Goldman Sachs Trust
PART B
STATEMENT OF ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
DATED MARCH 30, 2023
FUND
CLASS A
SHARES
CLASS C
SHARES
INSTITUTIONAL
SHARES
INVESTOR
SHARES
CLASS R
SHARES
CLASS
R6
SHARES
CLASS P
SHARES
GOLDMAN SACHS MLP ENERGY
INFRASTRUCTURE FUND
GLPAX
GLPCX
GMLPX
GLPIX
GLPRX
GLPSX
GMNPX
GOLDMAN SACHS ENERGY
INFRASTRUCTURE FUND
GLEAX
GLECX
GLEPX
GLEIX
GLERX
GLESX
GAMPX
GOLDMAN SACHS CLEAN ENERGY
INCOME FUND
GCEBX
GCEGX
GCEDX
GCEJX
GCEHX
GCEEX
GCEPX
(a series of Goldman Sachs Trust)
71 South Wacker Drive
Chicago, Illinois 60606
This Statement of Additional Information (the “SAI”) is not a prospectus. This SAI should be read in conjunction with the Prospectuses for the Goldman Sachs MLP Energy Infrastructure Fund, Goldman Sachs Energy Infrastructure Fund and Goldman Sachs Clean Energy Income Fund (the “Funds”), dated March 30, 2023, as they may be further amended and/or supplemented from time to time (the “Prospectuses”). The Prospectuses may be obtained without charge from Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC by calling the telephone numbers or writing to one of the addresses listed below or from institutions (“Intermediaries”) acting on behalf of their customers.
The audited financial statements and related report of PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, independent registered public accounting firm for each Fund, contained in each Fund’s 2022 Annual Report are incorporated herein by reference in the section titled “FINANCIAL STATEMENTS.” No other portions of the Funds’ Semi-Annual or Annual Report are incorporated by reference herein. A Fund's Semi-Annual or Annual Report may be obtained upon request and without charge by calling Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC toll-free at 1-800-526-7384 (for Class A, Class C, Investor and Class R Shareholders) or 1-800-621-2550 (for Institutional, Class R6 and Class P Shareholders).
GSAM® is a registered service mark of Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

GOLDMAN SACHS ASSET MANAGEMENT, L.P.
Investment Adviser
200 West Street
New York, New York 10282
GOLDMAN SACHS & CO. LLC
Distributor
200 West Street
New York, New York 10282
GOLDMAN SACHS & CO. LLC
Transfer Agent
P.O. Box 806395
Chicago, Illinois 60680-4125
Toll-free (in U.S.)
800-526-7384 (for Class A, Class C, Investor and Class R Shareholders) or 800-621-2550 (for Institutional, Class R6 and Class P Shareholders)
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INTRODUCTION
Goldman Sachs Trust (the “Trust”) is an open-end management investment company. The Trust is organized as a Delaware statutory trust and was established by a Declaration of Trust dated January 28, 1997. The Trust is a successor to a Massachusetts business trust that was combined with the Trust on April 30, 1997. The following series of the Trust are described in this SAI: Goldman Sachs MLP Energy Infrastructure Fund (“MLP Energy Infrastructure Fund”), Goldman Sachs Energy Infrastructure Fund (“Energy Infrastructure Fund”) and Goldman Sachs Clean Energy Income Fund (“Clean Energy Income Fund”) (each also a “Fund,” and collectively referred to herein as the “Funds”).
The Trustees of the Trust have authority under the Declaration of Trust to create and classify shares into separate series and to classify and reclassify any series or portfolio of shares into one or more classes without further action by shareholders. Pursuant thereto, the Trustees have created the Funds and other series. Additional series may be added in the future from time to time. Each Fund currently offers seven classes of Shares: Class A, Class C, Institutional, Investor, Class R, Class R6 and Class P Shares. See “SHARES OF THE TRUST.”
Goldman Sachs Asset Management, L.P. (“GSAM” or the “Investment Adviser”), an affiliate of Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC (“Goldman Sachs”), serves as the investment adviser to each Fund. In addition, Goldman Sachs serves as each Fund’s distributor (the “Distributor”) and transfer agent (the “Transfer Agent”). State Street Bank and Trust Company (“State Street”) serves as the custodian to the Funds.
The following information relates to and supplements the description of each Fund’s investment objective and policies contained in the Prospectuses. See the Prospectuses for a more complete description of the Funds’ investment objectives and policies. Investing in the Funds entails certain risks, and there is no assurance that a Fund will achieve its objective. Capitalized terms used but not defined herein have the same meaning as in the Prospectuses.
INVESTMENT OBJECTIVE AND POLICIES
Each Fund has a distinct investment objective and policies. There can be no assurance that the Funds’ objectives will be achieved. Each Fund is a non-diversified, open-end management company as defined in the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “Act”). The investment objective and policies of each Fund, and the associated risks of each Fund, are discussed in the Funds’ Prospectuses, which should be read carefully before an investment is made. All investment objectives and investment policies not specifically designated as fundamental may be changed without shareholder approval. Shareholders will be provided with sixty (60) days’ notice in the manner prescribed by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) before any change in a Fund’s policy to invest at least 80% of its net assets plus any borrowings for investment purposes (measured at the time of purchase) (“Net Assets”) in the particular type of investment suggested by its name. Additional information about the Funds, their policies, and the investment instruments they may hold is provided below.
Each Fund’s share price will fluctuate with market, economic and, to the extent applicable, foreign exchange conditions, so that an investment in a Fund may be worth more or less when redeemed than when purchased. None of the Funds should be relied upon as a complete investment program.
The Trust, on behalf of each Fund, has filed a notice of eligibility claiming an exclusion from the definition of the term “commodity pool operator” (“CPO”) under the Commodity Exchange Act (“CEA”) and therefore is not subject to registration or regulation as a CPO under the CEA.
The following discussions supplement the information in the Funds’ Prospectuses.
MLP Energy Infrastructure Fund
The Investment Adviser utilizes first-hand fundamental research, including visiting company facilities to assess operations and to meet decision-makers, in choosing the MLP Energy Infrastructure Fund’s securities. The Investment Adviser may also use macro analysis of numerous economic and valuation variables to anticipate changes in company earnings and the overall investment climate.
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The Investment Adviser is able to draw on the research and market expertise of the Goldman Sachs Global Investment Research Department and other affiliates of the Investment Adviser, as well as information provided by other securities dealers. Equity investments in the Fund’s portfolio will generally be sold when the Investment Adviser believes that the market price fully reflects or exceeds the investments’ fundamental valuation or when other more attractive investments are identified.
Energy Infrastructure Fund
The Investment Adviser examines the capital spending patterns of the upstream oil and gas industry to identify areas with growing oil and gas production and those areas that are out of favor, aiming to understand potential shifts in regional supply and demand balances. Having identified supply and demand trends, the team then assesses the implications of these trends across the energy value chain for the purposes of determining the exposure selection by commodity, function, and region. With an understanding of how supply and demand patterns could shift over time and their implications for energy infrastructure, the team undertakes detailed bottom-up analysis of individual companies with exposure to the trends identified. This process helps identify companies with potential for above-average distribution growth over multiple years and also helps isolate potential trouble spots.
Clean Energy Income Fund
The Investment Adviser utilizes first-hand fundamental research, including visiting company facilities to assess operations and to meet decision-makers, in choosing the Clean Energy Income Fund’s securities. The Investment Adviser may also use macro analysis of numerous economic and valuation variables to anticipate changes in company earnings and the overall investment climate. The Investment Adviser is able to draw on the research and market expertise of the Goldman Sachs Global Investment Research Department and other affiliates of the Investment Adviser, as well as information provided by other securities dealers. Equity investments in the Fund’s portfolio will generally be sold when the Investment Adviser believes that the market price fully reflects or exceeds the investments’ fundamental valuation or when other more attractive investments are identified.
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DESCRIPTION OF INVESTMENT SECURITIES AND PRACTICES
The investment securities and practices and related risks applicable to the Fund (which, for the remainder of this section, refers to one or more of the Funds offered in this SAI) are presented below in alphabetical order, and not in the order of importance or potential exposure.
Bank Obligations
The Fund may invest in obligations issued or guaranteed by U.S. or foreign banks.Bank obligations, including without limitation, time deposits, bankers’ acceptances and certificates of deposit, may be general obligations of the parent bank or may be limited to the issuing branch by the terms of the specific obligations or by government regulation. Banks are subject to extensive but different governmental regulations which may limit both the amount and types of loans which may be made and interest rates which may be charged. In addition, the profitability of the banking industry is largely dependent upon the availability and cost of funds for the purpose of financing lending operations under prevailing money market conditions. General economic conditions as well as exposure to credit losses arising from possible financial difficulties of borrowers play an important part in the operation of this industry.
Certificates of deposit are certificates evidencing the obligation of a bank to repay funds deposited with it for a specified period of time at a specified rate. Certificates of deposit are negotiable instruments and are similar to saving deposits but have a definite maturity and are evidenced by a certificate instead of a passbook entry. Banks are required to keep reserves against all certificates of deposit. Fixed time deposits are bank obligations payable at a stated maturity date and bearing interest at a fixed rate. Fixed time deposits may be withdrawn on demand by the investor, but may be subject to early withdrawal penalties which vary depending upon market conditions and the remaining maturity of the obligation.  The Funds may invest in deposits in U.S. and European banks satisfying the standards set forth above.
Commercial Paper and Other Short-Term Corporate Obligations
The Funds may invest in commercial paper and other short-term obligations issued or guaranteed by U.S. corporations, non-U.S. corporations or other entities. Commercial paper represents short-term unsecured promissory notes issued in bearer form by banks or bank holding companies, corporations and finance companies.
Commodity-Linked Investments
Each Fund may seek to provide exposure to the investment returns of real assets that trade in the commodity markets through investments in commodity-linked derivative securities, such as structured notes, discussed below, which are designed to provide this exposure without direct investment in physical commodities or commodities futures contracts. Real assets are assets such as oil, gas, industrial and precious metals, livestock, and agricultural or meat products, or other items that have tangible properties, as compared to stocks or bonds, which are financial instruments. In choosing investments, the Investment Adviser seeks to provide exposure to various commodities and commodity sectors. The value of commodity-linked derivative securities held by a Fund may be affected by a variety of factors, including, but not limited to, overall market movements and other factors affecting the value of particular industries or commodities, such as weather, disease, embargoes, acts of war or terrorism, or political and regulatory developments.
The prices of commodity-linked derivative securities may move in different directions than investments in traditional equity and debt securities when the value of those traditional securities is declining due to adverse economic conditions. As an example, during periods of rising inflation, debt securities have historically tended to decline in value due to the general increase in prevailing interest rates. Conversely, during those same periods of rising inflation, the prices of certain commodities, such as oil and metals, have historically tended to increase. Of course, there cannot be any guarantee that these investments will perform in that manner in the future, and at certain times the price movements of commodity-linked instruments have been parallel to those of debt and equity securities. Commodities have historically tended to increase and decrease in value during different parts of the business cycle than financial assets. Nevertheless, at various times, commodities prices may move in tandem with the prices of financial assets and thus may not provide overall portfolio diversification benefits. Under favorable economic conditions, a Fund’s investments may be
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expected to underperform an investment in traditional securities. Over the long term, the returns on a Fund’s investments are expected to exhibit low or negative correlation with stocks and bonds.
Because commodity-linked investments are available from a relatively small number of issuers, a Fund’s investments will be particularly subject to counterparty risk, which is the risk that the issuer of the commodity-linked derivative (which issuer may also serve as counterparty to a substantial number of a Fund’s commodity-linked and other derivative investments) will not fulfill its contractual obligations.
Convertible Securities
The Fund may invest in convertible securities. Convertible securities are bonds, debentures, notes, preferred stocks or other securities that may be converted into or exchanged for a specified amount of common stock (or other securities) of the same or different issuer within a particular period of time at a specified price or formula. A convertible security entitles the holder to receive interest that is generally paid or accrued on debt or a dividend that is paid or accrued on preferred stock until the convertible security matures or is redeemed, converted or exchanged. Convertible securities have unique investment characteristics, in that they generally (i) have higher yields than common stocks, but lower yields than comparable non-convertible securities, (ii) are less subject to fluctuation in value than the underlying common stock due to their fixed income characteristics and (iii) provide the potential for capital appreciation if the market price of the underlying common stock increases.
The value of a convertible security is a function of its “investment value” (determined by its yield in comparison with the yields of other securities of comparable maturity and quality that do not have a conversion privilege) and its “conversion value” (the security’s worth, at market value, if converted into the underlying common stock). The investment value of a convertible security is influenced by changes in interest rates, with investment value normally declining as interest rates increase and increasing as interest rates decline. The credit standing of the issuer and other factors may also have an effect on the convertible security’s investment value. The conversion value of a convertible security is determined by the market price of the underlying common stock. If the conversion value is low relative to the investment value, the price of the convertible security is governed principally by its investment value. To the extent the market price of the underlying common stock approaches or exceeds the conversion price, the price of the convertible security will be increasingly influenced by its conversion value. A convertible security generally will sell at a premium over its conversion value by the extent to which investors place value on the right to acquire the underlying common stock while holding a fixed income security.
A convertible security may be subject to redemption at the option of the issuer at a price established in the convertible security’s governing instrument. If a convertible security held by the Fund is called for redemption, the Fund will be required to convert the security into the underlying common stock, sell it to a third party, or permit the issuer to redeem the security. Any of these actions could have an adverse effect on the Fund’s ability to achieve its investment objective, which, in turn, could result in losses to the Fund.
In evaluating a convertible security, the Investment Adviser will give primary emphasis to the attractiveness of the underlying common stock. Convertible debt securities are equity investments for purposes of each Fund’s investment policies.
Corporate Debt Obligations
The Fund may, under normal market conditions, invest in corporate debt obligations, including obligations of industrial, utility and financial issuers. Corporate debt obligations include bonds, notes, debentures and other obligations of corporations to pay interest and repay principal. Corporate debt obligations are subject to the risk of an issuer’s inability to meet principal and interest payments on the obligations and may also be subject to price volatility due to such factors as market interest rates, market perception of the creditworthiness of the issuer and general market liquidity.
Corporate debt obligations rated BBB or Baa are considered medium-grade obligations with speculative characteristics, and adverse economic conditions or changing circumstances may weaken their issuers’ capacity to pay interest and repay principal. Medium to lower rated and comparable non-rated securities tend to offer higher yields than higher rated securities with the same maturities because the historical financial condition of the issuers of such securities may not have been as strong as that of other issuers. The price of corporate debt obligations will generally fluctuate in response to fluctuations in supply and demand for similarly
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rated securities. In addition, the price of corporate debt obligations will generally fluctuate in response to interest rate levels. Fluctuations in the prices of portfolio securities subsequent to their acquisition will not affect cash income from such securities but will be reflected in the Fund’s net asset value ("NAV"). Because medium to lower rated securities generally involve greater risks of loss of income and principal than higher rated securities, investors should consider carefully the relative risks associated with investment in securities which carry medium to lower ratings and in comparable unrated securities. In addition to the risk of default, there are the related costs of recovery on defaulted issues.
The Investment Adviser will attempt to reduce these risks through portfolio diversification and by analysis of each issuer and its ability to make timely payments of income and principal, as well as broad economic trends and corporate developments. The Investment Adviser employs its own credit research and analysis, which includes a study of an issuer’s existing debt, capital structure, ability to service debt and pay dividends, sensitivity to economic conditions, operating history and current earnings trend. The Investment Adviser continually monitors the investments in the Fund’s portfolio and evaluates whether to dispose of or to retain corporate debt obligations whose credit ratings or credit quality may have changed. If after its purchase, a portfolio security is assigned a lower rating or ceases to be rated, the Fund may continue to hold the security if the Investment Adviser believes it is in the best interest of the Fund and its shareholders.
Custodial Receipts and Trust Certificates
The Fund may invest in custodial receipts and trust certificates, which may be underwritten by securities dealers or banks, representing interests in securities held by a custodian or trustee. The securities so held may include U.S. government securities, which are obligations issued or guaranteed by the U.S. Government, its agencies, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises (“U.S. Government Securities”), municipal securities or other types of securities in which the Funds may invest. The custodial receipts or trust certificates are underwritten by securities dealers or banks and may evidence ownership of future interest payments, principal payments or both on the underlying securities, or, in some cases, the payment obligation of a third party that has entered into an interest rate swap or other arrangement with the custodian or trustee. For purposes of certain securities laws, custodial receipts and trust certificates may not be considered obligations of the U.S. Government or other issuer of the securities held by the custodian or trustee. As a holder of custodial receipts and trust certificates, the Fund will bear its proportionate share of the fees and expenses charged to the custodial account or trust. The Fund may also invest in separately issued interests in custodial receipts and trust certificates.
Although under the terms of a custodial receipt or trust certificate the Fund would typically be authorized to assert its rights directly against the issuer of the underlying obligation, the Fund could be required to assert through the custodian bank or trustee those rights as may exist against the underlying issuers. Thus, in the event an underlying issuer fails to pay principal and/or interest when due, the Fund may be subject to delays, expenses and risks that are greater than those that would have been involved if the Fund had purchased a direct obligation of the issuer. In addition, in the event that the trust or custodial account in which the underlying securities have been deposited is determined to be an association taxable as a corporation, instead of a non-taxable entity, the yield on the underlying securities would be reduced in recognition of any taxes paid.
Certain custodial receipts and trust certificates may be synthetic or derivative instruments that have interest rates that reset inversely to changing short-term rates and/or have embedded interest rate floors and caps that require the issuer to pay an adjusted interest rate if market rates fall below or rise above a specified rate. Because some of these instruments represent relatively recent innovations, and the trading market for these instruments is less developed than the markets for traditional types of instruments, it is uncertain how these instruments will perform under different economic and interest-rate scenarios. Also, because these instruments may be leveraged, their market values may be more volatile than other types of fixed income instruments and may present greater potential for capital gain or loss. The possibility of default by an issuer or the issuer’s credit provider may be greater for these derivative instruments than for other types of instruments. In some cases, it may be difficult to determine the fair value of a derivative instrument because of a lack of reliable objective information and an established secondary market for some instruments may not exist. In many cases, the Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”) has not ruled on the tax treatment of the interest or payments received on the derivative instruments and, accordingly, purchases of such instruments are based on the opinion of counsel to the sponsors of the instruments.
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Derivatives and Similar Instruments
The Funds may invest in derivatives and similar instruments discussed elsewhere in this SAI. The use of derivatives and similar instruments may pose risks in addition to and greater than those associated with investing directly in securities, currencies or other assets and instruments and may result in losses due to adverse market movements. Pursuant to Rule 18f-4 under the Act, a Fund’s use of derivatives and other transactions that create future payment or delivery obligations is subject to a value-at-risk (“VaR”) leverage limit and reporting and certain other requirements. The Trust has also adopted and implemented a derivatives risk management program (the “DRMP”) to, among other things, manage the risks associated with the use of derivatives and these other transactions for series of the Trust that do not qualify as “limited derivatives users” under Rule 18f-4 (each, a “Full Compliance Fund”). The Board of Trustees has approved the designation of personnel from GSAM to administer the DRMP for the Full Compliance Funds. With respect to series of the Trust that qualify as “limited derivatives users” under Rule 18f-4 (each, an “LDU Fund”), the Trust has adopted and implemented policies and procedures to manage an LDU Fund’s derivatives risks. An LDU Fund is also subject to the derivatives exposure threshold set forth in Rule 18f-4.
Similar to bank borrowings, derivatives and similar instruments may result in leverage. Borrowing and the use of derivatives and similar instruments may magnify the potential for gains and losses in excess of the initial amount invested. Mutual funds can borrow money from banks and other financial institutions, subject to certain asset coverage limits. The amount of indebtedness from bank borrowings may not exceed one-third of a Fund’s total assets (including the amount borrowed). If a Fund uses reverse repurchase agreements or similar financing transactions, including certain tender option bonds, the Fund must either aggregate the amount of indebtedness associated with the reverse repurchase agreements or similar financing transactions with the aggregate amount of indebtedness associated with any bank borrowings, if applicable, when calculating a Fund’s asset coverage ratio or treat all such transactions as derivatives transactions subject to the leverage limits under Rule 18f-4.
In addition, under Rule 18f-4, a Fund is permitted to invest in a security on a when-issued or forward-settling basis, or with a non-standard settlement cycle, and the transaction will be deemed not to involve a “senior security,” provided that (i) the Fund intends to physically settle the transaction and (ii) the transaction will settle within 35 days of its trade date). A Fund may otherwise engage in such transactions that do not meet these conditions so long as the Fund treats any such transaction as a “derivatives transaction” for purposes of compliance with Rule 18f-4. Furthermore, under Rule 18f-4, a Fund will be permitted to enter into an unfunded commitment agreement, and such unfunded commitment agreement will not be subject to the limits on borrowings as described above, if the Fund reasonably believes, at the time it enters into such agreement, that it will have sufficient cash and cash equivalents to meet its obligations with respect to all such agreements as they come due.
These requirements may limit the ability of a Fund to use derivatives, short sales, reverse repurchase agreements and similar financing transactions, delayed-settlement securities and unfunded commitment agreements as part of its investment strategies.
From time to time, a Fund may enter into derivatives or other similar transactions that require the Fund to pledge margin or collateral to a counterparty or clearing member through a margin/collateral account for and on behalf of the counterparty or clearing member. For operational, cost, regulatory or other reasons, when setting up these arrangements, a Fund may be required to use a margin/collateral account model or naming convention that may not be the most protective option available in the case of a default or bankruptcy by a counterparty or clearing member or that may delay or impair the Fund from fully exercising its rights under the arrangement. In the event of default or bankruptcy by a counterparty or clearing member, the margin or collateral may be subject to legal proceedings and a Fund may be delayed in taking possession of any margin or collateral to which the Fund is legally entitled.
Dividend-Paying Investments
The Fund's investments in dividend-paying securities could cause the Fund to underperform other funds that invest in similar asset classes but employ a different investment style. Securities that pay dividends, as a group, can fall out of favor with the market, causing such securities to underperform securities that do not pay dividends. Depending upon market conditions and political and legislative responses to such conditions, dividend-paying securities that meet the Fund's investment criteria may not be widely available and/or may be highly concentrated in only a few market sectors. For example, in response to the outbreak of a novel strain of coronavirus (known as COVID-19), the U.S. Government passed the Coronavirus Aid, Relief and Economic Security Act in March 2020, which established loan programs for certain issuers impacted by COVID-19. Among other conditions, borrowers under these
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loan programs are generally restricted from paying dividends. The adoption of new legislation could further limit or restrict the ability of issuers to pay dividends. To the extent that dividend-paying securities are concentrated in only a few market sectors, the Fund may be subject to the risks of volatile economic cycles and/or conditions or developments that may be particular to a sector to a greater extent than if its investments were diversified across different sectors. In addition, issuers that have paid regular dividends or distributions to shareholders may not continue to do so at the same level or at all in the future. A sharp rise in interest rates or an economic downturn could cause an issuer to abruptly reduce or eliminate its dividend. This may limit the ability of the Fund to produce current income.
Foreign Securities
The Fund may invest in securities of foreign issuers, including securities quoted or denominated in a currency other than U.S. dollars.
Investments in foreign securities may offer potential benefits not available from investments solely in U.S. dollar-denominated or quoted securities of domestic issuers. Such benefits may include the opportunity to invest in foreign issuers that appear, in the opinion of the Investment Adviser, to offer the potential for better long term growth of capital and income than investments in U.S. securities, the opportunity to invest in foreign countries with economic policies or business cycles different from those of the United States and the opportunity to reduce fluctuations in portfolio value by taking advantage of foreign securities markets that do not necessarily move in a manner parallel to U.S. markets. Investing in the securities of foreign issuers also involves, however, certain special risks, including those discussed in the Fund's Prospectus and those set forth below, which are not typically associated with investing in U.S. dollar-denominated securities or quoted securities of U.S. issuers. Many of these risks are more pronounced for investments in emerging economies.
With respect to investments in certain foreign countries, there exist certain economic, political and social risks, including the risk of adverse political developments, nationalization, military unrest, social instability, war and terrorism, confiscation without fair compensation, expropriation or confiscatory taxation, limitations on the movement of funds and other assets between different countries, or diplomatic developments, any of which could adversely affect the Fund’s investments in those countries. Governments in certain foreign countries continue to participate to a significant degree, through ownership interest or regulation, in their respective economies. Action by these governments could have a significant effect on market prices of securities and dividend payments.
Many countries throughout the world are dependent on a healthy U.S. economy and are adversely affected when the U.S. economy weakens or its markets decline. Additionally, many foreign country economies are heavily dependent on international trade and are adversely affected by protective trade barriers and economic conditions of their trading partners. Protectionist trade legislation enacted by those trading partners could have a significant adverse effect on the securities markets of those countries. Individual foreign economies may differ favorably or unfavorably from the U.S. economy in such respects as growth of gross national product, rate of inflation, capital reinvestment, resource self-sufficiency and balance of payments position.
From time to time, certain of the companies in which the Fund may invest may operate in, or have dealings with, countries subject to sanctions or embargos imposed by the U.S. Government and the United Nations and/or countries identified by the U.S. Government as state sponsors of terrorism. For example, the United Nations Security Council has imposed certain sanctions relating to Iran and Sudan and both countries are embargoed countries by the Office of Foreign Assets Control (“OFAC”) of the U.S. Department of the Treasury.
In addition, from time to time, certain of the companies in which the Fund may invest may engage in, or have dealings with countries or companies that engage in, activities that may not be considered socially and/or environmentally responsible. Such activities may relate to human rights issues (such as patterns of human rights abuses or violations, persecution or discrimination), impacts to local communities in which companies operate and environmental sustainability. For a description of the Investment Adviser’s approach to responsible and sustainable investing, please see GSAM’s Statement on Responsible and Sustainable Investing at https://www.goldmansachs.com/citizenship/sustainability-reporting/gsam-statement.pdf.
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As a result, a company may suffer damage to its reputation if it is identified as a company which engages in, or has dealings with countries or companies that engage in, the above referenced activities. As an investor in such companies, the Fund would be indirectly subject to those risks.
The Investment Adviser is committed to complying fully with sanctions in effect as of the date of this Statement of Additional Information and any other applicable sanctions that may be enacted in the future with respect to Sudan or any other country.
Investments in foreign securities often involve currencies of foreign countries. Accordingly, the Fund may be affected favorably or unfavorably by changes in currency rates and in exchange control regulations and may incur costs in connection with conversions between various currencies. The Fund may be subject to currency exposure independent of its securities positions. To the extent that the Fund is fully invested in foreign securities while also maintaining net currency positions, it may be exposed to greater combined risk.
Currency exchange rates may fluctuate significantly over short periods of time. They generally are determined by the forces of supply and demand in the foreign exchange markets and the relative merits of investments in different countries, actual or anticipated changes in interest rates and other complex factors, as seen from an international perspective. Currency exchange rates also can be affected unpredictably by intervention (or the failure to intervene) by U.S. or foreign governments or central banks or by currency controls or political developments in the United States or abroad. To the extent that a portion of the Fund’s total assets, adjusted to reflect the Fund’s net position after giving effect to currency transactions, is denominated or quoted in the currencies of foreign countries, the Fund will be more susceptible to the risk of adverse economic and political developments within those countries. The Fund’s net currency positions may expose it to risks independent of its securities positions.
Because foreign issuers generally are not subject to uniform accounting, auditing and financial reporting standards, practices and requirements comparable to those applicable to U.S. companies, there may be less publicly available information about a foreign company than about a U.S. company. Volume and liquidity in most foreign securities markets are less than in the United States and securities of many foreign companies are less liquid and more volatile than securities of comparable U.S. companies. The securities of foreign issuers may be listed on foreign securities exchanges or traded in foreign over-the-counter markets. Fixed commissions on foreign securities exchanges are generally higher than negotiated commissions on U.S. exchanges, although the Fund endeavors to achieve the most favorable net results on its portfolio transactions. There is generally less government supervision and regulation of foreign securities exchanges, brokers, dealers and listed and unlisted companies than in the United States, and the legal remedies for investors may be more limited than the remedies available in the United States. For example, there may be no comparable provisions under certain foreign laws to insider trading and similar investor protections that apply with respect to securities transactions consummated in the United States. Mail service between the United States and foreign countries may be slower or less reliable than within the United States, thus increasing the risk of delayed settlement of portfolio transactions or loss of certificates for portfolio securities.
Foreign markets also have different clearance and settlement procedures, and in certain markets there have been times when settlements have been unable to keep pace with the volume of securities transactions, making it difficult to conduct such transactions. Such delays in settlement could result in temporary periods when a portion of the Fund’s assets are uninvested and no return is earned on such assets. The inability of the Fund to make intended security purchases due to settlement problems could cause the Fund to miss attractive investment opportunities. Inability to dispose of portfolio securities due to settlement problems could result either in losses to the Fund due to subsequent declines in value of the portfolio securities or, if the Fund has entered into a contract to sell the securities, in possible liability to the purchaser.
The Fund may invest in foreign securities which take the form of sponsored and unsponsored American Depositary Receipts (“ADRs”), Global Depositary Receipts (“GDRs”), European Depositary Receipts (“EDRs”) or other similar instruments representing securities of foreign issuers (together, “Depositary Receipts”).
ADRs represent the right to receive securities of foreign issuers deposited in a domestic bank or a correspondent bank. ADRs are traded on domestic exchanges or in the U.S. over-the-counter market and, generally, are in registered form. EDRs and GDRs are receipts evidencing an arrangement with a non-U.S. bank similar to that for ADRs and are designed for use in the non-U.S. securities markets. EDRs and GDRs are not necessarily quoted in the same currency as the underlying security.
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To the extent the Fund acquires Depositary Receipts through banks which do not have a contractual relationship with the foreign issuer of the security underlying the Depositary Receipts to issue and service such unsponsored Depositary Receipts, there is an increased possibility that the Fund will not become aware of and be able to respond to corporate actions such as stock splits or rights offerings involving the foreign issuer in a timely manner. In addition, the lack of information may result in inefficiencies in the valuation of such instruments. Investment in Depositary Receipts does not eliminate all the risks inherent in investing in securities of non-U.S. issuers. The market value of Depositary Receipts is dependent upon the market value of the underlying securities and fluctuations in the relative value of the currencies in which the Depositary Receipts and the underlying securities are quoted. In addition, the issuers of Depositary Receipts may discontinue issuing new Depositary Receipts and withdraw existing Depositary Receipts at any time, which may result in costs and delays in the distribution of the underlying assets to the Fund and may negatively impact the Fund’s performance. However, by investing in Depositary Receipts, such as ADRs, which are quoted in U.S. dollars, the Fund may avoid currency risks during the settlement period for purchases and sales.
As described more fully below, the Fund may invest in countries with emerging economies or securities markets. Political and economic structures in many of such countries may be undergoing significant evolution and rapid development, and such countries may lack the social, political and economic stability characteristic of more developed countries. Certain of such countries have in the past failed to recognize private property rights and have at times nationalized or expropriated the assets of, or ignored internationally accepted standards of due process against, private companies. In addition, a country may take these and other retaliatory actions against a specific private company, including the Fund or the Investment Adviser. There may not be legal recourse against these actions, which could arise in connection with the commercial activities of Goldman Sachs or its affiliates or otherwise, and the Fund could be subject to substantial losses. In addition, the Fund or the Investment Adviser may determine not to invest in, or may limit its overall investment in, a particular issuer, country or geographic region due to, among other things, heightened risks regarding repatriation restrictions, confiscation of assets and property, expropriation or nationalization. See “Investing in Emerging Countries,” below.
These and other factors discussed in the section below, entitled “Illiquid Investments,” may impact the liquidity of investments in securities of foreign issuers.
Investing in Europe
The Fund may operate in euros and/or may hold euros and/or euro-denominated bonds and other obligations. The euro requires participation of multiple sovereign states forming the Euro zone and is therefore sensitive to the credit, general economic and political position of each such state, including each state’s actual and intended ongoing engagement with and/or support for the other sovereign states then forming the EU, in particular those within the Euro zone. Changes in these factors might materially adversely impact the value of securities that the Fund has invested in.
European countries can be significantly affected by the tight fiscal and monetary controls that the European Economic and Monetary Union (“EMU”) imposes for membership. Europe’s economies are diverse, its governments are decentralized, and its cultures vary widely. Several EU countries, including Greece, Ireland, Italy, Spain and Portugal have faced budget issues, some of which may have negative long-term effects for the economies of those countries and other EU countries. There is continued concern about national-level support for the euro and the accompanying coordination of fiscal and wage policy among EMU member countries. Member countries are required to maintain tight control over inflation, public debt, and budget deficit to qualify for membership in the EMU. These requirements can severely limit the ability of EMU member countries to implement monetary policy to address regional economic conditions.
Geopolitical developments in Europe have caused, or may in the future cause, significant volatility in financial markets. For example, in a June 2016 referendum, citizens of the United Kingdom voted to leave the EU. In March 2017, the United Kingdom formally notified the European Council of its intention to withdraw from the EU (commonly known as “Brexit”) by invoking Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union, which triggered a two-year period of negotiations on the terms of Brexit. Brexit has resulted in volatility in European and global markets and may also lead to weakening in political, regulatory, consumer, corporate and financial confidence in the markets of the United Kingdom and throughout Europe. The longer term economic, legal, political, regulatory and social framework between the United Kingdom and the EU remains unclear and may lead to ongoing political, regulatory and economic uncertainty and periods of exacerbated volatility in both the United Kingdom and in wider European markets for some
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time. Additionally, the decision made in the British referendum may lead to a call for similar referenda in other European jurisdictions, which may cause increased economic volatility in European and global markets. The mid-to long-term uncertainty may have an adverse effect on the economy generally and on the value of the Fund’s investments. This may be due to, among other things: fluctuations in asset values and exchange rates; increased illiquidity of investments located, traded or listed within the United Kingdom, the EU or elsewhere; changes in the willingness or ability of counterparties to enter into transactions at the price and terms on which the Fund is prepared to transact; and/or changes in legal and regulatory regimes to which certain of the Fund’s assets are or become subject. Fluctuations in the value of the British Pound and/or the Euro, along with the potential downgrading of the United Kingdom’s sovereign credit rating, may also have an impact on the performance of the Fund’s assets or investments economically tied to the United Kingdom or Europe.
The full effects of Brexit will depend, in part, on whether the United Kingdom is able to negotiate agreements to retain access to EU markets including, but not limited to, trade and finance agreements. Brexit could lead to legal and tax uncertainty and potentially divergent national laws and regulations as the United Kingdom determines which EU laws to replace or replicate. The extent of the impact of the withdrawal and the resulting economic arrangements in the United Kingdom and in global markets as well as any associated adverse consequences remain unclear, and the uncertainty may have a significant negative effect on the value of the Fund’s investments. While certain measures have been proposed and/or implemented within the UK and at the EU level or at the member state level, which are designed to minimize disruption in the financial markets, it is not currently possible to determine whether such measures would achieve their intended effects.
On January 31, 2020, the United Kingdom withdrew from the EU and the United Kingdom entered a transition period that expired on December 31, 2020. On December 24, 2020, negotiators representing the United Kingdom and the EU came to a preliminary trade agreement, the EU-UK Trade and Cooperation Agreement (“TCA”), which is an agreement on the terms governing certain aspects of the EU’s and United Kingdom’s relationship following the end of the transition period. On December 30, 2020, the United Kingdom and the EU signed the TCA, which was ratified by the British Parliament on the same day. The TCA was subsequently ratified by the EU Parliament and entered into force on May 1, 2021. However, many aspects of the UK-EU trade relationship remain subject to further negotiation. Due to political uncertainty, it is not possible to anticipate the form or nature of the future trading relationship between the United Kingdom and the EU.
Other economic challenges facing the region include high levels of public debt, significant rates of unemployment, aging populations, and heavy regulation in certain economic sectors. European policy makers have taken unprecedented steps to respond to the economic crisis and to boost growth in the region, which has increased the risk that regulatory uncertainty could negatively affect the value of the Fund’s investments.
Certain countries have applied to become new member countries of the EU, and these candidate countries’ accessions may become more controversial to the existing EU members. Some member states may repudiate certain candidate countries joining the EU upon concerns about the possible economic, immigration and cultural implications. Also, Russia may be opposed to the expansion of the EU to members of the former Soviet bloc and may, at times, take actions that could negatively impact EU economic activity.
Investing in Canada
The Fund may invest in issuers located in Canada or that have significant exposure to the Canadian economy. The Canadian market is relatively concentrated in issuers involved in the production and distribution of natural resources, and therefore the Canadian economy is very dependent on the supply and demand for natural resources. There is a risk that any changes in these sectors could have an adverse impact on the Canadian economy. The Canadian economy is dependent on the economy of the United States as the United States is Canada’s largest trading partner and foreign investor. Reduction in spending on Canadian products and services or changes in the U.S. economy may cause an impact in the Canadian economy. Past periodic demands by the Province of Quebec for sovereignty have also significantly affected equity valuations and foreign currency movements in the Canadian market.
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Investing in Emerging Countries
The securities markets of emerging countries are less liquid and subject to greater price volatility, and have a smaller market capitalization, than the U.S. securities markets. In certain countries, there may be fewer publicly traded securities and the market may be dominated by a few issuers or sectors. Issuers and securities markets in such countries are not subject to as stringent, extensive and frequent accounting, auditing, financial and other reporting requirements or as comprehensive government regulations as are issuers and securities markets in the U.S., and the degree of cooperation between issuers in emerging and frontier market countries with foreign and U.S. financial regulators may vary significantly. In particular, the assets and profits appearing on the financial statements of emerging country issuers may not reflect their financial position or results of operations in the same manner as financial statements for U.S. issuers. Substantially less information may be publicly available about emerging country issuers than is available about issuers in the United States. In addition, U.S. regulators may not have sufficient access to adequately audit and oversee issuers. For example, the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (the “PCAOB”) is responsible for inspecting and auditing the accounting practices and products of U.S.-listed companies, regardless of the issuer’s domicile. However, certain emerging market countries, including China, do not provide sufficient access to the PCAOB to conduct its inspections and audits. As a result, U.S. investors, including the Fund, may be subject to risks associated with less stringent accounting oversight.
Emerging country securities markets are typically marked by a high concentration of market capitalization and trading volume in a small number of issuers representing a limited number of industries, as well as a high concentration of ownership of such securities by a limited number of investors. The markets for securities in certain emerging countries are in the earliest stages of their development. Even the markets for relatively widely traded securities in emerging countries may not be able to absorb, without price disruptions, a significant increase in trading volume or trades of a size customarily undertaken by institutional investors in the securities markets of developed countries. The limited size of many of these securities markets can cause prices to be erratic for reasons apart from factors that affect the soundness and competitiveness of the securities issuers. For example, prices may be unduly influenced by traders who control large positions in these markets. Additionally, market making and arbitrage activities are generally less extensive in such markets, which may contribute to increased volatility and reduced liquidity of such markets. The limited liquidity of emerging country securities may also affect the Fund’s ability to accurately value its portfolio securities or to acquire or dispose of securities at the price and time it wishes to do so or in order to meet redemption requests. In addition, emerging market countries are often characterized by limited reliable access to capital.
With respect to investments in certain emerging market countries, antiquated legal systems may have an adverse impact on the Fund. For example, while the potential liability of a shareholder in a U.S. corporation with respect to acts of the corporation is generally limited to the amount of the shareholder’s investment, the notion of limited liability is less clear in certain emerging market countries. Similarly, the rights of investors in emerging market companies may be more limited than those of shareholders of U.S. corporations, and it may be more difficult for shareholders to bring derivative litigation. Moreover, the legal remedies for investors in emerging markets may be more limited than the remedies available in the United States, and the ability of U.S. authorities (e.g., SEC and the U.S. Department of Justice) to bring actions against bad actors may be limited. In addition, emerging countries may have less established accounting and financial reporting systems than those in more developed markets.
Transaction costs, including brokerage commissions or dealer mark-ups, in emerging countries may be higher than in the United States and other developed securities markets. In addition, existing laws and regulations are often inconsistently applied. As legal systems in emerging countries develop, foreign investors may be adversely affected by new or amended laws and regulations. In circumstances where adequate laws exist, it may not be possible to obtain swift and equitable enforcement of the law.
Custodial and/or settlement systems in emerging and frontier market countries may not be fully developed. To the extent the Fund invests in emerging markets, Fund assets that are traded in such markets and which have been entrusted to such sub-custodians in those markets may be exposed to risks for which the sub-custodian will have no liability.
Foreign investment in the securities markets of certain emerging countries is restricted or controlled to varying degrees. These restrictions may limit the Fund’s investment in certain emerging countries and may increase the expenses of the Fund. Certain emerging countries require governmental approval prior to investments by foreign persons or limit investment by foreign persons to only a specified percentage of an issuer’s outstanding securities or a specific class of securities which may have less advantageous terms (including price) than securities of the company available for purchase by nationals.
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The repatriation of investment income, capital or the proceeds of securities sales from emerging countries may be subject to restrictions which require governmental consents or prohibit repatriation entirely for a period of time, which may make it difficult for the Fund to invest in such emerging countries. The Fund could be adversely affected by delays in, or a refusal to grant, any required governmental approval for such repatriation. Even where there is no outright restriction on repatriation of capital, the mechanics of repatriation may affect certain aspects of the operation of the Fund. The Fund may be required to establish special custodial or other arrangements before investing in certain emerging countries.
Emerging countries may be subject to a substantially greater degree of economic, political and social instability and disruption than is the case in the United States, Japan and most Western European countries. This instability may result from, among other things, the following: (i) authoritarian governments or military involvement in political and economic decision making, including changes or attempted changes in governments through extra-constitutional means; (ii) popular unrest associated with demands for improved political, economic or social conditions; (iii) internal insurgencies; (iv) hostile relations with neighboring countries; (v) ethnic, religious and racial disaffection or conflict; and (vi) the absence of developed legal structures governing foreign private investments and private property. Such economic, political and social instability could disrupt the principal financial markets in which the Fund may invest and adversely affect the value of the Fund’s assets. The Fund’s investments can also be adversely affected by any increase in taxes or by political, economic or diplomatic developments.
The Fund may seek investment opportunities within former “Eastern bloc” countries. Most of these countries had a centrally planned, socialist economy for a substantial period of time. The governments of many of these countries have more recently been implementing reforms directed at political and economic liberalization, including efforts to decentralize the economic decision-making process and move towards a market economy. However, business entities in many of these countries do not have an extended history of operating in a market-oriented economy, and the ultimate impact of these countries’ attempts to move toward more market-oriented economies is currently unclear. Any change in the leadership or policies of these countries may halt the expansion of or reverse the liberalization of foreign investment policies now occurring and adversely affect existing investment opportunities. In addition, Eastern European markets are particularly sensitive to social, economic and currency events in Western Europe and Russia. Russia may attempt to assert its influence in the region through military measures.
In addition, because of ongoing regional armed conflict in Europe, including a large-scale invasion of Ukraine by Russia in February 2022, Russia has been the subject of economic sanctions imposed by countries throughout the world, including the United States. Such sanctions have included, among other things, freezing the assets of particular entities and persons. The imposition of sanctions and other similar measures could, among other things, cause a decline in the value and/or liquidity of securities issued by Russia or companies located in or economically tied to Russia, downgrades in the credit ratings of Russian securities or those of companies located in or economically tied to Russia, devaluation of Russia’s currency, and increased market volatility and disruption in Russia and throughout the world. Sanctions and other similar measures, including banning Russia from global payments systems that facilitate cross-border payments, could limit or prevent the Fund from buying and selling securities (in Russia and other markets), significantly delay or prevent the settlement of securities transactions, and significantly impact the Fund’s liquidity and performance. Sanctions could also result in Russia taking counter measures or retaliatory actions which may further impair the value and liquidity of Russian securities. Moreover, disruptions caused by Russian military action or other actions (including cyberattacks and espionage) or resulting actual and threatened responses to such activity, including cyberattacks on the Russian government, Russian companies or Russian individuals, including politicians, may impact Russia’s economy and Russian issuers of securities in which the Fund invests.
The economies of emerging countries may differ unfavorably from the U.S. economy in such respects as growth of gross domestic product, rate of inflation, capital reinvestment, resources, self-sufficiency and balance of payments. Many emerging countries have experienced in the past, and continue to experience, high rates of inflation. In certain countries inflation has at times accelerated rapidly to hyperinflationary levels, creating a negative interest rate environment and sharply eroding the value of outstanding financial assets in those countries. Other emerging countries, on the other hand, have recently experienced deflationary pressures and are in economic recessions. The economies of many emerging countries are heavily dependent upon international trade and are accordingly affected by protective trade barriers and the economic conditions of their trading partners. In addition, the economies of some emerging countries are vulnerable to weakness in world prices for their commodity exports.
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The Fund’s income and, in some cases, capital gains from foreign stocks and securities will be subject to applicable taxation in certain of the countries in which it invests, and treaties between the U.S. and such countries may not be available in some cases to reduce the otherwise applicable tax rates. See “TAXATION.”
Foreign markets also have different clearance and settlement procedures, and in certain markets there have been times when settlements have been unable to keep pace with the volume of securities transactions, making it difficult to conduct such transactions. Such delays in settlement could result in temporary periods when a portion of the assets of the Fund remain uninvested and no return is earned on such assets. The inability of the Fund to make intended security purchases or sales due to settlement problems could result either in losses to the Fund due to subsequent declines in value of the portfolio securities or, if the Fund has entered into a contract to sell the securities, could result in possible liability to the purchaser.
These and other factors discussed in the section below, entitled “Illiquid Investments,” may impact the liquidity of investments in issuers of emerging country securities.
Futures Contracts and Options on Futures Contracts
The Fund may purchase and sell futures contracts and may also purchase and write call and put options on futures contracts. The futures contracts may be based on various securities, securities indices, foreign currencies and other financial instruments and indices. The Fund may engage in futures and related options transactions in order to seek to increase total return or to hedge against changes in interest rates, securities prices or to otherwise manage its term structure, sector selection and duration  of its fixed income securities holdings in accordance with its investment objective and policies. The Fund may also enter into closing purchase and sale transactions with respect to such contracts and options.
Futures contracts utilized by mutual funds have historically been traded on U.S. exchanges or boards of trade that are licensed and regulated by the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (“CFTC”) or on foreign exchanges. More recently, certain futures may also be traded either over-the-counter or on trading facilities such as derivatives transaction execution facilities, exempt boards of trade or electronic trading facilities that are licensed and/or regulated to varying degrees by the CFTC. Also, certain single stock futures and narrow based security index futures may be traded either over-the-counter or on trading facilities such as contract markets, derivatives transaction execution facilities and electronic trading facilities that are licensed and/or regulated to varying degrees by both the CFTC and the SEC, or on foreign exchanges.
Neither the CFTC, National Futures Association (“NFA”), SEC nor any domestic exchange regulates activities of any foreign exchange or boards of trade, including the execution, delivery and clearing of transactions, or has the power to compel enforcement of the rules of a foreign exchange or board of trade or any applicable foreign law. This is true even if the exchange is formally linked to a domestic market so that a position taken on the market may be liquidated by a transaction on another market. Moreover, such laws or regulations will vary depending on the foreign country in which the foreign futures or foreign options transaction occurs. For these reasons, the Fund’s investments in foreign futures or foreign options transactions may not be provided the same protections in respect of transactions on United States exchanges. In particular, persons who trade foreign futures or foreign options contracts may not be afforded certain of the protective measures provided by the CEA, the CFTC’s regulations and the rules of the NFA and any domestic exchange, including the right to use reparations proceedings before the CFTC and arbitration proceedings provided by the NFA or any domestic futures exchange. Similarly, those persons may not have the protection of the U.S. securities laws.
Futures Contracts. A futures contract may generally be described as an agreement between two parties to buy and sell particular financial instruments for an agreed price during a designated month (or to deliver the final cash settlement price, in the case of a contract relating to an index or otherwise not calling for physical delivery at the end of trading in the contract).
When interest rates are rising or securities prices are falling, a Fund can seek through the sale of futures contracts to offset a decline in the value of its current portfolio securities. When interest rates are falling or securities prices are rising, a Fund, through the purchase of futures contracts, can attempt to secure better rates or prices than might later be available in the market when it effects anticipated purchases.
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Positions taken in the futures market are not normally held to maturity, but are instead liquidated through offsetting transactions which may result in a profit or a loss. While a Fund will usually liquidate futures contracts on securities in this manner, a Fund may instead make or take delivery of the underlying securities whenever it appears economically advantageous for the Fund to do so. A clearing corporation associated with the exchange on which futures are traded guarantees that, if still open, the sale or purchase will be performed on the settlement date.
Hedging Strategies Using Futures Contracts. When the Fund uses futures for hedging purposes, the Fund often seeks to establish with more certainty than would otherwise be possible the effective price or rate of return on portfolio securities (or securities that the Fund proposes to acquire) or the exchange rate of currencies in which portfolio securities are quoted or denominated. The Fund may, for example, take a “short” position in the futures market by selling futures contracts to seek to hedge against an anticipated rise in interest rates or a decline in market prices that would adversely affect the dollar value of such Fund’s portfolio securities. Such futures contracts may include contracts for the future delivery of securities held by the Fund or securities with characteristics similar to those of the Fund’s portfolio securities. If, in the opinion of the Investment Adviser, there is a sufficient degree of correlation between price trends for the Fund’s portfolio securities and futures contracts based on other financial instruments, securities indices or other indices, the Fund may also enter into such futures contracts as part of a hedging strategy. Although under some circumstances prices of securities in the Fund’s portfolio may be more or less volatile than prices of such futures contracts, the Investment Adviser will attempt to estimate the extent of this volatility difference based on historical patterns and compensate for any such differential by having the Fund enter into a greater or lesser number of futures contracts or by attempting to achieve only a partial hedge against price changes affecting the Fund’s portfolio securities. When hedging of this character is successful, any depreciation in the value of portfolio securities will be substantially offset by appreciation in the value of the futures position. On the other hand, any unanticipated appreciation in the value of the Fund’s portfolio securities would be substantially offset by a decline in the value of the futures position.
On other occasions, the Fund may take a “long” position by purchasing such futures contracts. This may be done, for example, when the Fund anticipates the subsequent purchase of particular securities when it has the necessary cash, but expects the prices then available in the applicable market to be less favorable than prices that are currently available.
Options on Futures Contracts. The acquisition of put and call options on futures contracts will give the Fund the right (but not the obligation), for a specified price, to sell or to purchase, respectively, the underlying futures contract at any time during the option period. As the purchaser of an option on a futures contract, the Fund obtains the benefit of the futures position if prices move in a favorable direction but limits its risk of loss in the event of an unfavorable price movement to the loss of the premium and transaction costs.
The writing of a call option on a futures contract generates a premium which may partially offset a decline in the value of the Fund’s assets. By writing a call option, the Fund becomes obligated, in exchange for the premium, to sell a futures contract if the option is exercised, which may have a value higher than the exercise price. The writing of a put option on a futures contract generates a premium, which may partially offset an increase in the price of securities that the Fund intends to purchase. However, the Fund becomes obligated (upon the exercise of the option) to purchase a futures contract if the option is exercised, which may have a value lower than the exercise price. Thus, the loss incurred by the Fund in writing options on futures is potentially unlimited and may exceed the amount of the premium received. The Fund will incur transaction costs in connection with the writing of options on futures.
The holder or writer of an option on a futures contract may terminate its position by selling or purchasing an offsetting option on the same financial instrument. There is no guarantee that such closing transactions can be effected. The Fund’s ability to establish and close out positions on such options will be subject to the development and maintenance of a liquid market.
Other Considerations. Each Fund may engage in transactions in futures contracts and related options transactions. Transactions in futures contracts and options on futures involve brokerage costs and require posting margin.
While transactions in futures contracts and options on futures may reduce certain risks, such transactions themselves entail certain other risks. Thus, unanticipated changes in interest rates or securities prices may result in a poorer overall performance for a Fund than if it had not entered into any futures contracts or options transactions. When futures contracts and options are used for
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hedging purposes, perfect correlation between a Fund’s futures positions and portfolio positions may be impossible to achieve, particularly where futures contracts based on individual equity or corporate fixed income securities are currently not available. In the event of an imperfect correlation between a futures position and a portfolio position which is intended to be protected, the desired protection may not be obtained and a Fund may be exposed to risk of loss. The profitability of a Fund’s trading in futures depends upon the ability of the Investment Adviser to analyze correctly the futures markets.
Greenfield Projects
Greenfield projects are energy-related projects built by private joint ventures formed by energy companies. Greenfield projects may include the creation of a new pipeline, processing plant or storage facility or other energy infrastructure asset that is integrated with the company’s existing assets. Each Fund may invest in the equity of greenfield projects and also may invest in the secured debt of greenfield projects. However, an investment also may be structured as pay-in-kind securities with minimal or no cash interest or dividends until construction is completed, at which time interest payments or dividends would be paid in cash. The Investment Adviser believes that this niche leverages the organizational and operating expertise of large, publicly traded companies and may provide a Fund with the opportunity to earn higher returns. Greenfield projects involve less investment risk than typical private equity financing arrangements. The primary risk involved with greenfield projects is execution risk or construction risk. Changing project requirements, elevated costs for labor and materials, and unexpected construction hurdles all can increase construction costs. Financing risk exists should changes in construction costs or financial markets occur. Regulatory risk exists should changes in regulation occur during construction or the necessary permits are not secured prior to beginning construction.
High Yield Securities
The Fund may invest in bonds rated BB+ or below by S&P Global Ratings (“Standard & Poor’s”) or Ba1 or below by Moody’s Investors Service, Inc. (“Moody’s”) or comparable rated and unrated securities. These bonds are commonly known as “junk bonds,” are non-investment grade and are considered speculative. The Clean Energy Income Fund may invest up to 20% of its net assets in non-investment grade securities. The ability of issuers of high yield securities to make principal and interest payments may be questionable because such issuers are often less creditworthy or are highly leveraged and are generally less able than more established or less leveraged entities to make scheduled payments of principal and interest. High yield securities are also issued by governmental issuers that may have difficulty in making all scheduled interest and principal payments. In some cases, high yield securities may be highly speculative, have poor prospects for reaching investment grade standing and be in default. As a result, investment in such bonds will entail greater risks than those associated with investments in investment grade bonds (i.e., bonds rated AAA, AA, A or BBB by Standard and Poor's or Aaa, Aa, A or Baa by Moody’s). Analysis of the creditworthiness of issuers of high yield securities may be more complex than for issuers of higher quality debt securities, and the ability of the Fund to achieve its investment objective may, to the extent of its investments in high yield securities, be more dependent upon such creditworthiness analysis than would be the case if the Fund were investing in higher quality securities. See Appendix A for a description of the corporate bond and preferred stock ratings by Standard and Poor's, Moody’s, Fitch, Inc. and Dominion Bond Rating Service Limited.
The market values of high yield securities tend to reflect individual corporate or municipal developments to a greater extent than do those of higher rated securities, which react primarily to fluctuations in the general level of interest rates. Issuers of high yield securities that are highly leveraged may not be able to make use of more traditional methods of financing. Their ability to service debt obligations may be more adversely affected by economic downturns or their inability to meet specific projected business forecasts than would be the case for issuers of higher-rated securities. Negative publicity about the junk bond market and investor perceptions regarding lower-rated securities, whether or not based on fundamental analysis, may depress the prices for such high yield securities. In the lower quality segments of the fixed income securities market, changes in perceptions of issuers’ creditworthiness tend to occur more frequently and in a more pronounced manner than do changes in higher quality segments of the fixed income securities market, resulting in greater yield and price volatility. Another factor which causes fluctuations in the prices of high yield securities is the supply and demand for similarly rated securities. In addition, the prices of investments fluctuate in response to the general level of interest rates. Fluctuations in the prices of portfolio securities subsequent to their acquisition will not affect cash income from such securities but will be reflected in the NAV of the Fund.
The risk of loss from default for the holders of high yield securities is significantly greater than is the case for holders of other debt securities because such high yield securities are generally unsecured and are often subordinated to the rights of other creditors of
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the issuers of such securities. Investment by the Fund in already defaulted securities poses an additional risk of loss should nonpayment of principal and interest continue in respect of such securities. Even if such securities are held to maturity, recovery by the Fund of its initial investment and any anticipated income or appreciation is uncertain. In addition, the Fund may incur additional expenses to the extent that it is required to seek recovery relating to the default in the payment of principal or interest on such securities or otherwise protect its interests. The Fund may be required to liquidate other portfolio securities to satisfy annual or semi-annual distribution obligations of the Fund in respect of accrued interest income on securities which are subsequently written off, even though the Fund has not received any cash payments of such interest.
The secondary market for high yield securities is concentrated in relatively few markets and is dominated by institutional investors, including mutual funds, insurance companies and other financial institutions. Accordingly, the secondary market for such securities may not be as liquid as and may be more volatile than the secondary market for higher-rated securities. In addition, the trading volume for high yield securities is generally lower than that of higher rated securities. The secondary market for high yield securities could contract under adverse market or economic conditions independent of any specific adverse changes in the condition of a particular issuer. These factors may have an adverse effect on the ability of the Fund to dispose of particular portfolio investments when needed to meet its redemption requests or other liquidity needs. The Investment Adviser could find it difficult to sell these investments or may be able to sell the investments only at prices lower than if such investments were widely traded. Prices realized upon the sale of such lower rated or unrated securities, under these circumstances, may be less than the prices used in calculating the NAVs of the Fund. A less liquid secondary market also may make it more difficult for the Fund to obtain precise valuations of the high yield securities in its portfolio.
The adoption of new legislation could adversely affect the secondary market for high yield securities and the financial condition of issuers of these securities. The form of any future legislation, and the probability of such legislation being enacted, is uncertain.
Non-investment grade or high yield securities also present risks based on payment expectations. High yield securities frequently contain “call” or buy-back features which permit the issuer to call or repurchase the security from its holder. If an issuer exercises such a “call option” and redeems the security, the Fund may have to replace such security with a lower-yielding security, resulting in a decreased return for investors. In addition, if the Fund experiences net redemptions of its shares, it may be forced to sell its higher-rated securities, resulting in a decline in the overall credit quality of its portfolio and increasing its exposure to the risks of high yield securities.
Credit ratings issued by credit rating agencies are designed to evaluate the safety of principal and interest payments of rated securities. They do not, however, evaluate the market value risk of high yield securities and, therefore, may not fully reflect the true risks of an investment. In addition, credit rating agencies may or may not make timely changes in a rating to reflect changes in the economy or in the conditions of the issuer that affect the market value of the security. Consequently, credit ratings are used only as a preliminary indicator of investment quality. Investments in non-investment grade and comparable unrated obligations will be more dependent on the Investment Adviser’s credit analysis than would be the case with investments in investment-grade debt obligations. The Investment Adviser employs its own credit research and analysis, which includes a study of an issuer’s existing debt, capital structure, ability to service debt and to pay dividends, sensitivity to economic conditions, operating history and current earnings trends. The Investment Adviser continually monitors the investments in the Fund's portfolio and evaluates whether to dispose of or to retain non-investment grade and comparable unrated securities whose credit ratings or credit quality may have changed. If after its purchase, a portfolio security is assigned a lower rating or ceases to be rated, the Fund may continue to hold the security if the Investment Adviser believes it is in the best interest of the Fund and its shareholders.
An economic downturn could severely affect the ability of highly leveraged issuers of junk bond investments to service their debt obligations or to repay their obligations upon maturity. Factors having an adverse impact on the market value of junk bonds will have an adverse effect on the Fund’s NAV to the extent it invests in such investments. In addition, the Fund may incur additional expenses to the extent it is required to seek recovery upon a default in payment of principal or interest on its portfolio holdings.
These and other factors discussed in the section below, entitled “Illiquid Investments,” may impact the liquidity of investments in high yield securities.
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Illiquid Investments
Pursuant to Rule 22e-4 under the 1940 Act, the Fund may not acquire any “illiquid investment” if, immediately after the acquisition, the Fund would have invested more than 15% of its net assets in illiquid investments that are assets. An “illiquid investment” is any investment that the Fund reasonably expects cannot be sold or disposed of in current market conditions in seven calendar days or less without the sale or disposition significantly changing the market value of the investment. The Trust has implemented a liquidity risk management program and related procedures to categorize the Fund's portfolio investments and identify illiquid investments pursuant to Rule 22e-4, and the Trustees have approved the designation of the Investment Adviser to administer the Trust’s liquidity risk management program and related procedures. In determining whether an investment is an illiquid investment, the Investment Adviser will take into account actual or estimated daily transaction volume of an investment, group of related investments or asset class and other relevant market, trading, and investment-specific considerations. In addition, in determining the liquidity of an investment, the Investment Adviser must determine whether trading varying portions of a position in a particular portfolio investment or asset class, in sizes that the Fund would reasonably anticipate trading, is reasonably expected to significantly affect its liquidity, and if so, the Fund must take this determination into account when classifying the liquidity of that investment or asset class.
In addition to actual or estimated daily transaction volume of an investment, group of related investments or asset class and other relevant market, trading, and investment-specific considerations, the following factors, among others, will generally impact the classification of an investment as an “illiquid investment”: (i) any investment that is placed on the Investment Adviser’s restricted trading list; and (ii) any investment that is delisted or for which there is a trading halt at the close of the trading day on the primary listing exchange at the time of classification (and in respect of which no active secondary market exists). Investments purchased by the Fund that are liquid at the time of purchase may subsequently become illiquid due to these and other events and circumstances. If one or more investments in the Fund’s portfolio become illiquid, the Fund may exceed the 15% limitation in illiquid investments. In the event that changes in the portfolio or other external events cause the Fund to exceed this limit, the Fund must take steps to bring its illiquid investments that are assets to or below 15% of its net assets within a reasonable period of time. This requirement would not force the Fund to liquidate any portfolio instrument where the Fund would suffer a loss on the sale of that instrument.
Income Trusts
The Fund may invest in income trusts, including business trusts and oil royalty trusts. Income trusts are operating businesses that have been put into a trust. They pay out the bulk of their free cash flow to unit holders. The businesses that are sold into these trusts are usually mature and stable income-producing companies that lend themselves to fixed (monthly or quarterly) distributions. These trusts are regarded as equity investments with fixed-income attributes or high-yield debt with no fixed maturity date. These trusts typically offer regular income payments and a significant premium yield compared to other types of fixed income investments.
Business Trusts. A business trust is an income trust where the principal business of the underlying corporation or other entity is in the manufacturing, service or general industrial sectors. It is anticipated that the number of businesses constituted or reorganized as income trusts will increase significantly in the future. Conversion to the income trust structure is attractive to many existing mature businesses with relatively high, stable cash flows and low capital expenditure requirements, due to tax efficiency and investor demand for high-yielding equity securities. One of the primary attractions of business trusts, in addition to their relatively high yield, is their ability to enhance diversification in the portfolio as they cover a broad range of industries and geographies, including public refrigerated warehousing, mining, coal distribution, sugar distribution, forest products, retail sales, food sales and processing, chemical recovery and processing, data processing, gas marketing and check printing. Each business represented is typically characterized by long life assets or businesses that have exhibited a high degree of stability. Investments in business trusts are subject to various risks, including risks related to the underlying operating companies controlled by such trusts. These risks may include lack of or limited operating histories and increased susceptibility to interest rate risks.
Oil Royalty Trusts. A royalty trust typically controls an operating company which purchases oil and gas properties using the trust’s capital. The royalty trust then receives royalties and/or interest payments from its operating company, and distributes them as income to its unit holders. Units of the royalty trust represent an economic interest in the underlying assets of the trust.
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The Fund may invest in oil royalty trusts that are traded on stock exchanges. Oil royalty trusts are income trusts that own or control oil and gas operating companies. Oil royalty trusts pay out substantially all of the cash flow they receive from the production and sale of underlying crude oil and natural gas reserves to shareholders (unitholders) in the form of monthly dividends (distributions). As a result of distributing the bulk of their cash flow to unitholders, royalty trusts are effectively precluded from internally originating new oil and gas prospects. Therefore, these royalty trusts typically grow through acquisition of producing companies or those with proven reserves of oil and gas, funded through the issuance of additional equity or, where the trust is able, additional debt. Consequently, oil royalty trusts are considered less exposed to the uncertainties faced by a traditional exploration and production corporation. However, they are still exposed to commodity risk and reserve risk, as well as operating risk.
The operations and financial condition of oil royalty trusts, and the amount of distributions or dividends paid on their securities is dependent on oil prices. Prices for commodities vary and are determined by supply and demand factors, including weather, and general economic and political conditions. A decline in oil prices could have a substantial adverse effect on the operations and financial conditions of the trusts. Such trusts are also subject to the risk of an adverse change in the regulations of the natural resource industry and other operational risks relating to the energy sector. In addition, the underlying operating companies held or controlled by the trusts are usually involved in oil exploration; however, such companies may not be successful in holding, discovering, or exploiting adequate commercial quantities of oil, the failure of which will adversely affect their values. Even if successful, oil and gas prices have fluctuated widely during the most recent years and may continue to do so in the future. The Investment Adviser expects that the combination of global demand growth and depleting reserves, together with current geopolitical instability, will continue to support strong crude oil prices over the long term. However, there is no guarantee that these prices will not decline. Declining crude oil prices may cause the Fund to incur losses on its investments. In addition, the demand in and supply to the developing markets could be affected by other factors such as restrictions on imports, increased taxation, and creation of government monopolies, as well as social, economic and political uncertainty and instability. Furthermore, there is no guarantee that non-conventional sources of natural gas will not be discovered which would adversely affect the oil industry.
Moreover, as the underlying oil and gas reserves are produced the remaining reserves attributable to the royalty trust are depleted. The ability of a royalty trust to replace reserves is therefore fundamental to its ability to maintain distribution levels and unit prices over time. Certain royalty trusts have demonstrated consistent positive reserve growth year-over-year and, as such, certain royalty trusts have been successful to date in this respect and are thus currently trading at unit prices significantly higher than those of five or ten years ago. Oil royalty trusts manage reserve depletion through reserve additions resulting from internal capital development activities and through acquisitions. When the Fund invests in foreign oil royalty trusts, it will also be subject to foreign securities risks, which are described above under “Foreign Securities.”
Index Swaps, Interest Rate Swaps, Credit Swaps, Total Return Swaps, Equity Swaps, Options on Swaps and Interest Rate Caps, Floors and Collars
Each Fund may enter into index, interest rate, credit, total return and equity swaps for both hedging purposes and to seek to increase total return. As examples, a Fund may enter into swap transactions for the purpose of attempting to obtain or preserve a particular return or spread at a lower cost than obtaining a return or spread through purchases and/or sales of instruments in other market, as a duration management technique, to protect against any increase in the price of securities the Fund anticipates purchasing at a later date, or to gain exposure to certain markets in an economical way. A Fund may also enter into interest rate caps, floors and collars. A Fund may also purchase and write (sell) options contracts on swaps, commonly referred to as swaptions.
In a standard “swap” transaction, two parties agree to exchange the returns, differentials in rates of return or some other amount earned or realized on particular predetermined investments or instruments, which may be adjusted for an interest factor. The gross returns to be exchanged or “swapped” between the parties are generally calculated with respect to a “notional amount,” i.e., the return on or increase in value of a particular dollar amount invested at a particular interest rate, in a particular security, or in a “basket” of securities representing a particular index. Bilateral swap agreements are two party contracts entered into primarily by institutional investors. Cleared swaps are transacted through FCMs that are members of central clearinghouses with the clearinghouse serving as a central counterparty similar to transactions in futures contracts. Funds post initial and variation margin by making payments to their clearing member FCMs.
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Interest rate swaps involve the exchange by a Fund with another party of their respective commitments to pay or receive payments for floating rate payments based on interest rates at specified intervals in the future. Two types of interest rate swaps include “fixed-for-floating rate swaps” and “basis swaps.” Fixed-for-floating rate swaps involve the exchange of payments based on a fixed interest rate for payments based on a floating interest rate index. By contrast, basis swaps involve the exchange of payments based on two different floating interest rate indices. Index swaps involve the exchange by a Fund with another party of payments based on a notional principal amount of a specified index or indices. Credit swaps (also referred to as credit default swaps) involve the exchange of a floating or fixed rate payment in return for assuming potential credit losses of an underlying security, or pool of securities. Total return swaps are contracts that obligate a party to pay or receive interest in exchange for the payment by the other party of the total return generated by a security, a basket of securities, an index or an index component. Equity swap contracts may be structured in different ways. For example, as a total return swap where a counterparty may agree to pay a Fund the amount, if any, by which the notional amount of the equity swap contract would have increased in value had it been invested in particular stocks (or a group of stocks), plus the dividends that would have been received on those stocks. In other cases, the counterparty and a Fund may each agree to pay the other the difference between the relative investment performances that would have been achieved if the notional amount of the equity swap contract had been invested in different stocks (or a group of stocks).
A swaption is an option to enter into a swap agreement. Like other types of options, the buyer of a swaption pays a non-refundable premium for the option and obtains the right, but not the obligation, to enter into or modify an underlying swap or to modify the terms of an existing swap on agreed-upon terms. The seller of a swaption, in exchange for the premium, becomes obligated (if the option is exercised) to enter into or modify an underlying swap on agreed-upon terms, which generally entails a greater risk of loss than incurred in buying a swaption. The purchase of an interest rate cap entitles the purchaser, to the extent that a specified index exceeds a predetermined interest rate, to receive payment of interest on a notional principal amount from the party selling such interest rate cap. The purchase of an interest rate floor entitles the purchaser, to the extent that a specified index falls below a predetermined interest rate, to receive payments of interest on a notional principal amount from the party selling the interest rate floor. An interest rate collar is the combination of a cap and a floor that preserves a certain return within a predetermined range of interest rates.
A great deal of flexibility may be possible in the way swap transactions are structured. However, generally a Fund will enter into interest rate, total return, credit, index and equity swaps on a net basis, which means that the two payment streams are netted out, with the Fund receiving or paying, as the case may be, only the net amount of the two payments. Interest rate, total return, credit, index and equity swaps do not normally involve the delivery of securities, other underlying assets or principal. Accordingly, the risk of loss with respect to interest rate, total return, credit, index and equity swaps is normally limited to the net amount of interest payments that a Fund is contractually obligated to make. If the other party to an interest rate, total return, credit, index, equity or mortgage swap defaults, a Fund’s risk of loss consists of the net amount of interest payments that the Fund is contractually entitled to receive, if any. However, certain swap transactions are currently subject to central clearing. Although central clearing is expected to decrease the counterparty risk involved in bi-laterally negotiated contracts because central clearing interposes the central clearinghouse as the counterparty to each participant’s swap, central clearing would not make swap transactions risk-free.
As a result of recent regulatory developments, certain standardized swaps are currently subject to mandatory central clearing and some of these swaps must be traded on an exchange or swap execution facility (“SEF”). A SEF is a trading platform in which multiple market participants can execute swap transactions by accepting bids and offers made by multiple other participants on the platform. Transactions executed on a SEF may increase market transparency and liquidity but may cause a Fund to incur increased expenses to execute swaps. Central clearing should decrease counterparty risk and increase liquidity compared to bilateral swaps because central clearing interposes the central clearinghouse as the counterparty to each participant’s swap. However, central clearing does not eliminate counterparty risk or liquidity risk entirely. In addition, depending on the size of a Fund and other factors, the margin required under the rules of a clearinghouse and by a clearing member may be in excess of the collateral required to be posted by the Fund to support its obligations under a similar bilateral swap. However, the CFTC and other applicable regulators have adopted rules imposing certain margin requirements, including minimums, on uncleared swaps, which may result in a Fund and its counterparties posting higher margin amounts for uncleared swaps. Requiring margin on uncleared swaps may reduce, but not eliminate, counterparty credit risk.
A credit swap may have as reference obligations one or more securities that may, or may not, be currently held by a Fund. The protection “buyer” in a credit swap is generally obligated to pay the protection “seller” an upfront or a periodic stream of payments
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over the term of the swap provided that no credit event, such as a default, on a reference obligation has occurred. If a credit event occurs, the seller generally must pay the buyer the “par value” (full notional value) of the swap in exchange for an equal face amount of deliverable obligations of the reference entity described in the swap, or the seller may be required to deliver the related net cash amount, if the swap is cash settled. A Fund may be either the protection buyer or seller in the transaction. If a Fund is a buyer and no credit event occurs, the Fund may recover nothing if the swap is held through its termination date. However, if a credit event occurs, the buyer generally may elect to receive the full notional value of the swap in exchange for an equal face amount of deliverable obligations of the reference entity whose value may have significantly decreased. As a seller, a Fund generally receives an upfront payment or a rate of income throughout the term of the swap provided that there is no credit event. As the seller, a Fund would effectively add leverage to its portfolio because, in addition to its total net assets, the Fund would be subject to investment exposure on the notional amount of the swap. If a credit event occurs, the value of any deliverable obligation received by a Fund as seller, coupled with the upfront or periodic payments previously received, may be less than the full notional value it pays to the buyer, resulting in a loss of value to the Fund.
To the extent that a Fund’s exposure in a transaction involving a swap, a swaption or an interest rate floor, cap or collar is covered by identifying cash or liquid assets on the Fund’s books or is covered by other means in accordance with SEC- or SEC staff-approved guidance or other appropriate measures, the Fund and the Investment Adviser believe that the transactions do not constitute senior securities under the Act and, accordingly, will not treat them as being subject to the Fund’s borrowing restrictions.
The Funds will not enter into bilateral transactions involving swaps, caps, floors or collars unless the unsecured commercial paper, senior debt or claims paying ability of the other party thereto (with respect to bilateral swap transactions) is considered to be investment grade by the Investment Adviser.
The use of swaps, swaptions and interest rate caps, floors and collars is a highly specialized activity which involves investment techniques and risks different from those associated with ordinary portfolio securities transactions. The use of a swap requires an understanding not only of the referenced asset, reference rate, or index but also of the swap itself, without the benefit of observing the performance of the swap under all possible market conditions. If the Investment Adviser is incorrect in its forecasts of market values, credit quality and interest rates, the investment performance of a Fund would be less favorable than it would have been if this investment technique were not used.
In addition, these transactions can involve greater risks than if a Fund had invested in the reference obligation directly because, in addition to general market risks, swaps may be subject to liquidity risk, counterparty risk, credit risk and pricing risk. Regulators also may impose limits on an entity’s or group of entities’ positions in certain swaps. However, certain risks are reduced (but not eliminated) if a Fund invests in cleared swaps. Bilateral swap agreements are two party contracts that may have terms of greater than seven days. Moreover, a Fund bears the risk of loss of the amount expected to be received under a swap agreement in the event of the default or bankruptcy of a swap counterparty (with respect to bilateral swap transactions). Many swaps are complex and often valued subjectively. Swaps and other derivatives may also be subject to pricing or “basis” risk, which exists when the price of a particular derivative diverges from the price of corresponding cash market instruments. Under certain market conditions it may not be economically feasible to imitate a transaction or liquidate a position in time to avoid a loss or take advantage of an opportunity. If a swap transaction is particularly large or if the relevant market is illiquid, it may not be possible to initiate a transaction or liquidate a position at an advantageous time or price, which may result in significant losses.
Certain rules also require centralized reporting of detailed information about many types of cleared and uncleared swaps. This information is available to regulators and, to a more limited extent and on an anonymous basis, to the public. Reporting of swap data may result in greater market transparency, which may be beneficial to funds that use swaps to implement trading strategies. However, these rules place potential additional administrative obligations on these funds, and the safeguards established to protect anonymity may not function as expected.
The swap market has grown substantially in recent years with a large number of banks and investment banking firms acting both as principals and as agents utilizing standardized swap documentation. As a result, the swap market has become relatively liquid in comparison with the markets for other similar instruments which are traded in the interbank market. These and other factors discussed in the section above, entitled “Illiquid Investments,” may impact the liquidity of investments in swaps.
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Investments in Unseasoned Companies
The Fund  may invest in companies (including predecessors) which have operated less than three years. The securities of such companies may have limited liquidity, which can result in their being priced higher or lower than might otherwise be the case. In addition, investments in unseasoned companies are more speculative and entail greater risk than do investments in companies with an established operating record.
Lending of Portfolio Securities
The Energy Infrastructure and Clean Energy Income Funds may lend their portfolio securities to brokers, dealers and other institutions, including Goldman Sachs. By lending its securities, the Fund attempts to increase its net investment income.
Securities loans are required to be secured continuously by collateral in cash, cash equivalents, letters of credit or U.S. Government Securities equal to at least 100% of the value of the loaned securities. This collateral must be valued, or “marked to market,” daily. Borrowers are required to furnish additional collateral to the Fund as necessary to fully cover their obligations.
With respect to loans that are collateralized by cash, the Fund may reinvest that cash in short-term investments and pay the borrower a pre-negotiated fee or “rebate” from any return earned on the investment. Investing the collateral subjects it to market depreciation or appreciation, and the Fund is responsible for any loss that may result from its investment of the borrowed collateral. Cash collateral may be invested in, among other things, other registered or unregistered funds, including private investing funds or money market funds that are managed by the Investment Adviser or its affiliates, and which pay the Investment Adviser or its affiliates for their services. If the Fund were to receive non-cash collateral, the Fund receives a fee from the borrower equal to a negotiated percentage of the market value of the loaned securities.
For the duration of any securities loan, the Fund will continue to receive the equivalent of the interest, dividends or other distributions paid by the issuer on the loaned securities. The Fund will not have the right to vote its loaned securities during the period of the loan, but the Fund may attempt to recall a loaned security in anticipation of a material vote if it desires to do so. The Fund will have the right to terminate a loan at any time and recall the loaned securities within the normal and customary settlement time for securities transactions.
Securities lending involves certain risks. The Fund may lose money on its investment of cash collateral, resulting in a loss of principal, or may fail to earn sufficient income on its investment to cover the fee or rebate it has agreed to pay the borrower. The Fund may incur losses in connection with its securities lending activities that exceed the value of the interest income and fees received in connection with such transactions. Securities lending subjects the Fund to the risk of loss resulting from problems in the settlement and accounting process, and to additional credit, counterparty and market risk. These risks could be greater with respect to non-U.S. securities. Engaging in securities lending could have a leveraging effect, which may intensify the other risks associated with investments in the Fund. In addition, the Fund bears the risk that the price of the securities on loan will increase while they are on loan, or that the price of the collateral will decline in value during the period of the loan, and that the counterparty will not provide, or will delay in providing, additional collateral. The Fund also bears the risk that a borrower may fail to return securities in a timely manner or at all, either because the borrower fails financially or for other reasons. If a borrower of securities fails financially, the Fund may also lose its rights in the collateral. The Fund could experience delays and costs in recovering loaned securities or in gaining access to and liquidating the collateral, which could result in actual financial loss and which could interfere with portfolio management decisions or the exercise of ownership rights in the loaned securities. If the Fund is not able to recover the securities lent, the Fund may sell the collateral and purchase replacement securities in the market. However, the Fund will incur transaction costs on the purchase of replacement securities. These events could trigger adverse tax consequences for the Fund. In determining whether to lend securities to a particular borrower, and throughout the period of the loan, the creditworthiness of the borrower will be considered and monitored. Loans will only be made to firms deemed to be of good standing, and where the consideration that can be earned currently from securities loans of this type is deemed to justify the attendant risk. It is intended that the value of securities loaned by the Fund will not exceed one-third of the value of the Fund’s total assets (including the loan collateral).
The Fund will consider the loaned securities as assets of the Fund, but will not consider any collateral as the Fund asset except when determining total assets for the purpose of the above one-third limitation. Loan collateral (including any investment of the
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collateral) is not subject to the percentage limitations stated elsewhere in this SAI or in the Prospectus regarding investing in fixed income securities and cash equivalents.
The Board of Trustees has approved each Fund’s participation in a securities lending program and has adopted policies and procedures relating thereto.
For its services, the securities lending agent may receive a fee from the Fund , including a fee based on the returns earned on the Fund’s investment of cash received as collateral for the loaned securities. In addition, the Fund may make brokerage and other payments to Goldman Sachs and its affiliates in connection with the Fund’s portfolio investment transactions. The Fund’s Board of Trustees periodically reviews reports on securities loan transactions for which a Goldman Sachs affiliate has acted as lending agent for compliance with the Fund’s securities lending procedures. Goldman Sachs may also be approved as a borrower under the Fund’s securities lending program, subject to certain conditions.
Master Limited Partnerships
A Master Limited Partnership (“MLP”) is an entity receiving partnership taxation treatment under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), and whose interests or “units” are traded on securities exchanges like shares of corporate stock. A typical MLP consists of a general partner and limited partners; however, some entities receiving partnership taxation treatment under the Code are established as limited liability companies. The general partner manages the partnership; has an ownership stake in the partnership; and is typically eligible to receive an incentive distribution. The limited partners provide capital to the partnership, have a limited (if any) role in the operation and management of the partnership, and receive cash distributions. Due to their partnership structure, MLPs generally do not pay income taxes.
Holders of MLP units could potentially become subject to liability for all of the obligations of an MLP, if a court determines that the rights of the unitholders to take certain action under the limited partnership agreement would constitute “control” of the business of that MLP, or if a court or governmental agency determines that the MLP is conducting business in a state without complying with the limited partnership statute of that state.
To be treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes, an MLP must derive at least 90% of its gross income for each taxable year from qualifying sources, including activities such as the exploration, development, mining, production, processing, refining, transportation, storage and certain marketing of mineral or natural resources. Many of the MLPs in which the Fund invests operate oil, gas or petroleum facilities, or other facilities within the energy sector. The Fund intends to concentrate its investments in the energy sector, with a focus on “midstream” energy infrastructure MLPs. The Fund may, however, invest in MLP entities in any sector of the economy.
Midstream MLPs are generally engaged in the treatment, gathering, compression, processing, transportation, transmission, fractionation, storage and terminalling of natural gas, natural gas liquids, crude oil, refined products or coal. Midstream MLPs may also operate ancillary businesses including marketing of energy products and logistical services. The Fund may also invest in “upstream” and “downstream” MLPs. Upstream MLPs are primarily engaged in the exploration, recovery, development and production of crude oil, natural gas and natural gas liquids. Downstream MLPs are primarily engaged in the processing, treatment, and refining of natural gas liquids and crude oil. The MLPs in which the Fund invests may also engage in owning, managing and transporting alternative energy assets, including alternative fuels such as ethanol, hydrogen and biodiesel.
MLP Equity Securities. Equity securities issued by MLPs generally consist of common units, subordinated units and preferred units, as described more fully below.
MLP Common Units. The common units of many MLPs are listed and traded on U.S. securities exchanges, including the New York Stock Exchange, Inc. (“NYSE”) and the National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotations System (“NASDAQ”). The Fund will purchase such common units through open market transactions and underwritten offerings, but may also acquire common units through direct placements and privately negotiated transactions. Holders of MLP common units typically have very limited control and voting rights. Holders of such common units are typically entitled to receive a minimum quarterly distribution (“MQD”) from the issuer, and typically have a right, to the extent that an MLP fails to make a previous MQD, to recover
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in future distributions the amount by which the MQD was short (“arrearage rights”). Generally, an MLP must pay (or set aside for payment) the MQD to holders of common units before any distributions may be paid to subordinated unit holders. In addition, incentive distributions are typically not paid to the general partner or managing member unless the quarterly distributions on the common units exceed specified threshold levels above the MQD. In the event of a liquidation, common unit holders are intended to have a preference with respect to the remaining assets of the issuer over holders of subordinated units. MLPs issue different classes of common units that may have different voting, trading, and distribution rights. The Fund may invest in different classes of common units.
MLP Subordinated Units. Subordinated units, which, like common units, represent limited partner or member interests, are not typically listed or traded on an exchange. The Fund may purchase outstanding subordinated units through negotiated transactions directly with holders of such units or newly issued subordinated units directly from the issuer. Holders of such subordinated units are generally entitled to receive a distribution only after the MQD and any arrearages from prior quarters have been paid to holders of common units. Holders of subordinated units typically have the right to receive distributions before any incentive distributions are payable to the general partner or managing member. Subordinated units generally do not provide arrearage rights. Most MLP subordinated units are convertible into common units after the passage of a specified period of time or upon the achievement by the issuer of specified financial goals. MLPs issue different classes of subordinated units that may have different voting, trading, and distribution rights. The Fund may invest in different classes of subordinated units.
MLP Convertible Subordinated Units. MLP convertible subordinated units are typically issued by MLPs to founders, corporate general partners of MLPs, entities that sell assets to MLPs, and institutional investors. Convertible subordinated units increase the likelihood that, during the subordination period, there will be available cash to be distributed to common unitholders. MLP convertible subordinated units generally are not entitled to distributions until holders of common units have received their specified MQD, plus any arrearages, and may receive less than common unitholders in distributions upon liquidation. Convertible subordinated unitholders generally are entitled to MQD prior to the payment of incentive distributions to the general partner, but are not entitled to arrearage rights. Therefore, MLP convertible subordinated units generally entail greater risk than MLP common units. Convertible subordinated units are generally convertible automatically into senior common units of the same issuer at a one-to-one ratio upon the passage of time or the satisfaction of certain financial tests. Convertible subordinated units do not trade on a national exchange or over-the-counter (“OTC”), and there is no active market for them. The value of a convertible subordinated unit is a function of its worth if converted into the underlying common units. Convertible subordinated units generally have similar voting rights as do MLP common units. Distributions may be paid in cash or in-kind.
MLP Preferred Units. MLP preferred units are not typically listed or traded on an exchange. The Fund may purchase MLP preferred units through negotiated transactions directly with MLPs, affiliates of MLPs and institutional holders of such units. Holders of MLP preferred units can be entitled to a wide range of voting and other rights, depending on the structure of each separate security.
MLP General Partner or Managing Member Interests. The general partner or managing member interest in an MLP is typically retained by the original sponsors of an MLP, such as its founders, corporate partners and entities that sell assets to the MLP. The holder of the general partner or managing member interest can be liable in certain circumstances for amounts greater than the amount of the holder’s investment in the general partner or managing member. General partner or managing member interests often confer direct board participation rights in, and in many cases control over the operations of, the MLP. General partner or managing member interests can be privately held or owned by publicly traded entities. General partner or managing member interests receive cash distributions, typically in an amount of up to 2% of available cash, which is contractually defined in the partnership or limited liability company agreement. In addition, holders of general partner or managing member interests typically receive incentive distribution rights (“IDRs”), which provide them with an increasing share of the entity’s aggregate cash distributions upon the payment of per common unit distributions that exceed specified threshold levels above the MQD. Incentive distributions to a general partner are designed to encourage the general partner, which controls and operates the partnership, to maximize the partnership’s cash flow and increase distributions to the limited partners. Due to the IDRs, general partners of MLPs have higher distribution growth prospects than their underlying MLPs, but quarterly incentive distribution payments would also decline at a greater rate than the decline rate in quarterly distributions to common and subordinated unit holders in the event of a reduction in the MLP’s quarterly distribution. The ability of the limited partners or members to remove the general partner or managing member without cause is typically very limited. In addition, some MLPs permit the holder of IDRs to reset, under specified circumstances, the incentive distribution levels and receive compensation in exchange for the distribution rights given up in the reset.
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MLP Debt Securities. Debt securities issued by MLPs may include those rated below investment grade. The Fund may invest in MLP debt securities without regard to credit quality or maturity. Investments in such securities may not offer the tax characteristics of equity securities of MLPs.
Limited Liability Company Common Units. Some energy companies in which a Fund may invest have been organized as limited liability companies (“MLP LLCs”). Such MLP LLCs are treated in the same manner as MLPs for federal income tax purposes. Consistent with its investment objective and policies, a Fund may invest in common units or other securities of such MLP LLCs. MLP LLC common units represent an equity ownership interest in an MLP LLC, entitling the holders to a share of the MLP LLC’s success through distributions and/or capital appreciation. Similar to MLPs, MLP LLCs typically do not pay federal income tax at the entity level and are required by their operating agreements to distribute a large percentage of their current operating earnings. MLP LLC common unitholders generally have first right to an MQD prior to distributions to subordinated unitholders and typically have arrearage rights if the MQD is not met. In the event of liquidation, MLP LLC common unitholders have first right to the MLP LLC’s remaining assets after bondholders, other debt holders and preferred unitholders, if any, have been paid in full. MLP LLC common units trade on a national securities exchange or OTC. In contrast to MLPs, MLP LLCs have no general partner and there are generally no incentives that entitle management or other unitholders to increased percentages of cash distributions as distributions reach higher target levels. In addition, MLP LLC common unitholders typically have voting rights with respect to the MLP LLC, whereas MLP common units have limited voting rights.
Investment in MLP C Corporations. The MLP Energy Infrastructure Fund may invest in MLPs taxed as C corporations. Such MLPs are obligated to pay federal income tax on their taxable income at the corporate tax rate and the amount of cash available for distribution by such MLPs would generally be reduced by any such tax. Additionally, distributions received by the Fund would be taxed under federal income tax laws applicable to corporate dividends (as dividend income, potentially subject to the corporate dividends received deduction, return of capital, or capital gain). Thus, investment in MLPs taxed as C corporations could result in a reduction of the value of your investment in the Fund and lower income, as compared to investments in MLPs that are classified as partnerships for tax purposes.
MLP Affiliates and I-Units
Other MLP Equity and Debt Securities. A Fund may invest in equity and debt securities issued by affiliates of MLPs, including the general partners or managing members of MLPs and companies that own MLP general partner interests and are energy companies. Such issuers may be organized and/or taxed as corporations and therefore may not offer the advantageous tax characteristics of MLP units. A Fund may purchase such other MLP equity securities through market transactions, but may also do so through direct placements.
I-Units. I-Units represent an indirect ownership interest in an MLP and are issued by an MLP affiliate. The MLP affiliate uses the proceeds from the sale of I-Units to purchase limited partnership interests in its affiliated MLP. Thus, I-Units represent an indirect interest in an MLP. I-Units have limited voting rights and are similar in that respect to MLP common units. I-Units differ from MLP common units primarily in that instead of receiving cash distributions, holders of I-Units will receive distributions of additional I-Units in an amount equal to the cash distributions received by common unit holders. I-Units are traded on the NYSE. Issuers of MLP I-Units are treated as corporations and not partnerships for tax purposes.
Mortgage Dollar Rolls
The Fund may enter into mortgage dollar rolls, in which the Fund sells securities for delivery in the current month and simultaneously contracts with the same counterparty to repurchase similar, but not identical securities on a specified future date. During the roll period, the Fund loses the right to receive principal and interest paid on the securities sold. However, the Fund would benefit to the extent of any difference between the price received for the securities sold and the lower forward price for the future purchase or fee income plus the interest earned on the cash proceeds of the securities sold until the settlement date of the forward purchase. All cash proceeds will be invested in instruments that are permissible investments for the Fund.
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For financial reporting and tax purposes, the Fund treats mortgage dollar rolls as two separate transactions; one involving the purchase of a security and a separate transaction involving a sale. The Fund does not currently intend to enter into mortgage dollar rolls for financing and does not treat them as borrowings.
Mortgage dollar rolls involve certain risks including the following: if the broker-dealer to whom the Fund sells the security becomes insolvent, the Fund’s right to purchase or repurchase the mortgage-related securities subject to the mortgage dollar roll may be restricted. Also, the instrument which the Fund is required to repurchase may be worth less than an instrument which the Fund originally held. Successful use of mortgage dollar rolls will depend upon the Investment Adviser's ability to manage the Fund’s interest rate and mortgage prepayments exposure. For these reasons, there is no assurance that mortgage dollar rolls can be successfully employed. The use of this technique may diminish the investment performance of the Fund compared with what such performance would have been without the use of mortgage dollar rolls.
Non-Diversified Status
The Fund is non-diversified, meaning that it is permitted to invest a larger percentage of its assets in fewer issuers than diversified mutual funds. Thus, the Fund may be more susceptible to adverse developments affecting any single issuer held in its portfolio, and may be more susceptible to greater losses because of these developments. Because the Energy Infrastructure Fund and the Clean Energy Income Fund are “non-diversified” under the Act, the Funds are subject only to certain federal tax diversification requirements. Pursuant to such requirements, each Fund must diversify its holdings so that, in general, at the close of each quarter of its taxable year, (a) at least 50% of the fair market value of each Fund’s total (gross) assets is comprised of cash, cash items, U.S. Government Securities and, securities of other regulated investment companies. and other securities limited in respect of any one issuer to an amount not greater in value than 5% of the value of each Fund’s total assets and to not more than 10% of the outstanding voting securities of such issuer, and (b) not more than 25% of the value of their total (gross) assets is invested in the securities of any one issuer (other than U.S. Government Securities and securities of other regulated investment companies), two or more issuers controlled by each Fund and engaged in the same, similar or related trades or businesses, or certain publicly traded partnerships.
Because the MLP Energy Infrastructure Fund does not intend to be taxed as a regulated investment company under Subchapter M of the Code, the Fund will not be subject to the diversification requirements applicable to regulated investment companies.
Options on Securities and Securities Indices
Writing and Purchasing Call and Put Options on Securities and Securities Indices. The Fund may write (sell) call and put options on any securities in which it may invest or any securities index consisting of securities in which it may invest. The Fund may write such options on securities that are listed on national domestic securities exchanges or foreign securities exchanges or traded in the over-the-counter market. A call option written by the Fund obligates that Fund to sell specified securities to the holder of the option at a specified price if the option is exercised on or before the expiration date. Depending upon the type of call option, the purchaser of a call option either (i) has the right to any appreciation in the value of the security over a fixed price (the “exercise price”) on a certain date in the future (the “expiration date”) or (ii) has the right to any appreciation in the value of the security over the exercise price at any time prior to the expiration of the option.
If the purchaser exercises the option, the Fund pays the purchaser the difference between the price of the security and the exercise price of the option. The premium, the exercise price and the market value of the security determine the gain or loss realized by the Fund as the seller of the call option. The Fund can also repurchase the call option prior to the expiration date, ending its obligation. In this case, the cost of entering into closing purchase transactions will determine the gain or loss realized by the Fund. The Fund’s purpose in writing call options is to realize greater income than would be realized on portfolio securities transactions alone. However, the Fund may forego the opportunity to profit from an increase in the market price of the underlying security.
A put option written by the Fund obligates the Fund to purchase specified securities from the option holder at a specified price if, the option is exercised on or before the expiration date. The purpose of writing such options is to generate additional income for the Fund. However, in return for the option premium, the Fund accepts the risk that it may be required to purchase the underlying securities at a price in excess of the securities’ market value at the time of purchase.
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Options on securities indices are similar to options on securities, except that the exercise of securities index options requires cash payments and does not involve the actual purchase or sale of securities. In addition, securities index options are designed to reflect price fluctuations in a group of securities or segment of the securities market rather than price fluctuations in a single security.
The Fund may terminate its obligations under an exchange traded call or put option by purchasing an option identical to the one it has written. Obligations under over-the-counter options may be terminated only by entering into an offsetting transaction with the counterparty to such option. Such purchases are referred to as “closing purchase transactions.”
The Fund may also purchase put and call options on any securities in which it may invest or any securities index comprised of securities in which it may invest. The Fund may also enter into closing sale transactions in order to realize gains or minimize losses on options it had purchased.
The Fund may purchase call options in anticipation of an increase, or put options in anticipation of a decrease, in the market value of securities or other instruments of the type in which it may invest (“protective puts”). The purchase of a call option would entitle the Fund, in return for the premium paid, to purchase specified securities or other instruments at a specified price during the option period. The Fund would ordinarily realize a gain on the purchase of a call option if, during the option period, the value of such securities exceeded the sum of the exercise price, the premium paid and transaction costs; otherwise the Fund would realize either no gain or a loss on the purchase of the call option.
The purchase of a put option would entitle the Fund, in exchange for the premium paid, to sell specified securities or other instruments at a specified price during the option period. The purchase of protective puts is designed to offset or hedge against a decline in the market value of the Fund’s securities or other instruments. Put options may also be purchased by the Fund for the purpose of affirmatively benefiting from a decline in the price of securities or other instruments which it does not own. The Fund would ordinarily realize a gain if, during the option period, the value of the underlying securities or other instruments decreased below the exercise price sufficiently to cover the premium and transaction costs; otherwise the Fund would realize either no gain or a loss on the purchase of the put option. Gains and losses on the purchase of put options may be offset by countervailing changes in the value of the underlying portfolio securities or other instruments.
The Fund would purchase put and call options on securities indices for the same purposes as it would purchase options on individual securities. For a description of options on securities indices, see “Writing and Purchasing Call and Put Options on Securities and Securities Indices” above.
Risks Associated with Options Transactions. There is no assurance that a liquid secondary market on an options exchange will exist for any particular exchange-traded option or at any particular time. If the Fund is unable to effect a closing purchase transaction with respect to options it has written, the Fund will not be able to sell the underlying securities or dispose of the assets identified on its books to cover the position until the options expire or are exercised. Similarly, if the Fund is unable to effect a closing sale transaction with respect to options it has purchased, it will have to exercise the options in order to realize any profit and will incur transaction costs upon the purchase or sale of underlying securities.
Reasons for the absence of a liquid secondary market on an exchange include the following: (i) there may be insufficient trading interest in certain options; (ii) restrictions may be imposed by an exchange on opening or closing transactions or both; (iii) trading halts, suspensions or other restrictions may be imposed with respect to particular classes or series of options; (iv) unusual or unforeseen circumstances may interrupt normal operations on an exchange; (v) the facilities of an exchange or the Options Clearing Corporation may not at all times be adequate to handle current trading volume; or (vi) one or more exchanges could, for economic or other reasons, decide or be compelled at some future date to discontinue the trading of options (or a particular class or series of options), in which event the secondary market on that exchange (or in that class or series of options) would cease to exist, although outstanding options on that exchange that had been issued by the Options Clearing Corporation as a result of trades on that exchange would continue to be exercisable in accordance with their terms.
There can be no assurance that higher trading activity, order flow or other unforeseen events will not, at times, render certain of the facilities of the Options Clearing Corporation or various exchanges inadequate. Such events have, in the past, resulted in the
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institution by an exchange of special procedures, such as trading rotations, restrictions on certain types of order or trading halts or suspensions with respect to one or more options. These special procedures may limit liquidity.
The Fund may purchase and sell both options that are traded on U.S. and foreign exchanges and options traded over-the-counter with broker-dealers who make markets in these options. The ability to terminate over-the-counter options is more limited than with exchange-traded options and may involve the risk that broker-dealers participating in such transactions will not fulfill their obligations.
Transactions by the Fund in options will be subject to limitations established by each of the exchanges, boards of trade or other trading facilities on which such options are traded governing the maximum number of options in each class which may be written or purchased by a single investor or group of investors acting in concert regardless of whether the options are written or purchased on the same or different exchanges, boards of trade or other trading facility or are held in one or more accounts or through one or more brokers. Thus, the number of options which the Fund may write or purchase may be affected by options written or purchased by other investment advisory clients of the Investment Adviser. An exchange, board of trade or other trading facility may order the liquidation of positions found to be in excess of these limits, and it may impose certain other sanctions.
The writing and purchase of options is a highly specialized activity which involves investment techniques and risks different from those associated with ordinary portfolio securities transactions. The use of options to seek to increase total return involves the risk of loss if the Investment Adviser is incorrect in its expectation of fluctuations in securities prices or interest rates. The successful use of options for hedging purposes also depends in part on the ability of the Investment Adviser to manage future price fluctuations and the degree of correlation between the options and securities markets. If the Investment Adviser is incorrect in its expectation of changes in securities prices or determination of the correlation between the securities or securities indices on which options are written and purchased and the securities in the Fund’s investment portfolio, the Fund may incur losses that it would not otherwise incur. The writing of options could increase the Fund’s portfolio turnover rate and, therefore, associated brokerage commissions or spreads.
Pooled Investment Vehicles
The Fund may invest in securities of pooled investment vehicles, including other investment companies and exchange-traded funds ("ETFs"). The Fund will indirectly bear its proportionate share of any management fees and other expenses paid by pooled investment vehicles in which it invests, in addition to the management fees (and other expenses) of the Fund. The Fund’s investments in pooled investment vehicles are subject to statutory limitations prescribed by the Act, including in certain circumstances a prohibition on the Fund acquiring more than 3% of the voting shares of any other investment company, and a prohibition on investing more than 5% of the Fund’s total assets in securities of any one investment company or more than 10% of its total assets in the securities of all investment companies.
Subject to applicable law and/or pursuant to an exemptive rule adopted by the SEC or an exemptive order obtained from the SEC, the Fund may invest in other investment companies, including ETFs and money market funds, beyond the statutory limits described above or otherwise provided that certain conditions are met. Some of those other investment companies may be funds for which the Investment Adviser, or any of its affiliates, serves as investment adviser, administrator and/or distributor. Although the Fund does not expect to do so in the foreseeable future, the Fund is authorized to invest substantially all of its assets in a single open-end investment company or series thereof that has substantially the same investment policies and fundamental restrictions as the Fund. Additionally, if the Fund serves as an “acquired fund” of another Goldman Sachs Fund or unaffiliated investment company, the Fund’s ability to invest in other investment companies and private funds may be limited and, under these circumstances, the Fund’s investments in other investment companies and private funds will be consistent with applicable law and/or exemptive rules adopted by or exemptive orders obtained from the SEC. For example, to the extent the Fund serves as an acquired fund in a fund of funds arrangement in reliance on Rule 12d1-4 under the Act, the Fund would be prohibited from purchasing or otherwise acquiring the securities of an investment company or private fund if, after such purchase or acquisition, the aggregate value of the Fund’s investments in such investment companies and private funds would exceed 10% of the value of the Fund’s total assets, subject to limited exceptions (including for investments in money market funds).
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ETFs are shares of pooled investment vehicles issuing shares which are traded like traditional equity securities on a stock exchange. An ETF generally represents a portfolio of securities or other assets, which is often designed to track a particular market segment or index. An investment in an ETF, like one in any pooled investment vehicle, carries risks of its underlying securities or other assets. An ETF may fail to accurately track the returns of the market segment or index that it is designed to track, and the price of an ETF’s shares may fluctuate or lose money. In addition, because they, unlike other pooled investment vehicles, are traded on an exchange, ETFs are subject to the following risks: (i) the market price of the ETF’s shares may trade at a premium or discount to the ETF’s NAV; (ii) an active trading market for an ETF may not develop or be maintained; and (iii) there is no assurance that the requirements of the exchange necessary to maintain the listing of the ETF will continue to be met or remain unchanged. In the event substantial market or other disruptions affecting ETFs should occur in the future, the liquidity and value of the Fund’s shares could also be substantially and adversely affected.
Portfolio Turnover
The Fund may engage in active short-term trading to benefit from price disparities among different issues of securities or among the markets for equity securities, or for other reasons. As a result of active management, it is anticipated that the portfolio turnover rate may vary greatly from year to year as well as within a particular year, and may be affected by changes in the holdings of specific issuers, changes in country and currency weightings and cash requirements for redemption of shares. High portfolio turnover may result in the MLP Energy Infrastructure Fund’s and Clean Energy Income Fund’s recognition of gains (losses) that will increase (decrease) the Fund’s tax liability and thereby impact the amount of the Fund’s after-tax distributions. In addition, high portfolio turnover may increase a Fund’s current and accumulated earnings and profits, resulting in a greater portion of the Fund’s distributions being treated as taxable dividends for federal income tax purposes. A Fund is not restricted by policy with regard to portfolio turnover and will make changes in its investment portfolio from time to time as business and economic conditions as well as market prices may dictate.
Preferred Stock, Warrants and Stock Purchase Rights
Each Fund  may invest in preferred stock, warrants and stock purchase rights (“rights”) (in addition to those acquired in units or attached to other securities). Preferred stocks are securities that represent an ownership interest providing the holder with claims on the issuer’s earnings and assets before common stock owners but after bond owners. Unlike debt securities, the obligations of an issuer of preferred stock, including dividend and other payment obligations, may not typically be accelerated by the holders of such preferred stock on the occurrence of an event of default (such as a covenant default or filing of a bankruptcy petition) or other non-compliance by the issuer with the terms of the preferred stock. Often, however, on the occurrence of any such event of default or non-compliance by the issuer, preferred stockholders will be entitled to gain representation on the issuer’s board of directors or increase their existing board representation. In addition, preferred stockholders may be granted voting rights with respect to certain issues on the occurrence of any event of default.
Warrants and other rights are options that entitle the holder to buy equity securities at a specific price for a specific period of time. holders of warrants and rights have no voting rights, receive no dividends and have no rights with respect to the assets of the issuer.
Private Investment in Public Equities (“PIPEs”)
The Investment Adviser may elect to invest in PIPEs and other unregistered or otherwise restricted securities issued by public MLPs and similar entities, including unregistered MLP preferred units. The Investment Adviser expects most such private securities to be liquid within six to nine months of funding, but may also invest in other private securities with significantly longer or shorter restricted periods. PIPEs involve the direct placement of equity securities to a purchaser such as a Fund. Equity issued in this manner is often unregistered and therefore less liquid than equity issued through a public offering. Such private equity offerings provide issuers greater flexibility in structure and timing as compared to public offerings. The following highlights some of the reasons MLPs choose to issue equity through private placements:
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Effective Acquisition Funding Vehicle. MLPs typically distribute all of their available cash at the end of each quarter, and therefore generally finance acquisitions through the issuance of additional equity and debt securities. PIPEs allow MLPs to structure the equity funding to close concurrently with an acquisition, thereby eliminating or reducing the equity funding risk. This avoids equity overhang issues (discussed below) and can ease rating agency concerns over interim excessive leverage associated with an acquisition.
Eliminates or Reduces Equity Overhang Issues. Generally an MLP unit price declines when investors know the MLP will be issuing public equity in the near term. An example of this is when an MLP closes a sizeable acquisition funded under its credit facility or with another form of debt financing. In this situation, equity investors will typically wait for the public offering to provide additional liquidity, and therefore the demand for units is reduced, and the unit price falls. Issuing units through a PIPE in conjunction with the acquisition eliminates this equity overhang.
Broadens Investor Base. Public equity offerings for MLPs are typically allocated primarily to retail investors. Private placements allow issuers to access new pools of equity capital. In addition, institutional investors, such as a Fund, that participate in PIPEs are potential investors for future equity financings.
Greater Structural Flexibility. Certain acquisitions and organic development projects require a more structured form of equity. For example, organic projects that require significant capital expenditures that do not generate near-term cash flow may require a class of equity that does not pay a distribution for a certain period. The public equity market is generally not an efficient venue to raise this type of specialized equity. Given the significant number of organic projects that have been announced by MLPs, the private placement of PIPEs are believed by the Investment Adviser to be likely to remain an important funding component in the MLP sector.
Avoided Cost and Uncertainty of Public Equity Issuance. Some issuers prefer the certainty of a private placement at a specified fixed discount, compared to the uncertainty of a public offering. The underwriting costs of a public equity issuance in the MLP space can significantly reduce gross equity proceeds, and the unit price of the issuance can decline during the marketing of a public deal, resulting in increased cost to an issuer. The cost of a PIPE can be competitive with that of a public issuance while providing greater certainty of funding.
More Expedient Process with Limited Marketing Requirements. Unlike public equity offerings, private placements are typically more time efficient for management teams, with negotiations, due diligence and marketing required only for a small targeted group of sophisticated institutional investors.
Monetizations. Financial sponsors, founding partners and/or parent companies typically own significant stakes in MLPs in the form of subordinated units. As these units are not registered, monetization alternatives are limited. PIPEs provide liquidity in these situations.
Many MLPs rely on the private placement market as a source of equity capital. Given the limitations in raising equity from a predominantly retail investor base and the tax and administrative constraints to significant institutional participation, PIPEs have been a popular financing alternative with many MLPs.
Real Estate Investment Trusts
The Fund may invest in shares of real estate investment trusts (“REITs”). REITs are pooled investment vehicles which invest primarily in real estate or real estate related loans. REITs are generally classified as equity REITs, mortgage REITs or a combination of equity and mortgage REITs. Equity REITs invest the majority of their assets directly in real property and derive income primarily from the collection of rents. Equity REITs can also realize capital gains by selling properties that have appreciated in value. Mortgage REITs invest the majority of their assets in real estate mortgages and derive income from the collection of interest payments. Like regulated investment companies such as the Fund, REITs are not taxed on income distributed to shareholders provided they comply with certain requirements under the Code. The Fund will indirectly bear its proportionate share of any expenses paid by REITs in which it invests in addition to the expenses paid by the Fund.
Investing in REITs involves certain unique risks. Equity REITs may be affected by changes in the value of the underlying property owned by such REITs, while mortgage REITs may be affected by the quality of any credit extended. REITs are dependent upon management skills, are not diversified (except to the extent the Code requires), and are subject to the risks of financing projects.
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REITs are subject to heavy cash flow dependency, default by borrowers, self-liquidation, and the possibilities of failing to qualify for the exemption from tax for distributed income under the Code and failing to maintain their exemptions from the Act. REITs (especially mortgage REITs) are also subject to interest rate risks.
Repurchase Agreements
The Fund may enter into repurchase agreements with eligible counterparties which furnish collateral at least equal in value or market price to the amount of its repurchase obligations. The collateral may consist of security (government or corporate) of any or no credit rating. Repurchase agreements involving obligations other than U.S. Government Securities may be subject to special risks and may not have the benefit for certain protections in the event of the counterparty’s insolvency. A repurchase agreement is an arrangement under which the Fund purchases securities and the seller agrees to repurchase the securities within a particular time and at a specified price. Custody of the securities is maintained by the Fund’s custodian (or subcustodian). The repurchase price may be higher than the purchase price, the difference being income to a Fund, or the purchase and repurchase prices may be the same, with interest at a stated rate due to the Fund together with the repurchase price on repurchase. In either case, the income to the Fund is unrelated to the interest rate on the security subject to the repurchase agreement.
For purposes of the Act and generally for tax purposes, a repurchase agreement is deemed to be a loan from the Fund to the seller of the security. For other purposes, it is not always clear whether a court would consider the security purchased by the Fund subject to a repurchase agreement as being owned by the Fund or as being collateral for a loan by the Fund to the seller. In the event of commencement of bankruptcy or insolvency proceedings with respect to the seller of the security before repurchase of the security under a repurchase agreement, the Fund may encounter delay and incur costs before being able to sell the security. Such a delay may involve loss of interest or a decline in value of the security. If the court characterizes the transaction as a loan and the Fund has not perfected a security interest in the security, the Fund may be required to return the security to the seller’s estate and be treated as an unsecured creditor of the seller. As an unsecured creditor, the Fund would be at risk of losing some or all of the principal and interest involved in the transaction.
Apart from the risk of bankruptcy or insolvency proceedings, there is also the risk that the seller may fail to repurchase the security. However, if the market value of the security subject to the repurchase agreement becomes less than the repurchase price (including accrued interest), the Fund will direct the seller of the security to deliver additional securities so that the market value of all securities subject to the repurchase agreement equals or exceeds the repurchase price. Certain repurchase agreements which provide for settlement in more than seven days can be liquidated before the nominal fixed term on seven days or less notice.
The Fund, together with other registered investment companies having management agreements with the Investment Adviser or its affiliates, may transfer uninvested cash balances into a single joint account, the daily aggregate balance of which will be invested in one or more repurchase agreements.
Restricted Securities
The Fund may purchase securities and other financial instruments that are not registered or that are offered in an exempt non-public offering (“Restricted Securities”) under the 1933 Act, including securities eligible for resale to “qualified institutional buyers” pursuant to Rule 144A under the 1933 Act. The purchase price and subsequent valuation of Restricted Securities may reflect a discount from the price at which such securities trade when they are not restricted, because the restriction makes them less liquid. The amount of the discount from the prevailing market price is expected to vary depending upon the type of security, the character of the issuer, the party who will bear the expenses of registering the Restricted Securities and prevailing supply and demand conditions. These and other factors discussed in the section above, entitled “Illiquid Investments,” may impact the liquidity of investments in Restricted Securities.
Risks of Qualified Financial Contracts
Regulations adopted by federal banking regulators under the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (“Dodd- Frank”), which took effect throughout 2019, require that certain qualified financial contracts (“QFCs”) with counterparties that are part of U.S. or foreign global systemically important banking organizations be amended to include contractual restrictions on
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close-out and cross-default rights. QFCs include, but are not limited to, securities contracts, commodities contracts, forward contracts, repurchase agreements, securities lending agreements and swaps agreements, as well as related master agreements, security agreements, credit enhancements, and reimbursement obligations. If a covered counterparty of the Fund or certain of the covered counterparty’s affiliates were to become subject to certain insolvency proceedings, the Fund may be temporarily unable to exercise certain default rights, and the QFC may be transferred to another entity. These requirements may impact the Fund’s credit and counterparty risks.
Short Sales Against the Box
The Fund may engage in short sales against the box. In a short sale, the seller sells a borrowed security and has a corresponding obligation to the lender to return the identical security. The seller does not immediately deliver the securities sold and is said to have a short position in those securities until delivery occurs. While a short sale is made by selling a security the seller does not own, a short sale is “against the box” to the extent that the seller contemporaneously owns or has the right to obtain, at no added cost, securities identical to those sold short. It may be entered into by the Fund, for example, to lock in a sales price for a security the Fund does not wish to sell immediately. If the Fund sells securities short against the box, it may protect itself from loss if the price of the securities declines in the future, but will lose the opportunity to profit on such securities if the price rises.
If the Fund effects a short sale of securities at a time when it has an unrealized gain on the securities, it may be required to recognize that gain as if it had actually sold the securities (as a “constructive sale”) on the date it effects the short sale. However, such constructive sale treatment may not apply if the Fund closes out the short sale with securities other than the appreciated securities held at the time of the short sale and if certain other conditions are satisfied. Uncertainty regarding the tax consequences of effecting short sales may limit the extent to which the Fund may effect short sales.
Special Purpose Acquisition Companies
The Fund may invest in stock, warrants, and other securities of special purpose acquisition companies (“SPACs”) or similar special purpose entities that pool funds to seek potential acquisition opportunities. A SPAC is typically a publicly traded company that raises funds through an initial public offering (“IPO”) for the purpose of acquiring or merging with another company to be identified subsequent to the SPAC’s IPO. The securities of a SPAC are often issued in “units” that include one share of common stock and one right or warrant (or partial right or warrant) conveying the right to purchase additional shares or partial shares. Unless and until a transaction is completed, a SPAC generally invests its assets (less a portion retained to cover expenses) in U.S. government securities, money market funds and similar investments. If an acquisition or merger that meets the requirements for the SPAC is not completed within a pre-established period of time, the invested funds are returned to the SPAC’s shareholders (unless such shareholders approve alternative arrangements), less certain permitted expenses, and any rights or warrants issued by the SPAC will expire worthless.
Because SPACs and similar entities are in essence blank check companies without operating history or ongoing business other than seeking acquisitions, the value of their securities is particularly dependent on the ability of the entity’s management to identify and complete a profitable acquisition. An investment in a SPAC is subject to a variety of risks, including that (i) a portion of the monies raised by the SPAC for the purpose of effecting an acquisition or merger may be expended prior to the transaction for payment of taxes and other expenses; (ii) prior to any acquisition or merger, a SPAC’s assets are typically invested in U.S. government securities, money market funds and similar investments whose returns or yields may be significantly lower than those of the Fund’s other investments; (iii) the Fund generally will not receive significant income from its investments in SPACs (both prior to and after any acquisition or merger) and, therefore, the Fund’s investments in SPACs will not significantly contribute to the Fund’s distributions to shareholders; (iv) attractive acquisition or merger targets may become scarce if the number of SPACs seeking to acquire operating businesses increases; (v) an attractive acquisition or merger target may not be identified at all, in which case the SPAC will be required to return any remaining monies to shareholders; (vi) if an acquisition or merger target is identified, the Fund may elect not to participate in, or vote to approve, the proposed transaction or the Fund may be required to divest its interests in the SPAC, due to regulatory or other considerations, in which case the Fund may not reap any resulting benefits; (vii) the warrants or other rights with respect to the SPAC held by the Fund may expire worthless or may be redeemed by the SPAC at an unfavorable price; (viii) any proposed merger or acquisition may be unable to obtain the requisite approval, if any, of SPAC shareholders and/or antitrust and securities regulators; (ix) under any circumstances in which the Fund receives a refund of all or a portion of its original investment (which typically represents a pro rata share of the proceeds of the SPAC’s assets, less any applicable taxes), the returns on that
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investment may be negligible, and the Fund may be subject to opportunity costs to the extent that alternative investments would have produced higher returns; (x) to the extent an acquisition or merger is announced or completed, shareholders who redeem their shares prior to that time may not reap any resulting benefits; (xi) the Fund may be delayed in receiving any redemption or liquidation proceeds from a SPAC to which it is entitled; (xii) an acquisition or merger once effected may prove unsuccessful and an investment in the SPAC may lose value; (xiii) an investment in a SPAC may be diluted by additional later offerings of interests in the SPAC or by other investors exercising existing rights to purchase shares of the SPAC; (xiv) only a thinly traded market for shares of or interests in a SPAC may develop, or there may be no market at all, leaving the Fund unable to sell its interest in a SPAC or to sell its interest only at a price below what the Fund believes is the SPAC interest’s intrinsic value; and (xv) the values of investments in SPACs may be highly volatile and may depreciate significantly over time.
In addition, from time to time, the Fund may serve as an “anchor” investor by purchasing a significant portion of the units offered in a SPAC’s IPO. The Fund may also purchase private warrants from a SPAC and/or enter into a forward purchase agreement or similar arrangement through which the Fund makes a non-binding commitment to purchase additional units of the SPAC in the future. In exchange, the Fund receives certain private rights and other interests issued by a SPAC (commonly referred to as “founder shares”). Founder shares are generally subject to all of the risks described above (including the risk that the founder shares will expire worthless to the extent an acquisition or merger is not completed). Founder shares are also subject to restrictions on transferability, which significantly reduces their liquidity. In addition, the Fund may be required to forfeit all or a portion of any founder shares it holds, including, for example, (i) if the Fund does not purchase additional units of the SPAC pursuant to the terms of any forward purchase agreement it enters into, (ii) if the Fund sells shares that it purchased in the IPO prior to the SPAC effecting a merger or acquisition or (iii) if the SPAC’s sponsor forfeits its founders shares to effect a merger or acquisition.
Temporary Investments
Each Fund  may, for temporary defensive purposes, invest up to 100% of its total assets in: U.S. Government Securities; commercial paper rated at least A-2 by S&P Global Ratings, P-2 by Moody’s or having a comparable credit rating by another nationally recognized statistical rating organization (“NRSRO”) (or if unrated, determined by the Investment Adviser to be of comparable credit quality); certificates of deposit; bankers’ acceptances; repurchase agreements; non-convertible preferred stocks and non-convertible corporate bonds with a remaining maturity of less than one year; ETFs and other investment companies; and cash items.
When the Fund's assets are invested in such instruments, the Fund may not be achieving its investment objective.
U.S. Government Securities
The Fund may invest in U.S. Government Securities, which are obligations issued or guaranteed by the U.S. government, its agencies, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises. Some U.S. Government Securities (such as Treasury bills, notes and bonds, which differ only in their interest rates, maturities and times of issuance) are supported by the full faith and credit of the United States. Others, such as obligations issued or guaranteed by U.S. Government agencies, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises, are supported either by (i) the right of the issuer to borrow from the U.S. Treasury, (ii) the discretionary authority of the U.S. Government to purchase certain obligations of the issuer or (iii) the credit of the issuer. The U.S. Government is under no legal obligation, in general, to purchase the obligations of its agencies, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises. No assurance can be given that the U.S. Government will provide financial support to U.S. Government agencies, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises in the future, and the U.S. Government may be unable to pay debts when due.
U.S. Government Securities include (to the extent consistent with the Act) securities for which the payment of principal and interest is backed by an irrevocable letter of credit issued by the U.S. Government, or its agencies, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises. U.S. Government Securities may also include (to the extent consistent with the Act) participations in loans made to foreign governments or their agencies that are guaranteed as to principal and interest by the U.S. Government or its agencies, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises. The secondary market for certain of these participations is extremely limited. These and other factors discussed in the section above, entitled “Illiquid Investments,” may impact the liquidity of the investments in these participations.
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The Fund may also purchase U.S. Government Securities in private placements and may also invest in separately traded principal and interest components of securities guaranteed or issued by the U.S. Treasury that are traded independently under the separate trading of registered interest and principal of securities program (“STRIPS”). The Fund may also invest in zero coupon U.S. Treasury securities and in zero coupon securities issued by financial institutions which represent a proportionate interest in underlying U.S. Treasury securities.
The high and rising national debt may adversely impact the U.S. economy and securities in which the Funds may invest. Moreover, the total amount of debt the Treasury is authorized to incur is subject to a statutory limit. Once the Treasury reaches the debt limit, Congress must raise, extend or otherwise modify the limit to enable the Treasury to incur additional debt to pay the obligations of the U.S. government, including principal and interest payments on certain U.S. Government Securities (such as Treasury bills, notes and bonds). Failure to, or potential failure to, increase the statutory debt limit could: increase the risk that the U.S. government defaults on payments on certain U.S. Government Securities; cause the credit rating of the U.S. government to be downgraded or increase volatility in both stock and bond markets; result in higher debt servicing payments by the U.S. government; reduce prices of Treasury securities; and/or increase the costs of certain kinds of debt.
Variable and Floating Rate Securities
The interest rates payable on certain debt securities in which the Fund may invest are not fixed and may fluctuate based upon changes in market rates. Variable and floating rate obligations are debt instruments issued by companies or other entities with interest rates that reset periodically (typically, daily, monthly, quarterly, or semi-annually) in response to changes in the market rate of interest on which the interest rate is based. Moreover, such obligations may fluctuate in value in response to interest rate changes if there is a delay between changes in market interest rates and the interest reset date for the obligation, or for other reasons. The value of these obligations is generally more stable than that of a fixed rate obligation in response to changes in interest rate levels, but they may decline in value if their interest rates do not rise as much, or as quickly, as interest rates in general. Conversely, floating rate securities will not generally increase in value if interest rates decline.
When-Issued Securities and Forward Commitments
The Fund  may purchase securities on a when-issued basis or purchase or sell securities on a forward commitment basis beyond the customary settlement time. These transactions involve a commitment by the Fund to purchase or sell securities at a future date. The price of the underlying securities (usually expressed in terms of yield) and the date when the securities will be delivered and paid for (the settlement date) are fixed at the time the transaction is negotiated. In addition, rules of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (“FINRA”) include mandatory margin requirements that require the Fund to post collateral in connection with its To Be Announced ("TBA") transactions. There is no similar requirement applicable to the Fund’s TBA counterparties. The required collateralization of TBA trades could increase the cost of TBA transactions to the Fund and impose added operational complexity. When-issued purchases and forward commitment transactions are negotiated directly with the other party, and such commitments are not traded on exchanges. The Fund will generally purchase securities on a when-issued basis or purchase or sell securities on a forward commitment basis only with the intention of completing the transaction and actually purchasing or selling the securities. If deemed advisable as a matter of investment strategy, however, the Fund may dispose of or negotiate a commitment after entering into it. The Fund may also sell securities it has committed to purchase before those securities are delivered to the Fund on the settlement date. The Fund may realize capital gains or losses in connection with these transactions. For purposes of determining the Fund’s duration, the maturity of when-issued or forward commitment securities will be calculated from the commitment date. Securities purchased or sold on a when-issued or forward commitment basis involve a risk of loss if the value of the security to be purchased declines prior to the settlement date or if the value of the security to be sold increases prior to the settlement date.
Special Note Regarding Regulatory Changes and Other Market Events
Federal, state, and foreign governments, regulatory agencies, and self-regulatory organizations may take actions that affect the regulation of a Fund or the instruments in which a Fund invests, or the issuers of such instruments, in ways that are unforeseeable. Future legislation or regulation or other governmental actions could limit or preclude a Fund’s ability to achieve its investment
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objective or otherwise adversely impact an investment in a Fund. Furthermore, worsened market conditions, including as a result of U.S. government shutdowns or the perceived creditworthiness of the United States, could have a negative impact on securities markets.
A Fund’s investments, payment obligations and financing terms may be based on floating rates, such as LIBOR, EURIBOR, the Secured Overnight Financing Rate (“SOFR”) and other similar types of reference rates (each, a Reference Rate”). Certain LIBORs (e.g., all EUR and CHF LIBOR settings, the Spot Next/Overnight, 1 week, 2 month and 12 month JPY and GBP LIBOR settings, and the 1 week and 2 months US dollar LIBOR settings) ceased publication on December 31, 2021 and, in connection with those rates, the Fund has transitioned to successor or alternative reference rates as necessary. However, the publication of certain other LIBORs (e.g., the overnight, 1 month, 3 month, 6 month, and 12 months USD LIBOR settings) will continue through at least June 30, 2023. In some instances, regulators may restrict new use of LIBORs prior to the actual cessation date. The termination of LIBOR and any additional regulatory or market changes may have an adverse impact on a Fund’s investments, performance or financial condition. Until then, the Fund may continue to invest in instruments that reference such rates or otherwise use such Reference Rates due to favorable liquidity or pricing.
To identify a successor rate for US dollar LIBOR, the Alternative Reference Rates Committee (“ARRC”), a U.S.-based group convened by the Federal Reserve Board and the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, was formed. The ARRC has identified SOFR as its preferred alternative rate for LIBOR. SOFR is a measure of the cost of borrowing cash overnight, collateralized by the U.S. Treasury securities, and is based on directly observable U.S. Treasury-backed repurchase transactions. On December 6, 2021, the ARRC released a statement selecting and recommending forms of SOFR, along with associated spread adjustments and conforming changes, to replace references to 1-week and 2-month US dollar LIBOR. It is expected that a substantial portion of future floating rate investments will be linked to SOFR. At this time, it is not possible to predict the effect of the transition to SOFR.
In advance of the expected future transition dates, regulators and market participants have worked to identify or develop successor Reference Rates (e.g., the SOFR, which is likely to replace U.S. dollar LIBOR and spreads (if any) to be utilized in existing contracts or instruments as part of the transition away from LIBOR. Spreads (if any) to be utilized in existing contracts or instruments may be amended through market-wide protocols, fallback contractual provisions, bespoke negotiations or amendments or otherwise. Nonetheless, the termination of certain Reference Rates presents risks to the Funds. It is not possible to exhaustively identify or predict the effect of any such changes, any establishment of alternative Reference Rates or any other reforms to Reference Rates that may be enacted in the United Kingdom or elsewhere. The elimination of a Reference Rate or any other changes or reforms to the determination or supervision of Reference Rates may affect the value, liquidity or return on certain Fund investments and may result in costs incurred in connection with closing out positions and entering into new trades, adversely impacting a Fund’s overall financial condition or results of operations. The impact of any successor or substitute Reference Rate, if any, will vary on an investment-by-investment basis, and any differences may be material and/or create material economic mismatches, especially if investments are used for hedging or similar purposes. In addition, although certain Fund investments may provide for a successor or substitute Reference Rate (or terms governing how to determine a successor or substitute Reference Rate) if the Reference Rate becomes unavailable, certain Fund investments may not provide such a successor or substitute Reference Rate (or terms governing how to determine a successor or substitute Reference Rate). Accordingly, there may be disputes as to: (i) any successor or substitute Reference Rate; or (ii) the enforceability of any Fund investment that does not provide such a successor or substitute Reference Rate (or terms governing how to determine a successor or substitute Reference Rate). The Investment Adviser, Goldman Sachs and/or their affiliates may have discretion to determine a successor or substitute Reference Rate, including any price or other adjustments to account for differences between the successor or substitute Reference Rate and the previous rate. The successor or substitute Reference Rate and any adjustments selected may negatively impact a Fund’s investments, performance or financial condition, including in ways unforeseen by the Investment Adviser, Goldman Sachs and/or their affiliates. In addition, any successor or substitute Reference Rate and any pricing adjustments imposed by a regulator or by counterparties or otherwise may adversely affect a Fund’s performance and/or NAV, and may expose a Fund to additional tax, accounting and regulatory risks.
In the aftermath of the 2007-2008 financial crisis, the financial sector experienced reduced liquidity in credit and other fixed income markets, and an unusually high degree of volatility, both domestically and internationally. While entire markets were impacted, issuers that had exposure to the real estate, mortgage and credit markets were particularly affected. The instability in the financial markets led the U.S. government to take a number of unprecedented actions designed to support certain financial institutions and certain segments of the financial markets. For example, Dodd-Frank, which was enacted in 2010, provides for broad
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regulation of financial institutions, consumer financial products and services, broker-dealers, over-the-counter derivatives, investment advisers, credit rating agencies and mortgage lending.
Governments or their agencies may also acquire distressed assets from financial institutions and acquire ownership interests in those institutions. The implications of government ownership and disposition of these assets are unclear, and such ownership or disposition may have positive or negative effects on the liquidity, valuation and performance of the Funds' portfolio holdings.
In addition, global economies and financial markets are becoming increasingly interconnected, and political, economic and other conditions and events (including, but not limited to, natural disasters, pandemics, epidemics, and social unrest) in one country, region, or financial market may adversely impact issuers in a different country, region or financial market. Furthermore, the occurrence of, among other events, natural or man-made disasters, severe weather or geological events, fires, floods, earthquakes, outbreaks of disease (such as COVID-19, avian influenza or H1N1/09), epidemics, pandemics, malicious acts, cyber-attacks, terrorist acts or the occurrence of climate change, may also adversely impact the performance of a Fund. Such events may result in, among other things, closing borders, exchange closures, health screenings, healthcare service delays, quarantines, cancellations, supply chain disruptions, lower consumer demand, market volatility and general uncertainty. Such events could adversely impact issuers, markets and economies over the short- and long-term, including in ways that cannot necessarily be foreseen. A Fund could be negatively impacted if the value of a portfolio holding were harmed by such political or economic conditions or events. Moreover, such negative political and economic conditions and events could disrupt the processes necessary for a Fund’s operations. See “Special Note Regarding Operational, Cyber Security and Litigation Risks” for additional information on operational risks.
Special Note Regarding Operational, Cyber Security and Litigation Risks
An investment in a Fund may be negatively impacted because of the operational risks arising from factors such as processing errors and human errors, inadequate or failed internal or external processes, failures in systems and technology, changes in personnel, and errors caused by third-party service providers or trading counterparties. The use of certain investment strategies that involve manual or additional processing, such as over-the-counter derivatives, increases these risks. Although the Funds attempt to minimize such failures through controls and oversight, it is not possible to identify all of the operational risks that may affect a Fund or to develop processes and controls that completely eliminate or mitigate the occurrence of such failures. A Fund and its shareholders could be negatively impacted as a result.
Each Fund is also susceptible to operational and information security risks resulting from cyber-attacks. In general, cyber-attacks result from deliberate attacks, but other events may have effects similar to those caused by cyber-attacks. Cyber-attacks include, among others, stealing or corrupting confidential information and other data that is maintained online or digitally for financial gain, denial-of-service attacks on websites causing operational disruption, and the unauthorized release of confidential information and other data. Cyber-attacks affecting a Fund or its Investment Adviser, sub-adviser, custodian, Transfer Agent, intermediary or other third-party service provider may adversely impact the Fund and its shareholders. These cyber-attacks have the ability to cause significant disruptions and impact business operations; to result in financial losses; to prevent shareholders from transacting business; to interfere with the Funds' calculation of NAV and to lead to violations of applicable privacy and other laws, regulatory fines, penalties, reputational damage, reimbursement or other compensation costs and/or additional compliance costs. Similar to operational risk in general, the Funds and their service providers, including GSAM, have instituted risk management systems designed to minimize the risks associated with cyber security. However, there is a risk that these systems will not succeed (or that any remediation efforts will not be successful), especially because the Funds do not directly control the risk management systems of the service providers to the Funds, their trading counterparties or the issuers in which a Fund may invest. Moreover, there is a risk that cyber-attacks will not be detected.
The Funds may be subject to third-party litigation, which could give rise to legal liability. These matters involving the Funds may arise from their activities and investments and could have a materially adverse effect on the Funds, including the expense of defending against claims and paying any amounts pursuant to settlements or judgments. There can be no guarantee that these matters will not arise in the normal course of business. If the Funds were to be found liable in any suit or proceeding, any associated damages and/or penalties could have a materially adverse effect on the Funds' finances, in addition to being materially damaging to their reputation.
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INVESTMENT RESTRICTIONS
The investment restrictions set forth below have been adopted by the Trust as fundamental policies that cannot be changed with respect to a Fund without the affirmative vote of the holders of a majority of the outstanding voting securities (as defined in the Act) of the affected Fund. The investment objective of each Fund and all other investment policies or practices of each Fund are considered by the Trust not to be fundamental and accordingly may be changed without shareholder approval. For purposes of the Act, a “majority” of the outstanding voting securities means the lesser of (i) 67% or more of the shares of the Trust or a Fund present at a meeting, if the holders of more than 50% of the outstanding shares of the Trust or a Fund are present or represented by proxy, or (ii) more than 50% of the outstanding shares of the Trust or a Fund.
For purposes of the following limitations (except for the asset coverage requirement with respect to borrowings, which is subject to different requirements under the Act), any limitation which involves a maximum percentage shall not be considered violated unless an excess over the percentage occurs immediately after, and is caused by, an acquisition or encumbrance of securities or assets of, or borrowings by, a Fund. In applying each Fund’s respective fundamental investment restriction number (1) below to derivative transactions or instruments, including, without limitation, futures, swaps, forwards, options and structured notes, each Fund will look to the industry of the reference asset(s) and not to the counterparty or issuer. With respect to the MLP Energy Infrastructure Fund’s fundamental investment restriction number (2) below, asset coverage of at least 300% (as defined in the Act), inclusive of any amounts borrowed, must be maintained at all times. With respect to the Energy Infrastructure Fund’s and Clean Energy Income Fund’s fundamental investment restriction number (2) below, in the event that asset coverage (as defined in the Act) at any time falls below 300%, the Energy Infrastructure Fund and/or the Clean Energy Income Fund, within three days thereafter (not including Sundays and holidays) or such longer period as the SEC may prescribe by rules and regulations, will reduce the amount of its borrowings to the extent required so that the asset coverage of such borrowings will be at least 300%.
Fundamental Investment Restrictions
MLP Energy Infrastructure Fund
As a matter of fundamental policy, the MLP Energy Infrastructure Fund may not:
(1) Invest more than 25% of its total assets in the securities of one or more issuers conducting their principal business activities in the same industry (excluding the U.S. government or any of its agencies or instrumentalities); except that the Fund will invest more than 25% of its total assets in companies conducting their principal business in industries within the energy sector.
(2) Borrow money, except (a) the Fund, to the extent permitted by applicable law, may borrow from banks (as defined in the Act), other affiliated investment companies and other persons or through reverse repurchase agreements in amounts up to 33 1/3% of its total assets (including the amount borrowed), (b) the Fund may, to the extent permitted by applicable law, borrow up to an additional 5% of its total assets for temporary purposes, (c) the Fund may obtain such short-term credits as may be necessary for the clearance of purchases and sales of portfolio securities, (d) the Fund may purchase securities on margin to the extent permitted by applicable law and (e) the Fund may engage in transactions in mortgage dollar rolls which are accounted for as financings.
The following interpretation applies to, but is not part of, this fundamental policy: In determining whether a particular investment in portfolio instruments or participation in portfolio transactions is subject to this borrowing policy, the accounting treatment of such instrument or participation shall be considered, but shall not by itself be determinative. Whether a particular instrument or transaction constitutes a borrowing shall be determined by the Board, after consideration of all of the relevant circumstances.
(3) Make loans, except through (a) the purchase of debt obligations in accordance with the Fund’s investment objective and policies, (b) repurchase agreements with banks, brokers, dealers and other financial institutions, (c) loans of securities as permitted by applicable law, and (d) loans to affiliates of the Fund to the extent permitted by law.
(4) Underwrite securities issued by others, except to the extent that the sale of portfolio securities by the Fund may be deemed to be an underwriting.
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(5) Purchase, hold or deal in real estate, although the Fund may purchase and sell securities or investments that are secured by real estate or interests therein or that reflect the return of an index of real estate values, securities of real estate investment trusts and mortgage-related securities, and may hold and sell real estate acquired by the Fund as a result of the ownership of securities.
(6) Invest in physical commodities, except that the Fund may invest in currency and financial instruments and contracts in accordance with its investment objective and policies, including, without limitation, structured notes, futures contracts, swaps, options on commodities, currencies, swaps and futures, ETFs, investment pools and other instruments, regardless of whether such instrument is considered to be a commodity.
(7) Issue senior securities to the extent such issuance would violate applicable law.
The Fund may, notwithstanding any other fundamental investment restriction or policy, invest some or all of its assets in a single open-end investment company or series thereof with substantially the same fundamental investment objective, restrictions and policies as the Fund.
Energy Infrastructure Fund
As a matter of fundamental policy, the Energy Infrastructure Fund may not:
(1) Invest more than 25% of its total assets in the securities of one or more issuers conducting their principal business activities in the same industry; except that the Fund will invest more than 25% of its total assets in companies conducting their principal business in industries within the energy sector (for the purposes of this restriction, the U.S. Government, state and municipal governments and their agencies, authorities and instrumentalities are not deemed to be industries);
(2) Borrow money, except as permitted by the Act, or interpretations or modifications by the SEC, SEC staff or other authority with appropriate jurisdiction.
The following interpretation applies to, but is not part of, this fundamental policy: In determining whether a particular investment in portfolio instruments or participation in portfolio transactions is subject to this borrowing policy, the accounting treatment of such instrument or participation shall be considered, but shall not by itself be determinative. Whether a particular instrument or transaction constitutes a borrowing shall be determined by the Board, after consideration of all of the relevant circumstances;
(3) Make loans, except through (a) the purchase of debt obligations, loan interests and other interests or obligations in accordance with the Fund’s investment objective and policies; (b) repurchase agreements with banks, brokers, dealers and other financial institutions; (c) loans of securities as permitted by applicable law or pursuant to an exemptive order granted under the Act; and (d) loans to affiliates of the Fund to the extent permitted by law;
(4) Underwrite securities issued by others, except to the extent that the sale of portfolio securities by the Fund may be deemed to be an underwriting;
(5) Purchase, hold or deal in real estate, although the Fund may purchase and sell securities that are secured by real estate or interests therein or that reflect the return of an index of real estate values, securities of issuers which invest or deal in real estate, securities of real estate investment trusts and mortgage-related securities and may hold and sell real estate it has acquired as a result of the ownership of securities;
(6) Invest in physical commodities, except that the Fund may invest in currency and financial instruments and contracts in accordance with its investment objective and policies, including, without limitation, structured notes, futures contracts, swaps, options on commodities, currencies, swaps and futures, ETFs, investment pools and other instruments, regardless of whether such instrument is considered to be a commodity; and
(7) Issue senior securities to the extent such issuance would violate applicable law.
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The Fund may, notwithstanding any other fundamental investment restriction or policy, invest some or all of its assets in a single open-end investment company or series thereof with substantially the same fundamental investment restrictions and policies as the Fund.
For purposes of the Fund’s industry concentration policy, the Investment Adviser may analyze the characteristics of a particular issuer and instrument and may assign an industry classification consistent with those characteristics. The Investment Adviser may, but need not, consider industry classifications provided by third parties, and the classifications applied to Fund investments will be informed by applicable law.
Clean Energy Income Fund
As a matter of fundamental policy, the Clean Energy Income Fund may not:
(1) Invest more than 25% of its total assets in the securities of one or more issuers conducting their principal business activities in the same industry, except that the Fund will invest more than 25% of its total assets in companies conducting their principal business in the clean energy group of industries (for the purposes of this restriction, the U.S. Government, state and municipal governments and their agencies, authorities and instrumentalities are not deemed to be industries);
(2) Borrow money, except as permitted by the Act, or interpretations or modifications by the SEC, SEC staff or other authority with appropriate jurisdiction.
The following interpretation applies to, but is not part of, this fundamental policy: In determining whether a particular investment in portfolio instruments or participation in portfolio transactions is subject to this borrowing policy, the accounting treatment of such instrument or participation shall be considered, but shall not by itself be determinative. Whether a particular instrument or transaction constitutes a borrowing shall be determined by the Board, after consideration of all of the relevant circumstances;
(3) Make loans, except through (a) the purchase of debt obligations, loan interests and other interests or obligations in accordance with the Fund’s investment objective and policies; (b) repurchase agreements with banks, brokers, dealers and other financial institutions; (c) loans of securities as permitted by applicable law or pursuant to an exemptive order granted under the Act; and (d) loans to affiliates of the Fund to the extent permitted by law;
(4) Underwrite securities issued by others, except to the extent that the sale of portfolio securities by the Fund may be deemed to be an underwriting;
(5) Purchase, hold or deal in real estate, although the Fund may purchase and sell securities that are secured by real estate or interests therein or that reflect the return of an index of real estate values, securities of issuers which invest or deal in real estate, securities of real estate investment trusts and mortgage-related securities and may hold and sell real estate it has acquired as a result of the ownership of securities;
(6) Invest in physical commodities, except that the Fund may invest in currency and financial instruments and contracts in accordance with its investment objective and policies, including, without limitation, structured notes, futures contracts, swaps, options on commodities, currencies, swaps and futures, ETFs, investment pools and other instruments, regardless of whether such instrument is considered to be a commodity; and
(7) Issue senior securities to the extent such issuance would violate applicable law.
The Fund may, notwithstanding any other fundamental investment restriction or policy, invest some or all of its assets in a single open-end investment company or series thereof with substantially the same fundamental investment restrictions and policies as the Fund.
For purposes of the Fund’s industry concentration policy, the Investment Adviser may analyze the characteristics of a particular issuer and instrument and may assign an industry classification consistent with those characteristics. The Investment Adviser may, but
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need not, consider industry classifications provided by third parties, and the classifications applied to Fund investments will be informed by applicable law.
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TRUSTEES AND OFFICERS
The Trust’s Leadership Structure
The business and affairs of the Funds are managed under the direction of the Board of Trustees (the “Board”), subject to the laws of the State of Delaware and the Trust’s Declaration of Trust. The Trustees are responsible for deciding matters of overall policy and reviewing the actions of the Trust’s service providers. The officers of the Trust conduct and supervise the Funds' daily business operations. Trustees who are not deemed to be “interested persons” of the Trust as defined in the Act are referred to as “Independent Trustees.” Trustees who are deemed to be “interested persons” of the Trust are referred to as “Interested Trustees.” The Board is currently composed of seven Independent Trustees and one Interested Trustee. The Board has selected an Independent Trustee to act as Chair, whose duties include presiding at meetings of the Board and its Committees, except as otherwise specified in the applicable Committee charter documents, and acting as a focal point to address significant issues that may arise between regularly scheduled Board and Committee meetings. In the performance of the Chair’s duties, the Chair will consult with the other Independent Trustees and the Funds' officers and legal counsel, as appropriate. The Chair may perform other functions as requested by the Board from time to time.
The Board meets as often as necessary to discharge its responsibilities. Currently, the Board conducts regular meetings at least six times a year, and holds special in-person or telephonic meetings as necessary to address specific issues that require attention prior to the next regularly scheduled meeting. In addition, the Independent Trustees meet at least annually to review, among other things, investment management agreements, distribution (Rule 12b-1)and/or service plans and related agreements, transfer agency agreements and certain other agreements providing for the compensation of Goldman Sachs and/or its affiliates by the Funds, and to consider such other matters as they deem appropriate.
The Board has established four standing committees — Audit, Governance and Nominating, Compliance and Contract Review Committees. The Board may establish other committees, or nominate one or more Trustees to examine particular issues related to the Board’s oversight responsibilities, from time to time. Each Committee meets periodically to perform its delegated oversight functions and reports its findings and recommendations to the Board. For more information on the Committees, see the section “Standing Board Committees,” below.
The Trustees have determined that the Trust’s leadership structure is appropriate because it allows the Trustees to effectively perform their oversight responsibilities.
Trustees of the Trust
Information pertaining to the Trustees of the Trust as of March 30, 2023 is set forth below.
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Independent Trustees
Name,
Address and
Age1
Position(s)
Held with
the Trust
Term of
Office and
Length of
Time Served2
Principal Occupation(s)
During Past 5 Years
Number of
Portfolios
in Fund
Complex
Overseen by
Trustee3
Other
Directorships
Held by
Trustee4
Gregory G.
Weaver
Age: 71
Chair of the
Board of
Trustees
Since 2018
(Trustee since
2007)
Mr. Weaver is retired. He is Director, Verizon
Communications Inc. (2015–Present); and was
formerly Chairman and Chief Executive Officer,
Deloitte & Touche LLP (a professional services firm)
(2001–2005 and 2012–2014); and Member of the
Board of Directors, Deloitte & Touche LLP
(2006–2012).
Chair of the Board of Trustees—Goldman Sachs Trust
and Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust.
103
Verizon
Communications Inc.
Dwight L.
Bush
Age: 66
Trustee
Since 2020
Ambassador Bush is President and CEO of D.L. Bush
& Associates (a financial advisory and private
investment firm) (2002–2014 and 2017–present);
Director of MoneyLion, Inc. (an operator of a
data-driven, digital financial platform)
(2021–present); and was formerly U.S. Ambassador to
the Kingdom of Morocco (2014–2017) and a Member
of the Board of Directors of Santander Bank, N.A.
(2018–2019). Previously, Ambassador Bush served as
an Advisory Board Member of Goldman Sachs Trust
and Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust (October
2019–January 2020).
Trustee—Goldman Sachs Trust and Goldman Sachs
Variable Insurance Trust.
103
MoneyLion, Inc.
(an operator of a
data-driven,
digital financial
platform)
Kathryn A.
Cassidy
Age: 69
Trustee
Since 2015
Ms. Cassidy is retired. She is Director, Vertical
Aerospace Ltd. (an aerospace and technology
company) (2021–present). Formerly, Ms, Cassidy was
Advisor to the Chairman (May 2014–December
2014); and Senior Vice President and Treasurer
(2008–2014), General Electric Company & General
Electric Capital Corporation (technology and financial
services companies).
Trustee—Goldman Sachs Trust and Goldman Sachs
Variable Insurance Trust.
103
Vertical
Aerospace Ltd.
(an aerospace
and technology
company)
B-44

Name,
Address and
Age1
Position(s)
Held with
the Trust
Term of
Office and
Length of
Time Served2
Principal Occupation(s)
During Past 5 Years
Number of
Portfolios
in Fund
Complex
Overseen by
Trustee3
Other
Directorships
Held by
Trustee4
John G. Chou
Age: 66
Trustee
Since 2022
Mr. Chou is Executive Vice President and Special
Advisor to the Chairman and CEO of
AmerisourceBergen Corporation (a pharmaceutical
and healthcare company) (2021–present); and
formerly held various executive management positions
with AmerisourceBergen Corporation, including
Executive Vice President and Chief Legal Officer
(2019–2021); Executive Vice President and Chief
Legal & Business Officer (2017–2019); and Executive
Vice President and General Counsel (2011–2017).
Trustee—Goldman Sachs Trust and Goldman Sachs
Variable Insurance Trust.
103
None
Joaquin
Delgado
Age: 63
Trustee
Since 2020
Dr. Delgado is retired. He is Director, Stepan
Company (a specialty chemical manufacturer)
(2011–present); and was formerly Director,
Hexion Inc. (a specialty chemical manufacturer)
(2019–2022); Executive Vice President, Consumer
Business Group of 3M Company (July 2016–July
2019); and Executive Vice President, Health Care
Business Group of 3M Company (October 2012–July
2016). Previously, Dr. Delgado served as an Advisory
Board Member of Goldman Sachs Trust and Goldman
Sachs Variable Insurance Trust (October 2019–
January 2020).
Trustee—Goldman Sachs Trust and Goldman Sachs
Variable Insurance Trust.
103
Stepan Company
(a specialty
chemical
manufacturer)
Eileen H.
Dowling
Age: 60
Trustee
Since 2021
Ms. Dowling is retired. Formerly, she was Senior
Advisor (April 2021–September 2021); and Managing
Director (2013–2021), BlackRock, Inc. (a financial
services firm).
Trustee—Goldman Sachs Trust and Goldman Sachs
Variable Insurance Trust.
103
None
Paul C. Wirth
Age: 65
Trustee
Since 2022
Mr. Wirth is retired. Formerly, he was Deputy Chief
Financial Officer and Principal Accounting Officer
(2011–2020); Finance Director and Principal
Accounting Officer (2010–2011); and Managing
Director, Global Controller, and Chief Accounting
Officer (2005–2010) of Morgan Stanley.
Trustee—Goldman Sachs Trust and Goldman Sachs
Variable Insurance Trust.
103
None
B-45

Interested Trustees
Name,
Address and
Age1
Position(s)
Held with
the Trust
Term of
Office and
Length of
Time Served2
Principal Occupation(s)
During Past 5 Years
Number of
Portfolios
in Fund
Complex
Overseen by
Trustee3
Other
Directorships
Held by
Trustee4
James A.
McNamara*
Age: 60
President and
Trustee
Since 2007
Advisory Director, Goldman Sachs (January
2018–Present); Managing Director, Goldman Sachs
(January 2000–December 2017); Director of
Institutional Fund Sales, GSAM (April
1998–December 2000); and Senior Vice President and
Manager, Dreyfus Institutional Service Corporation
(January 1993–April 1998).
President and Trustee—Goldman Sachs Trust;
Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust; Goldman
Sachs Trust II; Goldman Sachs MLP and Energy
Renaissance Fund; Goldman Sachs ETF Trust;
Goldman Sachs ETF Trust II; Goldman Sachs Credit
Income Fund; and Goldman Sachs Real Estate
Diversified Income Fund.
172
None
*
Mr. McNamara is considered to be an “Interested Trustee” because he holds positions with Goldman Sachs and owns securities issued by The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. Mr. McNamara holds comparable positions with certain other companies of which Goldman Sachs, GSAM or an affiliate thereof is the investment adviser, administrator and/or distributor.
1
Each Trustee may be contacted by writing to the Trustee, c/o Goldman Sachs, 200 West Street, New York, New York, 10282, Attn: Caroline Kraus.
2
Subject to such policies as may be adopted by the Board from time-to-time, each Trustee holds office for an indefinite term, until the earliest of: (a) the election of his or her successor; (b) the date the Trustee resigns or is removed by the Board or shareholders, in accordance with the Trust’s Declaration of Trust; or (c) the termination of the Trust. The Board has adopted policies which provide that each Independent Trustee shall retire as of December 31st of the calendar year in which he or she reaches (a) his or her 75th birthday or (b) the 15th anniversary of the date he or she became a Trustee, whichever is earlier, unless a waiver of such requirements shall have been adopted by a majority of the other Trustees. These policies may be changed by the Trustees without shareholder vote.
3
The Goldman Sachs Fund Complex includes certain other companies listed above for each respective Trustee. As of March 30, 2023, Goldman Sachs Trust consisted of 88 portfolios (87 of which offered shares to the public); Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust consisted of 15 portfolios (13 of which offered shares to the public); Goldman Sachs Trust II consisted of 18 portfolios (7 of which offered shares to the public); Goldman Sachs ETF Trust consisted of 46 portfolios (31 of which offered shares to the public); Goldman Sachs ETF Trust II consisted of 2 portfolios (1 of which offered shares to the public); Goldman Sachs MLP and Energy Renaissance Fund, Goldman Sachs Credit Income Fund and Goldman Sachs Real Estate Diversified Income Fund each consisted of one portfolio. Goldman Sachs Credit Income Fund did not offer shares to the public.
4
This column includes only directorships of companies required to report to the SEC under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (i.e., “public companies”) or other investment companies registered under the Act.
The significance or relevance of a Trustee’s particular experience, qualifications, attributes and/or skills is considered by the Board on an individual basis. Experience, qualifications, attributes and/or skills common to all Trustees include the ability to critically review, evaluate and discuss information provided to them and to interact effectively with the other Trustees and with representatives of the Investment Adviser and its affiliates, other service providers, legal counsel and the Funds independent registered public accounting firm, the capacity to address financial and legal issues and exercise reasonable business judgment, and a commitment to the representation of the interests of a Fund and its shareholders. The Governance and Nominating Committee’s charter contains certain other factors that are considered by the Governance and Nominating Committee in identifying and evaluating potential nominees to serve as Independent Trustees. Based on each Trustee’s experience, qualifications, attributes and/or skills, considered
B-46

individually and with respect to the experience, qualifications, attributes and/or skills of other Trustees, the Board has concluded that each Trustee should serve as a Trustee. Below is a brief discussion of the experience, qualifications, attributes and/or skills of each individual Trustee as of March 30, 2023 that led the Board to conclude that such individual should serve as a Trustee.
Gregory G. Weaver. Mr. Weaver has served as a Trustee since 2015 and Chair of the Board since 2023. Mr. Weaver also serves as a Director of Verizon Communications Inc., where he serves as Chair of the Audit Committee. Previously, Mr. Weaver was a partner with Deloitte & Touche LLP for 30 years. He was the firm’s first chairman and chief executive officer from 2001–2005, and was elected to serve a second term (2012–2014). While serving as chairman at Deloitte & Touche LLP, Mr. Weaver led the audit and enterprise risk services practice, overseeing all operations, strategic positioning, audit quality, and talent matters. Mr. Weaver also served as a member of the firm’s Board of Directors for six years where he served on the Governance Committee and Partner Earnings and Benefits Committee and was chairman of the Elected Leaders Committee and Strategic Investment Committee. Mr. Weaver is also a Board member and Audit Committee chair of the YMCA of Westfield, New Jersey. Mr. Weaver has also served as President of the Council of Boy Scouts of America in Long Rivers, Connecticut, President of A Better Chance in Glastonbury, Connecticut, as a member of the Financial Accounting Standards Advisory Council and as a board member of the Stan Ross Department of Accountancy, Baruch College. Based on the foregoing, Mr. Weaver is experienced with accounting, financial and investment matters.
Dwight L. Bush. Ambassador Bush has served as a Trustee since 2020. Ambassador Bush also serves as President and CEO of D.L. Bush & Associates, a financial advisory and private investment firm, and Director of MoneyLion, Inc., an operator of a data-driven, digital financial platform. From 2014 to 2017, he served as U.S. Ambassador to the Kingdom of Morocco. Prior to his service as U.S. Ambassador, he established and served as CEO of Urban Trust Bank and UTB Education Finance, LLC, an integrated provider of education credit services. Ambassador Bush was previously Vice President of Corporate Development for SLM Corporation (commonly known as Sallie Mae). Formerly, he served as a member of the Board of Directors of Santander Bank, N.A., JER Investors Trust, a specialty real estate finance company, and as Vice Chairman of the Board of Directors of CASI Pharmaceuticals (formerly Entremed, Inc.) where he was Chairman of the Audit Committee. He also serves as a member of the Board of Directors for several philanthropic organizations, including the Middle East Investment Initiative and the American Council of Young Political Leaders, and has served on the executive committee of Cornell University. Ambassador Bush previously served on the Trust’s Advisory Board. Based on the foregoing, Ambassador Bush is experienced with financial and investment matters.
Kathryn A. Cassidy. Ms. Cassidy has served as a Trustee since 2015. Ms. Cassidy has been designated as the Board’s “audit committee financial expert” given her extensive accounting and finance experience. She is a member of the Board of Directors for Vertical Aerospace Ltd., a publicly-traded aerospace and technology company, where she serves as Chair of the Audit Committee. Previously, Ms. Cassidy held several senior management positions at General Electric Company (“GE”) and General Electric Capital Corporation (“GECapital”) and its subsidiaries, where she worked for 35 years, most recently as Advisor to the Chairman of GECapital and Senior Vice President and Treasurer of GE and GECapital. As Senior Vice President and Treasurer, Ms. Cassidy led capital markets and treasury matters of multiple initial public offerings. Ms. Cassidy was responsible for managing global treasury operations, including global funding, hedging, derivative accounting and execution, cash and liquidity management, cash operations and treasury services, and global regulatory compliance and reporting for liquidity, derivatives, market risk and counterparty credit risk. Formerly, Ms. Cassidy served as a Director of buildOn, a not-for-profit organization, where she served as Chair of the Finance Committee. Based on the foregoing, Ms. Cassidy is experienced with financial and investment matters.
John G. Chou. Mr. Chou has served as a Trustee since 2022. Mr. Chou currently serves as Executive Vice President and Special Advisor to the Chairman and Chief Executive Officer at AmerisourceBergen Corporation (“AmerisourceBergen”), where he also formerly held several executive and senior management positions since 2002, including Executive Vice President and Chief Legal Officer, Executive Vice President and Chief Legal & Business Officer, and Executive Vice President and General Counsel. As Executive Vice President and Chief Legal Officer, Mr. Chou was responsible for managing AmerisourceBergen’s legal, regulatory, quality, privacy, global business resilience and enterprise risk management functions, among others. In addition, he previously held senior legal positions at Cigna Corporation, ARCO Chemical Europe, and Arco Chemical Company, and also practiced law at various law firms, including most recently as a member of Eckert Seamens Cherin & Mellott, LLC. Mr. Chou currently serves as the President of the Board of Trustees of Episcopal Community Services and as a member of the Board of Directors of the Committee of Seventy. Based on the foregoing, Mr. Chou is experienced with financial and investment matters.
B-47

Joaquin Delgado. Dr. Delgado has served as a Trustee since 2020. Dr. Delgado is a member of the Board of Directors for Stepan Company, a publicly-traded specialty chemical manufacturer. Previously, Dr. Delgado was a member of the Board of Directors for Hexion Inc., a privately held specialty chemical manufacturer, and held several senior management positions at 3M Company, where he worked for over 30 years, most recently as Executive Vice President of 3M Company’s Consumer Business Group. As Executive Vice President, Vice President, and General Manager at 3M Company, Dr. Delgado directed mergers and acquisitions worldwide, and was responsible for managing global operations in specialized markets such as semiconductors, consumer electronics, communications, medical and office supplies and software. Dr. Delgado also serves as a member of the Board of Directors of Ballet Austin, a not-for-profit organization. Additionally, he formerly served as a member of the Board of Directors of MacPhail Center for Music, a not-for-profit organization. Dr. Delgado previously served on the Trust’s Advisory Board. Based on the foregoing, Dr. Delgado is experienced with financial and investment matters.
Eileen H. Dowling. Ms. Dowling has served as a Trustee since 2021. Ms. Dowling worked at BlackRock for over 10 years, where she was a Managing Director and, most recently, a Senior Advisor. While at BlackRock, Ms. Dowling held several senior management positions responsible for clients, investment products and marketing, including Global Head of Consultant Relations, Global Head of Multinationals, Global Head of the Institutional Product Group and Global Head of Institutional Marketing. She also was a member of BlackRock’s Global Operating Committee and Product Executive Committee. From 2007-2011, Ms. Dowling was a Managing Director and Global Head of Marketing at Credit Suisse Asset Management. Prior to that, over an 18-year period at Merrill Lynch, Ms. Dowling served in several roles in Investment Banking, Capital Markets and Research. Ms. Dowling currently serves as a Member of the Advisory Board and Finance Committee of New York University’s Glucksman Ireland House. Based on the foregoing, Ms. Dowling is experienced with investment, financial and accounting matters.
Paul C. Wirth. Mr. Wirth has served as a Trustee since 2022. Previously, Mr. Wirth held various senior management positions at Morgan Stanley, where he worked for over 15 years. While with Morgan Stanley, Mr. Wirth served as Deputy Chief Financial Officer and Principal Accounting Officer, Finance Director and Principal Accounting Officer, and Managing Director, Global Controller and Chief Accounting Officer. He also was a member of Morgan Stanley’s Management Committee and Risk Committee. Prior to Morgan Stanley, Mr. Wirth held senior positions at Credit Suisse First Boston, Deloitte & Touche LLP, and KPMG LLP. Mr. Wirth served as a member of the Board of Directors of certain Morgan Stanley subsidiaries, including Morgan Stanley Europe Holding SE, where he also served as Audit Committee Chairman. He is also a member of the St. Johns University Board of Governors since October 2020 and was previously a member of the Peter J. Tobin College of Business Board of Trustees from 2011 to 2017. Mr. Wirth serves as a member of the Board of Advisors for the ARC of Essex County, a not-for-profit organization. He also has served on the Board of Trustees of the Financial Accounting Foundation. Mr. Wirth is a certified public accountant. Based on the foregoing, Mr. Wirth is experienced with financial and investment matters.
James A. McNamara. Mr. McNamara has served as a Trustee and President of the Trust since 2007 and has served as an officer of the Trust since 2001. Mr. McNamara is an Advisory Director to Goldman Sachs. Prior to retiring as Managing Director at Goldman Sachs in 2017, Mr. McNamara was head of Global Third Party Distribution at GSAM and was previously head of U.S. Third Party Distribution. Prior to that role, Mr. McNamara served as Director of Institutional Fund Sales. Prior to joining Goldman Sachs, Mr. McNamara was Vice President and Manager at Dreyfus Institutional Service Corporation. Based on the foregoing, Mr. McNamara is experienced with financial and investment matters.
B-48

Officers of the Trust
Information pertaining to the officers of the Trust as of March 30, 2023 is set forth below.
Name, Age
and Address
Position(s) Held
with the Trust
Term of Office and
Length of Time
Served1
Principal Occupation(s) During Past 5 Years
James A. McNamara
200 West Street
New York, NY 10282
Age: 60
Trustee and
President
Since 2007
Advisory Director, Goldman Sachs (January 2018 – Present);
Managing Director, Goldman Sachs (January 2000 – December 2017);
Director of Institutional Fund Sales, GSAM (April 1998 – December
2000); and Senior Vice President and Manager, Dreyfus Institutional
Service Corporation (January 1993 – April 1998).
President and Trustee—Goldman Sachs Trust; Goldman Sachs
Variable Insurance Trust; Goldman Sachs Trust II; Goldman
Sachs ETF Trust; Goldman Sachs ETF Trust II; Goldman Sachs MLP
and Energy Renaissance Fund; Goldman Sachs Credit Income Fund;
and Goldman Sachs Real Estate Diversified Income Fund.
Joseph F. DiMaria
30 Hudson Street
Jersey City, NJ 07302
Age: 54
Treasurer,
Principal Financial
Officer and
Principal
Accounting
Officer
Since 2017
(Treasurer and
Principal Financial
Officer since
2019)
Managing Director, Goldman Sachs (November 2015 – Present) and
Vice President – Mutual Fund Administration, Columbia Management
Investment Advisers, LLC (May 2010 – October 2015).
Treasurer, Principal Financial Officer and Principal Accounting
Officer—Goldman Sachs Trust (previously Assistant Treasurer
(2016)); Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust (previously Assistant
Treasurer (2016)); Goldman Sachs Trust II (previously Assistant
Treasurer (2017)); Goldman Sachs MLP and Energy Renaissance Fund
(previously Assistant Treasurer (2017)); Goldman Sachs ETF Trust
(previously Assistant Treasurer (2017)); Goldman Sachs ETF Trust II;
Goldman Sachs Credit Income Fund; and Goldman Sachs Real Estate
Diversified Income Fund.
Julien Yoo
200 West Street
New York, NY 10282
Age: 51
Chief Compliance
Officer
Since 2019
Managing Director, Goldman Sachs (January 2020–Present); Vice
President, Goldman Sachs (December 2014–December 2019); and
Vice President, Morgan Stanley Investment Management
(2005–2010).
Chief Compliance Officer—Goldman Sachs Trust; Goldman Sachs
Variable Insurance Trust; Goldman Sachs Trust II; Goldman Sachs
BDC, Inc.; Goldman Sachs Private Middle Market Credit LLC;
Goldman Sachs Private Middle Market Credit II LLC; Goldman Sachs
Middle Market Lending Corp.; Goldman Sachs MLP and Energy
Renaissance Fund; Goldman Sachs ETF Trust; Goldman Sachs ETF
Trust II; Goldman Sachs Credit Income Fund; and Goldman Sachs
Real Estate Diversified Income Fund.
Peter W. Fortner
30 Hudson Street
Jersey City, NJ 07302
Age: 65
Assistant
Treasurer
Since 2000
Vice President, Goldman Sachs (July 2000–Present); Principal
Accounting Officer and Treasurer, Commerce Bank Mutual Fund
Complex (2008–Present); Treasurer of Goldman Sachs
Philanthropy Fund (2019–Present); and Treasurer of Ayco Charitable
Foundation (2020–Present).
Assistant Treasurer—Goldman Sachs Trust; Goldman Sachs Variable
Insurance Trust; Goldman Sachs Trust II; Goldman Sachs MLP and
Energy Renaissance Fund; Goldman Sachs ETF Trust; Goldman
Sachs ETF Trust II; Goldman Sachs Credit Income Fund; and
Goldman Sachs Real Estate Diversified Income Fund.
B-49

Name, Age
and Address
Position(s) Held
with the Trust
Term of Office and
Length of Time
Served1
Principal Occupation(s) During Past 5 Years
Allison Fracchiolla
30 Hudson Street
Jersey City, NJ 07302
Age: 39
Assistant
Treasurer
Since 2014
Vice President, Goldman Sachs (January 2013–Present).
Assistant Treasurer—Goldman Sachs Trust; Goldman Sachs Variable
Insurance Trust; Goldman Sachs Trust II; Goldman Sachs ETF Trust;
Goldman Sachs MLP and Energy Renaissance Fund; and Goldman
Sachs Real Estate Diversified Income Fund.
Tyler Hanks
222 S. Main St
Salt Lake City, UT 84101
Age: 41
Assistant
Treasurer
Since 2019
Vice President, Goldman Sachs (January 2016—Present); and
Associate, Goldman Sachs (January 2014—January 2016).
Assistant Treasurer—Goldman Sachs Trust; Goldman Sachs Variable
Insurance Trust; Goldman Sachs Trust II; Goldman Sachs MLP and
Energy Renaissance Fund; Goldman Sachs ETF Trust; Goldman
Sachs ETF Trust II; Goldman Sachs Credit Income Fund; and
Goldman Sachs Real Estate Diversified Income Fund.
Kirsten Frivold Imohiosen
200 West Street
New York, NY 10282
Age: 52
Assistant
Treasurer
Since 2019
Managing Director, Goldman Sachs (January 2018–Present); and Vice
President, Goldman Sachs (May 1999–December 2017).
Assistant Treasurer—Goldman Sachs Trust; Goldman Sachs Variable
Insurance Trust; Goldman Sachs Trust II; Goldman Sachs MLP and
Energy Renaissance Fund; Goldman Sachs BDC, Inc.; Goldman Sachs
Private Middle Market Credit LLC; Goldman Sachs Private Middle
Market Credit II LLC; Goldman Sachs Middle Market Lending Corp.;
Goldman Sachs ETF Trust; Goldman Sachs ETF Trust II; Goldman
Sachs Credit Income Fund; and Goldman Sachs Real Estate
Diversified Income Fund.
Steven Z. Indich
30 Hudson Street
Jersey City, NJ 07302
Age: 53
Assistant
Treasurer
Since 2019
Vice President, Goldman Sachs (February 2010 – Present).
Assistant Treasurer—Goldman Sachs Trust; Goldman Sachs Variable
Insurance Trust; Goldman Sachs Trust II; Goldman Sachs MLP and
Energy Renaissance Fund; Goldman Sachs BDC, Inc.; Goldman Sachs
Private Middle Market Credit LLC; Goldman Sachs Private Middle
Market Credit II LLC; Goldman Sachs Middle Market Lending Corp.;
Goldman Sachs ETF Trust; Goldman Sachs ETF Trust II; Goldman
Sachs Credit Income Fund; and Goldman Sachs Real Estate
Diversified Income Fund.
Carol Liu
30 Hudson Street
Jersey City, NJ 07302
Age: 48
Assistant
Treasurer
Since 2019
Vice President, Goldman Sachs (October 2017 – Present); Tax
Director, The Raine Group LLC (August 2015 – October 2017); and
Tax Director, Icon Investments LLC (January 2012 – August 2015).
Assistant Treasurer—Goldman Sachs Trust; Goldman Sachs Variable
Insurance Trust; Goldman Sachs Trust II; Goldman Sachs MLP and
Energy Renaissance Fund; Goldman Sachs BDC, Inc.; Goldman Sachs
Private Middle Market Credit LLC; Goldman Sachs Private Middle
Market Credit II LLC; Goldman Sachs Middle Market Lending Corp.;
Goldman Sachs ETF Trust; Goldman Sachs ETF Trust II; Goldman
Sachs Credit Income Fund; and Goldman Sachs Real Estate
Diversified Income Fund.
Christopher Bradford
30 Hudson Street
Jersey City, NJ 07302
Age: 41
Vice President
Since 2020
Vice President, Goldman Sachs (January 2014–Present).
Vice President—Goldman Sachs Trust; Goldman Sachs Variable
Insurance Trust; Goldman Sachs Trust II; Goldman Sachs ETF Trust;
Goldman Sachs ETF Trust II; Goldman Sachs MLP and Energy
Renaissance Fund; Goldman Sachs Real Estate Diversified
Income Fund; and Goldman Sachs Credit Income Fund.
B-50

Name, Age
and Address
Position(s) Held
with the Trust
Term of Office and
Length of Time
Served1
Principal Occupation(s) During Past 5 Years
Kenneth Cawley
71 South Wacker Drive
Chicago, IL 60606
Age: 53
Vice President
Since 2021
Managing Director, Goldman Sachs (2017 – Present), Vice President
(December 1999–2017); Associate (December 1996–December 1999);
Associate, Discover Financial (August 1994–December 1996).
Vice President—Goldman Sachs Trust; Goldman Sachs Variable
Insurance Trust; and Goldman Sachs Trust II.
TP Enders
200 West Street
New York, NY 10282
Age: 53
Vice President
Since 2021
Managing Director, Goldman Sachs (January 2012–Present); Vice
President, Goldman Sachs (April 2004–December 2011).
Vice President—Goldman Sachs Trust; Goldman Sachs Variable
Insurance Trust; Goldman Sachs Trust II; Goldman Sachs ETF Trust;
Goldman Sachs ETF Trust II; Goldman Sachs MLP and Energy
Renaissance Fund; Goldman Sachs Credit Income Fund; and Goldman
Sachs Real Estate Diversified Income Fund.
Anney Chi
200 West Street
New York, NY 10282
Age: 39
Vice President
Since 2022
Vice President, Goldman Sachs (2014–Present).
Vice President—Goldman Sachs Trust; Goldman Sachs Variable
Insurance Trust; Goldman Sachs Trust II; Goldman Sachs ETF Trust;
Goldman Sachs ETF Trust II; Goldman Sachs MLP and Energy
Renaissance Fund; and Goldman Sachs Real Estate Diversified
Income Fund.
Frank Murphy
200 West Street
New York, NY 10282
Age: 48
Vice President
Since 2019
Managing Director, Goldman Sachs (2015 – Present); Vice President,
Goldman Sachs (2003 – 2014); Associate, Goldman Sachs (2001 –
2002); and Analyst, Goldman Sachs (1999 – 2001).
Vice President—Goldman Sachs Trust; and Goldman Sachs Variable
Insurance Trust.
Caroline L. Kraus
200 West Street
New York, NY 10282
Age: 45
Secretary
Since 2012
Managing Director, Goldman Sachs (January 2016–Present); Vice
President, Goldman Sachs (August 2006–December 2015); Senior
Counsel, Goldman Sachs (January 2020–Present); Associate General
Counsel, Goldman Sachs (2012–December 2019); Assistant General
Counsel, Goldman Sachs (August 2006–December 2011); and
Associate, Weil, Gotshal & Manges, LLP (2002–2006).
Secretary—Goldman Sachs Trust (previously Assistant Secretary
(2012)); Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust (previously Assistant
Secretary (2012)); Goldman Sachs Trust II; Goldman Sachs BDC, Inc.;
Goldman Sachs Private Middle Market Credit LLC; Goldman Sachs
Private Middle Market Credit II LLC; Goldman Sachs Middle Market
Lending Corp.; Goldman Sachs MLP and Energy Renaissance Fund;
Goldman Sachs ETF Trust; Goldman Sachs ETF Trust II; Goldman
Sachs Credit Income Fund; and Goldman Sachs Real Estate
Diversified Income Fund.
B-51

Name, Age
and Address
Position(s) Held
with the Trust
Term of Office and
Length of Time
Served1
Principal Occupation(s) During Past 5 Years
David A. Fishman
200 West Street
New York, NY 10282
Age: 58
Assistant
Secretary
Since 2001
Managing Director, Goldman Sachs (December 2001 – Present); and
Vice President, Goldman Sachs (1997 – December 2001).
Assistant Secretary—Goldman Sachs Trust; and Goldman Sachs
Variable Insurance Trust.
Shaun Cullinan
200 West Street
New York, NY 10282
Age: 43
Assistant
Secretary
Since 2018
Managing Director, Goldman Sachs (2018 – Present); Vice President,
Goldman Sachs (2009 – 2017); Associate, Goldman Sachs (2006 –
2008); Analyst, Goldman Sachs (2004 – 2005).
Assistant Secretary—Goldman Sachs Trust; Goldman Sachs Variable
Insurance Trust; and Goldman Sachs Trust II.

1
Officers hold office at the pleasure of the Board of Trustees or until their successors are duly elected and qualified. Each officer holds comparable positions with certain other companies of which Goldman Sachs, GSAM or an affiliate thereof is the investment adviser, administrator and/or distributor.
Standing Board Committees
The Audit Committee oversees the audit process and provides assistance to the Board with respect to fund accounting, tax compliance and financial statement matters. In performing its responsibilities, the Audit Committee selects and recommends annually to the Board an independent registered public accounting firm to audit the books and records of the Trust for the ensuing year, and reviews with the firm the scope and results of each audit. All of the Independent Trustees serve on the Audit Committee and Mr. Weaver serves as Chair of the Audit Committee. The Audit Committee held four meetings during the fiscal year ended November 30, 2022.
The Governance and Nominating Committee has been established to: (i) assist the Board in matters involving mutual fund governance, which includes making recommendations to the Board with respect to the effectiveness of the Board in carrying out its responsibilities in governing the Funds and overseeing the Funds' management; (ii) select and nominate candidates for appointment or election to serve as Independent Trustees; and (iii) advise the Board on ways to improve its effectiveness. All of the Independent Trustees serve on the Governance and Nominating Committee. The Governance and Nominating Committee held three meetings during the fiscal year ended November 30, 2022. As stated above, each Trustee holds office for an indefinite term until the occurrence of certain events. In filling Board vacancies, the Governance and Nominating Committee will consider nominees recommended by shareholders. Nominee recommendations should be submitted to the Trust at its mailing address stated in the Funds' Prospectuses and should be directed to the attention of the Goldman Sachs Trust Governance and Nominating Committee.
The Compliance Committee has been established for the purpose of overseeing the compliance processes: (i) of the Funds; and (ii) insofar as they relate to services provided to the Funds, of the Funds' Investment Adviser, Distributor, administrator (if any), and Transfer Agent, except that compliance processes relating to the accounting and financial reporting processes, and certain related matters, are overseen by the Audit Committee. In addition, the Compliance Committee provides assistance to the full Board with respect to compliance matters. The Compliance Committee met six times during the fiscal year ended November 30, 2022. All of the Independent Trustees serve on the Compliance Committee.
The Contract Review Committee has been established for the purpose of overseeing the processes of the Board for reviewing and monitoring performance under the Funds' investment management, distribution, transfer agency and certain other agreements with the Funds' Investment Adviser and its affiliates. The Contract Review Committee is also responsible for overseeing the Board’s processes for considering and reviewing performance under the operation of the Funds' distribution, service, shareholder administration and other plans, and any agreements related to the plans, whether or not such plans and agreements are adopted pursuant to Rule 12b-1 under the Act. The Contract Review Committee also provides appropriate assistance to the Board in connection with the Board’s approval, oversight and review of the Funds' other service providers including, without limitation, the Funds' custodian/accounting agent, sub-transfer agents, professional (legal and accounting) firms and printing firms. The Contract
B-52

Review Committee met two times during the fiscal year ended November 30, 2022. All of the Independent Trustees serve on the Contract Review Committee.
Risk Oversight
The Board is responsible for the oversight of the activities of the Funds, including oversight of risk management. Day-to-day risk management with respect to the Funds is the responsibility of GSAM or other service providers (depending on the nature of the risk), subject to supervision by GSAM. The risks of the Funds include, but are not limited to, liquidity risk, investment risk, derivatives risk, compliance risk, operational risk, reputational risk, credit risk and counterparty risk. Each of GSAM and the other service providers have their own independent interest in risk management and their policies and methods of risk management may differ from the Funds and each other’s in the setting of priorities, the resources available or the effectiveness of relevant controls. As a result, the Board recognizes that it is not possible to identify all of the risks that may affect the Funds or to develop processes and controls to eliminate or mitigate their occurrence or effects, and that some risks are simply beyond the control of the Funds or GSAM, its affiliates or other service providers.
The Board effectuates its oversight role primarily through regular and special meetings of the Board and Board committees. In certain cases, risk management issues are specifically addressed in reports, presentations and discussions. For example, on an annual basis, GSAM (or personnel from GSAM) will provide the Board with written reports that address the operation, adequacy and effectiveness of the Trust’s liquidity risk management and derivatives risk management programs, which are generally designed to assess and manage liquidity risk and, for Full Compliance Funds, derivatives risk. GSAM also has a risk management team that assists GSAM in managing investment risk. Representatives from the risk management team meet regularly with the Board to discuss their analysis and methodologies. In addition, investment risk is discussed in the context of regular presentations to the Board on Fund strategy and performance. Other types of risk are addressed as part of presentations on related topics (e.g. compliance policies) or in the context of presentations focused specifically on one or more risks. The Board also receives reports from GSAM management on operational risks, reputational risks and counterparty risks relating to the Funds.
Board oversight of risk management is also performed by various Board committees. For example, the Audit Committee meets with both the Funds' independent registered public accounting firm and GSAM’s internal audit group to review risk controls in place that support the Funds as well as test results, and the Compliance Committee meets with the CCO and representatives of GSAM’s compliance group to review testing results of the Funds' compliance policies and procedures and other compliance issues. Board oversight of risk is also performed as needed between meetings through communications between GSAM and the Board. The Board may, at any time and in its discretion, change the manner in which it conducts risk oversight. The Board’s oversight role does not make the Board a guarantor of the Funds' investments or activities.
Trustee Ownership of Fund Shares
The following table shows the dollar range of shares beneficially owned by each Trustee in the Funds and other portfolios of the Goldman Sachs Fund Complex as of December 31, 2022, unless otherwise noted.
Name of
Trustee
Dollar
Range
of
Equity
Securities
in the
Funds(1)
Aggregate Dollar Range of Equity Securities in All Portfolios in Fund Complex Overseen By Trustee
Gregory
G.Weaver
MLP
Energy
Infrastructure Fund:
Over
$100,000
Over $100,000
Dwight
L.
Bush
None
None
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Name of
Trustee
Dollar
Range
of
Equity
Securities
in the
Funds(1)
Aggregate Dollar Range of Equity Securities in All Portfolios in Fund Complex Overseen By Trustee
Kathryn
A.
Cassidy
None
Over $100,000
John
G.
Chou(2)
None
None
Joaquin
Delgado
None
Over $100,000
Eileen
H.
Dowling
None
Over $100,000
Paul C.
Wirth(2)
None
Over $100,000
James
A.
McNamara
None
Over $100,000

(1)
Includes the value of shares beneficially owned by each Trustee in each Fund described in this SAI.
(2)
Mr. Chou and Mr. Wirth began serving as Trustees effective April 12, 2022.
As of February 28, 2023, the Trustees and Officers of the Trust as a group owned less than 1% of the outstanding shares of beneficial interest of the Funds.
Board Compensation
Each Independent Trustee is compensated with a unitary annual fee for his or her services as a Trustee of the Trust and as a member of the Governance and Nominating Committee, Compliance Committee, Contract Review Committee, and Audit Committee. The Chair and “audit committee financial expert” receive additional compensation for their services. The Independent Trustees are also reimbursed for reasonable travel expenses incurred in connection with attending meetings. The Trust may also pay the reasonable incidental costs of a Trustee to attend training or other types of conferences relating to the investment company industry.
The following table sets forth certain information with respect to the compensation of each Trustee of the Trust for the fiscal year ended November 30, 2022:
Trustee Compensation
Name of
Trustee
Aggregate Compensation
from the MLP Energy
Infrastructure Fund
Aggregate Compensation
from the Energy
Infrastructure Fund
Aggregate Compensation
from the Clean Energy
Income Fund
Pension or Retirement
Benefits Accrued as Part
of the Trust’s Expenses
Total Compensation From
Fund Complex (including
the Funds)*
Gregory G.
Weaver(1)
$3,430
$3,214
$3,210
$0
$419,500
Dwight L.
Bush
$2,915
$2,732
$2,728
$0
$356,000
Kathryn A.
Cassidy
$2,915
$2,732
$2,728
$0
$356,000
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Name of
Trustee
Aggregate Compensation
from the MLP Energy
Infrastructure Fund
Aggregate Compensation
from the Energy
Infrastructure Fund
Aggregate Compensation
from the Clean Energy
Income Fund
Pension or Retirement
Benefits Accrued as Part
of the Trust’s Expenses
Total Compensation From
Fund Complex (including
the Funds)*
John G.
Chou(2)
$1,506
$1,408
$1,401
$0
$180,500
Diana M.
Daniels(3)
$2,915
$2,732
$2,728
$0
$356,000
Joaquin
Delgado
$2,915
$2,732
$2,728
$0
$356,000
Eileen H.
Dowling
$2,915
$2,732
$2,728
$0
$356,000
Jessica
Palmer(3)(4)
$4,369
$4,093
$4,088
$0
$533,500
Roy W.
Templin(5)
$2,041
$1,914
$1,913
$0
$250,874
Paul C.
Wirth(2)
$1,506
$1,408
$1,401
$0
$180,500
James A.
McNamara(6)
$
$
$
$
$

*
Represents fees paid to each Trustee during the fiscal year ended November 30, 2022, from the Goldman Sachs Fund Complex.
(1)
Includes compensation as audit committee financial expert,” as defined in Item 3 of Form N-CSR.
(2)
Mr. Chou and Mr. Wirth began serving as Trustees effective April 12, 2022.
(3)
Ms. Daniels and Ms. Palmer retired from the Board of Trustees effective January 1, 2023.
(4)
Includes compensation as Board Chair.
(5)
Mr. Templin retired from the Board of Trustees effective June 30, 2022.
(6)
Mr. McNamara is an Interested Trustee, and as such, receives no compensation from the Funds or the Goldman Sachs Fund Complex.
Miscellaneous
The Trust, the Investment Adviser and principal underwriter have adopted codes of ethics under Rule 17j-1 of the Act that permit personnel subject to their particular codes of ethics to invest in securities, including securities that may be purchased or held by the Funds.
MANAGEMENT SERVICES
As stated in the Funds’ Prospectuses, GSAM, 200 West Street, New York, New York 10282 serves as Investment Adviser to the Funds. GSAM is an indirect, wholly-owned subsidiary of The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. and an affiliate of Goldman Sachs. See “Service Providers” in the Funds’ Prospectuses for a description of the Investment Adviser’s duties to the Funds.
Founded in 1869, The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. is a publicly-held financial holding company and a leading global investment banking, securities and investment management firm. Goldman Sachs is a leader in developing portfolio strategies and in many fields of investing and financing, participating in financial markets worldwide and serving individuals, institutions, corporations and governments. Goldman Sachs is also among the principal market sources for current and thorough information on companies, industrial sectors, markets, economies and currencies, and trades and makes markets in a wide range of equity and debt securities 24 hours a day. The firm is headquartered in New York with offices in countries throughout the world. It has trading professionals throughout the United States, as well as in London, Frankfurt, Tokyo, Seoul, Sao Paulo and other major financial centers around the world. The active participation of Goldman Sachs in the world’s financial markets enhances its ability to identify attractive investments. Goldman Sachs has agreed to permit the Funds to use the name “Goldman Sachs” or a derivative thereof as part of the Funds’ names for as long as the Funds’ Management Agreement (as described below) is in effect.
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The Funds’ management agreement (the “Management Agreement”) provides that GSAM, in its capacity as Investment Adviser, may render similar services to others so long as the services under the Management Agreement are not impaired thereby. The Funds’ Management Agreements were most recently approved by the Trustees of the Trust, including a majority of the Trustees of the Trust who are not parties to such agreement or “interested persons” (as such term is defined in the Act) of any party thereto (the “non-interested Trustees”), on June 14-15, 2022. The Management Agreement was approved by the initial sole shareholder of the Funds prior to the Funds’ commencement of operations. A discussion regarding the Trustees’ basis for approving the Management Agreement for each Fund is available in that Fund’s annual report for the period ended November 30, 2022.
The Funds’ Management Agreement will remain in effect until June 30, 2023 and will continue in effect with respect to each Fund from year to year thereafter provided such continuance is specifically approved at least annually as set forth in the Management Agreement.
The Management Agreement will terminate automatically if assigned (as defined in the Act). The Management Agreement is also terminable at any time without penalty by the Trustees of the Trust or by vote of a majority of the outstanding voting securities of a Fund on 60 days’ written notice to the Investment Adviser or by the Investment Adviser on 60 days’ written notice to the Trust.
Pursuant to the Management Agreement, the Investment Adviser is entitled to receive the fees set forth below, payable monthly based on the Funds’ average daily net assets. Also included below are the actual management fee rates paid by the Funds (after reflection of any management fee waivers, as indicated in the Funds’ prospectuses) for the fiscal year ended November 30, 2022. The Actual Rate may not correlate to the Contractual Rate as a result of the management fee waivers that may be in effect from time to time. The Investment Adviser may waive a portion of its management fee payable by a Fund in an amount equal to any management fees it earns as an investment adviser to any of the affiliated funds in which the Fund invests.
Fund
Contractual Rate
Actual Rate for the Fiscal
Year Ended November 30, 2022
MLP Energy Infrastructure Fund
1.00% on the first $1 billion
0.97%
 
0.90% on the next $1 billion
 
 
0.86% on the next $3 billion
 
 
0.84% on the next $3 billion
 
 
0.82% over $8 billion
 
Energy Infrastructure Fund
1.00% on the first $1 billion
1.00%
 
0.90% on the next $1 billion
 
 
0.86% on the next $3 billion
 
 
0.84% on the next $3 billion
 
 
0.82% over $8 billion
 
Clean Energy Income Fund
0.80% on the first $1 billion
0.80%
 
0.72% on the next $1 billion
 
 
0.68% on the next $3 billion
 
 
0.67% on the next $3 billion
 
 
0.66% over $8 billion
 
For the fiscal years ended November 30, 2022, November 30, 2021 and November 30, 2020, the amounts of the fees incurred by the Funds under the Management Agreement were as follows (with and without the fee limitations that were then in effect):
 
Fiscal Year ended
November 30, 2022
Fiscal Year ended
November 30, 2021
Fiscal Year ended
November 30, 2020
Fund
With Fee
Waiver
Without Fee
Waiver
With Fee
Waiver
Without Fee
Waiver
With Fee
Waiver
Without Fee
Waiver
MLP Energy Infrastructure Fund
$13,292,199
$13,295,280
$11,569,677
$11,574,929
$10,596,890
$10,607,099
Energy Infrastructure Fund
$3,819,922
$3,821,318
$2,870,665
$2,871,385
$1,634,301
$1,636,804
Clean Energy Income Fund1
$2,819,498
$2,820,885
$2,943,374
$2,943,936
$163,434
$163,829
1
The Clean Energy Income Fund commenced operations on June 26, 2020.
B-56

Unless required to be performed by others pursuant to agreements with a Fund, the Investment Adviser also performs certain administrative services for the Funds under the Management Agreement. Such administrative services include, subject to the general supervision of the Trustees of the Trust, (i) providing supervision of all aspects of the Funds’ non-investment operations; (ii) providing the Funds with personnel to perform such executive, administrative and clerical services as are reasonably necessary to provide effective administration of the Funds; (iii) arranging for, at the Funds’ expense, the preparation of all of the Funds’ required tax returns, the preparation and submission of reports to existing shareholders, the periodic updating of the Funds’ prospectus and statement of additional information, and the preparation of reports filed with the SEC and other regulatory authorities; (iv) maintaining all of the Funds’ records; and (v) providing the Funds with adequate office space and all necessary office equipment and services.
Legal Proceedings. On October 22, 2020, The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. announced a settlement of matters involving 1Malaysia Development Bhd. (1MDB), a Malaysian sovereign wealth fund, with the United States Department of Justice as well as criminal and civil authorities in the United Kingdom, Singapore and Hong Kong. Further information regarding the 1MDB settlement can be found at https://www.goldmansachs.com/media-relations/press-releases/current/goldman-sachs-2020-10-22.html. The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. previously entered into a settlement agreement with the Government of Malaysia and 1MDB to resolve all criminal and regulatory proceedings in Malaysia relating to 1MDB.
The Investment Adviser, Goldman Sachs and certain of their affiliates have received exemptive relief from the SEC to permit them to continue serving as investment adviser and principal underwriter for U.S.-registered investment companies.
Portfolio Managers — Other Accounts Managed by the Portfolio Managers
The following table discloses other accounts within each type of category listed below for which the portfolio managers are jointly and primarily responsible for day to day portfolio management, as of November 30, 2022, unless otherwise noted.
For each portfolio manager listed below, the total number of accounts managed is a reflection of accounts within the strategy they oversee or manage, as well as accounts which participate in the sector in which they manage. There are multiple portfolio managers involved with each account.
Name of Portfolio Manager
Number of Accounts Managed
and Total Assets by
Account Type
Number of Accounts and
Total Assets for Which
Advisory Fee is
Performance Based
Registered
Investment
Companies
Other Pooled Investment
Vehicles
Other Accounts
Registered
Investment
Companies
Other Pooled Investment
Vehicles
Other Accounts
Number
of
Accounts
Assets Managed
Number
of
Accounts
Assets Managed
Number
of
Accounts
Assets Managed
Number
of
Accounts
Assets Managed
Number
of
Accounts
Assets Managed
Number
of
Accounts
Assets Managed
Kyri Loupis
3
$2,167
3
$192
988
$1,756
0
$0
0
$0
0
$0
Matthew Cooper
3
$2,167
0
$0
964
$1,730
0
$0
0
$0
0
$0
Ben Okin
1
$314
1
$14
3
$30
0
$0
0
$0
0
$0
Vikrum Vora
1
$314
1
$14
3
$30
0
$0
0
$0
0
$0
Kristin Kuney
6
$1,338
8
$889
21
$846
0
$0
0
$0
0
$0
Christopher A. Schiesser
2
$647
3
$192
0
$0
0
$0
0
$0
0
$0
Akif Irfan
2
$1.591
0
$0
24
$24
0
$0
0
$0
0
$0
Assets are preliminary, in millions of USD, as of November 30, 2022.
Conflicts of Interest. The Investment Adviser’s portfolio managers are often responsible for managing the Funds as well as other accounts, including proprietary accounts, separate accounts and other pooled investment vehicles, such as unregistered hedge funds. A portfolio manager may manage a separate account or other pooled investment vehicle which may have materially higher fee arrangements than a Fund and may also have a performance-based fee. The side-by-side management of these funds may raise potential conflicts of interest relating to cross trading, the allocation of investment opportunities and the aggregation and allocation of trades.
B-57

The Investment Adviser has a fiduciary responsibility to manage all client accounts in a fair and equitable manner. The Investment Adviser seeks to provide best execution of all securities transactions and aggregate and then allocate securities to client accounts in a fair and timely manner. To this end, the Investment Adviser has developed policies and procedures designed to mitigate and manage the potential conflicts of interest that may arise from side-by-side management. In addition, the Investment Adviser and the Funds have adopted policies limiting the circumstances under which cross-trades may be effected between a Fund and another client account. The Investment Adviser conducts periodic reviews of trades for consistency with these policies. For more information about conflicts of interests that may arise in connection with the portfolio managers’ management of the Funds’ investments and the investments of other accounts, see “POTENTIAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST.”
Portfolio Managers — Compensation
Compensation for portfolio managers of the Investment Adviser is comprised of a base salary and year-end discretionary variable compensation. The base salary is fixed from year to year. Year-end discretionary variable compensation is primarily a function of each portfolio manager’s individual performance and his or her contribution to overall team performance; the performance of GSAM and Goldman Sachs; the team’s net revenues for the past year which in part is derived from advisory fees, and for certain accounts, performance-based fees; and anticipated compensation levels among competitor firms. Portfolio managers are rewarded, in part, for their delivery of investment performance, which is reasonably expected to meet or exceed the expectations of clients and fund shareholders in terms of: excess return over an applicable benchmark, peer group ranking, risk management and factors specific to certain funds such as yield or regional focus. Performance is judged over 1-, 3- and 5-year time horizons.
For compensation purposes, the benchmark for the Goldman Sachs MLP Energy Infrastructure Fund is the Alerian MLP Index (Total Return), the benchmark for the Goldman Sachs Energy Infrastructure Fund is the Alerian Midstream Energy Select Index (Total Return, Unhedged, USD) and the benchmarks for the Goldman Sachs Clean Energy Income Fund are the Eagle North American Renewables Infrastructure Index, Indxx Yieldco and Renewable Energy Income Index, and Eagle Global Renewables Infrastructure Index.
The discretionary variable compensation for portfolio managers is also significantly influenced by various factors, including: (1) effective participation in team research discussions and process; and (2) management of risk in alignment with the targeted risk parameters and investment objectives of a Fund. Other factors may also be considered including: (1) general client/shareholder orientation and (2) teamwork and leadership.
As part of their year-end discretionary variable compensation and subject to certain eligibility requirements, portfolio managers may receive deferred equity-based and similar awards, in the form of: (1) shares of The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. (restricted stock units); and (2) for certain portfolio managers, performance-tracking (or “phantom”) shares of a Fund or multiple funds. Performance-tracking shares are designed to provide a rate of return (net of fees) equal to that of the Fund(s) that a portfolio manager manages, or one or more other eligible funds, as determined by senior management, thereby aligning portfolio manager compensation with fund shareholder interests. The awards are subject to vesting requirements, deferred payment and clawback and forfeiture provisions. GSAM, Goldman Sachs or their affiliates expect, but are not required to, hedge the exposure of the performance-tracking shares of a Fund by, among other things, purchasing shares of the relevant Fund(s).
Other Compensation. In addition to base salary and year-end discretionary variable compensation, the Investment Adviser has a number of additional benefits in place including (1) a 401(k) program that enables employees to direct a percentage of their base salary and bonus income into a tax-qualified retirement plan; and (2) investment opportunity programs in which certain professionals may participate subject to certain eligibility requirements.
B-58

Portfolio Managers — Portfolio Managers’ Ownership of Securities in the Funds
The following table shows the portfolio managers’ ownership of securities, including those beneficially owned as well as those owned pursuant to the deferred compensation plan discussed above, in the Funds as of November 30, 2022:
Name of Portfolio Manager
Dollar Range of Equity Securities Beneficially Owned by Portfolio Manager
MLP Energy Infrastructure Fund
 
Kyri Loupis
$2,000,000+
Matthew Cooper
None
Christopher Schiesser
$50,001 - $100,000
Energy Infrastructure Fund
 
Kyri Loupis
$2,000,000+
Matthew Cooper
None
Akif Irfan
None
Clean Energy Income Fund
 
Ben Okin
None
Vikrum Vora
$1 - $10,000
Kristin Kuney
$50,001 - $100,000
Distributor and Transfer Agent
Distributor. Goldman Sachs, 200 West Street, New York, New York 10282, serves as the exclusive distributor of shares of the Funds pursuant to a “best efforts” arrangement as provided by a distribution agreement with the Trust on behalf of the Funds. Shares of the Funds are offered and sold on a continuous basis by Goldman Sachs, acting as agent. Pursuant to the distribution agreement, after the Prospectuses and periodic reports have been prepared, set in type and mailed to shareholders, Goldman Sachs will pay for the printing and distribution of copies thereof used in connection with the offering to prospective investors. Goldman Sachs will also pay for other supplementary sales literature and advertising costs. Goldman Sachs may enter into sales agreements with certain Intermediaries to solicit subscriptions for Class A, Class C, Investor, Class R, Class R6 and Class P Shares of the Funds. Goldman Sachs receives a portion of the sales charge imposed on the sale, in the case of Class A Shares, or redemption, in the case of Class C Shares (and in certain cases, Class A Shares), of Fund shares.
Goldman Sachs retained approximately the following commissions on sales of Class A or Class C Shares during the last three fiscal years:
Fund
Fiscal Year ended
November 30, 2022
Fiscal Year ended
November 30, 2021
Fiscal Year ended
November 30, 2020
MLP Energy Infrastructure Fund
$2,995
$10,603
$16,499
Energy Infrastructure Fund
$5,704
$1,586
$0
Clean Energy Income Fund1
$5,673
$7,349
$165
1
The Clean Energy Income Fund commenced operations on June 26, 2020.
Dealer Reallowances. Class A Shares of the Funds are sold subject to a front-end sales charge, as described in the applicable Prospectus and in this SAI in the section “SHARES OF THE TRUST.” Goldman Sachs may pay commissions to Intermediaries that sell Class A Shares of the Funds in the form of a “reallowance” of all or a portion of the sales charge paid on the purchase of those shares. Goldman Sachs reallows 4.82% and 5.00% of the MLP Energy Infrastructure Fund’s and Clean Energy Income Fund’s offering prices, respectively, with respect to purchases of Class A Shares under $50,000.
Dealer allowances may be changed periodically. During special promotions, the entire sales charge may be reallowed to Intermediaries. Intermediaries to whom substantially the entire sales charge is reallowed may be deemed to be “underwriters” under the 1933 Act.
B-59

Transfer Agent. Goldman Sachs, P.O. Box 806395, Chicago, IL 60680-4125 serves as the Trust’s transfer and dividend disbursing agent. Under its transfer agency agreement with the Trust, Goldman Sachs has undertaken with the Trust with respect to the Funds to: (i) record the issuance, transfer and redemption of shares, (ii) provide purchase and redemption confirmations and quarterly statements, as well as certain other statements, (iii) provide certain information to the Trust’s custodian and the relevant sub-custodian in connection with redemptions, (iv) provide dividend crediting and certain disbursing agent services, (v) maintain shareholder accounts, (vi) provide certain state Blue Sky and other information, (vii) provide shareholders and certain regulatory authorities with tax related information, (viii) respond to shareholder inquiries, and (ix) render certain other miscellaneous services. For its transfer agency and dividend disbursing agent services, Goldman Sachs is entitled to receive a transfer agency fee equal, on an annualized basis, to 0.03% of average daily net assets with respect to the Funds’ Class R6 and Class P Shares, to 0.04% of average daily net assets with respect to the Funds’ Institutional Shares and 0.16% of average daily net assets with respect to the Funds’ Class A, Class C, Investor and Class R Shares (less transfer agency expenses borne by a share class). Goldman Sachs may pay to certain intermediaries who perform transfer agent services to shareholders a networking or sub-transfer agent fee. These payments will be made from the transfer agency fees noted above and in the Funds’ applicable Prospectus.
As compensation for services rendered to the Funds by Goldman Sachs as transfer and dividend disbursing agent and the assumption by Goldman Sachs of the expenses related thereto, Goldman Sachs received fees for the fiscal years ended November 30, 2022, November 30, 2021 and November 30, 2020 from the Funds as follows under the fee schedules then in effect:
Class A and C Shares*
Fund
Fiscal Year ended
November 30, 2022
Fiscal Year ended
November 30, 2021
Fiscal Year ended
November 30, 2020
MLP Energy Infrastructure Fund
$114,706
$105,915
$127,360
Energy Infrastructure Fund
$2,688
$737
$368
Clean Energy Income Fund1
$8,281
$8,322
$320
*
From July 1, 2019 through July 1, 2020, the fee for transfer agent and dividend disbursing agent services with respect to Class A and Class C Shares was 0.17%.
1
Class A and C Shares of the Clean Energy Income Fund commenced operations on June 26, 2020.
Institutional and Class R6 Shares
Fund
Fiscal Year ended
November 30, 2022