cap Value Fund®

   WAMVX    WGMVX

Wasatch Small Cap Growth Fund®

   WAAEX    WIAEX

Wasatch Small Cap Value Fund®

   WMCVX    WICVX

Wasatch Ultra Growth Fund®

   WAMCX    WGMCX

Wasatch U.S. Select FundTM

   WAUSX    WGUSX

Wasatch-Hoisington U.S. Treasury Fund®

   WHOSX    -

January 31, 2023

WASATCH FUNDS TRUST (“Wasatch Funds” or the “Trust”) is an open-end management investment company issuing shares in 20 separate series or “Funds”, each of which is publicly offered and are described herein: Wasatch Core Growth Fund® (the “Core Growth Fund”), Wasatch Emerging India Fund® (the “Emerging India Fund”), Wasatch Emerging Markets Select Fund® (the “Emerging Markets Select Fund”), Wasatch Emerging Markets Small Cap Fund® (the “Emerging Markets Small Cap Fund”), Wasatch Frontier Emerging Small Countries Fund® (the “Frontier Emerging Small Countries Fund”), Wasatch Global Opportunities Fund® (the “Global Opportunities Fund”), Wasatch Global Select Fund® (the “Global Select Fund”), Wasatch Global Value Fund® (the “Global Value Fund”), Wasatch Greater China Fund® (the “Greater China Fund”), Wasatch International Growth Fund® (the “International Growth Fund”), Wasatch International Opportunities Fund® (the “International Opportunities Fund”), Wasatch International Select Fund® (the “International Select Fund”), Wasatch Long/Short Alpha FundTM (the “Long/Short Alpha Fund”), Wasatch Micro Cap Fund® (the “Micro Cap Fund”), Wasatch Micro Cap Value Fund® (the “Micro Cap Value Fund”), Wasatch Small Cap Growth Fund® (the “Small Cap Growth Fund”), Wasatch Small Cap Value Fund® (the “Small Cap Value Fund”), Wasatch Ultra Growth Fund® (the “Ultra Growth Fund”), Wasatch U.S. Select FundTM (the “U.S. Select Fund”), and Wasatch-Hoisington U.S. Treasury Fund® (the “U.S. Treasury Fund”).

This Statement of Additional Information (the “SAI”) relates to the Institutional Class and Investor Class shares of the Funds. This is not a Prospectus but contains information in addition to, and more detailed than, that set forth in the Prospectus for the Institutional Class and the Investor Class shares of the Funds and should be read in conjunction with the Prospectus. A Prospectus may be obtained by downloading it from Wasatch Funds’ website at wasatchglobal.com or without charge by calling 800.551.1700 or writing to Wasatch Funds at P.O. Box 2172, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53201-2172. The SAI and the related Prospectus are both dated January 31, 2023. Capitalized terms used herein and not defined have the same meanings as those used in the Prospectus.

The audited financial statements for the Funds appear in the Funds’ annual report for its most recent fiscal year ended September 30, 2022. The financial statements from the foregoing annual report are incorporated herein by reference. Shareholders may obtain a copy of the annual report dated September 30, 2022 of the Wasatch Funds, without charge, by calling 800.551.1700 or by downloading it from Wasatch Funds’ website at wasatchglobal.com.

P.O. Box 2172 Milwaukee, WI 53201-2172 ● wasatchglobal.com

Phone: 800.551.1700

Wasatch Funds are distributed by ALPS Distributors, Inc.

 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

GENERAL INFORMATION AND HISTORY      3  
FUND INVESTMENTS      3  
INVESTMENT STRATEGIES AND RISKS      4  
FUND RESTRICTIONS AND POLICIES      46  
MANAGEMENT OF THE TRUST      52  
CONTROL PERSONS AND PRINCIPAL HOLDERS OF SECURITIES      61  
INVESTMENT ADVISORY AND OTHER SERVICES      71  
PORTFOLIO MANAGERS      77  
BROKERAGE ALLOCATION AND OTHER PRACTICES      82  
OTHER INFORMATION      86  
PURCHASE, REDEMPTION AND PRICING OF SECURITIES BEING OFFERED      88  
FEDERAL TAX STATUS      92  
MATTERS RELATED TO INDIA      97  
REGISTRATION STATEMENT      98  
FINANCIAL STATEMENTS      98  
APPENDIX A      99  
APPENDIX B      102  

 

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GENERAL INFORMATION AND HISTORY

Wasatch Funds was incorporated under Utah law on November 18, 1986 and reincorporated as a Minnesota corporation in January 1998 and reorganized into a Massachusetts business trust on March 31, 2010. The Core Growth Fund, Small Cap Growth Fund and U.S. Treasury Fund commenced operations on December 6, 1986, the Ultra Growth Fund on August 16, 1992, the Micro Cap Fund on June 19, 1995, the Small Cap Value Fund on December 17, 1997, the International Growth Fund on June 28, 2002, the Micro Cap Value Fund on July 28, 2003, the International Opportunities Fund on January 27, 2005, the Emerging Markets Small Cap Fund on October 1, 2007, the Global Opportunities Fund on November 17, 2008, the Global Value Fund (formerly Wasatch Large Cap Value Fund and 1st Source Monogram Income Equity Fund) on December 15, 2008, the Emerging India Fund on April 26, 2011, the Frontier Emerging Small Countries Fund on January 31, 2012, the Emerging Markets Select Fund on December 13, 2012, the Global Select Fund and the International Select Fund on October 1, 2019, the Greater China Fund on November 30, 2020, the Long/Short Alpha Fund on October 1, 2021, and the U.S. Select Fund on June 13, 2022.

The Global Value Fund commenced operations on December 15, 2008, the date of the acquisition of the assets and liabilities of the 1st Source Monogram Income Equity Fund, a series of the Coventry Group, a registered investment company. With the reorganization, the Global Value Fund assumed the financial and performance history of the 1st Source Monogram Income Equity Fund. Effective September 19, 2008, the 1st Source Monogram Income Equity Fund changed its fiscal year end to September 30. Effective September 21, 2018, the Global Value Fund acquired the assets and liabilities of the Wasatch Long/Short Fund, a series of the Trust. As of the date of each acquisition, all of the holders of issued and outstanding shares of the 1st Source Monogram Income Equity Fund and the Wasatch Long/Short Fund received shares of the Global Value Fund.

Each Fund is advised by Wasatch Advisors LP doing business as Wasatch Global Investors (the “Advisor”). The U.S. Treasury Fund is sub-advised by Hoisington Investment Management Company (“HIMCo”). HIMCo is referred to herein as a “Sub-Advisor.”

On November 9, 2011, the Trust re-designated the existing shares of the Funds into the Investor Class shares, and authorized and designated a new Institutional Class of shares in the Funds, effective January 31, 2012. This SAI is for both the Institutional Class and Investor Class shares of the Funds. Currently, all Funds except the U.S. Treasury Fund offer Institutional Class shares. Information about Investor Class shares and Institutional Class shares is available online at wasatchglobal.com, or by calling Wasatch Funds at 800.551.1700.

Open/Closed Status of Funds. The Core Growth Fund, Emerging India Fund, Emerging Markets Select Fund, Emerging Markets Small Cap Fund, Frontier Emerging Small Countries Fund, Global Opportunities Fund, Global Select Fund, Global Value Fund, Greater China Fund, International Growth Fund, International Opportunities Fund, International Select Fund, Long/Short Alpha Fund, Micro Cap Fund, Micro Cap Value Fund, Small Cap Growth Fund, Small Cap Value Fund, Ultra Growth Fund, U.S. Select Fund, and U.S. Treasury Fund are each open to investors.

FUND INVESTMENTS

Wasatch Funds is a registered open-end management investment company currently offering 20 separate Funds. Each Fund except the Emerging India Fund, Emerging Markets Select Fund, Emerging Markets Small Cap Fund, Frontier Emerging Small Countries Fund, Greater China Fund, International Select Fund, Long/Short Alpha Fund, and U.S. Select Fund is a diversified fund. The Emerging India Fund, Emerging Markets Select Fund, Emerging Markets Small Cap Fund, Frontier Emerging Small Countries Fund, Greater China Fund, International Select Fund, Long/Short Alpha Fund, and U.S. Select Fund are each a non-diversified fund, which means that the Fund is permitted to invest its assets in a more limited number of issuers than other diversified investment companies.

Each Fund intends to diversify its assets to the extent necessary to qualify for tax treatment as a regulated investment company under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”). To so qualify (i) not more than 25% of the total value of each Fund’s assets may be invested in the securities of any one issuer (other than U.S. government securities and the securities of other regulated investment companies) or of any two or more issuers controlled by each of the Funds, which, pursuant to the regulations under the Code, may be deemed to be engaged in the same, similar, or related trades or

 

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businesses, and (ii) with respect to 50% of the total value of each Fund’s assets (a) not more than 5% of its total assets may be invested in the securities of any one issuer (other than U.S. government securities and the securities of other regulated investment companies) and (b) each Fund may not own more than 10% of the outstanding voting securities of any one issuer (other than U.S. government securities and the securities of other regulated investment companies).

The Core Growth Fund, Emerging India Fund, Emerging Markets Select Fund, Emerging Markets Small Cap Fund, Frontier Emerging Small Countries Fund, Global Opportunities Fund, Global Select Fund, Global Value Fund, Greater China Fund, International Growth Fund, International Opportunities Fund, International Select Fund, Long/Short Alpha Fund, Micro Cap Fund, Micro Cap Value Fund, Small Cap Growth Fund, Small Cap Value Fund, Ultra Growth Fund, and U.S. Select Fund are each referred to as an equity fund (each, an “Equity Fund,” and collectively, the “Equity Funds”). The U.S. Treasury Fund is a “Bond Fund.”

The Prospectus has a description concerning the investment objectives and policies of each of the Funds. The investment policies of the Funds, unless specifically designated as fundamental, are non-fundamental policies and may be changed by the Board of Trustees of the Trust (the “Board” or the “Board of Trustees”) without the authorization of the Fund’s shareholders. There can be no assurance that any Fund will achieve its objective or goal.

Fund Names and Investment Policies. The Emerging India Fund, Emerging Markets Select Fund, Emerging Markets Small Cap Fund, Frontier Emerging Small Countries Fund, Greater China Fund, Micro Cap Fund, Micro Cap Value Fund, Small Cap Growth Fund, Small Cap Value Fund, U.S. Treasury Fund, and U.S. Select Fund each have names that suggest a focus on a particular type of investment. In accordance with Rule 35d-1 under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “1940 Act”), each of these Funds has adopted a policy that it will, under normal circumstances, invest at least 80% of its assets in investments of the type suggested by its name. For this policy, “assets” means net assets plus the amount of any borrowings for investment purposes. In addition, in appropriate circumstances, synthetic investments may be included in the 80% basket if they have economic characteristics similar to the other investments included in the basket. A Fund’s policy to invest at least 80% of its assets in such a manner is not a “fundamental” one, which means that it may be changed without a vote of a majority of the Fund’s outstanding shares as defined in the 1940 Act. However, under Rule 35d-1, shareholders must be given written notice of at least 60 days prior to any change by a Fund of its 80% investment policy.

INVESTMENT STRATEGIES AND RISKS

Each of the Funds’ principal investment strategies and the risks associated with those strategies are described in the Prospectus. The following section describes in greater detail than the Prospectus, the Funds’ investment strategies and the associated risks. Unless noted otherwise, the investment strategies and risks described in this section are non-principal.

Borrowing to Purchase Securities (Leveraging). The Equity Funds may use leverage, that is, borrow money to purchase securities. Leverage increases both investment opportunity and investment risk. If the investment gains on securities purchased with borrowed money exceed the borrowing costs (including interest), the net asset value (“NAV”) of a Fund will rise. On the other hand, if the investment gains fail to cover the borrowing costs or if there are losses, the NAV of a Fund will decrease.

The 1940 Act requires borrowings to have 300% net asset coverage, which means, in effect, that each Fund would be permitted to borrow up to an amount equal to one-third of the value of its total assets. If a Fund fails to meet this asset coverage test for any reason including adverse market conditions, it will be required to reduce borrowings within three business days to the extent necessary to meet the test. This requirement may make it necessary to sell a portion of a Fund’s securities at a time when it is disadvantageous to do so. The amount a Fund can borrow may also be limited by applicable margin limitations of the Federal Reserve Board. Briefly, these provide that banks subject to the Federal Reserve Act may not make loans for the purpose of buying or carrying margin stocks if the loan is secured directly or indirectly by a margin stock, to the extent that the loan is greater than the maximum loan value of the collateral securing the loan.

Despite the potential risks of leveraging, the Advisor believes there may be times when it may be advantageous to the applicable Funds to borrow to make investments. For example, when a portfolio manager perceives unusual opportunities in the market or in a particular sector, the portfolio manager may want to be more than 100% invested. Borrowing may also

 

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be considered when stock prices and trading volume are not favorable for securities a portfolio manager wants to sell, but stock prices and trading volume are favorable for securities the portfolio manager wants to buy. In these situations, which arise infrequently, borrowing may allow a portfolio manager to take advantage of favorable opportunities to purchase desired securities without having to sell securities at unfavorable prices.

The Trust, on behalf of its Funds, has entered into a committed line of credit in an amount of up to $100,000,000 and an uncommitted line of credit in an amount of up to $200,000,000 with the Funds’ custodian which expires annually unless extended or renewed. The Funds may borrow under the credit agreements generally to meet shareholder redemptions, to finance temporarily the purchase or sale of securities for prompt delivery if the loan is repaid promptly in the ordinary course of business upon completion of such purchase or sale transaction and for other temporary and emergency purposes consistent with the respective fund’s investment objectives and fundamental investment restrictions. Borrowing results in interest expense and being a participating Fund results in other fees and expenses, which may increase the Fund’s net expenses and reduce the Fund’s return. In addition, borrowing by the Fund may create leverage increasing the Fund’s investment exposure and may result in changes to the Fund’s NAV, either positive or negative, being greater than they would have been if the Fund had not borrowed. Commitment fees (generally fees calculated on the unused portion of the committed credit line) and certain expenses are apportioned pro rata based on average net assets of participating Funds and repayment and interest payments on amounts drawn by a participating fund are borne by that fund. The Trust’s Board shall approve any adjustment to the apportionment methodology for the commitment fee. Loans under the facilities will be allocated on a first come, first serve basis. If the demand for funds exceeds the amount available under the facilities, loans will be apportioned pro-rata based on average net assets of the Funds and the amount requested, unless the Board determines otherwise.

Convertible Securities. Each Fund (except the U.S. Treasury Fund) may invest in convertible securities, but it is a non-principal strategy of each of these Funds and not considered a principal risk. The U.S. Treasury Fund does not invest in convertible securities. These are generally bonds or preferred stocks that are convertible into a corporation’s common stock at a predetermined price. Convertible securities entitle the holder to receive interest paid or accrued on debt or the dividend paid on preferred stock until the convertible securities mature or are redeemed, converted or exchanged. Prior to conversion, convertible securities have characteristics similar to ordinary debt securities or preferred stocks in that they normally provide a stable stream of income with generally higher yields than those of common stock of the same or similar issuers. Convertible securities rank senior to common stock in a corporation’s capital structure and therefore generally entail less risk of loss of principal than the corporation’s common stock.

In selecting convertible securities for the Funds, the Advisor will consider, among other factors, its evaluation of the creditworthiness of the issuers of the securities; the interest or dividend income generated by the securities; the potential for capital appreciation of the securities and the underlying common stocks; the prices of the securities relative to other comparable securities and to the underlying common stocks; whether the securities are entitled to the benefits of sinking funds or other protective conditions; diversification of a Fund’s portfolio as to issuers; and whether the securities are rated by a rating agency and, if so, the ratings assigned.

The value of convertible securities is a function of their investment value (determined by yield in comparison with the yields of other securities of comparable maturity and quality that do not have a conversion privilege) and their conversion value (their worth, at market value, if converted into the underlying common stock). The investment value of convertible securities is influenced by changes in interest rates, with investment value declining as interest rates increase and increasing as interest rates decline, and by the credit standing of the issuer and other factors. The conversion value of convertible securities is determined by the market price of the underlying common stock. If the conversion value is low relative to the investment value, the price of the convertible securities is governed principally by their investment value. To the extent the market price of the underlying common stock approaches or exceeds the conversion price, the price of the convertible securities will be increasingly influenced by their conversion value. In addition, convertible securities generally sell at a premium over their conversion value determined by the extent to which investors place value on the right to acquire the underlying common stock while holding fixed income securities.

Capital appreciation for a Fund may result from an improvement in the credit standing of an issuer whose securities are held in the Fund or from a general lowering of interest rates, or a combination of both. Conversely, a reduction in the credit standing of an issuer whose securities are held by a Fund or a general increase in interest rates may be expected to result in

 

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capital depreciation to the Fund. Convertible securities may have mandatory sinking fund provisions prior to maturity, a negative feature when interest rates decline.

Refer to Appendix A for a description of preferred stock and long- and short-term debt ratings.

Corporate Bonds. All Funds (except the U.S. Treasury Fund) may invest in corporate bonds. The Funds may invest in corporate bonds that are rated, at the time of purchase, in the four highest categories by Moody’s Investors Service, Inc. (“Moody’s”), S&P Global Ratings, a division of McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. (“S&P”), or other nationally recognized statistical rating organizations (“NRSRO”) or unrated securities deemed by the Advisor to be of comparable quality. These high rated bonds are also known as “investment grade debt securities.” The Equity Funds (other than the Global Value Fund) may also invest in corporate bonds that are lower rated (Moody’s Ba or lower or S&P BB or lower). These lower rated bonds are also known as “non-investment grade debt securities” or “junk bonds.” Investments in corporate bonds are subject to, among other things, interest rate risk and credit risk. Interest rate risk is the risk that a debt security’s value will decline due to changes in market interest rates. When interest rates change, the values of longer-duration debt securities usually change more than the values of shorter-duration debt securities. Credit risk is the risk that the issuer of a debt security will fail to repay principal and interest on the security when due. Credit risk is affected by the issuer’s credit status and is generally higher for non-investment grade securities. See “Non-Investment Grade Securities” below for additional information regarding these securities and their risks. See also Appendix A for a description of ratings on investment grade and non-investment grade debt securities.

Derivatives. The Funds may use derivatives, such as futures, options, options on futures, and forward foreign currency exchange contracts but it is not a principal strategy of any Fund to invest in derivatives (except the Long/Short Alpha Fund engages in short sales as described below). A derivative generally is a financial instrument whose value is based on (or “derived from”), at least in part, a traditional security (such as a stock or bond), an asset (such as a commodity like gold), a market index (such as the S&P 500), a rate (e.g. the Euro Interbank Offered Rate), or the relative change in two or more reference assets, indices or rates. A derivative contract will obligate or entitle a Fund to deliver or receive an asset or cash payment based on the change in one or more securities, currencies, indices or other assets. The Equity Funds may use derivatives for hedging purposes, including to attempt to protect against possible changes in the market value of securities held or to be purchased for a Fund’s portfolio resulting from securities markets, currency exchange rate or interest rate fluctuations (i.e., to hedge); protect the Fund’s unrealized gains reflected in the value of its portfolio securities; facilitate the sale of such securities for investment purposes; and as a substitute for buying or selling securities, securities indices or currencies. The Equity Funds (other than the Global Value Fund) may also use derivatives for non-hedging (speculative) purposes including to enhance a Fund’s returns. An Equity Fund may use any or all of these investment techniques and different types of derivative securities may be purchased at any time and in any combination. There is no particular strategy that dictates the use of one technique rather than another, as use of derivatives is a function of numerous variables, including market conditions.

The regulation of the U.S. and non-U.S. derivatives markets has undergone substantial change in recent years and such change may continue. In particular, the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) recently adopted Rule 18f-4 (the “Derivatives Rule”) under the 1940 Act which established a new comprehensive framework for the use of derivatives by registered investment companies replacing the prior asset segregation regime. The Derivatives Rule defines derivatives transactions to include short sales and forward contracts in addition to instruments traditionally classified as derivatives, such as swaps, futures and options. The Derivatives Rule also regulates other types of leveraged transactions, such as reverse repurchase transactions and transactions deemed to be “similar to” reverse repurchase transactions. The Derivatives Rule also provides special treatment for reverse repurchase agreements, similar financing transactions and unfunded commitment agreements. Specifically, a fund may elect whether to treat reverse repurchase agreements and similar financing transactions as “derivatives transactions” subject to the requirements of the Derivatives Rule or as senior securities equivalent to bank borrowings for purposes of Section 18 of the 1940 Act. Repurchase agreements are not subject to the Derivatives Rule, but are still subject to other provisions of the 1940 Act. In addition, when-issued or forward settling securities transactions that physically settle within 35 days are deemed not to involve a senior security.

The Derivatives Rule permits a registered investment company, subject to various conditions described below, to enter into derivatives transactions and certain other transactions notwithstanding the restrictions on the issuance of “senior securities” under Section 18 of the 1940 Act. Section 18 of the 1940 Act, among other things, prohibits open-end funds, including a

 

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Fund, from issuing or selling any “senior security,” other than borrowing from a bank (subject to a requirement to maintain 300% “asset coverage”). Registered investment companies engaging in derivatives transactions that do not qualify as “limited derivatives users” as defined below, are required by the Derivatives Rule to, among other things, (i) adopt and implement a derivatives risk management program (“DRMP”) and new testing requirements; (ii) comply with a relative or absolute limit on fund leverage risk calculated based on value-at-risk (“VaR”); and (iii) comply with new requirements related to Board and SEC reporting. The DRMP is administered by a “derivatives risk manager,” who is appointed by the Board and periodically reviews the DRMP and reports to the Board. The Derivatives Rule provides an exception from the DRMP, VaR limit and certain other requirements for a registered investment company that limits its “derivatives exposure” to no more than 10% of its net assets (as calculated in accordance with the Derivatives Rule) (a “limited derivatives user”), provided that the registered investment company establishes appropriate policies and procedures reasonably designed to manage derivatives risks, including the risk of exceeding the 10% “derivatives exposure” threshold.

The requirements of the Derivatives Rule may limit a Fund’s ability to engage in derivatives transactions as part of its investment strategies. These requirements may also increase the cost of the Fund’s investments and cost of doing business, which could adversely affect the value of the Fund’s investments and/or the performance of the Fund. The rule also may not be effective to limit a Fund’s risk of loss. In particular, measurements of VaR rely on historical data and may not accurately measure the degree of risk reflected in the Fund’s derivatives or other investments. There may be additional regulation of the use of derivatives transactions by registered investment companies, which could significantly affect their use. The ultimate impact of the regulations remains unclear. Additional regulation of derivatives transactions may make them more costly, limit their availability or utility, and otherwise adversely affect their performance or disrupt markets.

The use of derivatives presents risks different from, and possibly greater than, the risks associated with investing directly in traditional securities. Among the risks presented are market risk, credit risk, management risk and liquidity risk. The primary risk with many derivatives is that they can amplify a gain or loss, potentially earning or losing substantially more money than the actual cost of the derivative instrument. These risks are heightened when the management team uses derivatives to enhance the Fund’s return or as a substitute for a position or security, rather than solely to hedge (or offset) the risk of a position or security held by the Fund. In addition, certain derivatives have the potential for unlimited losses regardless of the size of the initial investment. Derivatives also involve the risk of mispricing or improper valuations (particularly, for non-standardized contracts) and the risk that changes in the value of the derivative may not correlate perfectly with the relevant assets, rates and indices. Derivatives may also be less liquid and may be difficult or impossible to sell or terminate at a desirable time or price. Derivatives may also involve credit risk which is the risk that a loss may be sustained as a result of the failure of a counterparty to comply with the terms of a derivative instrument. The counterparty risk for exchange-traded derivatives is generally less than for privately-negotiated or over-the-counter (“OTC”) derivatives, since generally a clearing agency, which is the issuer or counterparty to each exchange-traded instrument, provides a guarantee of performance. For privately-negotiated instruments, there is no similar clearing agency guarantee. Use of derivatives may also increase the amount and affect the timing and character of taxes payable by shareholders. The Fund may lose money on derivatives or may not fully benefit from the use of derivatives if changes in their value do not correspond accurately to changes in the value of the Fund’s holdings. A Fund’s ability to benefit from derivatives is largely dependent on the Advisor’s or Sub-Advisor’s ability to use such strategies successfully. For more information about the various types of derivatives, see the sections in this SAI discussing such securities including Futures Contracts; Put and Call Options and Options and Futures Relating to Foreign Currencies.

Futures Contracts. The Equity Funds may enter into futures contracts. Futures contracts are standardized, exchange-traded contracts that require delivery of the underlying financial instrument (such as a bond, currency or stock index) at a specified price, on a specified future date. The buyer of the futures contract agrees to buy the underlying financial instruments from the seller at a fixed purchase price upon the expiration of the contract. The seller of the futures contract agrees to sell the underlying financial instrument to the buyer at expiration at the fixed sales price. In most cases, delivery never takes place. Instead, both the buyer and the seller, acting independently of each other, usually liquidate their positions before the contract expires; the buyer sells futures and the seller buys futures.

The value of a futures contract tends to increase and decrease in tandem with the value of its underlying instrument. Therefore, purchasing futures contracts will tend to increase a Fund’s exposure to positive and negative price fluctuations in the underlying instrument, much as if it had purchased the underlying instrument directly. When a

 

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Fund sells a futures contract, by contrast, the value of its futures position will tend to move in a direction contrary to the market. Selling futures contracts, therefore, will tend to offset both positive and negative market price changes, much as if the underlying instrument had been sold.

Futures may be used for hedging (i.e., to protect against adverse future price movements in a Fund’s portfolio securities, or in securities a Fund intends to purchase). For example, if the portfolio manager thinks that the stock market might decline, the portfolio manager could sell stock index futures to safeguard a Fund’s portfolio. If the market declines as anticipated, the value of stocks in a Fund’s portfolio would decrease, but the value of a Fund’s futures contracts would increase. The Equity Funds (other than the Global Value Fund) may also use futures contracts to speculate on the market. For example, the portfolio manager might buy stock index futures on the expectation that the value of a particular index will rise, even though the stocks comprising the index are unrelated to stocks held or intended to be purchased by a Fund. Using futures for speculation, however, involves significant risk since futures contracts are highly leveraged instruments. When a portfolio manager enters into a futures contract, the manager needs to put up only a small fraction of the value of the underlying contract as collateral, yet gains or losses will be based on the full value of the contract.

The use of futures contracts would expose the Equity Funds to additional investment risks and transaction costs. Risks include: the risk that securities prices will not move in the direction that the Advisor or Sub-Advisor anticipates; an imperfect correlation between the price of the futures contract and movements in the prices of any securities being hedged; the possible absence of a liquid secondary market for any particular futures contract and possible exchange-imposed price fluctuation limits; and leverage risk, which is the risk that adverse price movements in a futures contract can result in a loss substantially greater than a Fund’s initial investment in that contract. A relatively small price movement in a futures contract may result in an immediate and substantial loss (or gain) to the Fund.

Futures Margin Payments. The purchaser or seller of a futures contract is not required to deliver or pay for the underlying instrument unless the contract is held until the delivery date. However, both the purchaser and seller are required to deposit “initial margin” with a futures broker, known as a futures commission merchant (FCM), when the contract (or written options thereon) is entered into. Initial margin deposits are typically equal to a percentage of the contract’s value. If the value of either party’s position declines, that party will be required to make additional “variation margin” payments to settle the change in value on a daily basis. The party that has a gain may be entitled to receive all or a portion of this amount. Initial and variation margin payments do not constitute purchasing securities on margin for purposes of the investment limitations of the Equity Funds. In the event of the bankruptcy of an FCM that holds margin on behalf of a Fund, the Fund may be entitled to a return of the margin owed only in proportion to the amount received by the FCM’s other customers, potentially resulting in losses to the respective Fund. Because of the low margin deposits required, futures trading involves an extremely high degree of leverage. As a result, a relatively small price movement in a futures contract may result in a substantial loss (or gain), to an investor.

Options and Futures Relating to Foreign Currencies. The Equity Funds may engage in options and futures transactions related to foreign currencies. Currency futures contracts are similar to forward currency exchange contracts, except that they are traded on exchanges (and have margin requirements) and are standardized as to contract size and delivery date. Most currency futures contracts call for payment or delivery in U.S. dollars. The underlying instrument of a currency option may be a foreign currency, which generally is purchased or delivered in exchange for U.S. dollars, or may be a futures contract. The purchaser of a currency call obtains the right to purchase the underlying currency. The purchaser of a currency put obtains the right to sell the underlying currency.

The uses and risks of currency options and futures are similar to options and futures relating to securities or indices, as discussed above. The Equity Funds may purchase and sell currency futures and may purchase and write currency options to increase or decrease exposure to different foreign currencies. The Equity Funds may also purchase and write currency options in conjunction with each other or with currency futures or forward contracts. Currency futures and options values can be expected to correlate with exchange rates, but may not reflect other factors that affect the value of the Equity Funds’ investments. A currency hedge, for example, should protect a yen-denominated security from a decline in the yen, but will not protect the Equity Funds against a price decline resulting

 

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from deterioration in the issuer’s creditworthiness. Because the value of the Equity Funds’ foreign-denominated investments changes in response to many factors other than exchange rates, it may not be possible to match the amount of currency options and futures to the value of the Equity Funds’ investments exactly over time.

Limitations on Futures and Commodity Options Transactions. With respect to each Fund, the Adviser has filed a notice of eligibility for exclusion from the definition of the term commodity pool operator under Commodity Futures Trading Commission (“CFTC”) Rule 4.5 and therefore is not subject to registration or regulation as a commodity pool operator thereunder. The Funds intend to comply with Section 4.5 of the regulations under the Commodity Exchange Act to the extent necessary for the Advisor to claim the exclusion from regulation as a commodity pool operator with respect to each Fund under CFTC Rule 4.5, as such rule may be amended from time to time.

Under Rule 4.5 as currently in effect, each Fund will limit its trading activity in CFTC-regulated futures, options on futures, and swaps (“CFTC Derivatives”) (excluding activity for “bona fide hedging purposes,” as defined by the CFTC) such that it meets one of the following tests:

·        Aggregate initial margin and premiums required to establish its positions in CFTC Derivatives do not exceed 5% of the liquidation value of the Fund’s portfolio, after taking into account unrealized profits and losses on such positions (provided the in-the-money amounts for options that were in-the-money at the time of purchase may be excluded in the 5% computation); or

·        Aggregate net notional value of its positions in CFTC Derivatives does not exceed 100% of the liquidation value of the Fund’s portfolio, after taking into account unrealized profits and losses on such positions.

These limitations may restrict a Fund’s ability to pursue its investment strategy, increase the costs of implementing its strategy, increase its expenses and/or adversely affect its total return. The requirements for qualification as a regulated investment company may also limit the extent to which each Fund may invest in CFTC Derivatives. The Funds’ investments in futures contracts, commodity options and swaps, and the Funds’ policies regarding futures contracts, options and swaps discussed elsewhere in this SAI may be changed as regulatory agencies permit. If the CFTC or other regulatory authorities adopt different (including less stringent) or additional restrictions in the future that are applicable to the Funds, the Funds would seek to comply with such new restrictions.

Each Fund’s transactions in futures contracts and options will be subject to special provisions of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), that, among other things, may affect the character of gains and losses realized by a Fund (i.e., may affect whether gains or losses are ordinary or capital, or short-term or long-term), may accelerate recognition of income to a Fund and may defer Fund losses. These rules could, therefore, affect the character, amount and timing of distributions to shareholders.

Put and Call Options. The Equity Funds may purchase and write put and call options. Such options may relate to particular securities, indices or futures contracts, may or may not be listed on a domestic or non-U.S. securities exchange and may or may not be issued by the Options Clearing Corporation. A put option gives the purchaser the right to sell a security or other instrument to the writer of the option at a stated price during the term of the option. A call option gives the purchaser the right to purchase a security or other instrument from the writer of the option at a stated price during the term of the option. The Equity Funds may use put and call options for a variety of purposes. For example, if the portfolio manager wishes to hedge a security owned by a Fund against a decline in

 

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price, the portfolio manager may purchase a put option on the underlying security; i.e., purchase the right to sell the security to a third party at a stated price. If the underlying security then declines in price, the portfolio manager can exercise the put option, thus limiting the amount of loss resulting from the decline in price. Similarly, if the portfolio manager intends to purchase a security at some date in the future, the portfolio manager may purchase a call option on the security today in order to hedge against an increase in its price before the intended purchase date. Put and call options also can be used for speculative purposes for the Equity Funds (other than the Global Value Fund). For example, if a portfolio manager believes that the price of stocks generally is going to rise, the manager may purchase a call option on a stock index, the components of which are unrelated to the stocks held or intended to be purchased.

Purchasing Put and Call Options. The Equity Funds may purchase put and call options. By purchasing a put option, a Fund obtains the right (but not the obligation) to sell the option’s underlying instrument at a fixed strike price. In return for this right, the Fund pays the current market price for the option (known as the option premium). Options have various types of underlying instruments, including specific securities, indexes of securities prices and futures contracts. A Fund may terminate its position in a put option it has purchased by allowing it to expire, by exercising the option or if able, by selling the option. If the option is allowed to expire, the Fund will lose the entire premium it paid. If the Fund exercises the option, it completes the sale of the underlying instrument at the strike price. A Fund may also terminate a put option position by closing it out in the secondary market at its current price, if a liquid secondary market exists.

The buyer of a typical put option can expect to realize a gain if a security’s price falls substantially. However, if the underlying instrument’s price does not fall enough to offset the cost of purchasing the option, a put buyer can expect to suffer a loss (limited to the amount of the premium paid, plus related transaction costs).

The features of call options are essentially the same as those of put options, except that the purchaser of a call option obtains the right to purchase, rather than sell, the underlying instrument at the option’s strike price. A call buyer typically attempts to participate in potential price increases of the underlying instrument with risk limited to the cost of the option if the security’s price falls. At the same time, the buyer can expect to suffer a loss if the security’s price does not rise sufficiently to offset the cost of the option.

Each Fund will not invest more than 10% of the value of its net assets in purchased options.

Writing Put and Call Options. The Equity Funds may write (i.e., sell) put and call options. When a Fund writes a put option, it takes the opposite side of the transaction from the option’s purchaser. In return for receipt of the premium, the Fund assumes the obligation to pay the strike price for the option’s underlying instrument if the other party to the option chooses to exercise it. When writing an option on a futures contract the Fund would be required to make margin payments to an FCM as described above for futures contracts. The Fund may seek to terminate its position in put options it writes before exercise by closing out the option in the secondary market at its current price. If the secondary market is not liquid for put options the Fund has written, however, the Fund must continue to be prepared to pay the strike price while the option is outstanding, regardless of price changes. If the underlying security’s price rises, however, a put writer would generally expect to profit, although its gain would be limited to the amount of the premium it received.

If the security’s price remains the same over time, it is likely that the put writer will also profit, because it should be able to close out the option at a lower price. If the security’s price falls, the put writer would expect to suffer a loss. This loss should be less than the loss from purchasing the underlying instrument directly, however, because the premium received for writing the option should mitigate the effects of the decline.

Writing a call option obligates a Fund to sell or deliver the option’s underlying instrument, in return for the strike price, upon exercise of the option. The characteristics of writing call options are similar to those of writing put options, except that writing calls generally is a profitable strategy if prices remain the same or fall. Through receipt of the option premium, a call writer mitigates the effects of a price decline. At the same time, because a call writer must be prepared to deliver the underlying instrument in return for the strike price, even if its current value is greater, a call writer gives up some ability to participate in the security’s price increase.

 

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OTC Options. The Equity Funds may engage in OTC options transactions. Unlike exchange-traded options, which are standardized with respect to the underlying instrument, expiration date, contract size, and strike price, the terms of OTC options (options not traded on exchanges) generally are established through negotiation with the other party to the option contract. While this type of arrangement allows a Fund greater flexibility to tailor options to its needs, OTC options generally involve greater credit and default risk than exchange-traded options, which are guaranteed by the clearing organization of the exchanges where they are traded.

Additional Risks of Options and Futures Contracts.

Market Risk. Market risk is the risk that the value of the underlying assets may go up or down. Adverse movements in the value of an underlying asset can expose the Fund to losses. Market risk is the primary risk associated with derivative transactions, such as futures and options. Derivative instruments may include elements of leverage and, accordingly, fluctuations in the value of the derivative instrument in relation to the underlying asset may be magnified. The successful use of futures and options depends upon a variety of factors, particularly the portfolio manager’s ability to predict movements of the securities, currencies and commodities markets, which may require different skills than predicting changes in the prices of individual securities. There can be no assurance that any particular strategy adopted will succeed.

Credit Risk. Credit risk is the risk that a loss may be sustained as a result of the failure of a counterparty to comply with the terms of a derivative instrument. The counterparty risk for exchange-traded derivatives is generally less than for privately-negotiated or OTC derivatives, since generally a clearing agency, which is the issuer or counterparty to each exchange-traded instrument, provides a guarantee of performance. For privately-negotiated instruments, there is no similar clearing agency guarantee. In all transactions, the Fund will bear the risk that the counterparty will default, and this could result in a loss of the expected benefit of the derivative transactions and possibly other losses to the Fund.

Lack of Correlation of Price Changes. Because there are a limited number of types of exchange-traded options and futures contracts, it is likely that the standardized contracts available will not match a Fund’s current or anticipated investments exactly. The Equity Funds may invest in options and futures contracts based on securities with different issuers, maturities, or other characteristics from the securities in which they typically invest, which involve a risk that the respective Fund’s options or futures positions will not track the performance of the Fund’s other investments.

Options and futures prices can also diverge from the prices of their underlying instruments, even if the underlying instruments match the Fund’s investments well. Options and futures prices are affected by such factors as current and anticipated short-term interest rates, changes in volatility of the underlying instrument, and the time remaining until expiration of the contract, which may not affect a security’s price the same way. Imperfect correlation may also result from differing levels of demand in the options and futures markets and the securities markets, from structural differences in how options, futures and securities are traded, or from imposition of daily price fluctuation limits or trading halts. The Equity Funds may purchase or sell options and futures contracts with a greater or lesser value than the securities they wish to hedge or intend to purchase in order to attempt to compensate for differences in volatility between the contract and the securities, although this may not be successful in all cases. If price changes in a Fund’s options or futures positions are poorly correlated with other investments, the positions may fail to produce anticipated gains or result in losses that are not offset by gains in other investments.

Liquidity of Options and Futures Contracts. There is no assurance that a liquid secondary market will exist for any particular option or futures contract at any particular time. Options may have relatively low trading volume and liquidity if their strike prices are not close to the underlying instrument’s current price. In addition, exchanges may establish daily price fluctuation limits for options and futures contracts, and may halt trading if a contract’s price moves upward or downward more than the limit in a given day. On volatile trading days when the price fluctuation limit is reached or a trading halt is imposed, it may be impossible for the respective Fund to enter into new positions or close out existing positions. In addition, if unable to close a future position, in the event of adverse price movements, a Fund would be required to make daily cash payments in order to maintain its required margin. In such situation, if a Fund has insufficient cash, it may have to sell other portfolio securities at an

 

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inopportune time to meet daily margin requirements. If the secondary market for a contract is not liquid because of price fluctuation limits or otherwise, it could prevent prompt liquidation of unfavorable positions, and potentially could require the applicable Fund to continue to hold a position or maintain assets in a segregated account until delivery or expiration regardless of changes in its value. There is no assurance that any derivative position can be sold or closed out at a time and price that is favorable to a Fund.

Systematic or “Interconnection Risk”. Systematic or interconnection risk is the risk that a disruption in the financial markets will cause difficulties for all market participants. In other words, a disruption in one market will spill over into other markets, perhaps creating a chain reaction. Much of the OTC derivatives market takes place among the OTC dealers themselves, thus creating a large interconnected web of financial obligations. This interconnectedness raises the possibility that a default by one large dealer could create losses for other dealers and destabilize the entire market for OTC derivative instruments.

Leverage Risk. Leverage risk is the risk that a Fund may be more volatile than if it had not been leveraged due to leverage’s tendency to exaggerate the effect of any increase or decrease in the value of the Fund’s portfolio securities. The use of leverage may also cause a Fund to liquidate portfolio positions when it may not be advantageous to do so to satisfy its obligations or to meet segregation requirements.

Regulatory Risk. The Dodd-Frank Act Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the “Dodd-Frank Act”) had initiated a dramatic revision of the U.S. financial regulatory framework and covered a broad range of topics, including (among many others) a reorganization of federal financial regulators; a process intended to improve financial systemic stability and the resolution of potentially insolvent financial firms; and new rules for derivatives trading. In particular, the Dodd-Frank Act made broad changes to the OTC derivatives market, granted significant authority to the SEC and the CFTC to regulate OTC derivatives and market participants, and requires clearing and exchange trading of many OTC derivatives transactions. Requirements, such as capital requirements and mandatory clearing of OTC derivatives transactions, may impact the costs to a Fund of trading these instruments and, as a result, may affect returns to investors in the Fund. As noted, the new Derivatives Rule also was recently adopted establishing a new comprehensive framework for the use of derivatives by investment companies. Instruments in which a Fund may invest, the issuers of such instruments, or investment strategies of a Fund may be affected by this legislation, rule and related regulations in ways that are unforeseeable and the ultimate impact from these regulatory actions remain uncertain.

Exchange-Traded Funds (“ETFs”). The Equity Funds may invest in ETFs. ETFs are investment companies, the shares of which are bought and sold on a securities exchange but it is not a principal strategy of any Fund to invest in ETFs. The securities of an ETF are redeemable only in larger aggregation of a specified number of shares and generally on an in-kind basis. Generally, certain ETFs may represent a portfolio of securities designed to track the composition and/or performance of specific indexes or portfolio of specific indexes, while other ETFs may be actively managed that do not track an index (generally referred to as actively-managed ETFs). The market prices of ETF investments will fluctuate in accordance with both changes in the underlying portfolio securities of the investment company and also due to supply and demand of the investment company’s shares on the exchange upon which its shares are traded. The market price of an ETF may trade at a premium or discount to its net asset value. Index-based investments may not replicate or otherwise match the composition or performance of their specified index due to transaction costs, among other things. Examples of ETFs include: SPDRs®, Select Sector SPDRs®, DIAMONDSSM, NASDAQ 100 Shares and iShares.

There are many reasons why a Fund would purchase an ETF. For example, a Fund could purchase an ETF to temporarily gain exposure to a portion of the U.S. market or a foreign market while awaiting an opportunity to purchase securities directly. The risks of owning an ETF generally reflect the risks of owning the underlying securities in which the ETF invests and the investment strategies of the ETF. However, lack of liquidity in an ETF could result in it being more volatile than the underlying portfolio of securities. In addition, ETFs have operating expenses, including management fees that increase their costs versus the costs of owning the underlying securities directly. As the shares of the ETFs trade on an exchange, they are subject to the risks of any exchange-listed security, including: (i) an active market for its shares may not develop or be maintained, (ii) market makers or authorized participants may decide to reduce their role or step away from these activities in times of stress, (iii) trading of its shares may be halted by the exchange, and (iv) its shares may be delisted from

 

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the exchange. The Funds may purchase ETFs to the extent permitted by the 1940 Act or rules thereunder. See also the description in “Securities of Other Investment Companies” below.

Foreign Currency Transactions. The Equity Funds may hold foreign currency deposits from time to time and may convert dollars and foreign currencies in the foreign exchange markets primarily for the purpose of effecting foreign securities transactions. Because each foreign security transaction involves a foreign currency transaction, if investments in foreign securities are a principal investment strategy of a Fund, then foreign currency transactions will be part of executing this principal strategy of the Fund. Currency conversion may involve dealer spreads and other costs, although commissions usually are not charged. Additionally, certain countries may utilize formal or informal currency-exchange controls or “capital controls.” Capital controls may impose restrictions on a Fund’s ability to repatriate investments or income. Such capital controls can also have a significant effect on the value of a Fund’s holdings or cash held in the foreign jurisdiction. Currencies may be exchanged on a spot (i.e., cash) basis, or by entering into forward contracts to purchase or sell foreign currencies at a future date and price. Forward contracts generally are traded on an interbank market conducted directly between currency traders (usually large commercial banks) and their customers. The parties to a forward contract may agree to offset or terminate the contract before its maturity, or may hold the contract to maturity and complete the contemplated currency exchange.

The Equity Funds may use currency forward contracts to manage currency risks and to facilitate transactions in foreign securities. The following discussion summarizes the principal currency management strategies involving forward contracts that could be used by the Equity Funds.

In connection with purchases and sales of securities denominated in foreign currencies, the Equity Funds may enter into currency forward contracts to fix a definite price for the purchase or sale in advance of the trade’s settlement date. This technique is sometimes referred to as a “settlement hedge” or “transaction hedge.” The Advisor with respect to the Equity Funds expects to enter into settlement hedges in the normal course of managing the respective Fund’s foreign investments. The Equity Funds could also enter into forward contracts to purchase or sell a foreign currency in anticipation of future purchases or sales of securities denominated in foreign currency, even if the specific investments have not yet been selected by the Advisor.

The Equity Funds may also use forward contracts to hedge against a decline in the value of existing investments denominated in a foreign currency. For example, if the Funds owned securities denominated in pounds sterling, they could enter into a forward contract to sell pounds sterling in return for U.S. dollars to hedge against possible declines in the pound’s value. Such a hedge, sometimes referred to as a “position hedge,” would tend to offset both positive and negative currency fluctuations but would not offset changes in security values caused by other factors. The Funds could also hedge the position by selling another currency expected to perform similarly to the pound sterling—for example, by entering into a forward contract to sell European Currency Units in return for U.S. dollars. This type of hedge, sometimes referred to as a “proxy hedge,” could offer advantages in terms of cost, yield, or efficiency, but generally would not hedge currency exposure as effectively as a simple hedge into U.S. dollars. Proxy hedges may result in losses if the currency used to hedge does not perform similarly to the currency in which the hedged securities are denominated.

SEC guidelines require mutual funds to set aside appropriate liquid assets in a segregated custodial account to cover forward currency contracts.

Successful use of forward currency contracts will depend on the Advisor’s skill in analyzing and predicting currency values. Forward contracts may substantially change the respective Fund’s investment exposure to changes in currency exchange rates, and could result in losses to the Fund if currencies do not perform as the Advisor anticipates. For example, if a currency’s value rose at a time when the Advisor had hedged the Equity Funds by selling that currency in exchange for U.S. dollars, the Funds would be unable to participate in the currency’s appreciation. If the Advisor hedges currency exposure through proxy hedges, the Funds could realize currency losses from the hedge and the security position at the same time if the two currencies do not move in tandem. Similarly, if the Advisor increases the applicable Fund’s exposure to a foreign currency, and that currency’s value declines, the Funds will realize a loss. There is no assurance that the Advisor’s use of forward currency contracts will be advantageous to the Equity Funds or that it will hedge at an appropriate time. The policies related to foreign currency transactions described in this section are non-fundamental policies of the Equity Funds.

 

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Foreign Securities. Investing in foreign securities (whether issued by foreign companies directly or through sponsored or un-sponsored American Depositary Receipts, Global Depositary Receipts or European Depositary Receipts) is a principal strategy of each Equity Fund (subject to the following for the Long/Short Alpha Fund) and investing in foreign securities may therefore be considered a principal risk of such Equity Funds. The Long/Short Alpha Fund may invest directly in securities issued by foreign companies listed on foreign exchanges, but it is not principal strategy of the Fund to do so. It is a principal investment strategy of the Long/Short Alpha Fund to invest in foreign companies indirectly through sponsored or un-sponsored American Depositary Receipts, Global Depositary Receipts or European Depositary Receipts. Investments in depositary receipts may be subject to many of the same risks associated with direct investments in the securities of foreign companies. The U.S. Treasury Fund does not invest in foreign securities.

The Core Growth Fund, Small Cap Growth Fund, Small Cap Value Fund, and U.S. Select Fund may invest up to 20% of their respective total assets at the time of purchase in equity securities of foreign companies (companies that are incorporated in any country outside the United States and whose securities principally trade outside the United States). The Micro Cap Fund, Micro Cap Value Fund and Ultra Growth Fund may invest up to 30% of their respective total assets at the time of purchase in securities issued by foreign companies (companies that are incorporated in any country outside the United States and whose securities principally trade outside the United States). Under normal market conditions, the Global Opportunities Fund’s, the Global Select Fund’s and the Global Value Fund’s assets (at least 40% or if the market conditions are not favorable, 30%) are expected to be invested outside the United States. The Emerging India Fund, Emerging Markets Select Fund, Emerging Markets Small Cap Fund, Frontier Emerging Small Countries Fund, Greater China Fund, International Growth Fund, International Opportunities Fund and International Select Fund also may invest in securities issued by foreign companies without limitation.

Securities issued by foreign companies incorporated outside of the United States, but whose securities, are publicly traded in the United States, directly or through sponsored and unsponsored American Depositary Receipts, Global Depositary Receipts or European Depositary Receipts are not defined as “Foreign Companies” and are not, therefore, subject to limitations on investments in foreign securities, if applicable. Investments in foreign countries involve certain risks which are not typically associated with U.S. investments.

Additional Risks of Foreign Securities.

Foreign Securities Markets. Trading volume on foreign country and, in particular, emerging and frontier market stock exchanges is substantially less than that on the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”). Further, securities of some foreign and, in particular, emerging and frontier market companies are less liquid and more volatile than securities of comparable U.S. companies. Fixed commissions on foreign exchanges are generally higher than negotiated commissions on U.S. exchanges. The Funds endeavor to achieve the most favorable net results on their portfolio transactions and may be able to purchase securities on other stock exchanges where commissions are negotiable. Foreign stock exchanges, brokers, custodians and listed companies may be subject to less government supervision and regulation than in the United States. The customary settlement time for foreign securities may be longer than the customary two day settlement time for U.S. securities.

Companies in foreign countries are not generally subject to the same accounting, auditing and financial reporting standards, practices and disclosure requirements comparable to those applicable to U.S. companies. Consequently, there may be less publicly available information about a foreign company than about a U.S. company. Certain markets may require payment for securities before delivery and delays may be encountered in settling securities transactions. In some foreign markets, there may not be protection against failure by other parties to complete transactions. There may be limited legal recourse against an issuer in the event of a default on a debt instrument.

Currency Risk. The value of the assets of a Fund, as measured in U.S. dollars may be affected favorably or unfavorably by changes in foreign currency exchange rates and exchange control regulations. A change in the value of any foreign currency relative to the U.S. dollar may cause a corresponding change in the dollar value of a Fund’s assets that are denominated or traded in that country. In addition, a Fund may incur costs in connection with conversion between various currencies. Additionally, certain countries may utilize formal or informal currency-exchange controls or “capital controls.” Capital controls may impose restrictions on a Fund’s ability to repatriate investments or income. Such capital controls can also have a significant effect on the value of a Fund’s holdings.

 

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Political and Economic Risk. Foreign investments may be subject to heightened political and economic risks, particularly in underdeveloped or developing countries which may have relatively unstable governments and economies based on only a few industries. In some countries, there is the risk that the government could seize or nationalize companies, could impose additional withholding taxes on dividends or interest income payable on securities, could impose exchange controls or adopt other restrictions that could affect a Fund’s investments.

Regulatory Risk. Foreign companies not publicly traded in the U.S. are not subject to the regulatory requirements of U.S. companies. There may be less publicly available information about such companies. Foreign companies are not subject to accounting, auditing and financial reporting standards and requirements comparable to those applicable to U.S. companies.

Delisting Risk. Securities of certain foreign companies may be listed on a U.S. stock exchange. On December 2, 2020, the U.S. Congress passed the Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act, which could cause the securities of foreign issuers to be de-listed from U.S. stock exchanges if those companies do not permit U.S. oversight of the auditing of their financial information. To the extent a Fund invests in securities of such companies listed in the U.S., delisting could impact the Fund’s ability to transact in such securities and could significantly impact their liquidity and market price. In addition, a Fund would have to seek other markets in which to transact in such securities which would also increase the Fund’s costs.

Foreign Tax Risk. The Funds’ income from foreign issuers may be subject to non-U.S. withholding taxes. The Funds may also be subject to taxes on trading profits or on transfers of securities in some countries. To the extent foreign income taxes are paid by the Funds, shareholders may be entitled to a credit or deduction for U.S. tax purposes.

Transaction Costs. Transaction costs of buying and selling foreign securities, including brokerage, tax and custody charges, are generally higher than those of domestic transactions.

Emerging and Frontier Markets. The Equity Funds may invest in securities issued by companies domiciled or economically tied to countries with emerging and frontier markets.

With respect to emerging markets, the Emerging India Fund, Emerging Markets Select Fund, Emerging Markets Small Cap Fund, Frontier Emerging Small Countries Fund, Global Opportunities Fund, Global Select Fund, Global Value Fund, Greater China Fund, International Growth Fund and International Opportunities Fund may invest a significant portion of their assets in the securities of companies domiciled in emerging market countries and investing in emerging markets is therefore considered a principal risk of these Funds. The Core Growth Fund, International Select Fund, Long/Short Alpha Fund, Micro Cap Fund, Micro Cap Value Fund, Small Cap Growth Fund, Small Cap Value Fund, Ultra Growth Fund, and U.S. Select Fund may invest in securities of companies domiciled in emerging markets, but this is not considered a principal risk of these Funds as of the date of this SAI. The U.S. Treasury Fund does not invest in the securities of companies domiciled in emerging market countries.

With respect to frontier markets, the Frontier Emerging Small Countries Fund, Global Opportunities Fund, Global Select Fund, Global Value Fund, International Growth Fund and International Opportunities Fund may invest a significant portion of their assets in the securities of companies domiciled in frontier market countries and investing in frontier market countries is therefore considered a principal risk of these Funds. The Core Growth Fund, Emerging India Fund, Emerging Markets Select Fund, Emerging Markets Small Cap Fund, Greater China Fund, International Select Fund, Long/Short Alpha Fund, Micro Cap Fund, Micro Cap Value Fund, Small Cap Growth Fund, Small Cap Value Fund, Ultra Growth Fund, and U.S. Select Fund may each invest in the securities of companies domiciled in frontier market countries, but it is not considered a principal risk of these Funds as of the date of this SAI. The U.S. Treasury Fund does not invest in the securities of companies domiciled in frontier market countries.

Investing in securities of issuers domiciled in emerging or frontier markets entail greater risks than investing in securities of issuers domiciled in countries with more mature securities markets. These risks may include (i) less

 

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social, political and economic stability; (ii) small current size of markets for such securities and low or nonexistent trading volume, which result in lack of liquidity and greater price volatility; (iii) certain national policies which may restrict the Funds’ investment opportunities, including restrictions on investments in issuers or industries deemed sensitive to national interests; (iv) foreign taxation; (v) inaccurate, incomplete or misleading financial information of companies in which the Funds invest; (vi) the prices at which securities of companies may trade may not be consistent with traditional valuation measures; (vii) the expropriation or confiscation of assets or property which could result in the loss of a Fund’s entire investment in that market; (viii) limited government oversight over securities markets and brokerage businesses; and (ix) the absence of developed structures governing private or foreign investment or allowing for judicial redress for injury to private property.

Many emerging and frontier market countries suffer from uncertainty and corruption in their legal frameworks. Legislation may be difficult to interpret and laws may be too new to provide any precedential value. Laws regarding foreign investment and private property may be weak or non-existent. Sudden changes in governments may result in policies which are less favorable to investors, such as policies designed to expropriate or nationalize “sovereign” assets. Certain emerging and frontier market countries in the past have expropriated large amounts of private property, in many cases with little or no compensation, and there can be no assurance that such expropriation will not occur in the future.

Many developing countries in which the Funds may invest lack the social, political and economic stability characteristics of the U.S. Political instability in these developing countries can be common and may be caused by an uneven distribution of wealth, social unrest, labor strikes, civil wars and religious oppression. Economic instability in market countries may take the form of (i) high interest rates; (ii) high levels of inflation, including hyperinflation; (iii) high levels of unemployment or underemployment; (iv) changes in government economic and tax policies, including confiscatory taxation; and (v) imposition of trade barriers.

Currencies of emerging and frontier market countries are subject to significantly greater risks than currencies of developed countries. Many of these developing countries have experienced steady declines or even sudden devaluations of their currencies relative to the U.S. dollar. Some emerging and frontier market currencies also may not be internationally traded or may be subject to strict controls by local governments, resulting in undervalued or overvalued currencies. The U.S. dollar value of a Fund’s investments and of dividends and interest earned by the Funds may be significantly affected by changes in currency exchange rates. The value of a Fund’s assets denominated in foreign currencies will increase or decrease in response to fluctuations in the value of those foreign currencies relative to the U.S. dollar. Some emerging market countries have experienced balance of payment deficits and shortages in foreign exchange reserves. Governments have responded by restricting currency conversions. Restrictive exchange controls could prevent or restrict a company’s ability to make dividend or interest payments in the original currency of the obligation (usually U.S. dollars). In addition, even though the currencies of some of these developing countries may be convertible into U.S. dollars, the conversion rates may be artificial to their actual market values. Additionally, certain countries, including China, may utilize formal or informal currency-exchange controls or “capital controls.” Capital controls may impose temporary or long-term restrictions on a Fund’s ability to repatriate investments or income. Such capital controls can also have a significant effect on the value of a Fund’s holdings.

In the past, governments within developing countries have become overly reliant on the international capital markets and other forms of foreign credit to finance large public spending programs which cause huge budget deficits. Often, interest payments have become too overwhelming for the governments to meet, representing a large percentage of total gross domestic product. These foreign obligations have become the subject of political debate and served as fuel for political parties of the opposition, which pressure the government not to make payments to foreign creditors, but instead to use these funds for social programs. Either due to an inability to pay or submission to political pressure, foreign governments have been forced to seek a restructuring of their loan and/or bond obligations, have declared a temporary suspension of interest payments or have defaulted. These events have adversely affected the values of securities issued by foreign governments and corporations domiciled in foreign countries and have negatively affected not only their cost of borrowing, but also their ability to borrow in the future.

 

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Stock exchanges in developing markets have in the past experienced substantial fluctuations in the prices of their listed securities. They have also experienced problems such as temporary exchange closures, broker defaults, settlement delays and broker strikes that, if they occur again, could affect the market price and liquidity of the securities in which certain Equity Funds invest. In addition, the governing bodies of certain stock exchanges have from time to time imposed restrictions on trading in certain securities, limitations on price movements and margin requirements. Disputes have also occurred from time to time among listed companies, the stock exchanges and other regulatory bodies, and in some cases those disputes have had a negative effect on overall market sentiment. There have been delays and errors in share allotments relating to initial public offerings, which in turn affect overall market sentiment and lead to fluctuations in the market prices of the securities of those companies and others in which the Equity Funds may invest.

In addition, brokerage commission, custodial fees, withholding taxes, and other costs relating to investment in foreign markets may be higher than in the United States. The operating expense ratio of a Fund may be expected to be higher than that of a fund investing primarily in the securities of U.S. issuers.

Legal principles related to corporate affairs and the validity of corporate procedures, directors’ fiduciary duties and liabilities and shareholders’ rights may differ from those that may apply in the United States and other more developed countries, shareholders rights’ may not be as extensive as those that exist under the laws of the United States and other more developed countries. A Fund may therefore have more difficulty asserting shareholder rights than it would as a shareholder of a comparable U.S. company.

Disclosure and regulatory standards of emerging and frontier market countries are in many respects less stringent than U.S. standards. Issuers are subject to accounting, auditing and financial standards and requirements that differ, in some cases significantly, from those applicable to issuers in the United States or other more developed countries. In particular, the assets and profits appearing on the financial statements of an issuer may not reflect financial positions or results of operations in the way they would be reflected if applying U.S. generally accepted accounting principles. There is substantially less publicly available information about emerging market or frontier market companies.

Small emerging and frontier countries generally have smaller economies or less developed capital markets than traditional emerging market countries, and as a result, the risks of investing in emerging markets described above are magnified for small emerging market and frontier countries.

Share Blocking. In addition, investing in emerging and frontier markets includes the risk of share blocking. Share blocking refers to a practice, in certain foreign markets, where voting rights related to an issuer’s securities are predicated on these securities being blocked from trading at the custodian or sub-custodian level, for a period of time around a shareholder meeting. These restrictions have the effect of prohibiting securities to potentially be voted (or having been voted), from trading within a specified number of days before, and in certain instances, after the shareholder meeting.

Share blocking may prevent the Funds from buying or selling securities for a period of time. During the time that shares are blocked, trades in such securities will not settle. The specific practices may vary by market and the blocking period can last from a day to several weeks, typically terminating on a date established at the discretion of the issuer. Once blocked, the only manner in which to remove the block would be to withdraw a previously cast vote, or to abstain from voting altogether. The process for having a blocking restriction lifted can be very difficult, with the particular requirements varying widely by country. In certain countries, the block cannot be removed at all.

Share blocking may present operational challenges for the Funds, including the effect that an imposed block would have on pending trades. Pending trades may be caused to fail and could potentially remain unsettled for an extended period of time. Fails may also expose the transfer agent and the Fund to “buy in” situations, where, if unable to deliver shares after a certain period of time, a counterparty has the right to go to market, purchase a security at the current market price and have any additional expense borne by the Fund or the transfer agent.

 

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Additional Market Disruption Risk. Additional market disruption risk may be considered a principal risk for the Funds. In late February 2022, Russia launched a large scale military attack on Ukraine. The invasion significantly amplified already existing geopolitical tensions among Russia, Ukraine, Europe, NATO and the West, including the U.S. In response to the military action by Russia, various countries, including the U.S., the United Kingdom, and European Union issued broad-ranging economic sanctions against Russia. Such sanctions included, among other things, a prohibition on doing business with certain Russian companies, large financial institutions, officials and oligarchs; a commitment by certain countries and the European Union to remove selected Russian banks from the Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunications (“SWIFT”), the electronic banking network that connects banks globally; and restrictive measures to prevent the Russian Central Bank from undermining the impact of the sanctions. Additional sanctions may be imposed in the future. Such sanctions (and any future sanctions) and other actions against Russia may adversely impact, among other things, the Russian economy and various sectors of the economy, including but not limited to, financials, energy, metals and mining, engineering and defense and defense-related materials sectors; result in a decline in the value and liquidity of Russian securities; result in boycotts, tariffs, and purchasing and financing restrictions on Russia’s government, companies and certain individuals; weaken the value of the ruble; downgrade the country’s credit rating; freeze Russian securities and/or funds invested in prohibited assets and impair the ability to trade in Russian securities and/or other assets; and have other adverse consequences on the Russian government, economy, companies and region. Further, several large corporations and U.S. states have announced plans to divest interests or otherwise curtail business dealings with certain Russian businesses. Countermeasures or retaliatory actions by Russia may further impair the value and liquidity of Russian securities.

The ramifications of the hostilities and sanctions, however, may not be limited to Russia and Russian companies but may spill over to and negatively impact other regional and global economic markets of the World (including Europe and the United States), companies in other countries (particularly those that have done business with Russia) and on various sectors, industries and markets for securities and commodities globally, such as oil and natural gas. Accordingly, the actions discussed above and the potential for a wider conflict could increase financial market volatility, cause severe negative effects on regional and global economic markets, industries, and companies and have a negative effect on a Fund’s investments and performance beyond any direct or indirect exposure a Fund may have to Russian issuers or those of adjoining geographic regions. In addition, Russia may take retaliatory actions and other countermeasures, including cyberattacks and espionage against other countries and companies in the World, which may negatively impact such countries and the companies in which the Fund invests. Accordingly, there may be heightened risk of cyberattacks which may result in, among other things, disruptions in the functioning and operations of industries or companies around the World, including in the United States and Europe.

The extent and duration of the military action or future escalation of such hostilities, the extent and impact of existing and any future sanctions, market disruptions and volatility, and the result of any diplomatic negotiations cannot be predicted. These and any related events could have a significant negative impact on Fund performance and the value and liquidity of an investment in the Fund, particularly with respect to Russian exposure.

Asia Region Risk. The Emerging Markets Select, Emerging Markets Small Cap, Global Opportunities, Global Select, Global Value, International Growth, International Opportunities, and International Select Funds may invest a significant portion of their assets in the securities of companies tied economically to the several markets in the Asia region, including, among others, Bangladesh, China, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand and Vietnam and investing in the Asia region is therefore considered a principal risk of these Funds as of the date of this SAI. Similarly, the Frontier Emerging Small Countries Fund may invest a significant portion of its assets in the securities of companies tied economically to frontier and emerging market countries in the Asia region including, among others, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand and Vietnam. The Emerging India Fund invests primarily in securities of companies tied economically to India. The Emerging India Fund considers that companies in the India region with economic ties to India may be located in India, Bangladesh, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. The Greater China Fund invests primarily in securities of companies tied economically to the Greater China region as described below. The Core Growth, Long/Short Alpha, Micro Cap, Micro Cap Value, Small Cap Growth, Small Cap Value, Ultra Growth, and U.S. Select Funds may invest in companies tied economically to the countries in the Asia region but it is not considered a principal risk of such Funds as of the date of this SAI. The U.S. Treasury Fund does not invest in the Asia region.

 

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The value of a Fund’s assets invested in countries in the Asia region may be adversely affected by, among other things, political, economic, social and religious instability, inadequate investor protection, accounting standards and practices, changes in laws or regulations of countries within the Asia region, international relations with other nations, natural disasters, corruption, civil unrest, and military activity. Countries in the Asia region, particularly China, Japan and South Korea, may be adversely affected by political, military, economic and other factors related to North Korea. In addition, China’s long running conflict over Taiwan, border disputes with many of their neighbors and historically strained relations with Japan could adversely impact economies in the region. The governments in many countries have exercised and continue to exercise significant influence over many aspects of the economy and their actions may significantly impact their economies, sectors, industries and/or companies within the market which may impact the securities held by a Fund. The economies of many Asian countries differ from the economies of more developed countries in many respects, such as rate of growth, inflation, capital reinvestment, resource self-sufficiency, financial system stability, and sensitivity to changes in global trade. Certain Asian countries are highly dependent upon and may be affected by developments in the United States, Europe and other Asian economies. Global economic conditions, and international trade, affecting Asian economies and companies could deteriorate as a result of political instability and uncertainty, the imposition of tariffs and other protectionist trade policies and other similar actions, as well as increased tensions with other nations.

In addition, the Asian region is comprised of countries in all stages of economic development, some of which may experience overextension of credit, currency devaluation and restrictions, rising unemployment, high inflation, underdeveloped financial services sectors, heavy reliance on international trade and prolonged economic recessions. Deflationary factors could also reemerge in certain Asian markets which some countries may not have the capacity to address. Many Asian region countries are dependent on foreign supplies of energy and competition to claim or develop regional supplies of energy or other natural resources could lead to economic, political or military instability or disruption and adversely impact the performance of a Fund. As some countries in the Asian region are less developed and may be considered emerging or frontier markets, the foreign risk to invest in such countries will be magnified and include the risks of emerging or frontier markets such as, the increased political and social instability; highly volatile, less mature and less liquid securities markets; less corporate government standards; limited government oversight and market regulation; differing financial reporting, accounting and auditing standards; capital controls; potential expropriation or nationalization of companies or industries; currency fluctuations; restrictions on foreign ownership; less legal recourse to enforce a Fund’s rights; less publicly available or inaccurate information regarding companies; high taxation; less developed or diverse economies and other political, economic or social developments.

The Asia region includes Japan, China, Hong Kong and Taiwan, the risks of which are further described below.

With respect to China, the Chinese government exercises significant control over China’s economy through its industrial policies (e.g., allocation of resources and other preferential treatment), monetary policy, management of currency exchange rates, and management of the payment of foreign currency-denominated obligations. Changes in these policies could adversely impact affected industries or companies. China’s economy, particularly its export-orientated industries, may be adversely impacted by trade or political disputes with China’s major trading partners, including the U.S. as well as its dependency on the economies of other Asian counties, many of which are developing countries. In addition, as its consumer class emerges, China’s domestically oriented industries may be especially sensitive to changes in government policy and investment cycles. China’s currency, which historically has been managed in a tight range relative to the U.S. dollar, may in future be subject to uncertainty as Chinese authorities change the policies that determine the exchange rate mechanism. Certain securities issued by companies located or operating in China, such as China’s A-Shares, are subject to trading restrictions, quota limitations and less market liquidity. For additional discussion on the risks of investing in China, Taiwan and Hong Kong, see “China Region Risk”, “Taiwan Risks” and “Hong Kong Risks” below.

China Region Risk. The Greater China Fund invests primarily in companies of all market capitalizations that are tied economically to the Greater China region. The Greater China region includes: The People’s Republic of China (“PRC” or “China”), Hong Kong and Taiwan. As noted, the other Equity Funds may also invest in countries in the Asia region which includes China, Hong Kong and Taiwan and therefore may also be subject to the risks of investing in such countries. The U.S. Treasury Fund does not invest in the Greater China region. The Greater China Fund and other Equity Funds therefore are subject to additional risks associated with investing in China. Such risks include, among other things: (a) an authoritarian government; (b) the risk of nationalization or expropriation of assets or confiscatory taxation; (c) greater social, economic and political uncertainty (including the risk of war and social unrest associated with demands for improved political,

 

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economic and social conditions); (d) dependency on exports and corresponding importance of international trade; (e) the impact of regional conflict on the economy and hostile relations with neighboring countries; (f) the increasing competition from Asia’s other low-cost emerging economies; (g) greater price volatility and significantly smaller market capitalization of securities markets; (h) substantially less liquidity, particularly for certain classes of Chinese securities, which often increases volatility and the difficulties in obtaining accurate market quotations for financial reporting purposes and for calculating net asset values and sometimes results in an inability to buy and sell securities; (i) higher rates of inflation; (j) currency exchange rate fluctuations; (k) limits and controls on foreign investment; (l) limits on repatriation of invested capital and on the ability to exchange local currency for U.S. dollars; (m) the discontinuation or modifications of the various economic reform programs that the Chinese government has implemented; (n) the lack of or differences in the legal, accounting, auditing and financial reporting standards in China which may result in less material information available about issuers; (o) the foreign issuers, particularly those in China, may be smaller, less seasoned and newly-organized; (p) the regulatory practices and requirements governing the securities markets, business entities and commercial transactions differ from those applicable to U.S. issuers and may be less extensive and still developing; (q) the settlement period of securities transactions in the foreign markets may be longer; (r) difficulties in obtaining or enforcing favorable legal judgments in foreign courts; and (s) the uncertainty of the continuing support of the Chinese government of the Chinese and Hong Kong markets and economy as such support may change which may adversely impact such markets, economies, industries and companies.

The Chinese government exercises significant control over China’s economy through, among other things, its industrial policies (e.g., allocation of resources and other preferential treatment), monetary policy, management of currency exchange rates, and management of the payment of foreign currency-denominated obligations. Changes in these policies could adversely impact affected industries or companies. Although over the years the Chinese government has been reforming economic and market practices, providing for more private ownership of property, the Chinese government could, at any time, alter or discontinue such economic reform programs adversely effecting industries and companies in China. Chinese companies are also subject to the risk that Chinese authorities can intervene in their operations and structure.

The Chinese economy has grown rapidly in recent years and there is no assurance that this growth rate will be maintained. China’s economy may experience a significant slowdown, an economic recession or periods of substantial inflation which may have a negative effect on its securities market. China’s economy, particularly its export-oriented industries, may be adversely impacted by the developments in the economies and governmental actions of their principal trading partners, including the United States, such as a reduction in spending on Chinese products and services, a downturn in the economies of China’s key trading partners, and the imposition of trading, restrictions, tariffs or other protectionist trade policies. China’s domestically oriented industries may be especially sensitive to changes in government policy and investment cycles as its consumer class grows. Notwithstanding the reforms and privatizations of companies in certain sectors, the Chinese government still exercises substantial influence over many aspects of the private sector and may own and control many companies.

The United States and China have been engaged in an ongoing trade war with one another, which has led to trade frictions between their economies and negative repercussions to global markets and other nations closely-affiliated with those countries. The current political climate has intensified concerns about the ongoing trade war between China and the United States, as each country has imposed tariffs on the other country’s products. These actions may trigger a significant reduction in international trade, the oversupply of certain manufactured goods, substantial price reductions of goods and the possible failure of individual companies and/or large segments of China’s export industry, which could have a negative impact of a Fund’s performance. In addition, there is a risk that further capital controls and/or sanctions may be imposed, which could include the prohibition of, or restrictions on, the ability to own or transfer currency, securities, derivatives or other assets and may also include retaliatory action, such as seizure of assets. Any of these actions could severely impair the Fund’s ability to purchase, sell, transfer, receive, deliver or otherwise obtain exposure to Chinese securities and assets, including the ability to transfer the Fund’s assets and income back into the United States, and could negatively impact the value and/or liquidity of such assets or otherwise adversely affect a Fund’s operations, causing the Fund to decline in value. Events such as these are difficult to predict and their consequences are difficult to predict and it is unclear whether further tariffs may be imposed or other escalating actions may be taken in the future. Furthermore, U.S. governmental orders and sanctions with respect to Chinese military-related companies not only restrict the companies eligible for investment but also may apply to existing holdings and thus force an Equity Fund to sell those holdings at an inopportune time for an unattractive price. In addition, any perceived actions by China to assist Russia in evading sanctions imposed as a result of the Ukraine

 

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invasion may result in new or expanded sanctions against China and Chinese-related companies. New or existing sanctions may be complex and difficult to interpret and could adversely affect the liquidity and value of the Equity Funds’ holdings.

Additionally, China is alleged to have participated in state-sponsored cyberattacks against foreign companies and foreign governments. Actual and threatened responses to such activity and strained international relations, including purchasing restrictions, sanctions, tariffs or cyberattacks on the Chinese government or Chinese companies, may impact China’s economy and Chinese issuers of securities in which the Fund invests. Incidents involving China’s or the region’s security may cause uncertainty in the Chinese markets and may adversely affect the Chinese economy and the Fund’s investments. Further, China’s strained relationship with certain ethnic groups in China, including Tibetans and Uighurs, have been marked with protests and violence and may adversely affect the Chinese economy.

The Chinese government may also intervene in the Chinese financial markets, such as with the imposition of trading restrictions, a ban on “naked” short selling or the suspension of short selling for certain stocks, restrictions on foreign ownership or the repatriation of asset by foreign investors under certain circumstances and similar actions. Such types of actions may affect market price and the liquidity of the applicable stocks, may have an unpredictable and adverse impact on market sentiment and may adversely affect the performance of the securities markets and therefore the performance of a Fund. Investing in China is subject to certain legal risks and uncertainties. The Chinese market and its participants, including investors, brokers and other participants are subject to less regulation and monitoring than in the United States and existing laws and regulations may be inconsistently applied and enforced. Issuers of securities in China are not subject to the same degree of regulation as those in the United States, including with respect to matters such as insider trading rules, tender offer regulation, proxy requirements and disclosure requirements. As a result, information about Chinese securities in which a Fund may invest may be less reliable or complete. Stock markets in China are continuing to develop and change which may lead to trading volatility, settlement difficulties, new laws or regulations adverse to foreign investors and uncertainty in the application and interpretation of applicable regulations. Chinese authorities may intervene in its securities market and halt or suspend trading of securities for short or longer periods of time. The China’s securities market has experienced considerable volatility and has been subject to relatively frequent and extensive trading halts and suspensions which contribute to the uncertainty in the markets and reduced liquidity of the securities subject to these halts and suspensions which may include those held by the respective Fund. As a result, there is the risk that a significant portion of the Chinese securities markets may become rapidly illiquid. The liquidity of Chinese securities unexpectedly may shrink or disappear suddenly as a result of government actions and adverse economic, market or political events or adverse investor perceptions whether or not accurate. The liquidity of a suspended security may be significantly impaired, and may be more difficult to value accurately. Illiquidity of a Fund’s holdings may limit the ability of the Fund to obtain cash to meet redemptions on a timely basis and could adversely impact a Fund’s ability to achieve its investment objectives. Custodians may not be able to offer the level of service and safe-keeping in relation to the settlement and administration of securities in China that is customary in more developed markets. In this regard, the respective Fund is subject to the risk that it may not be recognized as the owner of securities held on its behalf by a sub-custodian and the risk that it would be unable to enforce its rights with respect to its holdings in Chinese investments.

Investment in China is subject to certain political risks. Following the establishment of the PRC by the Communist Party, the Chinese government renounced various debt obligations incurred by China’s predecessor governments, which obligations remain in default, and expropriated assets without compensation. These can be no assurance that the Chinese government would not take similar actions in the future.

Hong Kong reverted to Chinese sovereignty on July 1, 1997 as Special Administrative Region of PRC. The Chinese and Hong Kong economies are vulnerable to the long-standing disagreement with Hong Kong related to its integration. The continuation of economic and social freedoms enjoyed in Hong Kong is dependent on the government of China and actions by China to tighten its control over the political, economic, legal and social policies of Hong Kong may result in social unrest and adversely affect the Hong Kong markets. In addition, the Hong Kong dollar trades at a fixed exchange rate in relation to the U.S. dollar which has contributed to the growth and stability of the Hong Kong economy. However, it is uncertain how long the currency peg will continue or what effect the establishment of an alternative exchange rate system would have on the Hong Kong economy. Because a Fund’s NAV is denominated in U.S. dollars, the establishment of an alternative exchange rate system could result in a decline in a Fund’s NAV.

 

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The Renminbi (“RMB”), China’s official currency, is currently not a freely convertible currency and is subject to foreign exchange control policies and repatriation restrictions imposed by the Chinese government. China’s currency, which historically has been managed in a tight range relative to the U.S. dollar, may in future be subject to uncertainty as Chinese authorities may change the policies that determine the exchange rate mechanism. The imposition of currency controls may negatively impact performance and liquidity of a Fund as capital may become trapped in the PRC. The respective Fund could be adversely affected by delays in, or a refusal to grant, any required governmental approval for repatriation of capital, as well as the application to the Fund of any restrictions on investments. At times, there may be insufficient offshore RMB for a Fund to remain fully invested in Chinese equities. Investing in entities in or that have a substantial portion of their operations in the PRC may require the Fund to adopt special procedures, seek government approvals or take other actions that may result in additional costs and delays for the respective Fund.

China A-Share Risk. China A-shares are the stock shares of mainland China-based companies that trade on Chinese stock exchanges, such as the Shanghai Stock Exchange (“SSE”) and the Shenzhen Stock Exchange (“SZSE”) (the “China A-Shares”) and are quoted in renminbi. Foreign investment in China A-Shares on the SSE and SZSE has historically not been permitted, except through a license granted under regulations in the PRC known as the Qualified Foreign Institutional Investor (“QFII”) and Renminbi Qualified Foreign Institutional Investor (“RQFII”) systems (collectively, the “QFII Programs”). The QFII and RQFII licenses allow non-Chinese institutional investors to invest in China securities, subject to certain quotas. Such quotas may be subject to change with little or no notice given. Non-Chinese investors, such as a Fund, may also make investments through brokers in locations that have stock connect programs. China Stock Exchange-listed securities are available via brokers in Hong Kong through the Shanghai-Hong Kong Stock Connect Program (“Shanghai Connect”), and through the Shenzhen-Hong Kong Stock Connect Program (“Shenzhen Connect”) (each a “Stock Connect” and collectively, the “Stock Connects”). The Shenzhen and Shanghai Stock Connect programs are securities trading and clearing programs developed by The Stock Exchange of Hong Kong Limited (i.e., SEHK), the Hong Kong Exchanges and Clearing Limited (“HKSCC”), the SSE (in case of the Shanghai Connect) or the SZSE (in the case of Shenzhen Connect), and the China Securities Depository and Clearing Corporation (“CSDCC”) that aims to provide mutual stock market access between the PRC and Hong Kong by permitting investors to trade and settle shares on each market through their local securities brokers. Under Stock Connect programs, a Fund’s trading of eligible China A-Shares listed on the SSE or SZSE, as applicable, generally would be effected through a Hong Kong broker and a securities trading service company established by SEHK. Trading through Stock Connect is currently subject to a daily quota, which limits the maximum net purchases under the Stock Connect each day and, as such, buy orders for China A-Shares would be rejected once the daily quota is exceeded (although a Fund is permitted to sell China A-Shares regardless of the daily quota). The daily quota may restrict a Fund’s ability to invest in China A-Shares through Stock Connect on a timely basis and could affect a Fund’s ability to effectively pursue its investment strategy. The investment quotas are also subject to change. In addition, a stock may be recalled from the scope of eligible SSE securities or SZSE securities for trading via the Stock Connect for various reasons, and in such event the stock can only be sold but is restricted from being bought. In such event, the ability to execute a Fund’s investment strategy may be adversely affected.

Investing in China A-Shares is subject to trading, clearance, settlement and other procedures, which could pose risks to a Fund, including illiquidity risk, currency risk, legal and regulatory uncertainty risk, execution risk, operational risk, tax risk and credit risk. China A-Shares purchased through Stock Connects generally may not be sold or otherwise transferred other than through Stock Connects in accordance with applicable rules. PRC regulations require, among other things, that if investor seeks to sell any China A-Shares on a particular trading day, the investor’s account must have sufficient China A-Shares before the market opens on that day, otherwise the sell order will be rejected by SSE or SZSE, as applicable. Further, shares must be designated as eligible to be traded under a Stock Connect, and if those shares lose such designation, such shares may be sold but cannot be purchased through a Stock Connect. In addition, Stock Connects will only operate on days when both the Chinese and Hong Kong markets are open for trading and banking services are available in both markets on the corresponding settlement days. Accordingly, an investment in China A-Shares through a Stock Connect may subject a Fund to a risk of price fluctuations on days when a Chinese market is open but a Stock Connect is not trading. Day trading is not permitted on the China A-Shares market in which case an investor purchasing China A-Shares on day “T” may only be able to sell such shares on or after day T+1. Since all trades must be settled in RMB, the respective Fund must have access to sufficient offshore RMB to execute its transactions which cannot be guaranteed. Further, a

 

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Fund’s investments in China may be adversely affected with a devaluation of RMB. If the Fund holds shares denominated in a currency other than RMB, the respective Fund will be subject to currency exchange risk in converting such currency to RMB and incur related conversion costs. In addition, if an investor holds 5% or more of the total shares issued by a China A-Share issuer, whether or not such shares were acquired through the Stock Connect program, the investor must return any profits obtained from the purchase and sale of those shares if both transactions occur within a six-month period. If a Fund holds 5% or more of the total shares of a China A-Share issuer through its Connect Program investments, its profits may be subject to these limitations. All accounts managed by the Advisor and/or its affiliates will be aggregated for purposes of this 5% limitation, which makes it more likely that a Fund’s profits may be subject to these limitations.

A Fund’s investments through a Stock Connect is subject to regulatory uncertainty given that the Shanghai-Hong Kong Connect program was launched in November 2014 and the Shenzhen-Hong Kong Stock Connect in December 2016 and therefore, the regulations are relatively new, subject to varying interpretation and may be modified in a manner adverse to the Fund. The applicable regulatory authorities may also adopt new regulations that have a negative impact on the Fund. Further, there are differences between the securities and regulatory regimes of Hong Kong and China, and such differences may lead to issues in the future, including a disruption of trading in the Stock Connect programs which may adversely affect a Fund. A Fund’s investments in China A-Shares through Stock Connect programs may be subject to fees, costs and taxes applicable to foreign investors that may be higher than those imposed on other owners of securities. There is no assurance that the Stock Connect Programs will continue in the future. Further, Class A-Shares through Stock Connect are held in a nominee structure through HKSCC on behalf of investors. The rights of the a Fund as a beneficial owner of securities listed on the SSE (“SSE Securities”) or securities listed on the SZSE (the “SZSE Securities”) that are held through HKSCC as nominee are not well defined as there is not a clear definition or distinction between legal ownership and beneficial ownership under the PRC laws and there is limited legal precedent addressing nominee ownership structure in the PRC courts. In addition, although HKSCC does not claim proprietary interest in SSE Securities or SZSE Securities held in its omnibus stock account with CSDCC, CSDCC as share register will treat HKSCC as one of the shareholders in respect to corporate actions of the SSE Securities and SZSE Securities. Investors may only exercise their voting rights by providing their voting instructions to HKSCC through participants of the Central Clearing and Settlement System (“CCASS”). If HKSCC were to become subject to winding up procedures in Hong Kong, there is the risk that a Fund will not be regarded as the beneficial owner of the applicable SSE Securities or SZSE Securities and that such securities would be considered part of the general assets of HKSCC available for general distribution to its creditors. A Fund’s investments in China A-Shares may not be covered by the securities investor protection programs of the exchanges and, without the protection of such programs, will be subject to the risk of default by the broker. In the event that the depository of the Shanghai Stock Exchange and the Shenzhen Stock Exchange defaulted, a Fund may not be able to recover fully its losses from the depository or may be delayed in receiving proceeds as part of any recovery process. HKSCC as nominee holder shall have no obligation to take any legal action or court proceeding to enforce any rights on behalf of the investor in respect of SSE Securities or SZSE Securities. Accordingly, a Fund may have difficulty in enforcing its rights in China.

Further, Stock Connect, which relies on the connectivity of the Shanghai or Shenzhen markets with Hong Kong, is subject to operational risk, regulations that are relatively untested and are subject to change and extended market closures for holidays or otherwise. The China A-Share market has a greater propensity for trading suspension than other global equity markets. The SEHK, SZSE, and SSE reserve the right to suspend trading if necessary for ensuring an orderly and fair market and managing risks prudently which could adversely affect the relevant Funds’ ability to access the mainland China market. During a market closure, the Fund’s ability to trade in China A-Shares will be impacted which may affect the Fund’s performance. Trading suspensions in certain stocks and extended market closures could lead to greater market execution risk, valuation risks, liquidity risks and costs for the Greater China Fund. Stock Connect will only operate on days when both the Chinese and Hong Kong markets are open for trading and when banking services are available in both markets on the corresponding settlement days. Accordingly, an investment in China A-Shares through Stock Connect may subject the Fund to the risk of price fluctuations on days when the Chinese markets are open, but Stock Connect is not trading. Further, SSE and SZSE currently apply a daily price limit, generally set at 10% of the amount of fluctuation permitted in the prices of China A-Shares during a single trading day. The daily price limit applies to price movements and does not restrict trading within the price limit. There can be no assurance that a liquid market on an exchange will exist for any particular China A-

 

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Shares or for any particular time. In addition, market participants must meet certain information technology capability, risk management and other requirements specified by the relevant exchange and/or clearing house. As the connectivity in Stock Connects between Hong Kong and mainland China requires, among other things, certain technology systems on the part of SEHK and exchange participants, there is no assurance that such systems will function properly or be adapted to new developments in the markets. There is the risk that trading in China A-Shares through Stock Connect would be disrupted if the relevant systems fail to operate properly.

A Fund may also invest in China A-Shares through the Qualified Foreign Institutional Investor (“QFI”) or Renminbi Qualified Foreign Institutional Investor systems (together, the “QFII Programs”). The Funds’ themselves are not QFIs but may invest directly in QFI eligible securities through an entity granted QFI status. The Funds’ Advisor has been granted QFI status, through which a Fund can invest in QFI eligible securities.

As a QFI, the Funds’ Advisor is required to comply with rules and restrictions applicable to QFIs under Chinese laws, rules, and regulations, which are subject to change. Current requirements include, among others, rules on remittance of principal, investment restrictions, lock-ups periods, and repatriation of principal and profits. Additionally, repatriation of proceeds from the sale of China A-Shares purchased through a QFI may be delayed. The QFI status of the Advisor could be revoked at any time, but in particular because of material violations of rules or regulations by the Advisor. If the Advisor loses its QFI status, the Funds may be unable to invest directly in QFI eligible securities and may be required to dispose of QFI eligible securities, which would likely have a material adverse effect on the impacted Fund. In extreme circumstances, a Fund may incur significant loss of the Advisor’s QFI status is revoked/terminated because it may prevent the Fund from trading in securities important to the execution of the Fund’s investment strategy, repatriating a Fund’s money.

A Fund may invest in securities listed on the ChiNext market of the SZSE via Shenzhen-Hong Kong Stock Connect. Listed companies on the ChiNext market are small. These are subject to higher fluctuation in stock prices, erratic volume, and less liquidity than companies listed on the main board of the SZSE. Securities listed on ChiNext may be overvalued, which may not be sustainable. The stock prices of these securities may be more susceptible to manipulation than those on the main board due to fewer circulating shares. It also may be more common and faster for companies listed on ChiNext to delist. This may have an adverse impact on the Fund if the companies that it invested in are delisted. Also, the rules and regulations regarding the quality of companies listed on ChiNext are less stringent in terms of profitability and share capital than those on the main board. Investments in securities listed on the ChiNext market may result in significant losses for the Fund and their investors.

A Fund may invest in the stocks listed on the Science and Technology Innovation Board on the SSE (STAR Market) by either participating in the initial public offering of companies to be listed on the STAR Market or purchasing stocks that have been listed on the STAR Market. Investing in the STAR Market may expose a Fund to the general risks of investing in Chinese securities, and additional risks, including liquidity risk, de-listing risk, market risk, correlation risk, pricing risk, and government policy risk.

Variable Interest Entity Risk. In China, direct ownership of companies in certain sectors by foreign individuals and entities (including U.S. persons and entities such as the Funds) is prohibited. In order to facilitate foreign investment in these businesses, many Chinese companies have created “Variable Interest Entities” (“VIEs”) to facilitate indirect foreign ownership. In such an arrangement, a China-based operating company typically establishes an offshore shell company in another jurisdiction, such as the Cayman Islands. That shell company enters into service and other contracts with the China-based operating company, then issues shares on a stock exchange, such as the New York Stock Exchange or the Hong Kong Stock Exchange. Foreign investors hold stock in the VIE shell company rather than directly in the China-based operating company. This arrangement allows U.S. investors to obtain economic exposure to the China-based company indirectly through the contractual VIE structure rather than directly through formal equity ownership structure. The Equity Funds may invest in VIEs, but it is not considered a principal risk of the Equity Funds other than the Greater China Fund.

VIEs are a common industry practice and well known to officials and regulators in China; however, VIEs are not formally recognized under Chinese law. Recently, the government of China provided new guidance to and placed restrictions on China-based companies raising capital offshore, including through VIE structures. Investors face

 

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uncertainty about future actions by the government of China that could significantly affect an operating company’s financial performance and the enforceability of the VIE shell company’s contractual arrangements. It is uncertain whether Chinese officials or regulators will withdraw their implicit acceptance of the VIE structure, or whether any new laws, rules or regulations relating to these structures will be adopted or, if adopted, what impact they would have on the interests of foreign shareholders. Under extreme circumstances, China might prohibit the existence of VIEs, or limit a VIE’s ability to pass through economic and governance rights to foreign individuals and entities. If the Chinese government takes action affecting VIEs, the market value of the Funds’ associated portfolio holdings would likely suffer significant, detrimental, and possibly permanent effects, which could result in substantial investment losses.

In addition, Chinese companies, including Chinese companies listed on U.S. exchanges, are not subject to the same degree of regulatory requirements, accounting standards or auditor oversight as companies in more developed countries. As a result, information about the Chinese securities and VIEs in which the Fund invests may be less reliable or complete. As with other Chinese companies with securities listed on U.S. exchanges, U.S. listed VIEs and ADRs may be delisted if they do not meet U.S. accounting standards and auditor oversight requirements. De-listing would significantly decrease the liquidity and value of the securities, decrease the ability of the Fund to transact in such securities and may increase the cost of the Fund if required to seek other markets in which to transact in such securities. There also may be significant obstacles to obtaining information necessary for investigations into or litigation against Chinese companies, and shareholders may have limited legal remedies.

In addition to the China A-Shares and VIEs described above, a Fund may also invest in other classes of shares, including B-Shares and H-Shares. B-Shares are allocated to both international and domestic investors and denominated in U.S. dollars on the SSE and Hong Kong dollars on the SZSE. The B-Shares market is generally smaller, less liquid and has a smaller issuer base than the China A-Share market. H-Shares are issued by companies incorporated in the PRC and derive substantial revenues from or allocate substantial assets in the PRC of issuers that also issue China A-Shares and may trade at significant discounts or premiums to their China A-Share counterparts. These shares classes are subject to the political and economic policies of China.

Small and Medium Enterprise and ChiNext Market Risk. Via Shenzhen-Hong Kong Stock Connect, the Fund may access securities listed on the Small and Medium Enterprise (“SME”) board and the ChiNext market of the SZSE. Listed companies on the SME board and/or the ChiNext market are usually of an emerging nature with smaller operating scale. They are subject to higher fluctuation in stock prices and liquidity and have higher risks and turnover ratios than companies listed on the main board of the SZSE. Securities listed on the SME board and/or ChiNext may be overvalued and such exceptionally high valuation may not be sustainable. Stock price may be more susceptible to manipulation due to fewer circulating shares. It may be more common and faster for companies listed on the SME board and/or ChiNext to delist. This may have an adverse impact on the Funds if the companies that they invest in are delisted. Also, the rules and regulations regarding companies listed on ChiNext market are less stringent in terms of profitability and share capital than those on the main board and SME board. Investments in the SME board and/or ChiNext market may result in significant losses for the Funds and their investors.

STAR Market Risk. The Fund may invest in the stocks listed on the Science and Technology Innovation Board on the Shanghai Stock Exchange (“STAR Market”), by either participating in IPOs of companies listed on the STAR Market, or purchasing stocks that have been listed on the STAR Market. The Fund may be exposed to the risk factors described below.

Liquidity Risk. The STAR Market has strict investor eligibility requirements, and institutional and individual investors must meet such conditions to be allowed to invest in listed stocks on the STAR Market. As a result, the STAR Market may have limited liquidity relative to other stock markets.

De-listing Risk. The STAR Market’s registration-based IPO system is likely to lead to more regular de-listing, while temporary listing suspension, listing resumption and re-listing systems have not been set under the STAR Market. As a result, companies listed on the STAR Market may have greater exposure to de-listing risk.

 

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Market Risk. Most companies listed on the STAR Market specialize in information technology, new materials, new energy, and biomedicine. These types of companies tend to be startups with uncertain earnings, cash flow and valuation prospects. Therefore, the stocks listed on the STAR Market may have greater exposure to market risks, which may lead to greater price fluctuations.

Correlation Risk. Many of the companies listed on the STAR Market are expected to be innovative technology enterprises that have gained a relatively high level of market recognition. Such companies tend to have similar operating and profit models. Therefore, there could be a relatively high degree of correlation among many stocks listed on the STAR Market. A market downturn may lead to significant systematic correlation risk, which is a risk that the price fluctuation of a security may occur in conjunction with price fluctuations of all correlated securities.

Pricing Risk. Institutional investors are expected to play a dominant role in quotation, pricing and placement activities of the STAR Market. Furthermore, given the typical characteristics of companies listed on the STAR Market, such as a high degree of technological innovation combined with uncertain performance prospects, only a limited number of comparable companies will be available in the marketplace. These conditions may lead to pricing difficulties, and after listing, the listed stocks on the STAR Market may face the risk of immediate and significant price fluctuations.

Government Policy Risk. The Chinese government may change its policies with respect to its support of the Chinese technological industry. If such policy change were to take place, it might have a major impact on companies listed on the STAR Market. In addition, changes in the global economic situation may also have policy-level implications for the Chinese government, which would impact the prices of stocks listed on the STAR Market.

China Tax Risk. A Fund’s investments in China held though Stock Connect, a QFII Program or otherwise are subject to the tax laws, regulations and practice in the PRC which are subject to change. Although China has implemented various tax reforms in recent years, China may amend or revise its existing tax laws and/or procedures in the future possibly with a retroactive effect. The interpretations, applications and enforcement of such laws may be inconsistent and vary over time and among regions. Changes in applicable Chinese tax law could reduce the after-tax profits of a Fund, directly or indirectly, including by reducing the after tax profits of companies in China in which the Fund invests. Chinese taxes that may apply to the Fund’s investments include, among other things, income tax or withholding tax on dividends, interest or gains earned by the Fund, business tax and stamp duty. Uncertainties in Chinese tax rules could result in unexpected tax liabilities for the Fund, which would adversely impact the Fund’s net asset value. In addition, the accounting, auditing and financial reporting standards and practices applicable to Chinese companies may be less rigorous, and may result in significant differences between financial statements prepared in accordance with PRC accounting standards and practices and those prepared in accordance with international accounting standards.

Japan Risks. The Japanese economy has only recently emerged from a prolonged economic downturn. The Japanese economy may be subject to considerable degrees of economic, political and social instability, which could have a negative impact on Japanese securities. Since the year 2000, Japan’s economic growth rate has remained relatively low compared to other advanced economies, and it may remain low in the future. The economy is characterized by an aging demographic, declining population, large government debt and highly regulated labor market. Economic growth is dependent on domestic consumption, deregulation and consistent government policy. International trade, particularly with the U.S., also impacts growth and adverse economic conditions in the U.S. or other such trade partners may affect Japan. Japan also has a growing economic relationship with China and other Southeast Asian countries, and thus Japan’s economy may also be affected by economic, political or social instability in those countries (whether resulting from local or global events as well as from any deterioration in its relationships with neighboring countries). In addition, Japan is subject to the risk of natural disasters, such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, typhoons and tsunamis which could negatively affect a Fund.

Taiwan Risks. China and Taiwan have a complex territorial dispute regarding the sovereignty of Taiwan. The continuing hostility between China and Taiwan and any potential military conflict or future political or economic disturbances may adversely impact a Fund’s investments in such countries or make investments in such countries impracticable or impossible. Any escalation in these hostilities may, among other things, distort Taiwan’s capital account, adversely impact other

 

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countries in the region and adversely impact the respective Fund’s investments in the region, including China and Taiwan. Taiwan’s market and economy also faces increasing competition from other low-cost emerging economies and certain protectionist threats. Taiwan’s economy is export-oriented, so it depends on an open world trade regime and remains vulnerable to fluctuations in the world economy, currency fluctuation and conditions that weaken demand for Taiwan’s export products worldwide. Rising labor costs and increasing environmental consciousness have led some labor-intensive industries to relocate to countries with cheaper work forces and continued labor outsourcing may adversely affect the Taiwanese economy. A disruption in Taiwan’s exports could also result in broader negative economic impacts with respect to those industries and countries that rely upon them. Negative impacts of the Taiwanese economy as a whole or its industries may impact an Equity Fund’s performance to the extent the fund invests in such securities.

Hong Kong Risks. The Chinese and Hong Kong economies are vulnerable to the long-standing disagreement with Hong Kong related to its integration. As reflected by the protests in Hong Kong in recent years over political, economic and legal freedoms, and the Chinese government’s response to them, considerable political uncertainty continues to exist within Hong Kong. Due to the interconnected nature of the Hong Kong and Chinese economies, this instability in Hong Kong may cause uncertainty in the Hong Kong and Chinese markets. If China were to exert its authority so as to alter the economic, political or legal structures or the existing social policy of Hong Kong, such actions may have a negative impact on investor and business confidence in Hong Kong, markets and business performance and in turn on the respective Fund’s investments. In addition, the Hong Kong dollar trades at a fixed exchange rate in relation to the U.S. dollar which has contributed to the growth and stability of the Hong Kong economy. However, it is uncertain how long the currency peg will continue or what effect the establishment of an alternative exchange rate system would have on the Hong Kong economy. Because a Fund’s NAV is denominated in U.S. dollars, the establishment of an alternative exchange rate system could result in a decline in the Fund’s NAV.

Investments in India and the India Region. It is a principal strategy of the Emerging India Fund to invest in securities of companies tied economically to India (the “India region”). The Emerging India Fund considers that companies in the India region with economic ties to India may be located in India, Bangladesh, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. The Emerging India Fund may invest a significant portion of its assets in companies in the India region, and investing in the India region is therefore considered a principal risk of this Fund. The Emerging Markets Select, Emerging Markets Small Cap, Frontier Emerging Small Countries, Global Opportunities, Global Select, International Growth, and International Opportunities Funds may invest a significant portion of their assets in companies in the India region from time to time, and investing in the India region is therefore considered a principal risk of these Funds as of the date of this SAI. The Core Growth, Global Value, Greater China, International Select, Long/Short Alpha, Micro Cap, Micro Cap Value, Small Cap Growth, Small Cap Value, Ultra Growth, and the U.S. Select Funds may invest in companies in the India region, but it is not considered a principal risk of these Funds as of the date of this SAI. The U.S. Treasury Fund does not invest in foreign securities. In addition to the risks incurred in investing in foreign and emerging markets, risks associated with investing in India include the following. Foreign investment in the securities of issuers in India is usually restricted or controlled to some degree. In India, “Foreign Portfolio Investors” (“FPIs”) may predominately invest in exchange-traded securities (and securities to be listed, or those approved on the OTC market of India) subject to the conditions specified in Indian guidelines and regulations (the “Guidelines”). FPIs are required to apply for registration through a designated depository participant, which facilitates the registration with the Securities and Exchange Board of India (“SEBI”). The Guidelines require SEBI to review the professional experience and reputation of the FPI and custodian arrangements for Indian securities. Although the Trust is a registered FPI, it must still seek renewal of this status periodically and any corporate changes to the Trust or any Fund must be reviewed and accepted by SEBI. There can be no guarantee that regulatory approval will be granted to continue the Trust’s FPI status and a Fund’s ability to buy or sell Indian securities may be impaired if the Fund’s ability to transact is denied, delayed, suspended or not renewed by local regulators. FPIs are required to observe certain investment restrictions, including limiting the aggregate ownership of any one company by an FPI and its investors to less than 10% of the company’s total paid-up equity capital. In addition, the shareholdings of all registered FPIs may not exceed 24% of the issued share capital of most companies. It is expected that this limit will automatically change from 24% to the relevant applicable limit established for certain sectors, such as telecommunications or banking have restrictions that limit foreign investment above a specified percentage (or requires regulatory approval to exceed that percentage). It is possible that this restriction could be raised or potentially lifted, subject to that company’s approval. Under normal circumstances, income, gains and initial capital with respect to such investments are freely repatriable, subject to payment or withholding of applicable Indian taxes. Please see the section entitled “Matters Related to India” in this SAI. There can be no assurance

 

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that these investment control regimes will not change in a way that makes it more difficult or impossible for the Fund to reach its investment objectives or repatriate its income, gains and initial capital from India.

The government in India has exercised and continues to exercise significant influence over many aspects of the economy. Government actions, bureaucratic obstacles and inconsistent economic reform within the Indian government have had a significant effect on its economy and could adversely affect market conditions, economic growth and the profitability of private enterprises in India. Further, any actions or other factors that may impede the flow of foreign capital to India may also inhibit its growth.

Large portions of many Indian companies remain in the hands of their founders (including members of their families) and the corporate governance of such family-owned companies may be weaker and less transparent.

In addition, a high proportion of the shares of many Indian issuers are held by a limited number of persons or entities, which may limit the number of shares available for investment by the Fund. In addition, further issuances (or the perception that such issuances may occur) of securities by Indian issuers in which the Fund has invested could dilute the earnings per share of the Fund’s investment and could adversely affect the market price of such securities. Sales of securities by such issuer’s major shareholders, or the perception that such sales may occur, may also significantly and adversely affect the market price of such securities and, in turn, the Fund’s investment. A limited number of issuers represent a disproportionately large percentage of market capitalization and trading value. The limited liquidity of the Indian securities markets may also affect the Fund’s ability to acquire or dispose of securities at the price and time that it desires.

The ability of a Fund to invest in Indian securities, exchange Indian rupees into U.S. dollars and repatriate investment income, capital and proceeds of sales realized from its investments in Indian securities is subject to the Indian Foreign Exchange Management Act, 1999, and the rules, regulations and notifications issued thereunder. There can be no assurance that the Indian government in the future, whether for purposes of managing its balance of payments or for other reasons, will not impose restrictions on foreign capital remittances abroad or otherwise modify the exchange control regime applicable to foreign institutional investors in such a way that may adversely affect the ability of a Fund to repatriate its income and capital. Such conditions or modifications may prompt the Board of Trustees to suspend redemptions of a Fund’s shares to the extent permissible under the 1940 Act, which is seven days, except in certain limited circumstances. If for any reason a Fund is unable, through borrowing or otherwise, to distribute an amount equal to substantially all of its investment company taxable income (as defined for U.S. tax purposes, without regard to the deduction for dividends paid) within the applicable time periods, the Fund would cease to qualify for the favorable tax treatment afforded to regulated investment companies under the U.S. Internal Revenue Code.

Religious and border disputes persist in India. Moreover, India has from time to time experienced civil unrest and hostilities with neighboring countries such as Pakistan. Both India and Pakistan have tested nuclear arms, and the threat of deployment of such weapons could hinder development of the Indian economy. Escalating tensions between India and Pakistan could impact the broader region. The Indian government has confronted separatist movements in several Indian states. The longstanding dispute with Pakistan over the bordering Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir, a majority of whose population is Muslim, remains unresolved. Attacks by terrorists believed to be based in Pakistan against India have further damaged relations between the two countries. If the Indian government is unable to control the violence and disruption associated with these tensions, the results could destabilize the economy and, consequently, adversely affect the Fund’s investments.

The India securities market is substantially smaller than major securities markets in the U.S. and India experiences many of the risks associated with developing economies, including relatively low levels of liquidity, which may result in extreme volatility in the prices of Indian securities. India has less developed clearance and settlement procedures, and there have been times when settlements have been unable to keep pace with the volume of securities and have been significantly delayed. The Indian stock exchanges have in the past been subject to closure, broker defaults and broker strikes, and there can be no certainty that this will not recur. In addition, significant delays are common in registering transfers of securities and a Fund may be unable to sell securities until the registration process is completed and may experience delays in receiving dividends and other entitlements. In addition, India has takeover regulations containing provisions that may discourage or prevent a third-party from taking control of an Indian company, including if it was beneficial to the Fund or for a price that is at a premium to the market price.

 

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Europe and United Kingdom Risk. As part of their principal strategy permitting investments in foreign securities, the Global Opportunities Fund, Global Select Fund, Global Value Fund, International Growth Fund, International Opportunities Fund, International Select Fund and Micro Cap Value Fund may invest a significant portion of their assets in securities issued by companies in developed markets, including European countries and the United Kingdom (“U.K.”), and therefore exposure to the social, political, regulatory, economic and other events or conditions affecting Europe and the U.K. may be considered a principal risk for such Funds as of the date of this SAI. The Core Growth Fund, Emerging India Fund, Emerging Markets Select Fund, Emerging Markets Small Cap Fund, Frontier Emerging Small Countries Fund, Greater China Fund, Long/Short Alpha Fund, Micro Cap Fund, Small Cap Growth Fund, Small Cap Value Fund, Ultra Growth Fund, and U.S. Select Fund may also invest in securities issued by foreign companies in Europe and the U.K.; however, it is not considered a principal risk for such Funds as of the date of this SAI. The U.S. Treasury Fund does not invest in European or U.K. companies. Many countries in Europe are member states of the European Union (“EU”) and will be significantly affected by the fiscal and monetary controls of the EU. Changes in regulations on trade, decreasing imports or exports, changes in the exchange rate of the Euro and recessions or defaults or threats of defaults among European countries may have a significant adverse effect on the economies of other European countries. Efforts by the member countries of the EU to continue to unify their economic and monetary policies may increase the potential for similarities in movements of European markets and reduce the potential investment benefits of diversification within the region. Further, while many countries in western Europe are considered to have developed markets, many eastern European countries are less developed, and investments in eastern European countries, even if denominated in euros, may involve special risks associated with investments in emerging markets. As the economies of countries in Europe are in different stages of development, the policies adopted by the EU may not address the needs of all European member countries. The European financial markets have experienced significant volatility, and several European countries have been adversely affected by unemployment, budget deficits and economic downturns. Responses to financial problems by European governments, central banks and others, including austerity measures and reforms, may not produce the desired results, may result in social unrest, may limit future growth and economic recovery or may have other unintended consequences. Defaults or restructurings by governments and other entities of their debt could have additional adverse effects on economies, financial markets and asset valuations around the world. Successionist movements as well as governmental or other response to such movements, may also create instability and uncertainty in the region. In addition the national politics of countries in the EU have been unpredictable and subject to influence by disruptive political groups and ideologies. The governments in EU countries may be subject to change and such countries may experience social and political unrest. Unanticipated or sudden political or social development may result in sudden and significant investment losses. The occurrence of terrorist incidents throughout Europe or war in the region could also impact financial markets. The impact of these events is not clear but could be significant and far-reaching and could adversely affect the value and liquidity of a Fund’s investments. Any of these effects could adversely affect any of the companies to which a Fund has exposure and any other assets in which a Fund invests.

In addition, one or more countries may abandon the Euro and/or withdraw from the EU creating continuing uncertainty in the currency and financial markets generally. In this regard, on January 31, 2020, the U.K. formally withdrew from the EU (commonly referred to as “Brexit”). Following a transition period, the UK and EU entered a trade agreement formally effective on May 1, 2021, but certain post-EU arrangements remain unresolved and subject to further negotiation and agreement. While new trade deals may boost economic growth, such growth may not be able to offset the increased costs of trade with the EU resulting from the United Kingdom’s loss of its membership in the EU single market. There is significant market uncertainty regarding Brexit’s ramifications. The range and potential implications of possible political, regulatory, economic and market outcomes for the UK, EU and elsewhere cannot be fully known. Brexit may cause greater market volatility and illiquidity, currency fluctuations, interest rate volatility, deterioration in economic activity, economic uncertainties, a decrease in business confidence, a decrease in trade, labor disruptions, political instability, increased likelihood of recession in the United Kingdom and regulatory uncertainty. Brexit could adversely affect European or worldwide political, regulatory, economic or market conditions and could contribute to instability in global political institutions, regulatory agencies and financial markets. The uncertainty of Brexit could have a significant impact on the business and financial results of companies that rely on the U.K. and European countries and certain sectors within such countries for their business activities and revenues. The United States and other European countries are substantial trading partners of the U.K. The precise impact on the economy of the U.K. as a result of its departure from the EU depends to a large degree on its ability to conclude favorable trade deals with the EU and other countries, including the United States, China, India and Japan. Brexit has also led to legal uncertainties and could lead to politically divergent national laws and regulations as a new relationship between the U.K. and EU is defined and the U.K. determines which EU laws to replace or

 

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replicate. The political, economic, trade and legal ramifications are not yet fully known and uncertainty about the U.K. relationship with the remaining members of the EU may continue to be a source of instability. Any of these effects of Brexit could adversely affect the European and U.K. companies in which a Fund may invest. Additionally, increasing commodity prices and rising inflation levels prompted the United Kingdom government to implement significant policy changes. It is difficult to predict what effects such policies (or the suggestion of such policies) may have and the duration of those effects, which may last for extended periods.

Depositary Receipts Risk. The Equity Funds may invest in securities of foreign issuers in the form of depositary receipts. The Long/Short Alpha Fund and Greater China Fund may invest in equity securities through depositary receipts as part of its respective principal strategy and accordingly, investing in depositary receipts is a principal risk of such Funds. A depositary receipt is issued by a bank or trust company to evidence its ownership of securities of a non-local corporation. The Equity Funds may invest in both sponsored and unsponsored depositary receipts, including American Depositary Receipts (“ADRs”), European Depositary Receipts (“EDRs”), and Global Depositary Receipts (“GDRs”). ADRs are receipts or shares typically issued by an American bank or trust company that evidence ownership of underlying securities issued by a foreign corporation and are alternatives to purchasing the underlying securities directly in their national markets and currencies. EDRs are receipts in bearer form traded in the European securities markets that evidence a similar ownership arrangement, and GDRs are receipts issued throughout the world that also evidence a similar ownership arrangement. Investments in depositary receipts may be subject to many of the same risks associated with direct investments in the securities of foreign companies, such as currency, political, liquidity, regulatory, economic and market risks because their values depend on the performance of non-dollar denominated underlying foreign securities. The depositary receipts may also involve higher expenses and may trade at a discount (or premium) to the underlying security and their values may change materially at times when the U.S. markets are not open for trading. In addition, the currency of a depositary receipt may be different than the currency of the underlying securities into which they may be converted. Movements in the exchange rate between the local currency of the foreign security and the currency in which the depositary receipt is denominated may adversely affect the value of the depositary receipt even if the price of the foreign security does not change on its market. Even if the depositary receipt is denominated in U.S. currency, the depositary receipts are subject to currency risk if the underlying security is denominated in a foreign currency. The Equity Funds also may invest in sponsored or unsponsored depositary receipts. A sponsored depositary receipt is issued by a depositary that has a relationship with the issuer of the underlying security. Unsponsored depositary receipts are organized independently and without the cooperation of the issuer of the underlying securities. As a result, the holder of an unsponsored depositary receipt may have limited voting rights and may not receive as much information or as current of information as would a holder of a sponsored depositary receipt since the issuer is under no obligation to distribute shareholder communications received from the underlying issuer or to pass through voting rights to the holders of unsponsored depositary receipts. Unsponsored receipts may also involve higher expenses, be less liquid and have more volatile prices.

Illiquid Securities. Each Fund may invest up to 15% of its net assets in “illiquid securities” which are generally defined under SEC rules as any investment that the Fund reasonably expects cannot be sold or disposed of in current market conditions in seven calendar days or less without the sale or disposition significantly changing the market value of the investment. Illiquid securities may include a wide variety of instruments including, but are not limited to, certain restricted securities (securities the disposition of which is restricted under the federal securities laws). However, each Fund will not acquire illiquid securities if, immediately after the acquisition, such Fund would have invested more than 15% of its net assets in illiquid investments that are assets. The Board of Trustees, or its delegate, has the ultimate authority to determine, to the extent permissible under the federal securities laws, which securities are liquid or illiquid for purposes of the 15% limitation. The Advisor, as administrator to the Funds’ liquidity risk management program, shall monitor a Fund’s portfolio to determine if the aggregate percentage of a Fund’s assets considered illiquid exceeds the 15% net asset limit. If the Advisor determines that a Fund holds more than 15% of its net assets in illiquid investments that are assets, the Advisor will report such event to the Board with an explanation of the extent and causes of the occurrence and how the Fund plans to bring its illiquid investments that are assets to or below the 15% threshold within a reasonable period of time. If the amount of the Fund’s illiquid investments that are assets is still above 15% of its net assets 30 days from the occurrence (and at each consecutive 30-day period thereafter), the Fund’s Board, including a majority of the Trustees who are not “interested persons” of the Trust, as such term is defined in the 1940 Act (“Independent Trustees”), will assess whether the plan to reduce the illiquid securities continues to be in the best interests of the Fund. Illiquid securities will be priced at fair value as determined by the Pricing Committee of the Advisor with oversight by the Board of Trustees in accordance with

 

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Board-approved Pricing Policies and Procedures. Given the inherent uncertainties of estimating fair market value, there can be no assurance that the value placed on a security will be appropriate in terms of how the security may be ultimately valued on the public market. These securities may never be publicly traded and the Funds may have difficulty selling such securities over an indefinite period of time. The Funds may not be able to sell the illiquid securities when the Advisor considers it desirable to do so or may have to sell such securities at a price that is lower than the price that could be obtained if the securities were more liquid. In addition, the sale of illiquid securities also may require more time and may result in higher dealer discounts and other selling expenses than does the sale of securities that are not illiquid. Depreciation in the prices of the illiquid securities may cause the net asset value of a Fund to decline.

Initial Public Offerings (IPOs) Risk. The Equity Funds may invest in IPOs from time to time. Investing in IPOs is a principal strategy and principal risk for the Emerging India Fund, Emerging Markets Select Fund, Frontier Emerging Small Countries Fund, Global Opportunities Fund, International Opportunities Fund, Micro Cap Fund, Micro Cap Value Fund, Small Cap Growth Fund and Ultra Growth Fund. IPOs involve a higher degree of risk not normally associated with offerings of more seasoned companies. Companies involved in IPOs generally have limited operating histories and their prospects for future profitability are uncertain. Prices of IPOs may also be unstable due to such factors as the absence of a prior public market, the small number of shares available for trading and limited investor information. Shares purchased in IPOs may be difficult to sell at a time or price that is desirable.

Lending of Portfolio Securities. Consistent with applicable regulatory requirements, the Funds may lend their portfolio securities to brokers, dealers and financial institutions, provided that outstanding loans do not exceed in the aggregate 33 13% of the value of a Fund’s total assets and provided that such loans are callable at any time by a Fund and are at all times secured by cash or equivalent collateral that is at least equal to the market value, determined daily, of the loaned securities. The advantage of such loans is that a Fund continues to receive interest and dividends from the loaned securities, while at the same time earning interest either directly from the borrower or on the collateral which will be invested in short-term obligations. It is not a principal strategy of any Fund to lend its portfolio securities.

A loan may be terminated by the borrower on one business day’s notice or by a Fund at any time. If the borrower fails to maintain the requisite amount of collateral, the loan automatically terminates, and the Fund could use the collateral to replace the securities while holding the borrower liable for any excess of replacement cost over collateral. As with any extensions of credit, there are risks of delay in recovery and in some cases loss of rights in the collateral should the borrower of the securities fail financially. However, these loans of portfolio securities will only be made to firms determined to be creditworthy pursuant to procedures approved by the Board of Trustees. On termination of the loan, the borrower is required to return the securities to the Fund and any gain or loss in the market price during the loan would be borne by the Fund.

Since voting or consent rights which accompany loaned securities pass to the borrower, the Funds will follow the policy of calling the loan, in whole or in part as may be appropriate, to permit the exercise of such rights if the matters involved would have a material effect on a Fund’s investment in the securities which are the subject of the loan. The Funds will pay reasonable finders, administrative and custodial fees in connection with loans of securities or may share the interest earned on collateral with the borrower.

The primary risk in securities lending is default by the borrower as the value of the borrowed security rises, resulting in a deficiency in the collateral posted by the borrower. The Funds seek to minimize this risk by computing the value of the security loaned on a daily basis and requiring additional collateral if necessary.

Market Risk. For the Funds, market risk is the risk that a particular security, or shares of a Fund in general, may fall in value and is a principal risk for all Funds. Securities are subject to market fluctuations caused by such factors as economic, political, regulatory or market developments, changes in interest rates and perceived trends in securities prices. Shares of the Funds could decline in value or underperform other investments due to market movements over the short-term or longer periods during more prolonged market downturns. In addition, local, regional or global events such as war, acts of terrorism, spread of infectious diseases or other public health issues, recessions, or other events could have a significant negative impact on the Funds and their investments. Such events may affect certain geographic regions, countries, sectors and industries more significantly than others. Such events could adversely affect the prices and liquidity of the Funds’ portfolio securities or other instruments and could result in disruptions in the trading markets. Any of such circumstances could have a materially negative impact on the value of the Funds’ shares and result in increased market volatility.

 

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In addition, since the Long/Short Alpha Fund has both a “long” and “short” portfolio, an investment in the Fund will involve market risks associated with different investment decisions than those made for a typical “long only” stock fund. The Long/Short Alpha Fund’s results will suffer both when there is a general stock market advance and the Fund holds significant “short” equity positions or when there is a general stock market decline and the Fund holds significant “long” equity positions. The market value of the Long/Short Alpha Fund’s investments may go up or down, sometimes rapidly or unpredictably and for short or extended periods of time. Securities are subject to market fluctuations caused by such factors as economic, political, regulatory or market developments, changes in interest rates and perceived trends in securities prices. In addition, local, regional or global events such as war, acts of terrorism, spread of infectious diseases or other public health issues, recessions, or other events could have a significant negative impact on the long positions of the Long/Short Alpha Fund and its investments and therefore the Long/Short Alpha Fund. Such events may affect certain geographic regions, countries, sectors and industries more significantly than others. Such events could adversely affect the prices and liquidity of the Fund’s portfolio securities or other instruments and could result in disruptions in the trading markets. Any of such circumstances could have a materially negative impact on the value of the Long/Short Alpha Fund’s long positions and result in increased market volatility. Conversely, the value of the Long/Short Alpha Fund’s short positions may decline because of an increase in the equity market as a whole or because of increases in the prices of securities of a particular company, industry, or sector of the market.

Health crises caused by the outbreak of infectious diseases or other public health issues, may exacerbate other pre-existing political, social, economic, market and financial risks. The impact of any such events, could negatively affect the global economy as well as the economies of individual countries, the financial performance of individual companies, sectors and industries, and the markets in general in significant and unforeseen ways. The impact of such infectious diseases in developing or emerging market countries may be greater due to less established healthcare systems. Any such impact could adversely affect the prices and liquidity of the securities and other instruments in which the Funds invest and negatively impact the Funds’ investment return.

For example, an outbreak of respiratory disease designated as COVID-19 was first detected in China in December 2019 and subsequently spread internationally. The transmission of COVID-19 and efforts to contain its spread have resulted in international, national and local border closings and other significant travel restrictions and disruptions, significant disruptions to business operations, supply chains and customer activity, event cancellations and restrictions, service cancellations, reductions and other changes, significant challenges in healthcare service preparation and delivery, and quarantines, as well as general concern and uncertainty that has negatively affected the economic environment. These impacts also have caused significant volatility and could result in the disruption of trading, the reduction of liquidity in many instruments and losses to a Fund. Governmental and quasi-governmental authorities and regulators throughout the world have in the past responded to major economic disruptions with a variety of significant fiscal and monetary policy changes, including but not limited to, direct capital infusions into companies, new monetary programs and dramatically lower interest rates. An unexpected or quick reversal of these policies, or the ineffectiveness of these policies, could increase volatility in securities markets, which could adversely affect the value of a Fund’s investments.

In addition, the operations of the Funds, the Advisor and the Funds’ other service providers may be significantly impacted, or even temporarily or permanently halted, as a result of government quarantine measures, voluntary and precautionary restrictions on travel or meetings and other factors related to a public health emergency, including its potential adverse impact on the health of any such entity’s personnel.

Money Market Instruments. Each Fund may invest in a variety of money market instruments for pending investments, to meet anticipated redemption requests and/or to retain the flexibility to respond promptly to changes in market, economic or political conditions, when the Advisor or Sub-Advisor takes temporary defensive positions, including when the Advisor or Sub-Advisor is unable to locate attractive investment opportunities, or when the Advisor or Sub-Advisor considers market, economic or political conditions to be unfavorable for profitable investing. Money market instruments include, but are not limited to, the following instruments. Commercial paper represents short-term unsecured promissory notes issued in bearer form by banks or bank holding companies, corporations and finance companies. Issues of commercial paper normally have maturities of less than nine months and fixed rates of return. A Fund may purchase commercial paper consisting of issues rated at the time of purchase by one or more appropriate NRSRO (e.g., S&P’s and Moody’s) in one of the two highest rating categories for short-term debt obligations. The Funds may also invest in commercial paper that is

 

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not rated but that is determined by the Advisor or Sub-Advisor to be of comparable quality to instruments that are so rated by an NRSRO that is neither controlling, controlled by, or under common control with the issuer of, or any issuer, guarantor, or provider of credit support for, the instruments. Certificates of deposit are generally negotiable certificates issued against funds deposited in a commercial bank or a savings and loan association for a definite period of time and earning a specified return. Bankers’ acceptances are negotiable drafts or bills of exchange, normally drawn by an importer or exporter to pay for specific merchandise, which are “accepted” by a bank, meaning, in effect, that the bank unconditionally agrees to pay the face value of the instrument on maturity. Bankers’ acceptances invested in by a Fund will be those guaranteed by domestic and foreign banks having, at the time of investment, capital, surplus, and undivided profits in excess of $100,000,000 (as of the date of their most recently published financial statements). Fixed time deposits are bank obligations payable at a stated maturity date and bearing interest at a fixed rate. Fixed time deposits may be withdrawn on demand by the investor, but may be subject to early withdrawal penalties that vary depending upon market conditions and the remaining maturity of the obligation. There are no contractual restrictions on the right to transfer a beneficial interest in a fixed time deposit to a third party, although there is no market for such deposits. Bank notes and bankers’ acceptances rank junior to deposit liabilities of the bank and pari passu with other senior, unsecured obligations of the bank. Bank notes are classified as “other borrowings” on a bank’s balance sheet, while deposit notes and certificates of deposit are classified as deposits. Bank notes are not insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”) or any other insurer. Deposit notes are insured by the FDIC only to the extent of $250,000 per depositor per bank. Certificates of deposit and demand and time deposits will be those of domestic banks and savings and loan associations, if (a) at the time of investment the depository institution has capital, surplus, and undivided profits in excess of $100,000,000 (as of the date of its most recently published financial statements), or (b) the principal amount of the instrument is insured in full by the FDIC.

Mortgage-Related Securities. The Funds may, consistent with their investment objectives and policies, invest in mortgage-related securities issued or guaranteed by the U.S. Government or its agencies or instrumentalities or issued by nongovernmental entities. It is not a principal strategy of any Fund to invest in mortgage-related securities.

Mortgage-related securities, for purposes of the Prospectus and this SAI, represent pools of mortgage loans assembled for sale to investors by various governmental agencies such as the Government National Mortgage Association (“GNMA”) and government-related organizations such as the Federal National Mortgage Association (“FNMA”), as well as by nongovernmental issuers such as commercial banks, savings and loan institutions, mortgage bankers and private mortgage insurance companies. Although certain mortgage-related securities are guaranteed by a third party or otherwise similarly secured, the market value of the security, which may fluctuate, is not so secured. If a Fund purchases a mortgage-related security at a premium, that portion may be lost if there is a decline in the market value of the security whether resulting from changes in interest rates or prepayments in the underlying mortgage collateral. As with other interest-bearing securities, the prices of such securities are inversely affected by changes in interest rates. However, though the value of a mortgage-related security may decline when interest rates rise, the converse is not necessarily true, since in periods of declining interest rates the mortgages underlying the securities are prone to prepayment, thereby shortening the average life of the security and shortening the period of time over which income at the higher rate is received. Conversely, when interest rates are rising, the rate of prepayment tends to decrease, thereby lengthening the average life of the security and lengthening the period of time over which income at the lower rate is received. For these and other reasons, a mortgage-related security’s average maturity may be shortened or lengthened as a result of interest rate fluctuations and, therefore, it is not possible to predict accurately the security’s return to a Fund. In addition, regular payments received in respect of mortgage-related securities include both interest and principal. No assurance can be given as to the return a Fund will receive when these amounts are reinvested.

The Funds may also invest in mortgage-related securities which are collateralized mortgage obligations structured on pools of mortgage pass-through certificates or mortgage loans. Mortgage-related securities will be purchased only if rated in the three highest bond rating categories assigned by one or more appropriate NRSROs, or, if unrated, which the Advisor or Sub-Advisor, as applicable, deems to be of comparable quality.

There are a number of important differences among the agencies and instrumentalities of the U.S. Government that issue mortgage-related securities and among the securities that they issue. Mortgage-related securities issued by the GNMA include GNMA Mortgage Pass-Through Certificates (also known as “Ginnie Maes”) which are guaranteed as to the timely payment of principal and interest by GNMA and such guarantee is backed by the full faith and credit of the United States.

 

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GNMA is a wholly-owned U.S. Government corporation within the Department of Housing and Urban Development. GNMA certificates also are supported by the authority of GNMA to borrow funds from the U.S. Treasury to make payments under its guarantee. Mortgage-related securities issued by the FNMA include FNMA Guaranteed Mortgage Pass-Through Certificates (also known as “Fannie Maes”) which are solely the obligations of the FNMA and are not backed by or entitled to the full faith and credit of the United States. FNMA is a government-sponsored organization owned entirely by private stockholders. Fannie Maes are guaranteed as to timely payment of the principal and interest by FNMA. Mortgage-related securities issued by the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (“FHLMC”) include FHLMC Mortgage Participation Certificates (also known as “Freddie Macs” or “PCs”). FHLMC is a corporate instrumentality of the United States, created pursuant to an Act of Congress, which is owned entirely by Federal Home Loan Banks. Freddie Macs are not guaranteed by the United States or by any Federal Home Loan Banks and do not constitute a debt or obligation of the United States or of any Federal Home Loan Bank. Freddie Macs entitle the holder to timely payment of interest, which is guaranteed by FHLMC. FHLMC guarantees either ultimate collection or timely payment of all principal payments on the underlying mortgage loans. When FHLMC does not guarantee timely payment of principal, FHLMC may remit the amount due on account of its guarantee of ultimate payment of principal at any time after default on an underlying mortgage, but in no event later than one year after it becomes payable. In September 2008, FNMA and FHLMC were placed into conservatorship overseen by the Federal Housing Finance Agency (“FHFA”). As conservator, FHFA will succeed to the rights, titles, powers and privileges of the company and any stockholder, officer or director of such company with respect to the company and its assets and title to all books, records and assets of the company held by any other custodian or third party. The conservator is then charged with operating the company.

Municipal Obligations. The Funds may invest in taxable municipal securities or in municipal securities whose interest, in the opinion of the securities’ counsel, is exempt from federal income tax and/or from the federal alternative minimum tax, but it is not a principal strategy of any Fund to invest in municipal obligations. The Advisor, the Sub-Advisor or a Fund does not guarantee that this opinion is correct, and there is no assurance that the Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”) will agree with such counsel’s opinion. If certain types of investments a Fund buys as tax-exempt are later ruled to be taxable, a portion of the Fund’s income could be taxable. To the extent that a Fund invests in municipal securities from a given state or geographic region, its share price and performance could be affected by local, state and regional factors, including erosion of the tax base and changes in the economic climate. National governmental actions, such as the elimination of tax-exempt status, also could affect performance. A Fund may be more sensitive to adverse economic, business or political developments if it invests a substantial portion of its assets in municipal securities financing similar projects. A change that affects one project, such as proposed legislation on the financing of the project, a shortage of the materials needed for the project, or a declining need for the project, may affect similar projects and the overall municipal securities market.

Non-Investment Grade Securities. The Funds (except the Emerging India Fund and the Global Value Fund) may invest up to 10% of their total assets in non-investment grade securities. Such securities include high yield (junk) bonds, convertible bonds, preferred stocks and convertible preferred stocks.

Non-investment grade bonds are debt securities rated Ba or lower by Moody’s or BB or lower by S&P. They generally offer greater returns in the form of higher average yields than investment grade debt securities (rated Baa or higher by Moody’s or BBB or higher by S&P). Non-investment grade debt securities involve greater risks than investment grade debt securities including greater sensitivity to changes in interest rates, the economy, the issuer’s solvency and liquidity in the secondary trading market. See Appendix A for a description of corporate bond ratings.

Yields on non-investment grade debt securities will fluctuate over time. The prices of non-investment grade debt securities have been found to be less sensitive to interest rate changes than investment grade debt securities, but more sensitive to adverse economic changes or individual issuer developments. During an economic downturn or a sustained period of rising interest rates, highly leveraged issuers may experience financial stress which would adversely affect their ability to pay principal and interest obligations, meet projected business goals and to obtain additional financing. If the issuer of a debt security held by a Fund defaulted, the Fund might incur additional expenses seeking to recover the issuer’s defaulted obligation. In addition, periods of economic uncertainty and changes can be expected to result in increased volatility of market prices of non-investment grade debt securities and a Fund’s NAV. Furthermore, the market prices of non-investment grade debt securities structured as zero coupon or payment-in-kind securities are affected to a greater extent by interest rate changes and tend to be more volatile than securities that pay interest periodically and in cash.

 

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Non-investment grade debt securities present risks based on payment expectations. For example, they may contain redemption or call provisions. If an issuer exercises these provisions in a declining interest rate market, a Fund would have to replace the security with a lower-yielding security, resulting in a decreased return for investors. A high-yielding security’s value will decrease in a rising interest rate market and will result in a corresponding decrease in the value of a Fund’s assets. Unexpected net redemptions may force a Fund to sell securities including, but not limited to, non-investment grade debt securities, without regard to their investment merits, thereby decreasing the asset base upon which a Fund’s expenses can be spread and possibly reducing the rate of return.

To the extent that there is no established secondary market, there may be thin trading of non-investment grade securities, including high yield bonds, convertible bonds, preferred stocks and convertible preferred stocks held by a Fund. This may adversely affect the ability of the Pricing Committee of the Advisor or the Funds’ Board of Trustees to accurately value a Fund’s non-investment grade securities and a Fund’s assets and may also adversely affect a Fund’s ability to dispose of the securities. In the absence of an established secondary market, valuing securities becomes more difficult and judgment plays a greater role in valuation because there is less reliable, objective data available. Adverse publicity and investor perceptions, whether or not based on fundamental analysis, may decrease the value and liquidity of non-investment grade securities, especially in a thinly traded market. Illiquid or restricted non-investment grade securities purchased by a Fund may involve special registration responsibilities, liabilities and costs, and liquidity and valuation difficulties.

Certain risks are associated with applying ratings as a method for evaluating non-investment grade securities. For example, credit ratings for bonds evaluate the safety of principal and interest payments, not the market value risk of such securities. Credit rating agencies may fail to timely change credit ratings to reflect subsequent events. The Advisor or Sub-Advisor continuously monitors the issuers of non-investment grade debt securities held by a Fund to determine if the issuers will have sufficient cash flow and profits to meet required principal and interest payments and to assure the securities’ liquidity. A Fund may be more dependent upon the Advisor’s or Sub-Advisor’s own analysis of non-investment grade securities than is the case for investment grade securities. Also, a Fund may retain a portfolio security whose rating has been changed if the security otherwise meets a Fund’s investment criteria.

Credit Risk. Credit risk is the risk that the issuer of a debt security will fail to make payments on the security when due. Securities rated non-investment grade are particularly subject to credit risk. These securities are predominantly speculative and are commonly referred to as “junk bonds.” To the extent a Fund purchases or holds convertible or other non-investment grade securities, a Fund may be exposed to greater risk that the issuer will not repay principal, or pay interest or dividends on such securities in a timely manner.

Ratings published by rating agencies seek to measure credit risk (Rating agencies’ descriptions of non-investment grade securities are contained in Appendix A of this SAI). The lower a bond issue is rated by an agency, the more credit risk it is considered to represent. Lower-rated bonds generally pay higher yields to compensate investors for the greater risk.

Interest Rate Risk. Interest rate risk is the risk that the value of a fixed-rate debt security will decline due to changes in market interest rates. Even though some interest-bearing securities are investments which offer a stable stream of income at relatively high current yield, the prices of such securities are affected by changes in interest rates and are therefore subject to market price fluctuations. The value of fixed income securities varies inversely with changes in market interest rates. When interest rates rise, the value of a Fund’s fixed income securities, and therefore its net asset value per share, generally will decline. In general, the value of fixed-rate debt securities with longer maturities is more sensitive to changes in market interest rates than the value of such securities with shorter maturities. Thus, if a Fund is invested in fixed income securities with longer weighted average maturities, the net asset value of a Fund should be expected to have greater volatility in periods of changing market interest rates.

Participatory Notes. The Equity Funds may invest in “Participatory Notes,” which are contracts or similar instruments evidencing the indirect ownership of an underlying basket of securities held by banks or other parties, and are used by investors to obtain exposure to an equity investment, including common stocks and warrants, in a local market where direct ownership is not permitted, however, it is not a principal strategy of any Fund to invest in participatory notes. In countries

 

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where direct ownership by a foreign investor is not allowed by local law (e.g., Saudi Arabia), an investor may gain exposure to the market through Participatory Notes, which derives their value from a basket of underlying equity securities. Such instruments are intended to reflect the performance of the underlying equity securities on a one-to-one basis so that investors will not normally gain more in absolute terms than they would have had the invested in the underlying securities directly, and will not normally lose more than they would have lost had they invested in the underlying securities directly.

In addition to otherwise providing access to otherwise closed markets, Participatory Notes can also act as a less expensive alternative to direct investment in markets where foreign ownership is permitted by reducing registration and transaction costs. It should not be assumed that Participatory Notes will lessen the liquidity risks of a Fund.

Participatory Notes are generally structured and sold by a local branch of a bank or broker-dealer that is permitted to purchase equity securities in the local market. Pursuant to the terms of the instrument created, the Fund may tender the instrument for cash payment in an amount that reflects the current market value of the underlying investments, less program expenses, such as trading costs, taxes and duties. The instruments represent unsecured, unsubordinated contractual rights of the issuer. They do not typically confer any right, title or interest in respect to the underlying equity securities or provide rights against the issuer of the underlying securities.

The purchase of Participatory Notes involves risks that are in addition to the risks normally associated with a direct investment in the underlying securities. The Fund is subject to the risk that the issuer of the instrument (i.e., the issuing bank or broker-dealer) is unable or refuses to perform under the terms of the instrument, also known as counter-party risk. While the holder of such instrument is entitled to receive from the issuer any dividends or other distributions paid on the underlying securities, the holder is not entitled to the same rights as an owner of the underlying securities, such as voting rights. Participatory Notes are also not traded on exchanges, are privately issued, and may be illiquid. There can be no assurance that the trading price or value of the instrument will equal the value of the underlying value of the equity securities to which they are linked.

Preferred Stock. The Equity Funds may invest in preferred stock. The Long/Short Alpha Fund invests in preferred stock as a principal strategy, and therefore investing in preferred stock is a principal risk of the Fund. Preferred stock, unlike common stock, may offer a stated dividend rate payable from the issuer’s earnings. Preferred stock dividends may be cumulative, non-cumulative, participating or auction rate. If interest rates rise, the fixed dividend on preferred stocks may be less attractive, causing the price of preferred stocks to decline. Preferred stock may have mandatory sinking fund provisions, as well as call/redemption provisions prior to maturity, a negative feature when interest rates decline. For a description of preferred stock ratings, see Appendix A. Because preferred securities are generally junior to most other forms of debt securities and other obligations of the issuer, deterioration in the credit quality of the issuer will cause greater changes in the value of a preferred securities than in a more senior debt security with similar stated yield characteristics.

As with call provisions, a redemption by the issuer may negatively impact the return of a security held by a Fund. Generally, preferred security holders have no voting rights with respect to the issuing company unless preferred dividends have been in arrears for a specified number of periods, at which time the preferred security holders may elect a number of directors to the issuer’s board. Generally, once all the arrearages have been paid, the preferred security holders no longer have voting rights. In the case of certain preferred securities issued by trusts or special purpose entities, holders generally have no voting rights except if a declaration of default occurs and is continuing. In such an event, preferred security holders generally would have the right to appoint and authorize a trustee to enforce the trust’s or special purpose entity’s rights as a creditor under the agreement with its operating company.

Generally, preferred securities may be subject to provisions that allow an issuer, under certain conditions, to skip (“non-cumulative” preferred securities) or defer (“cumulative” preferred securities) distributions without any adverse consequences to the issuer. Non-cumulative preferred securities can skip distributions indefinitely. Cumulative preferred securities typically contain provisions that allow an issuer, at its discretion, to defer distributions payments for up to 10 years. If a Fund owns a preferred security that is deferring its distribution, the Fund may be required to report income for tax purposes although it has not yet received such income. In addition, recent changes in bank regulations may increase the likelihood of issuers deferring or skipping distributions.

 

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The dividend or interest rates on preferred securities may be floating, or convert from fixed to floating at a specified future time. The market value of floating rate securities may fall in a declining interest rate environment and may also fall in a rising interest rate environment if there is a lag between the rise in interest rates and the reset. This risk may also be present with respect to fixed rate securities that will convert to a floating rate at a future time. A secondary risk associated with declining interest rates is the risk that income earned by a Fund on floating rate securities may decline due to lower coupon payments on the floating-rate securities. Finally, it is difficult to ascertain the impact on financial instruments that use or may use a floating rate based upon the London Interbank Offered Rate, or “LIBOR,” which is scheduled to be phased out. Any effects from the transition away from LIBOR, as well as other unforeseen effects, could result in losses to a Fund.

Preferred securities may be substantially less liquid than many other securities, such as U.S. government securities or common stock. Less liquid securities involve the risk that the securities will not be able to be sold at the time desired by a Fund or at prices approximating the values at which the Fund is carrying the securities on its books.

The preferred securities market is comprised predominately of securities issued by companies in the financial services industry. Therefore, preferred securities present substantially increased risks at times of financial turmoil, which could affect financial services companies more than companies in other sectors and industries.

A Fund may invest in preferred securities or other securities the federal income tax treatment of which may not be clear or may be subject to recharacterization by the Internal Revenue Service. It could be more difficult for a Fund to comply with the tax requirements applicable to regulated investment companies if the tax characterization of the Fund’s investments or the tax treatment of the income from such investments were successfully challenged by the Internal Revenue Service.

Issuers of preferred securities may be in industries that are heavily regulated and that may receive government funding. The value of preferred securities issued by these companies may be affected by changes in government policy, such as increased regulation, ownership restrictions, deregulation or reduced government funding.

Private Investments in Public Equity. Each Equity Fund may purchase equity securities in a private placement that are issued by issuers who have outstanding, publicly-traded equity securities of the same class (“private investments in public equity” or “PIPES”). Shares in PIPES generally are not registered with the SEC until after a certain time period from the date the private sale is completed. This restricted period can last many months. Until the public registration process is completed, PIPES may be restricted as to resale and the Fund cannot freely trade the securities. Generally, such restrictions may cause the PIPES to be illiquid during this time. PIPEs may contain provisions that the issuer will pay specified financial penalties to the holder if the issuer does not publicly register the restricted equity securities within a specified period of time, but there is no assurance that the restricted equity securities will be publicly registered, or that the registration will remain in effect.

Real Estate Securities. The Equity Funds may invest in real estate investment trusts (“REITs”). REITs pool investors’ funds for investment primarily in income producing real estate or real estate loans or interests. A REIT is not taxed on income distributed to shareholders if it complies with several requirements relating to its organization, ownership, assets, and income and a requirement that it distribute to its shareholders at least 95% of its taxable income (other than net capital gains) for each taxable year. While there are many types of REITs, all REITs can generally be classified as Equity REITs, Mortgage REITs and Hybrid REITs. Equity REITs, which invest the majority of their assets directly in real property, derive their income primarily from rents. Equity REITs can also realize capital gains by selling properties that have appreciated in value. Mortgage REITs, which invest the majority of their assets in real estate mortgages, derive their income primarily from interest payments. Hybrid REITs combine the characteristics of both Equity REITs and Mortgage REITs. The Equity Funds will not invest in real estate directly, but only in securities issued by real estate companies. The risks of investing in REITs include declines in the value of real estate, risks related to general and local economic conditions, dependency on management skill, heavy cash flow dependency, possible lack of availability of mortgage funds, overbuilding, extended vacancies of properties, increased competition, increases in property taxes and operating expenses, changes in zoning laws, losses due to costs resulting from the clean-up of environmental problems, liability to third parties for damages resulting from environmental problems, casualty or condemnation losses, limitations on rents, changes in neighborhood values, the appeal of properties to tenants and changes in interest rates.

 

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In addition to these risks, Equity REITs may be affected by changes in the value of the underlying property owned by the trusts, while Mortgage REITs may be affected by the quality of any credit extended. Further, REITs are dependent upon management skills and generally may not be diversified. REITs are also subject to heavy cash flow dependency, defaults by borrowers and self-liquidation. In addition, REITs could possibly fail to qualify for the beneficial tax treatment available to REITs under the Code, or to maintain their exemptions from registration under the 1940 Act. The above factors may also adversely affect a borrower’s or a lessee’s ability to meet its obligations to the REIT. In the event of a default by a borrower or lessee, the REIT may experience delays in enforcing its rights as a mortgagee or lessor and may incur substantial costs associated with protecting investments.

Repurchase Agreements. Investing in repurchase agreements is a principal strategy of the U.S. Treasury Fund. All Funds may agree to purchase securities from financial institutions (including clearing firms registered with the SEC that provide comparison, netting and settlement services to their members with respect to repurchase agreement transactions), and the corporate parents or affiliates of such financial institutions or clearing firms, subject to the seller’s agreement to repurchase them at a mutually agreed upon date and price (“repurchase agreements”). Although the underlying securities’ collateral related to a repurchase agreement may bear maturities exceeding one year, the term and settlement for the repurchase agreement security will never be more than one year and normally will be within a shorter period of time (often one business day). Underlying securities’ collateral related to repurchase agreements is held either by the Funds’ custodian or sub-custodian (if any). The seller, under a repurchase agreement, will be required to maintain the value of the securities subject to the agreement in an amount exceeding the repurchase price (including accrued interest). Repurchase agreements may be considered loans to the seller, collateralized by the underlying securities. The risk to a Fund includes the ability of the seller to pay the agreed upon sum on the repurchase date; in the event of default, the repurchase agreement provides that a Fund is entitled to sell the underlying securities’ collateral. If the value of the collateral declines after the agreement is entered into, however, and if the seller defaults under a repurchase agreement when the value of the underlying collateral is less than the repurchase price, a Fund could incur a loss of both principal and interest. The Funds’ custodian monitors the value of the collateral at the time the action is entered into and at all times during the term of the repurchase agreement. This is done in an effort to determine whether the value of the collateral always equals or exceeds the agreed upon repurchase price to be paid to the Fund. If the seller were to be subject to a federal bankruptcy proceeding, the ability of a Fund to liquidate the collateral could be delayed or impaired because of certain provisions of the bankruptcy laws.

In addition, the Funds may invest in repurchase agreements for pending investments, to meet anticipated redemption requests, to retain the flexibility to respond promptly to changes in market, economic or political conditions, and/or when the Advisor or Sub-Advisor takes temporary defensive positions, and/or when the Advisor or Sub-Advisor is unable to locate attractive investment opportunities, and/or when the Advisor or Sub-Advisor considers market, economic or political conditions to be unfavorable for profitable investing.

Restricted Securities. The Funds may invest in restricted securities. Restricted securities may be sold only in privately negotiated transactions or in a public offering with respect to which a registration statement is in effect under the Securities Act of 1933. Where registration is required, a Fund may be obligated to pay all or part of the registration expenses and a considerable period may elapse between the time of the decision to sell and the time the Fund may be permitted to sell a security under an effective registration statement. If, during such a period, adverse market conditions were to develop, the Fund might obtain a less favorable price than that which prevailed when it decided to sell.

The securities in which a Fund may invest include securities issued by corporations without registration under the Securities Act of 1933, such as securities issued in reliance on the so-called “private placement” exemption from registration which is afforded by Section 4(2) of the Securities Act of 1933 (“Section 4(2) securities”). Section 4(2) securities are restricted as to disposition under the Federal securities laws, and generally are sold to institutional investors such as the Funds who agree that they are purchasing the securities for investment and not with a view to public distribution. The resales of these securities may also have to be made in an exempt transaction. The Global Value Fund will limit its investment in Section 4(2) securities to not more than 10% of its respective net assets.

The Funds may also purchase securities which, while privately placed, are eligible for purchase and sale under Rule 144A under the Securities Act of 1933. This rule permits certain qualified institutional buyers, such as the Fund, to trade privately placed securities even though such securities are not registered under the Securities Act of 1933. The Board has delegated

 

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to the Advisor the responsibility to determine the liquidity of Rule 144A restricted securities. If these securities are determined to be liquid, such securities would be excluded from the 15% illiquid securities limit.

Reverse Repurchase Agreements. The Funds may borrow funds by entering into reverse repurchase agreements in accordance with that Fund’s investment restrictions. Pursuant to such agreements, each Fund would sell portfolio securities to financial institutions such as banks and broker-dealers, and agree to repurchase the securities at a mutually agreed-upon date and price. A Fund intends to enter into reverse repurchase agreements only to avoid otherwise selling securities during unfavorable market conditions to meet redemptions. At the time a Fund enters into a reverse repurchase agreement, it will place in a segregated custodial account assets such as U.S. Government securities or other liquid securities consistent with the Fund’s investment restrictions having a value equal to the repurchase price (including accrued interest), and will subsequently continually monitor the account to ensure that such equivalent value is maintained at all times. Reverse repurchase agreements involve the risk that the market value of the securities sold by a Fund may decline below the price at which a Fund is obligated to repurchase the securities. Reverse repurchase agreements are considered to be borrowings by a Fund under the 1940 Act. Reverse repurchase agreements are also considered derivatives under Rule 18f-4, subject to the risks and requirements disclosed above. The Derivatives Rule provides special treatment for reverse repurchase agreements, similar financing transactions and unfunded commitment agreements. Specifically, a fund may elect whether to treat reverse repurchase agreements and similar financing transactions as “derivatives transactions” subject to the requirements of the Derivatives Rule or as senior securities equivalent to bank borrowings for purposes of Section 18 of the 1940 Act. See “Derivatives” for a further discussion of the Derivatives Rule.

Securities of Other Investment Companies. The Equity Funds may purchase the securities of other investment companies, including foreign and domestic registered and unregistered open-end funds, closed-end funds, unit investment trusts and ETFs if the purchase is in compliance with the 1940 Act or rules thereunder. As a shareholder of another investment company, a Fund would bear its pro rata portion of the other investment company’s expenses, including advisory fees. These expenses would be in addition to the expenses the Fund bears directly in connection with its own operations. If a Fund invests in securities of other investment companies, the return on any such investment will be reduced by the operating expenses, including investment advisory and administrative fees, of such investment companies. (Such Fund indirectly absorbs its pro rata share of the other investment companies’ expenses.) However, the Advisor believes that at times the return and liquidity features of these securities may be more beneficial than other types of securities. Shareholders would also be exposed not only to the risks associated with the respective Fund, but also the portfolio investments and investment strategies of the underlying investment companies.

Except as described in the following paragraph, the Funds currently intend to limit investments in securities issued by other investment companies so that, as determined immediately after a purchase of such securities is made: (i) not more than 5% of the value of a Fund’s total assets will be invested in the securities of any one investment company; (ii) not more than 10% of the value of its total assets will be invested in the aggregate in securities of investment companies as a group; and (iii) not more than 3% of the outstanding voting stock of any one investment company will be owned by a Fund. These limitations do not apply to investments in investment companies through a master-feeder type arrangement. In addition, to the extent allowed by law or regulation, a Fund may invest its assets in securities of investment companies that are money market funds, including those advised by the Advisor or a Sub-Advisor or otherwise affiliated with the Advisor or a Sub-Advisor, in excess of the limits discussed above.

The SEC recently adopted Rule 12d1-4 under the 1940 Act, which permits registered investment companies to invest in the securities of other investment companies beyond the limits described above under certain conditions. Upon the adoption of Rule 12d1-4, the SEC rescinded applicable exemptive orders and withdrew applicable no-action letters upon which investment companies relied to invest in the securities of other investment companies. Accordingly, subject to certain conditions on both an acquired fund and acquiring fund, Rule 12d1-4 provides an exemption to permit the acquiring fund to invest in the securities of other registered investment companies in excess of the above limits of Section 12(d)(1) of the 1940 Act. The Funds will only invest in the securities of other investment companies in compliance with applicable law and the rules thereunder.

Short Sales. All Equity Funds may make short sales of securities, but it is not a principal strategy of any Fund (except the Long/Short Alpha Fund) to make short sales of securities. The U.S. Treasury Fund does not engage in short sales. Short sales are transactions in which a Fund sells a security it does not own in anticipation of a decline in the market value of that

 

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security. A Fund must borrow the security to deliver to the buyer upon the short sale. A Fund is then obligated to replace the borrowed security by purchasing it at a later date. A short sale provides a possible hedge against the market risk of the value of other investments and protects a Fund in a declining market. As noted above, the Derivatives Rule permits investment companies to enter into derivatives transactions which is defined to include short sales subject to various conditions. All Equity Funds may engage in short sales of securities subject to applicable law, including the new Derivatives Rule. See the Section entitled “Derivatives” for additional information regarding the Derivatives Rule.

Short sales are subject to the risk that a Fund will incur a loss if the price of a security sold short increases between the date of the short sale and the date the Fund closes the short sale. Any gain on a short sale will be decreased, and the amount of any loss increased, by the amount of the premium, dividends, interest or expenses the Fund may be required to pay in connection with a short sale. An increase in the value of a security sold short by a Fund over the price at which it was sold short will result in a loss to the Fund, and there can be no assurance that the Fund will be able to close out the position at any particular time or at an acceptable price. Except in the case of short sales “against the box,” a Fund’s market risk is unlimited in that the potential for increase in the market price of the security sold short is unlimited. Short sales “against the box” mean that the Fund owns securities identical to those sold short.

When a short position is closed out, it may result in a short-term capital gain or loss for federal income tax purposes. In a generally rising market, if a Fund maintains short positions in securities rising with the market, the net asset value of the Fund would increase to a lesser extent than if it had not engaged in short sales.

The Advisor may consider short selling when the Advisor finds companies it believes are intrinsically overvalued. Short selling may also be considered in arbitrage and hedge situations, and short selling might also be used under certain circumstances to defer taxes.

The Equity Funds (other than the Long/Short Alpha Fund) will not engage in short sales of securities when these transactions would cause the market value of all of its securities sold short to exceed 15% of its net assets subject to the following. The value of the securities of any one issuer that may be shorted by a Fund is limited to the lesser of 5% of the value of the Fund’s net assets or 5% of the securities of any class of the issuer (other than the Long/Short Alpha Fund). All short sales must be fully collateralized. The Funds maintain the collateral in a segregated account with their custodian. The collateral consists of cash, U.S. Government securities or any other liquid securities equal to the market value of the securities at the time of the short sale. The Funds will thereafter maintain, on a daily basis, the collateral to ensure that it is equal to the current market value of the securities sold short. Short sales against the box are not subject to the 15% limitation. A capital gain or loss is recognized immediately upon the sale of a short against the box. A Fund may only engage in short sale transactions in securities listed on one or more U.S. or foreign securities exchanges or on EASDAQ or Nasdaq (other than the Long/Short Alpha Fund).

Short Sales for Long/Short Alpha Fund. Making short sales of securities is a principal strategy of the Long/Short Alpha Fund. Short sales are transactions in which the Long/Short Alpha Fund sells a security it does not own in anticipation of a decline in the market value of that security. The Long/Short Alpha Fund must borrow the security to deliver to the buyer upon the short sale. The Long/Short Alpha Fund is then obligated to replace the borrowed security by purchasing it at a later date. A short sale provides a possible hedge against the market risk of the value of other investments and protects the Long/Short Alpha Fund in a declining market.

Short sales are subject to the risk that the Long/Short Alpha Fund will incur a loss if the price of a security sold short increases between the date of the short sale and the date the Fund closes the short sale. Any gain on a short sale will be decreased, and the amount of any loss increased, by the amount of the premium, dividends, interest or expenses the Fund may be required to pay in connection with a short sale. An increase in the value of a security sold short by the Long/Short Alpha Fund over the price at which it was sold short will result in a loss to the Fund, and there can be no assurance that the Fund will be able to close out the position at any particular time or at an acceptable price. Except in the case of short sales “against the box,” the Long/Short Alpha Fund’s market risk is unlimited in that the potential for increase in the market price of the security sold short is unlimited. Short sales “against the box” mean that the Fund owns securities identical to those sold short. To the extent the Long/Short Alpha Fund invests the proceeds received from selling securities short in additional long positions, the Fund is engaging in a form of leverage. The use of leverage may increase such Fund’s exposure to long positions and make any change in the Fund’s net asset value greater than it would be without the use of leverage. This could

 

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result in increased volatility of returns and magnify significantly gains or losses for the Long/Short Alpha Fund. There can be no assurance that the Long/Short Alpha Fund’s use of short sales and any leverage will be successful.

When a short position is closed out, it may result in a short-term capital gain or loss for federal income tax purposes. In a generally rising market, if the Long/Short Alpha Fund maintains short positions in securities rising with the market, the net asset value of the Fund would increase to a lesser extent than if it had not engaged in short sales.

The Advisor may consider short selling when the Advisor finds companies it believes are intrinsically overvalued. Short selling may also be considered in arbitrage and hedge situations, and short selling might also be used under certain circumstances to defer taxes.

The Long/Short Alpha Fund may engage in short sales, as permitted by applicable law including the 1940 Act. As noted above, the SEC recently adopted the Derivatives Rule under the 1940 Act which, among other things, imposes limits on the amount of derivatives, including short sales, a fund can enter into and will replace the asset segregation framework previously applied to comply with Section 18 of the 1940 Act. The Long/Short Alpha Fund’s short sale transactions will seek to comply with the conditions of the new Derivatives Rule as applicable. The requirements under the new Derivatives Rule or any SEC guidance on the new rule may limit the ability of the Advisor to effectively execute the Fund‘s investment strategy. All short sales must be fully collateralized. The Long/Short Alpha Fund maintains the collateral in a segregated account with its custodian. The collateral may include cash, U.S. Government securities or any other securities equal to the market value of the securities at the time of the short sale. The Fund will thereafter maintain, on a daily basis, the collateral to ensure that it is equal to the current market value of the securities sold short. To facilitate the Long/Short Alpha Fund’s short sale strategy, the Fund borrows the securities through the enhanced custody program offered by the Fund’s custodian, State Street Bank and Trust Company (“State Street”), and sells short those borrowed securities. The Fund may utilize various ways to collateralize its obligation to return the borrowed securities, including by pledging securities or cash held in the Fund’s segregated custodial account. As a result, the Fund may maintain high levels of cash or other liquid assets, which may limit the Fund’s ability to pursue other opportunities. The Long/Short Alpha Fund pays the custodian a securities borrowing fee and financing charge. The Fund also is required to pay to the lender certain borrowing fees and amounts equal to any dividends paid during the period of the loan. Participation in the enhanced custody program may entail the following risks: (a) counterparty risk - by borrowing securities from the custodian and providing collateral to the custodian to collateralize the securities loan, the Fund will be subject to the credit risk of the custodian to the extent that the value of the collateral provided to the custodian exceeds the value of the borrowed securities provided to the Fund. This risk may be heightened during periods of market stress and volatility; (b) changes in borrowing fees - the custodian is not required to notify the Fund and other borrowing clients of any change to the loan rates or of any amendment to a borrowing fee until after they are effective. Accordingly, the Fund may incur greater costs than originally anticipated when borrowing securities and will not be able to terminate the relevant securities loan until after these higher fees have been incurred for some period of time; (c) market risk – the custodian does not maintain an inventory of securities in order to meet the demand of its borrowing clients in the enhanced custody program. Instead, the custodian, acting as principal, borrows securities from third parties, including third party institutional clients participating in the custodian’s agency securities lending program, to lend securities to its borrowing clients. Accordingly, there may be circumstances under which the securities that the custodian believed would be available from these third-party sources to meet its sourcing requirements to a borrowing client are no longer available, whether due to market conditions or other reasons. In these and similar circumstances, the borrowing client would have to borrow the securities from a third party or, if the securities are not available to be borrowed from a third party, adjust its investment or other strategy to mitigate or avoid the need to borrow the relevant security; (d) lack of best execution- the custodian is not obligated to provide the Fund and other borrowing clients with “best execution” with respect to securities loans under the enhanced custody program. It is the responsibility of each borrowing client to assess the fee schedule and the loan rates quoted to it by the custodian in relation to each securities loan, as well as the other terms of the securities loan. The custodian acts as a principal counterparty to, and not as agent for, the borrowing client, with the intent of making a profit from a securities loan and any related activity, such as financing and (e) the custodian’s enhanced custody program involves the risk of processing mistakes and other administrative errors, including problems with trade settlements and errors in calculating the daily mark-to-market value of the borrowed securities and any collateral that borrowing clients deliver to the custodian.

 

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In the past, in response to market events, regulatory authorities in various countries, including the United States, enacted temporary rules prohibiting the short-selling of certain stocks. If regulatory authorities were to reinstitute such rules or otherwise restrict short-selling, the Long/Short Alpha Fund might not be able to fully implement its short-selling strategy.

Special Purpose Acquisition Companies. Each Equity Fund may invest in equity securities of special purpose acquisition companies (“SPACs”) which are also known as “blank check companies.” A SPAC is a company with no commercial operations that is formed solely to raise capital from investors for the purpose of acquiring one or more existing private companies. SPACs often have pre-determined time frames to make an acquisition (typically two years) or the SPAC will liquidate. A Fund may purchase units or shares of SPACs that have completed an IPO on a secondary market, during a SPAC’s IPO or through a PIPEs offering. See “Private Investments in Public Companies” above. Unless and until an acquisition is made, a SPAC generally will invest in U.S. government securities, money market securities or cash. Other than seeking an acquisition, a SPAC does not have an operating history or ongoing business and therefore, the value of the SPAC’s securities is particularly dependent on its ability to identify and complete a profitable acquisition. A SPAC may not be able to identify and complete an acquisition and the any completed acquisition may not be profitable. A SPAC may complete a business acquisition even if the public shareholders do not support the acquisition as certain stockholders, such as those affiliated with the management of the SPAC, may have sufficient voting power to approve the acquisition without the affirmative vote by the public shareholders. SPACs often acquire private companies that are unseasoned with limited track records and reporting history. The securities of companies acquired by the SPAC are subject to extreme price volatility and speculative trading. As venture capitalists and private equity investors may take large holdings in SPAC derived companies and seek to sell such securities in the public market after the lock-up period following the business combination expires, such sales contribute to additional price volatility and downward price pressure on such securities at such time.

Stripped Obligations. Investing in U.S. Treasury Strips (zero coupon Treasury securities) is a principal strategy of the U.S. Treasury Fund. All Funds may purchase Treasury receipts and other “stripped” securities that evidence ownership in either the future interest payments or the future principal payments on U.S. Government obligations. These participations, which may be issued by the U.S. Government (or a U.S. Government agency or instrumentality) or by private issuers such as banks and other institutions, are issued at a discount from their “face value,” and may include stripped mortgage-backed securities (“SMBS”). Stripped securities, particularly SMBS, may exhibit greater price volatility than ordinary debt securities because of the manner in which their principal and interest are returned to investors.

SMBS are usually structured with two or more classes that receive different proportions of the interest and principal distributions from a pool of mortgage-backed obligations. A common type of SMBS will have one class receiving all of the interest, while the other class receives all of the principal. However, in some cases, one class will receive some of the interest and most of the principal while the other class will receive most of the interest and the remainder of the principal. If the underlying obligations experience greater than anticipated prepayments of principal a Fund may fail to fully recoup its initial investment. The market value of the class consisting entirely of principal payments can be extremely volatile in response to changes in interest rates. The yields on a class of SMBS that receives all or most of the interest are generally higher than prevailing market yields on other mortgage-backed obligations because their cash flow patterns are also volatile and there is a greater risk that the initial investment will not be fully recouped.

SMBS issued by the U.S. Government (or a U.S. Government agency or instrumentality) may be considered liquid under guidelines established by the Board of Trustees if they can be disposed of promptly in the ordinary course of business at a value reasonably close to that used in the calculation of a Fund’s per share net asset value.

The Treasury Department has facilitated transfers of ownership of zero coupon securities by accounting separately for the beneficial ownership of particular interest coupon and principal payments on Treasury securities through the Federal Reserve book-entry record-keeping system. A Fund may purchase securities registered in the STRIPS program. Under the STRIPS program, a Fund will be able to have beneficial ownership of zero coupon securities recorded directly in the book-entry record-keeping system in lieu of having to hold certificates or other evidences of ownership of the underlying U.S. Treasury securities.

In addition, the Funds may acquire U.S. Government obligations and their unmatured interest coupons that have been separated (“stripped”) by their holder, typically a custodian bank or investment brokerage firm. Having separated the interest coupons from the underlying principal of the U.S. Government obligations, the holder will resell the stripped

 

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securities in custodial receipt programs with a number of different names, including “Treasury Income Growth Receipts” (“TIGRs”) and “Certificate of Accrual on Treasury Securities” (“CATS”). The stripped coupons are sold separately from the underlying principal, which is usually sold at a deep discount because the buyer receives only the right to receive a future fixed payment on the security and does not receive any rights to periodic interest (cash) payments. The underlying U.S. Treasury bonds and notes themselves are held in book-entry form at the Federal Reserve Bank or, in the case of bearer securities (i.e., unregistered securities which are ostensibly owned by the bearer or holder), in trust on behalf of the owners. Counsel to the underwriters of these certificates or other evidences of ownership of U.S. Treasury securities have stated that, in their opinion, purchasers of the stripped securities most likely will be deemed the beneficial holders of the underlying U.S. Government obligations for Federal tax purposes. The Advisor is unaware of any binding legislative, judicial or administrative authority on this issue.

Swap Agreements. The Equity Funds may enter into credit default swaps, interest rate swaps and currency swaps but it is not a principal strategy of any Fund. In a typical interest rate swap, one party agrees to make regular payments equal to a floating interest rate multiplied by a “notional principal amount,” in return for payments equal to fixed rate multiplied by the same amount, for a specified period of time. If a swap agreement provides for payments in different currencies, the parties might agree to exchange the notional principal amount as well. The credit default swap allows a Fund to manage credit risk through buying and selling credit protection on specific names or a basket of names. A “buyer” of credit protection agrees to pay a counterparty to assume the credit risk of an issuer upon the occurrence of certain events. The “seller” of credit protection receives a premium and agrees to assume the credit risk of an issuer upon the occurrence of certain events. A Fund will segregate the notional principal amount to cover the exposure created by the swap.

Swap agreements will tend to shift a Fund’s investment exposure from one type of investment to another. Depending on how they are used, swap agreements may increase or decrease the overall volatility of a Fund’s investments and its share price and yield.

A Fund may enter into swaps with members of the Federal Reserve System, members of the New York Stock Exchange or other entities determined by the Advisor or Sub-Advisor to be creditworthy.

United States Government Securities. Investing in United States Government securities is a principal strategy of the U.S. Treasury Fund. To the extent consistent with their investment objectives, the Funds may invest in a variety of U.S. Treasury obligations consisting of bills, notes and bonds, which principally differ only in their interest rates, maturities and time of issuance. The Funds may also invest in other securities issued or guaranteed by the U.S. Government, its agencies or instrumentalities. Obligations of certain agencies and instrumentalities, such as GNMA, are supported by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Treasury; others, such as those of the Export-Import Bank of the United States, are supported by the right of the issuer to borrow from the Treasury; others, such as those of FNMA, are supported by the discretionary authority of the U.S. Government to purchase the agency’s obligations; still others, such as those of the Student Loan Marketing Association (“SLMA”), are supported only by the credit of the instrumentalities. Obligations of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (also known as the World Bank) are supported by subscribed, but unpaid, commitments of its member countries. There is no assurance that these commitments will be undertaken or complied with in the future.

In addition, in September 2008 FNMA and FHLMC were placed into conservatorship overseen by the FHFA. As conservator, FHFA will succeed to the rights, titles, powers and privileges of each company and any stockholder, officer or director of such company with respect to the company and its assets and title to all books, records and assets of the company held by any other custodian or third party. The conservator is then charged with operating the company.

Securities guaranteed as to principal and interest by the U.S. Government, its agencies or instrumentalities are deemed to include: (a) securities for which the payment of principal and interest is backed by an irrevocable letter of credit issued by the U.S. Government or an agency or instrumentality thereof; and (b) participations in loans made to foreign governments or their agencies that are so guaranteed. The secondary market for certain of these participations is limited. Such participations will therefore be regarded as illiquid. No assurance can be given that the U.S. Government would provide financial support to its agencies or instrumentalities if it is not obligated to do so by law.

U.S. Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities (TIPS). Investing in TIPS is a principal strategy of the U.S. Treasury Fund. The other Funds may also invest in TIPS. Inflation-protected securities are a type of marketable book-entry security issued

 

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by the United States Department of Treasury (“Treasury”) with a nominal return linked to the inflation rate in prices. The index used to measure inflation is the non-seasonally adjusted U.S. Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (“CPI-U”).

The value of the principal is adjusted for inflation, and every six months the security pays interest, which is an amount equal to a fixed percentage of the inflation-adjusted value of the principal. The final payment of principal of the security will not be less than the original par amount of the security at issuance.

The principal of the inflation-protected security is indexed to the non-seasonally adjusted CPI-U. To calculate the inflation-adjusted principal value for a particular valuation date, the value of the principal at issuance is multiplied by the index ratio applicable to that valuation date. The index ratio for any date is the ratio of the reference Consumer Price Index (“CPI”) applicable to such date to the reference CPI applicable to the original issue date. Semi-annual coupon interest is determined by multiplying the inflation-adjusted principal amount by one-half of the stated rate of interest on each interest payment date.

Inflation-adjusted principal or the original par amount, whichever is larger, is paid on the maturity date as specified in the applicable offering announcement. If at maturity the inflation-adjusted principal is less than the original principal value of the security, an additional amount is paid at maturity so that the additional amount plus the inflation-adjusted principal equals the original principal amount. Some inflation-protected securities may be stripped into principal and interest components. In the case of a stripped security, the holder of the stripped principal component receives this additional amount. The final interest payment, however, is based on the final inflation-adjusted principal value, not the original par amount.

The reference CPI for the first day of any calendar month is the CPI-U for the third preceding calendar month. (For example, the reference CPI for December 1 is the CPI-U reported for September of the same year, which is released in October.) The reference CPI for any other day of the month is calculated by a linear interpolation between the reference CPI applicable to the first day of the month and the reference CPI applicable to the first day of the following month.

Any revisions the Bureau of Labor Statistics (or successor agency) makes to any CPI-U number that has been previously released will not be used in calculations of the value of outstanding inflation-protected securities. In the case that the CPI-U for a particular month is not reported by the last day of the following month, the Treasury will announce an index number based on the last year-over-year CPI-U inflation rate available. Any calculations of the Treasury’s payment obligations on the inflation-protected security that need that month’s CPI-U number will be based on the index number that the Treasury has announced. If the CPI-U is rebased to a different year, the Treasury will continue to use the CPI-U series based on the base reference period in effect when the security was first issued as long as that series continues to be published. If the CPI-U is discontinued during the period the inflation-protected security is outstanding, the Treasury will, in consultation with the Bureau of Labor Statistics (or successor agency), determine an appropriate substitute index and methodology for linking the discontinued series with the new price index series. Determinations of the Secretary of the Treasury in this regard are final.

Inflation-protected securities are held and transferred in either of two book-entry systems: the commercial book-entry system (“TRADES”) and TREASURY DIRECT. The securities are maintained and transferred at their original par amount, i.e., not their inflation-adjusted value. The Federal Reserve program was established by the Treasury Department and is known as “STRIPS” or “Separate Trading of Registered Interest and Principal of Securities.” STRIPS components are maintained and transferred in TRADES at their value based on their original par amount of the fully constituted security.

Variable Amount Master Demand Notes. The Equity Funds may invest in variable amount master demand notes, however, it is not a principal strategy of any Fund to invest in variable amount master demand notes. Variable amount master demand notes are unsecured demand notes that permit the indebtedness thereunder to vary and provide for periodic adjustments in the interest rate according to the terms of the instrument. Because master demand notes are direct lending arrangements between a Fund and the issuer, they are not normally traded. Although there is no secondary market in the notes, a Fund may demand payment of principal and accrued interest at any time within 30 days. While such notes are not typically rated by credit rating agencies, issuers of variable amount master demand notes (which are normally manufacturing, retail, financial and other business concerns), must satisfy, for purchase by a Fund, the same criteria for

 

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commercial paper for a Fund. The Advisor will consider the earning power, cash flow, and other liquidity ratios of the issuers of such notes and will continuously monitor their financial status and ability to meet payment on demand. In determining weighted average portfolio maturity, a variable amount master demand note will be deemed to have a maturity equal to the longer of the period of time remaining until the next interest rate adjustment or the period of time remaining until the principal amount can be recovered from the issuer through demand.

Variable and Floating Rate Securities. The Equity Funds may acquire variable and floating rate securities, subject to each Fund’s investment objectives, policies and restrictions, however, it is not a principal strategy of any Fund to invest in variable and floating rate securities. A variable rate security is one with terms providing for the adjustment of its interest rate on set dates and which, upon such adjustment, can reasonably be expected to have a market value that approximates its par value. A floating rate security is one with terms providing for the adjustment of its interest rate whenever a specified interest rate changes and which, at any time, can reasonably be expected to have a market value that approximates its par value. Such securities are frequently not rated by credit rating agencies; however, unrated variable and floating rate securities purchased by a Fund will be determined by the Advisor to be of comparable quality at the time of purchase to rated instruments eligible for purchase under a Fund’s investment policies. In making such determinations, the Advisor will consider the earning power, cash flow and other liquidity ratios of the issuers of such notes (such issuers include financial, merchandising, bank holding and other companies) and will continuously monitor their financial condition. Although there may be no active secondary market with respect to a particular variable or floating rate security purchased by a Fund, the Fund may resell the security at any time to a third party. The absence of an active secondary market, however, could make it difficult for a Fund to dispose of a variable or floating rate security in the event the issuer of the security defaulted on its payment obligations and a Fund could, as a result or for other reasons, suffer a loss to the extent of the default. To the extent that there exists no readily available market for such security and a Fund is not entitled to receive the principal amount of a note within seven days, such a security will be treated as illiquid for purposes of calculating such Fund’s limitation on investments in illiquid securities, as set forth in a Fund’s investment restrictions. Variable or floating rate securities may be secured by bank letters of credit. It is a principal strategy and principal risk of the U.S. Treasury Fund to invest in U.S. Treasury securities, and such securities may include floating rate notes.

Warrants. The Equity Funds may invest in warrants to participate in an anticipated increase in the market value of the security. It is not a principal strategy of any Fund to invest in warrants. A warrant entitles the holder to buy a security at a set price during a set period of time. If such market value increases, the warrant may be exercised and sold at a gain. A loss will be incurred if the market value decreases or if the term of the warrant expires before it is exercised. Warrants convey no rights to dividends or voting.

When-Issued Securities. The Funds may purchase securities on a “when-issued” basis (i.e., for delivery beyond the normal settlement date at a stated price and yield), however, it is not a principal strategy of any Fund to invest in “when-issued” securities. When a Fund agrees to purchase securities on a “when-issued” basis, a Fund’s custodian will set aside cash or liquid portfolio securities equal to the amount of the commitment in a separate account. Normally, a Fund’s custodian will set aside portfolio securities to satisfy the purchase commitment, and in such a case, a Fund may be required subsequently to place additional assets in the separate account in order to assure that the value of the account remains equal to the amount of a Fund’s commitment. It may be expected that a Fund’s net assets will fluctuate to a greater degree when it sets aside portfolio securities to cover such purchase commitments than when it sets aside cash. In addition, because a Fund will set aside cash or liquid portfolio securities to satisfy its purchase commitments in the manner described above, such Fund’s liquidity and the ability of the Advisor to manage it might be affected in the event its commitments to purchase “when-issued” securities ever exceeded 25% of the value of its total assets. Under normal market conditions, however, a Fund’s commitment to purchase “when-issued” or “delayed-delivery” securities will not exceed 25% of the value of its total assets.

When a Fund engages in “when-issued” transactions, it relies on the seller to consummate the trade. Failure of the seller to do so may result in a Fund’s incurring a loss or missing the opportunity to obtain a price considered to be advantageous. A Fund will engage in “when-issued” delivery transactions only for the purpose of acquiring portfolio securities consistent with such Fund’s investment objectives and policies and not for investment leverage. When-issued or forward settling securities transactions physically settling within 35 days are deemed not to involve a senior security. When-issued or forward settling securities transactions that do not physically settle within 35 days are required to be treated as derivatives transactions in compliance with the Derivatives Rule as outlined in the “Derivatives” section.

 

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Cybersecurity Risks. Information and technology systems relied upon by the Funds, Advisor, Sub-Advisor and Funds’ service providers (including, but not limited to, Fund accountants, custodians, transfer agents, administrators, distributors and other financial intermediaries) and/or the issuers of securities in which the Funds invest may be vulnerable to damage or interruption from computer viruses, network failures, computer and telecommunication failures, infiltration by unauthorized persons, security breaches, usage errors, power outages and catastrophic events (such as fires, tornadoes, floods, hurricanes and earthquakes). The failure of these systems and/or of disaster recovery plans could cause significant interruptions in the operations of the Funds, Advisor, Sub-Advisor, Funds’ service providers and/or issuers of securities in which the Funds invest and may result in a failure to maintain the security, confidentiality or privacy of sensitive data, including personal information relating to investors (and the beneficial owners of investors). Such a failure could also harm the reputation of a Fund, the Advisor, Sub-Advisor, Funds’ service providers and/or issuers of securities in which a Fund invests and subject such entities to legal claims or otherwise affect their business and financial performance.

Calculation of Portfolio Turnover Rate. The portfolio turnover rate for each Fund is calculated by dividing the lesser of purchases or sales of portfolio investments for the reporting period by the monthly average value of the portfolio investments owned during the reporting period. The calculation excludes all securities, including options, with maturities or expiration dates at the time of acquisition of one year or less. Portfolio turnover may vary greatly from year to year as well as within a particular year, and may be affected by cash requirements for redemption of shares. The Funds are not restricted by policy with regard to portfolio turnover and will make changes in investment portfolios from time to time as business and economic conditions as well as market prices may dictate. The current portfolio turnover rate for each Fund is set forth in the current Prospectus.

FUND RESTRICTIONS AND POLICIES

The Trust has adopted the following restrictions and policies relating to the investment of assets of the Funds and their activities. These are fundamental policies that may not be changed without the approval of the holders of a majority of the outstanding voting shares of each Fund affected (which for this purpose and under the 1940 Act means the lesser of (i) 67% of the shares represented at a meeting at which more than 50% of the outstanding shares are represented or (ii) more than 50% of the outstanding shares). A change in a fundamental policy affecting only one Fund may be effected with the approval of a majority of the outstanding shares of such Fund.

Each of the Core Growth Fund, Emerging India Fund, Emerging Markets Select Fund, Emerging Markets Small Cap Fund, Frontier Emerging Small Countries Fund, Global Opportunities Fund, Global Select Fund, Greater China Fund, International Growth Fund, International Opportunities Fund, International Select Fund, Long/Short Alpha Fund, Micro Cap Fund, Micro Cap Value Fund, Small Cap Growth Fund, Small Cap Value Fund, Ultra Growth Fund, and U.S. Select Fund may not:

 

  1.

Purchase or sell real estate, provided that the Funds may invest in securities secured by real estate or interests therein or issued by companies which invest in real estate or interests therein.

 

  2.

Purchase or sell physical commodities (including, by way of example and not by way of limitation, grains, oilseeds, livestock, meat, food, fiber, metals, petroleum, petroleum-based products or natural gas) or futures or options contracts with respect to physical commodities. This restriction shall not restrict the Funds from purchasing or selling any financial contracts or instruments which may be deemed commodities (including, by way of example and not by way of limitation, options, futures, and options on futures with respect, in each case, to interest rates, currencies, stock indexes, bond indexes or interest rate indexes) or any security which is collateralized or otherwise backed by physical commodities.

 

  3.

Make loans to other persons, except that each Fund may lend portfolio securities representing up to one-third of the value of its total assets. (The Funds, however, may purchase and hold debt instruments and enter into repurchase agreements in accordance with their investment objectives and policies.)

 

  4.

Underwrite securities of other issuers except insofar as the Funds may be deemed an underwriter under the Securities Act of 1933 in selling portfolio securities.

 

46


  5.

Invest more than 25% of total assets (taken at market value at the time of each investment) in the securities of issuers in any particular industry.*

 

  6.

Borrow money, except as permitted under the 1940 Act as interpreted or modified from time to time by any regulatory authority having jurisdiction.

 

  7.

Issue senior securities, except as permitted under the 1940 Act, as interpreted or modified from time to time by any regulatory authority having jurisdiction.

*“Industry” means a “particular industry or group of industries” for the Greater China Fund and Long/Short Alpha Fund.

The Global Value Fund may not:

 

  1.

Purchase securities of any one issuer, other than obligations issued or guaranteed by the U.S. Government, its agencies or instrumentalities and repurchase agreements secured by such obligations, if, immediately after such purchase, more than 5% of the Fund’s total assets would be invested in such issuer or the Fund would hold more than 10% of the outstanding voting securities of such issuer, except that up to 25% of the Fund’s total assets may be invested without regard to such limitations. There is no limit to the percentage of assets that may be invested in U.S. Treasury bills, notes, or other obligations issued or guaranteed by the U.S. Government, its agencies or instrumentalities or repurchase agreements secured by such obligations.

 

  2.

Purchase any securities which would cause more than 25% of the Fund’s total assets at the time of purchase to be invested in securities of one or more issuers conducting their principal business activities in the same industry; provided that (a) there is no limitation with respect to obligations issued or guaranteed by the U.S. Government, its agencies or instrumentalities and repurchase agreements secured by such obligations; (b) wholly owned finance companies will be considered to be in the industries of their parents if their activities are primarily related to financing the activities of their parents; and (c) utilities will be divided according to their services. For example, gas, gas transmission, electric and gas, electric, and telephone will each be considered a separate industry.

 

  3.

Borrow money or issue senior securities except as and to the extent permitted by the 1940 Act or any rule, order or interpretation thereunder.

 

  4.

Make loans, except that each Fund may purchase or hold debt instruments and lend portfolio securities in accordance with its investment objectives and policies, make time deposits with financial institutions, and enter into repurchase agreements.

 

  5.

Purchase securities on margin, except for use of short-term credit necessary for clearance of purchases of portfolio securities and except as may be necessary to make margin payments in connection with derivative securities transactions.

 

  6.

Underwrite the securities issued by other persons, except to the extent that the Fund may be deemed to be an underwriter under certain securities laws in the disposition of “restricted securities.”

 

  7.

Purchase or sell real estate (although investments in marketable securities of companies engaged in such activities and securities secured by real estate or interests therein are not prohibited by this restriction).

 

  8.

Purchase or sell commodities or commodities contracts, except to the extent disclosed in the current Prospectus of the Fund.

 

47


The U.S. Treasury Fund may not:

 

  1.

Purchase or sell real estate, provided that the Fund may invest in securities secured by real estate or interests therein or issued by companies which invest in real estate or interests therein.

 

  2.

Purchase or sell physical commodities (including, by way of example and not by way of limitation, grains, oilseeds, livestock, meat, food, fiber, metals, petroleum, petroleum-based products or natural gas) or futures or options contracts with respect to physical commodities. This restriction shall not restrict the Fund from purchasing or selling any financial contracts or instruments which may be deemed commodities (including, by way of example and not by way of limitation, options, futures, and options on futures with respect, in each case, to interest rates, currencies, stock indexes, bond indexes or interest rate indexes) or any security which is collateralized or otherwise backed by physical commodities.

 

  3.

Purchase any security on margin, except that the Fund may obtain such short-term credit as may be necessary for the clearance of transactions.

 

  4.

Make short sales of securities.

 

  5.

Make loans to other persons, except that the Fund may lend portfolio securities representing up to one-third of the value of its total assets. (The Fund, however, may purchase and hold debt instruments and enter into repurchase agreements in accordance with its investment objective and policies.)

 

  6.

Issue any senior securities (as defined in the 1940 Act) other than as set forth in restriction number 7 below.

 

  7.

Borrow money, except for temporary purposes. The amount of such borrowing may not exceed 10% of the Fund’s total assets. The Fund will not borrow money for leverage purposes. For the purpose of this restriction, the use of options and futures transactions shall not be deemed the borrowing of money. (As a non-fundamental policy, the Fund will not make additional investments while its borrowing exceeds 5% of total assets.)

 

  8.

Underwrite securities of other issuers except insofar as the Fund may be deemed an underwriter under the Securities Act of 1933 in selling portfolio securities.

 

  9.

Invest more than 25% of its total assets (taken at market value at the time of each investment) in the securities of issuers in any particular industry.

 

  10.

As to 75% of the Fund’s total assets, invest in the securities of any one issuer (other than the United States Government or government agencies or instrumentalities) if immediately after and as a result of such investment, the value of the holdings of the Fund in the securities of such issuer exceeds 5% of the Fund’s total assets, taken at market value.

 

  11.

As to 75% of the Fund’s total assets, invest in the securities of any one issuer (other than the United States Government or government agencies or instrumentalities) if immediately after and as a result of such investment, the Fund owns more than 10% of the outstanding voting securities, or more than 10% of any class of securities of such issuer.

The following restrictions are non-fundamental and may be changed by the Trust’s Board of Trustees without shareholder vote.

Each of the Core Growth Fund, Emerging India Fund, Emerging Markets Select Fund, Emerging Markets Small Cap Fund, Frontier Emerging Small Countries Fund, Global Opportunities Fund, Global Select Fund, Greater China Fund, International Growth Fund, International Opportunities Fund, International Select Fund, Long/Short Alpha Fund, Micro Cap Fund, Micro Cap Value Fund, Small Cap Growth Fund, Small Cap Value Fund, Ultra Growth Fund, and U.S. Select Fund will not:

 

48


  1.

Make investments for the purpose of exercising control or management.

 

  2.

Invest in other investment companies except to the extent permitted by 1940 Act, or any rules and regulations thereunder, and any exemptive relief granted by the SEC pursuant to which the Fund can rely.

 

  3.

Invest more than 15% of its net assets in all forms of illiquid investments, as determined pursuant to applicable SEC rules and interpretations.

 

  4.

Purchase or sell interests in oil, gas or other mineral exploration or development programs, although it may invest in the securities of issuers which invest in or sponsor such programs.

 

  5.

Invest more than 10% of its total assets (taken at market value at the time of each investment) in Special Situations, i.e., companies in the process of reorganization or buy-out).

 

  6.

Engage in short sales of securities when these transactions would cause the market value of all of a Fund’s securities sold short to exceed 15% of its net assets. Short sales against the box are not subject to this limitation. (This restriction does not apply to the Long/Short Alpha Fund.)

 

  7.

Purchase securities on margin, except that the Fund may obtain such short-term credit as may be necessary for the clearance of transactions.

The U.S. Treasury Fund will not:

 

  1.

Make investments for the purpose of exercising control or management.

 

  2.

Invest more than 10% of its assets in other investment companies.

 

  3.

Invest more than 15% of its assets in all forms of illiquid investments, as determined pursuant to applicable SEC rules and interpretations.

 

  4.

Purchase or sell interests in oil, gas or other mineral exploration or development programs, although it may invest in the securities of issuers which invest in or sponsor such programs.

 

  5.

Invest more than 5% of its total assets (taken at market value at the time of each investment) in “Special Situations,” i.e., companies in the process of reorganization or buy-out.

The Global Value Fund will not:

 

  1.

Invest in other investment companies except to the extent permitted by the 1940 Act, or any rules or regulations thereunder, and any exemptive relief granted by the SEC upon which the Fund can rely.

 

  2.

Purchase or sell interests in oil, gas or other mineral exploration or development programs, although they may invest in securities of issuers which invest in or sponsor such programs.

 

  3.

Invest more than 15% of its net assets at the time of purchase in all forms of illiquid investments, as determined pursuant to applicable SEC rules and interpretations.

 

  4.

Mortgage or hypothecate the Fund’s assets in excess of one-third of the Fund’s total assets.

 

  5.

Make investments for the purpose of exercising control or management.

 

  6.

Invest more than 10% of its total assets (taken at market value at the time of each investment) in Special Situations, (i.e., companies in the process of reorganization or buy-out).

 

49


If any percentage restriction or requirement described above is satisfied at the time of investment, a later increase or decrease in such percentage resulting from a change in asset value will not constitute a violation of such restriction or requirement, except that any borrowing by a Fund that exceeds the investment restriction stated above must be reduced to meet such limitations within the period required by the 1940 Act (currently three days, excluding Sundays and holidays). More specifically, under the 1940 Act as currently in effect, the Funds are not permitted to issue senior securities, except that the Funds may borrow from any bank if immediately after such borrowing the value of the Fund’s total assets is at least 300% of the principal amount of all of the Fund’s borrowings (i.e., the principal amount of the borrowings may not exceed 33 1/3% of the Fund’s total assets). In the event that such asset coverage shall at any time fall below 300%, the Fund shall within three calendar days thereafter (not including Sundays and holidays), reduce the amount of its borrowings to the extent that the asset coverage of such borrowing shall be at least 300%. Notwithstanding the foregoing, derivative transactions complying with the Derivatives Rule are generally exempt from the restrictions on issuing senior securities and asset coverage provisions under the 1940 Act. In addition, should a change in net asset value or other external events cause the Fund’s investments in illiquid securities, repurchase agreements with maturities in excess of seven days and other instruments in such Fund which are not readily marketable to exceed the limit set forth in such Fund’s Prospectus or herein for its investment in illiquid securities, the Fund will act to cause the aggregate amount of such securities to come within such limit as soon as reasonably practicable.

Except for the above restriction addressing borrowing or as otherwise required by applicable law, any investment restriction or limitation, fundamental or otherwise, appearing in the Prospectus or SAI, which involves a maximum percentage of securities or assets shall not be considered to be violated unless an excess over the percentage occurs immediately after an acquisition of securities or utilization of assets, and such excess results therefrom.

Disclosure of Portfolio Holdings. The Board of Trustees has adopted the Policies on Releasing Portfolio Holdings Information of the Funds and the Advisor’s separately managed clients (the “Disclosure Policies”). The Disclosure Policies are intended to ensure compliance by the Advisor and the Funds with the applicable restrictions of the federal securities laws, including the 1940 Act, the Investment Advisers Act of 1940 and rules thereunder, and general principles of fiduciary duty relating to client accounts. It is the policy of the Advisor and the Funds that in general, no information about portfolio holdings may be disclosed to any unaffiliated party subject to exceptions set forth in the Disclosure Policies. The Board and/or its Audit Committee exercises continuing oversight of the disclosure of the Funds’ portfolio holdings by (i) reviewing, at least quarterly, the potential and actual material conflicts that could arise between the Funds’ shareholders and those of the Advisor for any waivers and exceptions made to these Disclosure Policies during the preceding quarter and determine if they were made in the best interests of Fund shareholders; (ii) reviewing, at least quarterly, any violation(s) of these Disclosure Policies during the preceding quarter; and (iii) reviewing these procedures from time to time for their continued appropriateness and amend or ratify these Disclosure Policies as they deem necessary. In addition, the Board of Trustees oversees the implementation and enforcement of the Disclosure Policies by the Chief Compliance Officer of the Funds and considers reports and recommendations by the Chief Compliance Officer concerning any material compliance matters (as defined in Rule 38a-1 under the 1940 Act) that may arise in connection with the Disclosure Policies. The Advisor and the Board reserve the right to amend the Disclosure Policies at any time and from time to time without prior notice in their sole discretion.

No compensation or other consideration is received by the Funds, the Advisor or any affiliated party in regard to this disclosure. “Consideration” includes any agreement to maintain assets in the Funds or separate accounts managed by the Advisor.

General Policy. In general, no information concerning the portfolio holdings of the Funds may be disclosed to any unaffiliated third party except as provided below. As investment advisor, the Advisor knows the portfolio holdings and it and the Funds do not disclose portfolio holdings to any other affiliated party, except as provided below.

 

   

Disclosure of Mutual Fund Holdings on a Lag. The Funds may publicly disclose all calendar quarter-end mutual fund holdings of all Funds for the most recent calendar quarter, including lists of top 10 holdings, after a 30-day delay to all outside parties. Upon the scheduled release of the most recent calendar quarter’s holdings, month-end holdings may also be made available for all prior periods, if requested. Disclosure to consultant databases, ratings agencies (such as Morningstar and Broadridge Financial Services), financial advisors, Wasatch’s website and newsletters, and shareholder servicing representatives, will be subject to the delays set forth in the foregoing sentence. After the applicable delay, shareholders may obtain a

 

50


 

complete list of holdings by contacting a Wasatch Funds’ shareholder services representative by calling 800.551.1700 or emailing [email protected]. Holdings are provided to Morningstar and Broadridge Financial Services quarterly after a 30 day delay.

 

   

Disclosure to Service Providers. Client-specific holdings information may be released to clients and their authorized service providers upon request. Nothing contained in the Disclosure Policies is intended to prevent disclosure of portfolio holding information to the Advisor’s and Funds’ service providers who generally need access to such information in the performance of their contractual duties and responsibilities, such as custodians, fund accountants, administrators, independent registered public accounting firm, attorneys, writers (e.g., individuals who review and recommend edits to the Advisor to materials provided to Fund shareholders or the Advisor’s separately managed clients), data service providers (e.g. FactSet), proxy voting services (e.g. RiskMetrics), trading software, and each of their respective affiliates, provided that they are subject to duties of confidentiality imposed by law and/or contract (the “Service Providers”). As of December 31, 2022, the Funds’ service providers were the Advisor, Hoisington Investment Management Company (subadviser), State Street Bank and Trust Company (custodian, fund accountant and administrator), ALPS Distributors, Inc. (distributor), UMB Fund Services, Inc. (transfer agent), PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP (independent registered public accounting firm), Chapman and Cutler LLP (independent counsel), Institutional Shareholder Services (pricing vendor) and Interactive Data Corporation (corporate actions processing vendor), Segal Marco Advisors, FactSet Research (data research provider) Bloomberg LP (data research provider), Institutional Shareholder Services, IDC Vantage, FundApps, InsiderScore, William O’Neil, Seismic and StudiOLeary (writer). The frequency of disclosure to and between the Service Providers varies and may be as frequent as daily, with no lag.

 

   

Disclosure of Aggregate Portfolio Characteristics. Aggregate portfolio characteristics may be made available without a delay. Nonexclusive examples of aggregate portfolio characteristics about a Fund include (1) the allocation of the Fund’s portfolio holdings and other investment positions among various asset classes, sectors, industries, and countries, (2) the characteristics of the stock and bond components of the Fund’s portfolio holdings and other investment positions, (3) the attribution of Fund returns by asset class, sector, industry, and country, and (4) the volatility characteristics of the Fund.

 

   

Disclosure of Portfolio Holdings to Certain Analytic Companies. Certain analytic companies who calculate aggregate portfolio characteristics for consultants may receive quarterly holdings information without a delay; provided that (1) the recipient does not distribute the specific holdings information to third parties, other departments or persons before the expiration of the applicable delay period and public disclosure of such information and (2) the recipient signs a written non-disclosure agreement. Any non-disclosure agreement must be in a form and substance acceptable to the Advisor’s compliance department. Entities unwilling to execute an acceptable non-disclosure agreement may only receive portfolio holdings information that has otherwise been publicly disclosed in accordance with the Disclosure Policies. As of December 31, 2022, the Funds’ complete portfolio holdings are disclosed to the following analytic companies as part of ongoing arrangements that serve legitimate business purposes: Segal Marco Advisors, Factset Research Systems Inc., Bloomberg L.P., Institutional Shareholder Services, IDC Vantage, FundApps, InsiderScore, William O’Neil, and Seismic.

 

   

Disclosure of Portfolio Holdings to Broker-Dealers to Facilitate Trading. The Advisor’s trading or research departments may periodically distribute without a delay lists of applicable investments held by the Funds for the purpose of facilitating efficient trading of such securities and receipt of relevant research. Such lists shall not identify individual clients or individual client position sizes or show aggregate client position sizes. Since this disclosure does not involve the disclosure of complete portfolio holdings identified by client, this disclosure is not considered a waiver of the Disclosure Policies. The frequency of disclosure to broker-dealers for trading and research purposes is determined by the Advisor’s trading and research departments in connection with fulfilling their trading and research duties to the Funds. Such disclosure varies and may be as frequent as daily, with no delay.

 

51


   

Disclosure of Individual Portfolio Holdings. Certain research analysts and other senior officers or spokespersons of the Advisor or Funds may disclose or confirm the ownership of any individual portfolio holding position in materials prepared for Fund shareholders (such as “Manager’s Comments”), media interviews and meetings with shareholders, consultants and any interested parties; provided that the aggregate position size is not disclosed. Research analysts may disclose or confirm the ownership, including the aggregate position size of any individual portfolio holding without delay to management of the company owned, provided that management gives assurance that the information will be used for internal purposes only and not otherwise disclosed.

Disclosure as Required by Law. Nothing contained in the Disclosure Policies is intended to prevent the disclosure of portfolio holding information as may be required under applicable law. Accordingly, a Fund’s portfolio holdings (whether partial portfolio holdings or complete portfolio holdings) and other investment positions comprising a Fund shall be disclosed to any person as required by applicable laws, rules, and regulations. Examples of such required disclosure include, but are not limited to, disclosure of Fund portfolio holdings (1) in any report required by applicable law (such as a filing or submission with the SEC or another regulatory body, (2) in response to requests from regulators and (3) to comply with valid subpoenas.

Waivers or Exceptions of Disclosure Policies. The Disclosure Policies may not be waived, or exceptions made, without the consent of the Advisor’s Compliance Department (“Compliance Department”) and the execution of a written non-disclosure agreement in a form and substance acceptable to the Compliance Department. All waivers and exceptions will be disclosed to the Board of Trustees and/or the Audit Committee at their next regularly scheduled quarterly meeting. The frequency with which complete portfolio holdings may be disclosed to a recipient pursuant to a waiver (the “Recipient”), and the length of the delay, if any, between the date of the information and the date on which the information is disclosed to the Recipient, is determined based on the facts and circumstances, including, without limitation, the nature of the portfolio holdings information to be disclosed, the risk of harm to the Funds and their shareholders and the Advisor’s separate account clients, and the legitimate business purposes served by such disclosure. The frequency of disclosure to a Recipient varies and may be as frequent as daily, with no delay.

MANAGEMENT OF THE TRUST

Management Information. The business affairs of Wasatch Funds are overseen by its Board of Trustees. The Board consists of four Independent Trustees. Each of the Independent Trustees will serve until their successors are qualified, appointed or elected in accordance with the Trust’s Declaration of Trust and By-Laws. Ms. Allison, Mr. Rinne and Ms. Fletcher were elected by shareholders.

The Trustees and executive officers of Wasatch Funds and their principal occupations for at least the last five years are set forth below. The Advisor retains proprietary rights to the Trust name.

 

Name, Address and Year of Birth  

Position(s)        

Held with

Wasatch

Funds

 

Term of

Office1and 
Length of
Time

Served

 

Principal Occupation(s)            

during Past 5 Years

 

Number of

Portfolios in

Fund

Complex

Overseen by  

Trustee

 

Other

Directorships Held    

by Trustees during

Past 5 Years

Independent Trustees

                   

Miriam M. Allison

505 Wakara Way, 3rd Floor

Salt Lake City, UT 84108

1947

  Trustee  

Indefinite

 

Served as Trustee since 2010

  Rancher since 2004. Chairman of UMB Fund Services, Inc. from 2001 to 2005.   20   Director, Northwestern Mutual Series Fund, Inc. (27 portfolios) from 2006 to 2021.

 

52


Name, Address and Year of Birth  

Position(s)        

Held with

Wasatch

Funds

 

Term of

Office1and 
Length of
Time

Served

 

Principal Occupation(s)            

during Past 5 Years

 

Number of

Portfolios in

Fund

Complex

Overseen by  

Trustee

 

Other

Directorships Held    

by Trustees during

Past 5 Years

Heikki Rinne

505 Wakara Way, 3rd Floor

Salt Lake City, UT 84108

1952

  Trustee and Chair of the Board  

Indefinite

 

Served as Trustee since 2012

  Chief Executive Officer of the Halton Group Ltd. (an indoor environmental control manufacturing and technology company), from 2002 to 2016. Director, Halton Foundation since 2010. A Founder and Principal Owner of Sitoumus LLC (a training and consulting firm focusing on empowering organizational and individual engagement as well as general consulting), January 2017 to present.   20   Director, Halton Group Ltd. from 2016 to 2020.

Kristen M. Fletcher

505 Wakara Way

3rd Floor

Salt Lake City, UT 84108

1953

  Trustee and Chair of the Audit Committee  

Indefinite

 

Served as Trustee since 2014

  Director, Utah Museum of Fine Arts since 2021. Director, Youth Sports Alliance from 2015 to 2021. Trustee, Woodlands Commercial Bank (a/k/a Lehman Brothers Commercial Bank) from 2009 to 2012. Chairman and CEO, ABN AMRO, Inc. and U.S. Country Representative, ABN AMRO Bank, NV from 2002 to 2004.   20  

Director, Youth Sports Alliance from 2015 to 2021. Trustee, Woodlands Commercial Bank (a/k/a Lehman Brothers Commercial Bank) from 2009 to 2012. Director Emeritus, Utah

Symphony/Utah Opera since September 2017. Director, Utah Symphony/Utah Opera from 2005 to September 2017.

Mark Robinson

505 Wakara Way, 3rd Floor

Salt Lake City, UT 84108

1958

  Trustee and Chair of the Governance and Nominating Committee  

Indefinite

 

Served as Trustee since 2020

  Chief Financial Officer of Truckstop.com LLC from 2016 to 2019. Chief Financial Officer of SABA Software, Inc. from 2013 to 2015.   20   Chairman of Vita Vis Nutrition, Inc. from 2014 to 2016.

 

1.

A Trustee may serve until his/her death, resignation, removal or retirement. Each Independent Trustee shall retire as Trustee at the end of the calendar year in which he/she attains the age of 75 years. The Board of Trustees reserves the right to permit continued service after the mandatory retirement age for any individual Trustee in its sole discretion. The Board has approved a one-year waiver from the retirement age requirement for Ms. Allison.

 

Name, Address and Year of Birth   

Position(s) Held      

with Trust

  

Term of Office and

Length

of Time Served

   Principal Occupation(s) during Past 5 Years

Officers

              

Eric S. Bergeson

505 Wakara Way, 3rd Floor

Salt Lake City, UT 84108

1966

   President   

Indefinite

 

Served as President since May 2018

   President for Wasatch Funds since May 2018. President of the Advisor since January 2017. Vice President of Institutional Sales for the Advisor since June 1998.

 

53


Name, Address and Year of Birth   

Position(s) Held      

with Trust

  

Term of Office and

Length

of Time Served

   Principal Occupation(s) during Past 5 Years

Russell L. Biles

505 Wakara Way, 3rd Floor

Salt Lake City, UT 84108

1967

  

Chief Compliance

Officer, Vice

President and

Secretary

  

Indefinite

 

Served as Chief Compliance Officer and Vice President since February 2007 and Secretary since November 2008

   Chief Compliance Officer and Vice President for Wasatch Funds since February 2007. Secretary for Wasatch Funds since November 2008. Counsel for the Advisor since October 2006.

Michael K. Yeates

505 Wakara Way, 3rd Floor

Salt Lake City, UT 84108

1982

   Treasurer   

Indefinite

 

Served as Treasurer since May 2018

   Treasurer for Wasatch Funds since May 2018. Chief Financial Officer of the Advisor since September 2007.

David Corbett

505 Wakara Way, 3rd Floor

Salt Lake City, UT 84108

1972

   Assistant Vice President   

Indefinite

 

Served as Assistant Vice President since August 2012

   Assistant Vice President for Wasatch Funds since August 2012. Director of Mutual Fund Services for the Advisor since June 2007.

Cheryl Reich

505 Wakara Way, 3rd Floor

Salt Lake City, UT 84108

1983

   Assistant Secretary   

Indefinite

 

Served as Assistant Secretary since February 2017

   Assistant Secretary for Wasatch Funds since February 2017. Compliance Associate for the Advisor since September 2012.

Kara H. Becker

505 Wakara Way, 3rd Floor

Salt Lake City, UT 84108

1983

   Assistant Treasurer   

Indefinite

 

Served as Assistant Treasurer since May 2018

   Assistant Treasurer for Wasatch Funds since May 2018. Controller for the Advisor since January 2012.

Leadership Structure and the Board of Trustees. The Board of Trustees oversees the operations and management of the Funds, including the duties performed for the Funds by the Advisor and other service providers. The Board is currently composed of four Independent Trustees. Like all mutual funds, the day-to-day responsibility for the management and operation of the Funds is the responsibility of various service providers to the Funds, such as the Funds’ Advisor, distributor, administrator, custodian, and transfer agent, each of which is discussed in greater detail in this SAI. The Board approves all significant agreements between the Trust, on behalf of the Funds, and its service providers, including the agreements with the Advisor, distributor, administrator, custodian and transfer agent. The Board has appointed various officers of the Trust who also report to the Board on the Funds’ day-to-day operations. In conducting this oversight responsibility, the Board receives regular reports from these officers and service providers regarding the Trust’s operations. The Board has appointed the Chief Compliance Officer (“CCO”), who administers the Trust’s compliance program and regularly reports to the Board on compliance matters. These reports may be provided as part of the formal “Board Meetings” which are typically held quarterly, in person, and involve the Board’s review of recent Fund operations, or the Board may also hold special in-person and/or telephone meetings and informal conference calls to discuss specific matters that may require action prior to the next regularly scheduled meeting. In conjunction with the regularly scheduled Board meetings and committee meetings, the Independent Trustees (who also comprise the Audit Committee) also meet in executive session periodically (but at least annually), and separately, with Trust officers, with personnel of the Service Providers, and with the Trust’s CCO. The Independent Trustees may also meet in executive session among themselves and periodically with independent legal counsel. In all cases, however, the role of the Board and of any individual Trustee is one of oversight and not of management of the day-to-day affairs of the Trust and its oversight role does not make the Board a guarantor of the Trust’s or Funds’ investments, operations or activities.

Board Leadership Structure

 

54


The Board has structured itself in a manner that it believes allows it to effectively perform its oversight function. In an effort to enhance the independence of the Board, the Board has a Chair that is an independent Trustee. The Board recognizes that the chair can perform an important role in setting the Board agenda, establishing the boardroom culture, serving as a point person on behalf of the Board with fund management, facilitating communications among Trustees and with Service Providers, and reinforcing the Board’s focus on the long-term interests of shareholders. The Board also recognizes that a chair may be able to better perform these functions without any conflicts of interests arising from a position with fund management. Currently, Mr. Heikki Rinne serves as the independent Chair of the Board. Under the Trust’s By-laws, the Chair (or, if the Chair is unable to attend any such meeting, the Chair’s designee) shall preside at all meetings of the Trustees and the shareholders.

Although the Board has direct responsibility over various matters (such as advisory contracts, underwriting contracts and Fund performance), the Board also exercises certain of its oversight responsibilities through its committees, the Audit Committee and the Governance and Nominating Committee (the “Governance Committee”), standing committees that it has established which report back to the Board. The Audit Committee is comprised entirely of the Independent Trustees and operates under a written charter adopted and approved by the Board. Accordingly, Mr. Rinne, Mr. Robinson, Ms. Allison, and Ms. Fletcher are each members of the Audit Committee with Ms. Fletcher serving as Chair. Under the charter, the primary responsibilities of the Audit Committee include to oversee the Funds’ accounting and financial reporting policies and practices, its internal controls and the internal controls of the Funds’ accounting, administration, transfer agency and custody service providers; to oversee the quality and integrity of the Funds’ financial statements and independent audit thereof; to assist the Board’s oversight of the Funds’ compliance with legal and regulatory requirements that relate to the Fund’s accounting and financial reporting, internal control over financial reporting and independent audits; to act as a liaison between the Funds’ independent public accountants and the full Board of Trustees; to assist the Board oversight of the Funds’ internal audit function (if any); and to approve prior to appointment, the engagement of the Funds’ independent public accountants and, in connection therewith, to review and evaluate the qualifications, independence and performance of the Funds’ independent public accountants. To fulfill its oversight duties, the Audit Committee receives annual and semi-annual reports and has regular meetings with the external auditors for the Funds. The Audit Committee met four times during the fiscal year ended September 30, 2022.

In addition to the Audit Committee, the Board has also established the Governance Committee. The Governance Committee is comprised entirely of the Independent Trustees and operates under a written charter adopted and approved by the Board. Accordingly, Mr. Rinne, Mr. Robinson, Ms. Allison, and Ms. Fletcher are each members of the Governance Committee with Mr. Robinson serving as Chair. Under the charter, the primary responsibilities of the Governance Committee include: adopting policies and procedures with respect to the activities and responsibilities of the Governance Committee as it may deem necessary or appropriate; determining matters of corporate governance (including the evaluation of Board and committee performance, committee processes, and trustee compensation); evaluating the composition of the Board and any constituent committees thereof and the process by which Board and committee chairs are selected; identification, consideration and nomination of candidates to become Board members; and other duties and responsibilities as may from time to time be delegated to the committee by the Board. The Committee will consider nominees recommended by shareholders. Recommendations should be submitted to the Governance and Nominating Committee in care of the Secretary of the Wasatch Funds, Attn: Russell Biles, 505 Wakara Way, 3rd Floor, Salt Lake City, UT 84108. The Governance Committee met five times during the fiscal year ended September 30, 2022.

The Board believes that the committee structure is an effective means to permit Trustees to focus on particular operations or issues affecting the Funds. In addition to the standing committees, the Board may also from time to time create ad hoc committees or additional standing committees to focus on particular issues as the need arises.

The Board has determined that its leadership structure, including its committee structure permitting certain areas of responsibility to be allocated to the Independent Trustees together with its Independent Chair, is appropriate given the characteristics of the Trust and Funds.

Board Oversight of Risk Management

The Board’s oversight responsibilities extend also to risk oversight, including but not limited to, risks related to investments and operations. Because risk management is a broad concept comprised of many elements (including, for example, but not limited to, investment risks, issuer risks, compliance risks, valuation risks, counterparty risks, operational risks, business

 

55


continuity risks, and legal, compliance and regulatory risks) the oversight of different types of risks is addressed through various risk management reports and assessments received from the relevant management personnel and service providers. Through its direct oversight role, and indirectly through its Audit Committee, the Board performs a risk oversight function for the Funds which may consist of, among other things, the following activities: (1) receiving and reviewing reports related to the performance and operations of the Funds, including but not limited to investment, compliance, liquidity, valuation and operation risks; (2) reviewing and approving, as applicable, compliance policies and procedures of the Fund; (3) meeting with portfolio management teams to review investment strategies, techniques and processes and the investment risks associated therewith; (4) reviewing reports generated by and/or meeting with representatives of key service providers to review and discuss the risks associated with their activities for the Fund and any measures taken to mitigate those risks; (5) receiving written and/or oral reports of the CCO, meeting privately with the CCO, and receiving the annual report of the CCO regarding the operations of the Funds’ Compliance Program, the CCO’s evaluation of the service providers’ compliance programs (including material issues that have arisen with the effectiveness of service providers’ compliance programs and changes resulting thereof, and third-party evaluations of the effectiveness of service providers’ operational effectiveness, if any) as well as any recommendations for modifications thereto; and (6) the Audit Committee meeting with the Treasurer and the Trust’s independent public accounting firm to discuss, among other things, the internal control structure of the Trust’s financial reporting function.

The Board recognizes that not all risks that may affect the Funds can be identified, that it may not be practical or cost-effective to eliminate or mitigate certain risks, that it may be necessary to bear certain risks (such as investment-related risks) to achieve a Fund’s goals, and that the processes, procedures and controls employed to address certain risks may be limited in their effectiveness. Moreover, reports received by the Trustees as to risk management matters are typically summaries of the relevant information. As a result of the foregoing and other factors, the Board’s risk management oversight is subject to certain limitations.

Information about Each Trustee’s Qualification, Experience, Attributes or Skills

The Board believes that each Trustee’s experience, qualifications, attributes or skills on an individual basis and in combination with those of the other Trustees lead to the conclusion that the Board possesses the requisite attributes and skills. In addition to the information provided in the table above, listed below for each Trustee is additional information concerning the experiences, qualifications and attributes that led to the conclusion, as of the date of this SAI that each current Trustee should serve as a trustee. References to the qualifications, attributes and skills of trustees are pursuant to requirements of the SEC, do not constitute holding out of the Board or any Trustee as having any special expertise and shall not impose any greater responsibility or liability on any such person or on the Board by reason thereof.

Miriam M. Allison. Ms. Allison’s experience, skills and education qualify her to serve as a Trustee of the Trust. Ms. Allison, an Independent Trustee of the Trust, has 30 years of experience in investment and financial management and in management of investment companies, businesses providing financial, accounting and other services to investment companies and serving on the board of investment companies. Ms. Allison has served as a Trustee of the Trust since February 2010 and Chairperson of the Trust from January 2020 to December 2022. In 1990, Ms. Allison founded Sunstone Financial Group (“Sunstone”), a private company and mutual fund administrator, fund accountant and transfer agent, and served as its chief executive officer and Chairperson of the Board. In 2001, UMB Financial Corporation, a public company, acquired Sunstone, and renamed it UMB Fund Services, and Ms. Allison remained with the company as chief executive officer until 2003 and Chairperson of the Board until 2005. Prior to founding Sunstone, Ms. Allison spent 5 years (from 1985 to 1990) as the business manager of Firstar Trust Company (“Firstar”), a registered investment adviser, and was responsible for overseeing the operations of the investment company for which Firstar served as investment advisor. In addition, from 1971 to 1985, Ms. Allison served as portfolio manager and financial planner of First Wisconsin Trust Company analyzing potential investments and financial and estate objectives of trust clients. Ms. Allison has served as a director for the board of Northwestern Mutual Fund Series, Inc. (representing 27 portfolios) from 2006 to 2021, has served as lead independent director since February 2014 to 2021 and served as chair of its audit committee from 2009 to February 2014. Ms. Allison received her bachelor’s degree in economics from the University of Wisconsin Madison in 1971.

 

56


Heikki Rinne, Ph.D. Dr. Rinne has served as an Independent Trustee of the Trust since October 1, 2012 and Chairperson of the Trust since January 1, 2023. Dr. Rinne’s experience, skills and education qualify him to serve as a Trustee of the Trust. From 2002 to 2016, Dr. Rinne served as the Chief Executive Officer of Halton Group, an indoor environmental control manufacturing and technology company, with multiple business areas, and operating in 32 countries. Halton Group is headquartered in Finland, with regional headquarters in the USA and Malaysia. Dr. Rinne first served on the Board of Halton Group from 1995 to 2001 and returned to serve on the Board beginning January 2016 to 2020, was President of Halton Systems Division from 1995 to 1997, and was an independent consultant to Halton Group from 1982 to 1995. Additionally, Dr. Rinne served as the Dean of the College of Business at the University of California, Chico, from 1999 to 2001, a Professor of Business and the Head of the Consumer Sciences department at Purdue University from 1997 to 1999, and a Professor of Business at Brigham Young University from 1984 to 1995. Dr. Rinne also served on the Board of Touchfon International from 1991 to 2009, and Infosto Group from 1993 to 2009. Dr. Rinne received his Bachelor of Science in business from Brigham Young University in 1975, his Master of Business Administration from the University of Oregon in 1976, and his doctorate in Business Administration and Marketing from Purdue University in 1981.

Kristen M. Fletcher. Ms. Fletcher’s experience, skills and education qualify her to serve as a Trustee of the Trust. Kristen M. Fletcher has served as an Independent Trustee of the Trust since October 1, 2014, has over 35 years of experience in commercial and investment banking, and over five years of service on private and non-profit boards of directors. Since 2021, Ms. Fletcher has served as a Director of the Utah Museum of Fine Arts. Since 2017, Ms. Fletcher is an Emeritus member of the Utah Symphony/Utah Opera Board of Directors. From 2015 to 2021, Ms. Fletcher served on the Board of Trustees of the Youth Sports Alliance, a non-profit organization supporting winter sports activities, while promoting good sportsmanship and healthy lifestyles through participation, education and competition. From 2005 to 2017, Ms. Fletcher served on the Board of Directors of the Utah Symphony/Utah Opera and on the Governance, Finance and Strategic Planning Committees. From 2009 to 2012, Ms. Fletcher served as a Trustee of Woodlands Commercial Bank a.k.a. Lehman Brothers Commercial Bank, where she also served as Chairman of its Finance Committee, and a member of its Audit Committee and its Special Committee of independent Board members formed to negotiate settlement terms with the Lehman Brothers bankruptcy estate. From 2002 to 2004, Ms. Fletcher served as the Chairman and CEO of ABN AMRO, Inc., ABN AMRO Bank’s U.S. broker-dealer, and was the head of ABN AMRO North America Wholesale Client Services, which was accountable for regulatory relationships and local implementation of ABN AMRO strategy related to large corporate and institutional clients. From 2000 to 2004, Ms. Fletcher served as Corporate Managing Director/Executive Vice President for the Global Trade & Advisory Group of ABN AMRO Bank, NV, in Amsterdam, Netherlands. From 1993 to 1999, Ms. Fletcher served as Senior Vice President of the North American Trade Group of ABN AMRO Bank NV, where she was the Head of Structured Trade Finance, and subsequently all trade finance, for ABN AMRO North America, including LaSalle Bank. Prior to her tenure at ABN AMRO, Ms. Fletcher served in various capacities at First Interstate Bank, Ltd./Standard Chartered Bank, Export-Import Bank of the U.S., and Wells Fargo Bank. Ms. Fletcher received her Bachelor of Arts in government from Hamilton College (Kirkland College) in 1975, and her Master of Science in accounting from Georgetown University in 1984. Ms. Fletcher also served as an intern to the United States Senate in 1974 and to the United States Chamber of Commerce in 1976.

Mark Robinson. Mr. Robinson’s experience, skills and education qualify him to serve as a Trustee of the Trust. Mr. Robinson has served as an Independent Trustee of the Trust since April 2020 and has over 20 years of leadership experience in cloud, software, hardware, professional services, manufacturing, transportation, consumer goods and medical device industries. From 2016 to 2019, Mr. Robinson served as Chief Financial Officer of Truckstop.com LLC, a freight transportation cloud solution provider, where he drove strategy and planning to shift the company to a SaaS recurring revenue managed company, and closing the majority of the sale of the company in April 2019. Prior to his tenure at Truckstop.com, Mr. Robinson served as Chief Financial Officer from 2013 to 2015 and helped restructure and turn around SABA Software, Inc., a NASDAQ traded multinational talent management cloud solutions company, which sold itself to a private venture capital group in April 2015. From 2008 to 2013, Mr. Robinson served as Chief Financial Officer for Calypso Technology, Inc., a multinational Fintech software and professional

 

57


services company, and Discus Dental, a multinational medical device and consumer goods manufacturing company. From 2005 through 2007, Mr. Robinson served as the Chief Financial Officer of Q Comm International, a publicly traded point-of-sale distribution and activation company. From 1983 to 2004, Mr. Robinson served as Chief Financial Officer, Controller, and held other finance and business develop positions at Silicon Valley technology and communications companies. In addition, Mr. Robinson was Chairman of the Board of Directors of Vita Vis Nutrition, Inc. from 2014 to 2016 and served a Director of Clickguard in 2001 and 2002. Mr. Robinson earned his Bachelors of Science, Finance and Marketing, from the University of Utah in 1983, and his Master of Business Administration from the University of Utah in 1988.

Trustees’ Fund Holdings. As of December 31, 2022, the Trustees owned shares of the Funds as set forth in the table below. The following are the ranges: none, $1-$10,000, $10,001-$50,000, $50,001-$100,000 or over $100,000.

 

    

    Dollar Range of Equity    

Securities in the Funds

   Aggregate Dollar Range of Equity
Securities in All Registered
  Investment Companies Overseen by  

Trustees in Family of Investment
Companies1

Independent Trustees

        

Miriam M. Allison

       Over $100,000

Core Growth Fund

  Over $100,000     

Emerging India Fund

  $50,001-$100,000     

Emerging Markets Select Fund

  $50,001-$100,000     

Emerging Markets Small Cap Fund

  $50,001-$100,000     

Frontier Emerging Small Countries Fund

  $1-$10,000     

Global Opportunities Fund

  Over $100,000     

Global Select Fund

  50,001-$100,000     

Global Value Fund

  $1-$10,000     

Greater China Fund

  $10,001-$50,000     

International Growth Fund

  $1-$10,000     

International Opportunities Fund

  $1-$10,000     

International Select Fund

  $1-$10,000     

Long/Short Alpha Fund

  $10,001-$50,000     

Micro Cap Fund

  $1-$10,000     

Micro Cap Value Fund

  Over $100,000     

Small Cap Growth Fund

  Over $100,000     

Small Cap Value Fund

  Over $100,000     

Ultra Growth Fund

  $10,001-$50,000     

U.S. Select Fund

  $10,001-$50,000     

U.S. Treasury Fund

  $1-$10,000     
          

Heikki Rinne

       Over $100,000

Core Growth Fund

  $10,001-$50,000     

Emerging India Fund

  $10,001-$50,000     

Emerging Markets Select Fund

  $10,001-$50,000     

Emerging Markets Small Cap Fund

  $10,001-$50,000     

Frontier Emerging Small Countries Fund

  $10,001-$50,000     

Global Opportunities Fund

  $50,001-$100,000     

Global Select Fund

  $10,001-$50,000     

Global Value Fund

  $50,001-$100,000     

Greater China Fund

  $1-$10,000     

International Growth Fund

  $10,001-$50,000     

International Opportunities Fund

  $10,001-$50,000     

International Select Fund

  $10,001-$50,000     

Long/Short Alpha Fund

  10,001-$50,000     

Micro Cap Fund

  $10,001-$50,000     

 

58


    

    Dollar Range of Equity    

Securities in the Funds

   Aggregate Dollar Range of Equity
Securities in All Registered
  Investment Companies Overseen by  

Trustees in Family of Investment
Companies1

Micro Cap Value Fund

  $10,001-$50,000     

Small Cap Growth Fund

  $10,001-$50,000     

Small Cap Value Fund

  $10,001-$50,000     

Ultra Growth Fund

  $10,001-$50,000     

U.S. Select Fund

  1-$10,000     

U.S. Treasury Fund

  $10,001-$50,000     
          

Kristen M. Fletcher

       Over $100,000

Core Growth Fund

  $50,001-$100,000     

Emerging India Fund

  $10,001-$50,000     

Emerging Markets Select Fund

  $10,001-$50,000     

Emerging Markets Small Cap Fund

  $10,001-$50,000     

Frontier Emerging Small Countries Fund

  $1-$10,000     

Global Opportunities Fund

  $1-$10,000     

Global Select Fund

  $10,001-$50,000     

Global Value Fund

  None     

Greater China Fund

  $1-$10,000     

International Growth Fund

  $10,001-$50,000     

International Opportunities Fund

  1-$10,000     

International Select Fund

  $10,001-$50,000     

Long/Short Alpha Fund

  $1-$10,000     

Micro Cap Fund

  $10,001-$50,000     

Micro Cap Value Fund

  $50,001-$100,000     

Small Cap Growth Fund

  $50,001-$100,000     

Small Cap Value Fund

  $10,001-$50,000     

Ultra Growth Fund

  $10,001-$50,000     

U.S. Select Fund

  $1-$10,000     

U.S. Treasury Fund

  None     
          

Mark Robinson

       Over $100,000

Core Growth Fund

  Over $100,000     

Emerging India Fund

  Over $100,000     

Emerging Markets Select Fund

  None     

Emerging Markets Small Cap Fund

  $10,001-$50,000     

Frontier Emerging Small Countries Fund

  $1-$10,000     

Global Opportunities Fund

  $50,001-$100,000     

Global Select Fund

  $1-$10,000     

Global Value Fund

  $1-$10,000     

Greater China Fund

  $1-$10,000     

International Growth Fund

  $1-$10,000     

International Opportunities Fund

  $1-$10,000     

International Select Fund

  $1-$10,000     

Long/Short Alpha Fund

  $1-$10,000     

Micro Cap Fund

  Over $100,000     

Micro Cap Value Fund

  Over $100,000     

Small Cap Growth Fund

  Over $100,000     

Small Cap Value Fund

  $10,001-$50,000     

Ultra Growth Fund

  Over $100,000     

U.S. Select Fund

  None     

U.S. Treasury Fund

  $1-$10,000     

 

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1There are 20 separate series in the Trust.

Compensation. Beginning in the calendar year of 2022, the Funds’ method of compensating Trustees is to pay each Independent Trustee a retainer of $150,000 per year for services rendered and a fee of $30,000 for each regularly scheduled Board of Trustees meeting, including the executive session held with respect to the investment advisory contract renewal process for the Funds, whether attended in person or telephonically (including any committee meeting attended) (collectively, the “2022 Base Compensation”). Trustees receive an additional $12,000 for in-person attendance of any special Board meeting or committee meeting (or any combination thereof), and $6,000 for telephonic attendance of any special Board meeting or committee meeting (or any combination thereof). In addition, the Chair of the Board receives an additional 25% of the 2022 Base Compensation and the Chair of a Committee receives an additional 15% of the 2022 Base Compensation. Accordingly, to implement this additional compensation for services as a Chair, the Chair of the Board receives an additional fee of $75,000 a year as Chair. The Chair of the Audit Committee and the Chair of the Nominating Committee each receives an additional $45,000 per year as Chair.

In the calendar year of 2021, each Independent Trustee was paid a retainer of $126,750 per year for services rendered and a fee of $25,350 for each regularly scheduled Board of Trustees meeting, including the executive session held with respect to the investment advisory contract renewal process for the Funds, whether attended in person or telephonically (including any committee meeting attended) (collectively, the “2021 Base Compensation”). Trustees received an additional $12,000 for in-person attendance of any special Board meeting or committee meeting (or any combination thereof), and $6,000 for telephonic attendance of any special Board meeting or committee meeting (or any combination thereof). In addition, the Chair of the Board received an additional 25% of the 2021 Base Compensation and the Chair of a Committee would receive an additional 15% of the 2021 Base Compensation. Accordingly, to implement this additional compensation for services as a Chair, the Chair of the Board received an additional fee of $31,687.50 a year as Chair and $7,921.75 for attendance in person or telephonically at each regular Board meeting (four meetings per year). The Chair of the Audit Committee and the Chair of the Nominating Committee each received an additional $19,012.50 per year as Chair and $4,753.13 for attendance in person or telephonically at each regular Board meeting (four meetings per year).

The Funds also may reimburse the Independent Trustees for travel expenses incurred in order to attend meetings of the Board of Trustees and for continuing education expenses. Officers serve in that capacity without compensation from the Trust. The table below sets forth the compensation paid to the Trust’s Trustees during the fiscal year ended September 30, 2022 (exclusive of out-of-pocket expenses reimbursed).

 

Name of Trustee  

Aggregate

    Compensation from    

Trust1

 

Pension or Retirement

Benefits Accrued as

  part of Fund Expenses  

 

Total Compensation

from Trust and Fund

 Complex paid to Trustees 

Independent Trustees

           

Miriam M. Allison

  $356,981.26   $0   $356,981.26

Kristen M. Fletcher

  $328,143.76   $0   $328,143.76

Heikki Rinne

  $328,143.76   $0   $328,143.76

Mark Robinson

  $284,887.50   $0   $284,887.50

1 There were 20 separate series in the Trust as of the fiscal year ended September 30, 2022.

Code of Ethics. Rule 17j-1 under the 1940 Act is designed to prevent abuses that could occur as a result of conflicts of interest arising out of personal trading by persons involved with or with access to information about a Fund’s investment activities. The Funds, the Advisor and the Sub-Advisor have each adopted a Code of Ethics regarding personal investing by their personnel pursuant to Rule 17j-1 under the 1940 Act. The Codes of Ethics each require personnel who are “access persons” of any Fund within the meaning of Rule 17j-1 to comply with the respective Code of Ethics adopted pursuant to Rule17j-1, subject to sanctions by the Advisor or a Sub-Advisor, as applicable, in the event of non-compliance.

The Codes of Ethics place certain restrictions on the trading activities of its access persons. Under the Advisor’s Code, access persons are required to pre-clear with the Compliance department each personal transaction in a non-exempt security. The Advisor’s Code of Ethics generally prohibits personnel from investing in securities that may be purchased by a Fund, however, it does permit personnel subject to the Code of Ethics in limited circumstances to invest in securities, including

 

60


securities that may be purchased or held by a Fund. The pre-clearance process is designed to prevent transactions that conflict with interests of the Wasatch Funds. Access persons under the Advisor’s Code of Ethics are also required to report their non-exempt personal securities transactions on a quarterly basis. Access persons under HIMCo’s Code of Ethics must submit to HIMCo’s chief compliance officer an annual report of the access person’s current securities holdings and reportable quarterly securities transactions reports. Access persons under HIMCo’s Code of Ethics are not required to submit (i) any report with respect to securities held in accounts over which the access person had no direct or indirect influence or control; (ii) a transaction report with respect to transactions effected pursuant to an automatic investment plan; or (iii) a transaction report, if the report would duplicate information contained in broker trade confirmations or account statements that HIMCo holds in its records, so long as HIMCo receives the confirmations or statements no later than 30 days after the end of the applicable calendar quarter.

Proxy Voting Policies. The Trust’s and the Advisor’s Proxy Voting Policy and Procedures are attached as Appendix B to this SAI.

The Trust on behalf of each of its series (except the U.S. Select Fund) has filed with the SEC each Fund’s voting records on Form N-PX for the 12-month period ended June 30, 2022. Form N-PX must be filed by the Trust on behalf of its series each year by August 31. Once filed, the most recent Form N-PX will be available without charge, upon request, by calling 800.551.1700 or visiting the Funds’ website at wasatchglobal.com or the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov.

CONTROL PERSONS AND PRINCIPAL HOLDERS OF SECURITIES

As of January 1, 2023, the Funds were aware that the following persons or entities owned a controlling interest (ownership of greater than 25% of a Fund) or owned of record 5% or more of the outstanding shares of a class of each of the Funds. Shareholders with a controlling interest could affect the outcome of proxy voting or the direction of management of the Trust. An asterisk below (*) indicates a beneficial owner as well as a shareholder of record.

 

     

Name of Fund

   Name and Address    Percentage of Class

Outstanding (%)

Core Growth Fund – Institutional Class

  

National Financial Services Corp.

for the Exclusive Benefit of our Customers

One World Financial Center

200 Liberty St, 5th Floor

New York, NY 10281

   31.45%

Core Growth Fund – Institutional Class

  

Charles Schwab & Co, Inc.

211 Main Street

San Francisco, CA 94105

   16.33%

Core Growth Fund – Institutional Class

  

Edward D. Jones & Co.

12555 Manchester Rd.

Saint Louis, MO 63131-3729

   7.76%

Core Growth Fund – Investor Class

  

National Financial Services Corp.

for the Exclusive Benefit of our Customers

One World Financial Center

200 Liberty St, 5th Floor

New York, NY 10281

   29.62%

Core Growth Fund – Investor Class

  

Charles Schwab & Co, Inc.

Attn: Mutual Funds Dept.

211 Main St.

San Francisco, CA 94105

   17.93%

Core Growth Fund – Investor Class

  

TD Ameritrade Inc.

For the Exclusive Benefit of our Clients

PO Box 2226

Omaha, NE 68103

   5.36%

 

61


     

Name of Fund

   Name and Address    Percentage of Class

Outstanding (%)

Emerging India Fund – Institutional Class

  

National Financial Services Corp.

for the Exclusive Benefit of our Customers

One World Financial Center

200 Liberty St, 5th Floor

New York, NY 10281

   32.26%
Emerging India Fund – Institutional Class   

Pershing LLC

1 Pershing Plaza

Jersey City, NJ 07399-0002

   21.44%
Emerging India Fund – Institutional Class   

Charles Schwab & Co, Inc.

211 Main Street

San Francisco, CA 94105

   14.59%
Emerging India Fund – Investor Class   

National Financial Services Corp.

FBO the Exclusive Benefit of our Customers

One World Financial Center

200 Liberty St, 5th Floor

New York, NY 10281

   36.49%
Emerging India Fund – Investor Class   

Charles Schwab & Co, Inc.

211 Main Street

San Francisco, CA 94105

   27.38%
Emerging India Fund – Investor Class   

TD Ameritrade Inc.

For the Exclusive Benefit of our Customers

P.O. Box 2226

Omaha, NE 68103

   6.01%
Emerging Markets Select Fund – Institutional Class   

National Financial Services Corp.

for the Exclusive Benefit of our Customers

One World Financial Center

200 Liberty St, 5th Floor

New York, NY 10281

   30.67%
Emerging Markets Select Fund – Institutional Class   

Charles Schwab & Co, Inc.

211 Main Street

San Francisco, CA 94105

   20.61%
Emerging Markets Select Fund – Institutional Class   

Pershing LLC

1 Pershing Plaza

Jersey City, NJ 07399

   15.15%
Emerging Markets Select Fund – Institutional Class   

Reliance Trust

CO FBO

Huntington National Bank

PO Box 78446

Atlanta, GA 30357

   11.49%
Emerging Markets Select Fund – Investor Class   

National Financial Services Corp.

for the Exclusive Benefit of our Customers

One World Financial Center

200 Liberty St, 5th Floor

New York, NY 10281

   32.55%
Emerging Markets Select Fund – Investor Class   

Charles Schwab & Co, Inc.

211 Main Street

San Francisco, CA 94105

   28.35%
Emerging Markets Select Fund – Investor Class   

TD Ameritrade Inc.

for the Exclusive Benefit of our Clients

P.O. Box 2226

Omaha, NE 68103

   12.74%
Emerging Markets Select Fund – Investor Class   

Pershing LLC

1 Pershing Plaza

Jersey City, NJ 07399-0002

   5.53%

 

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Name of Fund

   Name and Address    Percentage of Class

Outstanding (%)

Emerging Markets Small Cap Fund – Institutional Class   

Charles Schwab & Co, Inc.

211 Main Street

San Francisco, CA 94105

   45.84%
Emerging Markets Small Cap Fund – Institutional Class   

National Financial Services Corp.

for the Exclusive Benefit of our Customers

One World Financial Center

200 Liberty St, 5th Floor

New York, NY 10281

   17.62%
Emerging Markets Small Cap Fund – Institutional Class   

First Clearing LLC

SPEC CUST A/C Benefit of Customer

2801 Market Street

Saint Louis, MO 63103

   13.89%
Emerging Markets Small Cap Fund – Institutional Class   

University of Utah

Investment Management Office

230 Chase Street

Salt Lake City, UT 84113

   6.87%*
Emerging Markets Small Cap Fund – Investor Class   

National Financial Services Corp.

for the Exclusive Benefit of our Customers

One World Financial Center

200 Liberty St, 5th Floor

New York, NY 10281

   24.51%
Emerging Markets Small Cap Fund – Investor Class   

Charles Schwab & Co, Inc.

211 Main Street

San Francisco, CA 94105

   23.35%
Emerging Markets Small Cap Fund – Investor Class   

LPL Financial

Attn Mutual Fund Trading

4707 Executive Drive

San Diego, CA 92121

   12.23%
Emerging Markets Small Cap Fund – Investor Class   

TD Ameritrade Inc.

for the Exclusive Benefit of our Clients

P.O. Box 2226

Omaha, NE 68103

   7.40%
Emerging Markets Small Cap Fund – Investor Class   

Charles Schwab & Co, Inc.

211 Main Street

San Francisco, CA 94105

   5.34%
Frontier Emerging Small Countries Fund – Institutional Class   

Charles Schwab & Co, Inc.

211 Main Street

San Francisco, CA 94105

   50.10%
Frontier Emerging Small Countries Fund – Institutional Class   

National Financial Services Corp.

for the Exclusive Benefit of our Customers

One World Financial Center

200 Liberty St, 5th Floor

New York, NY 10281

   21.01%
Frontier Emerging Small Countries Fund – Institutional Class   

TD Ameritrade Inc.

for the Exclusive Benefit of our Clients

P.O. Box 2226

Omaha, NE 68103

   13.22%
Frontier Emerging Small Countries Fund – Investor Class   

MAC CO

c/o the Bank of New York Mellon

Room 151-1010

Pittsburg, PA 15258

   24.81%
Frontier Emerging Small Countries Fund – Investor Class   

Charles Schwab & Co, Inc.

211 Main Street

San Francisco, CA 94105

   17.32%

 

63


Name of Fund

   Name and Address    Percentage of Class

Outstanding (%)

Frontier Emerging Small Countries Fund – Investor Class   

National Financial Services Corp.

for the Exclusive Benefit of our Customers

One World Financial Center

200 Liberty St, 5th Floor

New York, NY 10281

   12.49%
Frontier Emerging Small Countries Fund – Investor Class   

TD Ameritrade Inc.

for the Exclusive Benefit of our Clients

P.O. Box 2226

Omaha, NE 68103

   9.91%
Global Opportunities Fund – Institutional Class   

TD Ameritrade Inc.

for the Exclusive Benefit of our Clients

P.O. Box 2226

Omaha, NE 68103

   31.84%
Global Opportunities Fund – Institutional Class   

National Financial Services Corp.

for the Exclusive Benefit of our Customers

One World Financial Center

200 Liberty St, 5th Floor

New York, NY 10281

   25.02%
Global Opportunities Fund – Institutional Class   

Charles Schwab & Co, Inc.

211 Main Street

San Francisco, CA 94105

   17.76%
Global Opportunities Fund – Institutional Class   

Pershing LLC

1 Pershing Plaza

Jersey City, NJ 07399

   5.15%
Global Opportunities Fund – Investor Class   

National Financial Services Corp.

for the Exclusive Benefit of our Customers

One World Financial Center

200 Liberty St, 5th Floor

New York, NY 10281

   27.77%
Global Opportunities Fund – Investor Class   

Charles Schwab & Co, Inc.

211 Main Street

San Francisco, CA 94105

   26.41%
Global Opportunities Fund – Investor Class   

R&S Boyer Family LC

Attn Roger Boyer

101 S 200 E STE 200

Salt Lake City, UT 84111

   6.05%*
Global Select Fund – Institutional Class   

National Financial Services Corp.

for the Exclusive Benefit of our Customers

One World Financial Center

200 Liberty St, 5th Floor

New York, NY 10281

   51.01%
Global Select Fund – Institutional Class   

JB Taylor

505 Wakara Way, Suite 300

Salt Lake City, UT 84108

   15.61%*
Global Select Fund – Institutional Class   

Karen L. Edgley Living Trust

Karen L. Edgley Trustee

235 Midtown Drive

Traverse City, MI 49684

   15.57%*
Global Select Fund – Institutional Class   

Wasatch Advisors

Mike Yeates CFO

505 Wakara Way, Suite 300

Salt Lake City, UT 84108

   5.97%*

 

64


Name of Fund

   Name and Address    Percentage of Class

Outstanding (%)

Global Select Fund – Investor Class   

National Financial Services Corp.

for the Exclusive Benefit of our Customers

One World Financial Center

200 Liberty St, 5th Floor

New York, NY 10281

   44.59%
Global Select Fund – Investor Class   

Wasatch Advisors

Mike Yeates CFO

505 Wakara Way, Suite 300

Salt Lake City, UT 84108

   13.19%*
Global Select Fund – Investor Class   

Charles Schwab & Co, Inc.

211 Main Street

San Francisco, CA 94105

   12.86%
Global Select Fund – Investor Class   

Ronald L. Held

10903 Spruce Knoll Cir

Houston, TX 22065

   9.17%*
Global Value Fund – Institutional Class   

National Financial Services Corp.

for the Exclusive Benefit of our Customers

One World Financial Center

200 Liberty St, 5th Floor

New York, NY 10281

   70.50%
Global Value Fund – Institutional Class   

Pershing LLC

1 Pershing Plaza

Jersey City, NJ 07399

   6.83%
Global Value Fund – Institutional Class   

Charles Schwab & Co, Inc.

211 Main Street

San Francisco, CA 94105

   6.07%
Global Value Fund – Investor Class   

National Financial Services Corp.

for the Exclusive Benefit of our Customers

One World Financial Center

200 Liberty St, 5th Floor

New York, NY 10281

   48.23%
Global Value Fund – Investor Class   

Charles Schwab & Co, Inc.

101 Montgomery Street

San Francisco, CA 94104

   21.65%
Greater China Fund – Institutional Class   

Charles Schwab & Co, Inc.

101 Montgomery Street

San Francisco, CA 94104

   57.62%
Greater China Fund – Institutional Class   

Ajay Krishnan

1325 E Perrys Hollow Road

Salt Lake City, UT 84103

   18.66%*
Greater China Fund – Institutional Class   

Wasatch Advisors

Mike Yeates CFO

505 Wakara Way, Suite 300

Salt Lake City, UT 84108

   10.94%*
Greater China Fund – Institutional Class   

Pediatric Anes Inc. Roth 401K

FBO Dan Evans

PO Box 58642

Salt Lake City, UT 84158

   8.48%*
Greater China Fund – Investor Class   

National Financial Services Corp.

for the Exclusive Benefit of our Customers

One World Financial Center

200 Liberty St, 5th Floor

New York, NY 10281

   40.27%
Greater China Fund – Investor Class   

Charles Schwab & Co, Inc.

101 Montgomery Street

San Francisco, CA 94104

   15.11%

 

65


Name of Fund

   Name and Address    Percentage of Class

Outstanding (%)

Greater China Fund – Investor Class   

Wasatch Advisors

Mike Yeates CFO

505 Wakara Way, Suite 300

Salt Lake City, UT 84108

   13.90%*
International Growth Fund – Institutional Class   

National Financial Services Corp.

for the Exclusive Benefit of our Customers

One World Financial Center

200 Liberty St, 5th Floor

New York, NY 10281

   29.99%
International Growth Fund – Institutional Class   

Charles Schwab & Co, Inc.

211 Main Street

San Francisco, CA 94105

   27.59%
International Growth Fund – Institutional Class   

Market Street International Equity Fund

Marianne W Young President

Attn Patricia Hoeffner

80 E Market Street, Suite 300

Corning, NY 14830

   7.74%*
International Growth Fund – Institutional Class   

Voya Institutional Trust Company

FBO State of Arkansas Deferred Comp Plan

30 Braintree Hill Office Park

Braintree, MA 02184

   5.88%
International Growth Fund – Investor Class   

National Financial Services Corp.

for the Exclusive Benefit of our Customers

One World Financial Center

200 Liberty St, 5th Floor

New York, NY 10281

   23.02%
International Growth Fund – Investor Class   

Charles Schwab & Co, Inc.

211 Main Street

San Francisco, CA 94105

   16.61%
International Opportunities Fund – Institutional Class   

National Financial Services Corp.

for the Exclusive Benefit of our Customers

One World Financial Center

200 Liberty St, 5th Floor

New York, NY 10281

   27.32%
International Opportunities Fund – Institutional Class   

Charles Schwab & Co, Inc.

211 Main Street

San Francisco, CA 94105

   7.53%
International Opportunities Fund – Institutional Class   

MAC CO

Attn: Mutual Fund Ops

Room 151-1010

Pittsburg, PA 15258

   6.18%
International Opportunities Fund – Investor Class   

Charles Schwab & Co, Inc.

211 Main Street

San Francisco, CA 94105

   25.68%
International Opportunities Fund – Investor Class   

National Financial Services Corp.

for the Exclusive Benefit of our Customers

One World Financial Center

200 Liberty St, 5th Floor

New York, NY 10281

   23.47%
International Opportunities Fund – Investor Class   

TD Ameritrade Inc.

for the Exclusive Benefit of our Clients

P.O. Box 2226

Omaha, NE 68103

   5.85%

 

66


Name of Fund

   Name and Address    Percentage of Class

Outstanding (%)

International Select Fund – Institutional Class

  

Karen L. Edgley Living Trust

Karen L. Edgley Trustee

235 Midtown Dr.

Traverse City, MI 49684

   31.79%*

International Select Fund – Institutional Class

  

Wasatch Advisors

Mike Yeates CFO

505 Wakara Way, Suite 300

Salt Lake City, UT 84108

   27.24%*

International Select Fund – Institutional Class

  

Charles Schwab & Co, Inc.

211 Main Street

San Francisco, CA 94105

   16.88%

International Select Fund – Institutional Class

  

Ajay Krishnan

1325 E Perrys Hollow Road

Salt Lake City, UT 84103

   13.62%*

International Select Fund – Institutional Class

  

Pershing LLC

1 Pershing Plaza

Jersey City, NJ 07399

   6.51%

International Select Fund – Investor Class

  

National Financial Services Corp.

for the Exclusive Benefit of our Customers

One World Financial Center

200 Liberty St, 5th Floor

New York, NY 10281

   44.45%

International Select Fund – Investor Class

  

Wasatch Advisors

Mike Yeates CFO

505 Wakara Way, Suite 300

Salt Lake City, UT 84108

   18.15%*

International Select Fund – Investor Class

  

Charles Schwab & Co, Inc.

211 Main Street

San Francisco, CA 94105

   7.64%

International Select Fund – Investor Class

  

Charles Schwab & Co, Inc.

211 Main Street

San Francisco, CA 94105

   7.05%

International Select Fund – Investor Class

  

TD Ameritrade Inc.

for the Exclusive Benefit of our Clients

P.O. Box 2226

Omaha, NE 68103

   5.95%

Long/Short Alpha Fund – Institutional Class

  

TD Ameritrade Inc.

for the Exclusive Benefit of our Clients

P.O. Box 2226

Omaha, NE 68103

   51.90%

Long/Short Alpha Fund – Institutional Class

  

Charles Schwab & Co, Inc.

211 Main Street

San Francisco, CA 94105

   26.47%

Long/Short Alpha Fund – Institutional Class

  

National Financial Services Corp.

for the Exclusive Benefit of our Customers

One World Financial Center

200 Liberty St, 5th Floor

New York, NY 10281

   9.97%

Long/Short Alpha Fund – Institutional Class

  

JB Taylor

505 Wakara Way, Suite 300

Salt Lake City, UT 84108

   6.16%*

Long/Short Alpha Fund – Investor Class

  

Hillary W. Taylor 2020 Gift Trust Trste

James B. Taylor Jr. Trste

10149 Altavilla Dr.

Sandy, UT 84092

   60.46%*

 

67


Name of Fund

   Name and Address    Percentage of Class

Outstanding (%)

Long/Short Alpha Fund – Investor Class

  

National Financial Services Corp.

for the Exclusive Benefit of our Customers

One World Financial Center

200 Liberty St, 5th Floor

New York, NY 10281

   25.43%

Long/Short Alpha Fund – Investor Class

  

Wasatch Advisors

Mike Yeates CFO

505 Wakara Way, Suite 300

Salt Lake City, UT 84108

   5.50%*

Micro Cap Fund – Institutional Class

  

National Financial Services Corp.

for the Exclusive Benefit of our Customers

One World Financial Center

200 Liberty St, 5th Floor

New York, NY 10281

   45.71%

Micro Cap Fund – Institutional Class

  

Charles Schwab & Co, Inc.

211 Main Street

San Francisco, CA 94105

   26.94%

Micro Cap Fund – Investor Class

  

Charles Schwab & Co, Inc.

211 Main Street

San Francisco, CA 94105

   20.32%

Micro Cap Fund – Investor Class

  

National Financial Services Corp.

for the Exclusive Benefit of our Customers

One World Financial Center

200 Liberty St, 5th Floor

New York, NY 10281

   16.75%

Micro Cap Fund – Investor Class

  

TD Ameritrade Inc.

for the Exclusive Benefit of our Clients

P.O. Box 2226

Omaha, NE 68103

   7.31%

Micro Cap Value Fund – Institutional Class

  

TD Ameritrade Inc.

for the Exclusive Benefit of our Clients

P.O. Box 2226

Omaha, NE 68103

   33.25%

Micro Cap Value Fund – Institutional Class

  

National Financial Services Corp.

for the Exclusive Benefit of our Customers

One World Financial Center

200 Liberty St, 5th Floor

New York, NY 10281

   16.75%

Micro Cap Value Fund – Institutional Class

  

Charles Schwab & Co, Inc.

211 Main Street

San Francisco, CA 94105

   16.38%

Micro Cap Value Fund – Institutional Class

  

First Clearing LLC

SPEC CUST A/C Benefit of Customer

2801 Market Street

Saint Louis, MO 63103

   10.59%

Micro Cap Value Fund – Institutional Class

  

Pershing LLC

1 Pershing Plaza

Jersey City, NY 07399

   6.37%

Micro Cap Value Fund – Investor Class

  

National Financial Services Corp.

for the Exclusive Benefit of our Customers

One World Financial Center

200 Liberty St, 5th Floor

New York, NY 10281

   26.71%

Micro Cap Value Fund – Investor Class

  

Charles Schwab & Co, Inc.

211 Main Street

San Francisco, CA 94105

   24.39%

 

68


Name of Fund

   Name and Address    Percentage of Class

Outstanding (%)

Micro Cap Value Fund – Investor Class

  

TD Ameritrade Inc.

for the Exclusive Benefit of our Clients

P.O. Box 2226

Omaha, NE 68103

   8.44%

Small Cap Growth Fund – Institutional Class

  

National Financial Services Corp.

for the Exclusive Benefit of our Customers

One World Financial Center

200 Liberty St, 5th Floor

New York, NY 10281

   35.91%

Small Cap Growth Fund – Institutional Class

  

Raymond James

Omibus for Mutual Funds

880 Carrillon Parkway

St. Petersburg, FL 33716

   28.43%

Small Cap Growth Fund – Institutional Class

  

Charles Schwab & Co, Inc.

211 Main Street

San Francisco, CA 94105

   11.29%

Small Cap Growth Fund – Investor Class

  

Charles Schwab & Co, Inc.

Attn: Mutual Funds Dept.

211 Main Street

San Francisco, CA 94105

   22.17%

Small Cap Growth Fund – Investor Class

  

National Financial Services Corp.

for the Exclusive Benefit of our Customers

One World Financial Center

200 Liberty St, 5th Floor

New York, NY 10281

   18.27%

Small Cap Value Fund – Institutional Class

  

Raymond James

Omnibus for Mutual Funds

880 Carrillon Parkway

St. Petersburg, FL 33716

   47.98%

Small Cap Value Fund – Institutional Class

  

Charles Schwab & Co, Inc.

211 Main Street

San Francisco, CA 94105

   14.10%

Small Cap Value Fund – Institutional Class

  

National Financial Services Corp.

for the Exclusive Benefit of our Customers

One World Financial Center

200 Liberty St, 5th Floor

New York, NY 10281

   12.59%

Small Cap Value Fund – Institutional Class

  

Pershing LLC

1 Pershing Plaza

Jersey City, NY 07399

   7.18%

Small Cap Value Fund – Investor Class

  

Morgan Stanley Smith Barney LLC

Exclusive Benefit of Customers of MSSB 1

New York Plaza, 12th Floor

New York, NY 10004

   35.76%

Small Cap Value Fund – Investor Class

  

National Financial Services Corp.

for the Exclusive Benefit of our Customers

One World Financial Center

200 Liberty St, 5th Floor

New York, NY 10281

   13.87%

Small Cap Value Fund – Investor Class

  

Charles Schwab & Co, Inc.

211 Main Street

San Francisco, CA 94105

   12.29%

 

69


Name of Fund

   Name and Address    Percentage of Class

Outstanding (%)

Ultra Growth Fund – Institutional Class

  

National Financial Services Corp.

for the Exclusive Benefit of our Customers

One World Financial Center

200 Liberty St, 5th Floor

New York, NY 10281

   47.62%

Ultra Growth Fund – Institutional Class

  

Charles Schwab & Co, Inc.

Mutual Funds Dept.

211 Main Street

San Francisco, CA 94105

   24.24%

Ultra Growth Fund – Institutional Class

  

SEI Private Trust Company

One Freedom Valley Drive

Oaks, PA 19456

   5.58%

Ultra Growth Fund – Investor Class

  

National Financial Services Corp.

for the Exclusive Benefit of our Customers

One World Financial Center

200 Liberty St, 5th Floor

New York, NY 10281

   27.72%

Ultra Growth Fund – Investor Class

  

Charles Schwab & Co, Inc.

Mutual Funds Dept.

211 Main Street

San Francisco, CA 94105

   26.36%

Ultra Growth Fund – Investor Class

  

TD Ameritrade Inc.

For the exclusive benefit of our clients

P.O. Box 2226

Omaha, NE 68103

   6.70%

Ultra Growth Fund – Investor Class

  

LPL Financial

Attn Mutual Fund Trading

4707 Executive Dr

San Diego, CA 92121

   6.36%

U.S. Select Fund – Institutional Class

  

National Financial Services Corp.

for the Exclusive Benefit of our Customers

One World Financial Center

200 Liberty St, 5th Floor

New York, NY 10281

   71.42%

U.S. Select Fund – Institutional Class

  

Wasatch Advisors

Mike Yeates CFO

505 Wakara Way, Suite 300

Salt Lake City, UT 84108

   12.84%*

U.S. Select Fund – Institutional Class

  

JB Taylor

505 Wakara Way, Suite 300

Salt Lake City, UT 84108

   5.14%*

U.S. Select Fund – Investor Class

  

National Financial Services Corp.

for the Exclusive Benefit of our Customers

One World Financial Center

200 Liberty St, 5th Floor

New York, NY 10281

   52.08%

U.S. Select Fund – Investor Class

  

Wasatch Advisors

Mike Yeates CFO

505 Wakara Way, Suite 300

Salt Lake City, UT 84108

   29.48%*

U.S. Select Fund – Investor Class

  

Charles Schwab & Co, Inc.

211 Main Street

San Francisco, CA 94105

   8.80%

 

70


Name of Fund

   Name and Address    Percentage of Class

Outstanding (%)

U.S. Treasury Fund – Investor Class

  

Charles Schwab & Co, Inc.

Attn: Mutual Funds Dept.

211 Main Street

San Francisco, CA 94105

   18.93%

U.S. Treasury Fund – Investor Class

  

National Financial Services Corp.

for the Exclusive Benefit of our Customers

One World Financial Center

200 Liberty St, 5th Floor

New York, NY 10281

   14.83%

U.S. Treasury Fund – Investor Class

  

TD Ameritrade Inc.

For the Exclusive Benefit of our Clients

P.O. Box 2226

Omaha, NE 68103

   13.92%

U.S. Treasury Fund – Investor Class

  

Raymond James

880 Carrillon Parkway

St Petersburg, FL 33716

   10.33%

U.S. Treasury Fund – Investor Class

  

Nabank Co.

P.O. Box 2180

Tulsa, OK 74101

   10.13%

U.S. Treasury Fund – Investor Class

  

First Clearing LLC

Special Cust A/C Benefit of Customer

2801 Market Street

Saint Louis, MO 63103

   7.99%

U.S. Treasury Fund – Investor Class

  

Pershing LLC

1 Pershing Plaza

Jersey City, NY 07399

   6.16%

As of January 1, 2023, the Trustees and officers as a group owned less than 1% of the shares outstanding of each Fund, except for the Emerging Markets Select Fund-Investor Class, Global Select Fund – Investor Class, Greater China Fund-Investor Class, Greater China Fund-Institutional Class, and International Select Fund – Institutional Class. The Trustees and officers owned 2.2% of the outstanding shares of Emerging Markets Select Fund – Investor Class, 2.6% of the outstanding shares of the Global Select Fund – Investor Class, 3.5% of the outstanding shares of the Greater China Fund – Investor Class, 3.1% of the outstanding shares of the Greater China Fund-Institutional Class, and 1.9% of the outstanding shares of the International Select Fund – Institutional Class.

INVESTMENT ADVISORY AND OTHER SERVICES

Investment Advisor. As described above and in the Prospectus, the Advisor is responsible for making investment decisions and providing services for Wasatch Funds under an advisory and service contract with the Trust on behalf of the respective Funds. The Advisor, organized in September 1975, has been in the business of investment management since November 1975, and had total assets under management, including the assets of the Funds, of approximately $22.4 billion as of December 31, 2022. In January 2023, the Advisor underwent a corporate restructuring. Under the new structure Wasatch Advisors, Inc. converted into Wasatch Advisors LP. Wasatch Advisor Holdings, LP was created to act as a holding company of the Advisor. In turn, the holding company is 100% owned by the employees of the Advisor through two separate entities, Wasatch Employee Partners, LP and WA Holdings, Inc. Each of the LP entities has a common general partner, Wasatch GP LLC, which is indirectly owned and controlled by employees of the Advisor. The new structure was implemented to provide tax efficiency and flexibility to the Advisor in administering its employee equity program.

Eric S. Bergeson is President of the Trust and an Officer and Director of the Advisor. The principal executive officers and directors of the Advisor are: Michael K. Yeates, Chief Financial Officer and Treasurer, Vice President and Director; JB Taylor, Chief Executive Officer and Director; and Daniel D. Thurber, General Counsel, Vice President, Secretary and Chief Compliance Officer. Michael K. Yeates is also Treasurer of the Trust.

 

71


Under the Advisory and Service Contract, each Fund pays the Advisor a monthly fee computed on average daily net assets as set forth below.

 

Fund    Annual Rate               

Core Growth Fund

     1.00 %     

Emerging India Fund

     1.25

Emerging Markets Select Fund

     1.00

Emerging Markets Small Cap Fund

     1.65

Frontier Emerging Small Countries Fund

     1.65

Global Opportunities Fund

     1.25

Global Select Fund

     0.85

Global Value Fund

     0.90

Greater China Fund

     1.00

International Growth Fund

     1.25

International Opportunities Fund

     1.75

International Select Fund

     0.80

Long/Short Alpha Fund

     1.25

Micro Cap Fund

     1.50

Micro Cap Value Fund

     1.50

Small Cap Growth Fund

     1.00

Small Cap Value Fund

     1.00

Ultra Growth Fund

     1.00

U.S. Select Fund

     0.75

U.S. Treasury Fund

     0.50

The management fees paid by the Emerging Markets Small Cap Fund, Frontier Emerging Small Countries Fund, International Opportunities Fund, Long/Short Alpha Fund, Micro Cap Fund, and Micro Cap Value Fund are higher than those paid by most mutual funds. The management fees paid by certain other Wasatch Funds are higher than the management fees charged by many mutual funds. The management fees are computed and accrued daily and are payable monthly.

The Advisor provides an investment program for, and carries out the investment policy and manages the portfolio assets of, each Fund. The Advisor is authorized, subject to the control of the Board of Trustees of the Trust, to determine the selection, quantity and time to buy or sell securities for each Fund. In addition to providing investment services, the Advisor pays for office space and facilities for the Trust.

The Funds pay all of their own expenses, including, without limitation: the cost of preparing and printing registration statements required under the Securities Act of 1933 and the 1940 Act and any amendments thereto; the expense of registering shares with the SEC and in the various states; costs of typesetting, printing and mailing the Prospectus, SAI and reports to shareholders; costs associated with reports to government authorities and proxy statements; fees paid to Trustees who are not interested persons (as defined in the 1940 Act); interest charges; taxes; legal expenses; association membership dues; fees for auditing services; fees for administrative services; insurance premiums; fees and expenses of the Custodian of the Funds’ assets; printing and mailing expenses; charges and expenses of dividend disbursing agents, accounting services agents, registrars and stock transfer agents; certain expenses incurred by employees of the Advisor; and extraordinary and non-recurring expenses.

The Advisory and Service Contract will terminate automatically in the event of its assignment. In addition, the Advisory and Service Contract is terminable at any time, without penalty, by the Board of Trustees or by a vote of a majority of a Fund’s outstanding voting securities on 60 days’ written notice to the Advisor, or by the Advisor upon 60 days’ written notice to the other party. The Advisory and Service Contract shall continue in effect initially for a two-year period and thereafter only so long as such continuance is specifically approved at least annually by either the Board of the Trust or by a vote of a majority of the outstanding voting securities of a Fund (as defined in the 1940 Act), provided that, in either event, such continuance is also approved by a vote of a majority of the Trustees who are not parties to such Agreement, or

 

72


“interested persons” (as defined in the 1940 Act) of such parties, cast in person at a meeting called for the purpose of voting on such approval.

In order to promote quality service, the Advisor may give financial rewards or special recognition to employees of service providers, such as the Funds’ fulfillment agent, UMB Distribution Services, LLC. Costs associated with the financial rewards or special recognition are paid by the Advisor and not the Funds.

The Advisor has contractually agreed to limit until January 31, 2024 the total annual fund operating expenses (subject to certain exceptions described below) of the Institutional Class, if applicable, and Investor Class shares of each Fund as set forth below.

 

Fund   

Operating Expense Limit

as a percentage of average net    

assets calculated on a daily

basis – Investor Class

 

Operating Expense Limit

as a percentage of average net    

assets calculated on a daily

basis – Institutional Class

Core Growth Fund

   1.50%   1.05%

Emerging India Fund

   1.75%   1.50%

Emerging Markets Select Fund

   1.50%   1.20%

Emerging Markets Small Cap Fund

   1.95%   1.80%

Frontier Emerging Small Countries Fund

   2.15%   1.95%

Global Opportunities Fund

   1.75%   1.35%

Global Select Fund

   1.35%   0.95%

Global Value Fund

   1.10%   0.95%

Greater China Fund

   1.50%   1.25%

International Growth Fund

   1.75%   1.35%

International Opportunities Fund

   2.25%   1.95%

International Select Fund

   1.30%   0.90%

Long/Short Alpha Fund

   1.75%   1.50%

Micro Cap Fund

   1.95%   1.60%

Micro Cap Value Fund

   1.95%   1.60%

Small Cap Growth Fund

   1.50%   1.05%

Small Cap Value Fund

   1.50%   1.05%

Ultra Growth Fund

   1.50%   1.05%

U.S. Select Fund

   1.00%   0.85%

U.S. Treasury Fund

   0.75%   N/A

The Advisor will waive fees and/or pay all ordinary operating expenses incurred by the Institutional Class, if applicable, and Investor Class shares of each Fund excluding fees and expenses incurred in borrowing securities and selling portfolio securities short including enhanced custody fees (which include borrowing costs, financing fees and other charges paid in connection with borrowing the security to be sold short, and maintaining related margin collateral) and dividend expense on short sales/interest expense, acquired fund fees and expenses, interest, taxes, brokerage commissions, other investment related costs, and extraordinary expenses such as litigation and other expenses not incurred in the ordinary course of business in excess of the limitations listed above. A Fund may only make repayments to the Advisor for amounts reimbursed if such repayment does not cause the Fund’s expense ratio, after the repayment is taken into account, to exceed both (i) the expense cap in place at the time such amounts were waived; and (ii) the Fund’s current expense cap. The Board of Trustees is the only party that can terminate the contractual limitation prior to the contract’s expiration. The Advisor can rescind the contractual limitation on expenses at any time after its expiration date. Shareholder expenses will increase if the Advisor does not renew the contractual expense cap after its expiration date.

For the fiscal years ended September 30, 2022, 2021, and 2020, the Advisor accrued the following management fees and waived a portion of its management fees or reimbursed expenses as set forth below.

 

73


Name of Fund                    2022                  2021                  2020  

Core Growth Fund

                          

Gross Management Fees

     $35,030,449        $36,607,710        $24,418,785  

Reimbursed/Waived Management Fees

     (57,066)        (37,450)        (287,305)  
Emerging India Fund                           

Gross Management Fees

     7,659,665        5,704,189        3,399,335  

Reimbursed/Waived Management Fees

     -        -        -  
Emerging Markets Select Fund                           

Gross Management Fees

     3,869,060        1,102,923        475,524  

Reimbursed/Waived Management Fees

     -        -        (104,959)  
Emerging Markets Small Cap Fund                           

Gross Management Fees

     9,290,623        8,380,280        5,978,112  

Reimbursed/Waived Management Fees

     -        -        (4,564)  
Frontier Emerging Small Countries Fund                           

Gross Management Fees

     910,543        1,049,414        895,894  

Reimbursed/Waived Management Fees

     (71,364)        (19,080)        (120,327)  
Global Opportunities Fund                           

Gross Management Fees

     2,836,480        2,550,980        1,576,803  

Reimbursed/Waived Management Fees

     (15,210)        (29,854)        (31,005)  
Global Select Fund                           

Gross Management Fees

     139,704        149,069        75,873  

Reimbursed/Waived Management Fees

     (118,736)        (119,822)        (202,753)  
Global Value Fund                           

Gross Management Fees

     1,226,837        1,135,434        1,124,896  

Reimbursed/Waived Management Fees

     (147,720)        (127,302)        (265,804)  
Greater China Fund1                           

Gross Management Fees

     81,937        93,390        -  

Reimbursed/Waived Management Fees

     (124,080)        (185,880)        -  
International Growth Fund                           

Gross Management Fees

     12,155,581        14,941,293        13,435,526  

Reimbursed/Waived Management Fees

     -        -        (22,008)  
International Opportunities Fund                           

Gross Management Fees

     10,606,255        13,512,940        9,661,959  

Reimbursed/Waived Management Fees

     -        -        -  
International Select Fund                           

Gross Management Fees

     57,998        56,577        25,606  

Reimbursed/Waived Management Fees

     (125,926)        (135,564)        (196,692)  
Long/Short Alpha Fund2                           

Gross Management Fees

     276,478        -        -  

Reimbursed/Waived Management Fees

     (184,076)        -        -  
Micro Cap Fund                           

Gross Management Fees

     14,462,299        20,164,509        9,003,400  

Reimbursed/Waived Management Fees

     -        -