February 1, 2021
Calvert International Responsible Index Fund
Class A Shares - CDHAX Class I Shares - CDHIX Class R6 Shares - CDHRX
Calvert US Large-Cap Core Responsible Index Fund
Class A Shares - CSXAX Class C Shares - CSXCX Class I Shares - CISIX Class R6 Shares - CSXRX
Calvert US Large-Cap Growth Responsible Index Fund
Class A Shares - CGJAX Class I Shares - CGJIX
Calvert US Large-Cap Value Responsible Index Fund
Class A Shares - CFJAX Class I Shares - CFJIX
Calvert US Mid-Cap Core Responsible Index Fund
Class A Shares - CMJAX Class I Shares - CMJIX
Connecticut Avenue NW, Suite 400
Washington, DC 20009
This Statement of Additional Information (“SAI”) provides general information about the Funds. The Funds are diversified, open-end management investment companies. Each Fund is a series of Calvert Responsible Index Series, Inc. Capitalized terms used in this SAI and not otherwise defined have the meanings given to them in the Prospectus.
This SAI contains additional information about:
|Strategies and Risks||2||Sales Charges||19|
|Investment Restrictions||5||Disclosure of Portfolio Holdings and Related Information||21|
|Management and Organization||6||Taxes||22|
|Investment Advisory and Administrative Services||11||Portfolio Securities Transactions||32|
|Other Service Providers||14||Financial Statements||35|
|Calculation of Net Asset Value||17||Additional Information About Investment Strategies and Risks||35|
|Purchasing and Redeeming Shares||18|
|Appendix A: Class A Fees and Ownership||69||Appendix E: Ratings||73|
|Appendix B: Class C Fees and Ownership||70||Appendix F: Calvert Funds Proxy Voting Policy and Procedures||82|
|Appendix C: Class I Ownership||71||Appendix G: Adviser Proxy Voting Policies and Procedures||84|
|Appendix D: Class R6 Ownership||72|
Although each Fund offers only its shares of beneficial interest, it is possible that a Fund might become liable for a misstatement or omission in this SAI regarding another Fund because the Funds use this combined SAI.
This SAI is NOT a prospectus and is authorized for distribution to prospective investors only if preceded or accompanied by the Fund Prospectus dated February 1, 2021, as supplemented from time to time, which is incorporated herein by reference. This SAI should be read in conjunction with the Prospectus, which may be obtained by calling 1-800-368-2745.
© 2021 Calvert Research and Management
The following terms that may be used in this SAI have the meaning set forth below:
“1940 Act” means the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended;
“1933 Act” means the Securities Act of 1933, as amended;
“Board” means Board of Trustees or Board of Directors, as applicable;
“Calvert family of funds” means all registered investment companies advised or administered by Calvert Research and Management (“CRM”, “Calvert”, the “Adviser” or the “investment adviser”);
“Calvert funds” means the mutual funds advised by CRM;
“CEA” means Commodity Exchange Act;
“CFTC” means the Commodity Futures Trading Commission;
“Code” means the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended;
“Exchange” means the New York Stock Exchange;
“FINRA” means the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority;
“Fund” means the Fund or Funds listed on the cover of this SAI unless stated otherwise;
“investment adviser” means the investment adviser identified in the prospectus and, with respect to the implementation of the Fund’s investment strategies (including as described under “Taxes”) and portfolio securities transactions, any sub-adviser identified in the prospectus to the extent that the sub-adviser has discretion to perform the particular duties;
“IRS” means the Internal Revenue Service;
“SEC” means the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission; and
“Corporation” means Calvert Responsible Index Series, Inc. of which each Fund is a series.
STRATEGIES AND RISKS
The Fund prospectus identifies the types of investments in which the Fund will principally invest in seeking its investment objective(s) and the principal risks associated therewith. The categories checked in the table below are all of the investments the Fund is permitted to make, including its principal investments and the investment practices the Fund (either directly or through one or more Portfolios as may be described in the prospectus) is permitted to engage in. To the extent that an investment type or practice listed below is not identified in the Fund prospectus as a principal investment strategy, the Fund generally expects to invest less than 5% of its total assets in such investment type. The Fund may hold a security or other instrument that is not otherwise identified as permissible if it is received through a corporate action. If a particular investment type or practice that is checked and listed below but not referred to in the prospectus becomes a more significant part of the Fund’s strategy, the prospectus may be amended to disclose that investment type or practice. Information about the various investment types and practices and the associated risks checked below is included in alphabetical order in this SAI under “Additional Information about Investment Strategies and Risks.”
As used in the table below and throughout this SAI:
“IRIF” refers to International Responsible Index Fund;
“USLCCRIF” refers to US Large-Cap Core Responsible Index Fund;
“USLCGRIF” refers to US Large-Cap Growth Responsible Index Fund
“USLCVRIF” refers to US Large-Cap Value Responsible Index Fund; and
“USMCCRIF” refers to US Mid-Cap Core Responsible Index Fund.
|Calvert Responsible Index Funds||2||SAI dated February 1, 2021|
|Permitted for or Relevant to:|
|Asset-Backed Securities (“ABS”)|
|Auction Rate Securities|
|Build America Bonds|
|Call and Put Features on Securities|
|Collateralized Mortgage Obligations (“CMOs”)|
|Commercial Mortgage-Backed Securities (“CMBS”)|
|Contingent Convertible Securities|
|Credit Linked Securities|
|Derivative Instruments and Related Risks||√||√||√||√||√|
|Derivative-Linked and Commodity-Linked Hybrid Instruments|
|Emerging Market Investments||√|
|Exchange-Traded Funds (“ETFs”)||√||√||√||√||√|
|Exchange-Traded Notes (“ETNs”)|
|Foreign Currency Transactions||√|
|Forward Foreign Currency Exchange Contracts||√|
|Forward Rate Agreements|
|High Social Impact Investments||√||√||√||√||√|
|Inflation-Indexed (or Inflation-Linked) Bonds|
|Liquidity or Protective Put Agreements|
|Lower Rated Investments|
|Calvert Responsible Index Funds||3||SAI dated February 1, 2021|
|Permitted for or Relevant to:|
|Master Limited Partnerships (“MLPs”)|
|Money Market Instruments||√||√||√||√||√|
|Mortgage-Backed Securities (“MBS”)|
|Mortgage Dollar Rolls|
|Municipal Lease Obligations (“MLOs”)|
|Pooled Investment Vehicles||√||√||√||√||√|
|Real Estate Investments|
|Residual Interest Bonds|
|Reverse Repurchase Agreements||√1||√1||√1||√1||√1|
|Rights and Warrants||√||√||√||√||√|
|Special Equities Investments|
|U.S. Government Securities||√||√||√||√||√|
|Variable Rate Instruments|
|Venture Capital Limited Partnerships||√||√||√||√||√|
|When-Issued Securities, Delayed Delivery and Forward Commitments|
|Zero Coupon Bonds, Deep Discount Bonds and Payment In-Kind (“PIK”) Securities|
|Calvert Responsible Index Funds||4||SAI dated February 1, 2021|
|Permitted for or Relevant to:|
|Other Disclosures Regarding Investment Practices||USLCCRIF||USLCGRIF||USLCVRIF||USMCCRIF||IRIF|
|Average Effective Maturity|
|Borrowing for Investment Purposes|
|Borrowing for Temporary Purposes||√||√||√||√||√|
|Credit Spread Trades|
|Cyber Security Risk||√||√||√||√||√|
|LIBOR Transition and Associated Risk||√||√||√||√||√|
|Participation in the ReFlow Liquidity Program||√||√||√||√||√|
|Significant Exposure to the Banking Industry|
|Significant Exposure to Global Energy Solutions Companies|
|Significant Exposure to Smaller Companies|
|Significant Exposure to Water Companies|
|1||The Fund may invest up to 10% of its net assets in reverse repurchase agreements.|
The following investment restrictions of each Fund are designated as fundamental policies and as such cannot be changed without the approval of the holders of a majority of a Fund’s outstanding voting securities, which as used in this SAI means the lesser of: (a) 67% of the shares of a Fund present or represented by proxy at a meeting if the holders of more than 50% of the outstanding shares are present or represented at the meeting; or (b) more than 50% of the outstanding shares of a Fund. Accordingly, each Fund may not:
|1.||Make any investment inconsistent with its classification as a diversified investment company under the 1940 Act.|
|2.||Concentrate its investments in the securities of issuers primarily engaged in any particular industry or group of industries (other than securities issued or guaranteed by the U.S. Government or its agencies or instrumentalities and repurchase agreements secured thereby).|
|3.||Issue senior securities or borrow money, except from banks and through reverse repurchase agreements in an amount up to 33 1/3% of the value of the Fund’s total assets (including the amount borrowed).|
|4.||Underwrite the securities of other issuers, except to the extent that, in connection with the disposition of portfolio securities, or from an underwriter for an issuer, may be deemed to be an underwriting.|
|5.||Invest directly in commodities or real estate, although a Fund may invest in securities which are secured by real estate or real estate mortgages and securities of issuers which invest or deal in commodities, commodity futures, real estate or real estate mortgages.|
|Calvert Responsible Index Funds||5||SAI dated February 1, 2021|
|6.||Lend any security or make any loan, including engaging in repurchase agreements, if as a result, more than 33 1/3% of the Fund’s total assets would be loaned to other parties, except through the purchase of debt securities or other debt instruments.|
Under current law, a diversified investment company, with respect to 75% of its total assets, can invest no more than 5% of its total assets in the securities of any one issuer and may not acquire more than 10% of the voting securities of any issuer.
Under the interpretation of the SEC staff, “concentrate” means to invest 25% or more of total assets in the securities of issuers primarily engaged in any one industry or group of industries.
The following nonfundamental investment policy has been adopted by each Fund. A nonfundamental investment policy may be changed by the Board with respect to a Fund without approval by the Fund’s shareholders. Each Fund will not make short sales of securities or maintain a short position, unless at all times when a short position is open (i) it owns an equal amount of such securities or securities convertible into or exchangeable, without payment of any further consideration, for securities of the same issue as, and equal in amount to, the securities sold short or (ii) it holds in a segregated account cash or other liquid securities (to the extent required under the 1940 Act) in an amount equal to the current market value of the securities sold short.
In addition, to the extent a registered open-end investment company acquires securities of a fund in reliance on Section 12(d)(1)(G) under the 1940 Act, such acquired fund shall not acquire any securities of a registered open-end investment company in reliance on Sections 12(d)(1)(F) or 12(d)(1)(G) under the 1940 Act.
Each Fund’s borrowing policy is consistent with the 1940 Act and guidance of the SEC or its staff, and will comply with any applicable SEC exemptive order.
Whenever an investment policy or investment restriction set forth in the Prospectus or this SAI states a requirement with respect to the percentage of assets that may be invested in any security or other asset, or describes a policy regarding quality standards, such percentage limitation or standard shall be determined immediately after and as a result of the acquisition by a Fund of such security or asset. Accordingly, unless otherwise noted, any later increase or decrease resulting from a change in values, assets or other circumstances or any subsequent rating change made by a rating service (or as determined by the investment adviser if the security is not rated by a rating agency), will not compel a Fund to dispose of such security or other asset. However, a Fund must always be in compliance with the borrowing policy set forth above.
MANAGEMENT AND ORGANIZATION
Fund Management. The Directors of the Corporation are responsible for the overall management and supervision of the affairs of the Corporation. The Board members and officers of the Corporation are listed below. Except as indicated, each individual has held the office shown or other offices in the same company for the last five years. Each Board member holds office until his or her successor is elected and qualified, or until his or her earlier death, resignation, retirement, removal or disqualification. Under the terms of each Fund’s current Board member retirement policy, an Independent Board member must retire at the end of the calendar year in which he or she turns 75, However, if such retirement would cause a Fund to be out of compliance with Section 16 of the 1940 Act or any other regulations or guidance of the SEC, then such retirement will not become effective until such time as action has been taken for each Fund to be in compliance therewith. The “noninterested Directors” consist of those Directors who are not “interested persons” of the Corporation, as that term is defined under the 1940 Act. The business address of each Board member and the Chief Compliance Officer is 1825 Connecticut Avenue, NW, Suite 400, Washington, DC 20009 and the business address of the Secretary, Vice President and Chief Legal Officer and the Treasurer is Two International Place, Boston, Massachusetts 02110. As used in this SAI, “CRM” refers to Calvert Research and Management, “Eaton Vance” refers to Eaton Vance Management, “EVC” refers to Eaton Vance Corp., “EV” refers to Eaton Vance, Inc., and “EVD” refers to Eaton Vance Distributors, Inc. (see “Principal Underwriter” under “Other Service Providers”). EVC and EV are the corporate parent and trustee, respectively, of CRM and Eaton Vance. Each officer affiliated with CRM may hold a position with other CRM affiliates that is comparable to his or her position with CRM listed below.
|Calvert Responsible Index Funds||6||SAI dated February 1, 2021|
|Name and Year of Birth||Corporation Position(s)||Length of Service||Principal
Occupation(s) During Past Five Years
and Other Relevant Experience
of Calvert Funds
in Fund Complex
During Last Five Years
|Director and President||Since 2015||President and Chief Executive Officer of Calvert Research and Management (since December 31, 2016); President and Chief Executive Officer of Calvert Investments, Inc. (January 2015-December 2016); Chief Executive Officer of Calvert Investments Distributors, Inc. (August 2015-December 2016); Chief Compliance Officer of Calvert Investment Management, Inc. (August 2015-April 2016); President and Director, Portfolio 21 Investments, Inc. (through October 2014); President, Chief Executive Officer and Director, Managers Investment Group LLC (through January 2012); President and Director, The Managers Funds and Managers AMG Funds (through January 2012). Mr. Streur is an interested person because of his positions with CRM and certain affiliates.||39||
Portfolio 21 Investments, Inc. (asset management) (through October 2014)
Managers Investment Group LLC (asset management) (through January 2012)
The Managers Funds (asset management) (through January 2012)
Managers AMG Funds (asset management) (through January 2012)
Calvert Impact Capital, Inc.
L. BAIRD, JR.
|Director||Since 2000||Regional Disaster Recovery Lead, American Red Cross of Greater Pennsylvania (since 2017). Volunteer, American Red Cross (since 2015). Former President and CEO of Adagio Health Inc. (retired in 2014) in Pittsburgh, PA.||39||None|
|Chair and Director||Since 2016||Professor Emerita at Howard University School of Law. Dean Emerita of Howard University School of Law and Deputy Director of the Association of American Law Schools (1992-1994).||39||None|
|Director||Since 2016||Former Chair of the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.||39||
Manpower, Inc. (employment agency)
Triple S Management Corporation (managed care)
National Association of Corporate Directors
|Calvert Responsible Index Funds||7||SAI dated February 1, 2021|
|Name and Year of Birth||Corporation Position(s)||Length of Service||Principal
Occupation(s) During Past Five Years
and Other Relevant Experience
of Calvert Funds
in Fund Complex
During Last Five Years
G. GUFFEY, JR.
|Director||Since 2000||President of Aurora Press Inc., a privately held publisher of trade paperbacks (since January 1997).||39||
Calvert Impact Capital, Inc. (through December 31, 2018)
Calvert Ventures, LLC
D. HARPER, III
|Director||Since 2005||Partner, Carr Riggs & Ingram (public accounting firm) since October 2014. Partner, Gainer Donnelly & Desroches (public accounting firm) (now Carr Riggs & Ingram), (November 1999-September 2014).||39||Bridgeway Funds (9) (asset management)|
Conduit Street Restaurants SUD 2 Limited
Palm Management Restaurant Corporation
|Director||Since 2016||CEO and Executive Director of the Federal City Council (July 2012 to present); Senior Adviser and Independent Consultant for King and Spalding LLP (September 2015 to present); Executive Director of Global Government Practice at the Corporate Executive Board (January 2010 to January 2012).||39||
Evoq Properties/Meruelo Maddux Properties, Inc. (real estate management)
Weston Solutions, Inc. (environmental services)
Bipartisan Policy Centers Debt Reduction Task Force
Chesapeake Bay Foundation
Catholic University of America
Urban Institute (research organization)
|Calvert Responsible Index Funds||8||SAI dated February 1, 2021|
|Principal Officers who are not Directors|
|Name and Year of Birth||Corporation Position(s)||Length of Service||Principal Occupation(s) During Past Five Years|
|Secretary, Vice President and Chief Legal Officer||Since 2016||Vice President of CRM and officer of 39 registered investment companies advised by CRM (since 2016). Also Vice President of Eaton Vance and certain of its affiliates and officer of 144 registered investment companies advised or administered by Eaton Vance.|
|Treasurer||Since 2016||Vice President of CRM and officer of 39 registered investment companies advised by CRM (since 2016). Also Vice President of Eaton Vance and certain of its affiliates and officer of 144 registered investment companies advised or administered by Eaton Vance.|
|Chief Compliance Officer||Since 2014||Chief Compliance Officer of 39 registered investment companies advised by CRM (since 2014). Vice President and Chief Compliance Officer, Wilmington Funds (2012-2014).|
The Board has general oversight responsibility with respect to the business and affairs of the Corporation and each Fund. The Board has engaged an investment adviser and (if applicable) a sub-adviser (collectively the “adviser”) to manage each Fund and an administrator to administer each Fund and is responsible for overseeing such adviser and administrator and other service providers to the Corporation and each Fund. The Board is currently composed of eight Directors, including seven Directors who are not “interested persons” of a Fund, as that term is defined in the 1940 Act (each a “noninterested Director”). In addition to four regularly scheduled meetings per year, the Board holds special meetings or informal conference calls to discuss specific matters that may require action prior to the next regular meeting. As discussed below, the Board has established two committees to assist the Board in performing its oversight responsibilities.
The Board has appointed a noninterested Director to serve in the role of Chairperson. The Chairperson’s primary role is to participate in the preparation of the agenda for meetings of the Board and the identification of information to be presented to the Board with respect to matters to be acted upon by the Board. The Chairperson also presides at all meetings of the Board and acts as a liaison with service providers, officers, attorneys, and other Board members generally between meetings. The Chairperson may perform such other functions as may be requested by the Board from time to time. Ms. Gresham Bullock serves as Chair of the Board as an “independent” Board member. Except for any duties specified herein or pursuant to the Corporation’s Articles of Incorporation or By-laws, the designation of Chairperson does not impose on such noninterested Director any duties, obligations or liability that is greater than the duties, obligations or liability imposed on such person as a member of the Board, generally.
The Board believes that each Director’s experience, qualifications, attributes or skills on an individual basis and in combination with those of the other Directors lead to the conclusion that the Directors possess the requisite experience, qualifications, attributes and skills to serve on the Board. The Board believes that the Directors’ ability to review critically, evaluation, question and discuss information provided to them with the Adviser, sub-advisers, if applicable, other service providers, legal counsel and independent public accountants; and to exercise effective business judgment in the performance of their duties as Directors, support this conclusion. The Board has also considered the contributions that each Director can make to the Board and the Funds. In addition, the following specific experience, qualifications, attributes and/or skills apply as to each Director: Mr. Baird, experiences as a chief executive officer of a non-profit corporation; Ms. Gresham Bullock, academic leadership experience, legal experience and experience as a board member of various organizations; Ms. Dominguez, experience as Chair of the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission and experience as a board member of various organizations; Mr. Guffey, experience as a director and officer of private companies and experience as a board member of various organizations; Mr. Harper, experience as a partner of a public accounting firm and experience as a board member of a mutual fund complex; Ms. Jones, legal experience and experience as a director of a private foundation; Mr. Williams, experience as the mayor of the District of Columbia and as a board member of various organizations; and Mr. Streur, leadership roles within the Adviser and experience building and managing investment management firms.
|Calvert Responsible Index Funds||9||SAI dated February 1, 2021|
The Fund’s Audit Committee approves and recommends to the Board the approval of independent public accountants to conduct the annual audit of the Fund’s financial statements; reviews with the independent public accountants the outline, scope, and results of the Fund’s annual audit; and reviews the performance of, and fees charged by, the independent public accountants for professional services. In addition, the Audit Committee meets with the Fund’s independent public accountants and representatives of Fund management, as applicable, to review accounting activities and areas of financial reporting and control. The following individuals are members of the Board’s Audit Committee: Messrs. Baird, Guffey, Harper, and Williams, and Mses. Gresham Bullock, Dominguez, and Jones. Mr. Harper serves as the Audit Committee Financial Expert. During the fiscal year ended September 30, 2020, the Audit Committee convened eleven times.
The Governance Committee of the Fund addresses matters of fund governance, including policies on Director compensation and on Board and committee structure and responsibilities. The functions of the Governance Committee of each Board also include those of a Nominating Committee -- e.g., the initiation and consideration of nominations for the appointment or election of independent Directors of the Boards, as applicable. When identifying and evaluating prospective nominees for vacancies on the Board, the Committee reviews all recommendations in the same manner, including those received from shareholders. See also “Process for Delivering Shareholder Communications to the Board of Directors” for additional restrictions. The Committee determines if the prospective nominee meets the specific qualifications set forth in the Committee’s charter, and any other qualifications deemed to be important by the Committee. During the fiscal year ended September 30, 2020, the Governance Committee convened four times.
The Board believes that diversity is an important attribute of a well-functioning board. The current Board is comprised of four white males, one African American male, two African American females and one Hispanic female. The Governance Committee is responsible for advising the Board upon request on matters of diversity, including race, gender, culture, thought, and geography; and for recommending, as necessary, measures contributing to a Board that, as a whole, reflects a range of viewpoints, backgrounds, skills, experience, and expertise. In the process of searching for qualified persons to serve on the Board, the Committee strives for the inclusion of diverse groups, knowledge, and viewpoints. To accomplish this, the Committee may retain an executive search firm to help meet the Committee’s diversity objective as well as form alliances with organizations representing the interests of women and minorities. In connection with its efforts to create and maintain a diverse Board, the Committee may develop recruitment protocols that seek to include diverse candidates in any director/trustee search. These protocols should: (i) take into account that qualified, but often overlooked, candidates may be found in a broad array of organizations, including academic institutions, privately held businesses, nonprofit organizations, and trade associations, in addition to the traditionally recognized candidate pool of public company directors and officers; (ii) strive to use the current network of organizations and trade groups that may help identify diverse candidates; and (iii) periodically review director/trustee recruitment and selection protocols so that diversity remains a component of any director/trustee search. The Committee shall, as it deems appropriate, periodically review Board composition to ensure that the Board reflects a balance of knowledge, experience, skills, expertise, and diversity, including racial and gender diversity, required for the Board to fulfill its duties. The following individuals serve as members of the Board’s Governance Committee: Messrs. Baird, Guffey, Harper, and Williams, and Mses. Gresham Bullock, Dominguez, and Jones.
An integral part of the Board’s overall responsibility for overseeing the management and operations of the Fund is the Board’s oversight of the risk management of the Fund’s investment programs and business affairs. The Fund is subject to a number of risks, such as investment risk, credit and counterparty risk, valuation risk, risk of operational failure or lack of business continuity, and legal, compliance and regulatory risk. The Fund, the Adviser, and other service providers to the Fund have implemented various processes, procedures and controls intended to identify and address risks to the Fund. Different processes, procedures and controls are employed with respect to different types of risks.
The Board exercises oversight of the risk management process primarily through the Audit Committee and through oversight by the Board itself. In addition to adopting, and periodically reviewing, policies and procedures designed to address risks to the Fund, the Board requires management of the Adviser and the Fund, including the Fund’s Chief Compliance Officer (“CCO”), to report to the Board and the Committees of the Board on a variety of matters, including matters relating to risk management, at regular and special meetings. The Board and the Audit Committee receive regular reports from the Fund’s independent public accountants on internal control and financial reporting matters. On at least a quarterly basis, the Independent Directors meet with the Fund’s CCO, including outside the presence of management, to discuss issues related to compliance. Furthermore, the Board receives a quarterly report from the Fund’s CCO regarding
|Calvert Responsible Index Funds||10||SAI dated February 1, 2021|
the operation of the compliance policies and procedures of the Fund and its primary service providers. The Board also receives regular reports from the Adviser on the investments and securities trading of the Fund, including its investment performance and asset weightings compared to appropriate benchmarks, as well as reports regarding the valuation of the Fund’s securities. The Board also receives reports from the Fund’s primary service providers regarding their operations as they relate to the Fund.
Share Ownership. The following table shows the dollar range of equity securities beneficially owned by each Director in each Fund and in the Calvert family of funds overseen by the Director as of December 31, 2020.
|Dollar Range of Equity Securities Beneficially Owned by|
Responsible Index Fund
Responsible Index Fund
Responsible Index Fund
Responsible Index Fund
Responsible Index Fund
of Equity Securities
in All Registered Funds
Overseen by Director in the
Calvert Family of Funds
|(3)||Includes shares which may be deemed to be beneficially owned through the Director Deferred Compensation Agreement.|
As of December 31, 2020, no noninterested Director or any of their immediate family members owned beneficially or of record any class of securities of EVC, EVD, any sub-adviser, if applicable, or any person controlling, controlled by or under common control with EVC or EVD or any sub-adviser, if applicable, collectively (“Affiliated Entity”).
During the calendar years ended December 31, 2019 and December 31, 2020, no noninterested Director (or their immediate family members) had:
|(1)||Any direct or indirect interest in any Affiliated Entity;|
|(2)||Any direct or indirect material interest in any transaction or series of similar transactions with (i) the Corporation or any fund; (ii) another fund managed or distributed by any Affiliated Entity; (iii) any Affiliated Entity; or (iv) an officer of any of the above; or|
|(3)||Any direct or indirect relationship with (i) the Corporation or any fund; (ii) another fund managed or distributed by any Affiliated Entity; (iii) any Affiliated Entity; or (iv) an officer of any of the above.|
During the calendar years ended December 31, 2019 and December 31, 2020, no officer of any Affiliated Entity served on the Board of Directors of a company where a noninterested Director of the Corporation or any of their immediate family members served as an officer.
|Calvert Responsible Index Funds||11||SAI dated February 1, 2021|
Noninterested Directors may elect to defer receipt of all or a percentage of their annual fees in accordance with the terms of a Directors Deferred Compensation Agreement (the “Deferred Compensation Agreement”). Under the Deferred Compensation Agreement, an eligible Board member may elect to have all or a portion of his or her deferred fees invested in the shares of one or more funds in the Calvert family of funds, and the amount paid to the Board members under the Deferred Compensation Agreement will be determined based upon the performance of such investments. Deferral of Board members’ fees in accordance with the Deferred Compensation Agreement will have a negligible effect on the assets, liabilities, and net income of a participating fund or portfolio, and do not require that a participating Board member be retained. There is no retirement plan for Board members.
The fees and expenses of the Directors of the Corporation are paid by the Fund (and other series of the Corporation). A Board member who is a member of the Calvert organization receives no compensation from the Corporation. During the fiscal year ended September 30, 2020, the Directors of the Corporation earned the following compensation in their capacities as Board members from the Corporation. For the year ended December 31, 2020, the Board members earned the following compensation in their capacities as members of the Calvert Fund Boards(1):
|Source of Compensation||Richard
|Corporation and Fund Complex(1)||$179,000(7)||$199,000(8)||$179,000||$181,500(9)||$185,000||$185,000(10)||$179,000|
|(1)||As of February 1, 2021, the Calvert fund complex consists of 39 registered investment companies.|
|(2)||The Corporation consisted of 5 Funds as of September 30, 2020.|
|(3)||Includes $8,059 of deferred compensation.|
|(4)||Includes $2,986 of deferred compensation.|
|(5)||Includes $8,329 of deferred compensation.|
|(6)||Includes $16,342 of deferred compensation.|
|(7)||Includes $53,700 of deferred compensation.|
|(8)||Includes $19,900 of deferred compensation.|
|(9)||Includes $55,500 of deferred compensation.|
|(10)||Includes $108,900 of deferred compensation.|
Corporation. The Fund is a series of the Corporation, which was organized as a Maryland corporation on April 11, 2000 and is operated as an open-end management investment company. Effective November 6, 2017, Calvert Developed Markets Ex-U.S. Responsible Index Fund changed its name to Calvert International Responsible Index Fund. The Corporation may issue its shares ($0.01 par value per share) in one or more series (such as a Fund). The Directors of the Corporation have divided the shares of the Fund into multiple classes. Each class represents an interest in the Fund, but is subject to different expenses, rights and privileges. The Directors have the authority under the Articles of Incorporation to create additional classes of shares with differing rights and privileges. When issued and outstanding, shares are fully paid and nonassessable by the Corporation. Shareholders of the Corporation are entitled to one vote for each full share held. Fractional shares may be voted proportionately. Shares of all Funds in the Corporation will be voted together with respect to the election or removal of Directors and on other matters affecting all Funds similarly. On matters affecting only a particular Fund, all shareholders of the affected Fund will vote together as a single class, except that only shareholders of a particular class may vote on matters affecting only that class. Shares have no preemptive or conversion rights and are freely transferable. In the event of the liquidation of a Fund, shareholders of each class are entitled to share pro rata in the net assets attributable to that class available for distribution to shareholders.
|Calvert Responsible Index Funds||12||SAI dated February 1, 2021|
As permitted by Maryland law, there will normally be no meetings of shareholders for the purpose of electing Directors unless and until such time as less than a majority of the Directors of the Corporation holding office have been elected by shareholders. In such an event the Directors then in office will call a shareholders’ meeting for the election of Directors. Except for the foregoing circumstances and unless removed by action of the shareholders in accordance with the Corporation’s By-laws, the Directors shall continue to hold office and may appoint successor Directors. The Corporation’s By-laws provide that any Director may be removed with or without cause, at any time by a vote of the majority of the votes entitled to be cast generally for the election of Directors at a special meeting of Shareholders called for that purpose. The By-laws further provide that under certain circumstances the shareholders may call a meeting to remove a Director and that the Corporation is required to provide assistance in communication with shareholders about such a meeting.
The Corporation’s Articles of Incorporation may be amended at any time in accordance with the laws of Maryland. The Corporation’s By-laws provide that the Corporation will indemnify its Directors and officers against liabilities and expenses incurred in connection with any litigation or proceeding in which they may be involved because of their offices with the Corporation. However, no indemnification is required to be provided to any Director or officer for any liability to the Corporation or shareholders by reason of willful misfeasance, bad faith, gross negligence or reckless disregard of the duties involved in the conduct of his or her office.
Proxy Voting Policy. The Board adopted a proxy voting policy and procedures (the “Fund Policy”), pursuant to which the Board has delegated proxy voting responsibility to the investment adviser and adopted the proxy voting policies and procedures of the investment adviser (the “Adviser Policies”). An independent proxy voting service has been retained to assist in the voting of Fund proxies through the provision of vote analysis, implementation and recordkeeping and disclosure services. The members of the Board will review a Fund's proxy voting records from time to time and will review annually the Adviser Policies. For a copy of the Fund Policy and Adviser Policies, see Appendix F and Appendix G, respectively. Pursuant to certain provisions of the 1940 Act and certain exemptive orders relating to funds investing in other funds, a Fund may be required or may elect to vote its interest in another fund in the same proportion as the holders of all other shares of that fund. Information on how a Fund voted proxies relating to portfolio securities during the most recent 12-month period ended June 30 is available (1) without charge, upon request, by calling 1-800-368-2745, (2) on the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov and (3) on the Funds’ website at https://www.calvert.com/Proxy-Voting.php.
Process for Delivering Shareholder Communications to the Board of Directors. Any shareholder who wishes to send a communication to the Board of Directors of a Fund should send the communication to the attention of the Fund’s Secretary at the following address:
Attn: [Name of Fund] Secretary
Two International Place
Boston, MA 02110
All communications should state the specific Calvert fund to which the communication relates. After reviewing the communication, the Fund’s Secretary will forward the communication to the Board of Directors.
In its function as a nominating committee, the Governance Committee of the Board of Directors will consider any candidates for vacancies on the Board from any shareholder of the Fund who, for at least five years, has continuously owned at least 0.5% of the outstanding shares of the Fund. Shareholders of the Fund who wish to nominate a candidate to the Board must submit the recommendation in writing to the attention of the Fund’s Secretary at Two International Place, Boston, MA 02110. The recommendation must include biographical information, including business experience for the past ten years and a description of the qualifications of the proposed nominee, along with a statement from the proposed nominee that he or she is willing to serve and meets the requirements to be an independent Director. A shareholder wishing to recommend to the Governance Committee of the Fund a candidate for election as a Director may request the Fund’s Policy for the Consideration of Director Nominees by contacting the Fund’s Secretary at the address above.
If a shareholder wishes to send a communication directly to an individual Director or to a Committee of the Fund’s Board of Directors, then the communication should be specifically addressed to such individual Director or Committee and sent in care of the Fund’s Secretary at the address above. Communications to individual Directors or to a Committee sent in care of the Fund’s Secretary will be forwarded to the individual Director or to the Committee, as applicable.
|Calvert Responsible Index Funds||13||SAI dated February 1, 2021|
INVESTMENT ADVISORY AND ADMINISTRATIVE SERVICES
Investment Advisory Services. The investment adviser manages the investments and affairs of the Fund and provides related office facilities and personnel subject to the supervision of the Corporation’s Board. The investment adviser furnishes investment research, advice and supervision, furnishes an investment program and determines what securities will be purchased, held or sold by the Fund and what portion, if any, of the investment adviser’s assets will be held uninvested. The Investment Advisory Agreement requires the investment adviser to pay the compensation and expenses of all officers and Directors who are members of the investment adviser's organization and all personnel of the investment adviser performing services relating to research and investment activities.
For a description of the compensation that each Fund pays the investment adviser, see the Prospectus. The following table sets forth the net assets of each Fund as of September 30, 2020 and the advisory fees paid to CRM for the last three fiscal years.
|Advisory Fee for|
|Net Assets at 9/30/20||9/30/20||9/30/19||9/30/18|
|International Responsible Index Fund||$252,106,624||$210,485||$142,094||$119,892|
|US Large-Cap Core Responsible Index Fund||$2,948,248,970||$2,790,221||$2,087,362||$1,677,125|
|US Large-Cap Growth Responsible Index Fund||$141,324,370||$133,733||$102,465||$93,165|
|US Large-Cap Value Responsible Index Fund||$716,662,266||$653,487||$433,066||$318,635|
|US Mid-Cap Core Responsible Index Fund||$97,867,827||$90,408||$78,305||$90,504|
The following chart shows the operating expenses of the Funds allocated to CRM, pursuant to an expense reimbursement agreement, for the last three fiscal years:
|International Responsible Index Fund||$357,565||$370,877||$373,469|
|US Large-Cap Core Responsible Index Fund||$2,548,836||$2,220,961||$1,937,950|
|US Large-Cap Growth Responsible Index Fund||$200,606||$220,341||$185,213|
|US Large-Cap Value Responsible Index Fund||$781,138||$639,857||$318,635|
|US Mid-Cap Core Responsible Index Fund||$208,393||$235,682||$240,286|
The Investment Advisory Agreement with the investment adviser continues in effect from year to year so long as such continuance is approved at least annually (i) by the vote of a majority of the noninterested Directors of the Corporation cast in person at a meeting specifically called for the purpose of voting on such approval and (ii) by the Board of the Corporation or by vote of a majority of the outstanding voting securities of the Fund. The Agreement may be terminated at any time without penalty on sixty (60) days’ written notice by either party, or by vote of the majority of the outstanding voting securities of the Fund, and the Agreement will terminate automatically in the event of its assignment. The Agreement provides that the investment adviser may render services to others. The Agreement also provides that the investment adviser shall not be liable for any loss incurred in connection with the performance of its duties, or action taken or omitted under the Agreement, in the absence of willful misfeasance, bad faith, gross negligence or reckless disregard of its obligations and duties thereunder, or for any losses sustained in the acquisition, holding or disposition of any security or other investment. The Agreement is not intended to, and does not, confer upon any person not a party to it any right, benefit or remedy of any nature.
Information About CRM and Eaton Vance. CRM is a subsidiary of Eaton Vance. CRM and Eaton Vance are business trusts organized under the laws of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. EV serves as trustee of CRM and Eaton Vance. EV and Eaton Vance are wholly-owned subsidiaries of EVC, a Maryland corporation and publicly-held holding company. CRM is an indirect subsidiary of EVC. EVC through its subsidiaries and affiliates engages primarily in investment management, administration and marketing activities. The Directors of EVC are Thomas E. Faust Jr., Ann E. Berman, Leo I. Higdon, Jr., Paula A. Johnson, Brian D. Langstraat, Dorothy E. Puhy, Winthrop H. Smith, Jr. and Richard A. Spillane, Jr. All shares of the outstanding Voting Common Stock of EVC are deposited in a Voting Trust, the Voting Trustees of which are Mr. Faust, Paul W. Bouchey, Craig R. Brandon, Daniel C. Cataldo, Michael A. Cirami, Cynthia J. Clemson, James H. Evans, Maureen A. Gemma, Laurie G. Hylton, Mr. Langstraat, Thomas Lee, Frederick S. Marius, David C. McCabe, Edward J. Perkin, Lewis R. Piantedosi, Charles B. Reed, Craig P. Russ, Thomas C. Seto, John L. Shea, Eric A. Stein, John H. Streur, Andrew N. Sveen, Payson F. Swaffield, R. Kelly Williams and Matthew J. Witkos (all of whom are officers of Eaton Vance or its affiliates). The Voting Trustees have unrestricted voting rights for the election of Directors of EVC. All of the outstanding voting trust receipts issued under said Voting Trust are owned by certain of the officers of CRM and Eaton Vance who may also be officers, or officers and Directors of EVC and EV. As indicated under “Management and Organization,” all of the officers of the Corporation (as well as Mr. Streur who is also a Director) hold positions in the Eaton Vance organization.
|Calvert Responsible Index Funds||14||SAI dated February 1, 2021|
Code of Ethics. The investment adviser, principal underwriter, and each Fund have adopted Codes of Ethics governing personal securities transactions pursuant to Rule 17j-1 under the 1940 Act. Under the Codes, employees of the investment adviser and the principal underwriter may purchase and sell securities (including securities held or eligible for purchase by a Fund) subject to the provisions of the Codes and certain employees are also subject to pre-clearance, reporting requirements and/or other procedures.
Portfolio Manager. The portfolio manager of each Fund is listed below. The following table shows, as of the Funds’ most recent fiscal year end, the number of accounts the portfolio manager managed in each of the listed categories and the total assets (in millions of dollars) in the accounts managed within each category. The table also shows the number of accounts with respect to which the advisory fee is based on the performance of the account, if any, and the total assets (in millions of dollars) in those accounts.
Paying a Performance Fee
Assets of Accounts|
Paying a Performance Fee
|Thomas C. Seto|
|Registered Investment Companies||39||$24,286.7(1)||0||$0|
|Other Pooled Investment Vehicles||11||$1,673.7||0||$0|
|(1)||This portfolio manager provides investment advice with respect to only a portion of the total assets of certain of these accounts. Only the assets allocated to this portfolio manager as of the Fund’s most recent fiscal year end are reflected in the table.|
|(2)||For “Other Accounts” that are part of a wrap or model account program, the number of accounts is the number of sponsors for which the portfolio manager provides advisory services rather than the number of individual customer accounts within each wrap or model account program.|
The portfolio manager did not beneficially own any equity securities in each Fund as of September 30, 2020 or in the Calvert family of funds as of December 31, 2020.
It is possible that conflicts of interest may arise in connection with a portfolio manager’s management of each Fund’s investments on the one hand and the investments of other accounts for which a portfolio manager is responsible on the other. For example, a portfolio manager may have conflicts of interest in allocating management time, resources and investment opportunities among each Fund and other accounts he advises. In addition, due to differences in the investment strategies or restrictions between each Fund and the other accounts, the portfolio manager may take action with respect to another account that differs from the action taken with respect to each Fund. In some cases, another account managed by a portfolio manager may compensate the investment adviser based on the performance of the securities held by that account. The existence of such a performance based fee may create additional conflicts of interest for the portfolio manager in the allocation of management time, resources and investment opportunities. Whenever conflicts of interest arise, the portfolio manager will endeavor to exercise his discretion in a manner that he believes is equitable to all interested persons. The investment adviser has adopted several policies and procedures designed to address these potential conflicts including a code of ethics and policies that govern the investment adviser's trading practices, including among other things the aggregation and allocation of trades among clients, brokerage allocations, cross trades and best execution.
The investment adviser operates proprietary indexes (each, an “Index”) based on research and other information developed by the investment adviser. In addition, the investment adviser manages accounts (including the Fund) using the same or substantially similar investment adviser research. The operation of the Indexes, the Fund and other accounts in this manner may give rise to potential conflicts of interest, which may affect the management of the Fund and such accounts. For example, the Fund may engage in purchases and sales of securities (including securities included in an Index) at different times prior to, during, or after the time in which an Index is being reconstituted. The Indexes are reconstituted periodically as described in the prospectus. The trading by the Fund and other accounts in securities that are part of an Index could impact the ability of the investment adviser’s accounts that seeks to replicate the Index to do so in a timely manner. From time to time, the Funds may be restricted or otherwise limited in trading in certain issuers in order to help ensure that accounts seeking to replicate an Index are able to do so.
|Calvert Responsible Index Funds||15||SAI dated February 1, 2021|
Compensation Structure for CRM. The investment adviser’s methods for compensating portfolio managers varies depending on the nature of portfolio management responsibilities performed in each of CRM’s three office locations. These compensation methods are described below. In all cases, CRM seeks to compensate portfolio managers in all offices commensurate with their responsibilities and performance, and competitive with other firms within the investment management industry. The investment adviser participates in investment-industry compensation surveys and utilizes survey data as a factor in determining compensation for investment professionals. Salaries, bonuses and stock-based compensation are also influenced by the operating performance of CRM (or Parametric Portfolio Associates LLC in the case of CRM Seattle) and its parent company. The overall annual cash bonus pool is generally based on a substantially fixed percentage of pre-bonus adjusted operating income. For high performing portfolio managers, cash bonuses and stock-based compensation may represent a substantial portion of total compensation.
Compensation of the investment adviser’s portfolio managers has three primary components: (1) a base salary; (2) an annual cash bonus; and (3) annual stock-based compensation consisting of restricted shares of EVC’s nonvoting common stock that generally are subject to a voting schedule. The investment adviser’s investment professionals also receive certain retirement, insurance and other benefits that are broadly available to the investment adviser’s employees. Compensation of the investment adviser’s investment professionals is reviewed primarily on an annual basis. Cash bonuses, stock-based compensation awards, and adjustments in base salary are typically paid or put into effect at or shortly after the October 31st fiscal year end of EVC. The compensation of portfolio managers with other job responsibilities (such as heading an investment group or providing analytical support to other portfolios) will include consideration of the scope of such responsibilities and the individual’s performance in meeting them.
The portfolio manager oversees the implementation of passive investment strategies. CRM seeks to compensate such portfolio managers based primarily on the quality of their work and their overall effectiveness as determined by their manager.
Commodity Futures Trading Commission Registration. The CFTC has adopted certain regulations that subject registered investment companies and advisers to regulation by the CFTC if a fund invests more than a prescribed level of its assets in certain CFTC-regulated instruments (including futures, certain options and swaps agreements) or markets itself as providing investment exposure to such instruments. The investment adviser has claimed an exclusion from the definition of “commodity pool operator” under the Commodity Exchange Act with respect to its management of each Fund and the other funds it manages. Accordingly, neither the Funds nor the investment adviser is subject to CFTC regulation. The CFTC has neither reviewed nor approved each Fund's investment strategies or this SAI.
Administrative Services. As indicated in the Prospectus, CRM serves as administrator of each Fund under an Administrative Services Agreement. Each Fund is authorized to pay CRM an annual fee for providing administrative services to the Fund. Under the Administrative Services Agreement, CRM has been engaged to administer each Fund’s affairs, subject to the supervision of the Board, and shall furnish office space and all necessary office facilities, equipment and personnel for administering the affairs of each Fund.
The administrative fee for each share class of each Fund is 0.12% (as a percentage of average daily net assets) payable monthly, with a contractual waiver of 0.12% of the administrative fee for US Large-Cap Growth Responsible Index Fund, US Large-Cap Value Responsible Index Fund, US Mid-Cap Core Responsible Index Fund, and International Responsible Index Fund and 0.02% of the administrative fee for Class I of US Large-Cap Core Responsible Index Fund through January 31, 2018.
|Calvert Responsible Index Funds||16||SAI dated February 1, 2021|
The administrative services fees paid by the Funds to CRM for the last three fiscal years are as follows:
|International Responsible Index Fund||$210,485||$131,841||$95,379(1)|
|US Large-Cap Core Responsible Index Fund||$2,790,221||$1,947,365||$1,341,358(2)|
|US Large-Cap Growth Responsible Index Fund||$133,733||$95,452||$74,514(3)|
|US Large-Cap Value Responsible Index Fund||$653,487||$404,206||$254,850(4)|
|US Mid-Cap Core Responsible Index Fund||$90,408||$71,839||$72,363(5)|
|(1)||For the fiscal year ended September 30, 2018, CRM waived $25,121 in administrative fees.|
|(2)||For the fiscal year ended September 30, 2018, CRM waived $37,954 in administrative fees.|
|(3)||For the fiscal year ended September 30, 2018, CRM waived $22,533 in administrative fees.|
|(4)||For the fiscal year ended September 30, 2018, CRM waived $57,365 in administrative fees.|
|(5)||For the fiscal year ended September 30, 2018, CRM waived $21,454 in administrative fees.|
Sub-Transfer Agency Support Services. Eaton Vance provides sub-transfer agency and related services to Calvert mutual funds pursuant to a Sub-Transfer Agency Support Services Agreement. Under the agreement, Eaton Vance provides: (1) specified sub-transfer agency services; (2) compliance monitoring services; and (3) intermediary oversight services. For the services it provides, Eaton Vance receives an aggregate annual fee equal to the actual expenses incurred by Eaton Vance in the performance of such services. Each Fund pays a pro rata share of such fee. For the fiscal year ended September 30, 2020, Eaton Vance earned the following pursuant to the agreement:
Responsible Index Fund
Responsible Index Fund
Responsible Index Fund
Responsible Index Fund
Responsible Index Fund
Expenses. Each Fund is responsible for all expenses not expressly stated to be payable by another party (such as expenses required to be paid pursuant to an agreement with the investment adviser, the principal underwriter or the administrator). In the case of expenses incurred by the Corporation, each Fund is responsible for its pro rata share of those expenses. Pursuant to the Amended and Restated Multiple Class Plan for Calvert Funds, Fund expenses are allocated to each class on a pro rata basis, except that distribution and service fees are allocated exclusively to the class that incurs them, and sub-accounting, recordkeeping and other similar fees are not allocated to (or incurred by) Class R6 shares.
OTHER SERVICE PROVIDERS
Principal Underwriter. Eaton Vance Distributors, Inc. (“EVD”), Two International Place, Boston, MA 02110 is the principal underwriter of each Fund. The principal underwriter acts as principal in selling shares under a Distribution Agreement with the Corporation. The expenses of printing copies of prospectuses used to offer shares and other selling literature and of advertising are borne by the principal underwriter. The fees and expenses of qualifying and registering and maintaining qualifications and registrations of a Fund and its shares under federal and state securities laws are borne by the Fund. The Distribution Agreement is renewable annually by the members of the Board (including a majority of the noninterested Directors who have no direct or indirect financial interest in the operation of the Distribution Agreement or any applicable Distribution Plan), may be terminated on sixty days’ notice either by such Directors or by vote of a majority of the outstanding Fund shares or on six months’ notice by the principal underwriter and is automatically terminated upon assignment. The principal underwriter distributes shares on a “best efforts” basis under which it is required to take and pay for only such shares as may be sold. EVD is a direct, wholly-owned subsidiary of EVC.
Custodian. State Street Bank and Trust Company (“State Street”), State Street Financial Center, One Lincoln Street, Boston, MA 02111, serves as custodian to each Fund. State Street has custody of all cash and securities of a Fund, maintains the general ledger of each Fund and computes the daily net asset value of shares of each Fund. In such capacity it attends to details in connection with the sale, exchange, substitution, transfer or other dealings with each Fund’s investments, receives and disburses all funds and performs various other ministerial duties upon receipt of proper
|Calvert Responsible Index Funds||17||SAI dated February 1, 2021|
instructions from the Corporation. State Street provides services in connection with the preparation of shareholder reports and the electronic filing of such reports with the SEC. EVC and its affiliates and their officers and employees from time to time have transactions with various banks, including State Street. It is Calvert’s opinion that the terms and conditions of such transactions were not and will not be influenced by existing or potential custodial or other relationships between each Fund and such banks.
Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm. KPMG LLP, 1601 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19103, independent registered public accounting firm, audits each Fund's financial statements and provides other audit, tax and related services.
Transfer Agent. DST Asset Manager Solutions, Inc. (“DST”), 2000 Crown Colony Drive, Quincy, MA 02169, serves as transfer and dividend disbursing agent for each Fund.
Securities Lending Agent. State Street serves as securities lending agent. For the fiscal year ended September 30, 2020, State Street provided the following administrative services pursuant to a Securities Lending Authorization Agreement with the Funds listed in the table(s) below, subject to guidelines and restrictions provided by the Funds: (i) entering into loans with approved borrowers; (ii) receiving/holding collateral from borrowers and facilitating the investment/reinvestment of cash collateral; (iii) monitoring daily the market value of the loaned securities and collateral, including receiving and delivering additional collateral as necessary from/to borrowers; (iv) negotiating loan terms and, when necessary, loan premiums; (v) selecting securities to be loaned; (vi) recordkeeping, account servicing and providing statements; (vii) monitoring dividend/distribution activity and crediting the Fund account when necessary; and (viii) arranging for the return of loaned securities to the Funds at loan termination. Income and fees accrued from securities lending activities for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2020 are shown in the following table(s).
|International Responsible Index Fund||Securities
|Gross income from securities lending activities||$26,172|
|Fees and/or compensation for securities lending activities and related services|
|Fees paid to securities lending agent from a revenue split||$2,998|
|Fees paid for any cash collateral management service (including fees deducted from a pooled cash collateral reinvestment vehicle) that are not included in the revenue split||$484|
|Administrative fees not included in revenue split||$0|
|Indemnification fee not included in revenue split||$0|
|Rebate (paid to borrowers)||$5,873|
|Other fees not included in revenue split||$0|
|Aggregate fees/compensation for securities lending activities||$9,355|
|Net income from securities lending activities||$16,817|
|Calvert Responsible Index Funds||18||SAI dated February 1, 2021|
|US Large-Cap Core Responsible Index Fund||Securities
|Gross income from securities lending activities||$97,236|
|Fees and/or compensation for securities lending activities and related services|
|Fees paid to securities lending agent from a revenue split||$11,663|
|Fees paid for any cash collateral management service (including fees deducted from a pooled cash collateral reinvestment vehicle) that are not included in the revenue split||837|
|Administrative fees not included in revenue split||$0|
|Indemnification fee not included in revenue split||$0|
|Rebate (paid to borrowers)||$18,541|
|Other fees not included in revenue split||$0|
|Aggregate fees/compensation for securities lending activities||$31,041|
|Net income from securities lending activities||$66,195|
|US Large-Cap Growth Responsible Index Fund||Securities
|Gross income from securities lending activities||$5,465|
|Fees and/or compensation for securities lending activities and related services|
|Fees paid to securities lending agent from a revenue split||$620|
|Fees paid for any cash collateral management service (including fees deducted from a pooled cash collateral reinvestment vehicle) that are not included in the revenue split||$48|
|Administrative fees not included in revenue split||$0|
|Indemnification fee not included in revenue split||$0|
|Rebate (paid to borrowers)||$1,235|
|Other fees not included in revenue split||$0|
|Aggregate fees/compensation for securities lending activities||$1,903|
|Net income from securities lending activities||$3,562|
|Calvert Responsible Index Funds||19||SAI dated February 1, 2021|
|US Large-Cap Value Responsible Index Fund||Securities
|Gross income from securities lending activities||$31,116|
|Fees and/or compensation for securities lending activities and related services|
|Fees paid to securities lending agent from a revenue split||$3,697|
|Administrative fees not included in revenue split||$0|
|Indemnification fee not included in revenue split||$0|
|Rebate (paid to borrowers)||$6,036|
|Other fees not included in revenue split||$0|
|Aggregate fees/compensation for securities lending activities||$10,111|
|Net income from securities lending activities||$21,005|
|US Mid-Cap Core Responsible Index Fund||Securities
|Gross income from securities lending activities||$10,656|
|Fees and/or compensation for securities lending activities and related services|
|Fees paid to securities lending agent from a revenue split||$1,374|
|Administrative fees not included in revenue split||$0|
|Indemnification fee not included in revenue split||$0|
|Rebate (paid to borrowers)||$1,299|
|Other fees not included in revenue split||$0|
|Aggregate fees/compensation for securities lending activities||$2,779|
|Net income from securities lending activities||$7,877|
CALCULATION OF NET ASSET VALUE
The net asset value of the Fund is determined by State Street (as agent and custodian) by subtracting the liabilities of the Fund from the value of its total assets. The Fund is closed for business and will not issue a net asset value on the following business holidays and any other business day that the Exchange is closed: New Year’s Day, Martin Luther King, Jr. Day, Presidents’ Day, Good Friday, Memorial Day, Independence Day, Labor Day, Thanksgiving Day and Christmas Day. The Fund’s net asset value per share is readily accessible on the Calvert funds website (www.calvert.com).
The Board has approved procedures pursuant to which investments are valued for purposes of determining the Fund’s net asset value. Listed below is a summary of the methods generally used to value investments (some or all of which may be held by the Fund) under the procedures.
|·||Equity securities (including common stock, exchange-traded funds, closed-end funds, preferred equity securities, exchange-traded notes and other instruments that trade on recognized stock exchanges) are valued at the last sale, official close or, if there are no reported sales, at the mean between the bid and asked price on the primary exchange on which they are traded.|
|·||Most debt obligations are valued on the basis of market valuations furnished by a pricing service or at the mean of the bid and asked prices provided by recognized broker/dealers of such securities. The pricing service may use a pricing matrix to determine valuation.|
|Calvert Responsible Index Funds||20||SAI dated February 1, 2021|
|·||Short-term instruments with remaining maturities of less than 397 days are valued on the basis of market valuations furnished by a pricing service or based on dealer quotations.|
|·||Foreign securities and currencies are valued in U.S. dollars based on foreign currency exchange quotations supplied by a pricing service.|
|·||Senior and Junior Loans (as defined in the “Additional Information About Investment Strategies and Risks” section of this SAI) are valued on the basis of prices furnished by a pricing service. The pricing service uses transactions and market quotations from brokers in determining values.|
|·||Futures contracts are valued at the settlement or closing price on the primary exchange or board of trade on which they are traded.|
|·||Exchange-traded options are valued at the mean of the bid and asked prices. Over-the-counter options are valued based on quotations obtained from a pricing service or from a broker (typically the counterparty to the option).|
|·||Non-exchange traded derivatives (including swap agreements, forward contracts and equity participation notes) are generally valued on the basis of valuations provided by a pricing service or using quotes provided by a broker/dealer (typically the counterparty) or, for total return swaps, based on market index data.|
|·||Precious metals are valued at the New York Composite mean quotation.|
|·||Liabilities with a payment or maturity date of 364 days or less are stated at their principal value and longer dated liabilities generally will be carried at their fair value.|
|·||Valuations of foreign equity securities and total return swaps and exchange-traded futures contracts on non-North American equity indices are generally based on fair valuation provided by a pricing service.|
Investments which are unable to be valued in accordance with the foregoing methodologies are valued at fair value using methods determined in good faith by or at the direction of the members of the Board. Such methods may include consideration of relevant factors, including but not limited to (i) the type of security and the existence of any contractual restrictions on the security’s disposition; (ii) the price and extent of public trading in similar securities of the issuer or of comparable companies or entities; (iii) quotations or relevant information obtained from broker-dealers or other market participants; (iv) information obtained from the issuer, analysts, and/or the appropriate stock exchange (for exchange-traded securities); (v) an analysis of the company’s or entity’s financial statements; (vi) an evaluation of the forces that influence the issuer and the market(s) in which the security is purchased and sold; (vii) any transaction involving the issuer of such securities; and (viii) any other factors deemed relevant by the investment adviser. For purposes of fair valuation, the portfolio managers of one Calvert fund that invests in Senior and Junior Loans may not possess the same information about a Senior or Junior Loan as the portfolio managers of another Calvert fund. As such, at times the fair value of a Loan determined by certain Calvert portfolio managers may vary from the fair value of the same Loan determined by other portfolio managers.
PURCHASING AND REDEEMING SHARES
Additional Information About Purchases. Fund shares are offered for sale only in states where they are registered. The U.S. registered Calvert funds generally do not accept investments from residents of the European Union, the United Kingdom or Switzerland, although may do so to the extent that the Calvert funds may be lawfully offered in a relevant jurisdiction (including at the initiative of the investor). Fund shares are continuously offered through financial intermediaries which have entered into agreements with the principal underwriter. Fund shares are sold at the public offering price, which is the net asset value next computed after receipt of an order plus the initial sales charge, if any. The Fund receives the net asset value. The principal underwriter receives the sales charge, all or a portion of which may be reallowed to the financial intermediaries responsible for selling Fund shares. The sales charge table for Class A shares in the Prospectus is applicable to purchases of Class A shares of a Fund alone or in combination with purchases of certain other funds offered by the principal underwriter, made at a single time by (i) an individual, or an individual, his or her spouse and their children under the age of twenty-one, purchasing shares for his or their own account, and (ii) a trustee or other fiduciary purchasing shares for a single trust estate or a single fiduciary account. The table is also presently applicable to (1) purchases of Class A shares pursuant to a written Statement of Intention; or (2) purchases of Class A shares pursuant to the Right of Accumulation and declared as such at the time of purchase. See “Sales Charges.”
Class I Share Purchases. Class I shares are available for purchase by clients of financial intermediaries who (i) charge such clients an ongoing fee for advisory, investment, consulting or similar services, or (ii) have entered into an agreement with the principal underwriter to offer Class I shares through a no-load network or platform. Such clients may include individuals, corporations, endowments, foundations and employer sponsored retirement plans. Class I shares may also be available through brokerage platforms of broker-dealer firms that have agreements with a Fund’s principal underwriter to
|Calvert Responsible Index Funds||21||SAI dated February 1, 2021|
offer Class I shares solely when acting as an agent for the investor. An investor acquiring Class I shares through such platforms may be required to pay a commission and/or other forms of compensation to the broker. Class I shares also are offered to investment and institutional clients of Calvert and its affiliates; certain persons affiliated with Calvert and its affiliates; current and retired members of Calvert Fund Boards; employees of Calvert and its affiliates and such persons’ spouses, parents, siblings and lineal descendants and their beneficial accounts.
Waiver of Investment Minimums. For classes other than Class R6, in addition to waivers described in the Prospectus, minimum investment amounts are waived for individual plan participants in an employer sponsored retirement plan; current and retired members of Calvert Fund Boards; clients (including custodial, agency, advisory and trust accounts) and current and retired officers and employees of Calvert, its affiliates and other investment advisers and sub-advisers to the Calvert family of funds; and for such persons’ spouses, parents, siblings and lineal descendants and their beneficial accounts. The minimum initial investment amount is also waived for officers and employees of a Fund’s custodian and transfer agent and in connection with the merger (or similar transaction) of an investment company (or series or class thereof) or personal holding company with a Fund (or class thereof). Investments in a Fund by ReFlow in connection with the ReFlow liquidity program are also not subject to the minimum investment amount.
Suspension of Sales. The Corporation may, in its absolute discretion, suspend, discontinue or limit the offering of one or more of its classes of shares at any time. In determining whether any such action should be taken, the Corporation’s management intends to consider all relevant factors, including (without limitation) the size of a Fund or class, the investment climate and market conditions and the volume of sales and redemptions of shares. The Class A and Class C Distribution Plans may continue in effect and payments may be made under the Plans following any such suspension, discontinuance or limitation of the offering of shares; however, there is no obligation to continue any Plan for any particular period of time. Suspension of the offering of shares would not, of course, affect a shareholder’s ability to redeem shares.
Additional Information About Redemptions. The right to redeem shares of a Fund can be suspended and the payment of the redemption price deferred when the Exchange is closed (other than for customary weekend and holiday closings), during periods when trading on the Exchange is restricted as determined by the SEC, or during any emergency as determined by the SEC which makes it impracticable for a Fund to dispose of its securities or value its assets, or during any other period permitted by order of the SEC for the protection of investors.
Due to the high cost of maintaining small accounts, the Corporation reserves the right to redeem accounts with balances of less than $750. Prior to such a redemption, shareholders will be given 60 days’ written notice to make an additional purchase. No CDSC or redemption fees, if applicable, will be imposed with respect to such involuntary redemptions.
As disclosed in the Prospectus, each Fund typically expects to meet redemption requests by (i) distributing any cash holdings, (ii) selling portfolio investments and/or (iii) borrowing from a bank under a line of credit. In addition to the foregoing, each Fund also may distribute securities as payment (a so-called “redemption in-kind”), in which case the redeeming shareholder may pay fees and commissions to convert the securities to cash. Unless requested by a shareholder, each Fund expects to limit use of redemption in-kind to stressed market conditions, but is permitted to do so in other circumstances. Any redemption in-kind would be made in accordance with policies adopted by each Fund, which allow the Fund to distribute securities pro rata or as selected by the investment adviser.
Each Fund participates with other funds managed by EVM and its affiliates, including CRM, in an $800 million unsecured line of credit agreement and may borrow amounts available thereunder for temporary purposes, such as meeting redemptions. See “Additional Information about Investment Strategies and Risks - Borrowing for Temporary Purposes” herein.
In connection with requests to re-issue uncashed checks representing redemption proceeds, each Fund reserves the right to require the redeeming shareholder to provide Medallion signature guaranteed wire instructions for delivery of redemption proceeds. Redemption proceeds represented by an uncashed check will not earn interest or other return during such time.
As noted above, each Fund may pay the redemption price of shares of a Fund, either totally or partially, by a distribution in-kind of securities. All requests for redemptions in-kind must be in good order. Provided the redemption request is received by the Fund not later than 12:00 p.m. (Eastern Time) on the day of the redemption, the Fund may in its discretion, if requested by a redeeming shareholder, provide the redeeming shareholders with an estimate of the securities to be distributed. Any difference between the redemption value of the distributed securities and the value of the Fund shares redeemed will be settled in cash. Securities distributed in a redemption in-kind would be valued pursuant to a Fund’s valuation procedures and selected by the investment adviser. If a shareholder receives securities in a redemption in-kind, the shareholder could incur brokerage or other charges in converting the securities to cash and the value of such securities would be subject to price fluctuations until sold.
|Calvert Responsible Index Funds||22||SAI dated February 1, 2021|
Pursuant to its Distribution Agreement with the Trust, the principal underwriter is authorized to repurchase shares offered for redemption to each Fund from time to time and each Fund is authorized to pay to the principal underwriter the purchase price for such repurchased shares, which shall be the net asset value next determined after the repurchase order, subject to any applicable CDSC payable to the principal underwriter.
Systematic Withdrawal Plan. The transfer agent will send to the shareholder regular monthly or quarterly payments of any permitted amount designated by the shareholder based upon the value of the shares held. The checks will be drawn from share redemptions and hence, may require the recognition of taxable gain or loss. Income dividends and capital gains distributions in connection with withdrawal plan accounts will be credited at net asset value as of the ex-dividend date for each distribution. Continued withdrawals in excess of current income will eventually use up principal, particularly in a period of declining market prices. A shareholder may not have a withdrawal plan in effect at the same time he or she has authorized Bank Automated Investing or is otherwise making regular purchases of Fund shares. The shareholder, the transfer agent or the principal underwriter may terminate the withdrawal plan at any time without penalty.
Other Information. A Fund’s net asset value per share is normally rounded to two decimal places. In certain situations (such as a merger, share split or a purchase or sale of shares that represents a significant portion of a share class), the administrator may determine to extend the calculation of the net asset value per share to additional decimal places to ensure that neither the value of the Fund nor a shareholder’s shares is diluted materially as the result of a purchase or sale or other transaction.
Dealer Commissions. The principal underwriter may, from time to time, at its own expense, provide additional incentives to financial intermediaries which employ registered representatives who sell Fund shares and/or shares of other funds distributed by the principal underwriter. In some instances, such additional incentives may be offered only to certain financial intermediaries whose representatives sell or are expected to sell significant amounts of shares. In addition, the principal underwriter may from time to time increase or decrease the sales commissions payable to financial intermediaries. The principal underwriter may allow, upon notice to all financial intermediaries with whom it has agreements, discounts up to the full sales charge during the periods specified in the notice. During periods when the discount includes the full sales charge, such financial intermediaries may be deemed to be underwriters as that term is defined in the 1933 Act.
Purchases at Net Asset Value. Class A shares may be sold at net asset value (without a sales charge) to clients of financial intermediaries who (i) charge such clients an ongoing fee for advisory, investment, consulting or similar services, or (ii) have entered into an agreement with the principal underwriter to offer Class A shares through a no-load network or platform; current and retired members of Calvert Fund Boards; to clients (including custodial, agency, advisory and trust accounts) and current and former Directors, officers and employees of Calvert, its affiliates and other investment advisers and sub-advisers of Calvert sponsored funds; and to such persons’ spouses, parents, siblings and lineal descendants and their beneficial accounts. Such shares may also be issued at net asset value (1) in connection with the merger (or similar transaction) of an investment company (or series or class thereof) or personal holding company with a Fund (or class thereof), (2) to HSAs (Health Savings Accounts) and to employer sponsored retirement plans and trusts used to fund those plans, (3) to officers and employees of a Fund’s custodian and transfer agent and (4) direct purchases of shares by accounts where no financial intermediary is specified. Class A shares may also be sold at net asset value to registered representatives and employees of financial intermediaries. Class A shares are also offered at net asset value to shareholders who make a permitted direct transfer or roll-over to a Calvert prototype individual retirement account (“IRA”) from an employer-sponsored retirement plan previously invested in Calvert funds (applicable only to the portion previously invested in Calvert funds), provided that sufficient documentation is provided to the transfer agent of such transfer or roll-over at the time of the account opening. Sales charges generally are waived because either (i) there is no sales effort involved in the sale of shares or (ii) the investor is paying a fee (other than the sales charge) to the financial intermediary involved in the sale. Any new or revised sales charge or CDSC waiver will be prospective only. A financial intermediary may not, in accordance with its policies and procedures, offer one or more of the waiver categories described above and shareholders should consult their financial intermediary for more information.
|Calvert Responsible Index Funds||23||SAI dated February 1, 2021|
CDSC Waiver. CDSCs will be waived in connection with redemptions from employer sponsored retirement plans or IRAs to satisfy required minimum distributions by applying the rate required to be withdrawn under the applicable rules and regulations of the IRS to the balance of shares in your account. CDSCs will also be waived in connection with returning excess contributions made to IRAs.
Statement of Intention. If it is anticipated that $50,000 or more of Class A shares and shares of other funds exchangeable for Class A shares of another Calvert fund will be purchased within a 13-month period, the Statement of Intention section of the account application should be completed so that shares may be obtained at the same reduced sales charge as though the total quantity were invested in one lump sum. Shares eligible for the right of accumulation (see below) as of the date of the statement and purchased during the 13-month period will be included toward the completion of the statement. If you make a statement of intention, the transfer agent is authorized to hold in escrow sufficient shares (5% of the dollar amount specified in the statement) which can be redeemed to make up any difference in sales charge on the amount intended to be invested and the amount actually invested. A statement of intention does not obligate the shareholder to purchase or the Fund to sell the full amount indicated in the statement.
If the amount actually purchased during the 13-month period is less than that indicated in the statement, the shareholder will be requested to pay the difference between the sales charge applicable to the shares purchased and the sales charge paid under the statement of intention. If the payment is not received in 20 days, the appropriate number of escrowed shares will be redeemed in order to realize such difference. Shareholders will not receive a lower sales charge if total purchases during the 13-month period are large enough to qualify for a lower sales charge than that applicable to the amount specified in the statement. If the sales charge rate changes during the 13-month period, all shares purchased or charges assessed after the date of such change will be subject to the then applicable sales charge.
Right of Accumulation. Under the right of accumulation, the applicable sales charge level is calculated by aggregating the dollar amount of the current purchase and the value (calculated at the maximum current offering price) of Fund shares owned by the shareholder. The sales charge on the Fund shares being purchased will then be applied at the rate applicable to the aggregate. Share purchases eligible for the right of accumulation are described under “Sales Charges” in the Prospectus. For any such discount to be made available at the time of purchase a purchaser or his or her financial intermediary must provide the principal underwriter (in the case of a purchase made through a financial intermediary) or the transfer agent (in the case of an investment made by mail) with sufficient information to permit verification that the purchase order qualifies for the accumulation privilege. Confirmation of the order is subject to such verification. The right of accumulation privilege may be amended or terminated at any time as to purchases occurring thereafter.
Conversion Feature. Effective November 5, 2020 (the “Effective Date”), Class C shares automatically convert to Class A shares during the month following the eight year anniversary of the purchase of such Class C shares. If the financial intermediary that maintains a Class C shareholder’s account has not tracked the holding period for Class C shares, Class C shares held as of the Effective Date will automatically convert to Class A shares eight years after the Effective Date. Such conversion shall be effected on the basis of the relative NAVs per share of the two classes without the imposition of any sales charge, fee or other charge. For purposes of this conversion, all distributions paid on such Class C shares which the shareholder elects to reinvest in Class C shares will be considered to be held in a separate sub-account. Upon the conversion of Class C shares not acquired through the reinvestment of distributions, a pro rata portion of the Class C shares held in the sub-account will also convert to such Class A shares. This portion will be determined by the ratio that such Class C shares being converted bears to the total of Class C shares (excluding shares acquired through reinvestment) in the account.
The Corporation has in effect a compensation-type Distribution Plan for Class A shares (the “Class A Plan”) adopted pursuant to Rule 12b-1 under the 1940 Act. The Class A Plan is designed to (i) finance activities which are primarily intended to result in the distribution and sales of Class A shares and to make payments in connection with the distribution of such shares and (ii) pay service fees for personal services and/or the maintenance of shareholder accounts to the principal underwriter, financial intermediaries and other persons. The distribution and service fees payable under the Class A Plan shall not exceed 0.25% of the average daily net assets attributable to Class A shares for any fiscal year. Class A distribution and service fees are paid monthly in arrears. For the distribution and service fees paid by Class A shares, see Appendix A.
|Calvert Responsible Index Funds||24||SAI dated February 1, 2021|
The Corporation also has in effect a compensation-type Distribution Plan for Class C shares (the “Class C Plan”) adopted pursuant to Rule 12b-1 under the 1940 Act. Pursuant to the Class C Plan, Class C pays the principal underwriter a distribution fee, accrued daily and paid monthly, at an annual rate not exceeding 0.75% of its average daily net assets to finance the distribution of its shares. Such fees compensate the principal underwriter for the sales commissions paid by it to financial intermediaries on the sale of shares, for other distribution expenses (such as personnel, overhead, travel, printing and postage) and for interest expense. The principal underwriter is entitled to receive all distribution fees and CDSCs paid or payable with respect to Class C shares, provided that no such payments will be made that would cause the Class to exceed the maximum sales charge permitted by FINRA Rule 2341(d).
The Class C Plan also authorizes the payment of service fees to the principal underwriter, financial intermediaries and other persons in amounts not exceeding an annual rate of 0.25% of its average daily net assets for personal services, and/or the maintenance of shareholder accounts. For Class C, financial intermediaries currently generally receive (a) a service fee (except on exchange transactions and reinvestments) at the time of sale equal to 0.25% of the purchase price of Class C shares sold by such intermediaries, and (b) monthly service fees approximately equivalent to 1/12 of 0.25% of the value of Class C shares sold by such intermediaries. During the first year after a purchase of Class C shares, the principal underwriter will retain the service fee as reimbursement for the service fee payment made to financial intermediaries at the time of sale (if applicable). For the service fees paid, see Appendix B.
The Board believes that the Plan will be a significant factor in the expected growth of each Fund’s assets, and will result in increased investment flexibility and advantages which have benefitted and will continue to benefit the Fund and its shareholders. The Calvert organization may profit by reason of the operation of a Plan through an increase in Fund assets and if at any point in time the aggregate amounts received by the principal underwriter pursuant to a Plan exceeds the total expenses incurred in distributing Fund shares. For sales commissions and CDSCs, if applicable, see Appendix A and Appendix B.
A Plan continues in effect from year to year so long as such continuance is approved at least annually by the vote of both a majority of (i) the noninterested Directors of the Corporation who have no direct or indirect financial interest in the operation of the Plan or any agreements related to the Plan (the “Plan Trustees”) and (ii) all of the Directors then in office. A Plan may be terminated at any time by vote of a majority of the Plan Trustees or by a vote of a majority of the outstanding voting securities of the applicable Class. Quarterly Board member review of a written report of the amount expended under the Plan and the purposes for which such expenditures were made is required. A Plan may not be amended to increase materially the payments described therein without approval of the shareholders of the affected Class and the Board. So long as a Plan is in effect, the selection and nomination of the noninterested Directors shall be committed to the discretion of such Directors. The Directors, including the Plan Trustees, initially approved the current Plan(s) on September 13, 2017 Any Board member who is an “interested” person of the Corporation has an indirect financial interest in a Plan because his or her employer (or affiliates thereof) receives distribution and/or service fees under the Plan or agreements related thereto.
DISCLOSURE OF PORTFOLIO HOLDINGS AND RELATED INFORMATION
The Board has adopted policies and procedures (the “Policies”) with respect to the disclosure of information about portfolio holdings of each Fund. See the Funds' Prospectus for information on disclosure made in filings with the SEC and/or posted on the Calvert website (www.calvert.com) and disclosure of certain portfolio characteristics. Pursuant to the Policies, information about portfolio holdings of a Fund may also be disclosed as follows:
|·||Confidential disclosure for a legitimate Fund purpose: Portfolio holdings may be disclosed, from time to time as necessary, for a legitimate business purpose of a Fund, believed to be in the best interests of the Fund and its shareholders, provided there is a duty or an agreement that the information be kept confidential. Any such confidentiality agreement includes provisions intended to impose a duty not to trade on the non-public information. The Policies permit disclosure of portfolio holdings information to the following: 1) affiliated and unaffiliated service providers that have a legal or contractual duty to keep such information confidential, such as employees of the investment adviser (including portfolio managers), the administrator, custodian, transfer agent, principal underwriter, etc. described herein and in the Prospectus; 2) other persons who owe a fiduciary or other duty of trust or confidence to the Fund (such as Fund legal counsel and independent registered public accounting firm); or 3) persons to whom the disclosure is made in advancement of a legitimate business purpose of a Fund and who have expressly agreed in writing to maintain the disclosed information in confidence and to use it only in connection with the legitimate business purpose underlying the arrangement. To the extent applicable to a Calvert fund, such persons may include securities lending agents which may receive information from time to time regarding selected holdings which may be loaned by a Fund, in the event a Fund is rated, credit rating|
|Calvert Responsible Index Funds||25||SAI dated February 1, 2021|
agencies (Moody’s Investor Services, Inc. and S&P Global Ratings), analytical service providers engaged by the investment adviser (SS&C Advent, Bloomberg L.P., Evare, FactSet, McMunn Associates, Inc., MSCI/Barra and The Yield Book, Inc.), proxy evaluation vendors (Institutional Shareholder Services Inc.), pricing services (Refinitiv Evaluated Pricing Service, WM/Reuters Information Services and Non-Deliverable Forward Rates Service, IHS Markit, FT Interactive Data Corp., Securities Evaluations, Inc., SuperDerivatives and StatPro.), which receive information as needed to price a particular holding, translation services, third-party reconciliation services, lenders under Fund credit facilities (Citibank, N.A. and its affiliates), consultants and other product evaluators (Morgan Stanley Smith Barney LLC), engagement consultants (Hermes Equity Ownership Services Limited) and, for purposes of facilitating portfolio transactions, financial intermediaries and other intermediaries (national and regional municipal bond dealers and mortgage-backed securities dealers). These entities receive portfolio information on an as needed basis in order to perform the service for which they are being engaged. If required in order to perform their duties, this information will be provided in real time or as soon as practical thereafter. Additional categories of disclosure involving a legitimate business purpose may be added to this list upon the authorization of a Fund’s Board. In addition to the foregoing, disclosure of portfolio holdings may be made to a Fund’s investment adviser as a seed investor in a fund, in order for the adviser or its parent to satisfy certain reporting obligations and reduce its exposure to market risk factors associated with any such seed investment. Also, in connection with a redemption in-kind, the redeeming shareholders may be required to agree to keep the information about the securities to be so distributed confidential, except to the extent necessary to dispose of the securities.
|·||Historical portfolio holdings information: From time to time, each Fund may be requested to provide historic portfolio holdings information or certain characteristics of portfolio holdings that have not been made public previously. In such case, the requested information may be provided if: the information is requested for due diligence or another legitimate purpose; the requested portfolio holdings or portfolio characteristics are for a period that is no more recent than the date of the portfolio holdings or portfolio characteristics posted to the Calvert website; and the dissemination of the requested information is reviewed and approved in accordance with the Policies.|
The Funds, the investment adviser and principal underwriter will not receive any monetary or other consideration in connection with the disclosure of information concerning a Fund’s portfolio holdings.
The Policies may not be waived, or exception made, without the consent of the CCO of the Funds. The CCO may not waive or make exception to the Policies unless such waiver or exception is consistent with the intent of the Policies, which is to ensure that disclosure of portfolio information is in the best interest of Fund shareholders. In determining whether to permit a waiver of or exception to the Policies, the CCO will consider whether the proposed disclosure serves a legitimate purpose of a Fund, whether it could provide the recipient with an advantage over Fund shareholders or whether the proposed disclosure gives rise to a conflict of interest between a Fund’s shareholders and its investment adviser, principal underwriter or other affiliated person. The CCO will report all waivers of or exceptions to the Policies to the Board at their next meeting. The Board may impose additional restrictions on the disclosure of portfolio holdings information at any time.
The Policies are designed to provide useful information concerning a Fund to existing and prospective Fund shareholders while at the same time inhibiting the improper use of portfolio holdings information in trading Fund shares and/or portfolio securities held by a Fund. However, there can be no assurance that the provision of any portfolio holdings information is not susceptible to inappropriate uses (such as the development of “market timing” models), particularly in the hands of highly sophisticated investors, or that it will not in fact be used in such ways beyond the control of the Funds.
The following is a summary of some of the tax consequences affecting each Fund and its shareholders. As used below, “the Fund” refers to each Fund listed on the cover of this SAI, except as otherwise noted. The summary does not address all of the special tax rules applicable to certain classes of investors, such as individual retirement accounts and employer sponsored retirement plans, tax-exempt entities, foreign investors, insurance companies and financial institutions. Shareholders should consult their own tax advisors with respect to special tax rules that may apply in their particular situations, as well as the federal, state, local, and, where applicable, foreign tax consequences of investing in the Fund.
|Calvert Responsible Index Funds||26||SAI dated February 1, 2021|
Taxation of the Fund. The Fund, as a series of the Corporation, is treated as a separate entity for federal income tax purposes. The Fund has elected to be treated and intends to qualify each year as a regulated investment company (“RIC”) under Subchapter M of the Code. Accordingly, the Fund intends to satisfy certain requirements relating to sources of its income and diversification of its assets and to distribute substantially all of its net investment income (including tax-exempt income, if any) and net short-term and long-term capital gains (after reduction by any available capital loss carryforwards) in accordance with the timing requirements imposed by the Code, so as to maintain its RIC status and to avoid paying any federal income tax. Based on advice of counsel, the Fund generally will not recognize gain or loss on its distribution of appreciated securities in shareholder-initiated redemptions of its shares. If the Fund qualifies for treatment as a RIC and satisfies the above-mentioned distribution requirements, it will not be subject to federal income tax on income paid to its shareholders in the form of dividends or capital gain distributions. The Fund qualified as a RIC for its most recent taxable year.
The Fund also seeks to avoid the imposition of a federal excise tax on its ordinary income and capital gain net income. However, if the Fund fails to distribute in a calendar year substantially all of its ordinary income for such year and substantially all of its capital gain net income for the one-year period ending October 31 (or later if the Fund is permitted to so elect and so elects), plus any retained amount from the prior year, the Fund will be subject to a 4% excise tax on the undistributed amounts. In order to avoid incurring a federal excise tax obligation, the Code requires that the Fund distribute (or be deemed to have distributed) by December 31 of each calendar year (i) at least 98% of its ordinary income (excluding tax-exempt income, if any) for such year, (ii) at least 98.2% of its capital gain net income (which is the excess of its realized capital gains over its realized capital losses), generally computed on the basis of the one-year period ending on October 31 of such year, after reduction by any available capital loss carryforwards, and (iii) 100% of any income and capital gains from the prior year (as previously computed) that were not distributed out during such year and on which the Fund paid no federal income tax. If the Fund fails to meet these requirements it will be subject to a nondeductible 4% excise tax on the undistributed amounts. Under current law, provided that the Fund qualifies as a RIC, the Fund should not be liable for any applicable state income, corporate excise or franchise tax.
If the Fund does not qualify as a RIC for any taxable year, the Fund’s taxable income will be subject to corporate income taxes, and all distributions from earnings and profits, including distributions of tax-exempt income and net capital gain (if any), will be taxable to the shareholder as dividend income. However, such distributions may be eligible (i) to be treated as qualified dividend income in the case of shareholders taxed as individuals and (ii) for the dividends-received deduction in the case of corporate shareholders, provided, in both cases, the shareholder meets certain holding period and other requirements in respect of the Fund’s shares. In addition, in order to re-qualify for taxation as a RIC, the Fund may be required to recognize unrealized gains, pay substantial taxes and interest, and make substantial distributions.
In certain situations, the Fund may, for a taxable year, elect to defer all or a portion of its net capital losses (or if there is no net capital loss, then any net long-term or short-term capital loss) realized after October and its late-year ordinary losses (generally, the sum if its (i) net ordinary loss from the sale, exchange or other taxable disposition of property, attributable to the portion of the taxable year after October 31, and its (ii) other net ordinary loss attributable to the portion of the taxable year after December 31) realized after December until the next taxable year in computing its investment company taxable income and net capital gain, which will defer the recognition of such realized losses. Such deferrals and other rules regarding gains and losses realized after October (or December) may affect the tax character of shareholder distributions.
Tax Consequences of Certain Investments. The following summary of the tax consequences of certain types of investments applies to the Fund. References below to “the Fund” are to any Fund that can engage in the particular practice as described in the prospectus or SAI.
Securities Acquired at Market Discount or with Original Issue Discount. Investment in securities acquired in zero coupon, deferred interest, payment-in-kind and certain other securities with original issue discount, generally may cause the Fund to realize income prior to the receipt of cash payments with respect to these securities. Such income will be accrued daily by the Fund and, in order to avoid a tax payable by the Fund, the Fund may be required to liquidate securities that it might otherwise have continued to hold in order to generate cash so that the Fund may make required distributions to its shareholders. Subject to the discussion below regarding Section 451 of the Code, (i) generally any gain recognized on the disposition of, and any partial payment of principal on, a debt security having market discount is treated as ordinary income to the extent the gain, or principal payment, does not exceed the “accrued market discount” on such debt security, (ii) alternatively, the Fund may elect to accrue market discount currently, in which case the Fund will be required to include the accrued market discount in the Fund's income (as ordinary income) and thus distribute it over the term of the debt security, even though payment of that amount is not received until a later time, upon partial or full
|Calvert Responsible Index Funds||27||SAI dated February 1, 2021|
repayment or disposition of the debt security, and (iii) the rate at which the market discount accrues, and thus is included in the Fund's income, will depend upon which of the permitted accrual methods the Fund elects. Notwithstanding the foregoing, effective for taxable years beginning after 2017, Section 451 of the Code generally requires any accrual method taxpayer to take into account items of gross income no later than the time at which such items are taken into account as revenue in the taxpayer's financial statements. The Treasury Department and IRS have issued proposed regulations providing that Section 451 does not apply to accrued market discount. If Section 451 were to apply to the accrual of market discount, the Fund would be required to include in income any market discount as it takes the same into account on its financial statements.
Lower Rated or Defaulted Securities. Investments in securities that are at risk of, or are in, default present special tax issues for the Fund. Tax rules are not entirely clear about issues such as when the Fund may cease to accrue interest, original issue discount or market discount, when and to what extent deductions may be taken for bad debts or worthless securities and how payments received on obligations in default should be allocated between principal and income.
Municipal Obligations. Any recognized gain or income attributable to market discount on long-term tax-exempt municipal obligations (i.e., obligations with a term of more than one year) purchased after April 30, 1993 (except to the extent of a portion of the discount on the obligations attributable to original issue discount) is taxable as ordinary income. A long-term debt obligation is generally treated as acquired at a market discount if purchased after its original issue at a price less than (i) the stated principal amount payable at maturity, in the case of an obligation that does not have original issue discount or (ii) in the case of an obligation that does have original issue discount, the sum of the issue price and any original issue discount that accrued before the obligation was purchased, subject to a de minimis exclusion.
From time to time proposals have been introduced before Congress for the purpose of restricting or eliminating the federal income tax exemption for interest on certain types of municipal obligations, and it can be expected that similar proposals may be introduced in the future. As a result of any such future legislation, the availability of municipal obligations for investment by the Fund and the value of the securities held by it may be affected. It is possible that events occurring after the date of issuance of municipal obligations, or after the Fund’s acquisition of such an obligation, may result in a determination that the interest paid on that obligation is taxable, even retroactively.
Tax Credit Bonds. If the Fund holds, directly or indirectly, one or more tax credit bonds issued on or before December 31, 2017 (including Build America Bonds, clean renewable energy bonds and other qualified tax credit bonds) on one or more applicable dates during a taxable year and the Fund satisfies the minimum distribution requirement, the Fund may elect to permit its shareholders to claim a tax credit on their income tax returns equal to each shareholder’s proportionate share of tax credits from the applicable bonds that otherwise would be allowed to the Fund. In such a case, shareholders must include in gross income (as interest) their proportionate share of the income attributable to their proportionate share of those offsetting tax credits. A shareholder’s ability to claim a tax credit associated with one or more tax credit bonds may be subject to certain limitations imposed by the Code. Even if the Fund is eligible to pass through tax credits to shareholders, the Fund may choose not to do so.
Derivatives. The Fund’s investments in options, futures contracts, hedging transactions, forward contracts (to the extent permitted) and certain other transactions may be subject to special tax rules (including mark-to-market, constructive sale, straddle, wash sale, short sale and other rules), the effect of which may be to accelerate income to the Fund, defer Fund losses, cause adjustments in the holding periods of Fund securities, convert capital gain into ordinary income and convert short-term capital losses into long-term capital losses. These rules could therefore affect the amount, timing and character of Fund distributions.
Investments in so-called “section 1256 contracts,” such as regulated futures contracts, most foreign currency forward contracts traded in the interbank market and options on most stock indices, are subject to special tax rules. All “section 1256 contracts” held by the Fund at the end of its taxable year are required to be marked to their market value, and any unrealized gain or loss on those positions will be included in the Fund’s income as if each position had been sold for its fair market value at the end of the taxable year. The resulting gain or loss will be combined with any gain or loss realized by the Fund from positions in “section 1256 contracts” closed during the taxable year. Provided such positions were held as capital assets and were not part of a “hedging transaction” nor part of a “straddle,” 60% of the resulting net gain or loss will be treated as long-term capital gain or loss, and 40% of such net gain or loss will be treated as short-term capital gain or loss, regardless of the period of time the positions were actually held by the Fund. Unless an election is made, net section 1256 gain or loss on forward currency contracts will be treated as ordinary income or loss.
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Fund positions in index options that do not qualify as “section 1256 contracts” under the Code generally will be treated as equity options governed by Code Section 1234. Pursuant to Code Section 1234, if a written option expires unexercised, the premium received by the Fund is short-term capital gain to the Fund. If the Fund enters into a closing transaction with respect to a written option, the difference between the premium received and the amount paid to close out its position is short-term capital gain or loss. If an option written by the Fund that is not a “section 1256 contract” is cash settled, any resulting gain or loss will be short-term capital gain. For an option purchased by the Fund that is not a “section 1256 contract”, any gain or loss resulting from sale of the option will be a capital gain or loss, and will be short-term or long-term, depending upon the holding period for the option. If the option expires, the resulting loss is a capital loss and is short-term or long-term, depending upon the holding period for the option. If a put option written by the Fund is exercised and physically settled, the premium received is treated as a reduction in the amount paid to acquire the underlying securities, increasing the gain or decreasing the loss to be realized by the Fund upon sale of the securities. If a call option written by the Fund is exercised and physically settled, the premium received is included in the sale proceeds, increasing the gain or decreasing the loss realized by the Fund at the time of option exercise.
As a result of entering into swap contracts, the Fund may make or receive periodic net payments. The Fund may also make or receive a payment when a swap is terminated prior to maturity through an assignment of the swap or other closing transaction. Periodic net payments will generally constitute ordinary income or deductions, while termination of a swap will generally result in capital gain or loss (which will be a long-term capital gain or loss if the Fund has been a party to a swap for more than one year). With respect to certain types of swaps, the Fund may be required to currently recognize income or loss with respect to future payments on such swaps or may elect under certain circumstances to mark such swaps to market annually for tax purposes as ordinary income or loss.
Short Sales. In general, gain or loss on a short sale is recognized when the Fund closes the sale by delivering the borrowed property to the lender, not when the borrowed property is sold. Gain or loss from a short sale is generally considered to be capital gain or loss to the extent that the property used to close the short sale constitutes a capital asset in the Fund’s hands. Except with respect to certain situations where the property used to close a short sale has a long-term holding period on the date of the short sale, special rules generally treat the gains on short sales as short-term capital gains. These rules may also terminate the running of the holding period of “substantially identical property” held by the Fund. Moreover, a loss on a short sale will be treated as a long-term capital loss if, on the date of the short sale, “substantially identical property” has been held by the Fund for more than one year. In general, the Fund will not be permitted to deduct payments made to reimburse the lender of securities for dividends paid on borrowed stock if the short sale is closed on or before the 45th day after the short sale is entered.
Constructive Sales. The Fund may recognize gain (but not loss) from a constructive sale of certain “appreciated financial positions” if the Fund enters into a short sale, offsetting notional principal contract, or forward contract transaction with respect to the appreciated position or substantially identical property. Appreciated financial positions subject to this constructive sale treatment include interests (including options and forward contracts and short sales) in stock and certain other instruments. Constructive sale treatment does not apply if the transaction is closed out not later than thirty days after the end of the taxable year in which the transaction was initiated, and the underlying appreciated securities position is held unhedged for at least the next sixty days after the hedging transaction is closed.
Gain or loss on a short sale will generally not be realized until such time as the short sale is closed. However, as described above in the discussion of constructive sales, if the Fund holds a short sale position with respect to securities that has appreciated in value, and it then acquires property that is the same as or substantially identical to the property sold short, the Fund generally will recognize gain on the date it acquires such property as if the short sale were closed on such date with such property. Similarly, if the Fund holds an appreciated financial position with respect to securities and then enters into a short sale with respect to the same or substantially identical property, the Fund generally will recognize gain as if the appreciated financial position were sold at its fair market value on the date it enters into the short sale. The subsequent holding period for any appreciated financial position that is subject to these constructive sale rules will be determined as if such position were acquired on the date of the constructive sale.
Foreign Investments and Currencies. The Fund’s investments in foreign securities may be subject to foreign withholding taxes or other foreign taxes with respect to income (possibly including, in some cases, capital gains), which would decrease the Fund’s income on such securities. These taxes may be reduced or eliminated under the terms of an applicable U.S. income tax treaty. If more than 50% of Fund assets at year end consists of the debt and equity securities of foreign corporations, the Fund may elect to permit shareholders to claim a credit or deduction on their income tax returns for their pro rata portion of qualified taxes paid by the Fund to foreign countries. If the election is made, shareholders will include in gross income from foreign sources their pro rata share of such taxes. A shareholder’s ability to
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claim a foreign tax credit or deduction in respect of foreign taxes paid by the Fund may be subject to certain limitations imposed by the Code (including a holding period requirement applied at the Fund level, shareholder level and, if applicable, Portfolio level), as a result of which a shareholder may not get a full credit or deduction for the amount of such taxes. In particular, the Fund or Portfolio, if applicable, must own a dividend-paying stock for more than 15 days during the 31-day period beginning 15 days prior to the ex-dividend date in order to pass through to shareholders a credit or deduction for any foreign withholding tax on a dividend paid with respect to such stock. Likewise, shareholders must hold their Fund shares (without protection from risk or loss) on the ex-dividend date and for at least 15 additional days during the 31-day period beginning 15 days prior to the ex-dividend date to be eligible to claim the foreign tax with respect to a given dividend. Shareholders who do not itemize deductions on their federal income tax returns may claim a credit (but no deduction) for such taxes. Individual shareholders subject to the alternative minimum tax (“AMT”) may not deduct such taxes for AMT purposes.
Transactions in foreign currencies, foreign currency-denominated debt securities and certain foreign currency options, futures contracts, forward contracts and similar instruments (to the extent permitted) may give rise to ordinary income or loss to the extent such income or loss results from fluctuations in the value of the foreign currency. Under Section 988 of the Code, gains or losses attributable to fluctuations in exchange rates between the time the Fund accrues income or receivables or expenses or other liabilities denominated in a foreign currency and the time the Fund actually collects such income or pays such liabilities are generally treated as ordinary income or ordinary loss.
Investments in PFICs could subject the Fund to U.S. federal income tax or other charges on certain distributions from such companies and on disposition of investments in such companies; however, the tax effects of such investments may be mitigated by making an election to mark such investments to market annually or treat the PFIC as a “qualified electing fund”. If the Fund were to invest in a PFIC and elect to treat the PFIC as a “qualified electing fund” under the Code, the Fund might be required to include in income each year a portion of the ordinary earnings and net capital gains of the qualified electing fund, even if not distributed to the Fund, and such amounts would be subject to the distribution requirements described above. In order to make this election, the Fund would be required to obtain certain annual information from the PFICs in which it invests, which may be difficult or impossible to obtain. Alternatively, if the Fund were to make a mark-to-market election with respect to a PFIC, the Fund would be treated as if it had sold and repurchased the PFIC stock at the end of each year. In such case, the Fund would report any such gains as ordinary income and would deduct any such losses as ordinary losses to the extent of previously recognized gains. This election must be made separately for each PFIC, and once made, would be effective for all subsequent taxable years unless revoked with the consent of the IRS. The Fund may be required to recognize income in excess of the distributions it receives from PFICs and its proceeds from dispositions of PFIC stock in any particular year. As a result, the Fund may have to distribute this “phantom” income and gain to satisfy the distribution requirement and to avoid imposition of the 4% excise tax.
U.S. Government Securities. Distributions paid by the Fund that are derived from interest on obligations of the U.S. Government and certain of its agencies and instrumentalities (but generally not distributions of capital gains realized upon the disposition of such obligations) may be exempt from state and local income taxes. The Fund generally intends to advise shareholders of the extent, if any, to which its distributions consist of such interest. Shareholders are urged to consult their tax advisors regarding the possible exclusion of such portion of their dividends for state and local income tax purposes.
Real Estate Investment Trusts (“REITs”). Any investment by the Fund in equity securities of a REIT qualifying as such under Subchapter M of the Code may result in the Fund’s receipt of cash in excess of the REIT’s earnings; if the Fund distributes these amounts, these distributions could constitute a return of capital to Fund shareholders for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Dividends received by the Fund from a REIT will not qualify for the corporate dividends-received deduction and generally will not constitute qualified dividend income.
Pursuant to proposed regulations on which the Fund may rely, distributions by the Fund to its shareholders that the Fund properly reports as “section 199A dividends,” as defined and subject to certain conditions described below, are treated as qualified REIT dividends in the hands of non-corporate shareholders. Non-corporate shareholders are permitted a federal income tax deduction equal to 20% of qualified REIT dividends received by them, subject to certain limitations. Very generally, a “section 199A dividend” is any dividend or portion thereof that is attributable to certain dividends received by a RIC from REITs, to the extent such dividends are properly reported as such by the RIC in a written notice to its
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shareholders. A section 199A dividend is treated as a qualified REIT dividend only if the shareholders receiving such dividend holds the dividend-paying RIC shares for at least 46 days of the 91-day period beginning 45 days before the shares become ex-dividend, and is not under an obligation to make related payments with respect to a position in substantially similar or related property. The Fund is permitted to report such part of its dividends as section 199A dividends as are eligible, but is not required to do so.
Subject to any future regulatory guidance to the contrary, any distribution of income attributable to qualified publicly traded partnership income from a Fund’s investment in a qualified publicly traded partnership will not qualify for the deduction that would be available to a non-corporate shareholder were the shareholder to own such qualified publicly traded partnership interest directly.
Inflation-Indexed Bonds. Periodic adjustments for inflation to the principal amount of an inflation-indexed bond may give rise to original issue discount, which will be includable in the Fund’s gross income (see “Securities Acquired at Market Discount or with Original Issue Discount” above). Also, if the principal value of an inflation-indexed bond is adjusted downward due to inflation, amounts previously distributed in the taxable year may be characterized in some circumstances as a return of capital (see “Taxation of Fund Shareholders” below).
Taxation of Fund Shareholders. Subject to the discussion of distributions of tax-exempt income below, Fund distributions of investment income and net gains from investments held for one year or less will be taxable as ordinary income. Fund distributions of net gains from investments held for more than one year are generally taxable as long-term capital gains. Taxes on distributions of capital gains are determined by how long the Fund owned (or is treated as having owned) the investments that generated the gains, rather than how long a shareholder has owned his or her shares in the Fund. Dividends and distributions on the Fund’s shares are generally subject to federal income tax as described herein to the extent they are made out of the Fund’s earnings and profits, even though such dividends and distributions may economically represent a return of a particular shareholder’s investment. Such distributions are likely to occur in respect of shares purchased at a time when the Fund’s net asset value reflects gains that are either unrealized, or realized but not distributed. Such realized gains may be required to be distributed even when the Fund’s net asset value also reflects unrealized losses.
Distributions paid by the Fund during any period may be more or less than the amount of net investment income and capital gains actually earned during the period. If the Fund makes a distribution to a shareholder in excess of the Fund’s current and accumulated earnings and profits in any taxable year, the excess distribution will be treated as a return of capital. A return of capital is not taxable, but it reduces a shareholder’s tax basis in its shares, thus reducing any loss or increasing any gain on a subsequent taxable disposition by the shareholder of its shares. A shareholder’s tax basis cannot go below zero and any return of capital distributions in excess of a shareholder’s tax basis will be treated as capital gain.
Ordinarily, shareholders are required to take taxable distributions by the Fund into account in the year in which the distributions are made. However, for federal income tax purposes, dividends that are declared by the Fund in October, November or December as of a record date in such month and actually paid in January of the following year will be treated as if they were paid on December 31 of the year declared. Therefore, such dividends will generally be taxable to a shareholder in the year declared rather than in the year paid.
The amount of distributions payable by the Fund may vary depending on general economic and market conditions, the composition of investments, current management strategy and Fund operating expenses. The Fund will inform shareholders of the tax character of distributions annually to facilitate shareholder tax reporting.
The Fund may elect to retain its net capital gain, in which case the Fund will be taxed thereon (except to the extent of any available capital loss carryovers) at regular corporate tax rates. In such a case, it is expected that the Fund also will elect to have shareholders of record on the last day of its taxable year treated as if each received a distribution of its pro rata share of such gain, with the result that each shareholder will be required to report its pro rata share of such gain on its tax return as long-term capital gain, will receive a refundable tax credit for its pro rata share of tax paid by the Fund on the gain, and will increase the tax basis for its shares by an amount equal to the deemed distribution less the tax credit. The Fund is not required to, and there can be no assurance the Fund will, make this designation if it retains all or a portion of its net capital gain in a taxable year.
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Any Fund distribution, other than dividends that are declared by the Fund on a daily basis, will have the effect of reducing the per share net asset value of Fund shares by the amount of the distribution. If a shareholder buys shares when the Fund has unrealized or realized but not yet distributed ordinary income or capital gains, the shareholder will pay full price for the shares and then may receive a portion back as a taxable distribution even though such distribution may economically represent a return of the shareholder’s investment.
Tax-Exempt Income. Distributions by the Fund of net tax-exempt interest income that are properly reported as “exempt-interest dividends” may be treated by shareholders as interest excludable from gross income for federal income tax purposes under Section 103(a) of the Code. In order for the Fund to be entitled to pay the tax-exempt interest income as exempt-interest dividends to its shareholders, the Fund must satisfy certain requirements, including the requirement that, at the close of each quarter of its taxable year, at least 50% of the value of its total assets consists of obligations the interest on which is exempt from regular federal income tax under Code Section 103(a). Interest on certain municipal obligations may be taxable for purposes of the federal AMT for non-corporate and for state and local purposes. Fund shareholders are required to report tax-exempt interest on their federal income tax returns.
Tax-exempt distributions received from the Fund are taken into account in determining, and may increase, the portion of social security and certain railroad retirement benefits that may be subject to federal income tax. Interest on indebtedness incurred by a shareholder to purchase or carry Fund shares that distributes exempt-interest dividends will not be deductible for U.S. federal income tax purposes in proportion to the percentage that the Fund’s distributions of exempt interest dividends bears to all of the Fund’s distributions, excluding properly reported capital gain dividends. If a shareholder receives exempt interest dividends with respect to any Fund share and if the share is held by the shareholder for six months or less, then any loss on the sale or exchange of the share may, to the extent of the exempt-interest dividends, be disallowed. Furthermore, a portion of any exempt-interest dividend paid by the Fund that represents income derived from certain revenue or private activity bonds held by the Fund may not retain its tax-exempt status in the hands of a shareholder who is a “substantial user” of a facility financed by such bonds, or a “related person” thereof. In addition, the receipt of dividends and distributions from the Fund may affect a foreign corporate shareholder’s federal “branch profits” tax liability and the federal “excess net passive income” tax liability of a shareholder of a Subchapter S corporation. Shareholders should consult their own tax advisors as to whether they are (i) “substantial users” with respect to a facility or “related” to such users within the meaning of the Code or (ii) subject to a federal AMT, the federal “branch profits” tax, or the federal “excess net passive income” tax.
Qualified Dividend Income. “Qualified dividend income” received by an individual is generally taxed at the rates applicable to long-term capital gain. In order for a dividend received by Fund shareholders to be qualified dividend income, the Fund must meet holding period and other requirements with respect to the dividend-paying stock in its portfolio and the shareholder must meet holding period and other requirements with respect to the Fund’s shares. A dividend will not be treated as qualified dividend income (at either the Fund or shareholder level) (1) if the dividend is received with respect to any share of stock held for fewer than 61 days during the 121-day period beginning at the date which is 60 days before the date on which such share becomes ex-dividend with respect to such dividend (or, in the case of certain preferred stock, 91 days during the 181-day period beginning 90 days before such date), (2) to the extent that the recipient is under an obligation (whether pursuant to a short sale or otherwise) to make related payments with respect to positions in substantially similar or related property, (3) if the recipient elects to have the dividend income treated as investment interest, or (4) if the dividend is received from a foreign corporation that is (a) not eligible for the benefits of a comprehensive income tax treaty with the U.S. (with the exception of dividends paid on stock of such a foreign corporation readily tradable on an established securities market in the U.S.) or (b) treated as a PFIC. Payments in lieu of dividends, such as payments pursuant to securities lending arrangements, also do not qualify to be treated as qualified dividend income. In general, distributions of investment income properly reported by the Fund as derived from qualified dividend income will be treated as qualified dividend income by a shareholder taxed as an individual provided the shareholder meets the holding period and other requirements described above with respect to the Fund’s shares. In any event, if the aggregate qualified dividends received by the Fund during any taxable year are 95% or more of its gross income (excluding net long-term capital gain over net short-term capital loss), then 100% of the Fund’s dividends (other than properly reported capital gain dividends) will be eligible to be treated as qualified dividend income. For this purpose, the only gain with respect to the sale of stocks and securities included in the term “gross income” is the excess of net short-term capital gain over net long-term capital loss.
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Dividends Received Deduction for Corporations. A portion of distributions made by the Fund which are derived from dividends from U.S. corporations may qualify for the dividends-received deduction (“DRD”) for corporations. The DRD is reduced to the extent the Fund shares with respect to which the dividends are received are treated as debt-financed under the Code and is eliminated if the shares are deemed to have been held for less than a minimum period, generally more than 45 days (more than 90 days in the case of certain preferred stock) during the 91-day period beginning 45 days before the ex-dividend date (during the 181-day period beginning 90 days before such date in the case of certain preferred stock) or if the recipient is under an obligation (whether pursuant to a short sale or otherwise) to make related payments with respect to positions in substantially similar or related property. Receipt of certain distributions qualifying for the DRD may result in reduction of the tax basis of the corporate shareholder’s shares. Payments in lieu of dividends, such as payments pursuant to securities lending arrangements, also do not qualify for the DRD.
Recognition of Unrelated Business Taxable Income by Tax-Exempt Shareholders. Under current law, tax-exempt investors generally will not recognize unrelated business taxable income (“UBTI”) from distributions from the Fund. Notwithstanding the foregoing, a tax-exempt shareholder could recognize UBTI if shares in the Fund constitute debt-financed property in the hands of a tax-exempt shareholder within the meaning of Code section 514(b). In addition, certain types of income received by the Fund from REITs, real estate mortgage investment conduits (“REMICs”), taxable mortgage pools or other investments may cause the Fund to designate some or all of its distributions as “excess inclusion income.” To Fund shareholders such excess inclusion income may: (1) constitute income taxable as UBTI for those shareholders who would otherwise be tax-exempt such as individual retirement accounts, employer sponsored retirement plans and certain charitable entities; (2) not be offset by otherwise allowable deductions for tax purposes; (3) not be eligible for reduced U.S. withholding for non-U.S. shareholders even from tax treaty countries; and (4) cause the Fund to be subject to tax if certain “disqualified organizations” as defined by the Code are Fund shareholders.
Sale, Redemption or Exchange of Fund Shares. Generally, upon the sale, redemption or (if permitted) exchange of Fund shares, a shareholder will realize a taxable gain or loss equal to the difference between the amount realized and the shareholder’s basis in the shares. Such gain or loss will be treated as capital gain or loss if the shares are capital assets in the shareholder’s hands, and generally will be long-term capital gain or loss if the shares are held for more than one year, and short-term capital gain or loss if the shares are held for one year or less.
Any loss realized upon the sale or other disposition of Fund shares with a tax holding period of six months or less will be treated as a long-term capital loss to the extent of any Fund distributions treated as long-term capital gain with respect to such shares. In addition, all or a portion of a loss realized on a sale or other disposition of Fund shares may be disallowed under “wash sale” rules to the extent the shareholder acquired other shares of the same Fund (whether through the reinvestment of distributions or otherwise) within the period beginning 30 days before the date of sale or other disposition of the loss shares and ending 30 days after such date. Any disallowed loss will result in an adjustment to the shareholder’s tax basis in some or all of the other shares acquired. See the prospectus for information regarding any permitted exchange of Fund shares.
Sales charges paid upon a purchase of shares subject to a front-end sales charge cannot be taken into account for purposes of determining gain or loss on a redemption or exchange of the shares before the 91st day after their purchase to the extent a sales charge is reduced or eliminated in a subsequent acquisition of Fund shares (or shares of another fund) on or before January 31 of the following calendar year pursuant to the reinvestment or exchange privilege. Any disregarded amounts will result in an adjustment to the shareholder’s tax basis in some or all of any other shares acquired.
Applicability of Medicare Contribution Tax. The Code imposes a 3.8% Medicare contribution tax on net investment income of certain U.S. individuals, estates and trusts. For individuals, the tax is on the lesser of the “net investment income” and the excess of modified adjusted gross income over $200,000 (or $250,000 if married filing jointly). Net investment income includes, among other things, interest, dividends, and gross income and capital gains derived from passive activities and trading in securities or commodities. Net investment income is reduced by deductions “properly allocable” to this income.
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Back-Up Withholding for U.S. Shareholders. Amounts paid by the Fund to individuals and certain other shareholders who have not provided the Fund with their correct taxpayer identification number (“TIN”) and certain certifications required by the IRS as well as shareholders with respect to whom the Fund has received certain information from the IRS or a broker, may be subject to “backup” withholding of federal income tax arising from the Fund’s taxable dividends and other distributions as well as the proceeds of redemption transactions (including repurchases and exchanges). An individual’s TIN is generally his or her social security number. Backup withholding is not an additional tax and any amount withheld may be credited against a shareholder’s U.S. federal income tax liability.
Taxation of Foreign Shareholders. In general, dividends (other than capital gain dividends and exempt-interest dividends) paid to a shareholder that is not a “U.S. person” within the meaning of the Code (a “foreign person” or “foreign shareholder”) are subject to withholding of U.S. federal income tax at a rate of 30% (or lower applicable treaty rate). The withholding tax does not apply to regular dividends paid to a foreign person who provides an IRS Form W-8ECI, certifying that the dividends are effectively connected with the foreign person’s conduct of a trade or business within the United States. Instead, the effectively connected dividends will be subject to regular U.S. income tax as if the foreign person were a U.S. shareholder. A non-U.S. corporation receiving effectively connected dividends may also be subject to additional “branch profits tax” imposed at a rate of 30% (or lower treaty rate). A foreign person who fails to provide an IRS Form W-8BEN, IRS Form W-8BEN-E, or other applicable form may be subject to backup withholding at the appropriate rate. A foreign shareholder would generally be exempt from U.S. federal income tax, including withholding tax, on gains realized on the sale of shares of the Fund, net capital gain dividends, exempt interest dividends, and amounts retained by the Fund that are reported as undistributed capital gains.
Properly reported dividends are generally exempt from U.S. federal withholding tax where they (i) are paid in respect of the Fund’s “qualified net interest income” (generally, the Fund’s U.S. source interest income, other than certain contingent interest and interest from obligations of a corporation or partnership in which the Fund is at least a 10% shareholder, reduced by expenses that are allocable to such income) or (ii) are paid in respect of the Fund’s “qualified short-term capital gains” (generally, the excess of the Fund’s net short-term capital gain over the Fund’s long-term capital loss for such taxable year). However, depending on its circumstances, the Fund may report all, some or none of its potentially eligible dividends as such qualified net interest income or as qualified short-term capital gains and/or treat such dividends, in whole or in part, as ineligible for this exemption from withholding. In order to qualify for this exemption from withholding, a non-U.S. shareholder would need to comply with applicable certification requirements relating to its non-U.S. status (including, in general, furnishing an IRS Form W-8BEN, IRS Form W-8BEN-E, or substitute Form). In the case of shares held through an intermediary, the intermediary could withhold even if the Fund designates the payment as qualified net interest income or qualified short-term capital gain. Non-U.S. shareholders should contact their intermediaries with respect to the application of these rules to their accounts.
Distributions that the Fund reports as “short-term capital gain dividends” or “long-term capital gain dividends” will not be treated as such to a recipient foreign shareholder if the distribution is attributable to gain from the sale or exchange of U.S. real property or an interest in a U.S. real property holding corporation and the Fund’s direct or indirect interests in U.S. real property exceeded certain levels. Instead, if the foreign shareholder has not owned more than 5% of the outstanding shares of the Fund at any time during the one year period ending on the date of distribution, such distributions will be subject to 30% (or lower applicable treaty rate) withholding by the Fund and will be treated as ordinary dividends to the foreign shareholder; if the foreign shareholder owned more than 5% of the outstanding shares of the Fund at any time during the one year period ending on the date of the distribution, such distribution will be treated as real property gain subject to 21% withholding tax and could subject the foreign shareholder to U.S. filing requirements. The rules described in this paragraph, other than the withholding rules, will apply notwithstanding the Fund’s participation or a foreign shareholder’s participation in a wash sale transaction or the payment of a substitute dividend.
Additionally, if the Fund’s direct or indirect interests in U.S. real property were to exceed certain levels, a foreign shareholder realizing gains upon redemption from the Fund could be subject to the 21% withholding tax and U.S. filing requirements unless the foreign person had not held more than 5% of the Fund’s outstanding shares at any time during the one year period ending on the date of the redemption.
The same rules apply with respect to distributions to a foreign shareholder from the Fund and redemptions of a foreign shareholder’s interest in the Fund attributable to a REIT’s distribution to the Fund of gain from the sale or exchange of U.S. real property or an interest in a U.S. real property holding corporation, if the Fund’s direct or indirect interests in U.S. real property were to exceed certain levels.
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Provided that 50% or more of the value of the Fund’s stock is held by U.S. shareholders, distributions of U.S. real property interests (including securities in a U.S. real property holding corporation, unless such corporation is regularly traded on an established securities market and the Fund has held 5% or less of the outstanding shares of the corporation during the five-year period ending on the date of distribution), in redemption of a foreign shareholder’s shares of the Fund will cause the Fund to recognize gain. If the Fund is required to recognize gain, the amount of gain recognized will be equal to the fair market value of such interests over the Fund’s adjusted basis to the extent of the greatest foreign ownership percentage of the Fund during the five-year period ending on the date of redemption.
In the case of foreign non-corporate shareholders, the Fund may be required to backup withhold U.S. federal income tax on distributions that are otherwise exempt from withholding tax unless such shareholders furnish the Fund with proper notification of their foreign status.
Shares of the Fund held by a non-U.S. shareholder at death will be considered situated within the United States and subject to the U.S. estate tax.
Compliance with FATCA. A 30% withholding tax is imposed on U.S.-source dividends, interest and other income items, including those paid by the Fund, paid to (i) foreign financial institutions including non-U.S. investment funds unless they agree to collect and disclose to the IRS information regarding their direct and indirect U.S. account holders and (ii) certain other foreign entities, unless they certify certain information regarding their direct and indirect U.S. owners. If a payment by the Fund is subject to withholding under FATCA, the Fund is required to withhold even if such payment would otherwise be exempt from withholding under the rules applicable to foreign shareholders described above (e.g., dividends attributable to qualified net interest income and dividends attributable to tax-exempt interest income). The IRS and the Department of Treasury have issued proposed regulations providing that these withholding rules will not be applicable to the gross proceeds of share redemptions or capital gain dividends the Funds pays. To avoid withholding, foreign financial institutions will need to either enter into agreements with the IRS that state that they will provide the IRS information, including the names, addresses and taxpayer identification numbers of direct and indirect U.S. account holders, comply with due diligence procedures with respect to the identification of U.S. accounts, report to the IRS certain information with respect to U.S. accounts maintained, agree to withhold tax on certain payments made to non-compliant foreign financial institutions or to account holders who fail to provide the required information, and determine certain other information as to their account holders or, in the event that an applicable intergovernmental agreement and implementing legislation are adopted, agree to provide certain information to other revenue authorities for transmittal to the IRS. Other foreign entities will need to either provide the name, address, and taxpayer identification number of each substantial U.S. owner or certifications of no substantial U.S. ownership unless certain exceptions apply or agree to provide certain information to other revenue authorities for transmittal to the IRS. Non-U.S. shareholders should consult their own tax advisors regarding the possible implications of these requirements on their investment in the Fund.
Requirements of Form 8886. Under Treasury Regulations, if a shareholder realizes a loss on disposition of the Fund’s shares of at least $2 million in any single taxable year or $4 million in any combination of taxable years for an individual shareholder or at least $10 million in any single taxable year or $20 million in any combination of taxable years for a corporate shareholder, the shareholder must file with the IRS a disclosure statement on Form 8886. Direct shareholders of portfolio securities are in many cases excepted from this reporting requirement, but under current guidance, shareholders of a RIC are not excepted. The fact that a loss is reportable under these regulations does not affect the legal determination of whether the taxpayer’s treatment of the loss is proper. Shareholders should consult their tax advisors to determine the applicability of these regulations in light of their individual circumstances. Under certain circumstances, certain tax-exempt entities and their managers may be subject to excise tax if they are parties to certain reportable transactions.
Tax Treatment of Variable Annuity/Variable Life Insurance Funding Vehicles. Special rules apply to insurance company separate accounts and the Funds (the “Variable Funds”) in which such insurance company separate accounts invest. For federal income tax purposes, the insurance company separate accounts that invest in a Variable Fund will be treated as receiving the income from the Variable Fund’s distributions to such accounts, and holders of variable annuity contracts or variable life insurance policies (together, “Variable Contracts”) generally will not be taxed currently on income or gains realized with respect to such contracts, provided that certain diversification and “investor control” requirements are met. In order for owners of Variable Contracts to receive such favorable tax treatment, diversification requirements in Section 817(h) of the Code (“Section 817(h)”) must be satisfied. To determine whether such diversification requirements are satisfied, an insurance company that offers Variable Contracts generally may “look through” to the assets of a RIC in which it owns shares (the “Underlying Fund”) if, among other requirements, (1) all the shares of the Underlying Fund are held by segregated asset accounts of insurance companies and (2) public access to such shares is only available through
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the purchase of a variable contract, in each case subject to certain limited exceptions. This provision permits a segregated asset account to invest all of its assets in shares of a single Underlying Fund without being considered nondiversified, provided that the Underlying Fund meets the Section 817(h) diversification requirements. This “look through” treatment typically increases the diversification of the account, because a portion of each of the assets of the Underlying Fund is considered to be held by the segregated asset account. Because each Variable Fund expects that this look-through rule will apply in determining whether the Section 817(h) diversification requirements are satisfied with respect to the variable contracts invested in the insurance company separate accounts that own shares in the Underlying Fund, each Variable Fund intends to comply with the Section 817(h) diversification requirements. If a Variable Fund failed to qualify as a RIC, the insurance company separate accounts investing in the Variable Fund would no longer be permitted to look through to the Variable Fund’s investments and, thus, would likely fail to satisfy the Section 817(h) diversification requirements.
A Variable Fund can generally satisfy the Section 817(h) diversification requirements in one of two ways. First, the requirements will be satisfied if each Variable Fund invests not more than 55 percent of the total value of its assets in the securities of a single issuer; not more than 70 percent of the value of its total assets in the securities of any two issuers; not more than 80 percent of the value of its total assets in the securities of any three issuers; and not more than 90 percent of the value of its total assets in the securities of any four issuers. Alternatively, the diversification requirements will be satisfied with respect to Variable Fund shares owned by insurance companies as investments for variable contracts if (i) no more than 55 percent of the value of the Variable Fund’s total assets consists of cash, cash items (including receivables), U.S. Government securities, and securities of other RICs, and (ii) the Variable Fund satisfies the additional diversification requirements for qualification as a RIC under Subchapter M of the Code discussed above. For purposes of the Section 817(h) diversification rule, all securities of the same issuer are considered a single investment. In the case of government securities, each United States government agency or instrumentality is generally treated as a separate issuer. In addition, to the extent any security is guaranteed or insured by the U.S. or an instrumentality of the U.S., it will be treated as having been issued by the U.S. or the instrumentality, as applicable.
A Variable Fund will be considered to be in compliance with the Section 817(h) diversification requirements if it is adequately diversified on the last day of each calendar quarter. A Variable Fund that meets the diversification requirements as of the close of a calendar quarter will not be considered nondiversified in a subsequent quarter because of a discrepancy between the value of its assets and the diversification requirements unless the discrepancy exists immediately after the acquisition of any asset and is attributable, in whole or in part, to such acquisition.
If the segregated asset account investing in the Variable Fund is not adequately diversified at the required time and the correction procedure described below is not available, a Variable Contract based on the account during the specified time will not be treated as an annuity or life insurance contract within the meaning of the Code and all income accrued on the Variable Contract for the current and all prior taxable years will be subject to current federal taxation at ordinary income rates to the holders of such contracts. The Variable Contract will also remain subject to current taxation for all subsequent tax periods regardless of whether the Fund or separate account becomes adequately diversified in future periods.
In certain circumstances, an inadvertent failure to satisfy the Section 817(h) diversification requirements can be corrected, but generally will require the payment of a penalty to the IRS. The amount of such penalty will be based on the tax the contract holders would have incurred if they were treated as receiving the income on the contract for the period during which the diversification requirements were not satisfied. Any such failure also could result in adverse tax consequences for the insurance company issuing the contracts.
In addition to the Section 817(h) diversification requirements, “investor control” limitations also are imposed on owners of Variable Contracts. The IRS has issued rulings addressing the circumstances in which a Variable Contract holder’s control of the investments of the insurance company separate account may cause the holder, rather than the insurance company, to be treated as the owner of the assets held by the separate account. If the holder is considered the owner of the securities underlying the separate account, income, and gains produced by those securities would be included currently in the holder’s gross income. In determining whether an impermissible level of investor control is present, one factor the IRS considers is whether a Variable Fund’s investment strategies are sufficiently broad to prevent a Variable Contract holder from being deemed to be making particular investment decisions through its investment in the separate account. For this purpose, current IRS guidance indicates that typical fund investment strategies, even those with a
|Calvert Responsible Index Funds||36||SAI dated February 1, 2021|
specific sector or geographical focus, are generally considered sufficiently broad. Most, although not necessarily all, of the Variable Funds have objectives and strategies that are not materially narrower than the investment strategies held not to constitute an impermissible level of investor control in recent IRS rulings (such as large company stocks, international stocks, small company stocks, mortgage-backed securities, money market securities, telecommunications stocks, and financial services stocks).
The above discussion addresses only one of several factors that the IRS considers in determining whether a Variable Contract holder has an impermissible level of investor control over a separate account. Variable Contract holders should consult with their own tax advisors, as well as the prospectus relating to their particular Variable Contract, for more information concerning this investor control issue.
In the event that there is a legislative change or the IRS or Treasury Department issues rulings, regulations, or other guidance, there can be no assurance that a Variable Fund will be able to operate as currently described, or that a Variable Fund will not have to change its investment objective or investment policies. While a Variable Fund’s investment objective is fundamental and may be changed only by a vote of a majority of its outstanding shares, the investment policies of the Variable Funds may be modified as necessary to prevent any prospective rulings, regulations, or legislative change from causing Variable Contract owners to be considered the owners of the shares of a Variable Fund.
For a discussion of the tax consequences to owners of Variable Contracts of Variable Fund distributions to insurance company separate accounts, please see the prospectus provided by the insurance company for your Variable Contract. Because of the unique tax status of Variable Contracts, you also should consult your tax advisor regarding the tax consequences of owning Variable Contracts under the federal, state, and local tax rules that apply to you.
Other Taxes. Dividends, distributions and redemption proceeds may also be subject to additional state, local and foreign taxes depending on each shareholder’s particular situation.
Changes in Taxation. The taxation of the Fund and shareholders may be adversely affected by future legislation, Treasury Regulations, IRS revenue procedures and/or guidance issued by the IRS.
PORTFOLIO SECURITIES TRANSACTIONS
Decisions concerning the execution of portfolio security transactions, including the selection of the market and the broker-dealer firm, are made by the investment adviser. Each Fund is responsible for the expenses associated with its portfolio transactions. The investment adviser is also responsible for the execution of transactions for all other accounts managed by it. The investment adviser places the portfolio security transactions for execution with one or more broker-dealer firms. The investment adviser uses its best efforts to obtain execution of portfolio security transactions at prices which in the investment adviser’s judgment are advantageous to the client and at a reasonably competitive spread or (when a disclosed commission is being charged) at reasonably competitive commission rates. In seeking such execution, the investment adviser will use its best judgment in evaluating the terms of a transaction, and will give consideration to various relevant factors, which may include, without limitation, the full range and quality of the broker-dealer firm’s services, responsiveness of the firm to the investment adviser, the size and type of the transaction, the nature and character of the market for the security, the confidentiality, speed and certainty of effective execution required for the transaction, the general execution and operational capabilities of the broker-dealer firm, the reputation, reliability, experience and financial condition of the firm, the value and quality of the services rendered by the firm in this and other transactions, and the amount of the spread or commission, if any. In addition, the investment adviser may consider the receipt of Research Services (as defined below), provided it does not compromise the investment adviser’s obligation to seek best overall execution for a Fund and is otherwise in compliance with applicable law. The investment adviser may engage in portfolio brokerage transactions with a broker-dealer firm that sells shares of Calvert funds, provided such transactions are not directed to that firm as compensation for the promotion or sale of such shares.
Transactions on stock exchanges and other agency transactions involve the payment of negotiated brokerage commissions. Such commissions vary among different broker-dealer firms, and a particular broker-dealer may charge different commissions according to such factors as the difficulty and size of the transaction and the volume of business done with such broker-dealer. Transactions in foreign securities often involve the payment of brokerage commissions, which may be higher than those in the United States. There is generally no stated commission in the case of securities traded in the over-the-counter markets including transactions in fixed-income securities which are generally purchased and sold on a net basis (i.e., without commission) through broker-dealers and banks acting for their own account rather than as brokers. Such firms attempt to profit from such transactions by buying at the bid price and selling at the higher asked price of the market for such obligations, and the difference between the bid and asked price is customarily referred
|Calvert Responsible Index Funds||37||SAI dated February 1, 2021|
to as the spread. Fixed-income transactions may also be transacted directly with the issuer of the obligations. In an underwritten offering the price paid often includes a disclosed fixed commission or discount retained by the underwriter or dealer. Although spreads or commissions paid on portfolio security transactions will, in the judgment of the investment adviser, be reasonable in relation to the value of the services provided, commissions exceeding those which another firm might charge may be paid to broker-dealers who were selected to execute transactions on behalf of the investment adviser’s clients in part for providing brokerage and research services to the investment adviser as permitted by applicable law.
Pursuant to the safe harbor provided in Section 28(e) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (“Section 28(e)”) and to the extent permitted by other applicable law, a broker or dealer who executes a portfolio transaction may receive a commission that is in excess of the amount of commission another broker or dealer would have charged for effecting that transaction if the investment adviser determines in good faith that such compensation was reasonable in relation to the value of the brokerage and research services provided. This determination may be made on the basis of either that particular transaction or on the basis of the overall responsibility which the investment adviser and its affiliates have for accounts over which they exercise investment discretion. “Research Services” as used herein includes any and all brokerage and research services to the extent permitted by Section 28(e) and other applicable law. Generally, Research Services may include, but are not limited to, such matters as research, analytical and quotation services, data, information and other services products and materials which assist the investment adviser in the performance of its investment responsibilities. More specifically, Research Services may include general economic, political, business and market information, industry and company reviews, evaluations of securities and portfolio strategies and transactions, technical analysis of various aspects of the securities markets, recommendations as to the purchase and sale of securities and other portfolio transactions, certain financial, industry and trade publications, certain news and information services, and certain research oriented computer software, data bases and services. Any particular Research Service obtained through a broker-dealer may be used by the investment adviser in connection with client accounts other than those accounts which pay commissions to such broker-dealer, to the extent permitted by applicable law. Any such Research Service may be broadly useful and of value to the investment adviser in rendering investment advisory services to all or a significant portion of its clients, or may be relevant and useful for the management of only one client’s account or of a few clients’ accounts, or may be useful for the management of merely a segment of certain clients’ accounts, regardless of whether any such account or accounts paid commissions to the broker-dealer through which such Research Service was obtained. The investment adviser evaluates the nature and quality of the various Research Services obtained through broker-dealer firms and, to the extent permitted by applicable law, may attempt to allocate sufficient portfolio security transactions to such firms to ensure the continued receipt of Research Services which the investment adviser believes are useful or of value to it in rendering investment advisory services to its clients. The investment adviser may also receive brokerage and Research Services from underwriters and dealers in fixed-price offerings, when permitted under applicable law.
Research Services provided by (and produced by) broker-dealers that execute portfolio transactions or from affiliates of executing broker-dealers are referred to as “Proprietary Research.” Except for trades executed in jurisdictions where such consideration is not permissible, the investment adviser may and does consider the receipt of Proprietary Research Services as a factor in selecting broker dealers to execute client portfolio transactions, provided it does not compromise the investment adviser’s obligation to seek best overall execution. In jurisdictions where permissible, the investment adviser also may consider the receipt of Research Services under so called “client commission arrangements” or “commission sharing arrangements” (both referred to as “CCAs”) as a factor in selecting broker dealers to execute transactions, provided it does not compromise the investment adviser’s obligation to seek best overall execution. Under a CCA arrangement, the investment adviser may cause client accounts to effect transactions through a broker-dealer and request that the broker-dealer allocate a portion of the commissions paid on those transactions to a pool of commission credits that are paid to other firms that provide Research Services to the investment adviser. Under a CCA, the broker-dealer that provides the Research Services need not execute the trade. Participating in CCAs may enable the investment adviser to consolidate payments for research using accumulated client commission credits from transactions executed through a particular broker-dealer to periodically pay for Research Services obtained from and provided by other firms, including other broker-dealers that supply Research Services. The investment adviser believes that CCAs offer the potential to optimize the execution of trades and the acquisition of a variety of high quality Research Services that the investment adviser might not be provided access to absent CCAs. The investment adviser will only enter into and utilize CCAs to the extent permitted by Section 28(e) and other applicable law.
|Calvert Responsible Index Funds||38||SAI dated February 1, 2021|
Fund trades executed by an affiliate of the investment adviser licensed in the United Kingdom may implicate laws of the United Kingdom, including rules of the UK Financial Conduct Authority, which govern client trading commissions and Research Services (“UK Law”). Broadly speaking, under UK Law the investment adviser may not accept any good or service when executing an order unless that good or service either is directly related to the execution of trades on behalf of its clients/customers or amounts to the provision of substantive research (as defined under UK Law). These requirements may also apply with respect to orders in connection with which the investment adviser receives goods and services under a CCA or other bundled brokerage arrangement. Fund trades may also implicate UK Law requiring the investment adviser to direct any research portion of a brokerage commission to an account controlled by the investment adviser.
The investment companies sponsored by the investment adviser or its affiliates also may allocate brokerage commissions to acquire information relating to the performance, fees and expenses of such companies and other investment companies, which information is used by the members of the Board of such companies to fulfill their responsibility to oversee the quality of the services provided to various entities, including the investment adviser, to such companies. Such companies may also pay cash for such information.
Securities considered as investments for a Fund may also be appropriate for other investment accounts managed by the investment adviser or its affiliates. Whenever decisions are made to buy or sell securities by a Fund and one or more of such other accounts simultaneously, the investment adviser will allocate the security transactions (including “new” issues) in a manner which it believes to be equitable under the circumstances. As a result of such allocations, there may be instances where a Fund will not participate in a transaction that is allocated among other accounts. If an aggregated order cannot be filled completely, allocations will generally be made on a pro rata basis. An order may not be allocated on a pro rata basis where, for example: (i) consideration is given to portfolio managers who have been instrumental in developing or negotiating a particular investment; (ii) consideration is given to an account with specialized investment policies that coincide with the particulars of a specific investment; (iii) pro rata allocation would result in odd-lot or de minimis amounts being allocated to a portfolio or other client; or (iv) where the investment adviser reasonably determines that departure from a pro rata allocation is advisable. While these aggregation and allocation policies could have a detrimental effect on the price or amount of the securities available to a Fund from time to time, it is the opinion of the members of the Board that the benefits from the investment adviser organization outweigh any disadvantage that may arise from exposure to simultaneous transactions.
The following table shows brokerage commissions paid during the three fiscal years ended September 30, 2020, as well as the amount of Fund security transactions for the most recent fiscal year (if any) that were directed to firms that provided some Research Services to the investment adviser or its affiliates (see above), and the commissions paid in connection therewith. Each Fund did not pay any brokerage commissions to affiliated brokers during the past three fiscal years.
|Brokerage Commissions Paid for the Fiscal Year Ended||Amount
Directed to Firms
Transactions Directed to
Firms Providing Research
|International Responsible Index Fund||$84,587||$56,999||$51,501||$158,280,555||$77,259|
|US Large-Cap Core Responsible Index Fund||$87,098||$83,926||$87,886||$931,315,363||$79,095|
|US Large-Cap Growth Responsible Index Fund||$11,590||$6,916||$7,361||$105,124,066||$9,605|
|US Large-Cap Value Responsible Index Fund||$83,200||$50,401||$57,535||$569,926,747||$75,332|
|US Mid-Cap Core Responsible Index Fund||$12,009||$13,766||$11,050||$67,527,098||$11,038|
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During the fiscal year ended September 30, 2020, each Portfolio held securities of its or its corresponding Fund’s “regular brokers or dealers,” as that term is defined in Rule 10b-1 of the 1940 Act, and the value of such securities as of each Fund’s fiscal year end was as follows:
|International Responsible Index Fund||Royal Bank of Canada||$1,718,003|
|BNP Paribas SA||$614,388|
|US Large-Cap Core Responsible Index Fund||Charles Schwab Corp.||$5,465,259|
|Bank of New York Mellon Corp.||$3,974,306|
|State Street Corp.||$2,749,412|
|SEI Investments Co.||$749,033|
|US Large-Cap Growth Responsible Index Fund||LPL Financial Holdings, Inc.||$32,815|
|Charles Schwab Corp.||$25,180|
|US Large-Cap Value Responsible Index Fund||Bank of America Corp.||$13,670,641|
|Charles Schwab Corp.||$3,816,649|
|Bank of New York Mellon Corp.||$3,094,755|
|State Street Corp.||$2,128,464|
|US Mid-Cap Core Responsible Index Fund||SEI Investments Co.||$107,019|
|LPL Financial Holdings, Inc.||$96,681|
The audited financial statements of, and the report of the independent registered public accounting firm for each Fund appear in its annual report to shareholders and are incorporated by reference into this SAI. A copy of each annual report accompanies this SAI.
Householding. Consistent with applicable law, duplicate mailings of shareholder reports and certain other Fund information to shareholders residing at the same address may be eliminated.
The Corporation(s) incorporates by reference the audited financial information and the reports of the independent registered public accounting firm for the Funds and the Portfolios listed below for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2020, as previously filed electronically with the SEC on November 25, 2020:
International Responsible Index Fund
US Large-Cap Core Responsible Index Fund
US Large-Cap Growth Responsible Index Fund
US Large-Cap Value Responsible Index Fund
US Mid-Cap Core Responsible Index Fund
(Accession No. 0001193125-20-303244)
|Calvert Responsible Index Funds||40||SAI dated February 1, 2021|
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ABOUT INVESTMENT STRATEGIES AND RISKS
|Asset Coverage||To the extent required by SEC guidance, if a transaction creates a future obligation of the Fund to another party the Fund will: (1) cover the obligation by entering into an offsetting position or transaction; and/or (2) segregate cash and/or liquid securities with a value (together with any collateral posted with respect to the obligation) at least equal to the marked-to-market value of the obligation. Assets used as cover or segregated cannot be sold while the position(s) requiring coverage is open unless replaced with other appropriate assets. The types of transactions that may require asset coverage include (but are not limited to) reverse repurchase agreements, repurchase agreements, short sales, securities lending, forward contracts, certain options, forward commitments, futures contracts, when-issued securities, swap agreements and residual interest bonds.|
|Asset-Backed Securities (“ABS”)||
ABS are collateralized by pools of automobile loans, educational loans, home equity loans, credit card receivables, equipment or automobile leases, commercial mortgage-backed securities (“MBS”), utilities receivables, secured or unsecured bonds issued by corporate or sovereign obligors, unsecured loans made to a variety of corporate commercial and industrial loan customers of one or more lending banks, or a combination of these bonds and loans. ABS are “pass through” securities, meaning that principal and interest payments made by the borrower on the underlying assets are passed through to the ABS holder. ABS are issued through special purpose vehicles that are bankruptcy remote from the issuer of the collateral. ABS are subject to interest rate risk and prepayment risk. Some ABS may receive prepayments that can change their effective maturities. Issuers of ABS may have limited ability to enforce the security interest in the underlying assets or may have no security in the underlying assets, and credit enhancements provided to support the securities, if any, may be inadequate to protect investors in the event of default. In addition, ABS may experience losses on the underlying assets as a result of certain rights provided to consumer debtors under federal and state law. The value of ABS may be affected by the factors described above and other factors, such as the availability of information concerning the pool and its structure, the creditworthiness of the servicing agent for the pool, the originator of the underlying assets or the entities providing credit enhancements and the ability of the servicer to service the underlying collateral. The value of ABS representing interests in a pool of utilities receivables may be adversely affected by changes in government regulations. While certain ABS may be insured as to the payment of principal and interest, this insurance does not protect the market value of such obligations or the Fund’s net asset value. The value of an insured security will be affected by the credit standing of its insurer.
Collateralized debt obligations (“CDOs”) and collateralized loan obligations (“CLOs”) are types of ABS that are backed solely by a pool of other debt securities. CDOs and CLOs are typically issued in various classes with varying priorities. The risks of an investment in a CDO or CLO depend largely on the type of the collateral securities and the class of the CDO or CLO in which the Fund invests. In addition to interest rate, prepayment, default and other risks of ABS and fixed income securities, in general, CDOs and CLOs are subject to additional risks, including the possibility that distributions from collateral securities will not be adequate to make interest or other payments, the quality of the collateral may decline in value or default, the Fund may invest in CDOs or CLOs that are subordinate to other classes, and the complex structure may produce disputes with the issuer or unexpected investment results. The Fund's investment in CDOs and CLOs may decrease in market value if they experience loan defaults or credit impairment, the disappearance of a subordinate tranche or class of debt, or due to market anticipation of defaults and investor aversion to the securities as a class.
|Calvert Responsible Index Funds||41||SAI dated February 1, 2021|
|Auction Rate Securities||Auction rate securities, such as auction preferred shares of closed-end investment companies, are preferred securities and debt securities with dividends/coupons based on a rate set at auction. The auction is usually held weekly for each series of a security, but may be held less frequently. The auction sets the rate, and securities may be bought and sold at the auction. Provided that the auction mechanism is successful, auction rate securities normally permit the holder to sell the securities in an auction at par value at specified intervals. The dividend is reset by a “Dutch” auction in which bids are made by broker-dealers and other institutions for a certain amount of securities at a specified minimum yield. The dividend rate set by the auction is the lowest interest or dividend rate that covers all securities offered for sale. While this process is designed to permit auction rate securities to be traded at par value, there is the risk that an auction will fail due to insufficient demand for the securities. Security holders that submit sell orders in a failed auction may not be able to sell any or all of the shares for which they have submitted sell orders. Security holders may sell their shares at the next scheduled auction, subject to the same risk that the subsequent auction will not attract sufficient demand for a successful auction to occur. Broker-dealers may also try to facilitate secondary trading in the auction rate securities, although such secondary trading may be limited and may only be available for shareholders willing to sell at a discount. Since mid-February 2008, existing markets for certain auction rate securities have become generally illiquid and investors have not been able to sell their securities through the regular auction process. It is uncertain when or whether there will be a revival of investor interest in purchasing securities sold through auctions. There may be limited or no active secondary markets for many auction rate securities. Auction rate securities that do trade in a secondary market may trade at a significant discount from their liquidation preference. There have been a number of governmental investigations and regulatory settlements involving certain broker-dealers with respect to their prior activities involving auction rate securities.|
|Valuations of such securities is highly speculative, however, dividends on auction rate preferred securities issued by a closed-end fund may be reported, generally on Form 1099, as exempt from federal income tax to the extent they are attributable to tax-exempt interest income earned by the Fund on the securities and distributed to holders of the preferred securities, provided that the preferred securities are treated as equity securities for federal income tax purposes, and the closed-end fund complies with certain requirements under the Code. Investments in auction rate preferred securities of closed-end funds are subject to limitations on investments in other U.S. registered investment companies, which limitations are prescribed by the 1940 Act.|
|Average Effective Maturity||Average effective maturity is a weighted average of all the maturities of bonds owned by the Fund. Average effective maturity takes into consideration all mortgage payments, puts and adjustable coupons. In the event the Fund invests in multiple Portfolios, its average weighted maturity is the sum of its allocable share of the average weighted maturity of each of the Portfolios in which it invests, which is determined by multiplying the Portfolio’s average weighted maturity by the Fund’s percentage ownership of that Portfolio.|
|Borrowing for Investment Purposes||Successful use of a borrowing strategy depends on the investment adviser’s ability to predict correctly interest rates and market movements. There is no assurance that a borrowing strategy will be successful. Upon the expiration of the term of the Fund’s existing credit arrangement, the lender may not be willing to extend further credit to the Fund or may be willing to do so at an increased cost to the Fund. If the Fund is not able to extend its credit arrangement, it may be required to liquidate holdings to repay amounts borrowed from the lender. Borrowing to increase investments generally will magnify the effect on the Fund’s net asset value of any increase or decrease in the value of the security purchased with the borrowings. Successful use of a borrowing strategy depends on the investment adviser’s ability to predict correctly interest rates and market movements. There can be no assurance that the use of borrowings will be successful. In connection with its borrowings, the Fund will be required to maintain specified asset coverage with respect to such borrowings by both the 1940 Act and the terms of its credit facility with the lender. The Fund may be required to dispose of portfolio investments on unfavorable terms if market fluctuations or other factors reduce the required asset coverage to less than the prescribed amount. Borrowings involve additional expense to the Fund.|
|Calvert Responsible Index Funds||42||SAI dated February 1, 2021|
|Borrowing for Temporary Purposes||The Fund may borrow for temporary purposes (such as to satisfy redemption requests, to remain fully invested in advance of the settlement of share purchases, and to settle transactions). The Fund’s ability to borrow is subject to its terms and conditions of its credit arrangements, which in some cases may limit the Fund’s ability to borrow under the arrangement. The Fund will be required to maintain a specified level of asset coverage with respect to all borrowings and may be required to sell some of its holdings to reduce debt and restore coverage at times when it may not be advantageous to do so. The rights of the lender to receive payments of interest and repayments of principal of any borrowings made by the Fund under a credit arrangement are senior to the rights of holders of shares with respect to the payment of dividends or upon liquidation. In the event of a default under a credit arrangement, the lenders may have the right to cause a liquidation of the collateral (i.e., sell Fund assets) and, if any such default is not cured, the lenders may be able to control the liquidation as well. Credit arrangements are subject to annual renewal, which cannot be assured. If the Fund does not have the ability to borrow for temporary purposes, it may be required to sell securities at inopportune times to meet short-term liquidity needs. Because the Fund is a party to a joint credit arrangement, it may be unable to borrow some or all of its requested amounts at any particular time. Borrowings involve additional expense to the Fund.|
|Build America Bonds||Build America Bonds are taxable municipal obligations issued pursuant to the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (the “Act”) or other legislation providing for the issuance of taxable municipal debt on which the issuer receives federal support. Enacted in February 2009, the Act authorizes state and local governments to issue taxable bonds on which, assuming certain specified conditions are satisfied, issuers may either (i) receive reimbursement from the U.S. Treasury with respect to its interest payments on the bonds (“direct pay” Build America Bonds); or (ii) provide tax credits to investors in the bonds (“tax credit” Build America Bonds). Unlike most other municipal obligations, interest received on Build America Bonds is subject to federal income tax and may be subject to state income tax. Under the terms of the Act, issuers of direct pay Build America Bonds are entitled to receive reimbursement from the U.S. Treasury currently equal to 35% (or 45% in the case of Recovery Zone Economic Development Bonds) of the interest paid. Holders of tax credit Build America Bonds can receive a federal tax credit currently equal to 35% of the coupon interest received. The Fund may invest in “principal only” strips of tax credit Build America Bonds, which entitle the holder to receive par value of such bonds if held to maturity. The Fund does not expect to receive (or pass through to shareholders) tax credits as a result of its investments. The federal interest subsidy or tax credit continues for the life of the bonds. Build America Bonds are an alternative form of financing to state and local governments whose primary means for accessing the capital markets has been through issuance of tax-free municipal bonds. Build America Bonds can appeal to a broader array of investors than the high income U.S. taxpayers that have traditionally provided the market for municipal bonds. Build America Bonds may provide a lower net cost of funds to issuers. Pursuant to the terms of the Act, the issuance of Build America Bonds ceased on December 31, 2010. As a result, the availability of such bonds is limited and the market for the bonds and/or their liquidity may be affected.|
|Call and Put Features on Securities||Issuers of securities may reserve the right to call (redeem) the securities. If an issuer redeems a security with a call right during a time of declining interest rates, the holder of the security may not be able to reinvest the proceeds in securities providing the same investment return as provided by the securities redeemed. Some securities may have “put” or “demand” features that allow early redemption by the holder. Longer term fixed-rate securities may give the holder a right to request redemption at certain times (often annually after the lapse of an intermediate term). This “put” or “demand” feature enhances a security’s liquidity by shortening its effective maturity and enables the security to trade at a price equal to or very close to par. If a demand feature terminates prior to being exercised, the holder of the security would be subject to the longer maturity of the security, which could experience substantially more volatility. Securities with a “put” or “demand” feature are more defensive than conventional long term securities (protecting to some degree against a rise in interest rates) while providing greater opportunity than comparable intermediate term securities, because they can be retained if interest rates decline.|
|Calvert Responsible Index Funds||43||SAI dated February 1, 2021|
|Collateralized Mortgage Obligations (“CMOs”)||CMOs are backed by a pool of mortgages or mortgage loans. The key feature of the CMO structure is the prioritization of the cash flows from the pool of mortgages among the several classes, or tranches, of the CMO, thereby creating a series of obligations with varying rates and maturities. Senior CMO classes will typically have priority over residual CMOs as to the receipt of principal and or interest payments on the underlying mortgages. CMOs also issue sequential and parallel pay classes, including planned amortization and target amortization classes, and fixed and floating rate CMO tranches. CMOs issued by U.S. government agencies are backed by agency mortgages, while privately issued CMOs may be backed by either government agency mortgages or private mortgages. Payments of principal and interest are passed through to each CMO tranche at varying schedules resulting in bonds with different coupons, effective maturities and sensitivities to interest rates. Parallel pay CMOs are structured to provide payments of principal on each payment date to more than one class, concurrently on a proportionate or disproportionate basis. Sequential pay CMOs generally pay principal to only one class at a time while paying interest to several classes. CMOs generally are secured by an assignment to a trustee under the indenture pursuant to which the bonds are issued as collateral consisting of a pool of mortgages. Payments with respect to the underlying mortgages generally are made to the trustee under the indenture. CMOs are designed to be retired as the underlying mortgages are repaid. In the event of sufficient early prepayments on such mortgages, the class or series of CMO first to mature generally will be retired prior to maturity. Therefore, although in most cases the issuer of CMOs will not supply additional collateral in the event of such prepayments, there will be sufficient collateral to secure CMOs that remain outstanding. Floating rate CMO tranches carry interest rates that are tied in a fixed relationship to an index subject to an upper limit, or “cap,” and sometimes to a lower limit, or “floor.” CMOs may be less liquid and may exhibit greater price volatility than other types of mortgage- or asset-backed securities.|
|Commercial Mortgage-Backed Securities (“CMBS”)||CMBS include securities that reflect an interest in, and are secured by, mortgage loans on commercial real property, such as hotels, office buildings, retail stores, hospitals and other commercial buildings. CMBS may have a lower repayment uncertainty than other mortgage-related securities because commercial mortgage loans generally prohibit or impose penalties on prepayment of principal. The risks of investing in CMBS reflect the risks of investing in the real estate securing the underlying mortgage loans, including the effects of local and other economic conditions on real estate markets, the ability of tenants to make loan payment, and the ability of a property to attract and retain tenants. CMBS may be less liquid and may exhibit greater price volatility than other types of mortgage- or asset-backed securities.|
|Commodity-Related Investments||The value of commodities investments will generally be affected by overall market movements and factors specific to a particular industry or commodity, which may include weather, embargoes, tariffs, and health, political, international and regulatory developments. Economic and other events (whether real or perceived) can reduce the demand for commodities, which may reduce market prices and cause the value of Fund shares to fall. The frequency and magnitude of such changes cannot be predicted. Exposure to commodities and commodities markets may subject the Fund to greater volatility than investments in traditional securities. No active trading market may exist for certain commodities investments, which may impair the ability of the Fund to sell or to realize the full value of such investments in the event of the need to liquidate such investments. In addition, adverse market conditions may impair the liquidity of actively traded commodities investments. Certain types of commodities instruments (such as total return swaps and commodity-linked notes) are subject to the risk that the counterparty to the instrument will not perform or will be unable to perform in accordance with the terms of the instrument. A Fund’s ability to invest in commodity-related investments may be limited by the Code.|
|Calvert Responsible Index Funds||44||SAI dated February 1, 2021|
|Certain commodities are subject to limited pricing flexibility because of supply and demand factors. Others are subject to broad price fluctuations as a result of the volatility of the prices for certain raw materials and the instability of supplies of other materials. These additional variables may create additional investment risks and result in greater volatility than investments in traditional securities. The commodities that underlie commodity futures contracts and commodity swaps may be subject to additional economic and non-economic variables, such as drought, floods, weather, livestock disease, embargoes, tariffs, and international economic, political and regulatory developments. Unlike the financial futures markets, in the commodity futures markets there are costs of physical storage associated with purchasing the underlying commodity. The price of the commodity futures contract will reflect the storage costs of purchasing the physical commodity, including the time value of money invested in the physical commodity. To the extent that the storage costs for an underlying commodity change while the Fund is invested in futures contracts on that commodity, the value of the futures contract may change proportionately.|
|In the commodity futures markets, producers of the underlying commodity may decide to hedge the price risk of selling the commodity by selling futures contracts today to lock in the price of the commodity at delivery tomorrow. In order to induce speculators to purchase the other side of the same futures contract, the commodity producer generally must sell the futures contract at a lower price than the expected future spot price. Conversely, if most hedgers in the futures market are purchasing futures contracts to hedge against a rise in prices, then speculators will only sell the other side of the futures contract at a higher futures price than the expected future spot price of the commodity. The changing nature of the hedgers and speculators in the commodity markets will influence whether futures prices are above or below the expected future spot price, which can have significant implications for the Fund. If the nature of hedgers and speculators in futures markets has shifted when it is time for the Fund to reinvest the proceeds of a maturing contract in a new futures contract, the Fund might reinvest at higher or lower futures prices, or choose to pursue other investments.|
|Common Stocks||Common stock represents an equity ownership interest in the issuing corporation. Holders of common stock generally have voting rights in the issuer and are entitled to receive common stock dividends when, as and if declared by the corporation’s board of directors. Common stock normally occupies the most subordinated position in an issuer’s capital structure. Returns on common stock investments consist of any dividends received plus the amount of appreciation or depreciation in the value of the stock.|
|Although common stocks have historically generated higher average returns than fixed-income securities over the long term and particularly during periods of high or rising concerns about inflation, common stocks also have experienced significantly more volatility in returns and may not maintain their real value during inflationary periods. An adverse event, such as an unfavorable earnings report, may depress the value of a particular common stock. Also, the prices of common stocks are sensitive to general movements in the stock market and a drop in the stock market may depress the price of common stocks. Common stock prices fluctuate for many reasons, including changes in investors’ perceptions of the financial condition of an issuer or the general condition of the relevant stock market, or when political or economic events affecting the issuer occur. In addition, common stock prices may be sensitive to rising interest rates as the costs of capital rise and borrowing costs increase.|
|Calvert Responsible Index Funds||45||SAI dated February 1, 2021|
|Contingent Convertible Securities||Contingent convertible securities (sometimes referred to as “CoCos”) are convertible securities with loss absorption characteristics. These securities provide for mandatory conversion into common stock of the issuer under certain circumstances. The mandatory conversion may be automatically triggered, for instance, if a company fails to meet the capital minimum with respect to the security, the company’s regulator makes a determination that the security should convert or the company receives specified levels of extraordinary public support. Since the common stock of the issuer may not pay a dividend, investors in these instruments could experience a reduced income rate, potentially to zero; and conversion would deepen the subordination of the investor, hence worsening standing in a bankruptcy. In addition, some such instruments have a set stock conversion rate that would cause an automatic write-down of capital if the price of the stock is below the conversion price on the conversion date. Under similar circumstances, the liquidation value of certain types of contingent convertible securities may be adjusted downward to below the original par value. The write down of the par value would occur automatically and would not entitle the holders to seek bankruptcy of the company. In certain circumstances, contingent convertible securities may write down to zero and investors could lose the entire value of the investment, even as the issuer remains in business. CoCos may be subject to redemption at the option of the issuer at a predetermined price. See also “Hybrid Securities.”|
|Convertible Securities||A convertible security is a bond, debenture, note, preferred security, or other security that entitles the holder to acquire common stock or other equity securities of the same or a different issuer. A convertible security entitles the holder to receive interest paid or accrued or the dividend paid on such security until the convertible security matures or is redeemed, converted or exchanged. Before conversion, convertible securities have characteristics similar to nonconvertible income securities in that they ordinarily provide a stable stream of income with generally higher yields than those of common stocks of the same or similar issuers, but lower yields than comparable nonconvertible securities. The value of a convertible security is influenced by changes in interest rates, with investment value declining as interest rates increase and increasing as interest rates decline. The credit standing of the issuer and other factors also may have an effect on the convertible security’s investment value. A convertible security ranks senior to common stock in a corporation’s capital structure but is usually subordinated to comparable nonconvertible securities. Convertible securities may be purchased for their appreciation potential when they yield more than the underlying securities at the time of purchase or when they are considered to present less risk of principal loss than the underlying securities. Generally speaking, the interest or dividend yield of a convertible security is somewhat less than that of a non-convertible security of similar quality issued by the same company. A convertible security may be subject to redemption at the option of the issuer at a price established in the convertible security’s governing instrument.|
|Convertible securities are issued and traded in a number of securities markets. Even in cases where a substantial portion of the convertible securities held by the Fund are denominated in U.S. dollars, the underlying equity securities may be quoted in the currency of the country where the issuer is domiciled. As a result, fluctuations in the exchange rate between the currency in which the debt security is denominated and the currency in which the share price is quoted will affect the value of the convertible security. With respect to convertible securities denominated in a currency different from that of the underlying equity securities, the conversion price may be based on a fixed exchange rate established at the time the securities are issued, which may increase the effects of currency risk.|
|Holders of convertible securities generally have a claim on the assets of the issuer prior to the common stockholders but may be subordinated to other debt securities of the same issuer. Certain convertible debt securities may provide a put option to the holder, which entitles the holder to cause the securities to be redeemed by the issuer at a premium over the stated principal amount of the debt securities under certain circumstances. Certain convertible securities may include loss absorption characteristics that make the securities more equity-like. This is particularly true of convertible securities issued by companies in the financial services sector. See “Contingent Convertible Securities.”|
|Calvert Responsible Index Funds||46||SAI dated February 1, 2021|
|Synthetic convertible securities may include either cash-settled convertibles or manufactured convertibles. Cash-settled convertibles are instruments that are created by the issuer and have the economic characteristics of traditional convertible securities but may not actually permit conversion into the underlying equity securities in all circumstances. As an example, a private company may issue a cash-settled convertible that is convertible into common stock only if the company successfully completes a public offering of its common stock prior to maturity and otherwise pays a cash amount to reflect any equity appreciation. Manufactured convertibles are created by the investment adviser or another party by combining separate securities that possess one of the two principal characteristics of a convertible security, i.e., fixed-income (“fixed-income component”) or a right to acquire equity securities (“convertibility component”). The fixed-income component is achieved by investing in nonconvertible fixed-income securities, such as nonconvertible bonds, preferred securities and money market instruments. The convertibility component is achieved by investing in call options, warrants, or other securities with equity conversion features (“equity features”) granting the holder the right to purchase a specified quantity of the underlying stocks within a specified period of time at a specified price or, in the case of a stock index option, the right to receive a cash payment based on the value of the underlying stock index. A manufactured convertible differs from traditional convertible securities in several respects. Unlike a traditional convertible security, which is a single security that has a unitary market value, a manufactured convertible is comprised of two or more separate securities, each with its own market value. Therefore, the total “market value” of such a manufactured convertible is the sum of the values of its fixed-income component and its convertibility component. More flexibility is possible in the creation of a manufactured convertible than in the purchase of a traditional convertible security. Because many corporations have not issued convertible securities, the investment adviser may combine a fixed-income instrument and an equity feature with respect to the stock of the issuer of the fixed-income instrument to create a synthetic convertible security otherwise unavailable in the market. The investment adviser may also combine a fixed-income instrument of an issuer with an equity feature with respect to the stock of a different issuer when the investment adviser believes such a manufactured convertible would better promote the Fund’s objective than alternative investments. For example, the investment adviser may combine an equity feature with respect to an issuer’s stock with a fixed-income security of a different issuer in the same industry to diversify the Fund’s credit exposure, or with a U.S. Treasury instrument to create a manufactured convertible with a higher credit profile than a traditional convertible security issued by that issuer. A manufactured convertible also is a more flexible investment in that its two components may be purchased separately and, upon purchasing the separate securities, “combined” to create a manufactured convertible. For example, the Fund may purchase a warrant for eventual inclusion in a manufactured convertible while postponing the purchase of a suitable bond to pair with the warrant pending development of more favorable market conditions. The value of a manufactured convertible may respond to certain market fluctuations differently from a traditional convertible security with similar characteristics. For example, in the event the Fund created a manufactured convertible by combining a short-term U.S. Treasury instrument and a call option on a stock, the manufactured convertible would be expected to outperform a traditional convertible of similar maturity that is convertible into that stock during periods when Treasury instruments outperform corporate fixed-income securities and underperform during periods when corporate fixed-income securities outperform Treasury instruments.|
|Calvert Responsible Index Funds||47||SAI dated February 1, 2021|
|Credit Linked Securities||See also “Derivative Instruments and Related Risks” herein. Credit linked securities are issued by a limited purpose trust or other vehicle that, in turn, invests in a derivative instrument or basket of derivative instruments, such as credit default swaps, interest rate swaps, and other securities in order to provide exposure to certain fixed-income markets. Credit linked securities may be used as a cash management tool in order to gain exposure to a certain market and to remain fully invested when more traditional income producing securities are not available. Like an investment in a bond, investments in credit linked securities represent the right to receive periodic income payments (in the form of distributions) and payment of principal at the end of the term of the security. However, these payments are conditioned on the issuer’s receipt of payments from, and the issuer’s potential obligations to, the counterparties to the derivative instruments and other securities in which the issuer invests. An issuer may sell one or more credit default swaps under which the issuer would receive a stream of payments over the term of the swap agreements provided that no event of default has occurred with respect to the reference instrument (in this case a debt obligation) upon which the swap is based. If a default occurs, the stream of payments may stop and the issuer would be obligated to pay the counterparty the par (or other agreed upon value) of the reference instrument. This, in turn, would reduce the amount of income and principal that the holder of the credit linked security would receive. Credit linked securities generally will be exempt from registration under the 1933 Act. Accordingly, there may be no established trading market for the securities and they may constitute illiquid investments.|
|Credit Spread Trades||A credit spread trade is an investment position relating to a difference in the prices or interest rates of two securities or currencies, where the value of the investment position is determined by movements in the difference between the prices or interest rates, as the case may be, of the respective securities or currencies.|
|Calvert Responsible Index Funds||48||SAI dated February 1, 2021|
With the increased use of technologies by Fund service providers to conduct business, such as the Internet, the Fund is susceptible to operational, information security and related risks. The Fund relies on communications technology, systems, and networks to engage with clients, employees, accounts, shareholders, and service providers, and a cyber incident may inhibit the Fund’s ability to use these technologies. In general, cyber incidents can result from deliberate attacks or unintentional events. Cyber attacks include, but are not limited to, gaining unauthorized access to digital systems (e.g., through “hacking” or malicious software coding) for purposes of misappropriating assets or sensitive information, corrupting data, or causing operational disruption. Cyber attacks may also be carried out in a manner that does not require gaining unauthorized access, such as causing denial-of-service attacks on websites. A denial-of-service attack is an effort to make network services unavailable to intended users, which could cause shareholders to lose access to their electronic accounts, potentially indefinitely. Employees and service providers also may not be able to access electronic systems to perform critical duties for the Fund, such as trading and NAV calculation, during a denial-of-service attack. There is also the possibility for systems failures due to malfunctions, user error and misconduct by employees and agents, natural disasters, or other foreseeable and unforeseeable events.
Because technology is consistently changing, new ways to carry out cyber attacks are always developing. Therefore, there is a chance that some risks have not been identified or prepared for, or that an attack may not be detected, which puts limitations on the Fund's ability to plan for or respond to a cyber attack. Like other funds and business enterprises, the Fund and its service providers have experienced, and will continue to experience, cyber incidents consistently. In addition to deliberate cyber attacks, unintentional cyber incidents can occur, such as the inadvertent release of confidential information by the Fund or its service providers. To date, cyber incidents have not had a material adverse effect on the Fund’s business operations or performance.
The Fund uses third party service providers who are also heavily dependent on computers and technology for their operations. Cybersecurity failures or breaches by the Fund’s investment adviser or administrator and other service providers (including, but not limited to, the custodian or transfer agent), and the issuers of securities in which the Fund invests, may disrupt and otherwise adversely affect their business operations. This may result in financial losses to the Fund, impede Fund trading, interfere with the Fund’s ability to calculate its NAV, limit a shareholder’s ability to purchase or redeem shares of the Fund or cause violations of applicable privacy and other laws, regulatory fines, penalties, reputational damage, reimbursement or other compensation costs, litigation costs or additional compliance costs. In addition, substantial costs may be incurred in order to prevent any cyber incidents in the future. While many of the Fund’s service providers have established business continuity plans and risk management systems intended to identify and mitigate cyber attacks, there are inherent limitations in such plans and systems including the possibility that certain risks have not been identified. The Fund cannot control the cybersecurity plans and systems put in place by service providers to the Fund and issuers in which the Fund invests. The Fund and its shareholders could be negatively impacted as a result.
|Derivative Instruments and Related Risks||Generally, derivatives can be characterized as financial instruments whose performance is derived at least in part from the performance of an underlying reference instrument. Derivative instruments may be acquired in the United States or abroad and include the various types of exchange-traded and over-the-counter (“OTC”) instruments described herein and other instruments with substantially similar characteristics and risks. Depending on the type of derivative instrument and the Fund’s investment strategy, a derivative instrument may be based on a security, instrument, index, currency, commodity, economic indicator or event (referred to as “reference instruments”). Fund obligations created pursuant to derivative instruments may be subject to the requirements described under “Asset Coverage” herein.|
|Calvert Responsible Index Funds||49||SAI dated February 1, 2021|
|Derivative instruments are subject to a number of risks, including adverse or unexpected movements in the price of the reference instrument, and counterparty, credit, interest rate, leverage, liquidity, market and tax risks. Use of derivative instruments may cause the realization of higher amounts of short-term capital gains (generally taxed at ordinary income tax rates) than if such instruments had not been used. Success in using derivative instruments to hedge portfolio assets depends on the degree of price correlation between the derivative instruments and the hedged asset. Derivatives also involve the risk that changes in their value may not correlate perfectly with the assets, rates or indices they are designed to hedge or closely track. Imperfect correlation may be caused by several factors, including temporary price disparities among the trading markets for the derivative instrument, the reference instrument and the Fund’s assets. To the extent that a derivative instrument is intended to hedge against an event that does not occur, the Fund may realize losses.|
|OTC derivative instruments involve an additional risk in that the issuer or counterparty may fail to perform its contractual obligations. Some derivative instruments are not readily marketable or may become illiquid under adverse market conditions. In addition, during periods of market volatility, an option or commodity exchange or swap execution facility or clearinghouse may suspend or limit trading in an exchange-traded derivative instrument, which may make the contract temporarily illiquid and difficult to price. Commodity exchanges may also establish daily limits on the amount that the price of a futures contract or futures option can vary from the previous day’s settlement price. Once the daily limit is reached, no trades may be made that day at a price beyond the limit. This may prevent the closing out of positions to limit losses. The ability to terminate OTC derivative instruments may depend on the cooperation of the counterparties to such contracts. For thinly traded derivative instruments, the only source of price quotations may be the selling dealer or counterparty. In addition, certain provisions of the Code limit the use of derivative instruments. Derivatives permit the Fund to increase or decrease the level of risk, or change the character of the risk, to which its portfolio is exposed in much the same way as the Fund can increase or decrease the level of risk, or change the character of the risk, of its portfolio by making investments in specific securities. There can be no assurance that the use of derivative instruments will benefit the Fund.|
|The regulation of derivatives has undergone substantial change in recent years and such change may continue. In particular, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the “Dodd-Frank Act”), and regulations proposed to be promulgated thereunder require many derivatives to be cleared and traded on an exchange, expand entity registration requirements, impose business conduct requirements on dealers that enter into swaps with a pension plan, endowment, retirement plan or government entity, and require banks to move some derivatives trading units to a non-guaranteed affiliate separate from the deposit-taking bank or divest them altogether. Although the CFTC has released final rules relating to clearing, reporting, recordkeeping, required margin and registration requirements under the legislation, many of the provisions are subject to further final rule making, and thus its ultimate impact remains unclear. See also “Swap Agreements” herein. New regulations could, among other things, restrict the Fund’s ability to engage in derivatives transactions (for example, by making certain types of derivatives transactions no longer available to the Fund) and/or increase the costs of such derivatives transactions (for example, by increasing margin or capital requirements), and the Fund may be unable to fully execute its investment strategies as a result.|
|As of October 28, 2020, the SEC has adopted new regulations that may significantly alter a Fund’s regulatory obligations with regard to its derivatives usage. In particular, the new regulations will, upon implementation, eliminate the current asset segregation framework for covering derivatives and certain other financial instruments, impose new responsibilities on the Board and establish new reporting and recordkeeping requirements for a Fund and may, depending on the extent to which a Fund uses derivatives, impose value at risk limitations on a Fund’s use of derivatives, and require the Fund’s Board to adopt a derivative risk management program. The implementation of these requirements may limit the ability of a Fund to use derivative instruments as part of its investment strategy, increase the costs of using these instruments or make them less effective. Limits or restrictions applicable to the counterparties with which a Fund engages in derivative transactions also could prevent the Fund from using these instruments or affect the pricing or other factors relating to these instruments, or may change the availability of certain investments.|
|Calvert Responsible Index Funds||50||SAI dated February 1, 2021|
|Legislation may be enacted that could negatively affect the assets of the Fund. Legislation or regulation may also change the way in which the Fund itself is regulated. The effects of any new governmental regulation cannot be predicted and there can be no assurance that any new governmental regulation will not adversely affect the Fund’s ability to achieve its investment objective(s).|
|Derivative-Linked and Commodity-Linked Hybrid Instruments||A derivative-linked or commodity-linked hybrid instrument (referred to herein as a “hybrid instrument”) is a type of potentially high-risk derivative that combines a traditional stock, bond, or commodity with an option or forward contract. Generally, the principal amount, amount payable upon maturity or redemption, or interest rate of a hybrid instrument is tied (positively or negatively) to the price of some commodity, currency or securities index or another interest rate or some other economic factor (each a “benchmark”). The interest rate or (unlike most fixed-income securities) the principal amount payable at maturity of a hybrid instrument may be increased or decreased, depending on changes in the value of the benchmark. An example of a hybrid instrument is a bond issued by an oil company that pays a small base level of interest with additional interest that accrues in correlation to the extent to which oil prices exceed a certain predetermined level. Such a hybrid instrument would be a combination of a bond and a call option on oil.|
|The risks of investing in hybrid instruments reflect a combination of the risks of investing in securities, options, futures and currencies. An investment in a hybrid instrument may entail significant risks that are not associated with a similar investment in a traditional debt instrument that has a fixed principal amount, is denominated in U.S. dollars or bears interest either at a fixed rate or a floating rate determined by reference to a common, nationally published benchmark. The risks of a particular hybrid instrument will depend upon the terms of the instrument, but may include the possibility of significant changes in the benchmark(s) or the prices of the underlying assets to which the instrument is linked. Such risks generally depend upon factors unrelated to the operations or credit quality of the issuer of the hybrid instrument, which may not be foreseen by the purchaser, such as economic and political events, the supply and demand of the underlying assets and interest rate movements. Hybrid instruments may be highly volatile and their use by the Fund may not be successful. Hybrid instruments may also carry liquidity risk since the instruments are often “customized” to meet the portfolio needs of a particular investor, and therefore, the number of investors that are willing and able to buy such instruments in the secondary market may be smaller than that for more traditional debt securities.|
|Hybrid instruments may bear interest or pay preferred dividends at below market (or even relatively nominal) rates. Alternatively, hybrid instruments may bear interest at above market rates but bear an increased risk of principal loss (or gain). The latter scenario may result if “leverage” is used to structure the hybrid instrument. Leverage risk occurs when the hybrid instrument is structured so that a given change in a benchmark or underlying asset is multiplied to produce a greater value change in the hybrid instrument, thereby magnifying the risk of loss as well as the potential for gain.|
|Hybrid instruments are potentially more volatile and carry greater market risks than traditional debt instruments. Depending on the structure of the particular hybrid instrument, changes in a benchmark may be magnified by the terms of the hybrid instrument and have an even more dramatic and substantial effect upon the value of the hybrid instrument. Also, the prices of the hybrid instrument and the benchmark or underlying asset may not move in the same direction or at the same time.|
|Hybrid instruments can be used as an efficient means of pursuing a variety of investment goals, including currency hedging, duration management, and increased total return and creating exposure to a particular market or segment of that market. The value of a hybrid instrument or its interest rate may be a multiple of a benchmark and, as a result, may be leveraged and move (up or down) more steeply and rapidly than the benchmark. These benchmarks may be sensitive to economic and political events, such as commodity shortages and currency devaluations, which cannot be readily foreseen by the purchaser of a hybrid instrument. Under certain conditions, the redemption value of a hybrid instrument could be zero. The purchase of hybrid instruments also exposes the Fund to the credit risk of the issuer of the hybrids. These risks may cause significant fluctuations in the net asset value of the Fund.|
|Calvert Responsible Index Funds||51||SAI dated February 1, 2021|
|Certain hybrid instruments may provide exposure to the commodities markets. These are derivative securities with one or more commodity-linked components that have payment features similar to commodity futures contracts, commodity options, or similar instruments. Commodity-linked hybrid instruments may be either equity or debt securities, leveraged or unleveraged, and are considered hybrid instruments because they have both security and commodity-like characteristics. A portion of the value of these instruments may be derived from the value of a commodity, futures contract, index or other economic variable. The Fund will invest only in commodity-linked hybrid instruments that qualify under applicable rules of the CFTC for an exemption from the provisions of the CEA. Certain issuers of structured products such as hybrid instruments may be deemed to be investment companies as defined in the 1940 Act. As a result, the Fund’s investments in these products may be subject to limits applicable to investments in investment companies and may be subject to restrictions contained in the 1940 Act.|
|Direct Investments||Direct investments include (i) the private purchase from an enterprise of an equity interest in the enterprise in the form of shares of common stock or equity interests in trusts, partnerships, joint ventures or similar enterprises, and (ii) the purchase of such an equity interest in an enterprise from a principal investor in the enterprise. At the time of making a direct investment, the Fund will enter into a shareholder or similar agreement with the enterprise and one or more other holders of equity interests in the enterprise. These agreements may, in appropriate circumstances, provide the ability to appoint a representative to the board of directors or similar body of the enterprise and for eventual disposition of the investment in the enterprise. Such a representative would be expected to monitor the investment and protect the Fund’s rights in the investment and would not be appointed for the purpose of exercising management or control of the enterprise.|
|Diversified Status||With respect to 75% of its total assets, an investment company that is registered with the SEC as a “diversified” fund: (1) may not invest more than 5% of its total assets in the securities of any one issuer (except obligations issued or guaranteed by the U.S. Government, its agencies or instrumentalities and securities of other investment companies); and (2) may not own more than 10% of the outstanding voting securities of any one issuer.|
|Duration||Duration measures the time-weighted expected cash flows of a fixed-income security, which can determine its sensitivity to changes in the general level of interest rates. Securities with longer durations generally tend to be more sensitive to interest rate changes than securities with shorter durations. A mutual fund with a longer dollar-weighted average duration generally can be expected to be more sensitive to interest rate changes than a fund with a shorter dollar-weighted average duration. Duration differs from maturity in that it considers a security’s coupon payments in addition to the amount of time until the security matures. Various techniques may be used to shorten or lengthen Fund duration. As the value of a security changes over time, so will its duration. The duration of a Fund that invests in underlying funds is the sum of its allocable share of the duration of each of the underlying funds in which it invests, which is determined by multiplying the underlying fund’s duration by the Fund’s percentage ownership of that underlying fund.|
|Calvert Responsible Index Funds||52||SAI dated February 1, 2021|
|Emerging Market Investments||The risks described under “Foreign Investments” herein generally are heightened in connection with investments in emerging markets. Also, investments in securities of issuers domiciled in countries with emerging capital markets may involve certain additional risks that do not generally apply to investments in securities of issuers in more developed capital markets, such as (i) low or non-existent trading volume, resulting in a lack of liquidity and increased volatility in prices for such securities, as compared to securities of comparable issuers in more developed capital markets; (ii) uncertain national policies and social, political and economic instability, increasing the potential for expropriation of assets, confiscatory taxation, high rates of inflation or unfavorable diplomatic developments; (iii) possible fluctuations in exchange rates, differing legal systems and the existence or possible imposition of exchange controls, custodial restrictions or other foreign or U.S. governmental laws or restrictions applicable to such investments; (iv) governmental actions or policies that may limit investment opportunities, such as restrictions on investment in, or required divestment of, certain issuers or industries; and (v) the lack or relatively early development of legal structures governing private and foreign investments and private property. Trading practices in emerging markets also may be less developed, resulting in inefficiencies relative to trading in more developed markets, which may result in increased transaction costs.|
|Repatriation of investment income, capital and proceeds of sales by foreign investors may require governmental registration and/or approval in emerging market countries. There can be no assurance that repatriation of income, gain or initial capital from these countries will occur. In addition to withholding taxes on investment income, some countries with emerging markets may impose differential capital gains taxes on foreign investors.|
|Political and economic structures in emerging market countries may undergo significant evolution and rapid development, and these countries may lack the social, political and economic stability characteristic of more developed countries. In such a dynamic environment, there can be no assurance that any or all of these capital markets will continue to present viable investment opportunities. In the past, governments of such nations have expropriated substantial amounts of private property, and most claims of the property owners have never been fully settled. There is no assurance that such expropriations will not reoccur. In such an event, it is possible that the entire value of an investment in the affected market could be lost. In addition, unanticipated political or social developments may affect the value of investments in these countries and the availability of additional investments. The small size and inexperience of the securities markets in certain of these countries and the limited volume of trading in securities in these countries may make investments in the countries illiquid and more volatile than investments in developed markets.|
|Also, there may be less publicly available information about issuers in emerging markets than would be available about issuers in more developed capital markets, and such issuers may not be subject to accounting, auditing and financial reporting standards and requirements comparable to those to which U.S. companies are subject. In certain countries with emerging capital markets, reporting standards vary widely. As a result, traditional investment measurements used in the United States, such as price/earnings ratios, may not be applicable. Certain emerging market securities may be held by a limited number of persons. This may adversely affect the timing and pricing of the acquisition or disposal of securities. The prices at which investments may be acquired may be affected by trading by persons with material non-public information and by securities transactions by brokers in anticipation of transactions in particular securities.|
|Practices in relation to settlement of securities transactions in emerging markets involve higher risks than those in developed markets, in part because brokers and counterparties in such markets may be less well capitalized, and custody and registration of assets in some countries may be unreliable. The possibility of fraud, negligence, undue influence being exerted by the issuer or refusal to recognize ownership exists in some emerging markets. As an alternative to investing directly in emerging markets, exposure may be obtained through derivative investments.|
|Calvert Responsible Index Funds||53||SAI dated February 1, 2021|
|The foregoing risks may be even greater in frontier markets. Frontier markets are countries with investable stock markets that are less established than those in the emerging markets. The economies of frontier market countries generally are smaller than those of traditional emerging market countries, and frontier capital markets and legal systems are typically less developed.|
|Equity Investments||Equity investments include common stocks; preferred stocks; depositary receipts; equity interests in trusts, partnerships, joint ventures and other unincorporated entities or enterprises; convertible and contingent convertible preferred stocks; rights and warrants and other securities that are treated as equity for U.S. federal income tax purposes (see “Preferred Stock” and “Hybrid Securities”). Market conditions may affect certain types of stocks to a greater extent than other types of stocks.|
|Equity-Linked Securities||See also “Derivative Instruments and Related Risks” and “Participation Notes” herein. Equity-linked securities are privately issued securities whose investment results are designed to correspond generally to the performance of a specified stock index or “basket” of securities, or sometimes a single stock. These securities are used for many of the same purposes as derivative instruments and share many of the same risks. Equity-linked securities may be considered illiquid and thus subject to the Fund’s restrictions on investments in illiquid securities.|
|Event-Linked Instruments||The Fund may obtain event-linked exposure by investing in “event-linked bonds”, “event-linked swaps” or other “event-linked instruments”. Event-linked instruments are obligations for which the return of capital and dividend/interest payments are contingent on, or formulaically related to, the non-occurrence of a pre-defined “trigger” event. For some event-linked instruments, the trigger event’s magnitude may be based on losses to a company or industry, industry indexes or readings of scientific instruments rather than specified actual losses. Examples of trigger events include hurricanes, earthquakes, weather-related phenomena, or statistics relating to such events.|
|Some event-linked instruments are referred to as “catastrophe bonds.” Catastrophe bonds entitle a Fund to receive principal and interest payments so long as no trigger event occurs of the description and magnitude specified by the instrument. If a trigger event occurs, the Fund may lose a portion of its entire principal invested in the bond.|
|Event-linked instruments may be sponsored by government agencies, insurance companies or reinsurers and issued by special purpose corporations or other off-shore or on-shore entities (such special purpose entities are created to accomplish a narrow and well-defined objective, such as the issuance of a note in connection with a specific reinsurance transaction). Typically, event-linked instruments are issued by off-shore entities and may be non-dollar denominated. As a result, the Fund may be subject to currency risk.|
|Often, event-linked instruments provide for extensions of maturity that are mandatory or optional at the discretion of the issuer or sponsor, in order to process and audit loss claims in those cases where a trigger event has, or possibly has, occurred. An extension of maturity may increase the instrument’s volatility and potentially make it more difficult to value. In addition, pricing of event-linked instruments is subject to the added uncertainty caused by the inability to generally predict whether, when or where a natural disaster or other triggering event will occur. If a trigger event occurs, the Fund may lose all or a portion of its investment in an event-linked instrument or the notional amount of an event-linked swap. Such losses may be substantial. Event-linked instruments carry large uncertainties and major risk exposures to adverse conditions. In addition to the specified trigger events, event-linked instruments also may expose the Fund to issuer, credit, counterparty, restricted securities, liquidity, and valuation risks as well as exposures to specific geographic areas, adverse regulatory or jurisdictional interpretations, and adverse tax consequences. Event-linked instruments are generally rated below investment grade or the unrated equivalent and have the same or similar risks as high yield debt securities (also known as junk bonds) and are subject to the risk that the Fund may lose some or all of its investment in such instruments if the particular trigger occurs. Event-linked instruments may be rated by a nationally recognized statistical rating agency, but are often unrated. Frequently, the issuer of an event-linked instrument will use an independent risk model to calculate the probability and economic consequences of a trigger event.|
|Calvert Responsible Index Funds||54||SAI dated February 1, 2021|
|The Fund may invest in event-linked instruments in one or more of three ways: may purchase event-linked instruments when initially offered; may purchase event-linked instruments in the secondary, over-the-counter market; or may gain indirect exposure to event-linked instruments using derivatives. As the market for event-linked instruments evolves, the Fund may invest in new types of event-linked instruments. However, there can be no assurance that a liquid market in these instruments will develop. Lack of a liquid market may impose the risk of higher transaction costs and the possibility that the Fund may be forced to liquidate positions when it would not be advantageous to do so.|
|Event-linked instruments typically are restricted to qualified institutional buyers and, therefore, are not subject to registration with the SEC or any state securities commission and are not always listed on any national securities exchange. The amount of public information available with respect to event-linked instruments is generally less extensive than that which is available for issuers of registered or exchange listed instruments. There can be no assurance that future regulatory determinations will not adversely affect the overall market for event-linked instruments.|
|Exchange-Traded Funds (“ETFs”)||
ETFs are pooled investment vehicles that trade their shares on stock exchanges at market prices (rather than net asset value) and are only redeemable from the ETF itself in large increments or in exchange for baskets of securities. As an exchange traded security, an ETF’s shares are priced continuously and trade throughout the day. ETFs may track a securities index, a particular market sector, a particular segment of a securities index or market sector (“Passive ETFs”), or they may be actively managed (“Active ETFs”). An investment in an ETF generally involves the same primary risks as an investment in a fund that is not exchange-traded that has the same investment objectives, strategies and policies of the ETF, such as liquidity risk, sector risk and foreign and emerging market risk, as well as risks associated with equity securities, fixed income securities, real estate investments and commodities, as applicable. In addition, a Passive ETF may fail to accurately track the market segment or index that underlies its investment objective or may fail to fully replicate its underlying index, in which case the Passive ETF’s investment strategy may not produce the intended results. The way in which shares of ETFs are traded, purchased and redeemed involves certain risks. An ETF may trade at a price that is lower than its net asset value. Secondary market trading of an ETF may result in frequent price fluctuations, which in turn may result in a loss to a Fund. Additionally, there is no guarantee that an active market for the ETF’s shares will develop or be maintained. An ETF may fail to meet the listing requirements of any applicable exchanges on which it is listed. Further, trading in an ETF may be halted if the trading in one or more of the securities held by an ETF is halted.
A Fund will indirectly bear its proportionate share of any management fees and other operating expenses of an ETF in which it invests. A Fund may pay brokerage commissions in connection with the purchase and sale of shares of ETFs.
|Exchange-Traded Notes (“ETNs”)||ETNs are senior, unsecured, unsubordinated debt securities whose returns are linked to the performance of a particular market benchmark or strategy minus applicable fees. ETNs are traded on an exchange during normal trading hours. However, investors can also hold the ETN until maturity. At maturity, the issuer pays to the investor a cash amount equal to the principal amount, subject to the day’s market benchmark or strategy factor.|
|ETNs do not make periodic coupon payments or provide principal protection. ETNs are subject to credit risk and the value of the ETN may drop due to a downgrade in the issuer’s credit rating, despite the underlying market benchmark or strategy remaining unchanged. The value of an ETN may also be influenced by time to maturity, level of supply and demand for the ETN, volatility and lack of liquidity in underlying assets, changes in the applicable interest rates, changes in the issuer’s credit rating, and economic, legal, political, or geographic events that affect the referenced underlying asset. When the Fund invests in ETNs it will bear its proportionate share of any fees and expenses borne by the ETN. The Fund’s decision to sell its ETN holdings may be limited by the availability of a secondary market. In addition, although an ETN may be listed on an exchange, the issuer may not be required to maintain the listing and there can be no assurance that a secondary market will exist for an ETN.|
|Calvert Responsible Index Funds||55||SAI dated February 1, 2021|
|ETNs are subject to tax risk. No assurance can be given that the IRS will accept, or a court will uphold, how the Fund characterizes and treats ETNs for tax purposes. Further, the IRS and Congress are considering proposals that would change the timing and character of income and gains from ETNs.|
|An ETN that is tied to a specific market benchmark or strategy may not be able to replicate and maintain exactly the composition and relative weighting of securities, commodities or other components in the applicable market benchmark or strategy. Some ETNs that use leverage can, at times, be relatively illiquid and, thus, they may be difficult to purchase or sell at a fair price. Leveraged ETNs are subject to the same risk as other instruments that use leverage in any form.|
|The market value of ETN shares may differ from that of their market benchmark or strategy. This difference in price may be due to the fact that the supply and demand in the market for ETN shares at any point in time is not always identical to the supply and demand in the market for the securities, commodities or other components underlying the market benchmark or strategy that the ETN seeks to track. As a result, there may be times when an ETN share trades at a premium or discount to its market benchmark or strategy.|
|Fixed-Income Securities||Fixed-income securities include bonds, preferred, preference and convertible securities, notes, debentures, asset-backed securities (including those backed by mortgages), loan participations and assignments, equipment lease certificates, equipment trust certificates and conditional sales contracts. Generally, issuers of fixed-income securities pay investors periodic interest and repay the amount borrowed either periodically during the life of the security and/or at maturity. Some fixed-income securities, such as zero coupon bonds, do not pay current interest, but are purchased at a discount from their face values, and values accumulate over time to face value at maturity. The market prices of fixed-income securities fluctuate depending on such factors as interest rates, credit quality and maturity. In general, market prices of fixed-income securities decline when interest rates rise and increase when interest rates fall. Fixed-income securities are subject to risk factors such as sensitivity to interest rate and real or perceived changes in economic conditions, payment expectations, liquidity and valuation. Fixed-income securities with longer maturities (for example, over ten years) are more affected by changes in interest rates and provide less price stability than securities with short-term maturities (for example, one to ten years). Fixed-income securities bear the risk of principal and interest default by the issuer, which will be greater with higher yielding, lower grade securities. During an economic downturn, the ability of issuers to service their debt may be impaired. The rating assigned to a fixed-income security by a rating agency does not reflect assessment of the volatility of the security’s market value or of the liquidity of an investment in the securities. Credit ratings are based largely on the issuer’s historical financial condition and a rating agency’s investment analysis at the time of rating, and the rating assigned to any particular security is not necessarily a reflection of the issuer’s current financial condition. Credit quality can change from time to time, and recently issued credit ratings may not fully reflect the actual risks posed by a particular high yield security. If relevant to the Fund(s) in this SAI, corporate bond ratings are described in an appendix to the SAI (see the table of contents). Preferred stock and certain other hybrid securities may pay a fixed-dividend rate, but may be considered equity securities for purposes of a Fund’s investment restrictions (see “Preferred Stock” and “Hybrid Securities”).|
|Calvert Responsible Index Funds||56||SAI dated February 1, 2021|
|Foreign Currency Transactions||As measured in U.S. dollars, the value of assets denominated in foreign currencies may be affected favorably or unfavorably by changes in foreign currency rates and exchange control regulations. Currency exchange rates can also be affected unpredictably by intervention by U.S. or foreign governments or central banks, or the failure to intervene, or by currency controls or political developments in the United States or abroad. If the U.S. dollar rises in value relative to a foreign currency, a security denominated in that foreign currency will be worth less in U.S. dollars. If the U.S. dollar decreases in value relative to a foreign currency, a security denominated in that foreign currency will be worth more in U.S. dollars. A devaluation of a currency by a country’s government or banking authority will have a significant impact on the value of any investments denominated in that currency. Foreign currency exchange transactions may be conducted on a spot (i.e., cash) basis at the spot rate prevailing in the foreign currency exchange market or through entering into derivative currency transactions (see “Forward Foreign Currency Exchange Contracts,” “Option Contracts,” “Futures Contracts” and “Swap Agreements – Currency Swaps” herein). Currency transactions are subject to the risk of a number of complex political and economic factors applicable to the countries issuing the underlying currencies. Furthermore, unlike trading in most other types of instruments, there is no systematic reporting of last sale information with respect to the foreign currencies underlying the derivative currency transactions. As a result, available information may not be complete. In an over-the-counter trading environment, there are no daily price fluctuation limits.|
|Foreign Investments||Investing in securities issued by companies whose principal business activities are outside the United States may involve significant risks not present in domestic investments. For example, because foreign companies may not be subject to uniform accounting, auditing and financial reporting standards, practices and requirements and regulatory measures comparable to those applicable to U.S. companies, there may be less publicly available information about a foreign company than about a domestic company. Volume and liquidity in most foreign debt markets is less than in the United States and securities of some foreign companies are less liquid and more volatile than securities of comparable U.S. companies. There is generally less government supervision and regulation of securities exchanges, broker-dealers and listed companies than in the United States. In addition, with respect to certain foreign countries, there is the possibility of nationalization, expropriation or confiscatory taxation, currency blockage, political or social instability, or diplomatic developments, which could affect investments in those countries. Any of these actions could adversely affect securities prices, impair the Fund’s ability to purchase or sell foreign securities, or transfer the Fund’s assets or income back to the United States, or otherwise adversely affect Fund operations. In the event of nationalization, expropriation or confiscation, the Fund could lose its entire investment in that country.|
|Other potential foreign market risks include exchange controls, difficulties in valuing securities, defaults on foreign government securities, and difficulties of enforcing favorable legal judgments in foreign courts. Moreover, individual foreign economies may differ favorably or unfavorably from the U.S. economy in such respects as growth of gross national product, reinvestment of capital, rate of inflation, capital reinvestment, resource self-sufficiency, and balance of payments position. Certain economies may rely heavily on particular industries or foreign capital and are more vulnerable to diplomatic developments, the imposition of economic sanctions against a particular country or countries, changes in international trading patterns, trade barriers, and other protectionist or retaliatory measures. Foreign securities markets, while growing in volume and sophistication, are generally not as developed as those in the United States. Foreign countries may not have the infrastructure or resources to respond to natural and other disasters that interfere with economic activities, which may adversely affect issuers located in such countries. The U.S. is also renegotiating many of its global trade relationships and has imposed or threatened to impose significant import tariffs. These actions could lead to price volatility and overall declines in U.S. and global investment markets.|
|Calvert Responsible Index Funds||57||SAI dated February 1, 2021|
|Settlement and clearance procedures in certain foreign markets differ significantly from those in the United States. Payment for securities before delivery may be required and in some countries delayed settlements are customary, which increases the Fund’s risk of loss. The Fund generally holds its foreign securities and related cash in foreign banks and securities depositories. Some foreign banks and securities depositories may be recently organized or new to the foreign custody business. In addition, there may be limited or no regulatory oversight over their operations. Also, the laws of certain countries may put limits on the Fund’s ability to recover its assets if a foreign bank, depository or issuer of a security or any of their agents goes bankrupt. Certain countries may require withholding on dividends paid on portfolio securities and on realized capital gains.|
|In addition, it is often more expensive to buy, sell and hold securities in certain foreign markets than in the United States. Foreign brokerage commissions are generally higher than commissions on securities traded in the United States and may be non-negotiable. The fees paid to foreign banks and securities depositories generally are higher than those charged by U.S. banks and depositories. The increased expense of investing in foreign markets reduces the amount earned on investments and typically results in a higher operating expense ratio for the Fund as compared to investment companies that invest only in the United States.|
|Depositary receipts (including American Depositary Receipts (“ADRs”) and Global Depositary Receipts “GDRs”)) are certificates evidencing ownership of shares of a foreign issuer and are alternatives to directly purchasing the underlying foreign securities in their national markets and currencies. However, they continue to be subject to many of the risks associated with investing directly in foreign securities. These risks include the political and economic risks of the underlying issuer’s country, as well as in the case of depositary receipts traded on foreign markets, exchange risk. Depositary receipts may be sponsored or unsponsored. Unsponsored depositary receipts are established without the participation of the issuer. As a result, available information concerning the issuer of an unsponsored depository receipt may not be as current as for sponsored depositary receipts, and the prices of unsponsored depositary receipts may be more volatile than if such instruments were sponsored by the issuer. Unsponsored depositary receipts may involve higher expenses, may not pass through voting or other shareholder rights and they may be less liquid.|
|Calvert Responsible Index Funds||58||SAI dated February 1, 2021|
Unless otherwise provided in the Prospectus, in determining the domicile of an issuer, the investment adviser may consider the domicile determination of the Fund’s benchmark index or a leading provider of global indexes and may take into account such factors as where the company’s securities are listed, and where the company is legally organized, maintains principal corporate offices and/or conducts its principal operations.
In June 2016, the United Kingdom (“UK”) voted in a referendum to leave the European Union (“EU”) (“Brexit”). Effective January 31, 2020, the UK ceased to be a member of the EU and, following a transition period, during which the EU and the UK Government engaged in a series of negotiations regarding the terms of the UK’s future relationship with the EU, the EU and the UK Government signed an agreement on December 30, 2020 regarding the economic relationship between the UK and the EU. This agreement became effective on a provisional basis on January 1, 2021. There remains significant market uncertainty regarding Brexit’s ramifications, and the range and potential implications of possible political, regulatory, economic, and market outcomes are difficult to predict. Moreover, the uncertainty about the ramifications of Brexit may cause significant volatility and/or declines in the value of the Euro and the British pound. The end of the Brexit transition period may cause greater market volatility and illiquidity, currency fluctuations, deterioration in economic activity, a decrease in business confidence, and an increased likelihood of a recession in the UK. Brexit may create additional substantial economic stresses for the UK, including price volatility in UK stocks, capital outflows, wider corporate bond spreads due to uncertainty and declines in business and consumer spending as well as foreign direct investment. Brexit may also adversely affect UK-based financial firms that have counterparties in the EU or participate in market infrastructure (trading venues, clearing houses, settlement facilities) based in the EU. These consequences may be exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic. Political events, including nationalist unrest in Europe, uncertainties surrounding the sovereign debt of a number of EU countries and the viability of the EU (or the euro) itself, also may cause market disruptions. If one or more countries leave the EU or the EU dissolves, the world’s securities markets likely will be significantly disrupted.
|Forward Foreign Currency Exchange Contracts||See also “Derivative Instruments and Related Risks” herein. A forward foreign currency exchange contract involves an obligation to purchase or sell a specific currency at a future date, which may be any fixed number of days from the date of the contract agreed upon by the parties, at a price set at the time of the contract. These contracts may be bought or sold to protect against an adverse change in the relationship between currencies or to increase exposure to a particular foreign currency. Cross-hedging may be done by using forward contracts in one currency (or basket of currencies) to hedge against fluctuations in the value of instruments denominated in a different currency (or the basket of currencies and the underlying currency). Use of a different foreign currency (for hedging or non-hedging purposes) magnifies exposure to foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations. Forward foreign currency exchange contracts are individually negotiated and privately traded so they are dependent upon the creditworthiness of the counterparty. The precise matching of the forward contract amounts and the value of the instruments denominated in the corresponding currencies will not generally be possible. In addition, it may not be possible to hedge against long-term currency changes.|
|When a currency is difficult to hedge or to hedge against the U.S. dollar, the Fund may enter into a forward contract to sell a currency whose changes in value are generally considered to be linked to such currency. Currency transactions can result in losses if the currency being hedged fluctuates in value to a degree or in a direction that is not anticipated. In addition, there is the risk that the perceived linkage between various currencies may not be present or may not be present during the particular time the hedge is in place. If the Fund purchases a bond denominated in a foreign currency with a higher interest rate than is available on U.S. bonds of a similar maturity, the additional yield on the foreign bond could be substantially reduced or lost if the Fund were to enter into a direct hedge by selling the foreign currency and purchasing the U.S. dollar.|
|Calvert Responsible Index Funds||59||SAI dated February 1, 2021|
|Some of the forward foreign currency exchange contracts may be classified as non-deliverable forwards (“NDFs”). NDFs are cash-settled, forward contracts that may be thinly traded. NDFs are commonly quoted for time periods of one month up to two years, and are normally quoted and settled in U.S. dollars, but may be settled in other currencies. They are often used to gain exposure to or hedge exposure to foreign currencies that are not internationally traded. NDFs may also be used to gain or hedge exposure to gold.|
|Forward Rate Agreements||See also “Derivative Instruments and Related Risks” herein. Under a forward rate agreement, the buyer locks in an interest rate at a future settlement date. If the interest rate on the settlement date exceeds the lock rate, the buyer pays the seller the difference between the two rates. If the lock rate exceeds the interest rate on the settlement date, the seller pays the buyer the difference between the two rates. Any such gain received by the Fund would be taxable. These instruments are traded in the OTC market.|
|Futures Contracts||See also “Derivative Instruments and Related Risks” herein. Futures contracts are standardized contracts that obligate a purchaser to take delivery, and a seller to make delivery, of a specific amount of the underlying reference instrument at a specified future date at a specified price. These contracts are traded on exchanges, so that, in most cases, either party can close out its position on the exchange for cash, without delivering the underlying asset. Upon purchasing or selling a futures contract, a purchaser or seller is required to deposit collateral (initial margin). Each day thereafter until the futures position is closed, the purchaser or seller will pay additional margin (variation margin) representing any loss experienced as a result of the futures position the prior day or be entitled to a payment representing any profit experienced as a result of the futures position the prior day. A public market exists in futures contracts covering a number of indexes as well as financial instruments and foreign currencies. It is expected that other futures contracts will be developed and traded in the future. In computing daily net asset value, the Fund will mark to market its open futures positions. The Fund is also required to deposit and maintain margin with respect to put and call options on futures contracts written by it. Futures contracts are traded on exchanges or boards of trade that are licensed by the CFTC and must be executed through a futures commission merchant or brokerage firm that is a member of the relevant exchange or board.|
|Although some futures contracts call for making or taking delivery of the underlying reference instrument, generally these obligations are closed out prior to delivery by offsetting purchases or sales of matching futures contracts (same exchange, underlying security or index, and delivery month). Closing a futures contract sale is effected by purchasing a futures contract for the same aggregate amount of the specific type of financial instrument or commodity with the same delivery date. If an offsetting purchase price is less than the original sale price, the Fund realizes a capital gain, or if it is more, the Fund realizes a capital loss. Conversely, if an offsetting sale price is more than the original purchase price, the Fund realizes a capital gain, or if it is less, the Fund realizes a capital loss.|
|Calvert Responsible Index Funds||60||SAI dated February 1, 2021|
|High Social Impact Investments||
High Social Impact Investments are investments that, in the Adviser’s opinion, offer the opportunity for significant sustainability and social impact. High Social Impact Investments include (i) debt obligations that offer a below-market interest rate and (ii) equity investments that may not generate a market rate of return.
High Social Impact Investment debt obligations are unrated and of below-investment grade quality, and involve a greater risk of default and price decline than investment grade investments. High Social Impact Investments are illiquid, and the Fund may be unable to dispose of them at current carrying values.
Any Fund investment in High Social Impact Investments is fair valued pursuant to valuation procedures adopted by the Fund’s Board and implemented by the Adviser. See “Valuing Shares” in this Prospectus. High Social Impact Investments by the Fund may be direct investments in an issuer or investments in an intermediate entity that then makes High Social Impact Investments, such as Calvert Impact Capital, Inc. (as discussed below).
Pursuant to an exemptive order issued by the SEC, the Fund may invest in Community Investment Notes (“Notes”) issued by Calvert Impact Capital, Inc. (“CIC”) as part of the Fund’s High Social Impact Investments. CIC is a nonstock corporation organized under the laws of the State of Maryland and designed to operate as a non-profit organization within the meaning of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended. CIC focuses its work on offering investors the ability to support organizations that strengthen communities and sustain our planet. CIC issues Notes with fixed-rates of interest to domestic individuals and institutional investors and the proceeds from the Notes primarily are used to provide financing to community development organizations, projects, funds and other social enterprises across a variety of impact sectors, including community development, microfinance, affordable housing, small business, renewable energy, environmental sustainability, education, health, and sustainable agriculture (collectively, the “Participating Borrowers”) with missions that may include addressing climate change, supporting quality education, promoting financial inclusion, strengthening women’s empowerment, and increasing access to quality affordable housing. CIC issues Notes with interest rates that currently range from 0%–4% and terms currently ranging from one to 15 years, and in turn makes loans to Participating Borrowers at rates determined through consideration of the general current market, the Participating Borrower’s positive social and/or environmental impact and the Participating Borrower’s risk level.
The Adviser has licensed use of the Calvert name to CIC and provides other types of support. The Adviser’s President and Chief Executive Officer (and the only director/trustee on the Fund Board that is an “interested person” of the Fund) serves on the CIC Board. In addition, another director/trustee on the Fund Board serves as a director emeritus on the CIC Board.
|Calvert Responsible Index Funds||61||SAI dated February 1, 2021|
|Hybrid Securities||Hybrid securities generally possess certain characteristics of both equity and debt securities. These securities may at times behave more like equity than debt, or vice versa. Preferred stocks, convertible securities, trust preferred securities and certain debt obligations are types of hybrid securities. The investment adviser has sole discretion to determine whether an investment has hybrid characteristics and generally will consider the instrument’s preference over the issuer’s common shares, the term of the instrument at the time of issuance and/or the tax character of the instrument’s distributions. Debt instruments with a preference over common shares and a perpetual term or a term at issuance of thirty years or more generally are considered by the investment adviser to be hybrid securities. Hybrid securities generally do not have voting rights or have limited voting rights. Because hybrid securities have both debt and equity characteristics, their values vary in response to many factors, including general market and economic conditions, issuer-specific events, changes in interest rates, credit spreads and the credit quality of the issuer, and, for convertible securities, factors affecting the securities into which they convert. Hybrid securities may be subject to redemption at the option of the issuer at a predetermined price. Hybrid securities may pay a fixed or variable rate of interest or dividends. The prices and yields of nonconvertible hybrid securities generally move with changes in interest rates and the issuer’s credit quality, similar to the factors affecting debt securities. If the issuer of a hybrid security experiences financial difficulties, the value of such security may be adversely affected similar to the issuer’s outstanding common stock or subordinated debt instruments. Trust preferred securities are issued by a special purpose trust that holds the subordinated debt of a company and, as such, are subject to the risks associated with such debt obligation. See also “Preferred Stock,” “Convertible Securities” and “Contingent Convertible Securities.”|
|Illiquid Investments||Certain investments are considered illiquid or restricted due to a limited trading market or legal or contractual restrictions on resale or transfer, or are otherwise illiquid because they cannot be sold or disposed of in seven calendar days or less under then-current market conditions without the sale or disposition significantly changing the market value of the investment. Such illiquid investments may include commercial paper issued pursuant to Section 4(a)(2) of the 1933 Act and securities eligible for resale pursuant to Rule 144A thereunder. Rule 144A securities may increase the level of portfolio illiquidity if eligible buyers become uninterested in purchasing such securities.|
|It may be difficult to sell illiquid investments at a price representing fair value until such time as the investments may be sold publicly. It also may be more difficult to determine the fair value of such investments for purposes of computing the Fund’s net asset value. Where registration is required, a considerable period of time may elapse between a decision to sell the investments and the time when the Fund would be permitted to sell. Thus, the Fund may not be able to obtain as favorable a price as that prevailing at the time of the decision to sell. The Fund may incur additional expense when disposing of illiquid investments, including all or a portion of the cost to register the investments. The Fund also may acquire investments through private placements under which it may agree to contractual restrictions on the resale of such investments that are in addition to applicable legal restrictions. Such restrictions might prevent the sale of such investments at a time when such sale would otherwise be desirable.|
|At times, a portion of the Fund’s assets may be invested in investments as to which the Fund, by itself or together with other accounts managed by the investment adviser and its affiliates, holds a major portion or all of such investments. Under adverse market or economic conditions or in the event of adverse changes in the financial condition of the issuer, the Fund could find it more difficult to sell such investments when the investment adviser believes it advisable to do so or may be able to sell such investments only at prices lower than if such investments were more widely held. It may also be more difficult to determine the fair value of such investments for purposes of computing the Fund’s net asset value. See also “Restricted Securities.”|
|Index Tracking||The Fund’s portfolio will be invested in a manner intended to track the Index as discussed in the Prospectus. To the extent that a Fund has investments in the Special Equities program and/or the High Social Impact Investments program, the Fund may be less able to closely track the Index than if it did not have investments in these programs. Both of these investment programs are of limited size so that the tracking error induced by such investments would be limited.|
|Calvert Responsible Index Funds||62||SAI dated February 1, 2021|
|Indexed Securities||See also “Derivative Instruments and Related Risks” herein. Indexed securities are securities that fluctuate in value with an index. The interest rate or, in some cases, the principal payable at the maturity of an indexed security may change positively or inversely in relation to one or more interest rates, financial indices, securities prices or other financial indicators (“reference prices”). An indexed security may be leveraged to the extent that the magnitude of any change in the interest rate or principal payable on an indexed security is a multiple of the change in the reference price. Thus, indexed securities may decline in value due to adverse market changes in reference prices. Because indexed securities derive their value from another instrument, security or index, they are considered derivative debt securities, and are subject to different combinations of prepayment, extension, interest rate and/or other market risks. Indexed securities may include interest only (“IO”) and principal only (“PO”) securities, floating rate securities linked to the Cost of Funds Index (“COFI floaters”), other “lagging rate” floating securities, floating rate securities that are subject to a maximum interest rate (“capped floaters”), leveraged floating rate securities (“super floaters”), leveraged inverse floating rate securities (“inverse floaters”), dual index floaters, range floaters, index amortizing notes and various currency indexed notes. Indexed securities may be issued by the U.S. Government or one of its agencies or instrumentalities or, if privately issued, collateralized by mortgages that are insured, guaranteed or otherwise backed by the U.S. Government, its agencies or instrumentalities.|
|Inflation-Indexed (or Inflation-Linked) Bonds||Inflation-indexed bonds are fixed-income securities the principal value of which is periodically adjusted according to the rate of inflation. Inflation-indexed bonds are issued by governments, their agencies or instrumentalities and corporations. Two structures are common: The U.S. Treasury and some other issuers use a structure that accrues inflation into the principal value of the bond. Most other issuers pay out the inflation accruals as part of a semiannual coupon. The principal amount of an inflation-indexed bond is adjusted in response to changes in the level of inflation. Repayment of the original bond principal upon maturity (as adjusted for inflation) is guaranteed in the case of U.S. Treasury inflation-indexed bonds, and therefore, the principal amount of such bonds cannot be reduced below par even during a period of deflation. However, the current market value of these bonds is not guaranteed and will fluctuate, reflecting the risk of changes in their yields. In certain jurisdictions outside the United States, the repayment of the original bond principal upon the maturity of an inflation-indexed bond is not guaranteed, allowing for the amount of the bond repaid at maturity to be less than par. The interest rate for inflation-indexed bonds is fixed at issuance as a percentage of this adjustable principal. Accordingly, the actual interest income may both rise and fall as the principal amount of the bonds adjusts in response to movements in the Consumer Price Index.|
|The value of inflation-indexed bonds is expected to change in response to changes in real interest rates. Real interest rates in turn are tied to the relationship between nominal interest rates and the rate of inflation. Therefore, if inflation were to rise at a faster rate than nominal interest rates, real interest rates might decline, leading to an increase in value of inflation-indexed bonds. In contrast, if nominal interest rates increased at a faster rate than inflation, real interest rates might rise, leading to a decrease in value of inflation-indexed bonds. While these securities are expected to be protected from long-term inflationary trends, short-term increases in inflation may lead to a decline in value. If interest rates rise due to reasons other than inflation (for example, due to changes in currency exchange rates), investors in these securities may not be protected to the extent that the increase is not reflected in the bond’s inflation measure.|
|Junior Loans||Due to their lower place in the borrower’s capital structure and possible unsecured status, certain loans (“Junior Loans”) involve a higher degree of overall risk than Senior Loans (described below) of the same borrower. Junior Loans may be direct loans or purchased either in the form of an assignment or a loan participation. Junior Loans are subject to the same general risks inherent in any loan investment (see “Loans” below). Junior Loans include secured and unsecured subordinated loans, as well as second lien loans and subordinated bridge loans. A second lien loan is generally second in line in terms of repayment priority and may have a claim on the same collateral pool as the first lien, or it may be secured by a separate set of assets. Second lien loans generally give investors priority over general unsecured creditors in the event of an asset sale.|
|Calvert Responsible Index Funds||63||SAI dated February 1, 2021|
|Bridge loans or bridge facilities are short-term loan arrangements (e.g., 12 to 18 months) typically made by a borrower in anticipation of intermediate-term or long-term permanent financing. Most bridge loans are structured as floating-rate debt with step-up provisions under which the interest rate on the bridge loan rises the longer the loan remains outstanding and may be converted into senior exchange notes if the loan has not been prepaid in full on or prior to its maturity date. Bridge loans may be subordinate to other debt and may be secured or unsecured. Bridge loans are generally made with the expectation that the borrower will be able to obtain permanent financing in the near future. Any delay in obtaining permanent financing subjects the bridge loan investor to increased risk. A borrower with an outstanding bridge loan may be unable to locate permanent financing to replace the bridge loan, which may impair the borrower’s perceived creditworthiness. From time to time, the Fund may make a commitment to participate in a bridge loan facility, obligating itself to participate in the facility if it funds. In return for this commitment, the Fund receives a fee.|
|For additional disclosure relating to investing in loans (including Junior Loans), see “Loans” below.|
|Calvert Responsible Index Funds||64||SAI dated February 1, 2021|
|LIBOR Transition and Associated Risk||
The London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR“) is the average offered rate for various maturities of short-term loans between major international banks who are members of the British Bankers Association. LIBOR is the most common benchmark interest rate index used to make adjustments to variable-rate loans. It is used throughout global banking and financial industries to determine interest rates for a variety of financial instruments (such as debt instruments and derivatives) and borrowing arrangements. In July 2017, the Financial Conduct Authority (the “FCA”), the United Kingdom financial regulatory body, announced a desire to phase out the use of LIBOR. It is currently anticipated that this phase-out will occur beginning at the end of 2021.
In June 2017, the Alternative Reference Rates Committee, a group of large U.S. banks working with the Federal Reserve, announced its selection of a new Secured Overnight Financing Rate (“SOFR”), which is intended to be a broad measure of secured overnight U.S. Treasury repo rates, as an appropriate replacement for LIBOR. The Federal Reserve Bank of New York began publishing the SOFR in 2018, with the expectation that it could be used on a voluntary basis in new instruments and transactions. Bank working groups and regulators in other countries have suggested other alternatives for their markets, including the Sterling Overnight Interbank Average Rate (“SONIA”) in England.
Various financial industry groups are planning for the transition, but there are obstacles to converting certain longer term securities and transactions to a new benchmark. Although the transition process away from LIBOR is expected to be well-defined in advance of the anticipated discontinuation date, there remains uncertainty regarding the future utilization of LIBOR and the nature of any replacement rate or rates. The transition process may involve, among other things, increased volatility or illiquidity in markets for instruments that currently rely on LIBOR. The transition may also result in a change in (i) the value of certain instruments held by the Fund, (ii) the cost of temporary or other borrowing for the Fund (if applicable), or (iii) the effectiveness of related Fund transactions such as hedges, as applicable. When LIBOR is discontinued, the LIBOR replacement rate may be lower than market expectations, which could have an adverse impact on the value of preferred and debt-securities with floating or fixed-to-floating rate coupons. Additionally, while some existing LIBOR-based instruments may contemplate a scenario where LIBOR is no longer available by providing for an alternative or “fallback” rate-setting methodology, there may be significant uncertainty regarding the effectiveness of any such alternative methodologies to replicate LIBOR. Not all existing LIBOR-based instruments have such fallback provisions, and many that do, do not contemplate the permanent cessation of LIBOR. While it is expected that market participants will amend legacy financial instruments referencing LIBOR to include fallback provisions to alternative reference rates, there remains uncertainty regarding the willingness and ability of parties to add or amend such fallback provisions in legacy instruments maturing after the end of 2021, particularly with respect to legacy cash products. Liquid markets for newly-issued instruments that use an alternative reference rate are still developing. Consequently, there may be challenges for a Fund to enter into hedging transactions against instruments tied to alternative reference rates until a market for such hedging transactions develops. Any such effects of the transition away from LIBOR, as well as other unforeseen effects, could result in losses to the Fund. Since the usefulness of LIBOR as a benchmark could deteriorate during the transition period, these effects may occur prior to the discontinuation date.
|Liquidity or Protective Put Agreements||See also “Derivative Instruments and Related Risks” herein. The Fund may enter into a separate agreement with the seller of an instrument or some other person granting the Fund the right to put the instrument to the seller thereof or the other person at an agreed upon price. Interest income generated by certain municipal bonds with put or demand features may be taxable.|
|Calvert Responsible Index Funds||65||SAI dated February 1, 2021|
|Loans||Loans may be primary, direct investments or investments in loan assignments or participation interests. A loan assignment represents a portion or the entirety of a loan and a portion of the entirety of a position previously attributable to a different lender. The purchaser of an assignment typically succeeds to all the rights and obligations under the loan agreement and has the same rights and obligations as the assigning investor. However, assignments through private negotiations may cause the purchaser of an assignment to have different and more limited rights than those held by the assigning investor. Loan participation interests are interests issued by a lender or other entity and represent a fractional interest in a loan. The Fund typically will have a contractual relationship only with the financial institution that issued the participation interest. As a result, the Fund may have the right to receive payments of principal, interest and any fees to which it is entitled only from the financial institution and only upon receipt by such entity of such payments from the borrower. In connection with purchasing a participation interest, the Fund generally will have no right to enforce compliance by the borrower with the terms of the loan agreement, nor any rights with respect to any funds acquired by other investors through set-off against the borrower and the Fund may not directly benefit from the collateral supporting the loan in which it has purchased the participation interest. As a result, the Fund may assume the credit risk of both the borrower and the financial institution issuing the participation interest. In the event of the insolvency of the entity issuing a participation interest, the Fund may be treated as a general creditor of such entity.|
|Loans may be originated by a lending agent, such as a financial institution or other entity, on behalf of a group or “syndicate” of loan investors (the “Loan Investors”). In such a case, the agent administers the terms of the loan agreement and is responsible for the collection of principal, and interest payments from the borrower and the apportionment of these payments to the Loan Investors. Failure by the agent to fulfill its obligations may delay or adversely affect receipt of payment by the Fund. Furthermore, unless under the terms of a loan agreement or participation (as applicable) the Fund has direct recourse against the borrower, the Fund must rely on the Agent and the other Loan Investors to pursue appropriate remedies against the borrower.|
|Loan investments may be made at par or at a discount or premium to par. The interest payable on a loan may be fixed or floating rate, and paid in cash or in-kind. In connection with transactions in loans, the Fund may be subject to facility or other fees. Loans may be secured by specific collateral or other assets of the borrower, guaranteed by a third party, unsecured or subordinated. During the term of a loan, the value of any collateral securing the loan may decline in value, causing the loan to be under collateralized. Collateral may consist of assets that may not be readily liquidated, and there is no assurance that the liquidation of such assets would satisfy fully a borrower’s obligations under the loan. In addition, if a loan is foreclosed, the Fund could become part owner of the collateral and would bear the costs and liabilities associated with owning and disposing of such collateral.|
|A lender’s repayment and other rights primarily are determined by governing loan, assignment or participation documents, which (among other things) typically establish the priority of payment on the loan relative to other indebtedness and obligations of the borrower. A borrower typically is required to comply with certain covenants contained in a loan agreement between the borrower and the holders of the loan. The types of covenants included in loan agreements generally vary depending on market conditions, the creditworthiness of the issuer, and the nature of the collateral securing the loan. Loans with fewer covenants that restrict activities of the borrower may provide the borrower with more flexibility to take actions that may be detrimental to the loan holders and provide fewer investor protections in the event covenants are breached. The Fund may experience relatively greater realized or unrealized losses or delays and expense in enforcing its rights with respect to loans with fewer restrictive covenants. Loans to entities located outside of the U.S. (including to sovereign entities) may have substantially different lender protections and covenants as compared to loans to U.S. entities and may involve greater risks. In the event of bankruptcy, applicable law may impact a lender’s ability to enforce its rights. The Fund may have difficulties and incur expense enforcing its rights with respect to non-U.S. loans and such loans could be subject to bankruptcy laws that are materially different than in the U.S. Sovereign entities may be unable or unwilling to meet their obligations under a loan due to budgetary limitations or economic or political changes within the country.|
|Calvert Responsible Index Funds||66||SAI dated February 1, 2021|
|Investing in loans involves the risk of default by the borrower or other party obligated to repay the loan. In the event of insolvency of the borrower or other obligated party, the Fund may be treated as a general creditor of such entity unless it has rights that are senior to that of other creditors or secured by specific collateral or assets of the borrower. Fixed-rate loans are also subject to the risk that their value will decline in a rising interest rate environment. This risk is mitigated for floating-rate loans, where the interest rate payable on the loan resets periodically by reference to a base lending rate. The base lending rate usually is the London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”), the Federal Reserve federal funds rate, the prime rate or other base lending rates used by commercial lenders. LIBOR usually is an average of the interest rates quoted by several designated banks as the rates at which they pay interest to major depositors in the London interbank market on U.S. dollar-denominated deposits.|
|Many financial instruments use or may use a floating rate based on LIBOR, which is the offered rate for short-term Eurodollar deposits between major international banks. On July 27, 2017, the head of the United Kingdom’s Financial Conduct Authority announced a desire to phase out the use of LIBOR beginning at the end of 2021. Due to this announcement, there remains uncertainty regarding the future utilization of LIBOR and the nature of any replacement rate. As such, the potential effect of a transition away from LIBOR on the Fund or the financial instruments in which the Fund invests cannot yet be determined. See “LIBOR Transition and Associated Risk” herein.|
|The Fund will take whatever action it considers appropriate in the event of anticipated financial difficulties, default or bankruptcy of the borrower or other entity obligated to repay a loan. Such action may include: (i) retaining the services of various persons or firms (including affiliates of the investment adviser) to evaluate or protect any collateral or other assets securing the loan or acquired as a result of any such event; (ii) managing (or engaging other persons to manage) or otherwise dealing with any collateral or other assets so acquired; and (iii) taking such other actions (including, but not limited to, payment of operating or similar expenses relating to the collateral) as the investment adviser may deem appropriate to reduce the likelihood or severity of loss on the Fund’s investment and/or maximize the return on such investment. The Fund will incur additional expenditures in taking protective action with respect to loans in (or anticipated to be in) default and assets securing such loans. In certain circumstances, the Fund may receive equity or equity-like securities from a borrower to settle the loan or may acquire an equity interest in the borrower. Representatives of the Fund also may join creditor or similar committees relating to loans.|
|Lenders can be sued by other creditors and the debtor and its shareholders. Losses could be greater than the original loan amount and occur years after the loan’s recovery. If a borrower becomes involved in bankruptcy proceedings, a court may invalidate the Fund’s security interest in any loan collateral or subordinate the Fund’s rights under the loan agreement to the interests of the borrower’s unsecured creditors or cause interest previously paid to be refunded to the borrower. There are also other events, such as the failure to perfect a security interest due to faulty documentation or faulty official filings, which could lead to the invalidation of the Fund’s security interest in loan collateral. If any of these events occur, the Fund’s performance could be negatively affected.|
|Interests in loans generally are not listed on any national securities exchange or automated quotation system and no active market may exist for many loans, making them illiquid. As described below, a secondary market exists for many Senior Loans, but it may be subject to irregular trading activity, wide bid/ask spreads and extended trade settlement periods.|
|From time to time the investment adviser and its affiliates may borrow money from various banks in connection with their business activities. Such banks may also sell interests in loans to or acquire them from the Fund or may be intermediate participants with respect to loans in which the Fund owns interests. Such banks may also act as agents for loans held by the Fund.|
|To the extent that legislation or state or federal regulators that regulate certain financial institutions impose additional requirements or restrictions with respect to the ability of such institutions to make loans, particularly in connection with highly leveraged transactions, the availability of loans for investment may be adversely affected. Further, such legislation or regulation could depress the market value of loans.|
|Calvert Responsible Index Funds||67||SAI dated February 1, 2021|
|For additional disclosures relating to Junior and Senior Loans, see “Junior Loans” and “Senior Loans” herein.|
|Lower Rated Investments||Lower rated investments (commonly referred to as “junk”) are of below investment grade quality and generally provide greater income potential and/or increased opportunity for capital appreciation than higher quality investments but they also typically entail greater potential price volatility and principal and income risk. Lower rated investments are regarded as predominantly speculative with respect to the entity’s continuing ability to make timely principal and interest payments. Also, their yields and market values may fluctuate more than higher rated investments. Fluctuations in value do not affect the cash income from lower rated investments, but are reflected in the Fund’s net asset value. The greater risks and fluctuations in yield and value occur, in part, because investors generally perceive issuers of lower rated and unrated investments to be less creditworthy. The secondary market for lower rated investments may be less liquid than the market for higher grade investments.|
|Master Limited Partnerships (“MLPs”)||MLPs are publicly-traded limited partnership interests or units. An MLP that invests in a particular industry (e.g., oil and gas) will be harmed by detrimental economic events within that industry. As partnerships, MLPs may be subject to less regulation (and less protection for investors) under state laws than corporations. In addition, MLPs may be subject to state taxation in certain jurisdictions, which may reduce the amount of income paid by an MLP to its investors. Effective for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017, the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act generally allows individuals and certain other non-corporate entities, such as partnerships, a deduction for 20% of “qualified publicly traded partnership income” such as income from MLPs. However, the law does not include any provision for a regulated investment company to pass the character of its qualified publicly traded partnership income through to its shareholders. As a result, an investor who invests directly in MLPs will be able to receive the benefit of that deduction, while a shareholder of the Fund will not.|
|Money Market Instruments||Money market instruments include short term, high quality, U.S. dollar denominated instruments such as commercial paper, certificates of deposit or time deposits and bankers’ acceptances issued by U.S. or foreign banks, and Treasury bills and other obligations with a maturity of one year or less, including those issued or guaranteed by U.S. Government agencies and instrumentalities. See “U.S. Government Securities” below. Certificates of deposit or time deposits are certificates issued against funds deposited in a commercial bank, are for a definite period of time, earn a specified rate of return, and are normally negotiable. Bankers’ acceptances are short-term credit instruments used to finance the import, export, transfer or storage of goods. They are termed “accepted” when a bank guarantees their payment at maturity.|
|The obligations of foreign branches of U.S. banks may be general obligations of the parent bank in addition to the issuing branch, or may be limited by the terms of a specific obligation and by governmental regulation. Payment of interest and principal upon these obligations may also be affected by governmental action in the country of domicile of the branch (generally referred to as sovereign risk). In addition, evidence of ownership of portfolio securities may be held outside of the U.S. and generally will be subject to the risks associated with the holding of such property overseas. Various provisions of U.S. law governing the establishment and operation of domestic branches do not apply to foreign branches of domestic banks. The obligations of U.S. branches of foreign banks may be general obligations of the parent bank in addition to the issuing branch, or may be limited by the terms of a specific obligation and by federal and state regulation as well as by governmental action in the country in which the foreign bank has its head office.|
|Calvert Responsible Index Funds||68||SAI dated February 1, 2021|
|Money market instruments are often acquired directly from the issuers thereof or otherwise are normally traded on a net basis (without commission) through broker-dealers and banks acting for their own account. Such firms attempt to profit from such transactions by buying at the bid price and selling at the higher asked price of the market, and the difference is customarily referred to as the spread. Money market instruments may be adversely affected by market and economic events, such as a sharp rise in prevailing short-term interest rates; adverse developments in the banking industry, which issues or guarantees many money market securities; adverse economic, political or other developments affecting domestic issuers of money market securities; changes in the credit quality of issuers; and default by a counterparty. These securities may be subject to federal income, state income and/or other taxes. Instead of investing in money market instruments directly, the Fund may invest in an affiliated or unaffiliated money market fund. During unusual market conditions, the Fund may invest up to 100% of its assets in cash or cash equivalents temporarily, which may be inconsistent with its investment objective(s) and other policies.|
|Mortgage-Backed Securities (“MBS”)||MBS are “pass through” securities, meaning that a pro rata share of regular interest and principal payments, as well as unscheduled early prepayments, on the underlying mortgage pool is passed through monthly to the holder. MBS may include conventional mortgage pass through securities, participation interests in pools of adjustable and fixed rate mortgage loans, stripped securities (described herein), floating rate mortgage-backed securities and certain classes of multiple class CMOs. MBS pay principal to the holder over their term, which differs from other forms of debt securities that normally provide for principal payment at maturity or specified call dates. MBS are subject to the general risks associated with investing in real estate securities; that is, they may lose value if the value of the underlying real estate to which a pool of mortgages relates declines. In addition, investments in MBS involve certain specific risks, including the failure of a party to meet its commitments under the related operative documents, adverse interest rate changes, and the effects of prepayments on mortgage cash flows and that any guarantee or other structural feature, if present, is insufficient to enable the timely payment of interest and principal on the MBS. Although certain MBS are guaranteed as to timely payment of interest and principal by a government-sponsored enterprise, the market price for such securities is not guaranteed and will fluctuate. Certain MBS may be purchased on a when-issued basis subject to certain limitations and requirements.|
|There are currently four types of MBS: (1) those issued by the U.S. Government or one of its agencies or instrumentalities, such as the Government National Mortgage Association (“GNMA”), the Federal National Mortgage Association (“FNMA”) and the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (“FHLMC”); (2) those issued by private issuers that represent an interest in or are collateralized by pass through securities issued or guaranteed by the U.S. Government or one of its agencies or instrumentalities; (3) those issued by the U.S. Government or one of its agencies or instrumentalities without a government guarantee, such as credit risk transfer bonds; and (4) those issued by private issuers that represent an interest in or are collateralized by whole mortgage loans or pass through securities without a government guarantee but that usually have some form of private credit enhancement. Privately issued MBS are structured similar to GNMA, FNMA and FHLMC MBS, and are issued by originators or and investors in mortgage loans, including depositary institutions mortgage banks and special purpose subsidiaries of the foregoing.|
|Calvert Responsible Index Funds||69||SAI dated February 1, 2021|
|GNMA Certificates and FNMA Mortgage-Backed Certificates are MBS representing part ownership of a pool of mortgage loans. GNMA loans (issued by lenders such as mortgage bankers, commercial banks and savings and loan associations) are either insured by the Federal Housing Administration or guaranteed by the Veterans Administration. A pool of such mortgages is assembled and, after being approved by GNMA, is offered to investors through securities dealers. Once such pool is approved by GNMA, the timely payment of interest and principal on the Certificates issued representing such pool is guaranteed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Government. GNMA is a wholly owned U.S. Government corporation within the Department of Housing and Urban Development. FNMA, a federally chartered corporation owned entirely by private stockholders, purchases both conventional and federally insured or guaranteed residential mortgages from various entities, including savings and loan associations, savings banks, commercial banks, credit unions and mortgage bankers, and packages pools of such mortgages in the form of pass-through securities generally called FNMA Mortgage-Backed Certificates, which are guaranteed as to timely payment of principal and interest by FNMA but are not backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Government; however, they are supported by the right of FNMA to borrow from the U.S. Treasury Department.|
|FHLMC, a corporate instrumentality of the U.S. Government created by Congress for the purposes of increasing the availability of mortgage credit for residential housing, issues participation certificates (“PCs”) representing undivided interest in FHLMC’S mortgage portfolio. While FHLMC guarantees the timely payment of interest and ultimate collection of the principal of its PCs, its PCs are not backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Government. FHLMC PCs differ from GNMA Certificates in that the mortgages underlying the PCs are monthly “conventional” mortgages rather than mortgages insured or guaranteed by a federal agency or instrumentality. However, in several other respects, such as the monthly pass-through of interest and principal (including unscheduled prepayments) and the unpredictability of future unscheduled prepayments on the underlying mortgage pools, FHLMC PCs are similar to GNMA Certificates.|
|While it is not possible to accurately predict the life of a particular issue of MBS, the actual life of any such security is likely to be substantially less than the final maturities of the mortgage loans underlying the security. This is because unscheduled early prepayments of principal on MBS will result from the prepayment, refinancings or foreclosure of the underlying mortgage loans in the mortgage pool. Prepayments of MBS may not be able to be reinvested at the same interest rate. Because of the regular scheduled payments of principal and the early unscheduled prepayments of principal, MBS are less effective than other types of obligations as a means of “locking-in” attractive long-term interest rates. As a result, this type of security may have less potential for capital appreciation during periods of declining interest rates than other U.S. Government securities of comparable maturities, although many issues of MBS may have a comparable risk of decline in market value during periods of rising interest rates. If MBS are purchased at a premium above their par value, a scheduled payment of principal and an unscheduled prepayment of principal, which would be made at par, will accelerate the realization of a loss equal to that portion of the premium applicable to the payment or prepayment. If MBS have been purchased at a discount from their par value, both a scheduled payment of principal and an unscheduled prepayment of principal will increase current returns and will accelerate the recognition of income, which, when distributed to Fund shareholders, will be taxable as ordinary income.|
|Calvert Responsible Index Funds||70||SAI dated February 1, 2021|
|Mortgage Dollar Rolls||In a mortgage dollar roll, the Fund sells MBS for delivery in the current month and simultaneously contracts to repurchase substantially similar (same type, coupon and maturity) MBS on a specified future date. During the roll period, the Fund forgoes principal and interest paid on the MBS. The Fund is compensated by the difference between the current sales price and the lower forward price for the future purchase (often referred to as the “drop”) as well as by the interest earned on the cash proceeds of the initial sales. Cash proceeds may be invested in instruments that are permissible investments for the Fund. The use of mortgage dollar rolls is a speculative technique involving leverage. A “covered roll” is a specific type of dollar roll for which there is an offsetting cash position or permissible liquid assets earmarked or in a segregated account to secure the obligation for the forward commitment to buy MBS, or a cash equivalent security position that matures on or before the forward settlement date of the dollar roll transaction. The Fund will enter into only covered rolls. Covered rolls are not treated as a borrowing or other senior security and will be excluded from the calculation of the Fund’s borrowings and other senior securities.|
|Municipal Lease Obligations (“MLOs”)||An MLO is a bond that is secured by lease payments made by the party, typically a state or municipality, leasing the facilities (e.g., schools or office buildings) that were financed by the bond. Such lease payments may be subject to annual appropriation or may be made only from revenues associated with the facility financed. In other cases, the leasing state or municipality is obligated to appropriate funds from its general tax revenues to make lease payments as long as it utilizes the leased property. MLOs, like other municipal debt obligations, are subject to the risk of non-payment. Although MLOs do not constitute general obligations of the issuer for which the issuer’s unlimited taxing power is pledged, a lease obligation is frequently backed by the issuer’s covenant to budget for, appropriate and make the payments due under the lease obligation. However, certain lease obligations contain “non-appropriation” clauses, which provide that the issuer has no obligation to make lease or installment purchase payments in future years unless money is appropriated for such purpose on a yearly basis. Although “non-appropriation” lease obligations may be secured by the leased property, disposition of the property in the event of foreclosure might prove difficult. A certificate of participation (also referred to as a “participation”) in a municipal lease is an instrument evidencing a pro rata share in a specific pledged revenue stream, usually lease payments by the issuer that are typically subject to annual appropriation. The certificate generally entitles the holder to receive a share, or participation, in the payments from a particular project.|
|MLOs and participations therein represent a type of financing that may not have the depth of marketability associated with more conventional securities and, as such, they may be less liquid than conventional securities. Certain MLOs may be deemed illiquid for the purpose of the Fund’s limitation on investments in illiquid investments.|
|The ability of issuers of MLOs to make timely lease payments may be adversely impacted in general economic downturns and as relative governmental cost burdens are allocated and reallocated among federal, state and local governmental units. Such non-payment would result in a reduction of income from and value of the obligation. Issuers of MLOs might seek protection under the bankruptcy laws. In the event of bankruptcy of such an issuer, holders of MLOs could experience delays and limitations with respect to the collection of principal and interest on such MLOs and may not, in all circumstances, be able to collect all principal and interest to which it is entitled. To enforce its rights in the event of a default in lease payments, the Fund might take possession of and manage the assets securing the issuer’s obligations on such securities or otherwise incur costs to protect its rights, which may increase the Fund’s operating expenses and adversely affect the net asset value of the Fund. When the lease contains a non-appropriation clause, however, the failure to pay would not be a default and the Fund would not have the right to take possession of the assets. Any income derived from the Fund’s ownership or operation of such assets may not be tax-exempt.|
|Calvert Responsible Index Funds||71||SAI dated February 1, 2021|
|Municipal Obligations||Municipal obligations include debt obligations issued to obtain funds for various public purposes, including the construction of a wide range of public facilities, refunding of outstanding obligations and obtaining funds for general operating expenses and loans to other public institutions and facilities. Certain types of bonds are issued by or on behalf of public authorities to finance various privately owned or operated facilities, including certain facilities for the local furnishing of electric energy or gas, sewage facilities, solid waste disposal facilities and other specialized facilities. Municipal obligations include bonds as well as tax-exempt commercial paper, project notes and municipal notes such as tax, revenue and bond anticipation notes of short maturity, generally less than three years. While most municipal bonds pay a fixed rate of interest semiannually in cash, there are exceptions. Some bonds pay no periodic cash interest, but rather make a single payment at maturity representing both principal and interest. Some bonds may pay interest at a variable or floating rate. Bonds may be issued or subsequently offered with interest coupons materially greater or less than those then prevailing, with price adjustments reflecting such deviation. Municipal obligations also include trust certificates representing interests in municipal securities held by a trustee. The trust certificates may evidence ownership of future interest payments, principal payments or both on the underlying securities.|
|In general, there are three categories of municipal obligations, the interest on which is exempt from federal income tax and is not a tax preference item for purposes of the AMT: (i) certain “public purpose” obligations (whenever issued), which include obligations issued directly by state and local governments or their agencies to fulfill essential governmental functions; (ii) certain obligations issued before August 8, 1986 for the benefit of non-governmental persons or entities; and (iii) certain “private activity bonds” issued after August 7, 1986, which include “qualified Section 501(c)(3) bonds” or refundings of certain obligations included in the second category. Opinions relating to the validity of municipal bonds, exclusion of municipal bond interest from an investor’s gross income for federal income tax purposes and, where applicable, state and local income tax, are rendered by bond counsel to the issuing authorities at the time of issuance.|
|Interest on certain “private activity bonds” issued after August 7, 1986 is exempt from regular federal income tax, but such interest (including a distribution by the Fund derived from such interest) is treated as a tax preference item that could subject the recipient to or increase the recipient’s liability for the AMT.|
|The two principal classifications of municipal bonds are “general obligation” and “revenue” bonds. Issuers of general obligation bonds include states, counties, cities, towns and regional districts. The proceeds of these obligations are used to fund a wide range of public projects, including the construction or improvement of schools, highways and roads, water and sewer systems and a variety of other public purposes. The basic security of general obligation bonds is the issuer’s pledge of its faith, credit, and taxing power for the payment of principal and interest. The taxes that can be levied for the payment of debt service may be limited or unlimited as to rate and amount.|
|Calvert Responsible Index Funds||72||SAI dated February 1, 2021|
|Typically, the only security for a limited obligation or revenue bond is the net revenue derived from a particular facility or class of facilities financed thereby or, in some cases, from the proceeds of a special tax or other special revenues. Revenue bonds have been issued to fund a wide variety of revenue-producing public capital projects including: electric, gas, water and sewer systems; highways, bridges and tunnels; port and airport facilities; colleges and universities; hospitals; and convention, recreational, tribal gaming and housing facilities. Although the security behind these bonds varies widely, many lower rated bonds provide additional security in the form of a debt service reserve fund that may also be used to make principal and interest payments on the issuer's obligations. In addition, some revenue obligations (as well as general obligations) are insured by a bond insurance company or backed by a letter of credit issued by a banking institution. Revenue bonds also include, for example, pollution control, health care and housing bonds, which, although nominally issued by municipal authorities, are generally not secured by the taxing power of the municipality but by the revenues of the authority derived from payments by the private entity that owns or operates the facility financed with the proceeds of the bonds. Obligations of housing finance authorities have a wide range of security features, including reserve funds and insured or subsidized mortgages, as well as the net revenues from housing or other public projects. Many of these bonds do not generally constitute the pledge of the credit of the issuer of such bonds. The credit quality of such revenue bonds is usually directly related to the credit standing of the user of the facility being financed or of an institution which provides a guarantee, letter of credit or other credit enhancement for the bond issue. The Fund may on occasion acquire revenue bonds that carry warrants or similar rights covering equity securities. Such warrants or rights may be held indefinitely, but if exercised, the Fund anticipates that it would, under normal circumstances, dispose of any equity securities so acquired within a reasonable period of time. Investing in revenue bonds may involve (without limitation) the following risks.|
|Hospital bond ratings are often based on feasibility studies that contain projections of expenses, revenues and occupancy levels. A hospital’s income available to service its debt may be influenced by demand for hospital services, management capabilities, the service area economy, efforts by insurers and government agencies to limit rates and expenses, competition, availability and expense of malpractice insurance, and Medicaid and Medicare funding.|
|Education-related bonds are comprised of two types: (i) those issued to finance projects for public and private colleges and universities, charter schools and private schools, and (ii) those representing pooled interests in student loans. Bonds issued to supply educational institutions with funding are subject to many risks, including the risks of unanticipated revenue decline, primarily the result of decreasing student enrollment, decreasing state and federal funding, or changes in general economic conditions. Additionally, higher than anticipated costs associated with salaries, utilities, insurance or other general expenses could impair the ability of a borrower to make annual debt service payments. Student loan revenue bonds are generally offered by state (or sub-state) authorities or commissions and are backed by pools of student loans. Underlying student loans may be guaranteed by state guarantee agencies and may be subject to reimbursement by the United States Department of Education through its guaranteed student loan program. Others may be private, uninsured loans made to parents or students that may be supported by reserves or other forms of credit enhancement. Cash flows supporting student loan revenue bonds are impacted by numerous factors, including the rate of student loan defaults, seasoning of the loan portfolio, and student repayment deferral periods of forbearance. Other risks associated with student loan revenue bonds include potential changes in federal legislation regarding student loan revenue bonds, state guarantee agency reimbursement and continued federal interest and other program subsidies currently in effect.|
|Transportation debt may be issued to finance the construction of airports, toll roads, highways, or other transit facilities. Airport bonds are dependent on the economic conditions of the airport’s service area and may be affected by the business strategies and fortunes of specific airlines. They may also be subject to competition from other airports and modes of transportation. Air traffic generally follows broader economic trends and is also affected by the price and availability of fuel. Toll road bonds are also affected by the cost and availability of fuel as well as toll levels, the presence of competing roads and the general economic health of an area. Fuel costs, transportation taxes and fees, and availability of fuel also affect other transportation-related securities, as do the presence of alternate forms of transportation, such as public transportation.|
|Calvert Responsible Index Funds||73||SAI dated February 1, 2021|
Industrial development bonds (“IDBs”) are normally secured only by the revenues from the project and not by state or local government tax payments, they are subject to a wide variety of risks, many of which relate to the nature of the specific project. Generally, IDBs are sensitive to the risk of a slowdown in the economy.
Electric utilities face problems in financing large construction programs in an inflationary period, cost increases and delay occasioned by safety and environmental considerations (particularly with respect to nuclear facilities), difficulty in obtaining fuel at reasonable prices, and in achieving timely and adequate rate relief from regulatory commissions, effects of energy conservation and limitations on the capacity of the capital market to absorb utility debt.
Water and sewer revenue bonds are generally secured by the fees charged to each user of the service. The issuers of water and sewer revenue bonds generally enjoy a monopoly status and latitude in their ability to raise rates. However, lack of water supply due to insufficient rain, run-off, or snow pack can be a concern and has led to past defaults. Further, public resistance to rate increases, declining numbers of customers in a particular locale, costly environmental litigation, and federal environmental mandates are challenges faced by issuers of water and sewer bonds.
|The obligations of any person or entity to pay the principal of and interest on a municipal obligation are subject to the provisions of bankruptcy, insolvency and other laws affecting the rights and remedies of creditors, such as the Federal Bankruptcy Act, and laws, if any, that may be enacted by Congress or state legislatures extending the time for payment of principal or interest, or both, or imposing other constraints upon enforcement of such obligations. Certain bond structures may be subject to the risk that a taxing authority may issue an adverse ruling regarding tax-exempt status. There is also the possibility that as a result of adverse economic conditions (including unforeseen financial events, natural disasters and other conditions that may affect an issuer’s ability to pay its obligations), litigation or other conditions, the power or ability of any person or entity to pay when due principal of and interest on a municipal obligation may be materially affected or interest and principal previously paid may be required to be refunded. There have been instances of defaults and bankruptcies involving municipal obligations that were not foreseen by the financial and investment communities. The Fund will take whatever action it considers appropriate in the event of anticipated financial difficulties, default or bankruptcy of either the issuer of any municipal obligation or of the underlying source of funds for debt service. Such action may include: (i) retaining the services of various persons or firms (including affiliates of the investment adviser) to evaluate or protect any real estate, facilities or other assets securing any such obligation or acquired by the Fund as a result of any such event; (ii) managing (or engaging other persons to manage) or otherwise dealing with any real estate, facilities or other assets so acquired; and (iii) taking such other actions as the adviser (including, but not limited to, payment of operating or similar expenses of the underlying project) may deem appropriate to reduce the likelihood or severity of loss on the fund’s investment. The Fund will incur additional expenditures in taking protective action with respect to portfolio obligations in (or anticipated to be in) default and assets securing such obligations.|
|Calvert Responsible Index Funds||74||SAI dated February 1, 2021|
Historically, municipal bankruptcies have been rare and certain provisions of the U.S. Bankruptcy Code governing such bankruptcy are unclear. Further, the application of state law to municipal obligation issuers could produce varying results among the states or among municipal obligation issuers within a state. These uncertainties could have a significant impact on the prices of the municipal obligations in which the Fund invests. There could be economic, business or political developments or court decisions that adversely affect all municipal obligations in the same sector. Developments such as changes in healthcare regulations, environmental considerations related to construction, construction cost increases and labor problems, failure of healthcare facilities to maintain adequate occupancy levels, and inflation can affect municipal obligations in the same sector. As the similarity in issuers of municipal obligations held by the Fund increases, the potential for fluctuations in the Fund’s share price also may increase.
The Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and its related issuers continue to experience financial difficulties, including persistent government budget deficits, underfunded public pension benefit obligations, underfunded government retirement systems, sizable debt service obligations and a high unemployment rate. Several rating agencies have downgraded a number of securities issued in Puerto Rico to below investment-grade, and numerous issuers have entered Title III of the Puerto Rico Oversite, Management and Economic Stability Act (“PROMESA”), which is similar to bankruptcy protection, through which the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico can restructure its debt. However, Puerto Rico's case is the first ever heard under PROMESA and there is no existing case precedent to guide the proceedings. Accordingly, Puerto Rico's debt restructuring process could take significantly longer than traditional municipal bankruptcy proceedings. Further, it is not clear whether a debt restructuring process will ultimately be approved or, if so, the extent to which it will apply to Puerto Rico municipal securities sold by an issuer other than the territory. A debt restructuring could reduce the principal amount due, the interest rate, the maturity, and other terms of Puerto Rico municipal securities, which could adversely affect the value of Puerto Rican municipal securities. Puerto Rico’s short-term financial difficulties continue to be further impacted by the 2017 hurricane, and Puerto Rico has faced significant out-migration relating to its economic difficulties, eroding its population, economic base and ultimate ability to support its current debt burden, creating further long-term uncertainty.
The secondary market for some municipal obligations issued within a state (including issues that are privately placed with the Fund) is less liquid than that for taxable debt obligations or other more widely traded municipal obligations. No established resale market exists for certain of the municipal obligations in which the Fund may invest. The market for obligations rated below investment grade is also likely to be less liquid than the market for higher rated obligations. As a result, the Fund may be unable to dispose of these municipal obligations at times when it would otherwise wish to do so at the prices at which they are valued.
Municipal obligations that are rated below investment grade but that, subsequent to the assignment of such rating, are backed by escrow accounts containing U.S. Government obligations may be determined by the investment adviser to be of investment grade quality for purposes of the Fund’s investment policies. In the case of a defaulted obligation, the Fund may incur additional expense seeking recovery of its investment. Defaulted obligations are denoted in the “Schedule of Investments” in the “Financial Statements” included in the Fund’s reports to shareholders.
The yields on municipal obligations depend on a variety of factors, including purposes of the issue and source of funds for repayment, general money market conditions, general conditions of the municipal bond market, size of a particular offering, maturity of the obligation and rating of the issue. The ratings of Moody’s, S&P and Fitch represent their opinions as to the quality of the municipal obligations which they undertake to rate, and in the case of insurers, other factors including the claims-paying ability of such insurer. It should be emphasized, however, that ratings are based on judgment and are not absolute standards of quality. Consequently, municipal obligations with the same maturity, coupon and rating may have different yields while obligations of the same maturity and coupon with different ratings may have the same yield. In addition, the market price of such obligations will normally fluctuate with changes in interest rates, and therefore the net asset value of the Fund will be affected by such changes.
|Calvert Responsible Index Funds||75||SAI dated February 1, 2021|
|Operational Risk||The Fund’s service providers, including the investment adviser, may experience disruptions or operating errors that could negatively impact the Fund. While service providers are expected to have appropriate operational risk management policies and procedures, their methods of operational risk management may differ from the Fund's in the setting of priorities, the personnel and resources available or the effectiveness of relevant controls. It also is not possible for Fund service providers to identify all of the operational risks that may affect the Fund or to develop processes and controls to completely eliminate or mitigate their occurrence or effects.|
|Option Contracts||See also “Derivative Instruments and Related Risks” herein. An option contract is a contract that gives the holder of the option, in return for a premium, the right to buy from (in the case of a call) or sell to (in the case of a put) the writer of the option the reference instrument underlying the option (or the cash value of the index) at a specified exercise price at any time during the term of the option. The writer of an option on a security has the obligation upon exercise of the option to deliver the reference instrument (or the cash) upon payment of the exercise price or to pay the exercise price upon delivery of the reference instrument (or the cash). Upon exercise of an index option, the writer of an option on an index is obligated to pay the difference between the cash value of the index and the exercise price multiplied by the specified multiplier for the index option. Options may be “covered,” meaning that the party required to deliver the reference instrument if the option is exercised owns that instrument (or has set aside sufficient assets to meet its obligation to deliver the instrument). Options may be listed on an exchange or traded in the OTC market. In general, exchange-traded options have standardized exercise prices and expiration dates and may require the parties to post margin against their obligations, and the performance of the parties' obligations in connection with such options is guaranteed by the exchange or a related clearing corporation. OTC options have more flexible terms negotiated between the buyer and the seller, but generally do not require the parties to post margin and are subject to counterparty risk. The ability of the Fund to transact business with any one or any number of counterparties, the lack of any independent evaluation of the counterparties or their financial capabilities, and the absence of a regulated market to facilitate settlement, may increase the potential for losses to the Fund. OTC options also involve greater liquidity risk. This risk may be increased in times of financial stress, if the trading market for OTC derivative contracts becomes limited. The staff of the SEC takes the position that certain purchased OTC options, and assets used as cover for written OTC options, are illiquid. Derivatives on economic indicators generally are offered in an auction format and are booked and settled as OTC options. Options on futures contracts are discussed herein under “Futures Contracts.”|
|If a written option expires unexercised, the Fund realizes a capital gain equal to the premium received at the time the option was written. If a purchased option expires unexercised, the Fund realizes a capital loss equal to the premium paid. Prior to the earlier of exercise or expiration, an exchange traded option may be closed out by an offsetting purchase or sale of an option of the same series (type, exchange, reference instrument, exercise price, and expiration). A capital gain will be realized from a closing purchase transaction if the cost of the closing option is less than the premium received from writing the option, or, if it is more, a capital loss will be realized. If the premium received from a closing sale transaction is more than the premium paid to purchase the option, the Fund will realize a capital gain or, if it is less, the Fund will realize a capital loss. The principal factors affecting the market value of a put or a call option include supply and demand, the current market price of the reference instrument in relation to the exercise price of the option, the volatility of the reference instrument, and the time remaining until the expiration date. There can be no assurance that a closing purchase or sale transaction can be consummated when desired.|
|Straddles are a combination of a call and a put written on the same reference instrument. A straddle is deemed to be covered when sufficient assets are deposited to meet the Fund’s immediate obligations. The same liquid assets may be used to cover both the call and put options where the exercise price of the call and put are the same, or the exercise price of the call is higher than that of the put. The Fund may also buy and write call options on the same reference instrument to cover its obligations. Because such combined options positions involve multiple trades, they result in higher transaction costs and may be more difficult to open or close. In an equity collar, the Fund simultaneously writes a call option and purchases a put option on the same instrument.|
|Calvert Responsible Index Funds||76||SAI dated February 1, 2021|
|To the extent that the Fund writes a call option on an instrument it holds and intends to use such instrument as the sole means of “covering” its obligation under the call option, the Fund has, in return for the premium on the option, given up the opportunity to profit from a price increase in the instrument above the exercise price during the option period, but, as long as its obligation under such call option continues, has retained the risk of loss should the value of the reference instrument decline. If the Fund were unable to close out such a call option, it would not be able to sell the instrument unless the option expired without exercise. Uncovered calls have speculative characteristics and are riskier than covered calls because there is no instrument or cover held by the Fund that can act as a partial hedge.|
|The writer of an option has no control over the time when it may be required to fulfill its obligation under the option. Once an option writer has received an exercise notice, it cannot effect a closing purchase transaction in order to terminate its obligation under the option and must deliver the underlying reference instrument at the exercise price. If a put or call option purchased by the Fund is not sold when it has remaining value, and if the market price of the underlying security remains equal to or greater than the exercise price (in the case of a put), or remains less than or equal to the exercise price (in the case of a call), the Fund will lose the premium it paid for the option. Furthermore, if trading restrictions or suspensions are imposed on options markets, the Fund may be unable to close out a position.|
|Options positions are marked to market daily. The value of options is affected by changes in the value and dividend rates of the securities underlying the option or represented in the index underlying the option, changes in interest rates, changes in the actual or perceived volatility of the relevant index or market and the remaining time to the options’ expiration, as well as trading conditions in the options market. The hours of trading for options may not conform to the hours during which the underlying securities are traded. To the extent that the options markets close before the markets for the underlying securities, significant price and rate movements can take place in the underlying markets that would not be reflected concurrently in the options markets.|
|Participation in the ReFlow Liquidity Program||The Fund may participate in the ReFlow liquidity program, which is designed to provide an alternative liquidity source for mutual funds experiencing net redemptions of their shares. Pursuant to the program, ReFlow Fund, LLC (“ReFlow”) provides participating mutual funds with a source of cash to meet net shareholder redemptions by standing ready each business day to purchase fund shares up to the value of the net shares redeemed by other shareholders that are to settle the next business day. Following purchases of fund shares, ReFlow then generally redeems those shares when the fund experiences net sales, at the end of a maximum holding period determined by ReFlow (currently 14 days) or at other times at ReFlow’s discretion. While ReFlow holds fund shares, it will have the same rights and privileges with respect to those shares as any other shareholder. For use of the ReFlow service, a fund pays a fee to ReFlow each time it purchases fund shares, calculated by applying to the purchase amount a fee rate determined through an automated daily auction among participating mutual funds. Such fee is allocated among a fund’s share classes based on relative net assets. ReFlow’s purchases of fund shares through the liquidity program are made on an investment-blind basis without regard to the fund’s investment objective, policies or anticipated performance. In accordance with federal securities laws, ReFlow is prohibited from acquiring more than 3% of the outstanding voting securities of a fund. ReFlow will purchase Class I or Institutional Class shares (or, if applicable Class A or Investor Class shares) at net asset value and will not be subject to any sales charge (in the case of Class A shares), investment minimum or redemption fee applicable to such shares. ReFlow will periodically redeem its entire share position in the Fund and request that such redemption be met in kind in accordance with the Fund’s redemption-in-kind policies described under “Redeeming Shares” in the Prospectus. Investments in a fund by ReFlow in connection with the ReFlow liquidity program are not subject to the two round-trips within 90 days limitation described in “Restrictions on Excessive Trading and Market Timing” under “Purchasing Shares” in the Prospectus. The investment adviser believes that the program assists in stabilizing the Fund’s net assets to the benefit of the Fund and its shareholders. To the extent the Fund’s net assets do not decline, the investment adviser may also benefit.|
|Calvert Responsible Index Funds||77||SAI dated February 1, 2021|
The Fund may gain exposure to securities in certain foreign markets through investments in participation notes (“P-Notes”). For instance, the Fund may purchase P-Notes to invest in foreign markets that restrict foreign investors, such as the Fund, from investing directly in individual securities. P-Notes are generally issued by banks or broker-dealers and are designed to offer a return linked to a particular underlying equity security. P-Notes involve transaction costs.
An investment in a P-Note involves additional risks beyond the risks normally associated with a direct investment in the underlying security and the P-Note may perform differently from its underlying security. While the holder of a P-Note is entitled to receive from the broker-dealer or bank any dividends paid by the underlying security, the holder is not entitled to the same rights (e.g., voting rights) as an owner of the underlying stock. P-Notes are considered general unsecured contractual obligations of the banks or broker-dealers that issue them as the counterparty. As such, the Fund must rely on the creditworthiness of the counterparty for its investment returns on the P-Notes. If the counterparty becomes insolvent, the Fund could lose the total value of its investment in the P-Note. Additionally, issuers of P-Notes and the calculation agent may have broad authority to control the foreign exchange rates related to the P-Notes and discretion to adjust a P-Note’s terms in response to certain events. There is also no assurance that there will be a secondary trading market for a P-Note or that the trading price of a P-Note will equal the value of the underlying security. P-Notes may be considered illiquid.
|Pooled Investment Vehicles||The Fund may invest in pooled investment vehicles including other open-end or closed-end investment companies affiliated or unaffiliated with the investment adviser, exchange-traded funds (described herein) and other collective investment pools in accordance with the requirements of the 1940 Act. Closed-end investment company securities are usually traded on an exchange. The demand for a closed-end fund’s securities is independent of the demand for the underlying portfolio assets, and accordingly, such securities can trade at a discount from, or a premium over, their net asset value. The Fund generally will indirectly bear its proportionate share of any management fees paid by a pooled investment vehicle in which it invests in addition to the investment advisory fee paid by the Fund.|
|Portfolio Turnover||A change in the securities held by the Fund is known as “portfolio turnover” and generally involves expense to the Fund, including brokerage commissions or dealer markups and other transaction costs on both the sale of securities and the reinvestment of the proceeds in other securities. If sales of portfolio securities cause the Fund to realize net short-term capital gains, such gains will be taxable as ordinary income to taxable shareholders. The Fund’s portfolio turnover rate for a fiscal year is the ratio of the lesser of purchases or sales of portfolio securities to the monthly average of the value of portfolio securities − excluding securities whose maturities at acquisition were one year or less. The Fund's portfolio turnover rate is not a limiting factor when the investment adviser considers a change in the Fund's portfolio holdings. The portfolio turnover rate(s) of the Fund for recent fiscal periods is included in the Financial Highlights in the Prospectus.|
|Preferred Stock||Preferred stock represents an equity interest in a corporation, company or trust that has a higher claim on the assets and earnings than common stock. Preferred stock usually has limited voting rights. Preferred stock involves credit risk, which is the risk that a preferred stock will decline in price, or fail to pay dividends when expected, because the issuer experiences a decline in its financial status. A company’s preferred stock generally pays dividends after the company makes the required payments to holders of its bonds and other debt instruments but before dividend payments are made to common stockholders. However, preferred stock may not pay scheduled dividends or dividends payments may be in arrears. The value of preferred stock may react more strongly than bonds and other debt instruments to actual or perceived changes in the company’s financial condition or prospects. Certain preferred stocks may be convertible to common stock. See “Convertible Securities” and “Contingent Convertible Securities.” Preferred stock may be subject to redemption at the option of the issuer at a predetermined price. Because they may make regular income payments, preferred stocks may be considered fixed-income securities for purposes of a Fund’s investment restrictions.|
|Calvert Responsible Index Funds||78||SAI dated February 1, 2021|
|Real Estate Investments||
Real estate investments, including real estate investment trusts (“REITs”), are sensitive to factors, such as changes in: real estate values, property taxes, interest rates, cash flow of underlying real estate assets, occupancy rates, government regulations affecting zoning, land use, and rents, and the management skill and creditworthiness of the issuer. Companies in the real estate industry may also be subject to liabilities under environmental and hazardous waste laws, among others. Changes in underlying real estate values may have a magnified effect to the extent that investments concentrate in particular geographic regions or property types. Investments in REITs may also be adversely affected by rising interest rates. By investing in REITs, the Fund indirectly will bear REIT expenses in addition to its own expenses.
Private REITs are unlisted, which may make them difficult to value and less liquid. Moreover, private REITs are generally exempt from 1933 Act registration and, as such, the amount of public information available with respect to private REITs may be less extensive than that available for publicly traded REITs. Shares of REITs may trade less frequently and, therefore, are subject to more erratic price movements than securities of larger issuers. REITs are also subject to credit, market, liquidity and interest rate risks.
Effective for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017 and before January 1, 2026, the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act generally allows individuals and certain other non-corporate entities, such as partnerships, a deduction for 20% of qualified REIT dividends. Proposed regulations on which the Fund may rely allow a regulated investment company to pass the character of its qualified REIT dividends through to its shareholders provided certain holding period requirements are met. See “Taxes” for additional information.
REITs may issue debt securities to fund their activities. The value of these debt securities may be affected by changes in the value of the underlying property owned by the REIT, the creditworthiness of the REIT, interest rates, and tax and regulatory requirements, among other things.
|Repurchase Agreements||Repurchase agreements involve the purchase of a security coupled with an agreement to resell at a specified date and price. In the event of the bankruptcy of the counterparty to a repurchase agreement, recovery of cash may be delayed. To the extent that, in the meantime, the value of the purchased securities may have decreased, a loss could result. Repurchase agreements maturing in more than seven days that the investment adviser believes may not be terminated within seven days at approximately the amount at which the Fund has valued the agreements are considered illiquid securities. Unless the Prospectus states otherwise, the terms of a repurchase agreement will provide that the value of the collateral underlying the repurchase agreement will always be at least equal to the repurchase price, including any accrued interest earned on the agreement, and will be marked to market daily.|
|Calvert Responsible Index Funds||79||SAI dated February 1, 2021|
|Residual Interest Bonds||
The Fund may invest in residual interest bonds in a trust that holds municipal securities. The interest rate payable on a residual interest bond bears an inverse relationship to the interest rate on another security issued by the trust. Because changes in the interest rate on the other security inversely affect the interest paid on the residual interest bond, the value and income of a residual interest bond is generally more volatile than that of a fixed rate bond. Residual interest bonds have interest rate adjustment formulas that generally reduce or, in the extreme, eliminate the interest paid to the Fund when short-term interest rates rise, and increase the interest paid to the Fund when short-term interest rates fall. Residual interest bonds have varying degrees of liquidity, and the market for these securities is relatively volatile. These securities tend to underperform the market for fixed rate bonds in a rising long-term interest rate environment, but tend to outperform the market for fixed rate bonds when long-term interest rates decline. Although volatile, residual interest bonds typically offer the potential for yields exceeding the yields available on fixed rate bonds with comparable credit quality and maturity. These securities usually permit the investor to convert the floating rate to a fixed rate (normally adjusted downward), and this optional conversion feature may provide a partial hedge against rising rates if exercised at an opportune time. While residual interest bonds expose the Fund to leverage risk because they provide two or more dollars of bond market exposure for every dollar invested, they are not subject to the Fund’s restrictions on borrowings.
Under certain circumstances, the Fund may enter into a so-called shortfall and forbearance agreement relating to a residual interest bond held by the Fund. Such agreements commit the Fund to reimburse the difference between the liquidation value of the underlying security (which is the basis of the residual interest bond) and the principal amount due to the holders of the floating rate security issued in conjunction with the residual interest bond upon the termination of the trust issuing the residual interest bond. Absent a shortfall and forbearance agreement, the Fund would not be required to make such a reimbursement. If the Fund chooses not to enter into such an agreement, the residual interest bond could be terminated and the Fund could incur a loss. The Fund’s investments in residual interest bonds and similar securities described in the Prospectus and this SAI will not be considered borrowing for purposes of the Fund’s restrictions on borrowing described herein and in the Prospectus.
On December 10, 2013, five U.S. federal agencies published final rules implementing section 619 of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the “Volcker Rule”). The Volcker Rule prohibits banking entities from engaging in proprietary trading of certain instruments and limits such entities’ investments in, and relationships with, covered funds, as defined in the rules. The Volcker Rule precludes banking entities and their affiliates from (i) sponsoring residual interest bond programs as presently structured and (ii) continuing relationships with or services for existing residual interest bond programs. The effects of the Volcker Rule may make it more difficult for the Fund to maintain current or desired levels of income.
|Calvert Responsible Index Funds||80||SAI dated February 1, 2021|
Restricted securities cannot be sold to the public without registration under the 1933 Act. Unless registered for sale, restricted securities can be sold only in privately negotiated transactions or pursuant to an exemption from registration. Restricted securities may be considered illiquid and subject to the Fund’s limitation on illiquid securities.
Restricted securities may involve a high degree of business and financial risk which may result in substantial losses. The securities may be less liquid than publicly traded securities. Although these securities may be resold in privately negotiated transactions, the prices realized from these sales could be less than those originally paid by the Fund. The Fund may invest in restricted securities, including securities initially offered and sold without registration pursuant to Rule 144A (“Rule 144A Securities”) and securities of U.S. and non-U.S. issuers initially offered and sold outside the United States without registration with the SEC pursuant to Regulation S (“Regulation S Securities”) under the 1933 Act. Rule 144A Securities and Regulation S Securities generally may be traded freely among certain qualified institutional investors, such as the Fund, and non-U.S. persons, but resale to a broader base of investors in the United States may be permitted only in much more limited circumstances.
The Fund also may purchase restricted securities that are not eligible for resale pursuant to Rule 144A or Regulation S. The Fund may acquire such securities through private placement transactions, directly from the issuer or from security holders, generally at higher yields or on terms more favorable to investors than comparable publicly traded securities. However, the restrictions on resale of such securities may make it difficult for the Fund to dispose of them at the time considered most advantageous and/or may involve expenses that would not be incurred in the sale of securities that were freely marketable. Risks associated with restricted securities include the potential obligation to pay all or part of the registration expenses in order to sell certain restricted securities. A considerable period of time may elapse between the time of the decision to sell a security and the time the Fund may be permitted to sell it under an effective registration statement and/or after an applicable waiting period. If adverse conditions were to develop during this period, the Fund might obtain a price that is less favorable than the price that was prevailing at the time it decided to sell. See also “Illiquid Investments.”
|Reverse Repurchase Agreements||Under a reverse repurchase agreement, the Fund temporarily transfers possession of a portfolio instrument to another party, such as a bank or broker-dealer, in return for cash. At the same time, the Fund agrees to repurchase the instrument at an agreed upon time and price, which reflects an interest payment. The Fund may enter into a reverse repurchase agreement for various purposes, including, but not limited to, when it is able to invest the cash acquired at a rate higher than the cost of the agreement or as a means of raising cash to satisfy redemption requests without the necessity of selling portfolio assets. In a reverse repurchase agreement, any fluctuations in the market value of either the securities transferred to another party or the securities in which the proceeds may be invested would affect the market value of the Fund’s assets. As a result, such transactions may increase fluctuations in the value of the Fund. Because reverse repurchase agreements may be considered to be the practical equivalent of borrowing funds, they constitute a form of leverage. Such agreements will be treated as subject to investment restrictions regarding “borrowings.” If the Fund reinvests the proceeds of a reverse repurchase agreement at a rate lower than the cost of the agreement, entering into the agreement will lower the Fund’s yield.|
|Calvert Responsible Index Funds||81||SAI dated February 1, 2021|
|Rights and Warrants||
See also “Derivative Instruments and Related Risks” herein. A right is a privilege granted to existing shareholders of a corporation to subscribe for shares of a new issue of common stock before it is issued. Rights normally have a short life, usually two to four weeks, are freely transferable and entitle the holder to buy the new common stock at a lower price than the public offering price. Warrants are securities that are typically issued together with a debt security or preferred stock and that give the holder the right to buy a proportionate amount of common stock at a specified price. Warrants are freely transferable and are often traded on major exchanges. Unlike rights, warrants normally have a life that is measured in years and entitle the holder to buy common stock of a company at a price that is usually higher than the market price at the time the warrant is issued. Corporations often issue warrants to make the accompanying debt security more attractive.
Warrants and rights may entail greater risks than certain other types of investments. Generally, rights and warrants do not carry the right to receive dividends or exercise voting rights with respect to the underlying securities, and they do not represent any rights in the assets of the issuer. In addition, their value does not necessarily change with the value of the underlying securities, and they cease to have value if they are not exercised on or before their expiration date. If the market price of the underlying stock does not exceed the exercise price during the life of the warrant or right, the warrant or right will expire worthless. (Canadian special warrants issued in private placements prior to a public offering are not considered warrants.)
|Securities Lending||The Fund may lend its portfolio securities to major banks, broker-dealers and other financial institutions in compliance with the 1940 Act. No lending may be made with any companies affiliated with the investment adviser. These loans earn income and are collateralized by cash, securities or letters of credit. The Fund may realize a loss if it is not able to invest cash collateral at rates higher than the costs to enter into the loan. The Fund invests cash collateral in an unaffiliated money market fund that operates in compliance with the requirements of Rule 2a-7 under the 1940 Act and seeks to maintain a stable $1.00 net asset value per share. When the loan is closed, the lender is obligated to return the collateral to the borrower. The lender could suffer a loss if the value of the collateral is below the market value of the borrowed securities or if the borrower defaults on the loan. The lender may pay reasonable finder’s, lending agent, administrative and custodial fees in connection with its loans. The investment adviser will use its reasonable efforts to instruct the securities lending agent to terminate loans and recall securities with voting rights in accordance with the investment adviser’s proxy voting policy and procedures so that the securities may be voted in accordance with such policies and procedures. See “Taxes” for information on the tax treatment of payments in lieu of dividends received pursuant to securities lending arrangements.|
|Senior Loans||Senior Loans are loans that are senior in repayment priority to other debt of the borrower. Senior Loans generally pay interest that floats, adjusts or varies periodically based on benchmark indicators, specified adjustment schedules or prevailing interest rates. Senior Loans are often secured by specific assets or “collateral,” although they may not be secured by collateral. A Senior Loan is typically originated, negotiated and structured by a U.S. or foreign commercial bank, insurance company, finance company or other financial institution (the “Agent”) for a group of loan investors (“Loan Investors”), generally referred to as a “syndicate.” The Agent typically administers and enforces the Senior Loan on behalf of the Loan Investors in the syndicate. In addition, an institution, typically but not always the Agent, holds any collateral on behalf of the Loan Investors. Loan interests primarily take the form of assignments purchased in the primary or secondary market. Loan interests may also take the form of participation interests in, or novations of, a Senior Loan. Senior Loans primarily include senior floating rate loans and secondarily senior floating rate debt obligations (including those issued by an asset-backed pool), and interests therein.|
|Calvert Responsible Index Funds||82||SAI dated February 1, 2021|
|Loan Collateral. Borrowers generally will, for the term of the Senior Loan, pledge collateral to secure their obligation. In addition, Senior Loans may be guaranteed by or secured by assets of the borrower’s owners or affiliates. During the term of the Senior Loan, the value of collateral securing the Loan may decline in value, causing the Loan to be under-collateralized. Collateral may consist of assets that may not be readily liquidated, and there is no assurance that the liquidation of such assets would satisfy fully a borrower’s obligations under a Senior Loan. In addition, if a Senior Loan is foreclosed, the Fund could become part owner of the collateral and would bear the costs and liabilities associated with owning and disposing of such collateral.|
|Fees. The Fund may receive a facility fee when it buys a Senior Loan, and pay a facility fee when it sells a Senior Loan. On an ongoing basis, the Fund may receive a commitment fee based on the undrawn portion of the underlying line of credit portion of a Senior Loan. In certain circumstances, the Fund may receive a prepayment penalty fee upon the prepayment of a Senior Loan by a borrower or an amendment fee.|
|Loan Administration. In a typical Senior Loan, the Agent administers the terms of the loan agreement and is responsible for the collection of principal, and interest payments from the borrower and the apportionment of these payments to the Loan Investors. Failure by the Agent to fulfill its obligations may delay or adversely affect receipt of payment by the Fund. Furthermore, unless under the terms of a loan agreement or participation (as applicable) the Fund has direct recourse against the borrower, the Fund must rely on the Agent and the other Loan Investors to use appropriate remedies against the borrower. The Agent is typically responsible for monitoring compliance with covenants contained in the loan agreement based upon reports prepared by the borrower. The typical practice of an Agent or a Loan Investor in relying exclusively or primarily on reports from the borrower may involve the risk of fraud by the borrower. It is unclear whether an investment in a Senior Loan offers the securities law protections against fraud and misrepresentation.|
|A financial institution’s appointment as Agent may usually be terminated in the event that it fails to observe the requisite standard of care or becomes insolvent. A successor Agent would generally be appointed to replace the terminated Agent, and assets held by the Agent under the Loan Agreement should remain available to holders of Senior Loans. However, if assets held by the Agent for the benefit of the Fund were determined to be subject to the claims of the Agent’s general creditors, the Fund might incur certain costs and delays in realizing payment on a Senior Loan, or suffer a loss of principal and/or interest. In situations involving other Interposed Persons (as defined below), similar risks may arise.|
|Additional Information. The Fund may purchase and retain in its portfolio a Senior Loan where the borrower has experienced, or may be perceived to be likely to experience, credit problems, including involvement in or recent emergence from bankruptcy reorganization proceedings or other forms of debt restructuring. While such investments may provide opportunities for enhanced income as well as capital appreciation, they generally involve greater risk and may be considered speculative. The Fund may from time to time participate in ad-hoc committees formed by creditors to negotiate with the management of financially troubled borrowers. The Fund may incur legal fees as a result of such participation. In addition, such participation may restrict the Fund’s ability to trade in or acquire additional positions in a particular security when it might otherwise desire to do so. Participation by the Fund also may expose the Fund to potential liabilities under bankruptcy or other laws governing the rights of creditors and debtors. The Fund will participate in such committees only when the investment adviser believes that such participation is necessary or desirable to enforce the Fund’s rights as a creditor or to protect the value of a Senior Loan held by the Fund.|
|Calvert Responsible Index Funds||83||SAI dated February 1, 2021|
|In some instances, other accounts managed by the investment adviser may hold other securities issued by borrowers the Senior Loans of which may be held by the Fund. These other securities may include, for example, debt securities that are subordinate to the Senior Loans held by the Fund, convertible debt or common or preferred equity securities. In certain circumstances, such as if the credit quality of the borrower deteriorates, the interests of holders of these other securities may conflict with the interests of the holders of the borrower’s Senior Loans. In such cases, the investment adviser may owe conflicting fiduciary duties to the Fund and other client accounts. The investment adviser will endeavor to carry out its obligations to all of its clients to the fullest extent possible, recognizing that in some cases, certain clients may achieve a lower economic return, as a result of these conflicting client interests, than if the investment adviser’s client accounts collectively held only a single category of the issuer’s securities.|
|The Fund may acquire warrants and other equity securities as part of a unit combining a Senior Loan and equity securities of a borrower or its affiliates. The Fund may also acquire equity securities or debt securities (including non-dollar denominated debt securities) issued in exchange for a Senior Loan or issued in connection with the debt restructuring or reorganization of a borrower, or if such acquisition, in the judgment of the investment adviser, may enhance the value of a Senior Loan or would otherwise be consistent with the Fund’s investment policies.|
|The Fund will generally acquire participations only if the Loan Investor selling the participation, and any other persons interpositioned between the Fund and the Loan Investor (an “Interposed Person”), at the time of investment, has outstanding debt or deposit obligations rated investment grade (BBB or A-3 or higher by S&P or Baa or P- 3 or higher by Moody’s or comparably rated by another nationally recognized statistical ratings organization) or determined by the investment adviser to be of comparable quality.|
|For additional disclosure relating to investing in loans (including Senior Loans), see “Loans” above.|
|Short Sales||Short sales are transactions in which a party sells a security it does not own in anticipation of a decline in the market value of that security. To complete such a transaction, the party must borrow the security to make delivery to the buyer. When the party is required to return the borrowed security, it typically will purchase the security in the open market. The price at such time may be more or less than the price at which the party sold the security. Until the security is replaced, the party is required to repay the lender any dividends or interest, which accrues during the period of the loan. To borrow the security, it also may be required to pay a premium, which would increase the cost of the security sold. The net proceeds of the short sale will be retained by the broker, to the extent necessary to meet margin requirements, until the short position is closed out. Transaction costs are incurred in effecting short sales. A short seller will incur a loss as a result of a short sale if the price of the security increases between the date of the short sale and the date on which it replaces the borrowed security. A gain will be realized if the price of the security declines in price between those dates. The amount of any gain will be decreased, and the amount of any loss increased, by the amount of the premium, dividends or interest the short seller may be required to pay, if any, in connection with a short sale. Short sales may be “against the box” or uncovered. In a short sale “against the box,” at the time of the sale, the short seller owns or has the immediate and unconditional right to acquire the identical security at no additional cost. In an uncovered short sale, the short seller does not own the underlying security and, as such, losses from uncovered short sales may be significant. The Fund may sell short securities representing an index or basket of securities whose constituents the Fund holds in whole or in part. A short sale of an index or basket of securities will be a covered short sale if the underlying index or basket of securities is the same or substantially identical to securities held by the Fund. Use of short sales is limited by the Fund’s non-fundamental restriction relating thereto.|
|Calvert Responsible Index Funds||84||SAI dated February 1, 2021|
|Short-Term Trading||Fixed-income securities may be sold in anticipation of market decline (a rise in interest rates) or purchased in anticipation of a market rise (a decline in interest rates) and later sold. In addition, such a security may be sold and another purchased at approximately the same time to take advantage of what is believed to be a temporary disparity in the normal yield relationship between the two securities. Yield disparities may occur for reasons not directly related to the investment quality of particular issues or the general movement of interest rates, such as changes in the overall demand for or supply of various types of fixed-income securities or changes in the investment objectives of investors.|
|Significant Exposure to the Banking Industry||Because the Fund may invest a significant portion of its assets in the banking industry, the value of Fund shares may be affected by events that adversely affect that industry and may fluctuate more than that of a fund that invests more broadly. Companies in the banking industry are subject to extensive government regulation which may limit the products they can offer and the fees they can charge. Banks depend on the availability and cost of capital funds, and may be significantly affected by changes in interest rates. Companies in the banking industry are also subject to price competition and may be adversely impacted by the rate of corporate and consumer debt defaults.|
|Significant Exposure to Global Energy Solutions Companies||Sustainable energy solutions include, but are not limited to, renewable energy (such as solar, wind, geothermal, biofuel, hydrogen, biomass and other renewable energy sources that may be developed in the future), technologies that enable these sources to be tapped, and services or technologies that conserve or enable more efficient use of energy. Significant investments in sustainable energy solutions companies may present more risks than would be the case for a fund that invests more broadly in numerous industries and sectors of the economy. Sustainable energy solutions companies can be significantly affected by the supply of and demand for specific products and services, the supply and demand for relevant energy sources, the price of those sources, capital investment, government regulation, world events and economic conditions. Sustainable energy solutions companies also can be significantly affected by events relating to international political developments, energy conservation, commodity prices, and tax and government regulations. From time to time, the performance of securities of sustainable energy solutions companies will lag the performance of securities of companies in other sectors or the broader market as a whole.|
|Significant Exposure to Smaller Companies||The investment risk associated with smaller companies is higher than that normally associated with larger, more established companies due to the greater business risks associated with small size, the relative age of the company, limited product lines, distribution channels and financial and managerial resources. Further, there is typically less publicly available information concerning smaller companies than for larger companies. The securities of small companies are often traded only over-the-counter and may not be traded in the volumes typical of trading on a national securities exchange. As a result, stocks of smaller companies are often more volatile than those of larger companies, which are often traded on a national securities exchange, may be more difficult and may take longer to liquidate at fair value than would be the case for the publicly traded securities of a large company.|
|Significant Exposure to Technology Companies||Technology related companies include, among others, internet, software, hardware, semiconductor, and IT services companies. Significant investments in technology companies may present more risks than would be the case for a fund that invests more broadly in numerous industries and sectors of the economy. The value of securities of technology companies and companies that rely heavily on technology is particularly vulnerable to rapid changes in technology product cycles, rapid product obsolescence, government regulation and competition. Securities of technology companies and companies that rely heavily on technology, especially those of smaller, less-seasoned companies, tend to be more volatile than the overall market. Technology companies are heavily dependent on patent and intellectual property rights, the loss or impairment of which may adversely affect profitability. Additionally, companies in the technology sector may face dramatic and often unpredictable changes in growth rates and competition for the services of qualified personnel.|
|Calvert Responsible Index Funds||85||SAI dated February 1, 2021|
|Significant Exposure to Water Companies||Water companies include: water treatment, engineering, filtration, environmental controls, water-related equipment, water and wastewater services, and water utilities. Technologies, services and products that these companies may be involved in, can include, but are limited to: water distribution, water infrastructure and equipment, construction and engineering, environmental control and metering, and services or technologies that conserve or enable more efficient use of water. The Fund’s significant investment in water companies may present more risks than would be the case for a fund that invests more broadly in numerous industries and sectors of the economy. Water companies can be significantly affected by the supply of and demand for specific products and services, the supply and demand for relevant water sources, the price of those sources, capital investment, government regulation, world events and economic conditions. Water companies also can be significantly affected by events relating to international political developments, energy conservation, commodity prices, and tax and government regulations. From time to time, the performance of securities of water companies will lag the performance of securities of companies in other sectors or the broader market as a whole.|
|Special Equities Investments||
Special Equities investments allow a Fund to promote responsible investment goals through privately placed investments. The Fund is generally not expected to make additional investments in Special Equities Investments. As stated in the Prospectus, the Board of the Fund or a committee thereof selected Special Equities investments for each Calvert fund that currently holds Special Equities investments and makes decisions related thereto.
Special Equities investments, while comprising a small percentage of any participating Fund’s assets, involve relatively high risks. These include foreign securities, below-investment grade debt securities, emerging market securities, real estate investment trusts, small-cap issuers, limited partnerships, and securities with equity and debt characteristics, among others. Special Equities investments may also include unsecured debt which does not have the benefits of a secured creditor in the event of bankruptcy. A Special Equities investment may lose its entire value if the business enterprise does not succeed. Because of their illiquid nature and contractual transfer restrictions, Special Equities investments may not be easily sold or transferred. Special Equities investments are fair valued pursuant to valuation procedures adopted by the Fund’s Board and implemented by the Adviser.
|Stripped Securities||Stripped Securities (“Strips”) may be issued by the U.S. Government, its agencies or instrumentalities, and may also be issued by private originators or investors, including depository institutions, banks, investment banks and special purpose subsidiaries of these entities. Strips are usually structured with classes that receive different proportions of the interest and principal distributions from an underlying asset or pool of underlying assets. Strips are particularly sensitive to changes in interest rates, which may impact the frequency of principal payments (including prepayments) on the underlying assets or pool of underlying assets. Some structures may have a class that receives only interest from the underlying assets, an interest-only (“IO”) class, while another class may receive only principal, a principal-only (“PO”) class. IO and PO Strips may be purchased for their return and/or hedging characteristics. Because of their structure, IO Strips may move differently than typical fixed-income securities in relation to changes in interest rates. IO Strips tend to decrease in value if prepayments are greater than anticipated and increase in value if prepayments are less than anticipated. Conversely, PO Strips tend to increase in value if prepayments are greater than anticipated and decline if prepayments are less than anticipated. While the U.S. Government or its agencies or instrumentalities may guarantee the full repayment of principal on Strips they issue, repayment of interest is guaranteed only while the underlying assets or pools of assets are outstanding. To the extent the Fund invests in Strips, rapid changes in the rate of prepayments may have an adverse effect on the Fund’s performance. In addition, the secondary market for Strips may be less liquid than that for other securities. Certain Strips may also present certain operational and/or valuation risks.|
|Calvert Responsible Index Funds||86||SAI dated February 1, 2021|
|Structured Notes||See also “Derivative Instruments and Related Risks” herein. Structured notes are derivative debt instruments, the interest rate or principal of which is determined by an unrelated indicator (for example, a currency, security, commodity or index thereof). The terms of the instrument may be “structured” by the purchaser and the borrower issuing the note. Indexed securities may include structured notes as well as securities other than debt securities, the interest rate or principal of which is determined by an unrelated indicator. Indexed securities may include a multiplier that multiplies the indexed element by a specified factor and, therefore, the value of such securities may be very volatile. The terms of structured notes and indexed securities may provide that in certain circumstances no principal is due at maturity, which may result in a loss of invested capital. Structured notes and indexed securities may be positively or negatively indexed, so that appreciation of the unrelated indicator may produce an increase or a decrease in the interest rate or the value of the structured note or indexed security at maturity may be calculated as a specified multiple of the change in the value of the unrelated indicator. Structured notes and indexed securities may entail a greater degree of market risk than other types of investments because the investor bears the risk of the unrelated indicator. Structured notes or indexed securities also may be more volatile, less liquid, and more difficult to accurately price than less complex securities and instruments or more traditional debt securities.|
|Swap Agreements||See also “Derivative Instruments and Related Risks” herein. Swap agreements are two-party contracts entered into primarily by institutional investors for periods ranging from a few weeks to more than one year. In a standard “swap” transaction, two parties agree to exchange the returns (or differentials in rates of return) earned or realized on a particular predetermined reference instrument or instruments, which can be adjusted for an interest rate factor. The gross returns to be exchanged or “swapped” between the parties are generally calculated with respect to a “notional amount” (i.e., the return on or increase in value of a particular dollar amount invested at a particular interest rate or in a “basket” of securities representing a particular index). Other types of swap agreements may calculate the obligations of the parties to the agreement on a “net basis.” Consequently, a party’s current obligations (or rights) under a swap agreement will generally be equal only to the net amount to be paid or received under the agreement based on the relative values of the positions held by each party to the agreement (the “net amount”).|
|Whether the use of swap agreements will be successful will depend on the investment adviser's ability to predict correctly whether certain types of reference instruments are likely to produce greater returns than other instruments. Swap agreements may be subject to contractual restrictions on transferability and termination and they may have terms of greater than seven days. The Fund’s obligations under a swap agreement will be accrued daily (offset against any amounts owed to the Fund under the swap). Developments in the swaps market, including government regulation, could adversely affect the Fund’s ability to terminate existing swap agreements or to realize amounts to be received under such agreements, as well as to participate in swap agreements in the future. If there is a default by the counterparty to a swap, the Fund will have contractual remedies pursuant to the swap agreement, but any recovery may be delayed depending on the circumstances of the default. To limit the counterparty risk involved in swap agreements, the Fund will only enter into swap agreements with counterparties that meet certain criteria. Although there can be no assurance that the Fund will be able to do so, the Fund may be able to reduce or eliminate its exposure under a swap agreement either by assignment or other disposition, or by entering into an offsetting swap agreement with the same party or another creditworthy party. The Fund may have limited ability to eliminate its exposure under a credit default swap if the credit of the reference instrument has declined.|
|Calvert Responsible Index Funds||87||SAI dated February 1, 2021|
|The swaps market was largely unregulated prior to the enactment of the Dodd-Frank Act, which was enacted in 2010 in response to turmoil in the financial markets and other market events. Among other things, the Dodd-Frank Act sets forth a new regulatory framework for certain OTC derivatives, such as swaps, in which the Fund may invest. The Dodd-Frank Act requires many swap transactions to be executed on registered exchanges or through swap execution facilities, cleared through a regulated clearinghouse, and publicly reported. In addition, many market participants are now regulated as swap dealers or major swap participants, and are, or will be, subject to certain minimum capital and margin requirements and business conduct standards. The statutory requirements of the Dodd-Frank Act are being implemented primarily through rules and regulations adopted by the SEC and/or the CFTC. There is a prescribed phase-in period during which most of the mandated rulemaking and regulations are being implemented, and temporary exemptions from certain rules and regulations have been granted so that current trading practices will not be unduly disrupted during the transition period.|
|Currently, central clearing is only required for certain market participants trading certain instruments, although central clearing for additional instruments is expected to be implemented by the CFTC until the majority of the swaps market is ultimately subject to central clearing. In addition, uncleared OTC swaps are subject to regulatory collateral requirements that may adversely affect the Fund’s ability to enter into swaps in the OTC market. These developments may cause the Fund to terminate new or existing swap agreements or to realize amounts to be received under such instruments at an inopportune time. Until the mandated rulemaking and regulations are implemented completely, it will not be possible to determine the complete impact of the Dodd-Frank Act and related regulations on the Fund, and the establishment of a centralized exchange or market for swap transactions may not result in swaps being easier to value or trade. However, it is expected that swap dealers, major market participants, and swap counterparties will experience other new and/or additional regulations, requirements, compliance burdens, and associated costs. The Dodd-Frank Act and rules promulgated thereunder may exert a negative effect on the Fund’s ability to meet its investment objective, either through limits or requirements imposed on the Fund or its counterparties. The swap market could be disrupted or limited as a result of this legislation, and the new requirements may increase the cost of the Fund’s investments and of doing business, which could adversely affect the ability of the Fund to buy or sell OTC derivatives.|
|Regulatory bodies outside the U.S. have also passed, proposed, or may propose in the future, legislation similar to Dodd-Frank Act or other legislation that could increase the costs of participating in, or otherwise adversely impact the liquidity of, participating in the commodities markets. Global prudential regulators issued final rules that will require banks subject to their supervision to exchange variation and initial margin in respect of their obligations arising under uncleared swap agreements. The CFTC adopted similar rules that apply to CFTC-registered swap dealers and major swap participants that are not banks. Such rules generally require a Fund to segregate additional assets in order to meet the new variation and initial margin requirements when they enter into uncleared swap agreements. The variation margin requirements became effective in 2017 and the initial margin requirements are being phased-in based on average daily aggregate notional amount of covered swaps between swap dealers, swap entities and major swap participants. In addition, regulations adopted by global prudential regulators that are now in effect require certain prudentially regulated entities and certain of their affiliates and subsidiaries (including swap dealers) to include in their derivatives contracts, terms that delay or restrict the rights of counterparties (such as the Fund) to terminate such contracts, foreclose upon collateral, exercise other default rights or restrict transfers of credit support in the event that the prudentially regulated entity and/or its affiliates are subject to certain types of resolution or insolvency proceedings. Similar regulations and laws have been adopted in non-U.S. jurisdictions that may apply to the Fund’s counterparties located in those jurisdictions. It is possible that these requirements, as well as potential additional related government regulation, could adversely affect the Fund’s ability to terminate existing derivatives contracts, exercise default rights or satisfy obligations owed to it with collateral received under such contracts.|
|Swap agreements include (but are not limited to):|
|Calvert Responsible Index Funds||88||SAI dated February 1, 2021|
|Currency Swaps. Currency swaps involve the exchange of the rights of the parties to make or receive payments in specified currencies. Because currency swaps usually involve the delivery of the entire principal value of one designated currency in exchange for the other designated currency, the entire principal value of a currency swap is subject to the risk that the other party to the swap will default on its contractual delivery obligations. If the investment adviser is incorrect in its forecasts of market value and currency exchange rates, performance may be adversely affected.|
|Equity Swaps. An equity swap is an agreement in which at least one party’s payments are based on the rate of return of an equity security or equity index, such as the S&P 500®. The other party’s payments can be based on a fixed rate, a non-equity variable rate, or even a different equity index. The Fund may enter into equity index swaps on a net basis pursuant to which the future cash flows from two reference instruments are netted out, with the Fund receiving or paying, as the case may be, only the net amount of the two.|
|Credit Default Swaps. Under a credit default swap agreement, the protection “buyer” in a credit default contract is generally obligated to pay the protection “seller” an upfront or a periodic stream of payments over the term of the contract, provided that no credit event, such as a default, on a reference instrument has occurred. If a credit event occurs, the seller generally must pay the buyer the “par value” (full notional value) of the reference instrument in exchange for an equal face amount of the reference instrument described in the swap, or the seller may be required to deliver the related net cash amount, if the swap is cash settled. If the Fund is a buyer and no credit event occurs, the Fund may recover nothing if the swap is held through its termination date. As a seller, the Fund generally receives an upfront payment or a fixed rate of income throughout the term of the swap provided that there is no credit event. As the seller, the Fund would effectively add leverage to its portfolio because, in addition to its total net assets, the Fund would be subject to investment exposure on the notional amount of the swap. The determination of a credit event under the swap agreement will depend on the terms of the agreement and may rely on the decision of persons that are not a party to the agreement. The Fund’s obligations under a credit default swap agreement will be accrued daily (offset against any amounts owed to the Fund).|
|Inflation Swaps. Inflation swaps involve the exchange by the Fund with another party of their respective commitments to pay or receive interest, e.g., an exchange of fixed rate payments for floating rate payments or an exchange of floating rate payments based on two different reference indices. By design, one of the reference indices is an inflation index, such as the Consumer Price Index. Inflation swaps can be designated as zero coupon, where both sides of the swap compound interest over the life of the swap and then the accrued interest is paid out only at the swap’s maturity.|
|Total Return Swaps. Total return swap agreements are contracts in which one party agrees to make periodic payments to another party based on the change in market value of the assets underlying the contract, which may include a specified security, basket of securities or securities indices during the specified period, in return for periodic payments based on a fixed or variable interest rate or the total return from other underlying assets. Total return swap agreements may be used to obtain exposure to a security or market without owning or taking physical custody of such security or investing directly in such market. Total return swap agreements may effectively add leverage to the Fund’s portfolio because, in addition to its total net assets, the Fund would be subject to investment exposure on the notional amount of the swap. Generally, the Fund will enter into total return swaps on a net basis (i.e., the two payment streams are netted out, with the Fund receiving or paying, as the case may be, only the net amount of the two payments). The net amount of the excess, if any, of the Fund’s obligations over its entitlements with respect to each total return swap will be accrued on a daily basis. If the total return swap transaction is entered into on other than a net basis, the full amount of the Fund’s obligations will be accrued on a daily basis, and the full amount of the Fund’s obligations will be segregated by the Fund in an amount equal to or greater than the market value of the liabilities under the total return swap or the amount it would have cost the Fund initially to make an equivalent direct investment, plus or minus any amount the Fund is obligated to pay or is to receive under the total return swap agreement.|
|Calvert Responsible Index Funds||89||SAI dated February 1, 2021|
|Interest Rate Swaps, Caps and Floors. Interest rate swaps are OTC contracts in which each party agrees to make a periodic interest payment based on an index or the value of an asset in return for a periodic payment from the other party based on a different index or asset. The purchase of an interest rate floor entitles the purchaser, to the extent that a specified index falls below a predetermined interest rate, to receive payments of interest on a notional principal amount from the party selling such interest rate floor. The purchase of an interest rate cap entitles the purchaser, to the extent that a specified index rises above a predetermined interest rate, to receive payments of interest on a notional principal amount from the party selling such interest rate cap. The Fund usually will enter into interest rate swap transactions on a net basis (i.e., the two payment streams are netted out, with the Fund receiving or paying, as the case may be, only the net amount of the two payments). The net amount of the excess, if any, of the Fund’s obligations over its entitlements with respect to each interest rate swap will be accrued on a daily basis. If the interest rate swap transaction is entered into on other than a net basis, the full amount of the Fund’s obligations will be accrued on a daily basis. Certain federal income tax requirements may limit the Fund’s ability to engage in certain interest rate transactions.|
|Commodity Index-Linked Swaps. Commodity index-linked swap agreements involve the exchange by the Fund with another party of payments dependent upon the price of the underlying commodity index. Commodity index-linked swaps may be used to obtain exposure to a particular commodity or commodity index without owning or taking physical custody of such commodity.|
|Swaptions||See also “Derivative Instruments and Related Risks” herein. A swaption is a contract that gives a counterparty the right (but not the obligation) in return for payment of a premium, to enter into a new swap agreement or to shorten, extend, cancel or otherwise modify an existing swap agreement, at some designated future time on specified terms. The Fund may write (sell) and purchase put and call swaptions. Depending on the terms of the particular option agreement, the Fund will generally incur a greater degree of risk when it writes a swaption than it will incur when it purchases a swaption. When the Fund purchases a swaption, it risks losing only the amount of the premium it has paid should it decide to let the option expire unexercised. However, when the Fund writes a swaption, upon exercise of the option the Fund will become obligated according to the terms of the underlying agreement.|
|Trust Certificates||Trust certificates are investments in a limited purpose trust or other vehicle formed under state law. Trust certificates in turn invest in instruments, such as credit default swaps, interest rate swaps, preferred securities and other securities, in order to customize the risk/return profile of a particular security. Like an investment in a bond, investments in trust certificates represent the right to receive periodic income payments (in the form of distributions) and payment of principal at the end of the term of the certificate. However, these payments are conditioned on the trust’s receipt of payments from, and the trust’s potential obligations to, the counterparties to the derivative instruments and other securities in which the trust invests. Investments in these instruments are indirectly subject to the risks associated with derivative instruments, including, among others, credit risk, default or similar event risk, counterparty risk, interest rate risk, leverage risk and management risk. It is expected that the trusts that issue credit-linked trust certificates will constitute “private” investment companies, exempt from registration under the 1940 Act. Although the trusts are typically private investment companies, they are generally not actively managed. It is also expected that the certificates will be exempt from registration under the 1933 Act. Accordingly, there may be no established trading market for the certificates and they may constitute illiquid investments.|
|Calvert Responsible Index Funds||90||SAI dated February 1, 2021|
|U.S. Government Securities||U.S. Government securities include: (1) U.S. Treasury obligations, which differ in their interest rates, maturities and times of issuance, including: U.S. Treasury bills (maturities of one year or less); U.S. Treasury notes (maturities of one year to ten years); and U.S. Treasury bonds (generally maturities of greater than ten years); and (2) obligations issued or guaranteed by U.S. Government agencies and instrumentalities, which are supported by any of the following: (a) the full faith and credit of the U.S. Treasury; (b) the right of the issuer to borrow an amount limited to a specific line of credit from the U.S. Treasury; (c) discretionary authority of the U.S. Government to purchase certain obligations of the U.S. Government agency or instrumentality; or (d) the credit of the agency or instrumentality. U.S. Government securities also include any other security or agreement collateralized or otherwise secured by U.S. Government securities. Agencies and instrumentalities of the U.S. Government include but are not limited to: Farmers Home Administration, Export-Import Bank of the United States, Federal Housing Administration, Federal Land Banks, Federal Financing Bank, Central Bank for Cooperatives, Federal Intermediate Credit Banks, Farm Credit Bank System, Federal Home Loan Banks, Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation, Federal National Mortgage Association, General Services Administration, Government National Mortgage Association, Student Loan Marketing Association, United States Postal Service, Maritime Administration, Small Business Administration, Tennessee Valley Authority, Washington D.C. Armory Board and any other enterprise established or sponsored by the U.S. Government. The U.S. Government generally is not obligated to provide support to its instrumentalities. The principal of and/or interest on certain U.S. Government securities could be: (a) payable in foreign currencies rather than U.S. dollars; or (b) increased or diminished as a result of changes in the value of the U.S. dollar relative to the value of foreign currencies. The value of such portfolio securities denominated in foreign currencies may be affected favorably by changes in the exchange rate between foreign currencies and the U.S. dollar.|
|Unlisted Securities||Unlisted securities are neither listed on a stock exchange nor traded over-the-counter. Unlisted securities may include investments in new and early stage companies, which may involve a high degree of business and financial risk that can result in substantial losses and may be considered speculative. Such securities may be deemed to be illiquid. Because of the absence of any public trading market for these investments, it may take longer to liquidate these positions than would be the case for publicly traded securities. Although these securities may be resold in privately negotiated transactions, the prices realized from these sales could be less than those originally paid or less than what may be considered the fair value of such securities. Furthermore, issuers whose securities are not publicly traded may not be subject to public disclosure and other investor protection requirements applicable to publicly traded securities. If such securities are required to be registered under the securities laws of one or more jurisdictions before being resold, the Fund may be required to bear the expenses of registration. In addition, in foreign jurisdictions any capital gains realized on the sale of such securities may be subject to higher rates of foreign taxation than taxes payable on the sale of listed securities.|
|Variable Rate Instruments||Variable rate instruments provide for adjustments in the interest or dividend rate payable on the instrument at specified intervals (daily, weekly, monthly, semiannually, etc.) based on market conditions, credit ratings or interest rates and the investor may have the right to “put” the security back to the issuer or its agent. Variable rate instruments normally provide that the holder can demand payment of the instrument on short notice at par with accrued interest. These instruments may be secured by letters of credit or other support arrangements provided by banks. To the extent that such letters of credit or other arrangements constitute an unconditional guarantee of the issuer’s obligations, a bank may be treated as the issuer of a security for the purposes of complying with the diversification requirements set forth in Section 5(b) of the 1940 Act and Rule 5b-2 thereunder. The Fund may use these instruments as cash equivalents pending longer term investment of its funds. The rate adjustment features may limit the extent to which the market value of the instruments will fluctuate.|
|Calvert Responsible Index Funds||91||SAI dated February 1, 2021|
|Venture Capital Limited Partnerships||A Fund may invest in venture capital limited partnerships (“limited partnerships”), through the Special Equities program, to the extent disclosed in the Prospectus. Investments in limited partnerships pose special investment risks. A limited partnership is generally taxed as a pass-through entity; i.e., the income and expenses of the partnership are not taxed at the partnership level but are passed-through to its limited partners, such as the Fund, who include their allocated share of the partnership’s income and expenses in their own calculations of income and expense. The investment in limited partnerships may potentially cause non-compliance by the Fund with certain tax laws and regulations and subject the Funds to penalties under the tax laws, including possible loss of their qualification as a RIC under Subchapter M of the Code. The term of a limited partnership is generally 10 years or more. Limited partnership units are illiquid and subject to contractual transfer restrictions, thus a Fund will generally not be able to sell an investment in a limited partnership but will be required to hold it for the entire term of the partnership. As a limited partner, a Fund generally is not permitted to participate in the management of the partnership. A Fund’s liability generally is limited to the amount of its commitment to the partnership. When a Fund makes an investment in a limited partnership, it signs a subscription agreement committing it to a certain investment amount; this amount is generally not paid all at once, but rather drawn down over time by the partnership’s general partner as investment opportunities present themselves. As a result, a Fund must set aside sufficient assets to be able to fund any future capital calls. Limited partnerships have relatively concentrated holdings; as a consequence, the return on a partnership may be adversely impacted by the poor performance of a small number of investments, especially if the partnership needs to mark down the valuation of one or more of its holdings.|
|When-Issued Securities, Delayed Delivery and Forward Commitments||Securities may be purchased on a “forward commitment,” “when-issued” or “delayed delivery” basis (meaning securities are purchased or sold with payment and delivery taking place in the future beyond normal settlement times) in order to secure what is considered to be an advantageous price and yield at the time of entering into the transaction. When the Fund agrees to purchase such securities, it assumes the risk of any decline in value of the security from the date of the agreement to purchase. The Fund does not earn interest on the securities it has committed to purchase until they are paid for and delivered on the settlement date.|
|From the time of entering into the transaction until delivery and payment is made at a later date, the securities that are the subject of the transaction are subject to market fluctuations. In forward commitment, when-issued or delayed delivery transactions, if the seller or buyer, as the case may be, fails to consummate the transaction, the counterparty may miss the opportunity of obtaining a price or yield considered to be advantageous. However, no payment or delivery is made until payment is received or delivery is made from the other party to the transaction.|
|Zero Coupon Bonds, Deep Discount Bonds and Payment-In-Kind (“PIK”) Securities||Zero coupon bonds are debt obligations that do not require the periodic payment of interest and are issued at a significant discount from face value. The discount approximates the total amount of interest the bonds will accrue and compound over the period until maturity at a rate of interest reflecting the market rate of the security at the time of purchase. The effect of owning debt obligations that do not make current interest payments is that a fixed yield is earned not only on the original investment but also, in effect, on all discount accretion during the life of the debt obligation. This implicit reinvestment of earnings at a fixed rate eliminates the risk of being unable to invest distributions at a rate as high as the implicit yield on the zero coupon bond, but at the same time eliminates the holder’s ability to reinvest at higher rates in the future. The Fund is required to accrue income from zero coupon bonds on a current basis, even though it does not receive that income currently in cash, and the Fund is required to distribute that income for each taxable year. Thus, the Fund may have to sell other investments to obtain cash needed to make income distributions.|
|Calvert Responsible Index Funds||92||SAI dated February 1, 2021|
|Bonds and preferred stocks that make “in-kind” payments and other securities that do not pay regular income distributions may experience greater volatility in response to interest rate changes and issuer developments. PIK securities generally carry higher interest rates compared to bonds that make cash payments of interest to reflect their payment deferral and increased credit risk. PIK securities generally involve significantly greater credit risk than coupon loans because the Fund receives no cash payments until the maturity date or a specified cash payment date. Even if accounting conditions are met for accruing income payable at a future date under a PIK bond, the issuer could still default when the collection date occurs at the maturity of or payment date for the PIK bond. PIK bonds may be difficult to value accurately because they involve ongoing judgments as to the collectability of the deferred payments and the value of any associated collateral. If the issuer of a PIK security defaults, the Fund may lose its entire investment. PIK interest has the effect of generating investment income and increasing the incentive fees, if any, payable at a compounding rate. Generally, the deferral of PIK interest increases the loan to value ratio.|
|Calvert Responsible Index Funds||93||SAI dated February 1, 2021|
Class A Fees and Ownership
Sales Charges and Distribution and Service Fees. For fiscal year ended September 30, 2020, the following table shows (1) total sales charges paid by Class A, (2) sales charges paid to financial intermediaries, (3) sales charges paid to the principal underwriter, (4) approximate CDSC payments to the principal underwriter, (5) total distribution and service fees paid by Class A, and (6) distribution and service fees paid to financial intermediaries. Distribution and service fees that were not paid to financial intermediaries were retained by the principal underwriter.
Service Fees Paid to
|International Responsible Index Fund||$10,989||$5,970||$5,019||$0||$105,452||$87,428|
|US Large-Cap Core Responsible Index Fund||$168,916||$65,874||$103,042||$0*||$895,391||$783,406|
|US Large-Cap Growth Responsible Index Fund||$35,373||$18,508||$16,865||$0*||$53,087||$44,979|
|US Large-Cap Value Responsible Index Fund||$38,130||$17,983||$20,147||$0*||$129,403||$87,817|
|US Mid-Cap Core Responsible Index Fund||$15,473||$9,021||$6,452||$0||$32,725||$26,696|
|* Less than $100|
For the fiscal years ended September 30, 2019 and September 30, 2018, the following total sales charges were paid on sales of Class A, of which the principal underwriter received the following amounts. The balance of such amounts was paid to financial intermediaries.
Sales Charges to
Sales Charges to
|International Responsible Index Fund||$10,443||$4,459||$15,585||$5,879|
|US Large-Cap Core Responsible Index Fund||$189,627||$119,604||$153,574||$91,551|
|US Large-Cap Growth Responsible Index Fund||$29,038||$12,356||$21,416||$9,157|
|US Large-Cap Value Responsible Index Fund||$28,882||$20,275||$21,780||$11,550|
|US Mid-Cap Core Responsible Index Fund||$15,348||$5,935||$16,744||$5,529|
|Calvert Responsible Index Funds||94||SAI dated February 1, 2021|
Control Persons and Principal Holders of Securities. At January 1, 2021, the Directors and officers of the Corporation, as a group, owned in the aggregate less than 1% of the outstanding shares of this Class of each Fund. In addition, as of the same date, the following person(s) held the share percentage indicated below, which was owned either (i) beneficially by such person(s) or (ii) of record by such person(s) on behalf of customers who are the beneficial owners of such shares and as to which such record owner(s) may exercise voting rights under certain limited circumstances:
|International Responsible Index Fund||Charles Schwab & Co., Inc.||San Francisco, CA||38.80%|
|Pershing, LLC||Jersey City, NJ||7.65%|
|US Large-Cap Core Responsible Index Fund||Edward D. Jones & Co.||St. Louis, MO||11.76%|
|Charles Schwab & Co., Inc.||San Francisco, CA||7.68%|
|Pershing, LLC||Jersey City, NJ||6.69%|
|US Large-Cap Growth Responsible Index Fund||Charles Schwab & Co., Inc.||San Francisco, CA||16.97%|
|Edward D. Jones & Co.||St. Louis, MO||16.74%|
|Pershing, LLC||Jersey City, NJ||11.42%|
|Raymond James||St. Petersburg, FL||7.46%|
|LPL Financial||San Diego, CA||5.83%|
|US Large-Cap Value Responsible Index Fund||Charles Schwab & Co., Inc.||San Francisco, CA||40.40%|
|Edward D. Jones & Co.||St. Louis, MO||25.63%|
|US Mid-Cap Core Responsible Index Fund||Charles Schwab & Co., Inc.||San Francisco, CA||17.43%|
|Pershing, LLC||Jersey City, NJ||10.27%|
Beneficial owners of 25% or more of this Class are presumed to be in control of this Class of a Fund for purposes of voting on certain matters submitted to shareholders.
To the knowledge of the Corporation, no other person owned of record or beneficially 5% or more of the outstanding shares of this Class of each Fund as of such date.
|Calvert Responsible Index Funds||95||SAI dated February 1, 2021|
Class C Fees and Ownership
Distribution and Service Fees. For fiscal year ended September 30, 2020, the following table shows (1) distribution fees paid to the principal underwriter under the Distribution Plan, (2) distribution fees paid by the principal underwriter to financial intermediaries on sales of Class C shares, (3) approximate CDSC payments to the principal underwriter, (4) service fees paid under the Distribution Plan, and (5) service fees paid to financial intermediaries. The distribution fees and service fees paid by the Funds that were not paid to financial intermediaries were retained by the principal underwriter.
Fees Paid by
Principal Underwriter to
to Principal Underwriter
Fees Paid to |
|US Large-Cap Core Responsible Index Fund||$447,660||$378,771||$6,701||$149,220||$127,025|
Control Persons and Principal Holders of Securities. At January 1, 2021, the Directors and officers of the Corporation, as a group, owned in the aggregate less than 1% of the outstanding shares of this Class of each Fund. In addition, as of the same date, the following person(s) held the share percentage indicated below, which was owned either (i) beneficially by such person(s) or (ii) of record by such person(s) on behalf of customers who are the beneficial owners of such shares and as to which such record owner(s) may exercise voting rights under certain limited circumstances:
|US Large-Cap Core Responsible Index Fund||Wells Fargo Clearing Services LLC||St. Louis, MO||14.40%|
|Pershing LLC||Jersey City, NJ||10.05%|
|American Enterprise Investment Services||Minneapolis, MN||9.25%|
|Morgan Stanley Smith Barney LLC||New York, NY||9.04%|
|Charles Schwab & Co. Inc.||San Francisco, CA||8.24%|
|Raymond James||St. Petersburg, FL||6.92%|
|LPL Financial||San Diego, CA||6.74%|
To the knowledge of the Corporation, no other person owned of record or beneficially 5% or more of the outstanding shares of this Class of each Fund as of such date.
|Calvert Responsible Index Funds||96||SAI dated February 1, 2021|
Class I Ownership
Control Persons and Principal Holders of Securities. At January 1, 2021, the Directors and officers of the Corporation, as a group, owned in the aggregate less than 1% of the outstanding shares of this Class of each Fund. In addition, as of the same date, the following person(s) held the share percentage indicated below, which was owned either (i) beneficially by such person(s) or (ii) of record by such person(s) on behalf of customers who are the beneficial owners of such shares and as to which such record owner(s) may exercise voting rights under certain limited circumstances:
|International Responsible Index Fund||National Financial Services Corp.||Jersey City, NJ||42.28%|
|TD Ameritrade Inc.||Omaha, NE||16.05%|
|Charles Schwab & Co., Inc.||San Francisco, CA||15.73%|
|Winston Foundation||New York, NY||5.89%|
|Pershing LLC||Jersey City, NJ||5.51%|
|US Large-Cap Core Responsible Index Fund||National Financial Services Corp.||Jersey City, NJ||24.53%|
|Pershing LLC||Jersey City, NJ||21.75%|
|Charles Schwab & Co., Inc.||San Francisco, CA||12.28%|
|American Enterprise Investment Services||Minneapolis, MN||5.57%|
|US Large-Cap Growth Responsible Index Fund||National Financial Services Corp.||Jersey City, NJ||25.61%|
|Calvert Moderate Allocation Fund||Boston, MA||13.31%|
|Charles Schwab & Co., Inc.||San Francisco, CA||10.23%|
|Calvert Aggressive Allocation Fund||Boston, MA||10.14%|
|LPL Financial||San Diego, CA||8.24%|
|Pershing LLC||Jersey City, NJ||8.01%|
|Calvert Conservative Allocation Fund||Boston, MA||6.71%|
|TD Ameritrade Inc.||Omaha, NE||5.84%|
|US Large-Cap Value Responsible Index Fund||Merrill Lynch, Pierce, Fenner & Smith||Jacksonville, FL||25.89%|
|National Financial Services Corp.||Jersey City, NJ||17.84%|
|American Enterprise Investment Services||Minneapolis, MN||17.18%|
|Charles Schwab & Co., Inc.||San Francisco, CA||6.05%|
|Calvert Moderate Allocation Fund||Boston, MA||5.57%|
|UBS WM USA||Weehawken, NJ||5.18%|
|Calvert Responsible Index Funds||97||SAI dated February 1, 2021|
|US Mid-Cap Core Responsible Index Fund||National Financial Services Corp.||Jersey City, NJ||20.96%|
|Charles Schwab & Co., Inc.||San Francisco, CA||14.63%|
|Pershing LLC||Jersey City, NJ||8.43%|
|Band & Co.||Milwaukee, WI||7.72%|
|TD Ameritrade Inc.||Omaha, NE||7.38%|
|Calvert Moderate Allocation Fund||Boston, MA||6.46%|
|LPL Financial||San Diego, CA||6.43%|
|Calvert Aggressive Allocation Fund||Boston, MA||5.76%|
Beneficial owners of 25% or more of this Class are presumed to be in control of this Class of a Fund for purposes of voting on certain matters submitted to shareholders.
To the knowledge of the Corporation, no other person owned of record or beneficially 5% or more of the outstanding shares of this Class of each Fund as of such date.
|Calvert Responsible Index Funds||98||SAI dated February 1, 2021|
Class R6 Ownership
|International Responsible Index Fund||Calvert Moderate Allocation Fund||Boston, MA||32.46%|
|Calvert Aggressive Allocation Fund||Boston, MA||30.48%|
|Calvert Conservative Allocation Fund||Boston, MA||14.52%|
|Nabank & Co.||Tulsa, OK||11.38%|
|US Large-Cap Core Responsible Index Fund||National Financial Services Corp.||Jersey City, NJ||45.86%|
|SEI Private Trust Company||Oaks, OA||13.15%|
|Great-West Trust Company LLC||Greenwood Village, CO||11.30%|
|Calvert Moderate Allocation Fund||Boston, MA||7.12%|
|Calvert Aggressive Allocation Fund||Boston, MA||5.67%|
|T Rowe Price Retirement Plan||Owings Mills, MD||5.19%|
Beneficial owners of 25% or more of this Class are presumed to be in control of this Class of a Fund for purposes of voting on certain matters submitted to shareholders.
|Calvert Responsible Index Funds||99||SAI dated February 1, 2021|
The ratings indicated herein are believed to be the most recent ratings available at the date of this SAI for the securities listed. Ratings are generally given to securities at the time of issuance. While the rating agencies may from time to time revise such ratings, they undertake no obligation to do so, and the ratings indicated do not necessarily represent ratings which would be given to these securities on a particular date.
MOODY’S INVESTORS SERVICE, INC. (“Moody’s”)
Ratings assigned on Moody’s global long-term and short-term rating scales are forward-looking opinions of the relative credit risks of financial obligations issued by non-financial corporates, financial institutions, structured finance vehicles, project finance vehicles, and public sector entities. Long-term ratings are assigned to issuers or obligations with an original maturity of one year or more and reflect both the likelihood of a default or impairment on contractual financial obligations and the expected financial loss suffered in the event of default or impairment. Short-term ratings are assigned to obligations with an original maturity of thirteen months or less and reflect the likelihood of a default or impairment on contractual financial obligations and the expected financial loss suffered in the event of a default or impairment.
GLOBAL LONG-TERM RATINGS SCALE
Aaa: Obligations rated Aaa are judged to be of the highest quality, subject to the lowest level of credit risk.
Aa: Obligations rated Aa are judged to be of high quality and are subject to very low credit risk.
A: Obligations rated A are considered upper-medium grade and are subject to low credit risk.
Baa: Obligations rated Baa are judged to be medium-grade and subject to moderate credit risk and as such may possess certain speculative characteristics
Ba: Obligations rated Ba are judged to be speculative and are subject to substantial credit risk.
B: Obligations rated B are considered speculative and are subject to high credit risk.
Caa: Obligations rated Caa are judged to be speculative of poor standing and are subject to very high credit risk.
Ca: Obligations rated Ca are highly speculative and are likely in, or very near, default, with some prospect of recovery of principal and interest.
C: Obligations rated C are the lowest rated and are typically in default, with little prospect for recovery of principal or interest.
Note: Moody’s appends numerical modifiers, 1, 2, and 3 to each generic rating classification from Aa through Caa. The modifier 1 indicates that the obligation ranks in the higher end of its generic rating category; the modifier 2 indicates a mid-range ranking; and the modifier 3 indicates a ranking in the lower end of that generic rating category.
GLOBAL SHORT-TERM RATING SCALE
Moody’s short-term ratings are opinions of the ability of issuers to honor short-term financial obligations. Ratings may be assigned to issuers, short-term programs or to individual short-term debt instruments. Such obligations generally have an original maturity not exceeding thirteen months, unless explicitly noted.
P-1: Issuers (or supporting institutions) rated Prime-1 have a superior ability to repay short-term debt obligations.
P-2: Issuers (or supporting institutions) rated Prime-2 have a strong ability to repay short-term debt obligations.
P-3: Issuers (or supporting institutions) rated Prime-3 have an acceptable ability to repay short-term obligations.
NP: Issuers (or supporting institutions) rated Not Prime do not fall within any of the Prime ratings categories.
|Calvert Responsible Index Funds||100||SAI dated February 1, 2021|
Issuer Ratings are opinions of the ability of entities to honor senior unsecured debt and debt like obligations. As such, Issuer Ratings incorporate any external support that is expected to apply to all current and future issuance of senior unsecured financial obligations and contracts, such as explicit support stemming from a guarantee of all senior unsecured financial obligations and contracts, and/or implicit support for issuers subject to joint default analysis (e.g. banks and government-related issuers). Issuer Ratings do not incorporate support arrangements, such as guarantees, that apply only to specific (but not to all) senior unsecured financial obligations and contracts.
US MUNICIPAL SHORT-TERM OBLIGATION RATINGS AND DEMAND OBLIGATION RATINGS
SHORT-TERM OBLIGATION RATINGS
The global short-term ‘prime’ rating scale is applied to commercial paper issued by U.S. municipalities and nonprofits. These commercial paper programs may be backed by external letters of credit or liquidity facilities, or by an issuer’s self-liquidity.
For other short-term municipal obligations, Moody’s uses one of two other short-term rating scales, the Municipal Investment Grade (MIG) and Variable Municipal Investment Grade (VMIG) scales discussed below.
The MIG scale is used for U.S. municipal cash flow notes, bond anticipation notes and certain other short-term obligations, which typically mature in three years or less. Under certain circumstances, the MIG scale is used for bond anticipation notes with maturities of up to five years.
MIG 1 This designation denotes superior credit quality. Excellent protection is afforded by established cash flows, highly reliable liquidity support, or demonstrated broad-based access to the market for refinancing.
MIG 2 This designation denotes strong credit quality. Margins of protection are ample, although not as large as in the preceding group.
MIG 3 This designation denotes acceptable credit quality. Liquidity and cash-flow protection may be narrow, and market access for refinancing is likely to be less well-established.
SG This designation denotes speculative-grade credit quality. Debt instruments in this category may lack sufficient margins of protection.
Demand Obligation Ratings
In the case of variable rate demand obligations (VRDOs), a two-component rating is assigned. The components are a long-term rating and a short-term demand obligation rating. The long-term rating addresses the issuer’s ability to meet scheduled principal and interest payments. The short-term demand obligation rating addresses the ability of the issuer or the liquidity provider to make payments associated with the purchase-price-upon demand feature (“demand feature”) of the VRDO. The short-term demand obligation rating uses the VMIG scale. VMIG ratings with liquidity support use as an input the short-term counterparty risk assessment of the support provider, or the long-term rating of the underlying obligor in the absence of third party liquidity support. Transitions of VMIG ratings of demand obligations with conditional liquidity support differ from transitions on the Prime scale to reflect the risk that external liquidity support will terminate if the issuer’s long-term rating drops below investment grade.
VMIG 1: This designation denotes superior credit quality. Excellent protection is afforded by the superior short-term credit strength of the liquidity provider and structural and legal protections that ensure the timely payment of purchase price upon demand.
VMIG 2: This designation denotes strong credit quality. Good protection is afforded by the strong short-term credit strength of the liquidity provider and structural and legal protections that ensure the timely payment of purchase price upon demand.
VMIG 3: This designation denotes acceptable credit quality. Adequate protection is afforded by the satisfactory short-term credit strength of the liquidity provider and structural and legal protections that ensure the timely payment of purchase price upon demand.
|Calvert Responsible Index Funds||101||SAI dated February 1, 2021|
SG: This designation denotes speculative-grade credit quality. Demand features rated in this category may be supported by a liquidity provider that does not have a sufficiently strong short-term rating or may lack the structural or legal protections necessary to ensure the timely payment of purchase price upon demand.
S&P GLOBAL RATINGS (“S&P”)
ISSUE CREDIT RATINGS DEFINITIONS
An S&P issue credit rating is a forward-looking opinion about the creditworthiness of an obligor with respect to a specific financial obligation, a specific class of financial obligations, or a specific financial program (including ratings on medium-term note programs and commercial paper programs). It takes into consideration the creditworthiness of guarantors, insurers, or other forms of credit enhancement on the obligation and takes into account the currency in which the obligation is denominated. The opinion reflects S&P’s view of the obligor's capacity and willingness to meet its financial commitments as they come due, and may assess terms, such as collateral security and subordination, which could affect ultimate payment in the event of default.
Issue credit ratings can be either long-term or short-term. Short-term issue credit ratings are generally assigned to those obligations considered short-term in the relevant market. Short-term issue credit ratings are also used to indicate the creditworthiness of an obligor with respect to put features on long-term obligations. Medium-term notes are assigned long-term ratings.
LONG-TERM ISSUE CREDIT RATINGS:
Issue credit ratings are based, in varying degrees, on S&P’s analysis of the following considerations:
· Likelihood of payment—capacity and willingness of the obligor to meet its financial commitment on an obligation in accordance with the terms of the obligation;
· Nature of and provisions of the financial obligation and the promise that it is imputed; and
· Protection afforded by, and relative position of, the financial obligation in the event of bankruptcy, reorganization, or other arrangement under the laws of bankruptcy and other laws affecting creditors' rights.
Issue ratings are an assessment of default risk, but may incorporate an assessment of relative seniority or ultimate recovery in the event of default. Junior obligations are typically rated lower than senior obligations, to reflect the lower priority in bankruptcy, as noted above. (Such differentiation may apply when an entity has both senior and subordinated obligations, secured and unsecured obligations, or operating company and holding company obligations.)
AAA: An obligation rated ‘AAA’ has the highest rating assigned by S&P. The obligor’s capacity to meet its financial commitment on the obligation is extremely strong.
AA: An obligation rated ‘AA’ differs from the highest-rated obligors only to a small degree. The obligor’s capacity to meet its financial commitments on the obligation is very strong.
A: An obligation rated ‘A’ is somewhat more susceptible to the adverse effects of changes in circumstances and economic conditions than obligations in higher-rated categories. However, the obligor’s capacity to meet its financial commitments on the obligation is still strong.
BBB: An obligation rated ‘BBB’ exhibits adequate protection parameters. However, adverse economic conditions or changing circumstances are more likely to weaken the obligor’s capacity to meet its financial commitments on the obligation.
BB, B, CCC, CC and C
Obligations rated ‘BB’, ‘B’, ‘CCC’, ‘CC’, and ‘C’ are regarded as having significant speculative characteristics. ‘BB’ indicates the least degree of speculation and ‘C’ the highest. While such obligations will likely have some quality and protective characteristics, these may be outweighed by large uncertainties or major exposures to adverse conditions.
|Calvert Responsible Index Funds||102||SAI dated February 1, 2021|
BB: An obligation rated ‘BB’ is less vulnerable to non-payment than other speculative issues. However, it faces major ongoing uncertainties or exposure to adverse business, financial, or economic conditions that could lead to the obligor’s inadequate capacity to meet its financial commitment on the obligation.
B: An obligation rated ‘B’ is more vulnerable to nonpayment than obligations rated ‘BB’, but the obligor currently has the capacity to meet its financial commitment on the obligation. Adverse business, financial or economic conditions will likely impair the obligor’s capacity or willingness to meet its financial commitment on the obligation.
CCC: An obligation rated ‘CCC’ is currently vulnerable to nonpayment, and is dependent upon favorable business, financial, and economic conditions for the obligor to meet its financial commitments on the obligation. In the event of adverse business, financial or, economic conditions, the obligor is not likely to have the capacity to meet its financial commitment on the obligation.
CC: An obligation rated ‘CC’ is currently highly vulnerable to nonpayment. The 'CC' rating is used when a default has not yet occurred, but S&P expects default to be a virtual certainty, regardless of the anticipated time to default.
C: An obligation rated 'C' is currently highly vulnerable to nonpayment, and the obligation is expected to have lower relative seniority or lower ultimate recovery compared to obligations that are rated higher.
D: An obligation rated 'D' is in default or in breach of an imputed promise. For non-hybrid capital instruments, the 'D' rating category is used when payments on an obligation are not made on the date due, unless S&P believes that such payments will be made within five business days in the absence of a stated grace period or within the earlier of the stated grace period or 30 calendar days. The 'D' rating also will be used upon the filing of a bankruptcy petition or the taking of similar action and where default on an obligation is a virtual certainty, for example due to automatic stay provisions. An obligation's rating is lowered to 'D' if it is subject to a distressed exchange offer.
NR: This indicates that a rating has not been assigned or is no longer assigned.
Plus (+) or Minus (-): The ratings from ‘AA’ to’ CCC’ may be modified by the addition of a plus (+) or minus (-) sign to show relative standing within the major rating categories.
SHORT-TERM ISSUE CREDIT RATINGS
A-1: A short-term obligation rated ‘A-1’ is rated in the highest category by S&P. The obligor’s capacity to meet its financial commitment on the obligation is strong. Within this category, certain obligations are designated with a plus sign (+). This indicates that the obligor’s capacity to meet its financial commitments on the obligation is extremely strong.
A-2: A short-term obligation rated ‘A-2’ is somewhat more susceptible to the adverse effects of changes in circumstances and economic conditions than obligations in higher rating categories. However, the obligor’s capacity to meet its financial commitment on the obligation is satisfactory.
A-3: A short-term obligation rated ‘A-3’ exhibits adequate protection parameters. However, adverse economic conditions or changing circumstances are more likely to weaken an obligor’s capacity to meet its financial commitment on the obligation.
B: A short-term obligation rated ‘B’ is regarded as vulnerable and has significant speculative characteristics. The obligor currently has the capacity to meet its financial commitments; however, it faces major ongoing uncertainties which could lead to the obligor's inadequate capacity to meet its financial commitments.
C: A short-term obligation rated ‘C’ is currently vulnerable to nonpayment and is dependent upon favorable business, financial and economic conditions for the obligor to meet its financial commitments on the obligation.
D: A short-term obligation rated 'D' is in default or in breach of an imputed promise. For non-hybrid capital instruments, the 'D' rating category is used when payments on an obligation are not made on the date due, unless S&P believes that such payments will be made within any stated grace period. However, any stated grace period longer than five business days will be treated as five business days. The 'D' rating also will be used upon the filing of a bankruptcy petition or the taking of a similar action and where default on an obligation is a virtual certainty, for example due to automatic stay provisions. A rating on an obligation is lowered to 'D' if it is subject to a distressed exchange offer.
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ISSUER CREDIT RATINGS DEFINITIONS
S&P’s issuer credit rating is a forward-looking opinion about an obligor's overall creditworthiness. This opinion focuses on the obligor's capacity and willingness to meet its financial commitments as they come due. It does not apply to any specific financial obligation, as it does not take into account the nature of and provisions of the obligation, its standing in bankruptcy or liquidation, statutory preferences, or the legality and enforceability of the obligation.
Sovereign credit ratings are forms of issuer credit ratings.
Issuer credit ratings can be either long-term or short-term.
LONG-TERM ISSUER CREDIT RATINGS
AAA: An obligor rated ‘AAA’ has extremely strong capacity to meet its financial commitments. ‘AAA’ is the highest issuer credit rating assigned by S&P.
AA: An obligor rated ‘AA’ has very strong capacity to meet its financial commitments. It differs from the highest-rated obligors only to a small degree.
A: An obligor rated ‘A’ has strong capacity to meet its financial commitments but is somewhat more susceptible to the adverse effects of changes in circumstances and economic conditions than obligors in higher-rated categories.
BBB: An obligor rated ‘BBB’ has adequate capacity to meet its financial commitments. However, adverse economic conditions or changing circumstances are more likely to weaken the obligor’s capacity to meet its financial commitments.
BB, B, CCC and CC
Obligors rated ‘BB’, ‘B’, ‘CCC’, and ‘CC’ are regarded as having significant speculative characteristics. ‘BB’ indicates the least degree of speculation and ‘CC’ the highest. While such obligors will likely have some quality and protective characteristics, these may be outweighed by large uncertainties or major exposure to adverse conditions.
BB: An obligor ‘BB’ is less vulnerable in the near term than other lower-rated obligors. However, it faces major ongoing uncertainties and exposure to adverse business, financial, or economic conditions that could lead to the obligor’s inadequate capacity to meet its financial commitments.
B: An obligor rated ‘B’ is more vulnerable than the obligors rated ‘BB’, but the obligor currently has the capacity to meet its financial commitments. Adverse business, financial, or economic conditions will likely impair the obligor’s capacity or willingness to meets its financial commitments.
CCC: An obligor rated ‘CCC’ is currently vulnerable, and is dependent upon favorable business, financial, and economic conditions to meet its financial commitments.
CC: An obligor rated ‘CC’ is currently highly vulnerable. The 'CC' rating is used when a default has not yet occurred, but S&P expects default to be a virtual certainty, regardless of the anticipated time to default.
SD and D: An obligor is rated 'SD' (selective default) or 'D' if S&P considers there to be a default on one or more of its financial obligations, whether long -or short-term, including rated and unrated financial obligations but excluding hybrid instruments classified as regulatory capital or in non-payment according to terms. A 'D' rating is assigned when S&P believes that the default will be a general default and that the obligor will fail to pay all or substantially all of its obligations as they come due. An 'SD' rating is assigned when S&P believes that the obligor has selectively defaulted on a specific issue or class of obligations but it will continue to meet its payment obligations on other issues or classes of obligations in a timely manner. A rating on an obligor is lowered to 'D' or 'SD' if it is conducting a distressed exchange offer.
NR: Indicates that a rating has not been assigned or is no longer assigned.
Plus (+) or Minus (-): The ratings from ‘AA’ to’ CCC’ may be modified by the addition of a plus (+) or minus (-) sign to show relative standing within the major rating categories.
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SHORT-TERM ISSUER CREDIT RATINGS
A-1: An obligor rated ‘A-1’ has strong capacity to meet its financial commitments. It is rated in the highest category by S&P. Within this category, certain obligors are designated with a plus sign (+). This indicates that the obligor’s capacity to meet its financial commitments is extremely strong.
A-2: An obligor rated ‘A-2’ has satisfactory capacity to meet its financial commitments. However, it is somewhat more susceptible to the adverse effects of changes in circumstances and economic conditions than obligors in the highest rating category.
A-3: An obligor rated ‘A-3’ has adequate capacity to meet its financial obligations. However, adverse economic conditions or changing circumstances are more likely to weaken the obligor’s capacity to meet its financial commitments.
B: An obligor rated ‘B’ is regarded as vulnerable and has significant speculative characteristics. The obligor currently has the capacity to meet its financial commitments; however, it faces major ongoing uncertainties which could lead to the obligor’s inadequate capacity to meet its financial commitments.
C: An obligor rated 'C' is currently vulnerable to nonpayment that would result in a 'SD' or 'D' issuer rating, and is dependent upon favorable business, financial, and economic conditions for it to meet its financial commitments.
SD and D: An obligor is rated 'SD' (selective default) or 'D' if S&P considers there to be a default on one or more of its financial obligations, whether long- or short-term, including rated and unrated obligations but excluding hybrid instruments classified as regulatory capital or in nonpayment according to term. An obligor is considered in default unless S&P believes that such payments will be made within any stated grace period. However, any stated grace period longer than five business days will be treated as five business days. A 'D' rating is assigned when S&P believes that the default will be a general default and that the obligor will fail to pay all or substantially all of its obligations as they come due. An 'SD' rating is assigned when S&P believes that the obligor has selectively defaulted on a specific issue or class of obligations, excluding hybrid instruments classified as regulatory capital, but it will continue to meet its payment obligations on other issues or classes of obligations in a timely manner. An obligor's rating is lowered to 'D' or 'SD' if it is conducting a distressed exchange offer.
NR: Indicates that a rating has not been assigned or is no longer assigned.
MUNICIPAL SHORT-TERM NOTE RATINGS
SHORT-TERM NOTES: An S&P U.S. municipal note rating reflects S&P opinions about the liquidity factors and market access risks unique to notes. Notes due in three years or less will likely receive a note rating. Notes with an original maturity of more than three years will most likely receive a long-term debt rating. In determining which type of rating, if any, to assign, S&P’s analysis will review the following considerations: Amortization schedule--the larger the final maturity relative to other maturities, the more likely it will be treated as a note; and Source of payment--the more dependent the issue is on the market for its refinancing, the more likely it will be treated as a note.
Municipal Short-Term Note rating symbols are as follows:
SP-1: Strong capacity to pay principal and interest. An issue determined to possess a very strong capacity to pay debt will be given a plus (+) designation.
SP-2: Satisfactory capacity to pay principal and interest, with some vulnerability to adverse financial and economic changes over the term of the notes.
SP-3: Speculative capacity to pay principal and interest.
D: ‘D’ is assigned upon failure to pay the note when due, completion of a distressed exchange offer, or the filing of a bankruptcy petition or the taking of similar action and where default on an obligation is a virtual certainty, for example due to automatic stay provisions.
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LONG-TERM CREDIT RATINGS
Issuer Default Ratings
AAA: Highest credit quality. ‘AAA’ ratings denote the lowest expectation of default risk. They are assigned only in case of exceptionally strong capacity for payment of financial commitments. The capacity is highly unlikely to be adversely affected by foreseeable events.
AA: Very high credit quality. ‘AA’ ratings denote expectations of very low default risk. They indicate very strong capacity for payment of financial commitments. This capacity is not significantly vulnerable to foreseeable events.
A: High credit quality. ‘A’ ratings denote expectations of low default risk. The capacity for payment of financial commitments is considered strong. The capacity may, nevertheless, be more vulnerable to changes in circumstances or in economic conditions than is the case for higher ratings.
BBB: Good credit quality. 'BBB' ratings indicate that expectations of default risk are currently low. The capacity for payment of financial commitments is considered adequate but adverse business or economic conditions are more likely to impair this capacity.
BB: Speculative. 'BB' ratings indicate an elevated vulnerability to default risk, particularly in the event of adverse changes in business or economic conditions over time; however, business or financial flexibility exist that supports the servicing of financial commitments.
B: Highly speculative. B' ratings indicate that material default risk is present, but a limited margin of safety remains. Financial commitments are currently being met; however, capacity for continued payment is vulnerable to deterioration in the business and economic environment.
CCC: Substantial credit risk. Default is a real possibility.
CC: Very high levels of credit risk. Default of some kind appears probable.
C: Near default. A default or default-like process has begun, or the issuer is in standstill, or for a closed funding vehicle, payment capacity is irrevocably impaired. Conditions that are indicative of a ‘C’ category rating for an issuer include:
• The issuer has entered into a grace or cure period following non-payment of a material financial obligation;
• The issuer had entered into a temporary negotiated waiver or standstill agreement following a payment default on a material financial obligation;
• The formal announcement by the issuer or their agent of distressed debt exchange;
• A closed financing vehicle where payment capacity is irrevocably impaired such that it is not expected to pay interest and/or principal in full during the life of the transaction, but where no payment default is imminent.
RD: Restricted Default. ‘RD’ ratings indicate an issuer that in Fitch’s opinion has experienced:
• An unsecured payment default or distressed debt exchange on a bond, loan or other material financial obligation, but
• Has not entered into bankruptcy filings, administration, receivership, liquidation, or other formal winding-up procedure, and
• Has not otherwise ceased operating.
This would include:
• The selective payment default on specific class or currency of debt;
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• The uncured expiry of any applicable grace period, cure period or default forbearance period following a payment default on a bank loan, capital markets security or other material financial obligation;
• The extension of multiple waivers of forbearance periods upon a payment default on one or more material financial obligations, either in series or in parallel; ordinary execution of a distressed debt exchange on one or more material financial obligations.
D: Default. ‘D’ ratings indicate an issuer that in Fitch’s opinion has entered into bankruptcy filings, administration, receivership, liquidation or other formal winding-up procedure or that has otherwise ceased business.
• Default ratings are not assigned prospectively to entities or their obligations; within this context, non-payment on an instrument that contains a deferral feature or grace period will generally not be considered a default until after the expiration of the deferral or grace period, unless a default is otherwise driven by bankruptcy or other similar circumstance, or by a distressed debt exchange.
• In all cases, the assignment of default rating reflects the agency’s opinion as to the most appropriate rating category consistent with the rest of its universe of ratings and may differ from the definition of default under the terms of an issuer’s financial obligations or local commercial practice.
Notes to Long-Term ratings:
The modifiers “+” or “-” may be appended to a rating to denote relative status within major rating categories. Such suffixes are not added to the ‘AAA’ Long-Term IDR category, or to Long-Term IDR categories below ‘B’.
Short-Term Credit Ratings Assigned to Issuers and Obligations
A short-term issuer or obligation rating is based in all cases on the short-term vulnerability to default of the rated entity and relates to the capacity to meet financial obligations in accordance with the documentation governing the relevant obligation. Short-Term Ratings are assigned to obligations whose initial maturity is viewed as “short term” based on market convention. Typically, this means up to 13 months for corporate, sovereign, and structured obligations, and up to 36 months for obligations in U.S. public finance markets.
F1: Highest short-term credit quality. Indicates the strongest intrinsic capacity for timely payment of financial commitments; may have an added “+” to denote any exceptionally strong credit feature.
F2: Good short-term credit quality. Good intrinsic capacity for timely payment of financial commitments.
F3: Fair short-term credit quality. The intrinsic capacity for timely payment of financial commitments is adequate.
B: Speculative short-term credit quality. Minimal capacity for timely payment of financial commitments, plus heightened vulnerability to near term adverse changes in financial and economic conditions.
C: High short-term default risk. Default is a real possibility.
RD: Restricted default. Indicates an entity that has defaulted on one or more of its financial commitments, although it continues to meet other financial obligations. Typically applicable to entity ratings only.
D: Indicates a broad-based default event for an entity, or the default of a short-term obligation.
DESCRIPTION OF INSURANCE FINANCIAL STRENGTH RATINGS
Moody’s Investors Service, Inc. Insurance Financial Strength Ratings
Moody’s Insurance Financial Strength Ratings are opinions of the ability of insurance companies to repay punctually senior policyholder claims and obligations and also reflect the expected financial loss suffered in the event of default.
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S&P Insurer Financial Strength Ratings
An S&P insurer financial strength rating is a forward-looking opinion about the financial security characteristics of an insurance organization with respect to its ability to pay under its insurance policies and contracts in accordance with their terms. Insurer financial strength ratings are also assigned to health maintenance organizations and similar health plans with respect to their ability to pay under their policies and contracts in accordance with their terms.
This opinion is not specific to any particular policy or contract, nor does it address the suitability of a particular policy or contract for a specific purpose or purchaser. Furthermore, the opinion does not take into account deductibles, surrender or cancellation penalties, timeliness of payment, nor the likelihood of the use of a defense such as fraud to deny claims.
Insurer financial strength ratings do not refer to an organization's ability to meet nonpolicy (i.e., debt) obligations. Assignment of ratings to debt issued by insurers or to debt issues that are fully or partially supported by insurance policies, contracts, or guarantees is a separate process from the determination of insurer financial strength ratings, and it follows procedures consistent with those used to assign an issue credit rating. An insurer financial strength rating is not a recommendation to purchase or discontinue any policy or contract issued by an insurer.
Long-Term Insurer Financial Strength Ratings
An insurer rated 'AAA' has extremely strong financial security characteristics. 'AAA' is the highest insurer financial strength rating assigned by S&P.
An insurer rated 'AA' has very strong financial security characteristics, differing only slightly from those rated higher.
An insurer rated 'A' has strong financial security characteristics, but is somewhat more likely to be affected by adverse business conditions than are insurers with higher ratings.
An insurer rated 'BBB' has good financial security characteristics, but is more likely to be affected by adverse business conditions than are higher-rated insurers.
BB, B, CCC and CC
An insurer rated 'BB' or lower is regarded as having vulnerable characteristics that may outweigh its strengths. 'BB' indicates the least degree of vulnerability within the range and 'CC' the highest.
An insurer rated 'BB' has marginal financial security characteristics. Positive attributes exist, but adverse business conditions could lead to insufficient ability to meet financial commitments.
An insurer rated 'B' has weak financial security characteristics. Adverse business conditions will likely impair its ability to meet financial commitments.
An insurer rated 'CCC' has very weak financial security characteristics, and is dependent on favorable business conditions to meet financial commitments.
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An insurer rated 'CC' has extremely weak financial security characteristics and is likely not to meet some of its financial commitments.
SD or D
An insurer rated 'SD' (selective default) or 'D' is in default on one or more of its insurance policy obligations. The 'D' rating also will be used upon the filing of a bankruptcy petition or the taking of similar action if payments on a policy obligation are at risk. A 'D' rating is assigned when S&P believes that the default will be a general default and that the obligor will fail to pay substantially all of its obligations in full in accordance with the policy terms. An 'SD' rating is assigned when S&P believes that the insurer has selectively defaulted on a specific class of policies but it will continue to meet its payment obligations on other classes of obligations. A selective default includes the completion of a distressed exchange offer. Claim denials due to lack of coverage or other legally permitted defenses are not considered defaults.
NR: Indicates that a rating has not been assigned or is no longer assigned.
Plus (+) or Minus (-): The ratings from ‘AA’ to’ CCC’ may be modified by the addition of a plus (+) or minus (-) sign to show relative standing within the major rating categories.
Fitch Insurer Financial Strength Rating
The Insurer Financial Strength (IFS) Rating provides an assessment of the financial strength of an insurance organization. The IFS Rating is assigned to the insurance company's policyholder obligations, including assumed reinsurance obligations and contract holder obligations, such as guaranteed investment contracts. The IFS Rating reflects both the ability of the insurer to meet these obligations on a timely basis, and expected recoveries received by claimants in the event the insurer stops making payments or payments are interrupted, due to either the failure of the insurer or some form of regulatory intervention. In the context of the IFS Rating, the timeliness of payments is considered relative to both contract and/or policy terms but also recognizes the possibility of reasonable delays caused by circumstances common to the insurance industry, including claims reviews, fraud investigations and coverage disputes.
The IFS Rating does not encompass policyholder obligations residing in separate accounts, unit-linked products or segregated funds, for which the policyholder bears investment or other risks. However, any guarantees provided to the policyholder with respect to such obligations are included in the IFS Rating.
Expected recoveries are based on the agency's assessments of the sufficiency of an insurance company's assets to fund policyholder obligations, in a scenario in which payments have ceased or been interrupted. Accordingly, expected recoveries exclude the impact of recoveries obtained from any government sponsored guaranty or policyholder protection funds. Expected recoveries also exclude the impact of collateralization or security, such as letters of credit or trusteed assets, supporting select reinsurance obligations.
IFS Ratings can be assigned to insurance and reinsurance companies in any insurance sector, including the life & annuity, non-life, property/casualty, health, mortgage, financial guaranty, residual value and title insurance sectors, as well as to managed care companies such as health maintenance organizations.
The IFS Rating uses the same symbols used by the agency for its International and National credit ratings of long-term or short-term debt issues. However, the definitions associated with the ratings reflect the unique aspects of the IFS Rating within an insurance industry context.
Obligations for which a payment interruption has occurred due to either the insolvency or failure of the insurer or some form of regulatory intervention will generally be rated between 'B' and 'C' on the Long-Term IFS Rating scales (both International and National). International Short-Term IFS Ratings assigned under the same circumstances will align with the insurer's International Long-Term IFS Ratings.
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Proxy Voting Policy and Procedures
The Boards of Trustees (the “Board”) of the Calvert Funds1 have determined that it is in the interests of the Funds’ shareholders to adopt these written proxy voting policy and procedures (the “Policy”). For purposes of this Policy:
|·||“Fund” means each registered investment company managed by the Adviser; and|
|·||“Adviser” means Calvert Research and Management.|
II. Delegation of Proxy Voting Responsibilities
The Board hereby delegates to the Adviser responsibility for voting the Fund’s proxies as described in this Policy in accordance with the Adviser’s Proxy Voting Policies and Procedures (“Adviser Procedures”), a copy of which has been provided to the Boards. All Fund proxies will be voted in accordance with the Adviser Procedures, provided that in the event a material conflict of interest arises with respect to a proxy to be voted for the Fund (as described in Section IV below) the Adviser shall follow the process for voting such proxy as described in Section IV below.
III. Delegation of Proxy Voting Disclosure Responsibilities
Pursuant to Rule 30b1-4 promulgated under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “1940 Act”), the Fund is required to file Form N-PX no later than August 31st of each year. On Form N-PX, the Fund is required to disclose, among other things, information concerning proxies relating to the Fund’s portfolio investments, whether or not the Fund (or its Adviser) voted the proxies relating to securities held by the Fund, how it voted on the matter and whether it voted for or against management.
To facilitate the filing of Form N-PX for the Fund:
|·||The Adviser will record, compile and transmit in a timely manner all data required to be filed on Form N-PX for the Fund that it manages. Such data shall be transmitted to the Adviser, which also acts as administrator to the Fund (the “Administrator”) or any third party service provider designated by the Administrator; and|
|·||The Administrator will file Form N-PX on behalf of the Fund with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “Commission”) as required by the 1940 Act. The Administrator may delegate the filing to a third party service provider provided each such filing is reviewed and approved by the Administrator.|
IV. Conflicts of Interest
The Board expects the Adviser, as a fiduciary to the Fund it manages, to put the interests of the Fund and its shareholders above those of the Adviser. When required to vote a proxy for the Fund, the Adviser may have material business relationships with the issuer soliciting the proxy that could give rise to a potential material conflict of interest for the Adviser.2 In the event such a material conflict of interest arises and the Adviser intends to vote such proxy in a manner inconsistent with the Adviser’s then current Global Proxy Voting Guidelines, the Adviser, to the extent it is aware or reasonably should have been aware of the material conflict, will refrain from voting any proxy related to the company or companies giving rise to such material conflict until it notifies and consults with at least two members of the Fund Board not affiliated with the Adviser (the “Board Members”), concerning the material conflict. For ease of communicating with the Board Members, the Adviser is required to provide the foregoing notice to the Fund’s Chief Legal Officer who will then notify and facilitate a consultation with the Board Members. Once the Board Members have been notified of the material conflict:
|·||they shall convene a meeting to review and consider all relevant materials related to the proxies involved. This meeting shall be convened within 3 business days, provided that an effort will be made to convene the meeting sooner if the proxy must be voted in less than 3 business days;|
|·||in considering such proxies, the Adviser shall make available all materials requested by the Board Members and make reasonably available appropriate personnel to discuss the matter upon request; and|
|·||the Board Members will then instruct the Adviser on the appropriate course of action with respect to the proxy at issue.|
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If the Board Members are unable to meet and the failure to vote a proxy would have a material adverse impact on the Fund(s) involved, the Adviser will have the right to vote such proxy, provided that it discloses the existence of the material conflict to the Chairperson of the Board as soon as practicable and to the Board at its next meeting. Any determination regarding the voting of proxies of the Fund that is made by the Board Members shall be deemed to be a good faith determination regarding the voting of proxies by the full Board.
V. Reports and Review
The Administrator shall make copies of Form N-PX filed on behalf of the Fund available for the Board’s review upon the Board’s request. The Administrator shall also provide any reports reasonably requested by the Board regarding the proxy voting records of the Fund.
The Adviser shall report any material changes to the Adviser Procedures to the Board as soon as practicable and the Boards will review the Adviser Procedures annually.
The Adviser also shall report any changes to the Adviser Procedures to the Fund’s Chief Legal and Compliance Officers prior to implementing such changes in order to enable the Administrator to effectively coordinate the Fund’s disclosure relating to the Adviser Procedures.
To the extent required by the Commission, the Policy and the Adviser Procedures shall be appended to the Fund’s statement of additional information included in its registration statement.
1 The Calvert Funds may be organized as trusts or corporations. For ease of reference, the Funds may be referred to herein as Trusts and the Funds’ Board of Trustees or Board of Directors may be referred to collectively herein as the Board.
2 The Adviser is expected to maintain a process for identifying a potential material conflict of interest. As an example only, such potential conflicts may arise when the issuer is a client of the Adviser and generates a significant amount of fees to the Adviser or the issuer is a distributor of the Adviser’s products.
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CALVERT RESEARCH AND MANAGEMENT
PROXY VOTING POLICIES AND PROCEDURES
Calvert Research and Management (“Calvert”) has adopted and implemented policies and procedures that it believes are reasonably designed to ensure that proxies are voted in the best interests of clients, in accordance with its fiduciary duties and, to the extent applicable, Rule 206(4)-6 under the Investment Advisers Act of 1940, as amended (the “Advisers Act”). Calvert’s authority to vote the proxies of its clients is established by advisory contracts or similar documentation. These proxy voting policies and procedures (“Procedures”) are intended to reflect current requirements and guidance applicable to investment advisers registered with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). The Procedures may change from time to time.
Calvert believes that sound corporate governance and overall corporate sustainability and social responsibility are characteristics of healthy corporations. A well-governed sustainable and socially responsible company meets high standards of corporate ethics and operates in the best interests of all other stakeholders (employees, customers, communities and the environment). Calvert believes that combining effective governance and corporate sustainability better positions a company to create long-term value for its shareholders.
The exercise of shareholder rights is generally done by casting votes by proxy at shareholder meetings on matters submitted to shareholders for approval. Calvert has established guidelines for voting proxies that are set forth in Appendix A (the “Guidelines”), which set forth the general principles and voting guidelines employed by Calvert when voting proxies on behalf of clients. As noted therein, the Guidelines are not intended to be exhaustive and do not seek to anticipate every type of proposal that may be submitted to shareholders for a vote. Calvert reviews the Guidelines periodically and they may be changed at any time.
Calvert normally votes proxies received by a client for which it has sole investment discretion (including the Calvert Funds) (each, a “Fund” and collectively, the “Funds”) through a third-party proxy voting service (“Agent”) in accordance with the Guidelines in a manner that is reasonably designed to eliminate any potential conflicts of interest, as described more fully below. The Agent is currently Institutional Shareholder Services Inc. Although Calvert retains the services of the Agent for research and development of voting recommendations, consistent with the Guidelines, Calvert remains responsible for proxy voting decisions. Calvert may also receive and directly vote proxies with respect to certain private equity investments held by clients. Any such proxies are also voted in accordance with the Guidelines. Where applicable, proxies will be voted in accordance with client-specific guidelines.
III. Roles and Responsibilities
A. Proxy Administrators
Calvert has designated certain employees to administer these Procedures. The proxy administrators and/or their designees (together, the “Proxy Administrators”) coordinate consideration of the manner in which certain proxies are voted with members of Calvert’s Engagement and Proxy Voting Committee as described herein.
The Agent is responsible for coordinating with the clients’ custodians and Calvert to ensure that all proxy materials received by the custodians relating to the portfolio securities are processed in a timely fashion. Calvert shall instruct the custodian for its clients to deliver proxy ballots and related materials to the Agent. The Agent shall execute and/or refer proxies consistent with instructions provided by Calvert to implement the Guidelines, unless otherwise instructed by Calvert in accordance with these Procedures. The Agent shall retain a record of all proxy votes handled by the Agent. With respect to any Fund vote memorialized therein, such record must reflect all of the information required to be disclosed in the Funds’ Form N-PX pursuant to Rule 30b1-4 under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended, to the extent applicable. In addition, the Agent is responsible for maintaining copies of all proxy statements received by issuers and to promptly provide such materials to Calvert upon request.
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Subject to the oversight of Calvert, the Agent shall establish and maintain adequate internal controls and policies in connection with the provision of proxy voting services to Calvert, including methods to reasonably ensure that its analysis and recommendations are not influenced by a conflict of interest, and shall disclose such controls and policies to Calvert when and as provided for herein. Unless otherwise specified, references herein to recommendations of the Agent shall refer to those in which no conflict of interest has been identified. Calvert is responsible for the ongoing oversight of the Agent as contemplated by SEC Staff Legal Bulletin No. 20 (June 30, 2014) and interpretative guidance issued by the SEC in August 2019 regarding proxy voting responsibilities of investment advisers (Release Nos. IA-5325 and IC-33605). Such oversight currently may include one or more of the following and may change from time to time:
|·||periodic review of Agent’s proxy voting platform and reporting capabilities (including recordkeeping);|
|·||periodic review of a sample of ballots for accuracy and correct application of the Guidelines;|
|·||periodic meetings with Agent’s client services team;|
|·||periodic in-person and/or web-based due diligence meetings;|
|·||receipt and review of annual certifications received from the Agent;|
|·||annual review of due diligence materials provided by the Agent, including review of procedures and practices regarding potential conflicts of interests;|
|·||periodic review of relevant changes to Agent’s business; and/or|
|·||periodic review of the following to the extent not included in due diligence materials provided by the Agent: (i) Agent’s staffing, personnel and/or technology; (ii) Agent’s process for seeking timely input from issuers (e.g., with respect to proxy voting policies, methodologies and peer group construction); (iii) Agent’s process for use of third-party information; and (iv) the Agent’s policies and procedures for obtaining current and accurate information relevant to matters in its research and on which it makes voting recommendations.|
C. Engagement and Proxy Voting Committee
Calvert has established the Engagement and Proxy Voting Committee which, among other things, is responsible for reviewing the Guidelines at least annually. The Engagement and Proxy Voting Committee shall also review recommendations to vote proxies in a manner that is contrary to the Guidelines and when the proxy relates to a conflicted company of Calvert or the Agent as described below.
The members of the Engagement and Proxy Voting Committee shall consist of at least two employees of Calvert appointed by, and including, Calvert’s Chief Executive Officer (“CEO”) and President. The Proxy Administrators and the Director of Corporate Engagement are not voting members of the Engagement and Proxy Voting Committee. Members of the Engagement and Proxy Voting Committee may be changed from time to time at Calvert’s discretion. Matters that require the approval of the Engagement and Proxy Voting Committee may be acted upon by any of its member(s) available to consider the matter.
IV. Proxy Voting
A. The Guidelines
Calvert generally vote proxies in accordance with the positions set forth in the Guidelines. The Guidelines are not meant to be exhaustive, nor can they anticipate every potential voting issue on which the shareholders may be asked to cast their proxies. There also may be instances when Calvert may vote shares in a manner that does not strictly adhere to or is inconsistent with the Guidelines if doing so is deemed by Calvert to be in the best interests of the shareholders. Calvert will review the Guidelines at least annually. In connection with proxies to be voted, on behalf of the Funds Calvert will submit amendments to the Guidelines to the Fund Boards each year for approval.
Section VI below sets forth the process in the event Calvert determine to vote a proxy in a manner not strictly in accordance with the Guidelines, and such vote presents a potential conflict of interest.
|Calvert Responsible Index Funds||113||SAI dated February 1, 2021|
B. Voting Procedures
Except as noted in Section VI below, the Proxy Administrators and/or their designees shall instruct the Agent to vote proxies as follows:
|1.||Vote in Accordance with Guidelines|
Calvert provides the Agent with voting instructions to implement the Guidelines for various types of proposals. Based on such instructions, the Agent shall make recommendations to Calvert on the manner in which proxies shall be voted, the Agent shall vote in accordance with the Guidelines, which for certain types of proposals, are recommendations of the Agent made on a case-by-case basis.
|2.||Seek Guidance for a Referred Item or a Proposal for which there is No Guideline|
If (i) a proxy is received for a proposal for which there is there is no voting instruction pursuant to the Guidelines or (ii) the Guidelines otherwise state that the proposal shall be referred to Calvert to determine the manner in which it should be voted, the Proxy Administrator shall evaluate the proposal and, if provided, the recommendation of the Agent and determine whether the proposal should be voted in accordance with past practice or the recommendation of the Agent. If it is voted in accordance with past practice or the recommendation of the Agent, the Proxy Administrator shall seek input from the Engagement and Proxy Voting Committee, which may consult with relevant portfolio managers and/or analysts covering the company subject to the proxy proposal or its industry and shall instruct the Agent to vote based on this input. The Proxy Administrators will maintain a record of all proxy proposals that are referred by the Agent, as well as all applicable recommendations, analysis and research received and the resolution of the matter.
|3.||Votes Contrary to the Guidelines or Where Agent is Conflicted|
In the event Calvert recommends a vote contrary to the Guidelines, the Proxy Administrator will provide the Engagement and Proxy Voting Committee with the Agent’s recommendation for the proposal along with any other relevant materials, including a description of the basis for Calvert’s recommendation, and the Proxy Administrator will then instruct the Agent to vote the proxy in the manner determined by the Engagement and Proxy Voting Committee. Should the vote by the Engagement and Proxy Voting Committee concerning one or more recommendations result in a tie, Calvert’s CEO and President will determine the manner in which the proxy will be voted. Calvert will provide a report to the Boards of Trustees/Directors of the Calvert Funds reflecting any votes cast on behalf of a Calvert Fund contrary to the Guidelines, and shall do so quarterly.
The same process will be followed if the Agent has a conflict of interest with respect to a proxy as described in Section VI.B.
|4||Do Not Cast a Vote|
It shall generally be the policy of Calvert to take no action on a proxy for which no client holds a position or otherwise maintains an economic interest in the relevant security at the time the vote is to be cast. In addition, Calvert may determine not to vote (i) if the economic effect on shareowners' interests or the value of the portfolio holding is indeterminable or insignificant (e.g., proxies in connection with securities no longer held in the portfolio of a client or proxies being considered on behalf of a client that is no longer in existence); (ii) if the cost of voting a proxy outweighs the benefits (e.g., certain international proxies, particularly in cases in which share blocking practices may impose trading restrictions on the relevant portfolio security); (iii) in markets in which shareowners' rights are limited; or (iv) the Adviser is unable to access or access timely ballots or other proxy information. Non-Votes may also result in certain cases in which the Agent's recommendation has been deemed to be conflicted, as provided for herein.
C. Securities on Loan
When a client participates in the lending of its securities and the securities are on loan on the record date for a shareowner meeting, proxies related to such securities generally will not be forwarded to Calvert by the client’s custodian and therefore will not be voted. In the event that Calvert determines that the matters involved would have a material effect on the applicable client’s investment in the loaned securities, Calvert will make reasonable efforts to terminate the loan in time to be able to cast such vote or exercise such consent. Notwithstanding the above, Calvert shall use its reasonable efforts to instruct the security lending agent to recall any security subject to a proxy prior to the record date.
|Calvert Responsible Index Funds||114||SAI dated February 1, 2021|
Calvert will maintain records relating to the proxies they vote on behalf of its clients in accordance with Section 204-2 of the Advisers Act. Those records will include:
|·||A copy of these Procedures;|
|·||Proxy statements received regarding client securities. Such proxy statements received from issuers are either in the SEC’s EDGAR database or are kept by the Agent and are available upon request;|
|·||A record of each vote cast;|
|·||A copy of any document created by Calvert that was material to making a decision on how to vote a proxy for a client or that memorializes the basis for such a decision; and|
|·||Each written client request for proxy voting records and Calvert’s written response to any client request (whether written or oral) for such records.|
All records described above will be maintained in an easily accessible place for five years and will be maintained in the offices of Calvert or its Agent for two years after they are created.
VI. Assessment of Agent and Identification and Resolution of Conflicts with Clients
A. Assessment of Agent
Calvert shall establish that the Agent (i) is independent from Calvert, (ii) has resources that indicate it can competently provide analysis of proxy issues, and (iii) can make recommendations in an impartial manner and in the best interests of the clients and, where applicable, their beneficial owners. Calvert shall utilize, and the Agent shall comply with, such methods for establishing the foregoing as Calvert may deem reasonably appropriate and shall do so not less than annually as well as prior to engaging the services of any new proxy voting service. The Agent shall also notify Calvert in writing within fifteen (15) calendar days of any material change to information previously provided to Calvert in connection with establishing the Agent's independence, competence or impartiality.
B. Conflicts of Interest
As fiduciaries to its clients, Calvert puts the interests of its clients ahead of its own. In order to ensure that relevant personnel of Calvert are able to identify potential material conflicts of interest, Calvert will take the following steps:
|·||Quarterly, the Legal and Compliance Department will ask the department heads of each department of Calvert and of Eaton Vance Distributors, Inc. (“EVD”) (an affiliate of Calvert and principal underwriter of Calvert Funds) for a list of significant clients or prospective clients of Calvert or EVD;|