Guggenheim Funds Trust
Statement of Additional Information
January 31, 2019, as supplemented May 9, 2019
This Statement of Additional Information provides information relating to the following series of Guggenheim Funds Trust (each, a “Fund” and, collectively, the “Funds”) and the respective classes thereof:
Fund
Class A
Class C
Institutional Class
Class P
Class R6
Guggenheim Alpha Opportunity Fund
SAOAX
SAOCX
SAOIX
SAOSX
SAORX*

Guggenheim Diversified Income Fund
GUDAX
GUDCX
GUDIX
GUDPX
GUDRX*
Guggenheim Floating Rate Strategies Fund
GIFAX
GIFCX
GIFIX
GIFPX
GIFSX
Guggenheim High Yield Fund
SIHAX
SIHSX
SHYIX
SIHPX
SHYSX
Guggenheim Investment Grade Bond Fund
SIUSX
SDICX
GIUSX
SIUPX
GICRX*
Guggenheim Large Cap Value Fund
SECIX
SEGIX
GILCX
SEGPX
GILRX*
Guggenheim Limited Duration Fund
GILDX
GILFX
GILHX
GILPX
GIKRX
Guggenheim Macro Opportunities Fund
GIOAX
GIOCX
GIOIX
GIOPX
GIOSX
Guggenheim Market Neutral Real Estate Fund
GUMAX
GUMCX
GUMNX
GUMPX
GUMRX*
Guggenheim Mid Cap Value Fund
SEVAX
SEVSX
SEVPX
Guggenheim Mid Cap Value Institutional Fund
SVUIX
SVURX*
Guggenheim Municipal Income Fund
GIJAX
GIJCX
GIJIX
GIJPX
GIJRX*
Guggenheim Risk Managed Real Estate Fund
GURAX
GURCX
GURIX
GURPX
GURRX*
Guggenheim Small Cap Value Fund
SSUAX
SSVCX
SSUIX
SSUPX
SSURX*
Guggenheim StylePlus—Large Core Fund
SECEX
SFECX
GILIX
SFEPX
GIQRX*
Guggenheim StylePlus—Mid Growth Fund
SECUX
SUFCX
GIUIX
SEUPX
GIURX*
Guggenheim Total Return Bond Fund
GIBAX
GIBCX
GIBIX
GIBLX
GIBRX
Guggenheim Ultra Short Duration Fund
GIYAX
GIYIX
GIYPX*

GIYRX*

Guggenheim World Equity Income Fund
SEQAX
SFGCX
SEWIX
SEQPX
SEWRX*
*This share class of the Fund is not currently offered for sale.


This Statement of Additional Information is not a prospectus. This Statement of Additional Information relates to the Funds’ prospectuses dated January 31, 2019, as may be supplemented from time to time (the “Prospectuses”), and should be read in conjunction with the Prospectuses. The audited financial statements for each Fund's fiscal year ended September 30, 2018, and the related report of Ernst & Young LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, contained in the annual report for each Fund, are incorporated herein by reference.


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The Prospectuses (and the Funds’ annual and semi-annual reports) may be obtained without charge by writing Guggenheim Funds Distributors, LLC, 702 King Farm Boulevard, Suite 200, Rockville, Maryland 20850, by calling 301.296.5100 or 800.820.0888 or by visiting www.guggenheiminvestments.com/services/prospectuses-and-reports.

As described herein, the investment manager to each Fund is Guggenheim Partners Investment Management, LLC, 100 Wilshire Boulevard, 5th Floor, Santa Monica, California 90401 or Security Investors, LLC, 702 King Farm Boulevard, Suite 200, Rockville, Maryland 20850.





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Table of Contents
General Information
Investment Methods and Risk Factors
Investment Restrictions
Fundamental Policies
Operating Policies
Disclosure of Portfolio Holdings
Management of the Funds
Trustees and Officers
Board Leadership Structure
Qualifications and Experience of Trustees
Board's Role in Risk Oversight
Board Committees
Audit Committee
Contracts Review Committee
Executive Committee
Nominating and Governance Committee
Valuation Oversight Committee
Remuneration of Trustees
Principal Holders of Securities
Trustees’ Ownership of Securities
How to Purchase Shares
Canceled Purchase Orders
Alternative Purchase Options
Class A Shares
Class C Shares
Institutional Class Shares
Class P Shares
Class R6 Shares
Minimum Account Balance
Distribution Plans
Rule 12b-1 Plan Expenses
Arrangements With Broker/Dealers and Others
Other Distribution or Service Arrangements
Purchases at Net Asset Value
Purchases for Retirement Plans
Systematic Withdrawal Plan
Investment Management
Sub-Adviser
Code of Ethics
Portfolio Managers
Other Accounts Managed by Portfolio Managers
Information Regarding Potential Conflicts of Interest
Proxy Voting
Distributor

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Allocation of Portfolio Brokerage
Securities of Regular Broker-Dealers
How Net Asset Value Is Determined
How to Redeem Shares
Receiving Your Redemption Proceeds
Telephone Redemptions
Redemption In-Kind

How to Exchange Shares
Exchange by Telephone
Dividends and Taxes
Tax Considerations
Cost Basis Reporting
Back-up Withholding
Passive Foreign Investment Companies
Options, Futures, Forward Contracts and Swap Agreements
Market Discount
Original Issue Discount
Constructive Sales
REITs
Investment in Taxable Mortgage Pools (Excess Inclusion Income)
Foreign Taxation
Securities Lending
Foreign Currency Transactions
Foreign Shareholders
Other Taxes
Organization
Custodian, Transfer Agent and Dividend-Paying Agent
Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
Legal Counsel
Financial Statements
Appendix A:
Description of Bond Ratings



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GENERAL INFORMATION
Guggenheim Funds Trust (the “Trust”), which was organized as a Delaware statutory trust on November 8, 2013, is registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) as an investment company. The Trust is an open-end management investment company that, upon the demand of a shareholder, must redeem its shares and pay the shareholder the next calculated net asset value (“NAV”) thereof in accordance with the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “1940 Act”) (See “How to Redeem Shares”). This Statement of Additional Information (“SAI”) relates to the series of the Trust set forth on the cover hereto (each, a “Fund” and, collectively, the “Funds”). Each Fund, other than Guggenheim Diversified Income Fund, Guggenheim Limited Duration Fund, Guggenheim Market Neutral Real Estate Fund, Guggenheim Risk Managed Real Estate Fund and Guggenheim Ultra Short Duration Fund was previously a series (the “Predecessor Funds”) of Security Equity Fund, Security Income Fund, Security Large Cap Value Fund or Security Mid Cap Growth Fund (the “Predecessor Corporations”), different registered open-end investment companies, which were organized as Kansas corporations. In January 2014, at special meetings of shareholders, the shareholders of each Predecessor Fund approved the reorganization of each Predecessor Fund with and into a corresponding “shell” series of the Trust. The shell series of the Trust succeeded to the accounting and performance histories of the Predecessor Funds. Any such historical information provided for a series of the Trust that relates to periods prior to January 28, 2014 (and September 24, 2014 for Guggenheim Alpha Opportunity Fund), therefore, is that of the corresponding Predecessor Fund. On June 26, 2015, the Guggenheim Enhanced World Equity Fund, a series of the Trust, was liquidated pursuant to a plan of liquidation. On November 30, 2018, Guggenheim Strategy Fund I (the "Ultra Short Predecessor Fund"), previously a series of Guggenheim Strategy Funds Trust, reorganized with and into the Guggenheim Ultra Short Duration Fund, which is the performance successor of the reorganization and has adopted (through a "shell" reorganization) the Ultra Short Predecessor Fund's performance, financial and other historical information. Any such historical information provided for the Guggenheim Ultra Short Duration Fund is that of the Ultra Short Predecessor Fund.
The fiscal year end for the Trust (and each Fund) is September 30 of each year.
Each of the Funds has its own investment objective and policies.
Security Investors, LLC (“Security Investors”) is the investment manager to Guggenheim Alpha Opportunity Fund (“Alpha Opportunity Fund”), Guggenheim Large Cap Value Fund (“Large Cap Value Fund”), Guggenheim Mid Cap Value Fund (“Mid Cap Value Fund”), Guggenheim Mid Cap Value Institutional Fund (“Mid Cap Value Institutional Fund”), Guggenheim Small Cap Value Fund (“Small Cap Value Fund”), Guggenheim StylePlus—Large Core Fund (“StylePlus—Large Core Fund”), Guggenheim StylePlus—Mid Growth Fund (“StylePlus—Mid Growth Fund”) and Guggenheim World Equity Income Fund (“World Equity Income Fund”). These Funds, with Guggenheim Risk Managed Real Estate Fund (“Risk Managed Real Estate Fund”), are referred to as the “Guggenheim Equity Funds.” Security Investors is also the investment manager to Guggenheim High Yield Fund (“High Yield Fund”), Guggenheim Investment Grade Bond Fund (“Investment Grade Bond Fund”) and Guggenheim Municipal Income Fund (“Municipal Income Fund”).
Guggenheim Partners Investment Management, LLC (“GPIM”) is the investment manager to Risk Managed Real Estate Fund. GPIM is also the investment manager to Guggenheim Diversified Income Fund (“Diversified Income Fund”), Guggenheim Floating Rate Strategies Fund (“Floating Rate Strategies Fund”), Guggenheim Limited Duration Fund (“Limited Duration Fund"), Guggenheim Macro Opportunities Fund (“Macro Opportunities Fund”), Guggenheim Market Neutral Real Estate Fund (“Market Neutral Real Estate Fund”) Guggenheim Total Return Bond Fund (“Total Return Bond Fund”) and Guggenheim Ultra Short Duration Fund ("Ultra Short Duration Fund"). These Funds, collectively with the High Yield Fund, Investment Grade Bond Fund and Municipal Income Fund, are referred to as the “Guggenheim Fixed-Income Funds.” GPIM is the sub-adviser to the Municipal Income Fund.

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Security Investors and GPIM are also each referred to as the “Investment Manager” and, together, as the “Investment Managers.” GPIM, in its capacity as sub-adviser to the Municipal Income Fund, is referred to as the “Sub-Adviser.” Although there is no present intention to do so, the investment objective and policies of each Fund, unless otherwise noted, may be changed by the Board of Trustees of the Trust (the “Board”) without the approval of shareholders. Each of the Funds is also required to operate within limitations imposed by its fundamental investment policies, which may not be changed without shareholder approval. These limitations are set forth under “Investment Restrictions.” Each Fund (other than the Market Neutral Real Estate Fund) is classified as “diversified” within the meaning of the 1940 Act. An investment in one of the Funds does not constitute a complete investment program.
As disclosed in the Funds’ prospectuses, as may be supplemented from time to time (“Prospectuses”), investors should note that each Fund reserves the right to discontinue offering shares at any time, to merge or reorganize itself or a class of shares, or to cease operations and liquidate at any time. In the event the Board determines to liquidate a Fund, shareholders may be subject to adverse tax consequences. A shareholder would not be entitled to any refund or reimbursement of expenses incurred, directly or indirectly, by the shareholder (such as sales charges, if any, or fees and expenses) as a result of its investment in the Fund. In addition, the shareholder may receive a liquidating amount that is less than the shareholder’s original investment.

INVESTMENT METHODS AND RISK FACTORS
Each Fund’s principal investment strategies and the summaries of risks associated with the same are described in the “Fund Summaries” and “Descriptions of Principal Risks” sections of the relevant Prospectuses. The following discussion provides additional information about those principal investment strategies and related risks, as well as information about other investment strategies that a Fund may utilize and related risks that may apply to a Fund, even though they are not considered to be “principal” investment strategies of the Fund. Accordingly, an investment strategy and related risk that is described below, but which is not described in a Fund’s Prospectus, should not be considered to be a principal investment strategy or principal risk applicable to that Fund.
Some of the risk factors related to certain securities, instruments and techniques that may be used by the Funds are described in the “Fund Summaries” and “Descriptions of Principal Risks” sections of the Prospectuses and in this SAI. The following is a description of certain additional risk factors related to various securities, instruments and techniques. Also included is a general description of some of the investment instruments, techniques and methods that may be used by one or more of the Funds. Although the Funds may employ the techniques, instruments and methods described below, consistent with its investment objective and policies and any applicable law, a Fund is not be required to do so. The Diversified Income Fund may indirectly engage in or be exposed to certain of the techniques, instruments and methods described below and the associated risks through its investment in affiliated and unaffiliated investment vehicles, which may vary significantly from time to time.

General Risk Factors—The NAV per share of each Fund is expected to fluctuate, reflecting fluctuations in the market value of its portfolio positions. The value of fixed-income instruments held by a Fund, if applicable, generally fluctuates inversely with interest rate movements. In other words, bond prices generally fall as interest rates rise and generally rise as interest rates fall. Longer term bonds held by a Fund, if applicable, are subject to greater interest rate risk. There is no assurance that a Fund will achieve its investment objective.

American Depositary Receipts (ADRs)—Each of the Funds may purchase ADRs. ADRs are dollar-denominated receipts issued generally by U.S. banks and which represent the deposit with the bank of a foreign company’s securities. ADRs are publicly traded on exchanges or over-the-counter in the United States. Investors should consider carefully the substantial risks involved in investing in securities issued by companies of foreign nations, which are in addition to the usual risks inherent in domestic investments. See “Foreign Investment Risks,” below. ADRs, European Depositary Receipts (“EDRs”) and Global Depositary Receipts (“GDRs”) or other securities convertible into securities of issuers

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based in foreign countries are not necessarily denominated in the same currency as the securities into which they may be converted. In general, ADRs, in registered form, are denominated in U.S. dollars and are designed for use in the U.S. securities markets, while EDRs (also referred to as Continental Depositary Receipts (“CDRs”)), in bearer form, may be denominated in other currencies and are designed for use in European securities markets. ADRs are receipts typically issued by a U.S. bank or trust company evidencing ownership of the underlying securities. EDRs are European receipts evidencing a similar arrangement. GDRs are global receipts evidencing a similar arrangement. For purposes of the Funds’ investment policies, ADRs, EDRs and GDRs usually are deemed to have the same classification as the underlying securities they represent. Thus, an ADR, EDR or GDR representing ownership of common stock will be treated as common stock.

Depositary receipts are issued through “sponsored” or “unsponsored” facilities. A sponsored facility is established jointly by the issuer of the underlying security and a depositary, whereas a depositary may establish an unsponsored facility without participation by the issuer of the deposited security. Holders of unsponsored depositary receipts generally bear all the cost of such facilities, and the depositary of an unsponsored facility frequently is under no obligation to distribute shareholder communications received from the issuer of the deposited security or to pass through voting rights to the holders of such receipts in respect of the deposited securities.

Asset-Backed Securities—A Fund may also invest in any level of the capital structure of “asset-backed securities,” which are securities that represent an interest in a pool of assets. These include secured debt instruments collateralized by automobile loans, credit card loans, home equity loans, manufactured housing loans, syndicated bank loans, and other types of debt providing the source of both principal and interest. On occasion, the pool of assets may also include a swap obligation, which is used to change the cash flows on the underlying assets. As an example, a swap may be used to allow floating rate assets to back a fixed rate obligation. The credit quality of an asset-backed security depends primarily on the quality of the underlying assets, the level of credit support, if any, provided by the issuer, and the credit quality of the swap counterparty, if any. Asset-backed securities (“ABS”) are subject to risks similar to those discussed below with respect to mortgage-backed securities (“MBS”).

Automobile Receivable Securities. Asset-backed securities may be backed by receivables from motor vehicle installment sales contracts or installment loans secured by motor vehicles (“Automobile Receivable Securities”). Since installment sales contracts for motor vehicles or installment loans related thereto (“Automobile Contracts”) typically have shorter durations and lower incidences of prepayment, Automobile Receivable Securities generally will exhibit a shorter average life and are less susceptible to prepayment risk. Delinquencies and losses on sub-prime and non-prime automobile loans have increased in recent years and, as a result, issuers of ABS backed by such loans may be adversely affected in their ability to continue to make principal and interest payments.

Most entities that issue Automobile Receivable Securities create an enforceable interest in their respective Automobile Contracts only by filing a financing statement and by having the servicer of the Automobile Contracts, which is usually the originator of the Automobile Contracts, take custody thereof. In such circumstances, if the servicer of the Automobile Contracts were to sell the same Automobile Contracts to another party, in violation of its obligation not to do so, there is a risk that such party could acquire an interest in the Automobile Contracts superior to that of the holders of Automobile Receivable Securities. Although most Automobile Contracts grant a security interest in the motor vehicle being financed, in most states the security interest in a motor vehicle must be noted on the certificate of title to create an enforceable security interest against competing claims of other parties. Due to the large number of vehicles involved, however, the certificate of title to each vehicle financed, pursuant to the Automobile Contracts underlying the Automobile Receivable Security, usually is not amended to reflect the assignment of the seller’s security interest for the benefit of the holders of the Automobile Receivable Securities. Therefore, there is the possibility that recoveries on repossessed collateral may not, in some cases, be available to support payments on the securities. In addition, various state and federal securities laws give the motor vehicle owner the right to assert against

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the holder of the owner’s Automobile Contract certain defenses such owner would have against the seller of the motor vehicle. The assertion of such defenses could reduce payments on the Automobile Receivable Securities.

Credit Card Receivable Securities. Asset-backed securities may be backed by receivables from revolving credit card agreements (“Credit Card Receivable Securities”). Credit balances on revolving credit card agreements (“Accounts”) are generally paid down more rapidly than are Automobile Contracts. Most of the Credit Card Receivable Securities issued publicly to date have been pass-through certificates. In order to lengthen the maturity of Credit Card Receivable Securities, most such securities provide for a fixed period during which only interest payments on the underlying Accounts are passed through to the security holder, and principal payments received on such Accounts are used to fund the transfer to the pool of assets supporting the related Credit Card Receivable Securities of additional credit card charges made on an Account. The initial fixed period usually may be shortened upon the occurrence of specified events which signal a potential deterioration in the quality of the assets backing the security, such as the imposition of a cap on interest rates. The ability of the issuer to extend the life of an issue of Credit Card Receivable Securities thus depends upon the continued generation of additional principal amounts in the underlying accounts during the initial period and the non-occurrence of specified events. An acceleration in cardholders’ payment rates or any other event that shortens the period during which additional credit card charges on an Account may be transferred to the pool of assets supporting the related Credit Card Receivable Security could shorten the weighted average life and yield of the Credit Card Receivable Security.

Credit cardholders are entitled to the protection of a number of state and federal consumer credit laws, many of which give such holders the right to set off certain amounts against balances owed on the credit card, thereby reducing amounts paid on Accounts. In addition, unlike most other Asset-backed securities, Accounts are unsecured obligations of the cardholder.

Methods of Allocating Cash Flows. While many asset-backed securities are issued with only one class of security, many asset-backed securities are issued in more than one class, each with different payment terms. Multiple class asset-backed securities are issued for two main reasons. First, multiple classes may be used as a method of providing credit support. This is accomplished typically through creation of one or more classes whose right to payments on the asset-backed security is made subordinate to the right to such payments of the remaining class or classes (See “Types of Credit Support”). Second, multiple classes may permit the issuance of securities with payment terms, interest rates or other characteristics differing both from those of each other and from those of the underlying assets. Examples include so-called “strips” (asset-backed securities entitling the holder to disproportionate interests with respect to the allocation of interest and principal of the assets backing the security) and securities with a class or classes having characteristics which mimic the characteristics of non-asset-backed securities, such as floating interest rates (i.e., interest rates which adjust as a specified benchmark changes) or scheduled amortization of principal.

Asset-backed securities in which the payment streams on the underlying assets are allocated in a manner different than those described above may be issued in the future. The Fund may invest in such asset-backed securities if such investment is otherwise consistent with its investment objectives and policies and with the investment restrictions of the Fund.

Types of Credit Support. Asset-backed securities are often backed by a pool of assets representing the obligations of a number of different parties. To lessen the effect of failures by obligors on underlying assets to make payments, such securities may contain elements of credit support. Such credit support falls into two classes: liquidity protection and protection against ultimate default by an obligor on the underlying assets. Liquidity protection refers to the provision of advances, generally by the entity administering the pool of assets, to ensure that scheduled payments on the underlying pool are made in a timely fashion. Protection against ultimate default ensures ultimate payment of the obligations on at least a portion of the assets in the pool. Such protection may be provided through guarantees, insurance policies or letters of credit obtained from third parties, through various means of structuring

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the transaction or through a combination of such approaches. Examples of asset-backed securities with credit support arising out of the structure of the transaction include “senior-subordinated securities” (multiple class asset-backed securities with certain classes subordinate to other classes as to the payment of principal thereon, with the result that defaults on the underlying assets are borne first by the holders of the subordinated class) and asset-backed securities that have “reserve portfolios” (where cash or investments, sometimes funded from a portion of the initial payments on the underlying assets, are held in reserve against future losses) or that have been “over collateralized” (where the scheduled payments on, or the principal amount of, the underlying assets substantially exceeds that required to make payment of the asset-backed securities and pay any servicing or other fees). The degree of credit support provided on each issue is based generally on historical information respecting the level of credit risk associated with such payments. Delinquency or loss in excess of that anticipated could adversely affect the return on an investment in an asset-backed security. Additionally, if the letter of credit is exhausted, holders of asset-backed securities may also experience delays in payments or losses if the full amounts due on underlying sales contracts are not realized.
Borrowing—A Fund may borrow money from banks as a temporary measure for emergency purposes, to facilitate redemption requests, or for other purposes consistent with the Fund’s investment objective and program. For example, it may be advantageous for a Fund to borrow money rather than sell existing portfolio positions to meet redemption requests. As recognized by the SEC, a line of credit can enhance a Fund’s ability to manage liquidity risk and to meet shareholder redemption requests.
Accordingly, a Fund may borrow from banks and may borrow through reverse repurchase agreements, derivatives, unfunded commitments and “roll” transactions in connection with meeting requests for the redemption of Fund shares. To the extent that a Fund purchases securities while it has outstanding borrowings, it is using leverage, i.e., using borrowed funds for investment. Leveraging will exaggerate the effect on NAV of any increase or decrease in the market value of a Fund’s portfolio. Money borrowed for leveraging will be subject to interest costs that may or may not be recovered by any interest or appreciation earned on the securities purchased; in certain cases, interest costs may exceed the return received on the securities purchased. When market conditions are deemed appropriate, a Fund may use leveraging as part of its investment strategy to the full extent permitted by its investment policies and restrictions and applicable law. A Fund also may be required to maintain minimum average balances in connection with such borrowing or to pay a commitment or other fee to maintain a line of credit; either of these requirements would increase the cost of borrowing over the stated interest rate. The Funds' policy on borrowing is not intended to limit the ability to pledge assets to secure loans as may be permitted under the Funds’ policies.
The Funds have established a line of credit with certain banks from which they may borrow funds for temporary or emergency purposes. The Funds may use lines of credit to meet large or unexpected redemptions that would otherwise force the Funds to liquidate securities under circumstances which are unfavorable to the Funds’ remaining shareholders. The Funds may be required to pay fees to the banks to maintain the lines of credit, which increases the cost of borrowing over the stated interest rate.
Certificates of Deposit and Bankers’ Acceptances—Certificates of deposit are receipts issued by a depository institution in exchange for the deposit of funds. The issuer agrees to pay the amount deposited plus interest to the bearer of the receipt on the date specified on the certificate. The certificate usually can be traded in the secondary market prior to maturity. Bankers’ acceptances typically arise from short-term credit arrangements designed to enable businesses to obtain funds to finance commercial transactions. Generally, an acceptance is a time draft drawn on a bank by an exporter or an importer to obtain a stated amount of funds to pay for specific merchandise. The draft is then “accepted” by a bank that, in effect, unconditionally guarantees to pay the face value of the instrument on its maturity date. The acceptance may then be held by the accepting bank as an earning asset or it may be sold in the secondary market at the going rate of discount for a specific maturity. Although maturities for acceptances can be as long as 270 days, most acceptances have maturities of six months or less.

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Collateralized Debt Obligations (“CDOs”)—A CDO is an asset-backed security whose underlying collateral is typically a portfolio of bonds, bank loans, commercial real estate, other structured finance securities and/or synthetic instruments. Where the underlying collateral is a portfolio of bonds, a CDO is referred to as a collateralized bond obligation (“CBO”). Where the underlying collateral is a portfolio of bank loans, a CDO is referred to as a collateralized loan obligation (“CLO”). Investors in CDOs bear the credit risk of the underlying collateral. Multiple tranches of securities are issued by the CDO, offering investors various maturity and credit risk characteristics. Tranches are categorized as senior, mezzanine, and subordinated/equity, according to their degree of risk. If there are defaults or the CDO’s collateral otherwise underperforms, scheduled payments to senior tranches take precedence over those of mezzanine tranches, and scheduled payments to mezzanine tranches take precedence over those to subordinated/equity tranches. CDOs are subject to the same risk of prepayment described with respect to certain mortgage-related and asset-backed securities. The value of CDOs may be affected by changes in the market’s perception of the creditworthiness of the servicing agent for the pool or the originator.
Certain Funds may invest in CLOs, which are another type of asset-backed security. A CLO is a trust or other special purpose entity that is comprised of or collateralized by a pool of loans, including domestic and non-U.S. senior secured loans, senior unsecured loans and subordinate corporate loans, including loans that may be rated below investment grade or equivalent unrated loans. The loans generate cash flow that is allocated among one or more classes of securities (“tranches”) that vary in risk and yield. The most senior tranche has the best credit quality and the lowest yield compared to the other tranches. The equity tranche has the highest potential yield but also has the greatest risk, as it bears the bulk of defaults from the underlying loans and helps to protect the more senior tranches from risk of these defaults. However, despite the protection from the equity and other more junior tranches, more senior tranches can experience substantial losses due to actual defaults and decreased market value due to collateral default and disappearance of protecting tranches, market anticipation of defaults, as well as aversion to CLO securities as a class.
Normally, CLOs are privately offered and sold and are not registered under state or federal securities laws. Therefore, investments in CLOs may be classified as illiquid investments; however, an active dealer market may exist for CLOs allowing a CLO to qualify for transactions pursuant to Rule 144A under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “1933 Act”). CLOs normally charge management fees and administrative expenses, which are in addition to those of the Funds.
The riskiness of investing in CLOs depends largely on the quality and type of the collateral loans and the tranche of the CLO in which a Fund invests. In addition to the normal risks associated with fixed-income securities (such as interest rate risk and credit risk), CLOs carry risks including, but are not limited to: (i) the possibility that distributions from the collateral will not be adequate to make interest or other payments; (ii) the quality of the collateral may decline in value or default; (iii) the Funds may invest in CLO tranches that are subordinate to other tranches; and (iv) the complex structure of the CLO may not be fully understood at the time of investment or may result in the quality of the underlying collateral not being fully understood and may produce disputes with the issuer or unexpected investment results. In addition, interest on certain tranches of a CLO may be paid in-kind (meaning that unpaid interest is effectively added to principal), which involves continued exposure to default risk with respect to such payments. Certain CLOs may receive credit enhancement in the form of a senior-subordinate structure, over-collateralization or bond insurance, but such enhancement may not always be present and may fail to protect the Funds against the risk of loss due to defaults on the collateral. Certain CLOs may not hold loans directly, but rather, use derivatives such as swaps to create “synthetic” exposure to the collateral pool of loans. Such CLOs entail the risks of derivative instruments.
Collectibles—The Limited Duration Fund, Macro Opportunities Fund and Diversified Income Fund (indirectly) may invest in collectibles, which are rare objects collected by investors. They can include stamps, coins, books, oriental rugs, antiques, sports and other memorabilia, photographs, art and wine. Collectibles are generally expected to rise in value during inflationary periods when investors are trying to move to assets viewed as an inflation hedge. Generally,

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collectibles can be expected to drop in value during periods of low inflation. Collectible trading for profit is subject to certain risks and other considerations, including that collectibles: (i) have limited buying and selling markets; (ii) are often bought and sold at auction and subject to buyer and/or seller premiums; (iii) experience periods of high and low demand; (iv) must be insured, physically held and properly maintained; (v) may need to have their authenticity and provenance verified from time to time; and (vi) may not have accurate market valuations available. The Limited Duration Fund and Macro Opportunities Fund do not currently intend to invest more than 5% of their total assets in collectibles and would only do so in conformity with applicable laws and after consideration of tax consequences.

Commercial Paper—The Funds may invest in commercial paper. The Funds may invest in fixed rate or variable rate commercial paper, issued by U.S. or foreign entities. Commercial paper consists of short-term (usually from 1 to 270 days), unsecured promissory notes issued by U.S. or foreign corporations in order to finance their current operations. Any commercial paper issued by a foreign entity corporation and purchased by the Funds must be U.S. dollar-denominated and must not be subject to foreign withholding tax at the time of purchase.

Investing in foreign commercial paper generally involves risks relating to obligations of foreign banks or foreign branches and subsidiaries of U.S. and foreign banks.

The Funds may invest in commercial paper collateralized by other financial assets, such as asset-backed commercial paper. These securities are exposed not only to the risks relating to commercial paper, but also the risks relating to the collateral.

The Funds may also invest in variable rate master demand notes. A variable rate master demand note (a type of commercial paper) represents a direct borrowing arrangement involving periodically fluctuating rates of interest under a letter agreement between a commercial paper issuer and an institutional lender pursuant to which the lender may determine to invest varying amounts.
Commodities—The Macro Opportunities Fund may invest in commodities. Commodities are assets that have tangible properties, such as oil, agricultural products and precious metals. The value of commodities may be affected by, among other things, changes in overall market movements, commodity index volatility, changes in interest rates, or factors affecting a particular industry or commodity, such as drought, floods, weather, livestock disease, embargoes, tariffs and international economic, political and regulatory developments. These factors may have a larger impact on commodity prices and commodity-linked instruments than on traditional securities. Certain commodities are also subject to limited pricing flexibility because of supply and demand factors. Others are subject to broad price fluctuations as a result of the volatility of the prices for certain raw materials and the instability of supplies of other materials. These additional variables may create additional risks which subject the Fund’s investments to greater volatility than investments in traditional securities.
Commodities-Linked Investments Risk—In order to gain exposure to the commodities markets, the Macro Opportunities Fund may invest directly in physical commodities in addition to indirect investments in commodities-linked or related instruments. The performance of commodity-linked notes and related investments may depend on the performance of the overall commodities markets and on other factors that affect the value of commodities noted above. Commodity-linked notes may be leveraged. For example, the price of a three-times leveraged note may change by a magnitude of three for every percentage change (positive or negative) in the value of the underlying index. Commodity-linked investments may be hybrid instruments that can have substantial risk of loss with respect to both principal and interest. Commodity-linked investments may be more volatile and less liquid than the underlying commodity, instruments, or measures, are subject to the credit risks associated with the issuer, and their values may decline substantially if the issuer’s creditworthiness deteriorates. As a result, returns of commodity-linked investments may deviate significantly from the return of the underlying commodity, instruments, or measures. Legal and regulatory changes also can affect the value of these investments. They can also generate tax risks.

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Convertible Securities and Warrants—A convertible security is a bond, debenture, note, preferred stock, or other security that entitles the holder to acquire common stock or other equity securities of the same or a different issuer. A convertible security generally entitles the holder to receive interest paid or accrued until the convertible security matures or is redeemed, converted or exchanged. Before conversion, convertible securities have characteristics similar to non-convertible debt or preferred securities, as applicable. Convertible securities rank senior to common stock in a corporation’s capital structure and, therefore, generally entail less risk than the corporation’s common stock, although the extent to which such risk is reduced depends in large measure upon the degree to which the convertible security sells above its value as a fixed-income security. Convertible securities are subordinate in rank to any senior debt obligations of the issuer, and, therefore, an issuer’s convertible securities entail more risk than its debt obligations. Convertible securities generally offer lower interest or dividend yields than non-convertible debt securities of similar credit quality because of the potential for capital appreciation. In addition, convertible securities are often lower-rated securities.

Because of the conversion feature, the price of the convertible security will normally fluctuate in some proportion to changes in the price of the underlying asset, and as such is subject to risks relating to the activities of the issuer and/or general market and economic conditions. The income component of a convertible security may tend to cushion the security against declines in the price of the underlying asset. However, the income component of convertible securities causes fluctuations based upon changes in interest rates and the credit quality of the issuer.

Warrants are options to buy a stated number of shares of common stock at a specified price any time during the life of the warrants (generally two or more years).

Credit Derivative Transactions—The Funds may engage in credit derivative transactions. Credit default derivatives are linked to the price of reference securities or loans after a default by the issuer or borrower, respectively. Market spread derivatives are based on the risk that changes in market factors, such as credit spreads, can cause a decline in the value of a security, loan or index. There are three basic transactional forms for credit derivatives: swaps, options and structured instruments. The use of credit derivatives is a highly specialized activity which involves strategies and risks different from those associated with ordinary portfolio security transactions. When a Fund engages in a credit derivative transaction, it may have to earmark or segregate cash or liquid securities, and mark the same on a daily basis, in an amount necessary to comply with applicable regulatory requirements.

A Fund may invest in credit default swap transactions and credit-linked notes (described below) for hedging and investment purposes. The “buyer” in a credit default swap contract is obligated to pay the “seller” a periodic stream of payments over the term of the contract provided that no event of default on an underlying reference obligation has occurred. If an event of default occurs, the seller must pay the buyer the full notional value, or “par value,” of the reference obligation. Credit default swap transactions are either “physical delivery” settled or “cash” settled. Physical delivery entails the actual delivery of the reference asset to the seller in exchange for the payment of the full par value of the reference asset. Cash settled entails a net cash payment from the seller to the buyer based on the difference of the par value of the reference asset and the current value of the reference asset that may, after default, have lost some, most, or all of its value.

A Fund may be either the buyer or seller in a credit default swap transaction and generally will be a buyer in instances in which the Fund actually owns the underlying debt security and seeks to hedge against the risk of default in that debt security. If a Fund is a buyer and no event of default occurs, the Fund will have made a series of periodic payments (in an amount more or less than the value of the cash flows received on the underlying debt security) and recover nothing of monetary value. However, if an event of default occurs, the Fund (if the buyer) will receive the full notional value of the reference obligation either through a cash payment in exchange for such asset or a cash payment in addition to owning the reference asset. A Fund generally will be a seller when it seeks to take the credit

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risk of a particular debt security and, as a seller, the Fund receives a fixed rate of income throughout the term of the contract, which typically is between six months and ten years, provided that there is no event of default. If an event of default occurs, the seller must pay the buyer the full notional value of the reference obligation through either physical settlement and/or cash settlement. Credit default swap transactions involve greater risks than if the Fund had invested in the reference obligation directly, including counterparty credit risk and leverage risk.

Cyber Security and Operational Risk—Like other funds and other parts of the modern economy, the Funds and their service providers, as well as exchanges and market participants through or with which the Funds trade and other infrastructures, services and parties on which the Funds or their service providers rely, are susceptible to ongoing risks and threats resulting from and related to cyber incidents. Cyber incidents can result from unintentional events (such as an inadvertent release of confidential information) or deliberate attacks by insiders or third parties, including cyber criminals, competitors, nation-states and “hacktivists,” and can be perpetrated by a variety of complex means, including the use of stolen access credentials, malware or other computer viruses, ransomware, phishing, structured query language injection attacks, and distributed denial of service attacks, among other means. Cyber incidents may result in actual or potential adverse consequences for critical information and communications technology, systems and networks that are vital to the Funds’ or their service providers’ operations or otherwise impair Fund or service provider operations. For example, a cyber incident may cause operational disruptions and failures impacting information systems or information that a system processes, stores, or transmits, such as by theft, damage or destruction, or corruption or modification of and denial of access to data maintained online or digitally, denial of service on websites rendering the websites unavailable to intended users or not accessible for such users in a timely manner, and the unauthorized release or other exploitation of confidential information.

A cyber incident could adversely impact a Fund and its shareholders by, among other things, interfering with the processing of shareholder transactions or other operational functionality, impacting a Fund’s ability to calculate its net asset value or other data, causing the release of private shareholder information (i.e., identity theft or other privacy breaches) or confidential Fund information or otherwise compromising the security and reliability of information, impeding trading, causing reputational damage, and subjecting a Fund to regulatory fines, penalties or financial losses, reimbursement or other compensation or remediation costs, litigation expenses and additional compliance and cyber security risk management costs, which may be substantial. A cyber incident could also adversely affect the ability of a Fund (and its Investment Manager) to invest or manage the Fund’s assets.

Although the Funds and their service providers, as well as exchanges and market participants through or with which the Funds trade and other infrastructures on which the Funds or their service providers rely, may have established business continuity plans and systems reasonably designed to protect from and/or defend against the risks or adverse consequences associated with cyber incidents, there are inherent limitations in these plans and systems, including that certain risks may not yet be identified, in large part because different or unknown threats may emerge in the future and the threats continue to rapidly evolve and increase in sophistication. As a result, it is not possible to anticipate and prevent every cyber incident and attempts to mitigate the occurrence or impact of a cyber incident may be unsuccessful. The nature, extent, and potential magnitude of the adverse consequences of a cyber incident cannot be predicted accurately but may result in significant risks and costs to the Funds and their shareholders.

The issuers of securities in which a Fund invests are also subject to the ongoing risks and threats associated with cyber incidents. These incidents could result in adverse consequences for such issuers, and may cause the Fund’s investment in such securities to lose value. For example, a cyber incident involving an issuer may include the theft, destruction or misappropriation of financial assets, intellectual property or other sensitive information belonging to the issuer or their customers (i.e., identity theft or other privacy breaches). As a result, the issuer may experience the types of adverse consequences summarized above, among others (such as loss of revenue), despite having implemented preventative and other measures reasonably designed to protect from and/or defend against the risks or adverse effects associated with cyber incidents.

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The Funds’ and their service providers, as well as exchanges and market participants through or with which the Funds trade and other infrastructures on which the Funds or their service providers rely, are also subject to the risks associated with technological and operational disruptions or failures arising from, for example, processing errors and human errors, inadequate or failed internal or external processes, failures in systems and technology, errors in algorithms used with respect to the Funds, changes in personnel, and errors caused by third parties or trading counterparties. Although the Funds attempt to minimize such failures through controls and oversight, it is not possible to identify all of the operational risks that may affect a Fund or to develop processes and controls that completely eliminate or mitigate the occurrence of such failures or other disruptions in service.

Cyber incidents and operational errors or failures or other technological issues may adversely affect a Fund’s ability to calculate its net asset value correctly, in a timely manner or process trades or Fund or shareholder transactions, including over a potentially extended period. The Funds do not control the cyber security or other operational defense plans or systems of its service providers, intermediaries, companies in which it invests or other third-parties. The value of an investment in Fund shares may be adversely affected by the occurrence of the cyber incidents and operational errors or failures or technological issues summarized above or other similar events and the Funds and their shareholders may bear costs tied to these risks.

Debt Obligations—Yields on short, intermediate, and long-term securities are dependent on a variety of factors, including the general conditions of the money and bond markets, the size of a particular offering, the maturity of the obligation, and the rating of the issue. Debt securities with longer maturities tend to produce higher yields and are generally subject to potentially greater capital appreciation and depreciation than obligations with shorter maturities and lower yields. The market prices of debt securities usually vary, depending upon available yields. An increase in interest rates will generally reduce the value of portfolio investments, and a decline in interest rates will generally increase the value of portfolio investments. The ability of a Fund to achieve its investment objectives is also dependent on the continuing ability of the issuers of the debt securities in which the Fund invests to meet their obligations for the payment of interest and principal when due.

Derivatives Regulatory Risk—The laws and regulations that apply to derivatives (e.g., swaps, futures, etc.) and persons who use them (including a Fund, the Investment Managers and others) are rapidly changing in the U.S. and abroad. As a result, restrictions and additional regulations may be imposed on these parties, trading restrictions may be adopted and additional trading costs are possible. The impact of these changes on any of the Funds and their investment strategies is not yet fully ascertainable.

In particular, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the “Dodd-Frank Act”), was signed into law in July 2010. Title VII of the Dodd-Frank Act sets forth a new legislative framework for over-the-counter (“OTC”) derivatives, including financial instruments, such as swaps, in which the Funds may invest. Title VII of the Dodd-Frank Act makes broad changes to the OTC derivatives market, grants significant new authority to the Commodity Futures Trading Commission ("CFTC") and the SEC to regulate OTC derivatives ("swaps" and "security-based swaps") and market participants, and requires clearing and exchange trading of many OTC derivatives transactions.

Provisions in the Dodd-Frank Act also include new capital and margin requirements and the mandatory use of clearinghouse mechanisms for and exchange trading of many OTC derivative transactions. The CFTC, SEC and other federal regulators have been tasked with developing the rules and regulations enacting the provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act. Because there is a prescribed phase-in period during which most of the mandated rulemaking and regulations are being implemented, it is not possible at this time to gauge the exact nature and scope of the impact of the Dodd-Frank Act on any of the Funds. However, swap dealers, major market participants and swap counterparties are experiencing additional regulations, requirements, compliance burdens and associated costs. The new law and

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the rules may negatively impact a Fund’s ability to meet its investment objective either through limits or requirements imposed on it or upon its counterparties. In particular, new position limits that may be imposed on a Fund or its counterparties may impact that Fund’s ability to invest in futures, options and swaps in a manner that efficiently meets its investment objective. New requirements, even if not directly applicable to the Funds, including capital requirements, changes to the CFTC speculative position limits regime and mandatory clearing, exchange trading and margin requirements may increase the cost of a Fund’s investments and cost of doing business, which would adversely affect investors.

Except with respect to Alpha Opportunity Fund, Macro Opportunities Fund, StylePlus—Large Core Fund and StylePlus—Mid Growth Fund, the Trust, on behalf of each Fund, has filed with the National Futures Association a notice of eligibility claiming an exclusion from the definition of “commodity pool operator” (“CPO”) under CFTC Rule 4.5 under the Commodity Exchange Act, as amended (the "CEA"), with respect to each Fund’s operation. Accordingly, each Fund that has filed such a notice and Security Investors or GPIM with respect to each such Fund are not subject to registration or regulation as a commodity pool or CPO. Changes to a Fund’s investment strategies or investments may cause the Fund to lose the benefits of the exclusion under CFTC Rule 4.5 under the CEA and may trigger additional CFTC regulation. If a Fund becomes subject to CFTC regulation, the Fund or its Investment Manager may incur additional expenses.

Equity Securities—Equity securities, such as common stock, represent an ownership interest, or the right to acquire an ownership interest, in an issuer. Common stock generally takes the form of shares in a corporation. The value of a company’s stock may fall as a result of factors directly relating to that company, such as decisions made by its management or lower demand for the company’s products or services. A stock’s value also may fall because of factors affecting not just the company, but also companies in the same industry or in a number of different industries, such as increases in production costs. The value of a company’s stock also may be affected by changes in financial markets that are relatively unrelated to the company or its industry, such as changes in interest rates or currency exchange rates. In addition, a company’s stock generally pays dividends only after the company invests in its own business and makes required payments to holders of its bonds, other debt and preferred stock. For this reason, the value of a company’s stock will usually react more strongly than its bonds, other debt and preferred stock to actual or perceived changes in the company’s financial condition or prospects. Stocks of smaller companies may be more vulnerable to adverse developments than those of larger companies. Stocks of companies that the portfolio managers believe are fast-growing may trade at a higher multiple of current earnings than other stocks. The value of such stocks may be more sensitive to changes in current or expected earnings than the values of other stocks.

Equity-Linked Securities—The Funds may invest in equity-linked securities which are primarily used as an alternative means to access the securities markets of emerging market countries more efficiently and effectively. Equity-linked securities may also be known as participation notes, equity swaps, and zero strike calls and warrants. Equity-linked securities are privately issued securities whose investment results are designed to correspond generally to the performance of a specified stock index or “basket” of stocks, or sometimes a single stock. A Fund deposits an amount of cash with its custodian (or broker, if legally permitted) in an amount near or equal to the selling price of the underlying security in exchange for an equity-linked security. Upon sale, the Fund receives cash from the broker or custodian equal to the current value of the underlying security. Aside from market risk of the underlying security, there is the risk that the issuer of an equity-linked security may default on its obligation under the security. In addition, while the Fund will seek to enter into such transactions only with parties that are capable of entering into closing transactions with the Fund, there can be no assurance that the Fund will be able to close out such a transaction with the other party or obtain an offsetting position with any other party, at any time prior to the end of the term of the underlying agreement. This may impair a Fund’s ability to enter into other transactions at a time when doing so might be advantageous.


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Foreign Investment Risks—Investment in foreign securities involves risks and considerations not present in domestic investments. Foreign companies generally are not subject to uniform accounting, auditing and financial reporting standards, practices and requirements comparable to those applicable to U.S. companies. The securities of non-U.S. issuers generally are not registered with the SEC, nor are the issuers thereof usually subject to the SEC’s reporting requirements. Accordingly, there may be less publicly available information about foreign securities and issuers than is available with respect to U.S. securities and issuers. Foreign securities markets, while growing in volume, have for the most part substantially less volume than United States securities markets, and securities of foreign companies are generally less liquid and at times their prices may be more volatile than prices of comparable United States companies. Foreign stock exchanges, brokers and listed companies generally are subject to less government supervision and regulation than in the United States. The customary settlement time for foreign securities may be longer than the customary settlement time for United States securities. A Fund’s income and gains from foreign issuers may be subject to non-U.S. withholding or other taxes, thereby reducing its income and gains. In addition, with respect to some foreign countries, there is the increased possibility of expropriation or confiscatory taxation, limitations on the removal of funds or other assets of the Fund, political or social instability, or diplomatic developments which could affect the investments of the Fund in those countries, including the imposition of economic sanctions. Moreover, individual foreign economies may differ favorably or unfavorably from the U.S. economy in such respects as growth of gross national product, rate of inflation, rate of savings and capital reinvestment, resource self-sufficiency and balance of payments positions.

Adverse Market Characteristics. Securities of many foreign issuers may be less liquid and their prices more volatile than securities of comparable U.S. issuers. In addition, foreign securities exchanges and brokers generally are subject to less governmental supervision and regulation than in the U.S., and foreign securities exchange transactions usually are subject to fixed commissions, which generally are higher than negotiated commissions on U.S. transactions. In addition, foreign securities exchange transactions may be subject to difficulties associated with the settlement of such transactions. Delays in settlement could result in temporary periods when assets of the Fund are uninvested and no return is earned thereon. The inability of the Fund to make intended security purchases due to settlement problems could cause it to miss attractive opportunities. Inability to dispose of a portfolio security due to settlement problems either could result in losses to the Fund due to subsequent declines in value of the portfolio security or, if the Fund has entered into a contract to sell the security, could result in possible liability to the purchaser. The Investment Managers (or Sub-Adviser, if applicable) will consider such difficulties when determining the allocation of the Fund’s assets.

Australia. Australia’s agriculture and mining sectors account for a significant portion of its economy, making its economy—and in turn, a Fund’s investments—particularly susceptible to adverse changes in these sectors. In addition, Australia’s economy is heavily dependent on international trade, meaning the economic conditions of trading partners such as the U.S., Asia and other regions or specific countries may affect the value of a Fund’s investments. Australia is also prone to natural disasters such as floods and droughts, and a Fund’s investments in Australia may be more likely to be affected by such events than its investments in other geographic regions.

Brady Bonds. The Funds may invest in “Brady Bonds,” which are debt restructurings that provide for the exchange of cash and loans for newly issued bonds. Brady Bonds are securities created through the exchange of existing commercial bank loans to public and private entities in certain emerging markets for new bonds in connection with debt restructuring under a debt restructuring plan introduced by former U.S. Secretary of the Treasury, Nicholas F. Brady. Investors should recognize that Brady Bonds have been issued only recently and, accordingly, do not have a long payment history. Brady Bonds may be collateralized or uncollateralized, are issued in various currencies (primarily the U.S. dollar) and are actively traded in the secondary market for Latin American debt.

U.S. dollar-denominated, collateralized Brady Bonds, which may be fixed rate par bonds or floating rate discount bonds, are collateralized in full as to principal by U.S. Treasury zero coupon bonds having the same maturity as the

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bonds. Interest payments on such bonds generally are collateralized by cash or securities in an amount that, in the case of fixed rate bonds, is equal to at least one year of rolling interest payments or, in the case of floating rate bonds, initially is equal to at least one year’s rolling interest payments based on the applicable interest rate at the time and is adjusted at regular intervals thereafter.

Costs. Investors should understand that the expense ratio of Funds investing in foreign securities can be expected to be higher than investment companies investing in domestic securities since the cost of maintaining the custody of foreign securities and the rate of advisory fees paid by these Funds are higher.

Currency Fluctuations. Because certain Funds, under normal circumstances, may invest substantial portions of their total assets in the securities of foreign issuers which are denominated in foreign currencies, the strength or weakness of the U.S. dollar against such foreign currencies will account for part of the Fund’s investment performance. A decline in the value of any particular currency against the U.S. dollar will cause a decline in the U.S. dollar value of the Fund’s holdings of securities denominated in such currency and, therefore, will cause an overall decline in the Fund’s NAV and any net investment income and capital gains to be distributed in U.S. dollars to shareholders of the Fund.

The rate of exchange between the U.S. dollar and other currencies is determined by several factors including the supply and demand for particular currencies, central bank efforts to support particular currencies, the movement of interest rates, the pace of business activity in certain other countries and the U.S., and other economic and financial conditions affecting the world economy.

Although the Funds value their assets daily in terms of U.S. dollars, the Funds do not intend to convert holdings of foreign currencies into U.S. dollars on a daily basis. A Fund will do so from time to time, and investors should be aware of the costs of currency conversion. Although foreign exchange dealers do not charge a fee for conversion, they do realize a profit based on the difference (“spread”) between the prices at which they are buying and selling various currencies. Thus, a dealer may offer to sell a foreign currency to the Fund at one rate, while offering a lesser rate of exchange should the Fund desire to sell that currency to the dealer.

Eastern Europe. Social, political and economic changes occurring in Eastern Europe and Russia could have long-term potential consequences for investments in this region. As restrictions fall, this could result in rising standards of living, lower manufacturing costs, growing consumer spending, and substantial economic growth. However, investment in the countries of Eastern Europe and Russia is highly speculative. Political and economic reforms are too recent to establish a definite trend away from centrally-planned economies and state-owned industries. In many of the countries of Eastern Europe and Russia, there is no stock exchange or formal market for securities. Such countries may also have government exchange controls, currencies with no recognizable market value relative to the established currencies of western market economies, little or no experience in trading in securities, no financial reporting standards, a lack of a banking and securities infrastructure to handle such trading, and a legal tradition which does not recognize rights in private property. In addition, these countries may have national policies which restrict investments in companies deemed sensitive to the country’s national interest. Further, the governments in such countries may require governmental or quasi-governmental authorities to act as custodian of the Fund’s assets invested in such countries, and these authorities may not qualify as a foreign custodian under the 1940 Act, and exemptive relief from such Act may be required. All of these considerations are among the factors which could cause significant risks and uncertainties to investment in Eastern Europe and Russia.
The United States and other countries have imposed sanctions against Russia. In addition, if the United States or other countries impose additional sanctions against Russia or a country in Eastern Europe, or any sectors therein, certain Fund investments in a country or sector subject to sanctions could potentially be limited or face certain liquidity challenges. Sanctions could prohibit a Fund from investing in securities issued by companies subject to such sanctions.

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Sanctions could also require that a Fund freeze its existing investments in these companies, which would prohibit the Fund from selling or transacting in these investments.

Emerging Countries. Certain Funds may invest in debt and equity securities in emerging markets. Investing in securities in emerging countries may entail greater risks than investing in debt securities in developed countries. These risks include: (1) less social, political and economic stability; (2) the small current size of the markets for such securities and the currently low or nonexistent volume of trading, which result in a lack of liquidity and in greater price volatility; (3) certain national policies which may restrict the Fund’s investment opportunities, including restrictions on investment in issuers or industries deemed sensitive to national interests; (4) foreign taxation; and (5) the absence of developed structures governing private or foreign investment or allowing for judicial redress for injury to private property. Sovereign debt of emerging countries may be in default or present a greater risk of default. These risks are heightened for investments in frontier markets.

Each Investment Manager has broad discretion to identify countries that it considers to qualify as “emerging markets.”  In determining whether a country is an emerging market, the Investment Manager may take into account specific or general factors that the Investment Manager deems to be relevant, including interest rates, inflation rates, exchange rates, monetary and fiscal policies, trade and current account balances and/or legal, social and political developments, as well as whether the country is considered to be emerging or developing by supranational organizations such as the World Bank, the United Nations, or other similar entities.  Emerging market countries generally will include countries with low gross national product per capital and the potential for rapid economic growth and are likely to be located in Africa, Asia, the Middle East, Eastern and Central Europe and Central and South America.

Europe. The European Union (“EU”) is an intergovernmental and supranational organization comprised of most Western European countries and an increasing number of Eastern European countries (each such country, a “Member State”). The EU aims to establish and administer a single market among Member States—consisting of a common trade policy and a single currency—and Member States established the European Economic and Monetary Union (“EMU”) in pursuit of this goal. The EMU sets forth certain policies intended to increase economic coordination and monetary cooperation. Many Member States have adopted the EMU’s euro as their currency and other Member States are generally expected to adopt the euro in the future. When a Member State adopts the euro as its currency, the Member State cedes its authority to control monetary policy to the European Central Bank.

Member States, however, face a number of challenges, including, but not limited to: tight fiscal and monetary controls, complications that result from adjustment to a new currency, the absence of exchange rate flexibility, and the loss of economic sovereignty. Unemployment in some European countries has been historically higher than in the United States, potentially exposing investors to political risk. Any or all of these challenges may affect the value of a Fund’s investments.

In addition, changes to the value of the euro against the U.S. dollar could also affect the value of a Fund. Investing in euro-denominated securities, or securities denominated in other European currencies, entails risk of exposure to a currency that may not fully reflect the strengths and weaknesses of the disparate European economies. It is possible that the euro could be abandoned in the future by those countries that have adopted it and the effects of such abandonment on individual countries and the EMU as a whole are uncertain, but could be negative. Any strength in the exchange rate between the euro and the U.S. dollar can have a positive or negative effect upon valuation, and thus upon profits.

A Fund's Europe-linked investments are subject to considerable uncertainty and risk. The economic crisis in recent years triggered recessions among many European countries and weakened the countries’ banking and financial sectors. Several smaller European economies in which a Fund may invest were brought to the brink of bankruptcy. In

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addition, the crisis worsened public deficits across Europe, and some European countries including Greece, Ireland, Italy, Portugal and Spain, in which a Fund may invest may be dependent on assistance from other governments or organizations. Such assistance may be subject to a country’s successful implementation of certain reforms. An insufficient level of assistance (whether triggered by a failure to implement reforms or by any other factor) could cause a deep economic downturn and affect the value of a Fund’s investments.

For some countries, the ability to repay their debt may be in question, and the possibility of default may be heightened, which could affect their ability to borrow in the future. A default or debt restructuring of any European country would adversely impact holders of that country’s debt and sellers of credit default swaps linked to that country’s creditworthiness, which may be located outside the country defaulting or restructuring. Furthermore, there is the fear of contagion that could occur if one country defaults on its debt, and that a default in one country could trigger declines and cause other countries in the region to default as well.

Certain of the larger European economies have shown limited signs of recovery from this recent crisis; however, significant risks still threaten the potential recovery, such as high official debts and deficits, aging populations, over-regulation of non-financial businesses, and doubts about the sustainability of the EMU. In response to the crisis, many countries instituted measures to temporarily increase liquidity. These countries will need to make certain economic and political decisions in order to restore sustainable economic growth and fiscal policy. While many initiatives have been instituted to strengthen regulation and supervision of financial markets in the EU, greater regulation is expected in the near future.

The EU currently faces major issues involving its membership, structure, procedures, and policies, including: the adoption, abandonment, or adjustment of the new constitutional treaty; the EU’s expansion to the south and east; and resolution of the EU’s fiscal and democratic accountability problems. As Member States unify their economic and monetary policies, movements in European markets will lose the benefit of diversification within the region. One or more Member States might exit the EU, placing its currency and banking system in jeopardy. In connection with these uncertainties, currencies have become more volatile, subjecting the Fund’s investments to additional risks.

Brexit. In a June 2016 referendum, citizens of the United Kingdom voted to leave the EU (also known as “Brexit”). On March 29, 2017, the United Kingdom gave its formal notice of withdrawal from the EU to the European Commission, which begins a two-year process of formal withdrawal from the EU. During this period and beyond, the impact on the United Kingdom and Economic and Monetary Union and the broader global economy is unknown but could be significant and could result in increased volatility and illiquidity and potentially lower economic growth. Brexit may have a negative impact on the economy and currency of the United Kingdom and the EU as a result of anticipated, perceived or actual changes to the United Kingdom’s economic and political relations with the EU. Brexit may also have a destabilizing impact on the EU to the extent other member states similarly seek to withdraw from the union. Any further exits from the EU, or the possibility of such exits, would likely cause additional market disruption globally and introduce new legal and regulatory uncertainties. Any or all of these challenges may affect the value of a Fund’s investments that are economically tied to the United Kingdom or the EU, and could have an adverse impact on the Funds’ performance.

Foreign Investment Restrictions. Certain countries prohibit or impose substantial restrictions on investments in their capital markets, particularly their equity markets, by foreign entities such as the Funds. As illustrations, certain countries require governmental approval prior to investments by foreign persons, or limit the amount of investment by foreign persons in a particular company, or limit the investments by foreign persons to only a specific class of securities of a company that may have less advantageous terms than securities of the company available for purchase by nationals. Moreover, the national policies of certain countries may restrict investment opportunities in issuers or industries deemed sensitive to national interests. In addition, some countries require governmental approval for the repatriation of investment income, capital or the proceeds of securities sales by foreign investors. A Fund could be

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adversely affected by delays in, or a refusal to grant, any required governmental approval for repatriation, as well as by the application to it of other restrictions on investments. These restrictions may, at times, limit or preclude investment in certain countries and may increase the costs and expenses of a Fund.

Information and Supervision. There is generally less publicly available information about foreign companies comparable to reports and ratings that are published about companies in the United States. Foreign companies are also generally not subject to uniform accounting, auditing and financial reporting standards, practices and requirements comparable to those applicable to U.S. companies. Foreign companies and financial markets may be subject to government involvement and control, which may adversely affect a Fund.

Investment and Repatriation Restrictions. Foreign investment in the securities markets of certain foreign countries is restricted or controlled in varying degrees. These restrictions may at times limit or preclude investment in certain of such countries and may increase the costs and expenses of a Fund. Investments by foreign investors are subject to a variety of restrictions in many developing countries. These restrictions may take the form of prior governmental approval, limits on the amount or type of securities held by foreigners, and limits on the types of companies in which foreigners may invest. Additional or different restrictions may be imposed at any time by these or other countries in which a Fund invests. In addition, the repatriation of both investment income and capital from several foreign countries is restricted and controlled under certain regulations, including in some cases the need for certain government consents. These restrictions may in the future make it undesirable to invest in these countries.

Japan. Though Japan is one of the world’s largest economic powers, the Fund’s investments in Japan are subject to special risks. Japan’s population is aging and shrinking, increasing the cost of Japan’s pension and public welfare system, lowering domestic demand, and making the country more dependent on exports to sustain its economy. The economic conditions of Japan’s trading partners may therefore affect the value of the Fund’s Japan-linked investments. Currency fluctuations may also significantly affect Japan’s economy. Japan is also prone to natural disasters such as earthquakes and tsunamis, and the Fund’s investments in Japan may be more likely to be affected by such events than its investments in other geographic regions.

Market Characteristics. Foreign securities may be purchased in over-the-counter markets or on stock exchanges located in the countries in which the respective principal offices of the issuers of the various securities are located, if that is the best available market. Foreign stock markets are generally not as developed or efficient as, and may be more volatile than, those in the United States. While growing in volume, they usually have substantially less volume than U.S. markets and a Fund’s portfolio securities may be less liquid and more volatile than securities of comparable U.S. companies. Equity securities may trade at price/earnings multiples higher than comparable domestic securities, and such levels may not be sustainable. Fixed commissions on foreign stock exchanges are generally higher than negotiated commissions on United States exchanges although the Funds will endeavor to achieve the most favorable net results on its portfolio transactions. There is generally less government supervision and regulation of foreign stock exchanges, brokers and listed companies than in the United States. Moreover, settlement practices for transactions in foreign markets may differ from those in United States markets and may include delays beyond periods customary in the United States.

Natural Disasters. Natural disasters, public health emergencies and other global events of force majeure can negatively affect the Fund’s investments. Such events can cause unemployment and economic downturns within an industry or a geographic region in which a Fund invests. They can also directly disrupt the operations, cash flows and overall financial condition of a company in which a Fund invests.

Non-Uniform Corporate Disclosure Standards and Governmental Regulation. Non-U.S. companies are subject to accounting, auditing and financial standards and requirements that differ, in some cases significantly, from those applicable to U.S. companies. In particular, the assets, liabilities and profits appearing on the financial statements of

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such a company may not reflect its financial position or results of operations in the way they would be reflected had such financial statements been prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles. Most of the foreign securities held by the Funds will not be registered with the SEC or regulators of any foreign country, nor will the issuers thereof be subject to the SEC’s reporting requirements. Thus, there will be less available information concerning foreign issuers of securities held by the Funds than is available concerning U.S. issuers. In instances where the financial statements of an issuer are not deemed to reflect accurately the financial situation of the issuer, the applicable Investment Manager will take appropriate steps to evaluate the proposed investment, which may include on-site inspection of the issuer, interviews with its management and consultations with accountants, bankers and other specialists. There is substantially less publicly available information about foreign companies than there are reports and ratings published about U.S. companies and the U.S. government. In addition, where public information is available, it may be less reliable than such information regarding U.S. issuers.

Non-U.S. Withholding Taxes. A Fund’s investment income and gains from foreign issuers may be subject to non-U.S. withholding and other taxes, thereby reducing the Fund’s investment income and gains.

Other. With respect to certain foreign countries, especially developing and emerging ones, there is the possibility of adverse changes in investment or exchange control regulations, expropriation or confiscatory taxation, limitations on the removal of funds or other assets of a Fund, political or social instability, or diplomatic developments which could affect investments by U.S. persons in those countries.

Political and Economic Risks. Investing in securities of non-U.S. companies may entail additional risks due to the potential political and economic instability of certain countries and the risks of expropriation, nationalization, confiscation or the imposition of restrictions on foreign investment and on repatriation of capital invested. In the event of such expropriation, nationalization or other confiscation by any country, a Fund could lose its entire investment in any such country.

Certain foreign markets may rely heavily on particular industries or foreign capital, making these markets more vulnerable to diplomatic developments, the imposition of economic sanctions against particular countries or industries, trade barriers, and other protectionist or retaliatory measures.

As a result of any investments in non-U.S. companies, a Fund would be subject to the political and economic risks associated with investments in emerging markets. Even though opportunities for investment may exist in emerging markets, any change in the leadership or policies of the governments of those countries or in the leadership or policies of any other government which exercises a significant influence over those countries may halt the expansion of or reverse the liberalization of foreign investment policies now occurring and thereby eliminate any investment opportunities which may currently exist.

Investors should note that upon the accession to power of authoritarian regimes, the governments of a number of emerging market countries previously expropriated large quantities of real and personal property similar to the property which will be represented by the securities purchased by a Fund. The claims of property owners against those governments were never finally settled. There can be no assurance that any property represented by securities purchased by a Fund will not also be expropriated, nationalized, or otherwise confiscated. If such confiscation were to occur, a Fund could lose a substantial portion of its investments in such countries. A Fund’s investments would similarly be adversely affected by exchange control regulation in any of those countries.

Certain countries in which a Fund may invest may have vocal factions that advocate radical or revolutionary philosophies or support independence. Any disturbance on the part of such individuals could carry the potential for widespread destruction or confiscation of property owned by individuals and entities foreign to such country and could cause the loss of the Fund’s investment in those countries.

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Political and economic developments, or adverse investor perceptions of such developments, may affect a Fund’s foreign holdings or exposures and may cause the Fund’s investments to become less liquid.

Singapore and Hong Kong. While the economies of Singapore and Hong Kong are exemplars of growth and development, they have been and continue to be subject, to some extent, to over-extension of credit, currency devaluations and restrictions, high unemployment, high inflation, reliance on exports and economic cycles. These factors may affect the value of a Fund’s investments. In addition, these economies are heavily dependent on international trade, meaning the economic conditions of trading partners such as the U.S., Japan, China, and certain European countries may also affect the value of a Fund’s investments. The recent global economic crisis significantly lowered the region’s exports and foreign investments.

Sovereign and Supranational Obligations. Certain Funds may invest in sovereign debt securities, which are debt securities issued or guaranteed by foreign governmental entities, such as foreign government debt or foreign treasury bills. Investments in sovereign debt securities involve special risks in addition to those risks usually associated with investments in debt securities, including risks associated with economic or political uncertainty and the risk that the governmental authority that controls the repayment of sovereign debt may be unwilling or unable to repay the principal and/or interest when due. Certain Funds may also invest in securities or other obligations issued or backed by supranational organizations, which are international organizations that are designated or supported by government entities or banking institutions typically to promote economic reconstruction or development. These obligations are subject to the risk that the government(s) on whose support the organization depends may be unable or unwilling to provide the necessary support.  With respect to both sovereign and supranational obligations, a Fund may have little recourse against the foreign government or supranational organization that issues or backs the obligation in the event of default.  These obligations may be denominated in foreign currencies and the prices of these obligations may be more volatile than corporate debt obligations.

Sovereign debt instruments in which the Funds may invest may involve great risk and may be deemed to be the equivalent in terms of credit quality to securities rated below investment grade by Moody’s and S&P. Governmental entities may depend on expected disbursements from foreign governments, multilateral agencies and international organizations to reduce principal and interest arrearages on their debt obligations. The commitment on the part of these governments, agencies and others to make such disbursements may be conditioned on a governmental entity’s implementation of economic or other reforms and/or economic performance and the timely service of the governmental entity’s obligations. Failure to implement such reforms, achieve such levels of economic performance or repay principal or interest when due may result in the cancellation of the commitments to lend funds or other aid to the governmental entity, which may further impair the governmental entity’s ability or willingness to service its debts in a timely manner. Some of the countries in which a Fund may invest have encountered difficulties in servicing their sovereign debt obligations and have withheld payments of interest and/or principal of sovereign debt. These difficulties have also led to agreements to restructure external debt obligations, which may result in costs to the holders of the sovereign debt. Consequently, a government obligor may default on its obligations and/or the values of its obligations may decline significantly.

Futures, Options and Other Derivative Transactions

Futures and Options on Futures. Each Fund may invest in futures and options on futures contracts (i) to attempt to gain exposure to a particular market, index or instrument; (ii) to attempt to offset changes in the value of securities held or expected to be acquired or be disposed of; (iii) to attempt to minimize fluctuations in foreign currencies; (iv) for hedging purposes; or (v) for other risk management purposes. Futures contracts provide for the future sale by one party and purchase by another party of a specified amount of a specific security at a specified future time and at a specified price.


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An option on a futures contract gives the purchaser the right, but not the obligation, in exchange for a premium, to assume a position in a futures contract at a specified exercise price during the term of the option. Futures contracts are traded on national futures exchanges regulated by the CFTC, which reduces the risk that a Fund will be unable to close out a futures contract or option on a futures contract. To the extent a Fund, other than Alpha Opportunity Fund, Macro Opportunities Fund, Style Plus—Large Core Fund and Style Plus—Mid Growth Fund, uses futures and/or options on futures, it would do so in accordance with Rule 4.5 under the CEA, unless otherwise disclosed.

Each Fund may buy and sell index futures contracts with respect to any index traded on a recognized exchange or board of trade. An index futures contract is an agreement pursuant to which the Fund may agree to take or make a cash payment on an index value. No physical delivery of the securities comprising the index is made. Instead, settlement in cash generally must occur daily and upon the termination of the contract. Generally, index futures contracts are closed out prior to the expiration date of the contract.

When a Fund purchases or sells a futures contract, or sells an option thereon, the Fund is required to “cover” its position in order to limit the risk associated with the use of leverage and other related risks. To cover its position, the Fund may earmark or segregate cash or liquid securities that, when added to any amounts deposited with a futures commission merchant as initial margin, are equal to the market value of the futures contract or otherwise “cover” its position in a manner consistent with the 1940 Act or the rules and SEC interpretations thereunder. If a Fund continues to engage in the described securities trading practices and properly earmarks or segregates assets, the assets will function as a practical limit on the amount of leverage which the Fund may undertake and on the potential increase in the speculative character of the Fund. Such practices are intended to assure the availability of adequate funds to meet the obligations of the Fund arising from such investment activities, although there is no guarantee that they will function as intended.

With respect to futures contracts that are not contractually required to “cash-settle,” a Fund usually must cover its open positions by earmarking or segregating on its records cash or liquid assets equal to the contract’s notional value. For futures contracts that are “cash-settled,” however, a Fund is permitted to earmark or segregate cash or liquid assets in an amount equal to the Fund’s next daily marked-to-market (net) obligation, if any (i.e., a Fund’s daily net liability) rather than the notional value. By earmarking or designating assets equal to only its net obligation under cash-settled futures, a Fund will have the ability to employ leverage to a greater extent than if a Fund were required to earmark or segregate assets equal to the full notional value of such contracts.

Each Fund may also cover its long position in a futures contract by purchasing a put option on the same futures contract with a strike price (i.e., an exercise price) as high or higher than the price of the futures contract. In the alternative, if the strike price of the put is less than the price of the futures contract, a Fund will also earmark or segregate cash or liquid securities equal in value to the difference between the strike price of the put and the price of the futures contract and that can be exercised on any date or that has the same exercise date as the expiration date of the futures contract. Each Fund may also cover its long position in a futures contract by taking a short position in the instruments underlying the futures contract (or, in the case of an index futures contract, a portfolio with a volatility substantially similar to that of the index on which the futures contract is based). Each Fund may cover its short position in a futures contract by taking a long position in the instruments underlying the futures contract.

Each Fund may cover its sale of a call option on a futures contract by taking a long position in the underlying futures contract at a price less than or equal to the strike price of the call option. In the alternative, if the long position in the underlying futures contract is established at a price greater than the strike price of the written (sold) call, a Fund will earmark or segregate cash or liquid securities equal in value to the difference between the strike price of the call and the price of the futures contract. Each Fund may cover its sale of a put option on a futures contract by taking a short position in the underlying futures contract at a price greater than or equal to the strike price of the put option, or, if the short position in the underlying futures contract is established at a price less than the strike price

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of the written put, a Fund will earmark or segregate cash or liquid securities equal in value to the difference between the strike price of the put and the price of the futures contract.

Eurodollar futures contracts are U.S. dollar-denominated futures contracts that are based on the implied forward London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”). These contracts enable purchasers to obtain a fixed rate for the lending of funds and sellers to obtain a fixed rate for borrowings. A Fund may use Eurodollar futures contracts and options thereon to hedge against changes in the LIBOR, to which many interest rate swaps and fixed income instruments are linked, or for other purposes.

There are significant risks associated with the Funds’ use of futures contracts and options on futures contracts, including the following: (1) the success of a hedging strategy may depend on the ability of an Investment Manager (or Sub-Adviser, if applicable) to predict movements in the prices of individual securities, fluctuations in markets and movements in interest rates; (2) there may be an imperfect or no correlation between the changes in market value of the securities held by a Fund and the prices of futures and options on futures; (3) there may not be a liquid secondary market for a futures contract or option; (4) trading restrictions or limitations may be imposed by an exchange; and (5) government regulations may restrict trading in futures contracts and options on futures. In addition, some strategies reduce a Fund’s exposure to price fluctuations, while others tend to increase its market exposure.

Options. Each Fund may purchase and write (sell) put and call options on securities, stock indices and currencies listed on national securities exchanges or traded in the OTC market for the purpose of realizing each Fund’s investment objective and except as restricted by a Fund’s investment restrictions. A put option on a security gives the purchaser of the option the right to sell, and the writer of the option the obligation to buy, the underlying security at any time during the option period or on expiration, depending on the terms. A call option on a security gives the purchaser of the option the right to buy, and the writer of the option the obligation to sell, the underlying security at any time during the option period or on expiration, depending on the terms. The premium paid to the writer is the consideration for undertaking the obligations under the option contract.

A Fund may purchase and write put and call options on foreign currencies (traded on U.S. and foreign exchanges or OTC markets) to manage its exposure to exchange rates.

Put and call options on indices are similar to options on securities except that options on an index give the holder the right to receive, upon exercise of the option, an amount of cash if the closing level of the underlying index is greater than (or less than, in the case of puts) the exercise price of the option. This amount of cash is equal to the difference between the closing price of the index and the exercise price of the option, expressed in dollars multiplied by a specified number. Thus, unlike options on individual securities, all settlements are in cash, and gain or loss depends on price movements in the particular market represented by the index generally, rather than the price movements in individual securities.

All options written on indices or securities must be covered. If a Fund writes an option on a security, an index or a foreign currency, it will earmark or segregate cash or liquid securities in an amount at least equal to the market value of the option and will maintain the account while the option is open or will otherwise cover the transaction.

The initial purchase (sale) of an option contract is an “opening transaction.” In order to close out an option position prior to expiration, a Fund may enter into a “closing transaction,” which is simply the sale (purchase) of an option contract on the same security with the same exercise price and expiration date as the option contract originally opened. If a Fund is unable to effect a closing purchase transaction with respect to an option it has written, it will not be able to sell the underlying security until the option expires or the Fund delivers the security upon exercise.


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Each Fund may purchase put and call options on securities to protect against a decline in the market value of the securities in its portfolio or to anticipate an increase in the market value of securities that a Fund may seek to purchase in the future. A Fund purchasing put and call options pays a premium; therefore, if price movements in the underlying securities are such that exercise of the options would not be profitable for a Fund, loss of the premium paid may be offset by an increase in the value of the Fund’s securities or by a decrease in the cost of acquisition of securities by the Fund.

A Fund may write covered call options on securities as a means of increasing the yield on its assets and as a means of providing limited protection against decreases in the securities' market value. When a Fund writes an option, if the underlying securities do not increase or decrease to a price level that would make the exercise of the option profitable to the holder thereof, the option generally will expire without being exercised and the Fund will realize as profit the premium received for such option. When a call option of which a Fund is the writer is exercised, the Fund will be required to sell the underlying securities to the option holder at the strike price, and will not participate in any increase in the price of such securities above the strike price. When a put option of which a Fund is the writer is exercised, the Fund will be required to purchase the underlying securities at a price in excess of the market value of such securities.

Each Fund may purchase and write options on an exchange or over-the-counter. OTC options differ from exchange-traded options in several respects. They are transacted directly with dealers and not with a clearing corporation, and therefore entail the risk of non-performance by the dealer. OTC options are available for a greater variety of securities and for a wider range of expiration dates and exercise prices than are available for exchange-traded options. Because OTC options are not traded on an exchange, pricing is done normally by reference to information from a market maker.

The market value of an option generally reflects the market price of an underlying security. Other principal factors affecting market value include supply and demand, interest rates, the pricing volatility of the underlying security and the time remaining until the expiration date.

Risks associated with options transactions include: (1) the success of a hedging strategy may depend on an ability to predict movements in the prices of individual securities, fluctuations in markets and movements in interest rates; (2) there may be an imperfect correlation between the movement in prices of options and the securities underlying them; (3) there may not be a liquid secondary market for all options and, in particular, for OTC options; (4) trading restrictions or limitations may be imposed by an exchange; (5) counterparty risk; and (6) while a Fund will receive a premium when it writes covered call options, it may not participate fully in a rise in the market value of the underlying security.

Forwards. A Fund may engage in forward contracts, including non-deliverable forwards, which are forward contracts on foreign currencies that are cash settled and that do not involve delivery of the currency specified in the contract.  A Fund will typically use non-deliverable forwards for hedging purposes, but may also use such instruments to increase income or investment gains. The use of forwards for hedging or to increase income or investment gains may not be successful, resulting in losses to the Fund, and the cost of such strategies may reduce the Fund’s returns. Forwards are subject to the risks associated with derivatives.
Guaranteed Investment Contracts (“GICs”)—Certain Funds may invest in GICs. When investing in GICs, a Fund makes cash contributions to a deposit fund of an insurance company’s general account. The insurance company then credits guaranteed interest to the deposit fund on a monthly basis. The GICs provide that this guaranteed interest will not be less than a certain minimum rate. The insurance company may assess periodic charges against a GIC for expenses and service costs allocable to it, and the charges will be deducted from the value of the deposit fund. Because a Fund may not receive the principal amount of a GIC from the insurance company on 7 days’ notice or less, the GIC is

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considered an illiquid investment. In determining average portfolio maturity, GICs generally will be deemed to have a maturity equal to the period of time remaining until the next readjustment of the guaranteed interest rate.

Hybrid Instruments—Certain Funds may invest in hybrid instruments. A hybrid instrument is a type of potentially high-risk derivative that combines a traditional stock, bond, or commodity with an option or forward contract. Generally, the principal amount, amount payable upon maturity or redemption, or interest rate of a hybrid is tied (positively or negatively) to the price of some commodity, currency or securities index or another interest rate or some other economic factor (“underlying benchmark”). The interest rate or (unlike most fixed-income securities) the principal amount payable at maturity of a hybrid security may be increased or decreased, depending on changes in the value of the underlying benchmark. An example of a hybrid could be a bond issued by an oil company that pays a small base level of interest with additional interest that accrues in correlation to the extent to which oil prices exceed a certain predetermined level. Such a hybrid instrument would be a combination of a bond and a call option on oil.

Hybrids can be used as an efficient means of pursuing a variety of investment goals, including currency hedging, and increased total return. Hybrids may not bear interest or pay dividends. The value of a hybrid or its interest rate may be a multiple of the underlying benchmark and, as a result, may be leveraged and move (up or down) more steeply and rapidly than the underlying benchmark. These underlying benchmarks may be sensitive to economic and political events, such as commodity shortages and currency devaluations, which cannot be readily foreseen by the purchaser of a hybrid. Under certain conditions, the redemption value of a hybrid could be zero. Thus, an investment in a hybrid may entail significant market risks that are not associated with a similar investment in a traditional, U.S. dollar-denominated bond that has a fixed principal amount and pays a fixed rate or floating rate of interest. The purchase of hybrids also exposes the Funds to the credit risk of the issuer of the hybrids. These risks may cause significant fluctuations in the NAV of the Funds.

Certain hybrid instruments may provide exposure to the commodities markets. These are derivative securities with one or more commodity-linked components that have payment features similar to commodity futures contracts, commodity options, or similar instruments. Commodity-linked hybrid instruments may be either equity or debt securities, and are considered hybrid instruments because they have both security and commodity-like characteristics. A portion of the value of these instruments may be derived from the value of a commodity, futures contract, index or other economic variable.

Certain issuers of structured products such as hybrid instruments may be deemed to be investment companies as defined in the 1940 Act. As a result, the Funds’ investments in these products may be subject to limits applicable to investments in investment companies and other restrictions contained in the 1940 Act.

Credit-Linked Notes. Each Fund may invest in credit-linked notes, which is a type of structured note. The difference between a credit default swap and a credit-linked note is that the seller of a credit-linked note receives the principal payment from the buyer at the time the contract is originated. Through the purchase of a credit-linked note, the buyer assumes the risk of the reference asset and funds this exposure through the purchase of the note. The buyer takes on the exposure to the seller to the full amount of the funding it has provided. The seller has hedged its risk on the reference asset without acquiring any additional credit exposure. The Fund has the right to receive periodic interest payments from the issuer of the credit-linked note at an agreed-upon interest rate and a return of principal at the maturity date.

Credit-linked notes are subject to the credit risk of the corporate credits referenced by the note. If one of the underlying corporate credits defaults, the Fund may receive the security that has defaulted, and the Fund’s principal investment would be reduced by the difference between the original face value of the reference security and the current value of the defaulted security. Credit-linked notes are typically privately negotiated transactions between

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two or more parties. The Fund bears the risk that the issuer of the credit-linked note will default or become bankrupt. The Fund bears the risk of loss of its principal investment, and the periodic interest payments expected to be received for the duration of its investment in the credit-linked note.

Structured Notes. Certain Funds are permitted to invest in structured notes, which are debt obligations that also contain an embedded derivative component with characteristics that adjust the obligation’s risk/return profile. Generally, the performance of a structured note will track that of the underlying debt obligation and the derivative embedded within it. A Fund has the right to receive periodic interest payments from the issuer of the structured notes at an agreed-upon interest rate and a return of the principal at the maturity date.

Structured notes are typically privately negotiated transactions between two or more parties. A Fund bears the risk that the issuer of the structured note would default or become bankrupt which may result in the loss of principal investment and periodic interest payments expected to be received for the duration of its investment in the structured notes.

In the case of structured notes on credit default swaps a Fund would be subject to the credit risk of the corporate credit instruments underlying the credit default swaps. If one of the underlying corporate credit instruments defaults, the Fund may receive the security or credit instrument that has defaulted, or alternatively a cash settlement may occur, and the Fund’s principal investment in the structured note would be reduced by the corresponding face value of the defaulted security.

The market for structured notes may be, or suddenly can become, illiquid. The other parties to the transaction may be the only investors with sufficient understanding of the derivative to be interested in bidding for it. Changes in liquidity may result in significant, rapid, and unpredictable changes in the prices for structured notes. In certain cases, a market price for a credit-linked security may not be available. The collateral for a structured note may be one or more credit default swaps, which are subject to additional risks. See “Swap Agreements” for a description of additional risks associated with credit default swaps.

Increasing Government Debt—The total public debt of federal, state, local and non-U.S. governments as a percent of gross domestic product grew rapidly following the 2008 financial downturn. Although high levels of debt do not necessarily indicate or cause economic problems, high levels of debt may create certain systemic risks if sound debt management practices are not implemented. A high national debt level may increase market pressures to meet government funding needs, which may increase borrowing costs and cause a government to issue additional debt, thereby increasing the risk of refinancing. A high national debt also raises concerns that a government may be unable or unwilling to repay the principal or interest on its debt. Unsustainable debt levels can decline the valuation of currencies, and can prevent a government from implementing effective counter-cyclical fiscal policy during economic downturns. It also could generate an economic downturn.

Inflation-Linked Securities—The Limited Duration Fund may invest in inflation-linked securities. Inflation-linked securities are income-generating instruments whose interest and principal payments are adjusted for inflation, a sustained increase in prices that erodes the purchasing power of money. TIPS, or Treasury inflation-protected securities, are inflation-linked securities issued by the U.S. government. Inflation-linked bonds are also issued by corporations, U.S. government agencies, states, and foreign countries. The inflation adjustment, which is typically applied monthly to the principal of the bond, follows a designated inflation index, such as the consumer price index (CPI). A fixed coupon rate is applied to the inflation-adjusted principal so that as inflation rises, both the principal value and the interest payments increase. This can provide investors with a hedge against inflation, as it helps preserve the purchasing power of your investment. Because of this inflation-adjustment feature, inflation-protected bonds typically have lower yields than conventional fixed-rate bonds. Municipal inflation bonds generally have a fixed principal amount, and the inflation component is reflected in the nominal coupon.

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Inflation-protected bonds normally will decline in price when real interest rates rise. A real interest rate is calculated by subtracting the inflation rate from a nominal interest rate. For example, if a 10-year Treasury note is yielding 5% and rate of inflation is 2%, the real interest rate is 3%. If inflation is negative, the principal and income of an inflation-protected bond will decline and could result in losses.
Investment in the Subsidiary—The Macro Opportunities Fund may invest a portion of its total assets in the Subsidiary. The Subsidiary may invest in commodity and financial futures, option, and swap contracts, fixed-income securities, pooled investment vehicles, including those that are not registered pursuant to the 1940 Act, and other investments intended to serve as margin or collateral for the Subsidiary’s derivatives positions or investments that create tax concerns if held directly by the Fund. The Subsidiary is not registered under the 1940 Act, but is subject to certain of the investor protections of the 1940 Act, as noted in this SAI. As a result, the Macro Opportunities Fund, as the sole shareholder of the Subsidiary, will not have all of the protections offered to investors in registered investment companies. Although the Subsidiary has its own board of directors that is responsible for overseeing the operations of the Subsidiary, the Board has oversight responsibility for the investment activities of the Fund, including its investment in the Subsidiary. Unless otherwise stated in the Prospectus or SAI, the Investment Manager will be subject to the same fundamental policies, investment restrictions, compliance policies and procedures when investing through the Subsidiary, as investing through the Fund. Changes in U.S. laws (where the Fund is organized) and/or the Cayman Islands (where the Subsidiary is organized) could prevent the fund and/or the Subsidiary from operating as described in the Fund’s Prospectus and this SAI and could negatively affect the Fund and its shareholders. For example, the Cayman Islands currently does not impose certain taxes on the Subsidiary, including any income, corporate or capital gains tax, estate duty, inheritance tax, gift tax or withholding tax. If Cayman Islands laws were changed to require the Subsidiary to pay Cayman Islands taxes, the investment returns of the Fund would likely decrease.

Investments by Investing Funds and Other Large Shareholders—Shares of a Fund are offered as an investment to certain other investment companies, large retirement plans, and other investors capable of purchasing a large percentage of Fund shares. A Fund may experience adverse effects when these large shareholders purchase or redeem a large percentage of Fund shares.
A Fund is subject to the risk that large share purchases may adversely affect the Fund's liquidity levels and performance to the extent that the Fund is forced to hold a large uninvested cash position or more liquid securities and is delayed in investing new cash. A Fund's performance may also be adversely affected by large redemptions of Fund shares to the extent the Fund is forced to sell portfolio securities at a disadvantageous price or time to meet the large redemption request. Additionally, because Fund costs and expenses are shared by remaining Fund investors, large redemptions relative to the size of a Fund will result in decreased economies of scale and increased costs and expenses for the Fund.
Large redemptions that necessitate the sale of portfolio securities will accelerate the realization of taxable capital gains or losses. Furthermore, purchases or redemptions of a large number of Fund shares relative to the size of a Fund will have adverse tax consequences limiting the use of any capital loss carryforwards and certain other losses to offset any future realized capital gains.
Lending of Portfolio Securities—For the purpose of realizing additional income, a Fund may make secured loans of Fund securities amounting to not more than 33 1/3% of its total assets. Securities loans are made to broker/dealers, institutional investors, or other persons pursuant to agreements requiring that the loans be continuously secured by collateral at least equal at all times to the value of the securities loaned, marked to market on a daily basis. The collateral received will consist of cash, U.S. government securities, letters of credit or such other collateral (or combination thereof) as may be permitted under its investment program. While the securities are being loaned, a Fund will continue to receive the equivalent of the interest or dividends paid by the issuer on the securities, as well as interest on the investment of the collateral or a fee from the borrower, although a portion can be payable to a

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collateral agent for certain services. When a Fund invests collateral, the Fund will bear the risk of loss and the risk of loss depends on the nature and type of investment made with the collateral. Costs of underlying securities lending activities are not typically reflected in a Fund’s fee and expense ratios.

A Fund has a right to call each loan and obtain the securities on five business days’ notice or, in connection with securities trading on foreign markets, within such longer period of time which coincides with the normal settlement period for purchases and sales of such securities in such foreign markets. A Fund will not have the right to vote securities while they are being loaned, but it will call a loan in anticipation of any important vote. The risks in lending portfolio securities, as with other extensions of secured credit, consist of possible delay in receiving additional collateral or in the recovery of the securities or possible loss of rights in the collateral should the borrower fail financially. Loans will only be made to persons deemed by an Investment Manager (or Sub-Adviser, if applicable) to be of good standing and will not be made unless, in the judgment of an Investment Manager (or Sub-Adviser, if applicable), the consideration to be earned from such loans would justify the risk. During the most recent fiscal year, the Funds did not engage in any securities lending activities and therefore did not earn any income or incur any expenses related to securities lending.

Leverage—Certain Funds may use leverage. Leveraging a Fund creates an opportunity for increased net income but, at the same time, creates special risk considerations. For example, leveraging may exaggerate changes in the NAV of a Fund’s shares and in the yield on a Fund’s portfolio. Although the principal of such borrowings will be fixed, a Fund’s assets may change in value during the time the borrowing is outstanding. Since any decline in value of a Fund’s investments will be borne entirely by the Fund’s shareholders (and not by those persons providing the leverage to the Fund), the effect of leverage in a declining market would be a greater decrease in NAV than if the Fund were not so leveraged. Leveraging will create interest and other expenses for a Fund, which can exceed the investment return from the borrowed funds. To the extent the investment return derived from securities purchased with borrowed funds exceeds the interest a Fund will have to pay, the Fund’s investment return will be greater than if leveraging were not used. Conversely, if the investment return from the assets retained with borrowed funds is not sufficient to cover the cost of leveraging, the investment return of the Fund will be less than if leveraging were not used.

Under the 1940 Act, a Fund is required to maintain continuous asset coverage of 300% with respect to borrowings and to sell (within three days) sufficient portfolio holdings to restore such coverage if it should decline to less than 300% due to market fluctuations or otherwise, even if such liquidations of the Fund’s holdings may be disadvantageous from an investment standpoint. The Funds’ policy on borrowing is not intended to limit the ability to pledge assets to secure loans permitted under the Funds’ policies.

Liquidity and Valuation—Many factors may influence the price at which a Fund could sell an investment at a given time. Investments are subject to liquidity risk when they are difficult to purchase or sell under favorable conditions. Investments in certain securities or other assets, such as high-yield bonds, loans or those traded in over-the-counter markets, may be particularly subject to liquidity risk. A Fund's ability to sell an instrument may be negatively impacted as a result of various market events or circumstances or characteristics of the particular instrument. In addition, market participants attempting to sell the same or similar instruments at the same time as a Fund may increase the Fund's exposure to liquidity risk. Investments in less liquid or illiquid investments may reduce the returns of a Fund because it may be unable to sell the investments at an advantageous time or price. Thus, a Fund may be forced to accept a lower sale price for the security, sell other investments or forego another more attractive investment opportunity. Liquid investments purchased by a Fund may subsequently become less liquid or illiquid, and harder to value.

Pursuant to Rule 22e-4 under the 1940 Act, the Fund may not acquire any “illiquid investment” if, immediately after the acquisition, the Funds would have invested more than 15% of its net assets in illiquid investments that are assets. An “illiquid investment” is any investment that the Funds reasonably expect cannot be sold or disposed of in

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current market conditions in seven calendar days or less without the sale or disposition significantly changing the market value of the investment.  The Trust has implemented certain portions of a written liquidity risk management program and related procedures (“Liquidity Program”) that is reasonably designed to assess and manage the Funds' “liquidity risk” (defined by the SEC as the risk that a Fund could not meet requests to redeem shares issued by the Funds without significant dilution of remaining investors’ interests in the Fund). The remaining portions of the Liquidity Program will be implemented during 2019 in accordance with SEC requirements.  Liquidity classifications will be made after reasonable inquiry and taking into account, among other things, market, trading and investment-specific considerations deemed to be relevant to the liquidity classification of the Funds' investments in accordance with the Liquidity Program. 

In addition, applicable regulatory guidance and interpretations provide examples of factors that may be taken into account in determining a particular instrument’s classification as illiquid or as one of the other liquidity categories defined under Rule 22e-4. For example, certain loans may not be readily marketable and/or may be subject to restrictions on resale or assignments. Consequently, the Funds may determine that it is reasonable to expect that such a loan cannot be sold or disposed of in current market conditions in seven calendar days or less without the sale or disposition significantly changing the market value of the investment. To the extent that the Funds invest in such loans, they may be subject to increased liquidity and valuation risks. As the market develops, the liquidity of these instruments could improve. Accordingly, loans for which there is no readily available market may be classified as illiquid but, at the same time, other loans may be classified as other than illiquid investments under the Liquidity Program based on relevant market, trading and investment-specific considerations (such as trading in the loans among specialized financial institutions). In addition, certain CLOs/CDOs (as described above) may be classified as illiquid, depending upon the assessment of relevant market, trading and investment-specific considerations under the Liquidity Program. However, an active dealer market or other relevant measure of liquidity may exist for certain CLOs/CDOs, which may result in such instruments being classified as other than illiquid investments under the Liquidity Program based on relevant market, trading and investment-specific considerations.
In 2016, the SEC adopted a new rule that regulates the management of liquidity risk by investment companies registered under the 1940 Act, such as the Funds. The rule may impact the Funds’ ability to achieve their respective investment objectives. The Investment Managers continue to evaluate the potential impact of the new governmental regulation on the Funds and may have to make changes to the Funds' strategies in the future. Certain requirements of the new rule took effect with respect to the Funds as of December 1, 2018 and the compliance date for the other requirements of the new rule is June 1, 2019 as they relate to the Funds.
At times, market quotations may not be readily available and the Funds may be unable to obtain prices or other reliable information from third-parties to support valuation. In these circumstances, it may be difficult for a Fund to accurately value certain investments and the Fund may need to value investments using fair value methodologies. There are multiple methods to establish fair value and different methods or other factors may lead to different fair values. As a result, the price a Fund could receive for a security may differ from the Fund's valuation of the security, particularly during periods of market turmoil or volatility or for securities that are thinly traded or valued using a fair value methodology or information provided by third-party pricing services. Thus, a Fund may realize a loss or gain that is greater than expected upon the sale of the security. Fair valued securities may be subject to greater fluctuations than securities valued based on readily available market quotations. Some securities, while not technically fair valued, may nevertheless be difficult to value and rely on limited and difficult to assess inputs and market data.

Loans—A Fund may make, acquire or invest in fixed and floating rate loans. A Fund may acquire a loan interest directly by acting as a member of the original lending syndicate or direct lender in other direct lending opportunities. A Fund may also acquire some or all of the interest in a loan originated by a bank or other financial institution through an assignment or a participation in the loan. Loans may include syndicated bank loans, senior floating rate loans (“senior loans”), secured and unsecured loans, second lien, subordinated or more junior loans (“junior loans”), bridge loans

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and unfunded commitments. Loans are typically arranged through private negotiations between borrowers in the U.S. or in foreign or emerging markets which may be corporate issuers or issuers of sovereign debt obligations (“borrowers”) and one or more financial institutions and other lenders (“lenders”).

Typically, loans are made by a syndicate of commercial and investment banks and other financial institutions that are represented by an agent bank or similar party. The agent bank is responsible for acting on behalf of the group of lenders and structuring the loan, administering the loan, negotiating on behalf of the syndicate, and collecting and disbursing payments on the loan.

The agent also is responsible for monitoring collateral, distributing required reporting, and for exercising remedies available to the lenders such as foreclosure upon collateral. In a syndicated loan, each of the lending institutions, which may include the agent, lends to the borrower a portion of the total amount of the loan, and retains the corresponding interest in the loan. Unless, under the terms of the loan, a Fund has direct recourse against the borrower, a Fund may have to rely on the agent or other financial intermediary to apply appropriate credit remedies against a borrower. Because the agent is acting on behalf of multiple lenders in the syndicate, a Fund's interest in a loan may be subject to changes in terms or additional risks resulting from actions taken or not taken by the agent following an instruction from other creditors holding interests in the same loan.

Participation interests are interests issued by a lender, which represent a fractional interest in a loan that continues to be directly owned by the issuing lender. A Fund may acquire participation interests from a lender or other holders of participation interests. An assignment represents a portion of a loan previously owned by a different lender. Unlike a participation interest, a Fund will generally become a lender for the purposes of the relevant loan agreement by purchasing an assignment. If a Fund purchases an assignment from a lender, the Fund will generally have direct contractual rights against the borrower in favor of the lenders as if it was a direct lender. If a Fund purchases a participation interest either from a lender or a participant, the Fund typically will have established a direct contractual relationship with the seller or issuer of the participation interest, but not with the borrower. Consequently, a Fund can be subject to the credit risk of the lender or participant who sold the participation interest to the Fund, in addition to the usual credit risk of the borrower. Therefore, when a Fund invests in syndicated bank loans through the purchase of participation interests, the Investment Manager must consider the creditworthiness of the agent and any lenders and participants interposed between the Fund and a borrower.

Purchases of loans in the primary or secondary markets may take place at, above, or below the par value of the loans. Purchases above par will effectively reduce the amount of interest being received by a Fund through the amortization of the purchase price premium, whereas purchases below par will effectively increase the amount of interest being received by the Fund through the amortization of the purchase price discount.

Secondary trades of senior loans may have extended settlement periods. Settlement of a secondary market purchase of senior loans in the ordinary course, on a settlement date beyond the period expected by loan market participants (i.e., T+7 for par/near par loans and T+20 for distressed loans, in other words more than seven or twenty business days beyond the trade date, respectively) is often subject to the “delayed compensation” rules prescribed by the Loan Syndications and Trading Association (“LSTA”) and addressed in the LSTA’s standard loan documentation for par/near par trades and for distressed trades. “Delayed compensation” is a pricing adjustment comprised of certain interest and fees, which is payable between the parties to a secondary loan trade. The LSTA introduced a requirements-based rules program in order to incentivize shorter settlement times for secondary transactions and discourage certain delay tactics that create friction in the loan syndications market by, among other things, mandating that the buyer of a senior loan satisfy certain “basic requirements” as prescribed by the LSTA no later than T+5 in order for the buyer to receive the benefit of interest and other fees accruing on the purchased loan from and after T+7 for par/near par loans (for distressed trades, T+20) until the settlement date, subject to certain specific exceptions. These “basic requirements” generally require a buyer to execute the required trade documentation and to be, and remain, financially

27



able to settle the trade no later than T+7 for par/near par loans (and T+20 for distressed trades). In addition, buyers are required to fund the purchase price for a secondary trade upon receiving notice from the agent of the effectiveness of the trade in the agent’s loan register. A Fund, as a buyer of a senior loan in the secondary market, would need to meet these “basic requirements” or risk forfeiting all or some portion of the interest and other fees accruing on the loan from and after T+7 for par/near par loans (for distressed trades, T+20) until the settlement date. The “delayed compensation” mechanism does not mitigate the other risks of delayed settlement or other risks associated with investments in senior loans. In certain cases a Fund may dispose of a loan position through selling participations in the loan, usually until the loan is assigned ("elevated") to the buyer. In that case, it remains subject to certain obligations, which may result in expenses for the Fund and certain risks.

A loan may be secured by collateral that, at the time of origination, has a fair market value equivalent to the amount of the loan. The Investment Manager generally will determine the value of the collateral by customary valuation techniques that it considers appropriate. However, the value of the collateral may decline following a Fund’s investment. Also, collateral may be difficult to hold and sell, and there are other risks which may cause the collateral to be insufficient in the event of a default. Consequently, a Fund might not receive payments to which it is entitled. The collateral may consist of various types of assets or interests including working capital assets or intangible assets. The borrower’s owners may provide additional collateral, typically by pledging their ownership interest in the borrower as collateral for the loan.

In the process of buying, selling and holding loans, a Fund may receive and/or pay certain fees. These fees are in addition to the interest payments received and may include facility, closing or upfront fees, commitment fees and commissions. A Fund may receive or pay a facility, closing or upfront fee when it buys or sells a loan. A Fund may receive a commitment fee throughout the life of the loan or as long as the Fund remains invested in the loan (in addition to interest payments) for any unused portion of a committed line of credit. Other fees received by the Fund may include prepayment fees, covenant waiver fees, ticking fees and/or modification fees. Related legal fees may also be borne by the Fund (including legal fees to assess conformity of a loan investment with 1940 Act provisions).

Direct lending may involve additional risks to a Fund. Should a loan in which a Fund is invested be foreclosed on, the Fund may become owner of the collateral and will be responsible for any costs and liabilities associated with owning the collateral. If the collateral includes a pledge of equity interests in the borrower by its owners, the Fund may become the owner of equity in the borrower and may be responsible for the borrower's business operations and/or assets. The applicability of the securities laws is subject to court interpretation of the nature of the loan and its characterization as a security. Accordingly, a Fund cannot be certain of any protections it may be afforded under the securities or other laws against fraud or misrepresentation by the borrower, assignor or seller of participations.

Loans are subject to the risks associated with other debt obligations, including: interest rate risk, credit risk, market risk, liquidity risk, counterparty risk and risks associated with high yield securities. Many loans in which a Fund may invest may not be rated by a rating agency, will not be registered with the SEC or any state securities commission, and will not be listed on any national securities exchange. The amount of public information with respect to loans will generally be less extensive than that available for registered or exchange-listed securities. A Fund will make an investment in a loan only after the Investment Manager determines that the investment is suitable for the Fund based on an independent credit analysis. Generally, this means that the Investment Manager has determined that the likelihood that the borrower will meet its obligations is acceptable.

In addition, the Fund may have arrangements with loan, administrative and similar agents under which they provide recordkeeping or other services (such as interest payment services) with respect to loan positions and loan documentation. These services may be subject to risks of, among other things, fraud, computational errors, cyber-attacks, delays, or if these agents become subject to a bankruptcy or insolvency proceeding. The Funds are also

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subject to the risk of loss caused by inadequate procedures and controls, human error and system failures by these agents. All these risks may affect the Funds, the Funds’ investments and the Funds’ investment performance.

Additional Information Concerning Bridge Loans. Bridge loans are short-term loan arrangements (e.g., maturities that are generally less than one year) typically made by a borrower following the failure of the borrower to secure other intermediate-term or long-term permanent financing. A bridge loan remains outstanding until more permanent financing, often in the form of high yield notes, can be obtained. Most bridge loans have a step-up provision under which the interest rate increases incrementally the longer the loan remains outstanding so as to incentivize the borrower to refinance as quickly as possible. In exchange for entering into a bridge loan, a Fund typically will receive a commitment fee and interest payable under the bridge loan and may also have other expenses reimbursed by the borrower. Liquid assets are maintained to cover bridge loan commitments to avoid “senior securities” concerns. Bridge loans may be subordinate to other debt and generally are unsecured. They also often are illiquid and difficult to value.

Additional Information Concerning Junior Loans. Junior loans include secured and unsecured loans, such as subordinated loans, second lien and more junior loans, and bridge loans. Second lien and more junior loans are generally second or further in line in terms of repayment priority and priority with respect to an exercise of remedies. In addition, junior loans may have a claim on the same collateral pool as the first lien or other more senior liens, or may be secured by a separate set of assets. Junior secured loans generally give investors priority over general unsecured creditors and stockholders in the event of an asset sale.

Additional Information Concerning Revolving Credit Facilities. Revolving credit facilities (“revolvers”) are borrowing arrangements in which the lender agrees to make loans up to a maximum amount upon demand by the borrower during a specified term. As the borrower repays the loan, an amount equal to the repayment may be borrowed again during the term of the revolver. Revolvers usually provide for floating or variable rates of interest.

Revolvers may expose a lender to credit and liquidity risk. Revolvers have the effect of requiring a lender to increase its investment in a company at a time when it might not otherwise decide to do so (including at a time when the company’s financial condition makes it unlikely that such amounts will be repaid). Revolvers may be subject to restrictions on transfer, including restrictions that are more burdensome than transfer restrictions that apply to non-revolving loans, and only limited opportunities may exist to resell such instruments. As a result, a Fund may be unable to sell such investments at an opportune time or may have to resell them at less than fair market value.

When a Fund has a contractual obligation to lend money on short notice (under a bridge loan or unfunded commitment, for example), it will maintain liquid assets in an amount at least equal in value to the amount of the loan or commitment. Liquid assets are maintained to cover “senior securities transactions” which may include, but are not limited to, a bridge loan or unfunded loan commitment. The value of “senior securities” holdings is marked-to-market daily to ensure proper coverage.

Additional Information Concerning Syndicated Bank Loans and Other Senior Loans. Syndicated bank loans and other senior loans are usually secured by liens on the assets of the borrower. Their seniority can vary.

Additional Information Concerning Unfunded Commitments. Unfunded commitments are contractual obligations pursuant to which a Fund agrees in writing to make one or more loans up to a specified amount at one or more future dates. The underlying loan documentation sets out the terms and conditions of the lender’s obligation to make the loans as well as the economic terms of such loans. Loan commitments are made pursuant to a term loan, a revolving credit line or a combination thereof.  A term loan is generally a loan in a fixed amount that borrowers repay in a scheduled series of repayments or a lump-sum payment at maturity and may not be reborrowed.  A revolving credit line permits borrowers to draw down, repay, and reborrow specified amounts on demand. The portion of the

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amount committed by a lender that the borrower has not drawn down is referred to as “unfunded.” Loan commitments may be traded in the secondary market through dealer desks at large commercial and investment banks although these markets are generally not considered liquid. They also are difficult to value. Borrowers pay various fees in connection with loans and related commitments, and typically a Fund receives a commitment fee for amounts that remain unfunded under its commitment. Unfunded commitments may subject the Fund to risks that are similar to the risks described under “When-Issued and Forward Commitment Securities” and “TBA Purchase Commitments” discussed below.

Unfunded loan commitments expose lenders to credit risk. A lender typically is obligated to advance the unfunded amount of a loan commitment at the borrower’s request, subject to satisfaction of certain contractual conditions, such as the absence of a material adverse change. Borrowers with deteriorating creditworthiness may continue to satisfy their contractual conditions and therefore be eligible to borrow at times when the lender might prefer not to lend. In addition, a lender may have assumptions as to when a borrower may draw on an unfunded loan commitment when the lender enters into the commitment. If the borrower does not draw as expected, the commitment may not prove as attractive an investment as originally anticipated.

Management—The Funds are subject to management risk because they are actively managed investment portfolios. The Investment Managers (or Sub-Adviser, if applicable) and each individual portfolio manager will apply investment techniques and risk analysis in making decisions for a Fund, but there can be no guarantee that these decisions will produce the desired results. Furthermore, active and frequent trading will increase the costs the Fund incurs because of higher brokerage charges or mark-up charges, which are passed on to shareholders of the Fund and as a result, may lower the Fund’s performance and have a negative tax impact. Additionally, legislative, regulatory or tax developments may affect the investment techniques available to the Investment Managers and each individual portfolio manager in connection with managing a Fund and may also adversely affect the ability of a Fund to achieve its investment objectives.
Income from a Fund’s portfolio may decline when the Fund invests the proceeds from investment income, sales of investments or matured, traded or called debt securities. For example, during periods of declining interest rates, an issuer of debt securities held by a Fund may exercise an option to redeem securities prior to maturity, forcing the Fund to reinvest the proceeds in lower-yielding securities. A decline in income received by a Fund from its investments is likely to have a negative effect on the yield and total return of the Fund’s shares.
Master Limited Partnerships—The Diversified Income Fund may invest in or be exposed to master limited partnerships (“MLPs”), which are formed as limited partnerships or limited liability companies under state law and are treated as partnerships for U.S. federal income tax purposes. The equity securities issued by many MLPs (typically general partner and limited partner interests) are publicly traded and listed and traded on a U.S. securities exchange. Certain MLP securities may trade in lower volumes due to their smaller capitalizations. Accordingly, those MLPs may be subject to more abrupt or erratic price movements, may lack sufficient market liquidity to enable the Fund to effect sales at an advantageous time or without a substantial drop in price, and investment in those MLPs may restrict the Fund’s ability to take advantage of other investment opportunities.  The amount of cash that the Fund has available to distribute to shareholders will depend on the ability of the companies in which the Fund has an interest to make distributions or pay dividends to their investors, as well as the tax character of those distributions or dividends.
MLPs are subject to various risks related to the underlying operating companies they control.  For example, MLPs are subject to risks and may be adversely affected by a variety of events, including, but not limited to: fluctuations in the prices of commodities; the highly cyclical nature of the energy sector, which may adversely affect the earnings or operating cash flows of the issuers in which the Fund will invest; extreme weather conditions that could result in substantial damage to the facilities of certain MLPs; and significant volatility in the supply of natural resources, energy assets, commodity prices and the earnings of such companies, which could adversely affect their securities.  A

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significant decrease in the production of energy commodities would reduce the revenue, operating income and operating cash flows of MLPs and, therefore, their ability to make distributions or pay dividends and a sustained decline in demand for energy commodities, which could adversely affect the revenues and cash flows of MLPs. MLPs also may be subject to construction risk, development risk, acquisition risk or other risks arising from their specific business strategies and risks associated with changing foreign, federal, state and local regulations. There is an inherent risk that MLPs may incur environmental costs and liabilities because of the nature of their businesses and the substances they handle and the possibility exists that stricter laws, regulations or enforcement policies could significantly increase the compliance costs of MLPs, and the cost of any remediation that may become necessary, which MLPs may not be able to recover from insurance.  An MLP may be dependent on its parent(s) or sponsor(s) for a majority of its revenues and any failure by the parent(s) or sponsor(s) to satisfy payments or obligations would impact the company’s revenues and cash flows and ability to make distributions.  The terms of an MLP’s transactions with its parent or sponsor are typically not arrived at on an arm’s-length basis, and may not be as favorable to the MLP as a transaction with a non-affiliate.
As partnerships, MLPs may be subject to less regulation (and less protection for investors) under state laws than corporations. In an MLP, the general partner (which may be structured as a private or publicly-traded corporation or other entity) manages and often controls, has an ownership stake in, and is normally eligible to receive incentive distribution payments from, the MLP. The general partner typically controls the operations and management of the entity through an up to 2% general partner interest in the entity plus, in many cases, ownership of some percentage of the outstanding limited partner interests. The limited partners, through their ownership of limited partner interests, provide capital to the entity, are intended to have no role in the operation and management of the entity and receive cash distributions.
Moreover, because the partnership units or limited liability interests of MLPs are listed and traded on a U.S. securities exchange, MLPs need to be operate in such a manner so as to be treated as partnerships for U.S. tax purposes. To be treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes, an MLP must derive at least 90% of its gross income for each taxable year from certain qualifying sources as described in Section 7704(d) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the "Code"), including energy infrastructure assets and natural resources-based activities such as the exploration, development, mining, production, processing, refining, transportation, storage and certain marketing of mineral or natural resources. Due to their structure as partnerships for U.S. federal income tax purposes and the expected character of their income, MLPs generally are not subject to U.S. federal income taxes. However, MLPs may be subject to state taxation in certain jurisdictions, which may reduce the amount of income an MLP pays to its investors. Thus, unlike investors in corporate securities, direct MLP investors are generally not subject to double taxation (i.e., corporate-level tax and tax on corporate dividends).  The Fund will invest no more than 25% of its total assets in securities of MLPs that are qualified publicly traded partnerships, which are treated as partnerships for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Under new tax legislation, individuals with taxable income from a direct interest in an MLP will be entitled to a 20% deduction with respect to such income. Currently, there is not a statutory or regulatory mechanism for the Fund to pass through such a deduction to its shareholders.
Mortgage-Backed Securities and Collateralized Mortgage Obligations—The Funds may invest in any level of the capital structure of MBS, which are securities that represent an interest in a pool of underlying mortgage loans. MBS, including mortgage pass-through securities and CMOs, include certain securities issued or guaranteed by the United States government or one of its agencies or instrumentalities, such as GNMA, FNMA, or FHLMC; securities issued by private issuers that represent an interest in or are collateralized by mortgage-backed securities issued or guaranteed by the U.S. government or one of its agencies or instrumentalities; securities issued by private issuers that represent an interest in or are collateralized by mortgage loans; and reperforming/non-performing loans, reperforming/non-performing loan securitizations, and resecuritizations of existing MBS and/or ABS (“Re-REMICS”).


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Mortgage-backed securities are subject to scheduled and unscheduled principal payments as homeowners pay down or prepay their mortgages. As these payments are received, they must be reinvested when interest rates may be higher or lower than on the original mortgage security. Therefore, these securities are not an effective means of locking in long-term interest rates. In addition, when interest rates fall, the pace of mortgage prepayments picks up. These refinanced mortgages are paid off at face value (par), causing a loss for any investor who may have purchased the security at a price above par. In such an environment, this risk limits the potential price appreciation of these securities and can negatively affect a Fund’s NAV. When rates rise, the prices of mortgage-backed securities can be expected to decline, although historically these securities have experienced smaller price declines than comparable quality bonds. In addition, when rates rise and prepayments slow, the effective duration of mortgage-backed securities extends, resulting in increased volatility. A decline or flattening of housing values may cause delinquencies in the mortgages (especially sub-prime or non-prime mortgages) underlying MBS and thereby adversely affect the ability of the MBS issuer to make principal and interest payments to MBS holders.

MBS include commercial mortgage-backed securities (“CMBS”) and residential mortgage-backed securities (“RMBS”). Many of the risks of investing in MBS reflect the risks of investing in the real estate securing the underlying mortgage. The value of both CMBS and RMBS, like all MBS, depends on national, state and local conditions. RMBS are subject to credit risks arising from delinquencies and defaults on underlying mortgage loans by borrowers and breaches of underlying loan documentation by loan originators and servicers. CMBS are subject to credit risks because they tend to involve relatively large underlying mortgage loans and the repayment of commercial mortgages depends on the successful operation of, and cash flows from, mortgaged properties. The risks associated with CMBS include the effects of local and other economic conditions on real estate markets, the ability of tenants to make loan payments, increases in interest rates, real estate tax rates and other operating expenses, changes in governmental rules, regulations and fiscal policies, and the ability of a property to attract and retain tenants. CMBS depend on cash flows generated by underlying commercial real estate loans, receivables, and other assets, and can be significantly affected by changes in market and economic conditions, the availability of information regarding the underlying assets and their structures, and the creditworthiness of the borrowers or tenants. CMBS may be less liquid and exhibit greater price volatility than other types of mortgage- or asset-backed securities. CMBS issued by private issuers may offer higher yields than CMBS issued by government issuers, but also may be subject to greater volatility than CMBS issued by government issuers. In addition, the CMBS market in recent years has experienced substantially lower valuations and greatly reduced liquidity, and current economic and market conditions suggest that this trend for CMBS may continue. CMBS held by the Fund may be subordinated to one or more other classes of securities of the same series for purposes of, among other things, establishing payment priorities and offsetting losses and other shortfalls with respect to the related underlying mortgage loans. There can be no assurance that the subordination will be sufficient on any date to offset all losses or expenses incurred by the underlying trust.

A mortgage pass-through security is a pro rata interest in a pool of mortgages where the cash flow generated from the mortgage collateral is passed through to the security holder.

CMOs are debt securities that are fully collateralized by a portfolio of mortgages or mortgage-backed securities. All interest and principal payments from the underlying mortgages are passed through to the CMOs in such a way as to create, in most cases, more definite maturities than is the case with the underlying mortgages. CMOs may pay fixed or variable rates of interest, and certain CMOs have priority over others with respect to the receipt of prepayments. Stripped mortgage securities (a type of potentially high-risk derivative) are created by separating the interest and principal payments generated by a pool of mortgage-backed securities or a CMO to create additional classes of securities. CMOs are subject to principal prepayments on the underlying mortgages and thus, may be retired earlier than scheduled. CMOs are also subject to cash flow uncertainty and price volatility.

A Fund may invest in securities known as “inverse floating obligations,” “residual interest bonds,” and “interest-only” (“IO”) and “principal-only” (“PO”) bonds, the market values of which will generally be more volatile than the

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market values of most MBS due to the fact that such instruments are more sensitive to interest rate changes and to the rate of principal prepayments than are most other MBS. An inverse floating obligation is a derivative adjustable rate security with interest rates that adjust or vary inversely to changes in market interest rates and, as a result, these may be leveraged and cause increased volatility and interest rate sensitivity. The term “residual interest” bond is used generally to describe those instruments in collateral pools, such as CMOs, which receive any excess cash flow generated by the pool once all other bondholders and expenses have been paid. IOs and POs are created by separating the interest and principal payments generated by a pool of mortgage-backed bonds to create two classes of securities. Generally, one class receives interest-only payments and the other class principal-only payments. MBS have been referred to as “derivatives” because the performance of MBS is dependent upon and derived from underlying securities. Unlike with other mortgage-backed securities and POs, the value of IOs tends to move in the same direction as interest rates. The Funds can use IOs as a hedge against falling prepayment rates (interest rates are rising) and/or a bear market environment. POs can be used as a hedge against rising prepayment rates (interest rates are falling) and/or a bull market environment. IOs and POs are acutely sensitive to interest rate changes and to the rate of principal prepayments and the secondary market for these instruments may be limited and volatile. A rapid or unexpected increase in prepayments can severely depress the price of IOs, while a rapid or unexpected decrease in prepayments could have the same effect on POs. These securities are very volatile in price and may have lower liquidity than most other mortgage-backed securities. Certain non-stripped CMOs may also exhibit these qualities, especially those that pay variable rates of interest that adjust inversely with, and more rapidly than, short-term interest rates. In addition, if interest rates rise rapidly and prepayment rates slow more than expected, certain CMOs, in addition to losing value, can exhibit characteristics of longer-term securities and become more volatile. There is no guarantee that a Fund’s investment in CMOs, IOs, or POs will be successful, and a Fund’s total return could be adversely affected as a result. These securities are subject to high degrees of credit, valuation and liquidity risks.

CMOs may be issued in a variety of classes, and the Funds may invest in several CMO classes, including, but not limited to Floaters, Planned Amortization Classes (“PACs”), Scheduled Classes (“SCHs”), Sequential Pay Classes (“SEQs”), Support Classes (“SUPs”), Target Amortization Classes (“TACs”) and Accrual Classes (“Z Classes”). CMO classes vary in the rate and time at which they receive principal and interest payments. SEQs, also called plain vanilla, clean pay, or current pay classes, sequentially receive principal payments from underlying mortgage securities when the principal on a previous class has been completely paid off. During the months prior to their receipt of principal payments, SEQs receive interest payments at the coupon rate on their principal. PACs are designed to produce a stable cash flow of principal payments over a predetermined period of time. PACs guard against a certain level of prepayment risk by distributing prepayments to SUPs, also called companion classes. TACs pay a targeted principal payment schedule, as long as prepayments are not made at a rate slower than an expected constant prepayment speed. If prepayments increase, the excess over the target is paid to SUPs. SEQs may have a less stable cash flow than PACs and TACs and, consequently, have a greater potential yield. PACs generally pay a lower yield than TACs because of PACs’ lower risk. Because SUPs are directly affected by the rate of prepayment of underlying mortgages, SUPs may experience volatile cash flow behavior. When prepayment speeds fluctuate, the average life of a SUP will vary. SUPs, therefore, are priced at a higher yield than less volatile classes of CMOs. Z Classes do not receive payments, including interest payments, until certain other classes are paid off. At that time, the Z Class begins to receive the accumulated interest and principal payments. A Floater has a coupon rate that adjusts periodically (usually monthly) by adding a spread to a benchmark index subject to a lifetime maximum cap. The yield of a Floater is sensitive to prepayment rates and the level of the benchmark index.

Investment in MBS poses several risks, including prepayment, market and credit risks. Prepayment risk reflects the chance that borrowers may prepay their mortgages faster than expected, thereby affecting the investment’s average life and perhaps its yield. Borrowers are most likely to exercise their prepayment options at a time when it is least advantageous to investors, generally prepaying mortgages as interest rates fall and slowing payments as interest rates rise. Certain classes of CMOs may have priority over others with respect to the receipt of prepayments on the mortgages, and a Fund may invest in CMOs which are subject to greater risk of prepayment, as discussed above.

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Market risk reflects the chance that the price of the security may fluctuate over time. The price of MBS may be particularly sensitive to prevailing interest rates, the length of time the security is expected to be outstanding and the liquidity of the issue. In a period of unstable interest rates, there may be decreased demand for certain types of MBS, and if a Fund is invested in such securities and wishes to sell them, it may find it difficult to find a buyer, which may in turn decrease the price at which they may be sold. IOs and POs are acutely sensitive to interest rate changes and to the rate of principal prepayments. They are very volatile in price and may have lower liquidity than most mortgage-backed securities. Certain CMOs may also exhibit these qualities, especially those which pay variable rates of interest which adjust inversely with and more rapidly than short-term interest rates. Credit risk reflects the chance that the Fund may not receive all or part of its principal because the issuer or credit enhancer has defaulted on its obligations. Obligations issued by U.S. government-related entities are guaranteed by the agency or instrumentality, and some, such as GNMA certificates, are supported by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Treasury; others are supported by the right of the issuer to borrow from the Treasury; others, such as those of the FNMA, are supported by the discretionary authority of the U.S. government to purchase the agency’s obligations; still others are supported only by the credit of the instrumentality. Although securities issued by U.S. government-related agencies are guaranteed by the U.S. government, its agencies or instrumentalities, shares of the Funds are not so guaranteed in any way.

Mortgage-related securities that are backed by pools of subprime mortgages are generally subject to a greater level of non-payment risk than mortgage-related securities that are not backed by pools of subprime mortgages.  Subprime mortgages are loans made to borrowers with lower credit ratings and/or a shorter credit history and such borrowers are more likely to default on their obligations under the loan than more creditworthy borrowers.  As a result, subprime mortgages underlying a mortgage-related security can experience a significant rate of non-payment. To the extent a Fund invests in mortgage-related securities backed by subprime mortgages, the Fund’s investment will be particularly susceptible to non-payment risk and the risks generally associated with investments in mortgage-related securities. Thus, the value of the Fund’s investment may be adversely affected by borrower non-payments, changes in interest rates, developments in the real estate market and other market and economic developments.

Historically, FHLMC and FNMA were agencies sponsored by the U.S. government that were supported only by the credit of the issuing agencies and not backed by the full faith and credit of the United States. In 2008, however, due to the declining value of FHLMC and FNMA securities and concerns that the firms did not have sufficient capital to offset losses resulting from the mortgage crisis, FHLMC and FNMA were placed into conservatorship by the Federal Housing Finance Agency. The effect that this conservatorship will have on FHLMC and FNMA and their guarantees remains uncertain. Although the U.S. government or its agencies provided financial support to FHLMC and FNMA, no assurance can be given that they will always provide support. The U.S. government and its agencies and instrumentalities do not guarantee the market value of their securities; consequently, the value of such securities will fluctuate.

The performance of private label MBS, issued by private institutions, is based on the financial health of those institutions. There is no guarantee that a Fund's investment in MBS will be successful, and the Fund's total return could be adversely affected as a result.

Municipal Bond Insurance—A Fund may purchase a Municipal Bond that is covered by insurance that guarantees the bond’s scheduled payment of interest and repayment of principal. This type of insurance may be obtained by either: (i) the issuer at the time the Municipal Bond is issued (primary market insurance); or (ii) another party after the bond has been issued (secondary market insurance). Both of these types of insurance seek to guarantee the timely and scheduled repayment of all principal and payment of all interest on a Municipal Bond in the event of default by the issuer, and cover a Municipal Bond to its maturity, typically enhancing its credit quality and value.


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Even if a Municipal Bond is insured, it is still subject to market fluctuations, which can result in fluctuations in a Fund’s share price. In addition, a Municipal Bond insurance policy will not cover: (i) repayment of a Municipal Bond before maturity (redemption); (ii) prepayment or payment of an acceleration premium (except for a mandatory sinking fund redemption) or any other provision of a bond indenture that advances the maturity of the bond; or (iii) nonpayment of principal or interest caused by negligence or bankruptcy of the paying agent. A mandatory sinking fund redemption may be a provision of a Municipal Bond issue whereby part of the Municipal Bond issue may be retired before maturity.

Some of the Municipal Bonds outstanding are insured by a small number of insurance companies, not all of which have the highest credit rating. As a result, an event involving one or more of these insurance companies could have a significant adverse effect on the value of the securities insured by that insurance company and on the municipal markets as a whole. If the Municipal Bond is not otherwise rated, the ratings of insured bonds reflect the credit rating of the insurer, based on the rating agency’s assessment of the creditworthiness of the insurer and its ability to pay claims on its insurance policies at the time of the assessment. While the obligation of a Municipal Bond insurance company to pay a claim extends over the life of an insured bond, there is no assurance that Municipal Bond insurers will meet their claims. A higher-than-anticipated default rate on Municipal Bonds (or other insurance the insurer provides) could strain the insurer’s loss reserves and adversely affect its ability to pay claims to bondholders.

A Fund’s Investment Manager (or Sub-Adviser, if applicable) may decide to retain an insured Municipal Bond that is in default, or, in the view of the Investment Manager (or Sub-Adviser, if applicable), in significant risk of default. While a Fund holds a defaulted, insured Municipal Bond, the Fund collects interest payments from the insurer and retains the right to collect principal from the insurer when the Municipal Bond matures, or in connection with a mandatory sinking fund redemption.

Municipal Securities

General Risks. A Fund may invest in municipal securities issued by or on behalf of states, territories and possessions of the United States and the District of Columbia and their political subdivisions, agencies and instrumentalities, the payments from which, in the opinion of bond counsel to the issuer, are excludable from gross income for Federal income tax purposes (“Municipal Bonds”). Municipal Bonds in which a Fund invests may include those backed by state taxes and essential service revenues as well as health care and higher education issuers, among others, or be supported by dedicated revenue streams and/or statutory liens.

A Fund may invest in Municipal Bonds that pay interest excludable from gross income for purposes of state and local income taxes of the designated state and/or allow the value of the Fund’s shares to be exempt from state and local taxes of the designated state. A Fund may also invest in securities not issued by or on behalf of a state or territory or by an agency or instrumentality thereof, if an Investment Manager (or Sub-Adviser, if applicable) believes such securities to pay interest excludable from gross income for purposes of Federal income tax and state and local income taxes of the designated state and/or state and local personal property taxes of the designated state (“Non-Municipal Tax-Exempt Securities”). Non-Municipal Tax-Exempt Securities could include trust certificates or other instruments evidencing interest in one or more long term municipal securities. Non-Municipal Tax-Exempt Securities also may include securities issued by other investment companies that invest in Municipal Bonds, to the extent such investments are permitted by applicable law. Non-Municipal Tax-Exempt Securities that pay interest excludable from gross income for Federal income tax purposes will be considered “Municipal Bonds” for purposes of a Fund’s investment objective and policies.

Neither a Fund nor an Investment Manager (or Sub-Adviser, if applicable) can guarantee the accuracy of any opinion issued by bond counsel regarding the tax-exempt status of a Municipal Bond. Furthermore, there can be no guarantee that the Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”) will agree with such counsel’s opinion. The value of Municipal

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Bonds may be affected by uncertainties in the municipal market related to legislation or litigation involving the taxation of Municipal Bonds or the rights of Municipal Bond holders in the event of a bankruptcy. From time to time, Congress has introduced proposals to restrict or eliminate the federal income tax exemption for interest on Municipal Bonds. State legislatures may also introduce proposals that would affect the state tax treatment of a Fund’s distributions. If such proposals were enacted, the availability of Municipal Bonds and the value of a Fund’s holdings would be affected, and the investment objectives and policies of a Fund would likely be re-evaluated.

Investments in Municipal Bonds present certain risks, including credit, interest rate, liquidity, and prepayment risks. Municipal Bonds may also be affected by local, state, and regional factors, including erosion of the tax base and changes in the economic climate. In addition, municipalities and municipal projects that rely directly or indirectly on federal funding mechanisms may be negatively affected by actions of the federal government including reductions in federal spending, increases in federal tax rates, or changes in fiscal policy.

The marketability, valuation or liquidity of Municipal Bonds may be negatively affected in the event that states, localities or their authorities default on their debt obligations or other market events arise, which in turn may negatively affect a Fund’s performance, sometimes substantially. A credit rating downgrade relating to, default by, or insolvency or bankruptcy of, one or several municipal issuers in a particular state, territory, or possession could affect the market value or marketability of Municipal Bonds from any one or all such states, territories, or possessions.

The value of Municipal Bonds may also be affected by uncertainties with respect to the rights of holders of Municipal Bonds in the event that an insolvent municipality takes steps to reorganize its debt, which might include engaging in into municipal bankruptcy proceedings, extending debt maturities, reducing the amount of principal or interest, refinancing the debt or taking other similar measures. Under bankruptcy law, certain municipalities that meet specific conditions may be provided protection from creditors while they develop and negotiate plans for reorganizing their debts.

Municipal bankruptcies have in the past been relatively rare, and certain provisions of the U.S. Bankruptcy Code governing such bankruptcies are unclear and remain untested. Further, the application of state law to municipal issuers could produce varying results among the states or among Municipal Bond issuers within a state. These legal uncertainties could affect the Municipal Bond market generally, certain specific segments of the market, or the relative credit quality of particular securities. Any of these effects could have a significant impact on the prices of some or all of the Municipal Bonds held by a Fund.

Certain of the issuers in which a Fund may invest have recently experienced, or may experience, significant financial difficulties. For example, Puerto Rico, in particular, has been experiencing significant financial difficulties (including budget deficits, underfunded pensions, high unemployment, a decline in population, significant debt service obligations, liquidity issues, and reduced access to financial markets). The default by issuers of Puerto Rico municipal securities on their obligations under securities held by a Fund may adversely affect the Fund and cause the Fund to lose the value of its investment in such securities.
From time to time, the Municipal Income Fund may invest a substantial amount of its assets in municipal securities issued by or on behalf of a particular municipality.  As a result, the Fund would be more exposed to risks affecting these issuers than a municipal securities fund that invests more widely.  The Investment Manager’s allocation of the Fund’s assets among the issuers of municipal securities (and associated municipalities) may vary significantly from time to time.  Please refer to the Fund’s most recent annual or semi-annual report to shareholders for portfolio holdings information as of the end of a recent fiscal period.
When the Municipal Income Fund invests a substantial amount of its assets in municipal securities issued by or on behalf of the State of California, Michigan, Texas or New York, its performance will be particularly susceptible to

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the ability of the issuers of California, Michigan, Texas or New York municipal securities, respectively, to continue to make principal and interest payments on their securities, which, in turn, depends on economic and other conditions within each state.  Many complex factors may influence California’s economy and finances, including, but not limited to: (i) the performance of the high technology, trade, manufacturing, entertainment, government, agriculture, tourism, construction, and services industries; (ii) developments in the national and California economies; (iii) the collection of revenues above or below projections; (iv) a delay in, or an inability of, California to implement budget solutions as a result of, among other things, costs related to obligations that were deferred in prior years to balance budgets or costs related to current or future litigation; (v) an inability to implement planned expenditure reductions; (vi) natural disasters, such as wildfires, droughts and earthquakes; and (vii) actions performed by the federal government, including, but not limited to, disallowances, audits, and changes in aid levels.  Similarly, Michigan’s economy and finances may be adversely affected by a variety of factors, including, but not limited to: (i) developments impacting the manufacturing sector and specifically, the auto industry; tourism; and agriculture; (ii) developments in the national and Michigan economies, including one or more Michigan municipalities becoming insolvent and filing for bankruptcy; (iii) the impact of a shift in monetary policy actions on interest rates and the financial markets; (iv) actions performed by the federal government, including, but not limited to, disallowances, audits, and changes in aid levels; (v) reductions in the available labor force; and (vi) litigation related to drinking water in the City of Flint. Additionally, Texas's economy and finances may be affected by a variety of factors, including, but not limited to: (i) the performance of the oil and gas industry, including drilling production, refining, chemical and energy-related manufacturing, the high technology manufacturing industry, including manufacturing of computers, electronics, and telecommunications equipment, and international trade; and (ii) developments in the national and Texas economies. Furthermore, New York's economy and finances may be adversely affected by a variety of factors, including, but not limited to: (i) the performance of the financial services, information technology, education and health services, international commerce, travel and tourism, and manufacturing sectors; (ii) developments in the economies of New York, the United States, and New York City; (iii) inability to accurately calculate or fund post-employment benefit plans; (iv) receipt of federal aid, especially for health care, education and transportation; (v) defense of legal proceedings and possible liabilities stemming from litigation; (vi) financial difficulties encountered by the City of Buffalo, the City of Yonkers and Nassau County; and (vii) hurricanes and other natural disasters.
These or other constantly changing factors may cause unanticipated adverse results on the fiscal and economic status of California, Michigan, Texas, New York or municipal issuers in any of these states.  Any such change(s) may adversely impact cash flows, expenditures, or revenues of California, Michigan, Texas or New York municipal issuers, or otherwise negatively impact the current or anticipated financial situation of California, Michigan, Texas or New York or their respective municipalities, which in turn could hurt the Fund’s performance.

Below are some of the additional risks of investments in particular segments of the Municipal Bonds market.

Electric Utilities. The electric utilities industry has been experiencing, and will likely continue to experience, increased competitive pressures. Federal legislation is expected to open transmission access to any electricity supplier, although it is not presently known to what extent competition will evolve. Other risks include: (i) the availability and cost of fuel, (ii) the availability and cost of capital, (iii) the effects of conservation on energy demand, (iv) the effects of rapidly changing environmental, safety, and licensing requirements, and other federal, state, and local regulations, (v) timely and sufficient rate increases, and (vi) opposition to nuclear power.

Health Care. The health care industry is subject to regulatory action by a number of private and governmental agencies, including federal, state, and local governmental agencies. A major source of revenues for the health care industry is payments from the Medicare and Medicaid programs. As a result, the industry is sensitive to legislative changes and reductions in governmental spending for such programs. General and local economic conditions, demand for services, expenses (including malpractice insurance premiums) and competition among health care providers may also affect the industry. In the future, the following elements may adversely affect health care facility operations:

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(i) the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and any other federal legislation relating to health care reform; (ii) any state or local health care reform measures; (iii) medical and technological advances which dramatically alter the need for health services or the way in which such services are delivered; (iv) changes in medical coverage which alter the traditional fee-for-service revenue stream; and (v) efforts by employers, insurers, and governmental agencies to reduce the costs of health insurance and health care services.

Higher Education. In general, there are two types of education-related bonds: (i) those relating to projects for public and private colleges and universities; and (ii) those representing pooled interests in student loans. Bonds issued to supply educational institutions with funds are subject to the risk of unanticipated revenue decline resulting primarily from a decrease in student enrollment or reductions in state and federal funding. Restrictions on students’ ability to pay tuition, a reduction of the availability of state and federal funding, and declining general economic conditions are factors that may lead to declining or insufficient revenues. Student loan revenue bonds are generally offered by state authorities or commissions and are backed by pools of student loans. Underlying student loans may be guaranteed by state guarantee agencies and may be subject to reimbursement by the United States Department of Education through its guaranteed student loan program. Others student loans may be private, uninsured loans made to parents or students that are supported by reserves or other forms of credit enhancement. Recoveries of principal due to loan defaults may be applied to redemption of bonds or may be used to re-lend, depending on program latitude and demand for loans. Cash flows supporting student loan revenue bonds are impacted by numerous factors, including: (i) the rate of student loan defaults; (ii) seasoning of the loan portfolio; and (iii) student repayment deferral periods of forbearance. Other risks associated with student loan revenue bonds include: (i) potential changes in federal legislation regarding student loan revenue bonds; (ii) state guarantee agency reimbursement; and (iii) continued federal interest and other program subsidies currently in effect.

Housing. Housing revenue bonds are generally issued by a state, county, city, local housing authority, or other public agencies. Such bonds generally are secured by the revenues derived from mortgages purchased with the proceeds of the bond issue. Because it is extremely difficult to predict the supply of available mortgages to be purchased with the proceeds of an issue or the future cash flow from the underlying mortgages, there are risks that proceeds will exceed supply, resulting in early retirement of bonds, or that homeowner repayments will create an irregular cash flow. Many factors may affect the financing of multi-family housing projects, including: (i) acceptable completion of construction; (ii) proper management, occupancy and rent levels; (iii) economic conditions; and (iv) changes to current laws and regulations.

Similar Projects Risk. To the extent that a Fund is permitted to invest its assets in Municipal Bonds that finance similar projects, such as those relating to education, healthcare, housing, utilities, or water and sewers, the Fund may be more sensitive to adverse economic, business or political developments if it invests a substantial portion of its assets in bonds of similar projects.

Transportation. Bonds may be issued to finance the construction of airports, toll roads, highways or other transit facilities. Airport bonds are dependent on the specific carriers who use the particular airport as well as by the general stability of the airline industry, which can be affected by broader economic trends and the price and availability of fuel. Bonds issued to construct toll roads are affected by the cost and availability of fuel as well as toll levels, the presence of competing roads and the general economic health of an area. Other transportation-related securities are also affected by fuel costs and availability of other forms of transportation, such as public transportation.

Water and Sewer. Water and sewer revenue bonds are often considered to have relatively secure credit as a result of their issuer’s importance, monopoly status, and generally unimpeded ability to raise rates. Despite this, lack of water supply due to insufficient rain, run-off, or snow pack is a concern that has led to past defaults. Further, public resistance to rate increases, costly environmental litigation, and Federal environmental mandates may impact issuers of water and sewer bonds.

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Political Uncertainty Risk—Markets in which a Fund is invested or is exposed to may experience political uncertainty (e.g., Brexit) that subjects the Fund's investments to heightened risks, even when made in established markets.  These risks include: greater fluctuations in currency exchange rates; increased risk of default (by both government and private issuers); greater social, economic, and political instability (including the risk of war or natural disaster); increased risk of nationalization, greater governmental involvement in the economy; less governmental supervision and regulation of the securities markets and participants in those markets; controls on foreign investment, capital controls and limitations on repatriation of invested capital and on a clients’ ability to exchange currencies; inability to purchase and sell investments or otherwise settle security or derivative transactions (i.e., a market freeze); unavailability of currency hedging techniques; slower clearance; and difficulties in obtaining and/or enforcing legal judgments.

During times of political uncertainty, the securities, derivatives and currency markets may become volatile.  There also may be a lower level of monitoring and regulation of markets while a country is experiencing political uncertainty, and the activities of investors in such markets and enforcement of existing regulations may be extremely limited.  Markets experiencing political uncertainty may have substantial rates of inflation for many years.  Inflation and rapid fluctuations in inflation rates may have negative effects on such countries’ economies and securities markets. The disruption to markets caused by political uncertainty may adversely affect a Fund.

Preferred Securities—Certain Funds may purchase preferred securities, which represent an equity interest in a company that generally entitles the holder to receive, in preference to the holders of other stocks such as common stocks, dividends and a fixed share of the proceeds resulting from a liquidation of the company. Some preferred stocks also entitle their holders to receive additional liquidation proceeds on the same basis as holders of a company’s common stock, and thus also represent an ownership interest in that company.

Preferred stocks may pay fixed or adjustable rates of return. Preferred stock is subject to issuer-specific and market risks applicable generally to equity securities. In addition, a company’s preferred stock generally pays dividends only after the company makes required payments to holders of its bonds and other debt. For this reason, the value of the preferred stock will usually react more strongly than bonds and other debt to actual or perceived changes in the company’s financial condition or prospects. Preferred stock of smaller companies may be more vulnerable to adverse developments than preferred stock of larger companies.
Put Bonds—A put bond (also referred to as a tender option or third party bond) is a bond created by coupling an intermediate or long-term fixed rate bond with an agreement giving the holder the option of tendering the bond to receive its par value. As consideration for providing this tender option, the sponsor of the bond (usually a bank, broker-dealer or other financial intermediary) receives periodic fees that equal the difference between the bond’s fixed coupon rate and the rate (determined by a remarketing or similar agent) that would cause the bond, coupled with the tender option, to trade at par. By paying the tender offer fees, a Fund in effect holds a demand obligation that bears interest at the prevailing short-term rate.
In selecting put bonds, an Investment Manager (or Sub-Adviser, if applicable) takes into consideration the creditworthiness of the issuers of the underlying bonds and the creditworthiness of the providers of the tender option features. A sponsor may withdraw the tender option feature if the issuer of the underlying bond defaults on interest or principal payments or the bond’s rating is downgraded. Put bonds often pay a variable or floating rate of interest and therefore are subject to many of the same risks associated with investing in floating rate instruments, as described below under “Variable and Floating Rate Instruments.”
Qualified Financial Contracts—Qualified financial contracts include agreements relating to swaps, currency forwards and other derivatives as well as repurchase agreements and securities lending agreements. Beginning in 2019,

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regulations adopted by prudential regulators will require that certain qualified financial contracts entered into with certain counterparties that are part of a U.S. or foreign banking organization designated as a global-systemically important banking organization to include contractual provisions that delay or restrict the rights of counterparties, such as the Funds, to exercise certain close-out, cross-default and similar rights under certain conditions. Qualified financial contracts are subject to a stay for a specified time period during which counterparties, such as the Funds, will be prevented from closing out a qualified financial contract if the counterparty is subject to resolution proceedings and prohibit the Funds from exercising default rights due to a receivership or similar proceeding of an affiliate of the counterparty. Implementation of these requirements may increase credit and other risks to the Funds.
Quantitative Investing Risk—The Investment Managers may use quantitative models, algorithms, methods or other similar techniques or analytical tools (“quantitative tools”) in managing the Funds, including to generate investment ideas, identify investment opportunities or as a component of its overall portfolio construction processes and investment selection or screening criteria.  Quantitative tools may also be used in connection with risk management and hedging processes.  The value of securities selected using quantitative tools can react differently to issuer, political, market, and economic developments than the market as a whole or securities selected using only fundamental or other similar means of analysis. The factors used in quantitative tools and the weight placed on those factors may not be predictive of a security’s value or a successful weighting. In addition, factors that affect a security’s value can change over time and these changes may not be reflected in the quantitative tools.  Thus, a Fund is subject to the risk that any quantitative tools used by an Investment Manager will not be successful in, among other things, forecasting movements in industries, sectors or companies and/or in determining the size, direction, and/or weighting of investment positions.
There is no guarantee that quantitative tools, and the investments selected based on such tools, will produce the desired results or enable a Fund to achieve its investment objective. A Fund may be adversely affected by imperfections, errors or limitations in construction and implementation (for example, limitations in a model, proprietary or third-party data imprecision or unavailability, software or other technology malfunctions, or programming inaccuracies) and the Investment Manager’s ability to monitor and timely adjust the metrics or update the data or features underlying the quantitative tools, including accounting for changes in the overall market environment, and identify and address omissions of relevant data or assumptions.
A quantitative tool may not perform as expected and a quantitative tool that has been formulated on the basis of past market data or trends may not be predictive of future price movements. A Fund may also be adversely affected by the Investment Manager’s ability to make accurate qualitative judgments regarding a quantitative tool’s output or operational complications relating to a quantitative tool.
Real Estate Securities—Certain Funds may invest in equity securities of real estate companies and companies related to the real estate industry, including real estate investment trusts (“REITs”) and companies with substantial real estate investments, and therefore, such Funds may be subject to certain risks associated with direct ownership of real estate and with the real estate industry in general. The Market Neutral Real Estate Fund and the Risk Managed Real Estate Fund consider the “real estate industry” to be comprised of the real estate group of industries as classified by widely recognized industry classification system providers such as Bloomberg Industry Classification System, Global Industry Classification Standards and Barclays Global Classification Scheme. The risks associated with direct ownership of real estate and the real estate industry include, among others: possible declines in the value of real estate; declines in rental income; possible lack of availability of mortgage funds; extended vacancies of properties; risks related to national, state and local economic conditions (such as the turmoil experienced during 2007 through 2009 in the residential and commercial real estate market); overbuilding; increases in competition, property taxes and operating expenses; changes in building, environmental, zoning and other laws; costs resulting from the clean-up of, and liability to third parties for damages resulting from, environmental problems; casualty or condemnation losses; uninsured damages from floods, earthquakes, terrorist acts or other natural disasters; limitations on and variations in rents; and changes in interest rates. The value of real estate securities are also subject to the management skill, insurance

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coverage and creditworthiness of their issuer. Because many real estate projects are dependent upon financing, rising interest rates, which increase the costs of obtaining financing, may cause the value of real estate securities to decline. Real estate income and values may be greatly affected by demographic trends, such as population shirts or changing tastes and values.
The prices of real estate company securities may drop because of the failure of borrowers to repay their loans, poor management, and the inability to obtain financing either on favorable terms or at all. If the properties do not generate sufficient income to meet operating expenses, including, where applicable, debt service, ground lease payments, tenant improvements, third-party leasing commissions and other capital expenditures, the income and ability of the real estate company to make payments of interest and principal on their loans will be adversely affected. Many real estate companies utilize leverage, which increases investment risk and could adversely affect a company’s operations and market value in periods of rising interest rates.
REITs—REITs are pooled investment vehicles which invest primarily in income producing real estate or real estate related loans or interests. REITs are generally classified as equity REITs, mortgage REITs or hybrid REITs. Equity REITs invest the majority of their assets directly in real property and derive income primarily from the collection of rents. Equity REITs can also realize capital gains by selling properties that have appreciated in value. Mortgage REITs invest the majority of their assets in real estate mortgages and derive income from the collection of interest payments. A hybrid REIT combines the characteristics of equity REITs and mortgage REITs, generally by holding both direct ownership interests and mortgage interests in real estate.
In addition to the risks affecting real estate securities generally, REITs are also subject to additional risks. REITs may invest in a limited number of properties, a narrow geographic area or a single type of property, which may increase the risk that the Fund could be adversely affected by the poor performance of a single investment or type of investment. REITs are also susceptible to the risks associated with the types of real estate securities they own and adverse economic or market events with respect to these securities and property types (e.g., apartment properties, retail shopping centers, office and industrial properties, hotels, health-care facilities, manufactured housing and mixed-property types). REITs have their own expenses, and as a result, the Fund and its shareholders will indirectly bear its proportionate share of expenses paid by each REIT in which it invests. Finally, certain REITs may be self-liquidating in that a specific term of existence is provided for in the trust document. Such trusts run the risk of liquidating at an economically inopportune time.
REITs are also subject to unique federal tax requirements. A REIT that fails to comply with federal tax requirements affecting REITs may be subject to federal income taxation, which may affect the value of the REIT and the characterization of the REIT’s distributions, and a REIT that fails to comply with the federal tax requirement that a REIT distribute substantially all of its net income to its shareholders may result in a REIT having insufficient capital for future expenditures. The failure of a company to qualify as a REIT could have adverse consequences for a Fund, including significantly reducing return to the Fund on its investment in such company. In the event of a default of an underlying borrower or lessee, a REIT could experience delays in enforcing its rights as a mortgagee or lessor and may incur substantial costs associated with protecting its investments. Investments in REIT equity securities may require the Fund to accrue and distribute income not yet received. In order to generate sufficient cash to make the requisite distributions, the Fund may be required to sell securities in its portfolio (including when it is not advantageous to do so) that it otherwise would have continued to hold. A Fund’s investments in REIT equity securities may at other times result in the Fund’s receipt of cash in excess of the REIT’s earnings; if the Fund distributes such amounts, such distribution could constitute a return of capital to Fund shareholders for federal income tax purposes. Dividends received by a Fund from a REIT generally will not constitute qualified dividend income. REITs often do not provide complete tax information to the Fund until after the calendar year-end. Consequently, because of the delay, it may be necessary for the Fund to request permission from the IRS to extend the deadline for issuance of Forms 1099-DIV.

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Repurchase Agreements, Reverse Repurchase Agreements and Dollar Roll Transactions—Each of the Funds may enter into repurchase agreements. Repurchase agreements are similar to loans in many respects. Repurchase agreements are transactions in which the purchaser buys a debt security from a bank or recognized securities dealer and simultaneously commits to resell that security to the bank or dealer at an agreed upon price, date and market rate of interest unrelated to the coupon rate or maturity of the purchased security. If the institution defaults on the repurchase agreement, a Fund will retain possession of the underlying securities. If bankruptcy proceedings are commenced with respect to the seller, realization on the collateral by a Fund may be delayed or limited and the Fund may incur additional costs. In such case, the Fund will be subject to risks associated with changes in market value of the collateral securities. Each Fund intends to enter into repurchase agreements only with banks and broker/dealers believed to present minimal credit risks. Except as described above and elsewhere in this SAI, a Fund may enter into repurchase agreements maturing in less than seven days without limitation.
Repurchase agreements collateralized entirely by cash, U.S. government securities or liquid securities or instruments issued by an issuer that has an exceptionally strong credit quality (“Qualifying Collateral”) generally may be deemed to be “collateralized fully” and may be deemed to be investments in the underlying securities for certain purposes. A Fund may accept collateral other than Qualifying Collateral, including debt securities, equity securities and high yield fixed-income instruments that are rated below investment grade or determined to be of comparable quality (“Alternative Collateral”). Repurchase agreements secured by Alternative Collateral are not deemed to be “collateralized fully” under applicable regulations and the repurchase agreement is therefore considered a separate security issued by the counterparty to the Fund. Accordingly, a Fund must include repurchase agreements that are not “collateralized fully” in its calculations of securities issued by the selling institution held by the Fund for purposes of various portfolio diversification and concentration requirements applicable to the Fund. In addition, Alternative Collateral may not qualify as permitted or appropriate investments for a Fund under the Fund's investment strategies and limitations. Accordingly, if a counterparty to a repurchase agreement defaults and a Fund takes possession of Alternative Collateral, the Fund may need to promptly dispose of the Alternative Collateral (or other securities held by the Fund, if the Fund exceeds a limitation on a permitted investment by virtue of taking possession of the Alternative Collateral). The Alternative Collateral may be particularly illiquid, especially in times of market volatility or in the case of a counterparty insolvency or bankruptcy, which may restrict a Fund's ability to dispose of Alternative Collateral received from the counterparty.
Each of the Funds may also enter into reverse repurchase agreements with the same parties with whom they may enter into repurchase agreements. Under a reverse repurchase agreement, a Fund would sell securities and agree to repurchase them at a particular price at a future date. Reverse repurchase agreements involve the risk that the market value of the securities retained in lieu of sale by a Fund may decline below the price of the securities the Fund has sold but is obligated to repurchase. In the event the buyer of securities under a reverse repurchase agreement files for bankruptcy or becomes insolvent, such buyer or its trustee or receiver may receive an extension of time to determine whether to enforce the Fund’s obligation to repurchase the securities, and the Fund’s use of the proceeds of the reverse repurchase agreement may effectively be restricted pending such decision. The Fund will segregate or earmark cash or liquid securities in an amount sufficient to cover its obligation under reverse repurchase agreements. Assets may be segregated with the Fund’s custodian or on the Fund’s books. As noted above under “Borrowing,” investments in reverse repurchase agreements are treated as borrowings and, therefore, are subject to a Fund’s fundamental policy on borrowing.
Each of the Funds may also enter into “dollar rolls,” in which a Fund sells MBS or other fixed-income securities for delivery and simultaneously contracts to repurchase substantially similar (same type, coupon and maturity) securities on a specified future date. A Fund may also enter into “TBA rolls,” in which the Fund agrees to sell a TBA, itself a forward transaction, and to buy forward a subsequent TBA. During the roll period, the Fund would forego principal and interest paid on such securities sold; however, the Fund would be permitted to invest the sale proceeds during the period. The Fund would be compensated by the difference between the current sales price and the forward price for the future purchase, as well as by the interest earned on the sale proceeds of the initial sale, minus the

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principal and interest paid on the securities during the period. When the Fund enters into a dollar roll, it becomes subject to the risk that any fluctuation in the market value of the security transferred or the securities in which the sales proceeds are invested can affect the market value of the Fund’s assets, and therefore, of the Fund’s NAV. Dollar rolls also subject the Fund to the risk that the market value of the securities the Fund is required to deliver may decline below the agreed upon repurchase price of those securities. In addition, in the event that the Fund’s counterparty becomes insolvent, the Fund’s use of the proceeds may become restricted pending a determination as to whether to enforce the Fund’s obligation to purchase the substantially similar securities. The Fund will create a segregated account to segregate cash or liquid securities in an amount sufficient to cover its obligation under “roll” transactions. Assets may be segregated with the Fund’s custodian or on the Fund’s books. As noted above under “Borrowing,” investments in dollar rolls are treated as borrowings and, therefore, are subject to a Fund’s fundamental policy on borrowing.

Restricted Securities—A Fund may invest in restricted securities. Restricted securities cannot be sold to the public without registration under the 1933 Act. Unless registered for sale, restricted securities can be sold only in privately negotiated transactions or pursuant to an exemption from registration. Restricted securities may be classified as illiquid.

Restricted securities may involve a high degree of business and financial risk which may result in substantial losses. The securities may be less liquid than publicly traded securities. Although these securities may be resold in privately negotiated transactions, the prices realized from these sales could be less than those originally paid for by a Fund. A Fund may invest in restricted securities, including securities initially offered and sold without registration pursuant to Rule 144A under the 1933 Act (“Rule 144A Securities”) and securities of U.S. and non-U.S. issuers initially offered and sold outside the United States without registration with the SEC pursuant to Regulation S under the 1933 Act (“Regulation S Securities”). Rule 144A Securities and Regulation S Securities generally may be traded freely among certain qualified institutional investors, such as a Fund, and non-U.S. persons, but resale to a broader based of investors in the United States may be permitted only in significantly more limited circumstances. A qualified institutional investor is defined by Rule 144A under the 1933 Act generally as an institution, acting for its own account or for the accounts of other qualified institutional investors, that in the aggregate owns and invests on a discretionary basis at least $100 million in securities of issuers not affiliated with the institution. A dealer registered under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (“1934 Act”), acting for its own account or the accounts of other qualified institutional investors, that in the aggregate owns and invests on a discretionary basis at least $10 million in securities of issuers not affiliated with the dealer may also qualify as a qualified institutional investor, as well as a 1934 Act registered dealer acting in a riskless principal transaction on behalf of a qualified institutional investor.

A Fund also may purchase restricted securities that are not eligible for resale pursuant to Rule 144A or Regulation S under the 1933 Act. The Funds may acquire such securities through private placement transactions, directly from the issuer or from security holders, generally at higher yields or on terms more favorable to investors than comparable publicly traded securities. However, the restrictions on resale of such securities may make it difficult for a Fund to dispose of such securities at the time considered most advantageous and/or may involve expenses that would not be incurred in the sale of securities that were freely marketable. Risks associated with restricted securities include the potential obligation to pay all or part of the registration expenses in order to sell certain restricted securities. A considerable period of time may elapse between the time of the decision to sell a security and the time a Fund may be permitted to sell it under an effective registration statement. If, during a period, adverse conditions were to develop, a Fund might obtain a less favorable price than prevailing when it decided to sell.
Risk Linked Securities (“RLS”)—Risk-linked securities (“RLS”) are a form of derivative issued by insurance companies and insurance-related special purpose vehicles that apply securitization techniques to catastrophic property and casualty damages. RLS are typically debt obligations for which the return of principal and the payment of interest are contingent on the non-occurrence of a pre-defined “trigger event.” Depending on the specific terms and structure

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of the RLS, this trigger could be the result of a hurricane, earthquake or some other catastrophic event. Insurance companies securitize this risk to transfer to the capital markets the truly catastrophic part of the risk exposure. A typical RLS provides for income and return of capital similar to other fixed-income investments, but would involve full or partial default if losses resulting from a certain catastrophe exceeded a predetermined amount. RLS typically have relatively high yields compared with similarly rated fixed-income securities, and also have low correlation with the returns of traditional securities. Investments in RLS may be linked to a broad range of insurance risks, which can be broken down into three major categories: natural risks (such as hurricanes and earthquakes), weather risks (such as insurance based on a regional average temperature) and non-natural events (such as aerospace and shipping catastrophes). Although property-casualty RLS have been in existence for over a decade, significant developments have started to occur in securitizations done by life insurance companies. In general, life insurance industry securitizations could fall into a number of categories. Some are driven primarily by the desire to transfer risk to the capital markets, such as the transfer of extreme mortality risk (mortality bonds). Others, while also including the element of risk transfer, are driven by other considerations. For example, a securitization could be undertaken to relieve the capital strain on life insurance companies caused by the regulatory requirements of establishing very conservative reserves for some types of products. Another example is the securitization of the stream of future cash flows from a particular block of business, including the securitization of embedded values of life insurance business or securitization for the purpose of funding acquisition costs.

Risks Associated with Low-Rated and Comparable Unrated Debt Securities (Junk Bonds)—Low-rated and comparable unrated securities, while generally offering higher yields than investment-grade securities with similar maturities, involve greater risks than higher quality debt instruments, particularly the possibility of default or bankruptcy. They are regarded as predominantly speculative with respect to the issuer’s capacity to pay interest and repay principal. A Fund may also purchase low rated and comparable unrated securities which are in default when purchased. The special risk considerations in connection with such investments are discussed below. See the Appendix of this SAI for a discussion of securities ratings.

The low-rated and comparable unrated securities market is still relatively new, and its growth paralleled a long economic expansion. As a result, it is not clear how this market may withstand a prolonged recession or economic downturn. Such a prolonged economic downturn could severely disrupt the market for and adversely affect the value of such securities.

Fixed rate securities typically experience appreciation when interest rates decline and depreciation when interest rates rise. The market values of low-rated and comparable unrated securities tend to reflect individual corporate, consumer, and commercial developments to a greater extent than do higher-rated securities, which react primarily to fluctuations in the general level of interest rates. Low-rated and comparable unrated securities also tend to be more sensitive to economic conditions than are higher-rated securities. As a result, they generally involve more credit risks than securities in the higher-rated categories. During an economic downturn or a sustained period of rising interest rates, highly leveraged issuers of low-rated and comparable unrated securities may experience financial stress and may not have sufficient revenues to meet their payment obligations. The issuer’s ability to service its debt obligations may also be adversely affected by specific corporate developments, the issuer’s inability to meet specific projected business forecasts, or the unavailability of additional financing. The risk of loss due to default by an issuer of low-rated and comparable unrated securities is significantly greater than issuers of higher-rated securities because such securities are generally unsecured and are often subordinated to other creditors. Further, if the issuer of a low-rated and comparable unrated security defaulted, a Fund might incur additional expenses to seek recovery. Periods of economic uncertainty and changes would also generally result in increased volatility in the market prices of low-rated and comparable unrated securities and thus in a Fund’s NAV.

As previously stated, the value of such a fixed rate security will decrease in a rising interest rate market and accordingly, so will a Fund’s NAV. If a Fund experiences unexpected net redemptions in such a market, it may be forced

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to liquidate a portion of its portfolio securities without regard to their investment merits. Due to the volatility of high-yield securities (discussed below) a Fund may be forced to liquidate these securities at a substantial discount. Any such liquidation would reduce the Fund’s asset base over which expenses could be allocated and could result in a reduced rate of return for the Fund.

Low-rated and comparable unrated securities typically contain redemption, call, or prepayment provisions which permit the issuer of such securities containing such provisions to, at their discretion, redeem the securities. During periods of falling interest rates, issuers of high-yield securities are likely to redeem or prepay the securities and refinance them with debt securities with a lower interest rate. To the extent an issuer is able to refinance the securities or otherwise redeem them, a Fund may have to replace the securities with a lower-yielding security, which would result in a lower return for the Fund.

Credit ratings issued by credit-rating agencies evaluate the safety of principal and interest payments of rated securities. They do not, however, evaluate the market value risk of low-rated and comparable unrated securities and, therefore, may not fully reflect the true risks of an investment. In addition, credit-rating agencies may or may not make timely changes in a rating to reflect changes in the economy or in the condition of the issuer that affect the market value of the security. Consequently, credit ratings are used only as a preliminary indicator of investment quality. Investments in low-rated and comparable unrated securities will be more dependent on the credit analysis of an Investment Manager (or Sub-Adviser, if applicable) than would be the case with investments in investment-grade debt securities. An Investment Manager (or Sub-Adviser, if applicable) employs its own credit research and analysis, which includes a study of existing debt, capital structure, ability to service debt and to pay dividends, the issuer’s sensitivity to economic conditions, its operating history, and the current trend of earnings. The Investment Managers (or Sub-Adviser, if applicable) continually monitor the investments in the Fund’s portfolio and carefully evaluates whether to dispose of or to retain low-rated and comparable unrated securities whose credit ratings or credit quality may have changed.

A Fund may have difficulty disposing of certain low-rated and comparable unrated securities because there may be a thin trading market for such securities. Because not all dealers maintain markets in all low-rated and comparable unrated securities, there is no established retail secondary market for many of these securities. The Funds anticipate that such securities could be sold only to a limited number of dealers or institutional investors. To the extent a secondary trading market does exist, it is generally not as liquid as the secondary market for higher-rated securities. The lack of a liquid secondary market may have an adverse impact on the market price of the security. As a result, the Fund’s asset value and the Fund’s ability to dispose of particular securities, when necessary to meet the Fund’s liquidity needs or in response to a specific economic event, may be impacted. The lack of a liquid secondary market for certain securities may also make it more difficult for the Fund to obtain accurate market quotations for purposes of valuing the Fund. Market quotations are generally available on many low-rated and comparable unrated issues only from a limited number of dealers and may not necessarily represent firm bids of such dealers or prices for actual sales. During periods of thin trading, the spread between bid and asked prices is likely to increase significantly. In addition, adverse publicity and investor perceptions, whether or not based on fundamental analysis, may decrease the values and liquidity of low-rated and comparable unrated securities, especially in a thinly-traded market. The High Yield Fund may acquire lower quality debt securities during an initial underwriting or may acquire lower quality debt securities, which are sold without registration under applicable securities laws.

Legislation has been adopted, and from time to time, proposals have been discussed regarding new legislation designed to limit the use of certain low-rated and comparable unrated securities by certain issuers. An example of such legislation is a law which requires federally insured savings and loan associations to divest their investment in these securities over time. New legislation could further reduce the market because such legislation, generally, could negatively affect the financial condition of the issuers of unrated securities and could adversely affect the market in general. It is not currently possible to determine the impact of the recent legislation on this market. However, it is

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anticipated that if additional legislation is enacted or proposed, it could have a material effect on the value of low-rated and comparable unrated securities and the existence of a secondary trading market for the securities.

Risks of Private Investments in Public Companies—The Funds may also make private investments in public companies whose stocks are quoted on stock exchanges or which trade in the over-the-counter securities market, a type of investment commonly referred to as a “PIPE” transaction. PIPE transactions may be entered into with smaller capitalization public companies, which will entail business and financial risks comparable to those of investments in the publicly-issued securities of smaller capitalization companies, which may be less likely to be able to weather business or cyclical downturns than larger companies and are more likely to be substantially hurt by the loss of a few key personnel. In addition, PIPE transactions will generally result in a Fund acquiring either restricted stock or an instrument convertible into restricted stock. As with investments in other types of restricted securities, such an investment may be illiquid. A Fund’s ability to dispose of securities acquired in PIPE transactions may depend on the registration of such securities for resale. Any number of factors may prevent or delay a proposed registration. Alternatively, it may be possible for securities acquired in a PIPE transaction to be resold in transactions exempt from registration in accordance with Rule 144 under the 1933 Act, as amended, or otherwise under the federal securities laws. There can be no guarantee that there will be an active or liquid market for the stock of any small capitalization company due to the possible small number of stockholders. As a result, even if a Fund is able to have securities acquired in a PIPE transaction registered or sell such securities through an exempt transaction, the Fund may not be able to sell all the securities on short notice, and the sale of the securities could lower the market price of the securities. There is no guarantee that an active trading market for the securities will exist at the time of disposition of the securities, and the lack of such a market could hurt the market value of the Fund’s investments. For more detail, please refer to the “Restricted Securities” section of this SAI’s discussion of investment methods and risk factors.

Shares of Other Investment Vehicles—Each of the Funds may invest in shares of other investment companies or other investment vehicles, which may include, among others, mutual funds, closed-end funds and exchange-traded funds (“ETFs”) such as index-based investments and private or foreign investment funds. The Diversified Income Fund will primarily invest in affiliated and unaffiliated investment vehicles to achieve its investment objective until it is sufficiently large to invest in securities directly in an efficient manner, at which time the Fund may continue to invest significantly in affiliated and unaffiliated investment vehicles, which may include, among others, mutual funds, closed-end funds and ETFs such as index-based investments and private or foreign investment funds.
The Funds may also invest in investment vehicles that are not subject to regulation as registered investment companies. Securities of investment vehicles that are not subject to regulation as registered investment companies may be classified as illiquid.
The investment companies in which the Fund invests may have adopted certain investment restrictions that are more or less restrictive than the Fund's investment restrictions, which may permit the Fund to engage in investment strategies indirectly that are prohibited under the Fund's investment restrictions. For example, to the extent the Fund invests in underlying investment companies that concentrate their investments in an industry, a corresponding portion of the Fund's assets may be indirectly exposed to that particular industry.
A Fund may purchase securities of other investment companies to the extent permitted by the 1940 Act, the rules and regulations thereunder and any applicable exemptive relief. It is the Funds’ policy that if shares of a Fund are purchased by another fund (including any other registered open-end investment company or registered unit investment trust advised by Guggenheim Investments or its affiliates) in reliance on Section 12(d)(1)(G) of the 1940 Act, for so long as shares of the Fund are held by such other fund, the Fund will not purchase securities of a registered open-end investment company or registered unit investment trust in reliance on Section 12(d)(1)(F) or Section 12(d)(1)(G) of the 1940 Act. In December 2018, the SEC issued a proposed rulemaking package related to investments in other investment vehicles that, if adopted, could require the Funds to adjust their investments accordingly. These

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adjustments may have an impact on the Funds' performance and may have negative risk consequences on the investing Funds as well as the underlying investment vehicles.

The main risk of investing in index-based investment companies is the same as investing in a portfolio of securities comprising the index. The market prices of index-based investments will fluctuate in accordance with both changes in the market value of their underlying portfolio securities and due to supply and demand for the instruments on the exchanges on which they are traded. Index-based investments may not replicate exactly the performance of their specified index because of, among other things, transaction costs and because of the temporary unavailability of certain component securities of the index.

To the extent a Fund invests in other investment companies, or other investment vehicles, it will incur its pro rata share of the underlying investment companies’ expenses (including, for example, investment advisory and other management fees). In addition, a Fund will be subject to the effects of business and regulatory developments that affect an underlying investment company or the investment company industry generally.

Investments in Guggenheim Short-Term Funds. Upon entering into certain derivatives contracts, such as futures contracts, and to maintain open positions in certain derivatives contracts, a Fund may be required to post collateral for the contract, the amount of which may vary. As such, or for other portfolio management purposes, a Fund may maintain significant cash balances (including foreign currency balances). A Fund, particularly the Market Neutral Real Estate Fund, may also have cash balances for other reasons, including cash proceeds from the Fund’s short sales.

As disclosed in the Prospectuses, certain Funds may invest a substantial portion of their respective assets in certain Guggenheim short-term funds advised by GPIM, or an affiliate of GPIM, that invest in short-term fixed-income or floating rate securities. These funds are designed primarily to provide an alternative to investing directly and separately in various short-term fixed-income or floating rate securities. These Guggenheim short-term funds invest in: (i) a broad range of high yield, high risk debt securities rated below the top four long-term rating categories by a nationally recognized statistical rating organization (also known as “junk bonds”) or, if unrated, determined by the Investment Manager, to be of comparable quality; (ii) collateralized loan obligations (“CLOs”), other asset-backed securities and similarly structured debt investments; and (iii) other short-term fixed or floating rate debt securities. Accordingly, to the extent a Fund invests in such Guggenheim funds, the Fund would be subject to the risks tied to all of those investments and investment returns will vary based on the performance of those asset classes.

Short Sales—Certain Funds may make short sales “against the box,” in which the Fund enters into a short sale of a security it owns or has the right to obtain at no additional cost. Each Fund may also make short sales of securities the Fund does not own. If a Fund makes a short sale, the Fund does not immediately deliver from its own account the securities sold and does not receive the proceeds from the sale. To complete the sale, the Fund must borrow the security (generally from the broker through which the short sale is made) in order to make delivery to the buyer. The Fund must replace the security borrowed by purchasing it at the market price at the time of replacement or delivering the security from its own portfolio. The Fund is said to have a “short position” in securities sold until it delivers them to the broker at which time it receives the proceeds of the sale.

A Fund may make short sales that are not “against the box.” Short sales by a Fund that are not made “against the box” create opportunities to increase the Fund’s return but, at the same time, involve specific risk considerations and may be considered a speculative technique. Since the Fund in effect profits from a decline in the price of the securities sold short without the need to invest the full purchase price of the securities on the date of the short sale, the Fund’s NAV per share tends to increase more when the securities it has sold short decrease in value, and to decrease more when the securities it has sold short increase in value, than would otherwise be the case if it had not engaged in such short sales. The amount of any gain will be decreased, and the amount of any loss increased, by the amount of any premium, dividends or interest the Fund may be required to pay in connection with the short sale. Short sales

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theoretically involve unlimited loss potential, as the market price of securities sold short may continually increase, although a Fund may mitigate such losses by replacing the securities sold short before the market price has increased significantly. Under adverse market conditions the Fund might have difficulty purchasing securities to meet its short sale delivery obligations and might have to sell portfolio securities to raise the capital necessary to meet its short sale obligations at a time when fundamental investment considerations would not favor such sales.

A Fund’s decision to make a short sale “against the box” may be a technique to hedge against market risks when the Investment Manager believes that the price of a security may decline, causing a decline in the value of a security owned by the Fund or a security convertible into or exchangeable for such security. In such case, any future losses in the Fund’s long position would be reduced by a gain in the short position. The extent to which such gains or losses in the long position are reduced will depend upon the amount of securities sold short relative to the amount of the securities the Fund owns, either directly or indirectly, and, in the case where the Fund owns convertible securities, changes in the investment values or conversion premiums of such securities. The Fund can close out its short position by purchasing and delivering an equal amount of the securities sold short, rather than by delivering securities already held by the Fund, because the Fund might want to continue to receive interest and dividend payments on securities in its portfolio that are convertible into the securities sold short.

While the short sale is outstanding a Fund will be required to pledge a portion of its assets to the broker as collateral for the obligation to deliver the security to the broker at the close of the transaction. The broker will also hold the proceeds of the short sale until the close of the transaction. A Fund is often obligated to pay over interest and dividends on the borrowed security to the broker.

In the view of the Commission, a short sale involves the creation of a “senior security” as such term is defined in the 1940 Act unless the sale is “against the box” and the securities sold short (or securities convertible into or exchangeable for such securities) are segregated or unless a Fund’s obligation to deliver the securities sold short is “covered” by earmarking or segregating cash, U.S. government securities or other liquid assets in an amount equal to the difference between the market value of the securities sold short and any collateral required to be deposited with a broker in connection with the sale (not including the proceeds from the short sale), which difference is adjusted daily for changes in the value of the securities sold short. The total value of the short sale proceeds, cash, U.S. government securities or other liquid assets deposited with the broker and earmarked or segregated on its books or with the Funds' custodian may not at any time be less than the market value of the securities sold short. Each Fund will comply with these requirements.

A Fund will incur transaction costs, including interest expense, in connection with opening, maintaining and closing short sales.

Short-Term Instruments—When the Funds experience large cash inflows through the sale of securities and desirable equity securities that are consistent with the Funds’ investment objectives are unavailable in sufficient quantities or at attractive prices, the Funds may hold short-term investments for a limited time at the discretion of the Investment Managers. Short-term instruments consist of: (1) short-term obligations issued or guaranteed by the U.S. government or any of its agencies or instrumentalities or by any of the states; (2) other short-term debt securities; (3) commercial paper; (4) bank obligations, including negotiable certificates of deposit, time deposits and bankers’ acceptances; (5) repurchase agreements; (6) shares of money market funds; and (7) non-convertible corporate debt securities (e.g., bonds and debentures) with remaining maturities as of the date of purchase of not more than 397 days and that are rated in the top-two short-term categories by two Nationally Recognized Statistical Ratings Organizations (“NRSROs”), or if unrated, deemed to be of equal quality by the Investment Manager.

Spread Transactions—A Fund may purchase covered spread options from securities dealers. Such covered spread options are not presently exchange-listed or exchange-traded. The purchase of a spread option gives a Fund the right

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to put, or sell, a security that it owns at a fixed dollar spread or fixed yield spread in relationship to another security that the Fund does not own, but which is used as a benchmark. The risk to a Fund in purchasing covered spread options is the cost of the premium paid for the spread option and any transaction costs. In addition, there is no assurance that closing transactions will be available. The purchase of spread options will be used to protect the Fund against adverse changes in prevailing credit quality spreads, i.e., the yield spread between high quality and lower quality securities. Such protection is only provided during the life of the spread option.

Swap Agreements—Each Fund may enter into swap agreements, including, but not limited to, total return swaps, index swaps, interest rate swaps, municipal market data rate locks and credit default swaps. A Fund may utilize swap agreements in an attempt to gain exposure to the securities in a market without actually purchasing those securities, or to hedge a position. Swap agreements are contracts for periods ranging from a day to more than one-year and may be negotiated bilaterally and traded OTC between two parties or, in some instances, must be transacted through a futures commission merchant and cleared through a clearinghouse that serves as a central counterparty. In a standard swap transaction, two parties agree to exchange the returns (or differentials in rates of return) earned or realized on particular predetermined investments or instruments. The gross returns to be exchanged or “swapped” between the parties are calculated with respect to a “notional amount,” i.e., the return on or increase in value of a particular dollar amount invested in an issuer, a “basket” of securities or ETFs. Forms of swap agreements may include (i) interest rate caps, under which, in return for a premium, one party agrees to make payments to the other to the extent that interest rates exceed a specified rate, or “cap,” (ii) interest rate floors, under which, in return for a premium, one party agrees to make payments to the other to the extent that interest rates fall below a specified level, or “floor,” and (iii) interest rate collars, under which a party sells a cap and purchases a floor or vice versa in an attempt to protect itself against interest rate movements exceeding given minimum or maximum levels.

Another form of swap agreement is a credit default swap. A credit default swap enables a Fund to buy or sell protection against a defined credit event of an issuer or a basket of securities or ETFs. Generally, the seller of credit protection against an issuer or basket of securities receives a periodic payment to compensate against potential default events. If a default event occurs, the seller must pay the buyer the full notional value of the reference obligation in exchange for the reference obligation. If no default occurs, the counterparty will pay the stream of payments and have no further obligations to the Fund selling the credit protection.

In contrast, the buyer of a credit default swap would have the right to deliver a referenced debt obligation and receive the par (or other agreed-upon) value of such debt obligation from the counterparty in the event of a default or other credit event (such as a credit downgrade) by the reference issuer, such as a U.S. or foreign corporation, with respect to its debt obligations. In return, the buyer of the credit protection would pay the counterparty a periodic stream of payments over the term of the contract provided that no event of default has occurred. If no default occurs, the counterparty would keep the stream of payments and would have no further obligations to the Fund purchasing the credit protection.

Each Fund also may enhance income by selling credit protection or attempt to mitigate credit risk by buying protection. Credit default swaps could result in losses if the creditworthiness of an issuer or a basket of securities is not accurately evaluated.

Most swap agreements (but generally not credit default swaps) that a Fund might enter into require the parties to calculate the obligations of the parties to the agreement on a “net basis.” Swap agreements may not involve the delivery of securities or other underlying assets. Consequently, a Fund’s obligations (or rights) and risk of loss under such a swap agreement would generally be equal only to the net amount to be paid or received under the agreement based on the relative values of the positions held by each party to the agreement (the “net amount”). Other swap agreements, such as credit default swaps, may require initial premium (discount) payments as well as periodic payments (receipts) related to the interest leg of the swap or to the default of a reference obligation.

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Each Fund is required to cover its swaps positions in a manner consistent with the 1940 Act or the rules and SEC interpretations thereunder in order to limit the risk associated with the use of leverage and other related risks. A Fund’s obligations under a swap agreement (other than a CDS for which a Fund is the seller) would be accrued daily (offset against any amounts owing to the Fund) and any accrued but unpaid net amounts owed to a swap counterparty would be covered by segregating assets determined to be liquid. Obligations under swap agreements so covered would not be construed to be “senior securities” for purposes of a Fund’s investment restriction concerning senior securities and, accordingly, would not treat them as subject to a Fund’s borrowing restrictions. For swaps that are not cash settled, each Fund will earmark or segregate cash or liquid assets with a value at least equal to the full notional amount of the swaps (minus any amounts owed to the Fund) or enter into offsetting transactions. For swaps that are cash settled, each Fund may designate or segregate on its records cash or liquid assets equal to the Fund’s next daily marked-to-market net obligations under the swaps, if any, rather than the full notional amount. Such segregation will ensure that a Fund has assets available to satisfy its obligations with respect to the transaction and will limit any potential leveraging of a Fund’s portfolio. By earmarking or designating assets equal to only its net obligation under cash-settled swaps, a Fund will have the ability to employ leverage to a greater extent than if a Fund were required to earmark or segregate assets equal to the full notional amount of such swaps.

Because they may be two party contracts and because they may have terms of greater than seven days, swap agreements may be classified as illiquid. A Fund would not enter into any swap agreement unless an Investment Manager (or Sub-Adviser, if applicable) believes that the other party to the transaction is creditworthy. A Fund bears the risk of loss of the amount expected to be received under a swap agreement in the event of the default or bankruptcy of a swap agreement counterparty, or in the case of a credit default swap in which a Fund is selling credit protection, the default of a third party issuer.

Each Fund may enter into swap agreements to invest in a market without owning or taking physical custody of the underlying securities in circumstances in which direct investment is restricted for legal reasons or is otherwise impracticable. The counterparty to any swap agreement would typically be a bank, investment banking firm or broker-dealer or, in the case of a cleared swap, the clearinghouse. The counterparty would generally agree to pay a Fund the amount, if any, by which the notional amount of the swap agreement would have increased in value had it been invested in the particular stocks, plus the dividends that would have been received on those stocks. The Fund would agree to pay to the counterparty a floating rate of interest on the notional amount of the swap agreement plus the amount, if any, by which the notional amount would have decreased in value had it been invested in such stocks. Therefore, the return to a Fund on any swap agreement should be the gain or loss on the notional amount plus dividends on the stocks less the interest paid by the Fund on the notional amount.

Swap agreements typically are settled on a net basis (but generally not credit default swaps), which means that the two payment streams are netted out, with a Fund receiving or paying, as the case may be, only the net amount of the two payments. Payments may be made at the conclusion of a swap agreement or periodically during its term. Other swap agreements, such as credit default swaps, may require initial premium (discount) payments as well as periodic payments (receipts) related to the interest leg of the swap or to the default of a reference obligation. A Fund would earmark and reserve assets necessary to meet any accrued payment obligations when it is the buyer of a credit default swap. In cases where a Fund is the seller of a credit default swap, if the credit default swap provides for physical settlement, the Fund would be required to earmark and reserve the full notional amount of the credit default swap.

A Fund may also enter into swaps on an index, including credit default index swaps (CDX), which are swaps on an index of credit default swaps. For example, a commercial mortgage-backed index (CMBX) is a type of CDX made up of 25 tranches of commercial mortgage-backed securities rather than CDS. Unlike other CDX contracts where credit events are intended to capture an event of default, CMBX involves a pay-as-you-go settlement process designed to

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capture non-default events that affect the cash flow of the reference obligation. Pay-as-you-go settlement involves ongoing, two-way payments over the life of a contract between the buyer and the seller of protection and is designed to closely mirror the cash flow of a portfolio of cash commercial mortgage-backed securities. Certain CDX are subject to mandatory central clearing and exchange trading, which may reduce counterparty credit risk and increase liquidity compared to other credit default swap or CDS index transactions. Investments in CMBX are also subject to the risks associated with MBS, which are described above, as well as the risks associated with the types of properties tied to the underlying mortgages (e.g., apartment properties, retail shopping centers, office and industrial properties, hotels, health-care facilities, manufactured housing and mixed-property types) and adverse economic or market events with respect to these property types.

The swap market has grown substantially in recent years with a large number of banks and investment banking firms acting both as principals and as agents utilizing standardized swap documentation. As a result, the swap market has become relatively liquid in comparison with the markets for other similar instruments that are traded in the OTC market. The Investment Managers (or Sub-Adviser, if applicable) under the oversight of the Board, are responsible for determining and monitoring the liquidity of Fund transactions in swap agreements.

Certain standardized swaps are subject to mandatory exchange-trading and/or central clearing. Exchange-trading and central clearing are expected to reduce counterparty credit risk and increase liquidity, but exchange-trading and central clearing do not make swap transactions risk-free. The Dodd-Frank Act and related regulatory developments require the clearing and exchange-trading of certain OTC derivative instruments that the CFTC and SEC have defined as “swaps.” Mandatory exchange-trading and clearing are occurring on a phased-in basis based on CFTC approval of contracts for central clearing. Depending on a Fund’s size and other factors, the margin required under the rules of the clearinghouse and by the clearing member may be in excess of the collateral required to be posted by a Fund to support its obligations under a similar bilateral swap. In addition, regulators have developed rules that require trading and execution of the most liquid swaps on trading facilities. Moving trading to an exchange-type system may increase market transparency and liquidity but may require a Fund to incur increased expenses to access the same types of cleared and uncleared swaps. In addition, the CFTC and other applicable regulators have adopted rules imposing certain margin requirements, including minimums, on uncleared swaps which may result in a Fund and its counterparties posting higher margin amounts for uncleared swaps. Recently adopted rules also require centralized reporting of detailed information about many types of cleared and uncleared swaps. Reporting of swap data may result in greater market transparency, but may subject a Fund to additional administrative burdens and the safeguards established to protect trader anonymity may not function as expected. The Investment Managers (or Sub-Adviser, if applicable) will continue to monitor developments in this area, particularly to the extent regulatory changes affect the ability of the Funds to enter into swap agreements. Regulatory changes and additional requirements may increase costs associated with derivatives transactions and may subject a Fund to additional administrative burdens, which may adversely affect investors.

The use of swap agreements, including credit default swaps, is a highly specialized activity which involves investment techniques and risks different from those associated with ordinary portfolio securities transactions. If a counterparty’s creditworthiness declines, the value of the swap would likely decline. Moreover, there is no guarantee that a Fund could eliminate its exposure under an outstanding swap agreement by entering into an offsetting swap agreement with the same or another party.
Tender Option Bonds—Tender option bonds are created by depositing intermediate- or long-term, fixed-rate or variable rate, municipal bonds into a trust and issuing two classes of trust interests (or “certificates”) with varying economic interests to investors. Holders of the first class of trust interests, or floating rate certificates, receive tax-exempt interest based on short-term rates and may tender the certificate to the trust at par. As consideration for providing the tender option, the trust sponsor (typically a bank, broker-dealer, or other financial institution) receives periodic fees. The trust pays the holders of the floating rate certificates from proceeds of a remarketing of the

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certificates or from a draw on a liquidity facility provided by the sponsor. A Fund investing in a floating rate certificate effectively holds a demand obligation that bears interest at the prevailing short-term tax-exempt rate. The floating rate certificate is typically an eligible security for money market funds. Holders of the second class of interests, sometimes called the residual income certificates, are entitled to any tax-exempt interest received by the trust that is not payable to floating rate certificate holders, and bear the risk that the underlying municipal bonds decline in value. The laws and regulations that apply to investments by bank entities, potentially including their ability to establish tender option bonds, are rapidly changing. The impact of these changes on the Municipal Income Fund and its investment strategy is not yet fully ascertainable.

U.S. Government Securities—Consistent with its investment objective and strategies, a Fund may invest in obligations issued or guaranteed by the U.S. government, including: (1) direct obligations of the U.S. Treasury and (2) obligations issued by U.S. government agencies and instrumentalities. Included among direct obligations of the U.S. are Treasury Bills, Treasury Notes and Treasury Bonds, which differ in terms of their interest rates, maturities, and dates of issuance. Treasury Bills have maturities of less than one year, Treasury Notes have maturities of one to 10 years and Treasury Bonds generally have maturities of greater than 10 years from the date of issuance. Included among the obligations issued by agencies and instrumentalities of the U.S. are: instruments that are supported by the full faith and credit of the U.S., such as certificates issued by the Government National Mortgage Association (“GNMA” or “Ginnie Mae”); instruments that are supported by the right of the issuer to borrow from the U.S. Treasury (such as securities of Federal Home Loan Banks); and instruments that are supported solely by the credit of the instrumentality, such as Federal National Mortgage Association (“FNMA” or “Fannie Mae”) and Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (“FHLMC” or “Freddie Mac”). In September 2008, the Federal Housing Finance Agency ("FHFA") placed Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac in conservatorship. At the same time, the U.S. Treasury agreed to acquire $1 billion of senior preferred stock of each instrumentality and obtained warrants for the purchase of common stock of each instrumentality. Under these Senior Preferred Stock Purchase Agreements (“SPAs”), the U.S. Treasury has pledged to provide up to $100 billion per instrumentality as needed, including the contribution of cash capital to the instrumentalities in the event their liabilities exceed their assets. In May 2009, the U.S. Treasury increased its maximum commitment to each instrumentality under the SPAs to $200 billion per instrumentality. In December 2009, the U.S. Treasury further amended the SPAs to allow the cap on the U.S. Treasury’s funding commitment to increase as necessary to accommodate any cumulative reduction in Fannie Mae’s and Freddie Mac’s net worth through the end of 2012. At the start of 2013, the unlimited support the U.S. Treasury extended to the two companies expired—Fannie Mae’s bailout is capped at $125 billion and Freddie Mac has a limit of $149 billion. On August 17, 2012, the U.S. Treasury announced that it was again amending the Agreement to terminate the requirement that Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac each pay a 10% dividend annually on all amounts received under the funding commitment. Instead, they will transfer to the U.S. Treasury on a quarterly basis all profits earned during a quarter that exceed a capital reserve amount of $3 billion.

Also in December 2009, the U.S. Treasury amended the SPAs to provide Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac with some additional flexibility to meet the requirement to reduce their mortgage portfolios. The actions of the U.S. Treasury are intended to ensure that Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac maintain a positive net worth and meet their financial obligations, preventing mandatory triggering of receivership. No assurance can be given that the U.S. Treasury initiatives will be successful. Other U.S. government securities a Fund may invest in include (but are not limited to) securities issued or guaranteed by the Federal Housing Administration, Farmers Home Loan Administration, Export-Import Bank of the U.S., Small Business Administration, General Services Administration, Central Bank for Cooperatives, Federal Farm Credit Banks, Federal Intermediate Credit Banks, Federal Land Banks, Maritime Administration, Tennessee Valley Authority, District of Columbia Armory Board and Student Loan Marketing Association. Because the U.S. government is not obligated by law to provide support to an instrumentality it sponsors, a Fund will invest in obligations issued by such an instrumentality only if the Investment Manager determines that the credit risk with respect to the instrumentality does not make its securities unsuitable for investment by the Fund.

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No assurance can be given as to whether the U.S. government will continue to support Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. In addition, the future for Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac remains uncertain. Congress has recently considered proposals to reduce the U.S. government’s role in the mortgage market of both Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, including proposals as to whether Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac should be nationalized, privatized, restructured or eliminated altogether. Should the federal government adopt any such proposal, the value of a Fund’s investments in securities issued by Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac would be impacted. Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac are also the subject of continuing legal actions and investigations which may have an adverse effect on these entities.
The FHFA recently announced plans to consider taking Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac out of conservatorship.  Should Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac be taken out of conservatorship, it is unclear whether Treasury would continue to enforce its rights or perform its obligations under the SPAs.  It also unclear how the capital structure of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac would be constructed post-conservatorship, and what effects, if any, the privatization of the enterprises will have on their creditworthiness and guarantees of certain MBS.  Accordingly, should the FHFA take the enterprises out of conservatorship, there could be an adverse impact on the value of their securities which could cause a Fund to lose value.
Any controversy or ongoing uncertainty regarding the status of negotiations in the U.S. Congress to increase the statutory debt ceiling may impact the market value of U.S. government debt securities held by a Fund. If the U.S. Congress is unable to negotiate an adjustment to the statutory debt ceiling, there is also the risk that the U.S. government may default on payments on certain U.S. government securities, including those held by a Fund, which could have a material negative impact on the Fund.
A Fund may invest in securities issued by government agencies and sold through an auction process, which may be subject to certain risks associated with the auction process. A Fund may also invest in separately traded principal and interest components of securities guaranteed or issued by the U.S. government or its agencies, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises if such components trade independently under the Separate Trading of Registered Interest and Principal of Securities program (“STRIPS”) or any similar program sponsored by the U.S. government. STRIPS may be sold as zero coupon securities.
Variable and Floating Rate Instruments—Certain Funds may invest in variable or floating rate instruments and variable rate demand instruments, including variable amount master demand notes. These instruments will normally involve industrial development or revenue bonds that provide that the rate of interest is set as a specific percentage of a designated base rate (such as the prime rate or LIBOR) at a major commercial bank. In addition, the interest rates on these securities may be reset daily, weekly or on some other reset period and may have a floor or ceiling on interest rate changes. Such Funds can demand payment of the obligation at all times or at stipulated dates on short notice (not to exceed 30 days) at par plus accrued interest.

On July 27, 2017, the head of the United Kingdom’s Financial Conduct Authority announced a desire to phase out the use of LIBOR by the end of 2021. There remains uncertainty regarding the future utilization of LIBOR and the nature of any replacement rate. As such, the potential effect of a transition away from LIBOR on a Fund or the debt securities or other instruments based on or referencing LIBOR in which a Fund invests cannot yet be determined.  The transition process might lead to increased volatility and illiquidity in markets that currently rely on LIBOR to determine interest rates. The phasing out of LIBOR could also lead to a reduction in the value of some LIBOR-based investments held by a Fund and reduce the effectiveness of new hedges placed against existing LIBOR-based instruments.

Debt instruments purchased by a Fund may be structured to have variable or floating interest rates. These instruments may include variable amount master demand notes that permit the indebtedness to vary in addition to providing for periodic adjustments in the interest rates.


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Other variable and floating rate instruments include but are not limited to certain corporate debt securities, ABS, MBS, CMBS, collateralized mortgage obligations (“CMOs”), government and agency securities. An Investment Manager (or Sub-Adviser, if applicable) will consider the earning power, cash flows and other liquidity ratios of the issuers and guarantors of such instruments and, if the instrument is subject to a demand feature, will continuously monitor their financial ability to meet payment on demand. Where necessary to ensure that a variable or floating rate instrument is equivalent to the quality standards applicable to a Fund’s fixed-income investments, the issuer’s obligation to pay the principal of the instrument will be backed by an unconditional bank letter or line of credit, guarantee or commitment to lend. Any bank providing such a bank letter, line of credit, guarantee or loan commitment will meet a Fund’s investment quality standards relating to investments in bank obligations. An Investment Manager (or Sub-Adviser, if applicable) will also continuously monitor the creditworthiness of issuers of such instruments to determine whether the Fund should continue to hold the investments.

The absence of an active secondary market for certain variable and floating rate notes could make it difficult to dispose of the instruments, and a Fund could suffer a loss if the issuer defaults or during periods in which the Fund is not entitled to exercise its demand rights.

Variable and floating rate instruments may be classified as illiquid investments (e.g., when a reliable trading market for the instruments does not exist and the Fund may not demand payment of the principal amount of such instruments within seven days).

When-Issued and Forward Commitment Securities—The purchase of securities on a “when-issued” basis and the purchase or sale of securities on a “forward commitment” basis may be used to hedge against anticipated changes in interest rates and prices. The price, which is generally expressed in yield terms, is fixed at the time the commitment is made, but delivery and payment for the securities take place at a later date. When-issued securities and forward commitments may be sold prior to the settlement date, but the Funds will enter into when-issued and forward commitments only with the intention of actually receiving or delivering the securities, as the case may be; however, a Fund may dispose of a commitment prior to settlement if an Investment Manager (or Sub-Adviser, if applicable) deems it appropriate to do so. No income accrues on securities which have been purchased pursuant to a forward commitment or on a when-issued basis prior to delivery of the securities. If a Fund disposes of the right to acquire a when-issued security prior to its acquisition or disposes of its right to deliver or receive against a forward commitment, it may incur a gain or loss. At the time a Fund enters into a transaction on a when-issued or forward commitment basis, it will segregate cash or liquid securities equal to the value of the when-issued or forward commitment securities. Assets may be segregated with the Fund’s custodian or on the Fund’s books and will be marked to market daily. There is a risk that the securities may not be delivered and that the Fund may incur a loss. Forward commitments involve a risk of loss if the value of the security to be purchased declines prior to the settlement date, which risk is in addition to the risk of decline in value of the Fund’s other assets.

TBA Purchase Commitments. A Fund may enter into “To Be Announced” (“TBA”) purchase commitments to purchase or sell securities for a fixed price at a future date, typically not exceeding 75-90 days. TBA purchase commitments may be considered securities in themselves and involve a risk of loss if the value of the security to be purchased declines prior to settlement date, which risk is in addition to the risk of decline in the value of a Fund’s other assets. Unsettled TBA purchase commitments are valued at the current market value of the underlying securities. To facilitate such acquisitions, the Fund identifies on its books cash or liquid assets in an amount at least equal to such commitments. It may be expected that a Fund’s net assets will fluctuate to a greater degree when it sets aside portfolio securities to cover such purchase commitments than when it sets aside cash. On delivery dates for such transactions, a Fund will meet its obligations from maturities or sales of the segregated securities and/or from cash flow. If a Fund chooses to dispose of the TBA security prior to its settlement, it could, as with the disposition of any other portfolio obligation, incur a gain or loss due to market fluctuation. In addition, recently finalized FINRA rules include mandatory margin requirements that require the Funds to post collateral in connection with their TBA

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transactions. There is no similar requirement applicable to the Funds' TBA counterparties. The required collateralization of TBA trades could increase the cost of TBA transactions to the Funds and impose added operational complexity.

Zero Coupon and Payment-In-Kind Securities—Zero coupon securities pay no interest to holders prior to maturity, and payment-in-kind securities pay interest in the form of additional securities. The market value of a zero-coupon or payment-in-kind security, which usually trades at a deep discount from its face or par value, is generally more volatile than the market value of, and is more sensitive to changes in interest rates and credit quality than, other fixed income securities with similar maturities and credit quality that pay interest in cash periodically. Zero coupon and payment-in-kind securities also may be less liquid than other fixed-income securities with similar maturities and credit quality that pay interest in cash periodically.  In addition, zero coupon and payment-in-kind securities may be more difficult to value than other fixed income securities with similar maturities and credit quality that pay interest in cash periodically.

When held to maturity, the entire income from zero coupon securities, which consists of accretion of discount, comes from the difference between the issue price and their value at maturity. Zero coupon securities, which are convertible into common stock, offer the opportunity for capital appreciation as increases (or decreases) in market value of such securities closely follows the movements in the market value of the underlying common stock. Zero coupon convertible securities generally are expected to be less volatile than the underlying common stocks, as they usually are issued with maturities of 15 years or less and are issued with options and/or redemption features exercisable by the holder of the obligation entitling the holder to redeem the obligation and receive a defined cash payment.

Zero coupon securities include securities issued directly by the U.S. Treasury and U.S. Treasury bonds or notes and their unaccrued interest coupons and receipts for their underlying principal (“coupons”) which have been separated by their holder, typically a custodian bank or investment brokerage firm. A holder will separate the interest coupons from the underlying principal (the “corpus”) of the U.S. Treasury security. A number of securities firms and banks have stripped the interest coupons and receipts and then resold them in custodial receipt programs with a number of different names, including “Treasury Income Growth Receipts” (TIGRSTM) and Certificate of Accrual on Treasuries (CATSTM). The underlying U.S. Treasury bonds and notes themselves are held in book-entry form at the Federal Reserve Bank or, in the case of bearer securities (i.e., unregistered securities which are owned ostensibly by the bearer or holder thereof), in trust on behalf of the owners thereof. Counsel to the underwriters of these certificates or other evidences of ownership of the U.S. Treasury securities have stated that, for federal tax and securities purposes, in their opinion purchasers of such certificates, such as a Fund, most likely will be deemed the beneficial holder of the underlying U.S. government securities.

The U.S. Treasury has facilitated transfers of ownership of zero coupon securities by accounting separately for the beneficial ownership of particular interest coupon and corpus payments on Treasury securities through the Federal Reserve book-entry recordkeeping system. The Federal Reserve program as established by the Treasury Department is known as “STRIPS” or “Separate Trading of Registered Interest and Principal of Securities.” Under the STRIPS program, a Fund will be able to have its beneficial ownership of zero coupon securities recorded directly in the book-entry recordkeeping system in lieu of having to hold certificates or other evidences of ownership of the underlying U.S. Treasury securities. When U.S. Treasury obligations have been stripped of their unmatured interest coupons by the holder, the principal or corpus is sold at a deep discount because the buyer receives only the right to receive a future fixed payment in the security and does not receive any rights to periodic interest (cash) payments. Once stripped or separated, the corpus and coupons may be sold separately. Typically, the coupons are sold separately or grouped with other coupons with like maturity dates and sold bundled in such form. Purchasers of stripped obligations acquire, in effect, discount obligations that are economically identical to the zero coupon securities that the Treasury sells itself.


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A portion of the original issue discount on zero coupon securities and the “interest” on payment-in-kind securities will be included in a Fund’s taxable income. Accordingly, for the Fund to qualify for tax treatment as a regulated investment company and to avoid certain taxes, the Fund will generally be required to distribute to its shareholders an amount that is greater than the total amount of cash it actually receives with respect to these securities. These distributions must be made from the Fund’s cash assets or, if necessary, from the proceeds of sales of portfolio securities. The Fund will not be able to purchase additional income-producing securities with cash used to make any such distributions, and its current income ultimately may be reduced as a result.

INVESTMENT RESTRICTIONS
Each of the Funds operates within certain fundamental policies. These fundamental policies may not be changed without the approval of the lesser of (1) 67% or more of a Fund’s shares present at a meeting of shareholders if the holders of more than 50% of the outstanding shares of the Fund are present or represented by proxy or (2) more than 50% of a Fund’s outstanding shares. Other restrictions in the form of operating policies are subject to change by a Fund’s Board of Trustees without shareholder approval; however, should any Fund with a name subject to Rule 35d-1 under the 1940 Act, change its policy of investing in at least 80% of its assets (net assets, plus the amount of any borrowings for investment purposes) in the type of investment suggested by that Fund’s name, the Fund will provide shareholders at least 60 days’ notice prior to making the change, or such other period as is required by applicable law, as interpreted or modified by a regulatory authority having jurisdiction from time to time. If a percentage restriction is adhered to at the time of an investment or transaction, a later increase or decrease in percentage resulting from changing values of portfolio securities or amount of total assets will not be considered a violation of any of the following limitations, except with respect to the borrowing limitation. With regard to the borrowing limitation, each Fund will comply with the applicable restrictions of Section 18 of the 1940 Act. Any investment restrictions that involve a maximum percentage of securities or assets shall not be considered to be violated unless an excess over the percentage occurs immediately after, and is caused by, an acquisition of securities or assets of a Fund. Calculation of a Fund’s total assets for compliance with any of the following fundamental or operating policies or any other investment restrictions set forth in the Fund’s Prospectus or SAI will not include cash collateral held in connection with the Fund’s securities lending activities.

Fundamental Policies—The fundamental policies of each Fund are:
1.
Each Fund, other than Market Neutral Real Estate Fund, shall be a “diversified company”, as that term is defined in the 1940 Act, as interpreted, modified, or applied by regulatory authority having jurisdiction from time to time.
2.
Market Neutral Real Estate Fund shall be a “non-diversified company,” as that term is defined in the 1940 Act, as interpreted, modified, or applied by regulatory authority having jurisdiction from time to time.
3.
Each Fund may not act as an underwriter of securities issued by others, except to the extent it could be considered an underwriter in the acquisition and disposition of restricted securities.
4.
Each Fund, other than Market Neutral Real Estate Fund and Risk Managed Real Estate Fund, may not “concentrate” its investments in a particular industry, except to the extent permitted under the 1940 Act and other applicable laws, rules and regulations, as interpreted, modified, or applied by regulatory authority having jurisdiction from time to time.
5.
Market Neutral Real Estate Fund and Risk Managed Real Estate Fund each will “concentrate” its investments in the real estate industry. Market Neutral Real Estate Fund and Risk Managed Real Estate Fund each may not “concentrate” its investments in another industry, except to the extent permitted under the 1940 Act and other applicable laws, rules and regulations, as interpreted, modified, or applied by regulatory authority having jurisdiction from time to time.
6.
Each Fund may purchase real estate or any interest therein (such as securities or instruments backed by or related to real estate) to the extent permitted under the 1940 Act and other applicable laws, rules and regulations, as interpreted, modified, or applied by regulatory authority having jurisdiction from time to time.
7.
Each Fund may purchase or sell commodities, including physical commodities, or contracts, instruments and interests relating to commodities to the extent permitted under the 1940 Act and other applicable laws, rules and regulations, as interpreted, modified, or applied by regulatory authority having jurisdiction from time to time.
8.
Each Fund may make loans to the extent permitted under the 1940 Act and other applicable laws, rules and regulations, as interpreted, modified, or applied by regulatory authority having jurisdiction from time to time.

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9.
Each Fund may borrow money to the extent permitted under the 1940 Act and other applicable laws, rules and regulations, as interpreted, modified, or applied by regulatory authority having jurisdiction from time to time.
10.
Each Fund may issue senior securities to the extent permitted under the 1940 Act and other applicable laws, rules and regulations, as interpreted, modified, or applied by regulatory authority having jurisdiction from time to time.
11.
Municipal Income Fund will invest, under normal market conditions, at least 80% of its assets in a diversified portfolio of municipal securities whose interest is free from federal income tax.

For purposes of Fundamental Policy One and Fundamental Policy Two, a “diversified company” is currently defined under the 1940 Act as a company which meets the following requirements: at least 75 percent of the value of its total assets is represented by cash and cash items (including receivables), Government securities, securities of other investment companies, and other securities for the purposes of this calculation limited in respect of any one issuer to an amount not greater in value than 5 percent of the value of the total assets of such company and to not more than 10 percent of the outstanding voting securities of such issuer. For the purposes of these Fundamental Policies, each governmental subdivision, i.e., state, territory, possession of the United States or any political subdivision of any of the foregoing, including agencies, authorities, instrumentalities, or similar entities, or of the District of Columbia shall be considered a separate issuer if its assets and revenues are separate from those of the governmental body creating it and the security is backed only by its own assets and revenues. For the purposes of these Fundamental Policies, a Fund generally will consider the borrower of a syndicated bank loan to be the issuer of the syndicated bank loan, but may under unusual circumstances also consider the lender or person inter-positioned between the lender and the Fund to be the issuer of a syndicated bank loan. In making such a determination, the Fund will consider all relevant factors, including the following: the terms of the Loan Agreement and other relevant agreements (including inter-creditor agreements and any agreements between such person and the Fund’s custodian); the credit quality of such lender or inter-positioned person; general economic conditions applicable to such lender or inter-positioned person; and other factors relating to the degree of credit risk, if any, of such lender or inter-positioned person incurred by the Fund.
For purposes of Fundamental Policy Four, a Fund (other than Market Neutral Real Estate Fund and Risk Managed Real Estate Fund) may not purchase the securities of any issuer if, as a result, more than 25% of the Fund’s total assets would be invested in the securities of companies whose principal business activities are in the same industry. For purposes of Fundamental Policy Four, Market Neutral Real Estate Fund and Risk Managed Real Estate Fund each will "concentrate" its investments in a particular industry (i.e., invest more than 25% of its total assets in securities of issuers whose principal business activities are in the same industry). Industries are determined by reference to the classifications of industries set forth in a Fund’s semi-annual and annual reports. For the purposes of this Fundamental Policy, the limitation will not apply to a Fund’s investments in: (i) securities issued or guaranteed by the U.S. Government, its agencies and instrumentalities; (ii) municipal securities; (iii) repurchase agreements collateralized by the instruments described in (i); and (iv) other investment companies.
For purposes of Fundamental Policy Seven, investors should note that as of the date of the Funds’ SAI, the 1940 Act permits investments in commodities and commodity interests.
For purposes of Fundamental Policy Nine, if at any time the amount of total Fund assets less all liabilities and indebtedness (but not including the Fund’s borrowings) (“asset coverage”) is less than an amount equal to 300% of any such borrowings, the Fund will reduce its borrowings within three days (not including Sundays and holidays) or such longer period as the SEC may prescribe by rules and regulations so that such asset coverage is again equal to 300% or more.

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For purposes of Fundamental Policies Nine and Ten, the term “as permitted under the 1940 Act” indicates that, unless otherwise limited by non-fundamental investment policies, a Fund can borrow and issue senior securities to the extent permitted by the 1940 Act and interpretations thereof, and that no further action generally would be needed to conform the Fund’s Fundamental Policies relating to borrowing and senior securities to future change in the 1940 Act and interpretations thereof. Pursuant to the provisions of the 1940 Act and interpretations thereof, a Fund is permitted to borrow from banks and may also enter into certain transactions that are economically equivalent to borrowing (e.g., reverse repurchase agreements). Under the 1940 Act and interpretations thereof, borrowing transactions and certain transactions that create leverage will not be considered to constitute the issuance of a “senior security” by a Fund, and therefore such transaction will not be subject to the limitations otherwise applicable to borrowings by the Fund, if the Fund: (1) maintains an offsetting financial position; (2) maintains liquid assets equal in value to the Fund’s potential economic exposure under the borrowing transaction; or (3) otherwise “covers” the transaction in accordance with applicable SEC guidance.
Operating Policies—The operating policy (i.e., that which is non-fundamental) of the Funds is:
 
Liquidity The Funds may invest up to 15% of their net assets in illiquid investments that are assets, which are investments that a Fund reasonably expects cannot be sold or disposed of in current market conditions in seven calendar days or less without the sale or disposition significantly changing the market value of the investment.
For purposes of the Operating Policy directly above, under normal circumstances, a Fund will not hold more than 15% of its net assets in illiquid investments that are assets; however, if investments that were liquid at the time of purchase subsequently become illiquid and result in the Fund holding illiquid investments in excess of 15% of its net assets, the Fund will no longer purchase additional illiquid investments and may reduce its holdings of illiquid investments in an orderly manner, but it is not required to dispose of illiquid holdings immediately if it is not in the interest of the Fund. This test does not require that the disposition of holdings “settle” within seven days, which means that the Fund could meet the liquidity test but be unable to obtain proceeds to pay redemption requests within seven days. In addition, in the event an instrument deemed to be illiquid that has no value under the Trust’s valuation procedures is given a value under the procedures and, as a result, the Fund holds illiquid investments in excess of 15% of its net assets, the Fund will no longer purchase additional illiquid investments and may reduce its holdings of illiquid investments in an orderly manner, but it is not required to dispose of illiquid holdings immediately if it is not in the interest of the Fund. Funds with investments subject to liquidity risks tend to hold higher positions of uninvested cash or borrow to meet redemption requests, which hurts Fund performance.

DISCLOSURE OF PORTFOLIO HOLDINGS
It is the policy of the Funds to protect the confidentiality of their portfolio holdings and information derived from the portfolio holdings and prevent the selective disclosure of such non-public information. Accordingly, the Board has adopted formal procedures governing compliance with this policy, which are subject to periodic evaluation and review. Any violations of this policy are reported to the Board on a quarterly basis.
No non-public information concerning the portfolio holdings of any Fund may be disclosed to any unaffiliated third party, except when the Funds have a legitimate business purpose for doing so. Specifically, portfolio holdings information may only be made available to third parties if: (i) such availability is disclosed in the Funds’ registration statement, as required by applicable law, as well as on the Funds’ website, if applicable; (ii) the Funds’ officers determine such disclosure is in the best interests of Fund shareholders; (iii) such information is made equally available to anyone requesting it; and (iv) the Investment Manager determines that the disclosure does not present the risk of such information being used to trade against the Funds. In addition, prior to authorizing the disclosure of portfolio holdings, the Funds’ President and/or the Chief Compliance Officer must determine that: (i) such disclosure serves a reasonable business purpose and is in the best interests of the Funds’ shareholders; and (ii) that no conflict exists between the interests of the Funds’ shareholders and those of the Investment Manager or the Funds’ principal underwriter. Each Fund or its duly authorized service providers may publicly disclose holdings of the Fund in accordance with regulatory requirements, such as periodic portfolio disclosure in filings with the SEC.
Recipients of non-public portfolio holdings information, such as mutual fund evaluation services and due diligence departments of broker/dealers and wirehouses, will be subject to a duty of confidentiality, a duty to not to trade based on the non-public information and/or other restrictions on the use and dissemination of the information.
Portfolio holdings information may be disclosed as frequently as daily to certain service providers and no more frequently than monthly to ratings agencies, consultants and other qualified financial professionals. The policy does not require a delay between the date of the portfolio holding information and the date on which the information is disclosed.
The Funds also may disclose portfolio holdings information on an ongoing basis to certain service providers of the Funds and others, who either by agreement or because of their respective duties to the Funds are required to maintain the confidentiality of the information disclosed. The Funds’ service providers and others who generally are provided such information in the performance of their contractual duties and responsibilities may include The Bank of New York Mellon (the Funds’ custodian), the Investment Manager (and Sub-Adviser, if applicable), MUFG (the Funds’ administrator), Ernest & Young LLP (the Funds’ independent registered public accountant), Dechert, LLP (legal counsel to the Funds), officers and directors, and each of their respective affiliates. In addition, at this time, portfolio holdings information is shared as follows:

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Individual/Entity
 
Frequency
 
Time Lag
Morningstar
 
Monthly
 
30 calendar days
Lipper
 
Monthly
 
30 calendar days
Bloomberg
 
Quarterly
 
60 calendar days
Thompson Financial
 
Quarterly
 
30 calendar days
Vickers Stock Research
 
Monthly
 
30 calendar days
FactSet
 
Monthly
 
30 calendar days
In addition, the following entities receive this information on a daily basis: FactSet (an analytical system used for portfolio attribution and performance); The Bank of New York Mellon (the Funds’ custodian bank); Interactive Data and Loan Pricing Corporation (the Funds’ pricing services); Institutional Shareholder Services (proxy voting services); and InvestOne (Sungard) (the Funds’ accounting system).
Neither the Funds, their service providers, nor the Investment Manager may receive compensation or other consideration in connection with the disclosure of information about portfolio securities.
Each Fund will publish a complete list of its quarter-end portfolio holdings on its website at www.guggenheiminvestments.com generally within 60 days of the quarter-end. Such information will remain online for approximately 12 months, or as otherwise required by law. Also, certain Funds may disclose top 10 holdings on a quarterly basis through publicly available marketing materials.
The Investment Manager seeks to limit the selective disclosure of portfolio holdings information and such selective disclosure is monitored under the Funds' compliance program for conformity with the policies and procedures. However, there can be no assurance that these policies will protect the Funds from the potential misuse of holdings information by individuals or firms in possession of that information.

MANAGEMENT OF THE FUNDS

Trustees and Officers

Oversight of the management and affairs of the Trust, including general supervision of the duties performed by the Investment Managers for the Funds under the Investment Management Agreements (“Management Agreements”) and the Investment Subadvisory Agreement with respect to the Municipal Income Fund (“Subadvisory Agreement,” with the Management Agreements, the “Agreements”), is the responsibility of the Board. Among other things, the Board considers the approval of contracts, described herein, under which certain companies provide essential management and administrative services to the Trust. Once the contracts are approved, the Board monitors the level and quality of services. Annually, the Board evaluates the services received under the contracts by receiving reports covering, among other things, investment performance, administrative services and the Investment Managers' profitability in order to determine whether to continue existing contracts or negotiate new contracts.
The Board currently has 7 Trustees, 6 of whom have no affiliation or business connection with an Investment Manager, the Distributor or any of their affiliated persons and do not own any stock or other securities issued by an Investment Manager or the Distributor. Each such Trustee is not an "interested person" (as defined in Section 2(a)(19) of the 1940 Act) of the Trust (each, an "Independent Trustee" and, collectively, the “Independent Trustees”). Ms. Amy J. Lee is an “interested person” (as defined in Section 2(a)(19) of the 1940 Act) of the Trust (an “Interested Trustee”), because of her position with the Distributor and/or the parent of the Investment Managers.
The Trustees, their term of office and length of time served, their principal business occupations during the past five years, the number of portfolios in the Guggenheim Funds Group fund complex (“Fund Complex”) overseen by

59


each Trustee, and other directorships, if any, held by the Trustee are shown below. The “Fund Complex” includes all closed- and open-end funds (including all of their portfolios) advised by the Investment Managers and any funds that have an investment adviser or servicing agent that is an affiliated person of the Investment Managers. As of the date of this SAI, the Fund Complex is comprised of 7 closed-end funds and 150 open-end funds advised or serviced by the Investment Managers or their affiliates.

Name, Address* and Year of Birth of Trustees
Position(s) Held with Trust
Term of Office and Length of Time Served**
Principal Occupation(s) During Past 5 Years
Number of Portfolios in Fund Complex Overseen by Trustee
Other Directorships Held by Trustees During Past 5 Years
Independent Trustees
Randall C. Barnes
(1951)
Trustee
Since 2014
Current: Private Investor (2001-present).
Former: Senior Vice President and Treasurer, PepsiCo, Inc. (1993-1997); President, Pizza Hut International (1991-1993); Senior Vice President, Strategic Planning and New Business Development, PepsiCo, Inc. (1987-1990).
49
Current: Trustee, Purpose Investments Funds (2013-present).
Former: Managed Duration Investment Grade Municipal Fund (2003-2016).

Donald A. Chubb, Jr.
(1946)
Trustee and Chairman of the Valuation Oversight Committee
Since 1994
Current: Retired.
Former: Business broker and manager of commercial real estate, Griffith & Blair, Inc. (1997-2017).

48
Former: Midland Care, Inc. (2011-2016).
Jerry B. Farley (1946)
Trustee and
Chairman of the Audit
Committee
Since 2005
Current: President, Washburn University (1997-present).
48
Current: CoreFirst Bank & Trust (2000-present).
Former: Westar Energy, Inc. (2004-2018).

Roman Friedrich III
(1946)
Trustee and
Chairman of the Contracts
Review
Committee
Since 2014
Current: Founder and Managing Partner, Roman Friedrich & Company (1998-present).
48
Former: Zincore Metals, Inc. (2009-January 2019).

Ronald A. Nyberg
(1953)
Trustee and
Chairman of the Nominating and Governance Committee
Since 2014
Current: Partner, Momkus LLC (2016-present).
Former: Partner, Nyberg & Cassioppi, LLC (2000-2016); Executive Vice President, General Counsel, and Corporate Secretary, Van Kampen Investments (1982-1999).
49
Current: PPM Funds (2018-present); Edward-Elmhurst Healthcare System (2012-present); Western Asset Inflation-Linked Income Fund (2003-present); Western Asset Inflation-Linked Opportunities & Income Fund (2004-present).
Former: Managed Duration Investment Grade Municipal Fund (2003-2016).

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Name, Address* and Year of Birth of Trustees
Position(s) Held with Trust
Term of Office and Length of Time Served**
Principal Occupation(s) During Past 5 Years
Number of Portfolios in Fund Complex Overseen by Trustee
Other Directorships Held by Trustees During Past 5 Years
Ronald E. Toupin, Jr.
(1958)
Trustee and
Chairman of the Board
Since 2014
Current: Portfolio Consultant (2010-present); Member, Governing Council, Independent Directors Council (2013-present); Governor, Board of Governors, Investment Company Institute (2018-present).
Former: Member, Executive Committee, Independent Directors Council (2016-2018); Vice President, Manager and Portfolio Manager, Nuveen Asset Management (1998-1999); Vice President, Nuveen Investment Advisory Corp. (1992-1999); Vice President and Manager, Nuveen Unit Investment Trusts (1991-1999); and Assistant Vice President and Portfolio Manager, Nuveen Unit Investment Trusts (1988-1999), each of John Nuveen & Co., Inc. (1982-1999).
48
Current: Western Asset Inflation-Linked Income Fund (2003-present); Western Asset Inflation-Linked Opportunities & Income Fund (2004-present).
Former: Managed Duration Investment Grade Municipal Fund (2003-2016).
Interested Trustee
Amy J. Lee
(1961)
Trustee, Vice President and Chief Legal Officer
Since 2018 (Trustee)

Since 2007 (Vice President)

Since 2014 (Chief Legal Officer)
Current: Interested Trustee, certain other funds in the Fund Complex (2018-present); President, certain other funds in the Fund Complex (2017-present); Chief Legal Officer, certain other funds in the Fund Complex (2014-present); Vice President, certain other funds in the Fund Complex (2007-present); Senior Managing Director, Guggenheim Investments (2012-present).

Former: Vice President, Associate General Counsel and Assistant Secretary, Security Benefit Life Insurance Company and Security Benefit Corporation (2004-2012).
48
None.
*
The business address of each Trustee is c/o Guggenheim Investments, 702 King Farm Boulevard, Suite 200, Rockville, Maryland 20850.
**Each Trustee serves an indefinite term, until his or her successor is duly elected and qualified. Time served may include time served in the respective position for the Predecessor Corporations.
The executive officers of the Trust who are not Trustees, length of time served, and principal business occupations during the past five years are shown below.

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Name, Address* and Year of Birth of the Officers
Position(s) Held with the Trust
Term of Office and Length of Time Served**
Principal Occupation(s) During the Past 5 Years
Brian E. Binder
(1972)
President and Chief Executive Officer
Since 2018
Current: President and Chief Executive Officer, certain other funds in the Fund Complex (2018-present); President and Chief Executive Officer, Guggenheim Funds Investment Advisors, LLC and Security Investors, LLC (2018-present); Senior Managing Director and Chief Administrative Officer, Guggenheim Investments (2018-present).

Former: Managing Director and President, Deutsche Funds, and Head of US Product, Trading and Fund Administration, Deutsche Asset Management (2013-2018); Managing Director, Head of Business Management and Consulting, Invesco Ltd. (2010-2012).
James M. Howley
(1972)
Assistant Treasurer
Since 2014
Current: Managing Director, Guggenheim Investments (2004-present); Assistant Treasurer, certain other funds in the Fund Complex (2006-present).
Former: Manager, Mutual Fund Administration of Van Kampen Investments, Inc. (1996-2004).
Mark E. Mathiasen
(1978)
Secretary
Since 2014
Current: Secretary, certain other funds in the Fund Complex (2007-present); Managing Director, Guggenheim Investments (2007-present).
Glenn McWhinnie
(1969)
Assistant Treasurer
Since 2016
Current: Vice President, Guggenheim Investments (2009-present); Assistant Treasurer, certain other funds in the Fund Complex (2016-present).
Former: Tax Compliance Manager, Ernst & Young LLP (1996-2009).
Michael P. Megaris
(1984)
Assistant Secretary
Since 2014
Current: Assistant Secretary, certain other funds in the Fund Complex (2014-present); Director, Guggenheim Investments (2012-present).
Elisabeth Miller
(1968)
Chief
Compliance
Officer
Since 2012
Current: CCO, certain other funds in the Fund Complex (2012-present); Managing Director, Guggenheim Investments (2012-present); Vice President, Guggenheim Funds Distributors, LLC (2014-present).
Former: CCO, Security Investors, LLC and Guggenheim Funds Investment Advisors, LLC (2012-2018); CCO, Guggenheim Distributors, LLC (2009-2014); Senior Manager, Security Investors, LLC (2004-2014); Senior Manager, Guggenheim Distributors, LLC (2004-2014).
Margaux M. Misantone
(1978)
AML Officer
Since 2017
Current: Chief Compliance Officer, Security Investors, LLC and Guggenheim Funds Investment Advisors, LLC (2018-present); AML Officer, certain other funds in the Fund Complex (2017-present); Managing Director, Guggenheim Investments (2013-present).

Former: Assistant Chief Compliance Officer, Security Investors, LLC and Guggenheim Funds Investment Advisors, LLC (2015-2018).

Adam Nelson
(1979)

Assistant Treasurer
Since 2015
Current: Vice President, Guggenheim Investments (2015-present); Assistant Treasurer, certain other funds in the Fund Complex (2015-present).

Former: Assistant Vice President and Fund Administration Director, State Street Corporation (2013-2015); Fund Administration Assistant Director, State Street (2011-2013); Fund Administration Manager, State Street (2009-2011).

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Name, Address* and Year of Birth of the Officers
Position(s) Held with the Trust
Term of Office and Length of Time Served**
Principal Occupation(s) During the Past 5 Years
William Rehder

(1967)

Assistant Vice President
Since 2018
Current: Managing Director, Guggenheim Investments (2002-present).
Kimberly Scott
(1974)
Assistant Treasurer
Since 2014
Current: Director, Guggenheim Investments (2012-present); Assistant Treasurer, certain other funds in the Fund Complex (2012-present).
Former: Financial Reporting Manager, Invesco, Ltd. (2010-2011); Vice President/Assistant Treasurer, Mutual Fund Administration for Van Kampen Investments, Inc./Morgan Stanley Investment Management (2009-2010); Manager of Mutual Fund Administration, Van Kampen Investments, Inc./Morgan Stanley Investment Management (2005-2009).
Bryan Stone
(1979)
Vice President
Since 2014
Current: Vice President, certain other funds in the Fund Complex (2014-present); Managing Director, Guggenheim Investments (2013-present).
Former: Senior Vice President, Neuberger Berman Group LLC (2009-2013); Vice President, Morgan Stanley (2002-2009).
John L. Sullivan
(1955)
Chief Financial Officer, Chief Accounting Officer and Treasurer
Since 2014
Current: CFO, Chief Accounting Officer and Treasurer, certain other funds in the Fund Complex (2010-present); Senior Managing Director, Guggenheim Investments (2010-present).
Former: Managing Director and CCO, each of the funds in the Van Kampen Investments fund complex (2004-2010); Managing Director and Head of Fund Accounting and Administration, Morgan Stanley Investment Management (2002-2004); CFO and Treasurer, Van Kampen Funds (1996-2004).
Jon Szafran
(1989)
Assistant Treasurer
Since 2017
Current: Vice President, Guggenheim Investments (2017-present); Assistant Treasurer, certain other funds in the Fund Complex (2017-present).

Former: Assistant Treasurer of Henderson Global Funds and Manager of US Fund Administration, Henderson Global Investors (North America) Inc. ("HGINA") (2017); Senior Analyst of US Fund Administration, HGINA (2014-2017); Senior Associate of Fund Administration, Cortland Capital Market Services, LLC (2013-2014); Experienced Associate, PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP (2012-2013).
*
The business address of each officer is c/o Guggenheim Investments, 702 King Farm Boulevard, Suite 200, Rockville, Maryland 20850.
**Each officer serves an indefinite term, until his or her successor is duly elected and qualified. Time served may include time served in the respective position for the Predecessor Corporations.

BOARD LEADERSHIP STRUCTURE
The Board has appointed an Independent Chairman, Ronald E. Toupin, Jr., who presides at Board meetings and who is responsible for, among other things, participating in the planning of Board meetings, setting the tone of Board meetings and seeking to encourage open dialogue and independent inquiry among the Trustees and management. In addition, the Independent Chairman acts as a liaison with officers, counsel and other Trustees between meetings of the Board. The Independent Chairman may also perform such other functions as may be delegated by the Board

63



from time to time. The Board has established five standing committees (as described below) and has delegated certain responsibilities to those committees, each of which is comprised solely of Independent Trustees. The Board and its committees meet periodically throughout the year to oversee the Funds' activities, review contractual arrangements with service providers, review the Funds' financial statements, oversee compliance with regulatory requirements, and review performance. The Board may also establish informal working groups from time to time to review and address the policies and practices of the Trust or the Board with respect to certain specified matters. The Independent Trustees are advised by independent legal counsel experienced in 1940 Act matters and are represented by such independent legal counsel at Board and committee meetings. The Board has determined that this leadership structure, including an Independent Chairman, a supermajority of Independent Trustees and committee membership limited to Independent Trustees, is appropriate in light of the characteristics and circumstances of the Trust.

QUALIFICATIONS AND EXPERIENCE OF TRUSTEES
The Trustees considered the educational, business and professional experience of each Board member and the service by each Trustee as a trustee of certain other funds in the Fund Complex. The Trustees were selected to serve and continue on the Board based upon their skills, experience, judgment, analytical ability, diligence, ability to work effectively with other Trustees, availability and commitment to attend meetings and perform the responsibilities of a Trustee and, for the Independent Trustees, a demonstrated willingness to take an independent and questioning view of management. The Trustees also considered, among other factors, the particular attributes described below with respect to the individual Board members. References to the qualifications, attributes and skills of Trustees are pursuant to Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) requirements, do not constitute holding out of the Board or any Trustee as having special expertise and shall not impose any greater responsibility or liability on any such person or on the Board by reason thereof.

Randall C. Barnes—Mr. Barnes has served as a Trustee of the Trust since 2014 and of other funds in the Fund Complex since 2004. Through his service as a Trustee of the Trust and other funds in the Fund Complex, prior employment experience as President of Pizza Hut International and as Treasurer of PepsiCo, Inc. and his personal investment experience, Mr. Barnes is experienced in financial, accounting, regulatory and investment matters.
Donald A. Chubb, Jr.—Mr. Chubb has served as a Trustee of the Trust since 2013 and of other funds in the Fund Complex since 1994. Through his service as a Trustee of the Trust and other funds in the Fund Complex, and his prior experience in the commercial brokerage and commercial real estate market and service as a director of Fidelity State Bank and Trust Company (Topeka, KS), Mr. Chubb is experienced in financial, regulatory and investment matters.
Dr. Jerry B. Farley—Dr. Farley has served as a Trustee of the Trust since 2013 and of other funds in the Fund Complex since 2005. Dr. Farley currently serves as President of Washburn University and previously served in various executive positions for the University of Oklahoma and Oklahoma State University. He has also been a Certified Public Accountant since 1972 and, although he has not practiced public accounting, his business responsibilities at educational institutions have included all aspects of financial management and reporting. Through his service as a Trustee of the Trust and other funds in the Fund Complex, as well as Chairman of the Audit Committee of the Trust, and his experience in the administration of the academic, business and fiscal operations of educational institutions, including currently serving as President of Washburn University, and service on other boards, Dr. Farley is experienced in accounting, financial, regulatory and investment matters. The Board has determined that Dr. Farley is an “audit committee financial expert” as defined by the SEC.
Roman Friedrich III—Mr. Friedrich has served as a Trustee of the Trust since 2014 and of other funds in the Fund Complex since 2003. Through his service as a Trustee of the Trust and other funds in the Fund Complex, as well as Chairman of the Contracts Review Committee of the Trust, his service on other public company boards, his experience as Founder and Managing Partner of Roman Friedrich & Company, a financial advisory firm, and his prior experience

64



as a senior executive of various financial securities firms, Mr. Friedrich is experienced in financial, investment and regulatory matters.
Amy J. Lee—Ms. Lee has served as a Trustee of the Trust and of other funds in the Fund Complex since 2018. Through her service as Chief Legal Officer of the Trust and certain other funds in the Fund Complex, her service as Senior Managing Director of Guggenheim Investments, as well as her prior experience as Associate General Counsel of Security Benefit Corporation, Ms. Lee is experienced in financial, legal, regulatory and governance matters.
Ronald A. Nyberg—Mr. Nyberg has served as a Trustee of the Trust since 2014 and of other funds in the Fund Complex since 2003. Through his service as a Trustee of the Trust and other funds in the Fund Complex, as well as Chairman of the Nominating and Governance Committee of the Trust, his professional training and experience as an attorney and partner of a law firm, Momkus LLC, and his prior employment experience, including an attorney and partner of a law firm, Nyberg & Cassioppi, LLC, and Executive Vice President and General Counsel of Van Kampen Investments, an asset management firm, Mr. Nyberg is experienced in financial, regulatory and governance matters.
Ronald E. Toupin, Jr.—Mr. Toupin has served as a Trustee of the Trust since 2014 and of other funds in the Fund Complex since 2003. Mr. Toupin currently serves on the Governing Council of the Independent Directors Council (IDC) of the Investment Company Institute (ICI) and on the Board of Governors of the ICI. Through his service as a Trustee of the Trust and other funds in the Fund Complex, as well as the Independent Chairman of the Board of the Trust, and his professional training and prior employment experience, including Vice President and Portfolio Manager for Nuveen Asset Management, an asset management firm, Mr. Toupin is experienced in financial, regulatory and investment matters.
Each Trustee also has considerable familiarity with the Trust, the Investment Managers and other service providers, and their operations, as well as the special regulatory requirements governing registered investment companies and the special responsibilities of investment company trustees as a result of his substantial prior service as a trustee of certain funds in the Fund Complex or, with respect to Ms. Lee, her extensive experience in the financial industry, including her experience with the parent of the Investment Managers. The Board annually conducts a "self-assessment" wherein the effectiveness of the Board is reviewed.

BOARD'S ROLE IN RISK OVERSIGHT
The day-to-day business of the Funds, including the day-to-day management and administration of the Funds and of the risks that arise from the Funds' investments and operations, is performed by third-party service providers, primarily the Investment Managers and the Distributor. Consistent with its responsibility for oversight of the Trust, the Board is responsible for overseeing the service providers and thus, has oversight responsibility with respect to the risk management functions performed by those service providers. Risks to the Funds and the Trust include, among others, investment risk, credit risk, liquidity risk, valuation risk, compliance risk and operational risk, as well as the overall business risk relating to the Funds. Risk management seeks to identify and mitigate the potential effects of risks, i.e., events or circumstances that could have material adverse effects on the business, operations, investment performance or reputation of the Funds. Under the oversight of the Board, the service providers to the Funds employ a variety of processes, procedures and controls to seek to identify risks relevant to the operations of the Funds and to lessen the probability of the occurrence of such risks and/or to mitigate the effects of such events or circumstances if they do occur. Each service provider is responsible for one or more discrete aspects of the Funds' business and consequently, for managing risks associated with that activity. Each of the Investment Managers, the Distributor and other service providers has its own independent interest in risk management, and its policies and methods of carrying out risk management functions will depend, in part, on its analysis of the risks, functions and business models. Accordingly, Board oversight of different types of risks may be handled in different ways. As part of the Board’s periodic review of each Fund's advisory and other service provider agreements, the Board may consider risk management aspects of the service providers’ operations and the functions for which they are responsible.
The Board oversees risk management for the Funds directly and through the committee structure it has established. The Board has established the Audit Committee, the Nominating and Governance Committee, the Contracts Review Committee and the Valuation Oversight Committee to assist in its oversight functions, including its oversight of the risks each Fund faces. For instance, the Audit Committee receives reports from the Funds'

65



independent registered public accounting firm on internal control and financial reporting matters. In addition, the Board has established an Executive Committee to act on the Board’s behalf, to the extent permitted and as necessary, in between meetings of the Board. Each committee reports its activities to the Board on a regular basis. The Board also oversees the risk management of the Funds' operations by requesting periodic reports from and otherwise communicating with various personnel of the Trust and its service providers, including, in particular, the Trust’s Chief Compliance Officer, its independent registered public accounting firm and internal auditors for the Investment Managers or their affiliates, as applicable. In this connection, the Board requires officers of the Trust to report to the full Board on a variety of matters at regular and special meetings of the Board and its committees, as applicable, including matters relating to risk management. On at least a quarterly basis, the Board meets with the Trust’s Chief Compliance Officer, including separate meetings with the Independent Trustees in executive session, to discuss compliance matters and, on at least an annual basis, receives a report from the Chief Compliance Officer regarding the adequacy of the policies and procedures of the Trust and certain service providers and the effectiveness of their implementation. The Board, with the assistance of Trust management, reviews investment policies and risks in connection with its review of the Funds' performance. In addition, the Board receives reports from the Investment Managers on the investments and securities trading of the Funds. With respect to valuation, the Valuation Oversight Committee oversees a pricing committee comprised of Trust officers and personnel of the Investment Managers. The Board has approved Fair Valuation procedures applicable to valuing the Funds' securities and other assets, which the Valuation Oversight Committee and the Audit Committee periodically review. The Board also requires each Investment Manager to report to the Board on other matters relating to risk management on a regular and as-needed basis.
The Board oversees the Funds’ liquidity risk through, among other things, receiving periodic reporting and presentations by investment and other personnel of the Investment Managers.  Additionally, as required by Rule 22e-4 under the 1940 Act, the Trust implemented the Liquidity Program, which is reasonably designed to assess and manage the Funds’ liquidity risk.  The Board, including a majority of the Independent Trustees, approved the designation of a liquidity risk management program administrator (the "Liquidity Program Administrator") who is responsible for administering the Liquidity Program. The Board will review, no less frequently than annually, a written report prepared by the Liquidity Program Administrator that addresses the operation of the Liquidity Program and assesses its adequacy and effectiveness of implementation.
The Board recognizes that not all risks that may affect the Funds can be identified, that it may not be practical or cost-effective to eliminate or mitigate certain risks, that it may be necessary to bear certain risks (such as investment-related risks) to seek to achieve the Funds' investment objectives, and that the processes, procedures and controls employed to address certain risks may be limited in their effectiveness. As part of its oversight function, the Board receives and reviews various risk management reports and assessments and discusses these matters with appropriate management and other personnel. Moreover, despite the periodic reports the Board receives, it may not be made aware of all of the relevant information of a particular risk. Most of the Funds' investment management and business affairs are carried out by or through the Investment Managers, Distributor and other service providers, most of whom employ professional personnel who have risk management responsibilities and each of whom has an independent interest in risk management, which interest could differ from or conflict with that of the other funds that are advised by the Investment Managers. The role of the Board and of any individual Trustee is one of oversight and not of management of the day-to-day affairs of the Trust and its oversight role does not make the Board a guarantor of the Trust’s investments, operations or activities. As a result of the foregoing and other factors, the Board’s risk management oversight is subject to limitations.

BOARD COMMITTEES
Audit Committee—Messrs. Barnes, Chubb, Friedrich, Nyberg and Toupin and Dr. Farley, each an Independent Trustee, serve on the Trust’s Audit Committee. The Audit Committee is generally responsible for certain oversight matters,

66



such as reviewing the Trust's systems for accounting, financial reporting and internal controls and, as appropriate, the internal controls of certain service providers, overseeing the integrity of the Trust’s financial statements (and the audit thereof), as well as the qualifications, independence and performance of the Trust's independent registered public accounting firm. The Audit Committee is also responsible for recommending to the Board the appointment, retention and termination of the Trust's independent registered public accounting firm and acting as a liaison between the Board and the Trust’s independent registered public accounting firm. The Trust's Audit Committee held six meetings during the Funds' most recently completed fiscal year.
Contracts Review Committee—Messrs. Barnes, Chubb, Friedrich, Nyberg and Toupin and Dr. Farley, each an Independent Trustee, serve on the Trust’s Contracts Review Committee. The purpose of the Contracts Review Committee is to assist the Board in overseeing certain contracts to which the Trust, on behalf of each Fund, is or is proposed to be a party to ensure that the interests of the Funds and their shareholders are served by the terms of these contracts. The Committee’s primary function is to oversee the process of evaluating existing investment advisory and subadvisory agreements, administration agreements, distribution agreements and distribution and/or shareholder services plans pursuant to Rule 12b-1 under the 1940 Act. In addition, at its discretion or at the request of the Board, the Committee reviews and makes recommendations to the Board with respect to any contract to which the Trust on behalf of a Fund is or is proposed to be a party. The Trust's Contracts Review Committee held two meetings during the Funds' most recently completed fiscal year.
Executive Committee—Messrs. Toupin and Chubb, each an Independent Trustee, serve on the Trust’s Executive Committee. In between meetings of the full Board, the Executive Committee generally may exercise all the powers of the full Board in the management of the business of the Trust. However, the Executive Committee cannot, among other things, authorize dividends or distributions on shares, amend the bylaws or recommend to the shareholders any action which requires shareholder approval. The Trust's Executive Committee held no meetings during the Funds' most recently completed fiscal year.
Nominating and Governance Committee—Messrs. Barnes, Chubb, Friedrich, Nyberg and Toupin and Dr. Farley, each an Independent Trustee, serve on the Trust’s Nominating and Governance Committee. The purpose of the Nominating and Governance Committee is to review matters pertaining to the composition, committees, and operations of the Board. The Nominating and Governance Committee is responsible for recommending qualified candidates to the Board in the event that a position is vacated or created. The Nominating and Governance Committee would consider recommendations by shareholders if a vacancy were to exist and shall assess shareholder recommendations in the same manner as it reviews its own candidates. Such recommendations should be submitted to the Secretary of the Trust. The Trust does not have a standing compensation committee. The Trust's Nominating and Governance Committee held three meetings during the Funds' most recently completed fiscal year.
Valuation Oversight Committee—Messrs. Barnes, Chubb, and Friedrich, each an Independent Trustee, serve on the Trust’s Valuation Oversight Committee. The Valuation Oversight Committee assists the Board in overseeing the activities of Guggenheim's Valuation Committee and the valuation of securities and other assets held by the Funds. Duties of the Valuation Oversight Committee include reviewing the Funds' valuation procedures, evaluating pricing services that are being used for the Funds, and receiving reports relating to actions taken by Guggenheim's Valuation Committee. The Trust's Valuation Oversight Committee held four meetings during the Funds' most recently completed fiscal year.

REMUNERATION OF TRUSTEES
The Independent Trustees of the Trust receive from the Fund Complex a general annual retainer for service on covered boards. Additional annual retainer fees are paid to: the Independent Chair of the Board; the Chair of each of the Audit Committee, the Contracts Review Committee, and the Nominating and Governance Committee; and each member of the Valuation Oversight Committee. In addition, fees are paid for special Board or Committee meetings,

67



whether telephonic or in-person. No per meeting fee applies to meetings of the Valuation Oversight Committee. The Trust also reimburses each Independent Trustee for reasonable travel and other out-of-pocket expenses incurred in attending in-person meetings, which are not included in the compensation amounts shown below. Each Fund pays proportionately its respective share of Independent Trustees’ fees and expenses based on relative net assets.
The aggregate compensation paid by the Trust, and the aggregate compensation paid by the Fund Complex, including the Family of Funds, to each of the Independent Trustees during the Funds' most recently completed fiscal year is set forth below. Each of the Independent Trustees is a trustee of other registered investment companies in the Family of Funds, as defined on page 134 of this SAI. The Trustees did not accrue any pension or retirement benefits as part of Trust expenses, nor will they receive any annual benefits upon retirement. The Trustees also did not accrue any deferred compensation nor is any amount of deferred compensation payable by the Trust.
Name of Independent Trustees
Aggregate Compensation from the Trust
Aggregate Compensation
from the Fund Complex*,
including the Family of
Funds
Randall C. Barnes
$88,885
$344,046
Donald A. Chubb, Jr.
$90,666
$264,929
Jerry B. Farley
$97,788
$284,929
Roman Friedrich III
$94,227
$274,929
Robert B. Karn III**
$58,557
$198,679
Ronald A. Nyberg
$92,446
$411,546
Maynard F. Oliverius***
$90,666
$264,929
Ronald E. Toupin, Jr.
$115,196
$382,929
*
The “Fund Complex” includes all closed- and open-end funds (including all of their portfolios) advised by the Investment Manager and any funds that have an investment adviser or servicing agent that is an affiliated person of the Investment Manager.
**In accordance with the Trust's Independent Trustee Retirement Policy, Mr. Karn resigned from the Board effective on April 26, 2018.
***In accordance with the Trust's Independent Trustee Retirement Policy, Mr. Oliverius resigned from the Board effective on April 4, 2019.

The Investment Manager compensates its officers and directors who may also serve as officers or Trustees. The Trust does not pay any fees to, or reimburse expenses of, the Interested Trustee.

PRINCIPAL HOLDERS OF SECURITIES
As of December 31, 2018, the Funds' officers and Trustees (as a group) beneficially owned: 3.07% of the outstanding Class A shares of Alpha Opportunity Fund; 14.44% of the outstanding Class P shares of StylePlus—Large Core Fund; 39.71% of the outstanding Class P shares of StylePlus—Mid Growth Fund; 1.61% of the outstanding Class A shares of World Equity Income Fund; 20.95% of the outstanding Class P shares of World Equity Income Fund; 14.35% of the outstanding Class P shares of Large Cap Value Fund; and less than 1.00% of the total outstanding shares of any remaining class of the Funds.

As of December 31, 2018, the following entities owned, of record and beneficially unless otherwise indicated, 5% or more of a class of a Fund’s outstanding securities:


68



Name and Address of Shareholder1
Fund
Class
Percentage
Security Financial Resources
Alpha Opportunity Fund
A
35.73%
National Financial Services LLC
Alpha Opportunity Fund
A
18.84%
Pershing LLC
Alpha Opportunity Fund
A
10.86%
Pershing LLC
Alpha Opportunity Fund
C
47.76%
National Financial Services LLC FBO Customers
Alpha Opportunity Fund
C
16.19%
LPL Financial
Alpha Opportunity Fund
C
11.80%
Guggenheim Macro Opportunities Fund2
Alpha Opportunity Fund
Institutional
87.42%
National Financial Services Corp. FBO Customers
Alpha Opportunity Fund
P
76.95%
Charles Schwab & Co Inc. FBO Customers
Alpha Opportunity Fund
P
15.39%
TD Ameritrade Inc. FBO Customers
Alpha Opportunity Fund
P
6.57%
Guggenheim Funds Distributors, LLC2
Diversified Income Fund
A
85.20%
Walter A Mazur Jr.
Diversified Income Fund
A
7.20%
Pershing LLC
Diversified Income Fund
A
6.00%
Guggenheim Funds Distributors, LLC2
Diversified Income Fund
C
60.12%
LPL Financial
Diversified Income Fund
C
25.49%
Pershing LLC
Diversified Income Fund
C
9.88%
Guggenheim Funds Distributors, LLC2
Diversified Income Fund
Institutional
98.36%
Guggenheim Funds Distributors, LLC2
Diversified Income Fund
P
95.82%
Morgan Stanley Smith Barney LLC FBO Customers
Floating Rate Strategies Fund
A
14.51%
Security Financial Resources
Floating Rate Strategies Fund
A
14.13%
Merrill Lynch, Pierce, Fenner & Smith, Inc. FBO Customers
Floating Rate Strategies Fund
A
12.95%
Pershing LLC
Floating Rate Strategies Fund
A
11.27%
National Financial Services LLC
Floating Rate Strategies Fund
A
10.55%
Charles Schwab & Co Inc. FBO Customers
Floating Rate Strategies Fund
A
7.56%
UBS Financial Services Inc. FBO Customers
Floating Rate Strategies Fund
A
6.75%
Raymond James & Associates Inc. FBO Customers
Floating Rate Strategies Fund
A
6.20%
Morgan Stanley Smith Barney LLC FBO Customers
Floating Rate Strategies Fund
C
29.44%
Merrill Lynch, Pierce, Fenner & Smith, Inc. FBO Customers
Floating Rate Strategies Fund
C
17.20%
Pershing LLC
Floating Rate Strategies Fund
C
10.42%
UBS Financial Services Inc. FBO Customers
Floating Rate Strategies Fund
C
9.55%
National Financial Services LLC FBO Customers
Floating Rate Strategies Fund
C
5.98%
Raymond James & Associates Inc. FBO Customers
Floating Rate Strategies Fund
C
5.96%
Charles Schwab & Co Inc. FBO Customers
Floating Rate Strategies Fund
Institutional
14.79%
Merrill Lynch, Pierce, Fenner & Smith, Inc. FBO Customers
Floating Rate Strategies Fund
Institutional
14.46%
National Financial Services Corp. FBO Customers
Floating Rate Strategies Fund
Institutional
13.02%
Morgan Stanley Smith Barney LLC FBO Customers
Floating Rate Strategies Fund
Institutional
9.31%
Pershing LLC
Floating Rate Strategies Fund
Institutional
7.66%
TD Ameritrade Inc. FBO Customers
Floating Rate Strategies Fund
Institutional
7.65%

69



Name and Address of Shareholder1
Fund
Class
Percentage
UBS Financial Services Inc. FBO Customers
Floating Rate Strategies Fund
Institutional
7.28%
Charles Schwab & Co Inc. FBO Customers
Floating Rate Strategies Fund
P
67.77%
National Financial Services Corp. FBO Customers
Floating Rate Strategies Fund
P
16.05%
TD Ameritrade Inc. FBO Customers
Floating Rate Strategies Fund
P
13.20%
Security Financial Resources
High Yield Fund
A
37.34%
National Financial Services LLC FBO Customers
High Yield Fund
A
9.00%
Wells Fargo Clearing Services LLC FBO Customers
High Yield Fund
A
7.89%
Pershing LLC
High Yield Fund
A
6.01%
Security Benefit Life Insurance Company
High Yield Fund
A
5.70%
Wells Fargo Clearing Services LLC FBO Customers
High Yield Fund
C
23.45%
Pershing LLC
High Yield Fund
C
13.80%
Morgan Stanley Smith Barney LLC FBO Customers
High Yield Fund
C
12.38%
Raymond James FBO Customers
High Yield Fund
C
12.32%
Merrill Lynch, Pierce, Fenner & Smith, Inc. FBO Customers
High Yield Fund
C
8.97%
UBS Financial Services Inc. FBO Customers
High Yield Fund
C
6.17%
LPL Financial
High Yield Fund
C
5.88%
American Enterprise FBO Customers
High Yield Fund
C
5.30%
National Financial Services Corp. FBO Customers
High Yield Fund
Institutional
17.13%
Merrill Lynch, Pierce, Fenner & Smith, Inc. FBO Customers
High Yield Fund
Institutional
16.96%
Pershing LLC
High Yield Fund
Institutional
10.68%
Charles Schwab & Co Inc. FBO Customers
High Yield Fund
Institutional
9.84%
Morgan Stanley Smith Barney LLC FBO Customers
High Yield Fund
Institutional
9.35%
Wells Fargo Clearing Services LLC FBO Customers
High Yield Fund
Institutional
7.31%
American Enterprise
 
 
7.15%
UBS Financial Services Inc. FBO Customers
High Yield Fund
Institutional
6.34%
LPL Financial
High Yield Fund
Institutional
5.62%
National Financial Services Corp. FBO Customers
High Yield Fund
P
67.74%
Charles Schwab & Co Inc. FBO Customers
High Yield Fund
P
17.33%
TD Ameritrade Inc. FBO Customers
High Yield Fund
P
11.44%
Goldman Sachs Profit Sharing Master Trust
High Yield Fund
R6
99.55%
Security Financial Resources
Investment Grade Bond Fund
A
47.43%
Charles Schwab & Co Inc. FBO Customers
Investment Grade Bond Fund
A
8.72%
Pershing LLC
Investment Grade Bond Fund
A
6.65%
Security Benefit Life Insurance Company
Investment Grade Bond Fund
A
6.12%
National Financial Services LLC FBO Customers
Investment Grade Bond Fund
A
5.84%
Pershing LLC
Investment Grade Bond Fund
C
18.85%
Morgan Stanley Smith Barney LLC FBO Customers
Investment Grade Bond Fund
C
15.30%

70



Name and Address of Shareholder1
Fund
Class
Percentage
American Enterprise
Investment Grade Bond Fund
C
12.43%
Wells Fargo Clearing Services LLC FBO Customers
Investment Grade Bond Fund
C
11.86%
Merrill Lynch, Pierce, Fenner & Smith, Inc. FBO Customers
Investment Grade Bond Fund
C
9.40%
Charles Schwab & Co Inc. FBO Customers
Investment Grade Bond Fund
C
8.97%
Benefit Trust Company FBO Customers
Investment Grade Bond Fund
Institutional
20.50%
American Enterprise
Investment Grade Bond Fund
Institutional
18.28%
Pershing LLC
Investment Grade Bond Fund
Institutional
11.41%
National Financial Services Corp. FBO Customers
Investment Grade Bond Fund
Institutional
9.96%
Morgan Stanley Smith Barney LLC FBO Customers
Investment Grade Bond Fund
Institutional
7.63%
Charles Schwab & Co Inc. FBO Customers
Investment Grade Bond Fund
Institutional
6.57%
Merrill Lynch, Pierce, Fenner & Smith, Inc. FBO Customers
Investment Grade Bond Fund
Institutional
6.20%
Wells Fargo Clearing Services LLC FBO Customers
Investment Grade Bond Fund
Institutional
5.58%
Raymond James & Associates Inc. FBO Customers
Investment Grade Bond Fund
Institutional
5.46%
LPL Financial
Investment Grade Bond Fund
Institutional
5.19%
National Financial Services Corp. FBO Customers
Investment Grade Bond Fund
P
85.15%
Charles Schwab & Co Inc. FBO Customers
Investment Grade Bond Fund
P
9.08%
Security Financial Resources2
Large Cap Value Fund
A
45.09%
Security Benefit Life Insurance Company
Large Cap Value Fund
A
20.85%
Morgan Stanley Smith Barney LLC FBO Customers
Large Cap Value Fund
C
27.50%
UBS Financial Services Inc. FBO Customers
Large Cap Value Fund
C
15.26%
Wells Fargo Clearing Services LLC FBO Customers
Large Cap Value Fund
C
8.75%
Pershing LLC
Large Cap Value Fund
C
6.30%
Pershing LLC
Large Cap Value Fund
Institutional
86.06%
TD Ameritrade Inc. FBO Customers
Large Cap Value Fund
Institutional
9.19%
National Financial Services Corp. FBO Customers
Large Cap Value Fund
P
79.35%
Guggenheim Funds Distributors, LLC
Large Cap Value Fund
P
8.82%
Charles Schwab & Co Inc. FBO Customers
Large Cap Value Fund
P
7.45%
Morgan Stanley Smith Barney LLC FBO Customers
Limited Duration Fund
A
30.53%
Merrill Lynch, Pierce, Fenner & Smith, Inc. FBO Customers
Limited Duration Fund
A
14.27%
Wells Fargo Clearing Services LLC FBO Customers
Limited Duration Fund
A
13.21%
UBS Financial Services Inc. FBO Customers
Limited Duration Fund
A
9.76%
Pershing LLC
Limited Duration Fund
A
7.60%
JP Morgan Securities LLC FBO Customers
Limited Duration Fund
A
5.60%
Morgan Stanley Smith Barney LLC FBO Customers
Limited Duration Fund
C
25.56%
Merrill Lynch, Pierce, Fenner & Smith, Inc. FBO Customers
Limited Duration Fund
C
21.43%

71



Name and Address of Shareholder1
Fund
Class
Percentage
Wells Fargo Clearing Services LLC FBO Customers
Limited Duration Fund
C
15.67%
Raymond James & Associates Inc. FBO Customers
Limited Duration Fund
C
8.30%
LPL Financial
Limited Duration Fund
C
6.73%
UBS Financial Services Inc. FBO Customers
Limited Duration Fund
C
5.62%
Morgan Stanley Smith Barney LLC FBO Customers
Limited Duration Fund
Institutional
22.58%
Merrill Lynch, Pierce, Fenner & Smith, Inc. FBO Customers
Limited Duration Fund
Institutional
14.61%
Guggenheim Macro Opportunities Fund
Limited Duration Fund
Institutional
9.82%
National Financial Services Corp. FBO Customers
Limited Duration Fund
Institutional
9.04%
UBS Financial Services Inc. FBO Customers
Limited Duration Fund
Institutional
8.19%
Wells Fargo Clearing Services LLC FBO Customers
Limited Duration Fund
Institutional
6.05%
SEI Private Trust Company
Limited Duration Fund
Institutional
5.32%
Charles Schwab & Co Inc. FBO Customers
Limited Duration Fund
Institutional
5.25%
National Financial Services Corp. FBO Customers
Limited Duration Fund
P
49.32%
TD Ameritrade Inc. FBO Customers
Limited Duration Fund
P
28.61%
Charles Schwab & Co Inc. FBO Customers
Limited Duration Fund
P
20.78%
Morgan Stanley Smith Barney LLC FBO Customers
Macro Opportunities Fund
A
16.35%
National Financial Services Corp. FBO Customers
Macro Opportunities Fund
A
14.99%
Charles Schwab & Co Inc. FBO Customers
Macro Opportunities Fund
A
14.58%
LPL Financial
Macro Opportunities Fund
A
8.75%
Pershing LLC
Macro Opportunities Fund
A
8.48%
Merrill Lynch, Pierce, Fenner & Smith, Inc. FBO Customers
Macro Opportunities Fund
A
7.54%
Wells Fargo Clearing Services LLC FBO Customers
Macro Opportunities Fund
A
6.50%
UBS Financial Services Inc. FBO Customers
Macro Opportunities Fund
A
5.83%
Morgan Stanley Smith Barney LLC FBO Customers
Macro Opportunities Fund
C
29.34%
Wells Fargo Clearing Services LLC FBO Customers
Macro Opportunities Fund
C
14.98%
Merrill Lynch, Pierce, Fenner & Smith, Inc. FBO Customers
Macro Opportunities Fund
C
12.78%
UBS Financial Services Inc. FBO Customers
Macro Opportunities Fund
C
10.31%
Raymond James & Associates Inc. FBO Customers
Macro Opportunities Fund
C
6.11%
Charles Schwab & Co Inc. FBO Customers
Macro Opportunities Fund
C
5.27%
Morgan Stanley Smith Barney LLC FBO Customers
Macro Opportunities Fund
Institutional
19.39%
Charles Schwab & Co Inc. FBO Customers
Macro Opportunities Fund
Institutional
13.99%
Merrill Lynch, Pierce, Fenner & Smith, Inc. FBO Customers
Macro Opportunities Fund
Institutional
11.86%
National Financial Services Corp. FBO Customers
Macro Opportunities Fund
Institutional
9.85%
UBS Financial Services Inc. FBO Customers
Macro Opportunities Fund
Institutional
8.63%

72



Name and Address of Shareholder1
Fund
Class
Percentage
Pershing LLC
Macro Opportunities Fund
Institutional
5.82%
TD Ameritrade Inc. FBO Customers
Macro Opportunities Fund
Institutional
5.69%
Wells Fargo Clearing Services LLC FBO Customers
Macro Opportunities Fund
Institutional
5.36%
Charles Schwab & Co Inc. FBO Customers
Macro Opportunities Fund
P
60.47%
TD Ameritrade Inc. FBO Customers
Macro Opportunities Fund
P
17.91%
National Financial Services Corp. FBO Customers
Macro Opportunities Fund
P
17.20%
National Financial Services LLC2
Market Neutral Real Estate Fund
A
95.49%
Security Investors, LLC2
Market Neutral Real Estate Fund
C
77.44%
LPL Financial
Market Neutral Real Estate Fund
C
11.58%
National Financial Services LLC FBO Customers
Market Neutral Real Estate Fund
C
10.98%
Security Investors, LLC2
Market Neutral Real Estate Fund
Institutional
98.73%
Charles Schwab & Co Inc. FBO Customers
Market Neutral Real Estate Fund
P
54.64%
Security Investors, LLC2
Market Neutral Real Estate Fund
P
45.27%
Security Financial Resources
Mid Cap Value Fund
A
32.75%
National Financial Services LLC FBO Customers
Mid Cap Value Fund
A
10.03%
Pershing LLC
Mid Cap Value Fund
A
7.65%
Wells Fargo Clearing Services LLC FBO Customers
Mid Cap Value Fund
A
6.88%
Raymond James & Associates Inc. FBO Customers
Mid Cap Value Fund
A
5.01%
Raymond James & Associates Inc. FBO Customers
Mid Cap Value Fund
C
18.67%
National Financial Services LLC FBO Customers
Mid Cap Value Fund
C
14.83%
Wells Fargo Clearing Services LLC FBO Customers
Mid Cap Value Fund
C