RPAR Risk Parity ETF
Ticker: RPAR

Annual Report

December 31, 2021

TABLE OF CONTENTS

A Message to Our Shareholders

1

Performance Summary

4

Portfolio Allocation

5

Schedule of Investments

6

Statement of Assets and Liabilities

9

Statements of Operations

10

Statement of Changes in Net Assets

11

Financial Highlights

12

Notes to Financial Statements

13

Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

24

Expense Example

25

Basis for Trustees’ Approval of Investment Advisory Agreement

26

Trustees and Executive Officers

28

Additional Information

30

This report is not authorized for distribution to prospective investors in the Fund unless preceded or accompanied by an effective prospectus.

1

RPAR Risk Parity ETF

SHAREHOLDER LETTER

Dear Shareholders,

When we developed the RPAR Risk Parity ETF (the “Fund”) in 2019, our goal was to construct a portfolio of asset classes that targets long-term returns competitive with equities while taking less risk. We took two critical steps in this process: 1) select asset classes that are biased to outperform in different growth and inflation environments, and 2) structure each of these asset classes to have similar expected return and risk as equities over time. The first step helps diversify the portfolio to mitigate risk, while the second seeks to improve long-term return expectations. This process yields a portfolio that balances risk across four major asset classes: global equities, commodities (which includes commodity producer stocks and gold), Treasuries and Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities (“TIPS”). The assets biased to outperform during rising growth are global equities and commodity producer equities. U.S. Treasuries, TIPS and gold tend to do better during falling growth environments. Rising inflation assets include TIPS, commodity producer equities and gold while falling inflation favors global equities and U.S. Treasuries. The result is a portfolio that is expected to be far less vulnerable to economic downturns and inflation surprises than traditional portfolios.

Performance Update

In the two years since fund inception, we have lived through vastly different economic environments that have served to test the efficacy of the strategy. Shortly after inception, a global pandemic surprised the world causing global equities to lose over 21% during the first three months of 2020. As expected, the economic environment that caused stocks to collapse (falling growth) was favorable for other asset classes biased to outperform in such a period. U.S. Treasuries and TIPS benefited from falling interest rates, and gold rallied as the Federal Reserve (“the Fed”) announced quantitative easing plans. Consequently, the Fund’s net asset value (“NAV”) was only down about 4% in the first quarter of 2020 as the winning exposures (U.S. Treasuries, TIPS and gold) offset the majority of the losses from global equities and commodity producer equities.

The market environment quickly shifted once unprecedented monetary and fiscal stimulus was injected in response to the economic and market downturn. As a result, the worst asset classes in the first quarter flipped to become the best performers over the ensuing three quarters of 2020. U.S. Treasuries, which were the best asset to own in Q1 2020, lost money the remainder of the year as growth and inflation rose (in turn, causing interest rates to rise). The Fund gained about 25% in the final three quarters of 2020 as the losses in U.S. Treasuries were more than made up by substantial gains elsewhere in the portfolio (including 50%+ returns from global equities and commodity producer equities).

The Fund started 2021 relatively slowly with another -4% return during the first quarter. Rising growth and inflation expectations triggered fears of a withdrawal of monetary stimulus, producing a headwind for all asset classes in the Fund. But these changing conditions also produced significant divergences across asset classes. U.S. Treasuries, TIPS and gold fell about 10% each during the quarter, but commodity equities and global equities rallied – gaining 15% and 5%, respectively – as improving growth and inflation conditions outweighed the negative influence from rising rates. Interestingly, Q1 2021 was the opposite of Q1 2020 in many ways (with growth, inflation and interest rates rising versus falling), but the Fund earned similar returns in both environments.

Since the first quarter of 2021, the Fund has staged a strong rally, earning over 13% from April 1, 2021 to December 31, 2021. Economic growth continued to recover from the pandemic lows, further propelling commodity equities and global equities (both of which are biased to outperform during rising growth environments). Gold and U.S. Treasuries lagged because of their bias to do better during falling growth periods (such as Q1 2020). TIPS actually were the best performing asset class since Q1, as rising inflation pressures and stable nominal interest rates pushed real yields lower.

All in all, the Fund’s 7.78% NAV gain for the calendar year ended December 31, 2021 (after a 19% NAV return in 2020) is well within the range of expected returns and makes sense given the economic environment that transpired (rising growth and inflation expectations and a central bank shift towards tighter monetary policy).

The balanced asset allocation in the Fund was designed to earn attractive returns over time while minimizing losses during surprise downturns. We feel that the Fund has delivered on this objective to date. Since inception (12/12/19), the Fund NAV has earned an annualized 13.42% return and largely protected investors during one of the steepest stock market downturns in recent history.

2

RPAR Risk Parity ETF

The table below summarizes the returns of the Fund as well as its underlying asset classes as of December 31, 2021.

As of 12/31/21

MTD

1-Year

Since Inception
(Annualized
Since 12.12.19)

RPAR Risk Parity ETF (Market)

1.24%

7.56%

13.36%

RPAR Risk Parity ETF (NAV)

1.29%

7.78%

13.42%

Global Equities

3.23%

15.27%

17.06%

Commodity Producers

3.77%

28.91%

18.72%

Physical Gold

3.24%

-3.93%

10.82%

Treasuries

-0.56%

-6.55%

0.66%

TIPS

-0.27%

6.49%

15.03%

The Fund’s underlying asset class performance as reported by Toroso Investments, LLC, 12/12/19 – 12/31/21.

The performance data quoted represents past performance. Past performance does not guarantee future results. The investment return and principal value of an investment will fluctuate so that an investor’s shares, when sold or redeemed, may be worth more or less than their original cost and current performance may be lower or higher than the performance quoted. Performance current to the most recent month-end can be obtained by calling (833) 540-0039.

Looking Ahead

The stock market has staged an impressive recovery since the lows of early 2020 on the back of significant monetary and fiscal stimulus and a thriving economy. In our experience, most investors maintain an equity- and credit-centric portfolio and have therefore enjoyed strong performance over the recent past. However, the traditional mix is significantly underweight inflation hedges and assets that are biased to protect against downside growth surprises, leaving it highly exposed to those economic environments.

Looking forward, the tailwinds that enabled the stock market rally may fade if inflation proves to be more persistent than transitory, forcing the Fed to tighten monetary policy more than expected. Surging inflation is hitting levels not seen for decades but can just as quickly reverse if removal of stimulus results in a weakening economy similar to what we witnessed the last time the Fed raised rates in 2018. Growth may continue to improve if the Fed moves slowly but may also turn down should the economy falter, as it has during historical cases of monetary tightening. How this will ultimately net out is difficult to anticipate, leaving a wide range of potential economic outcomes.

For these reasons, we advise investors to remain well-balanced. Investing across asset classes that are biased to outperform in varying economic environments is paramount when the future trajectory of the economy is highly uncertain. Additionally, the odds of extreme outcomes may be greater than normal, further supporting the need for balance today.

Please contact your financial advisor or one of our shareholder associates at (833) 540-0039 with any questions. You may also visit our website at www.rparetf.com or reach us via email at info@rparetf.com.

SHAREHOLDER LETTER (Continued)

3

RPAR Risk Parity ETF

Important Information

Before investing you should carefully consider the Fund’s investment objectives, risks, charges, and expenses. This and other information are in the prospectus. A prospectus may be obtained by visiting www.rparetf.com/rpar. Please read the prospectus carefully before you invest.

Past performance does not guarantee future results.

A fund’s NAV is the sum of all its assets less any liabilities, divided by the number of shares outstanding. The market price is the most recent price at which the fund was traded.

Risk parity is a portfolio allocation strategy using risk to determine allocations across various components of an investment portfolio.

As with all ETFs, Fund shares may be bought and sold in the secondary market at market prices. The market price normally should approximate the Fund’s NAV per share, but the market price sometimes may be higher or lower than the NAV. The Fund is newer with limited operating history. There are a limited number of financial institutions authorized to buy and sell shares directly with the Fund, and there may be a limited number of other liquidity providers in the marketplace. There is no assurance that Fund shares will trade at any volume, or at all, on any stock exchange. Low trading activity may result in shares trading at a material discount to NAV.

The Fund’s exposure to investments in physical commodities may fluctuate rapidly and subjects the Fund to greater volatility than investments in traditional securities, such as stocks and bonds. Interest payments on TIPS are unpredictable and will fluctuate as the principal and corresponding interest payments are adjusted for inflation. Equity securities, such as common stocks, are subject to market, economic and business risks that may cause their prices to fluctuate. The Fund invests in foreign and emerging market securities which involves certain risks such as currency volatility, political and social instability, and reduced market liquidity. The Fund may invest in securities issued by the U.S. government or its agencies or instrumentalities. There can be no guarantee that the United States will be able to meet its payment obligations with respect to such securities.

It is not possible to invest directly in an index.

Shares of the Fund are distributed by Foreside Fund Services, LLC.

SHAREHOLDER LETTER   (Continued)

4

RPAR Risk Parity ETF

PERFORMANCE SUMMARY (Unaudited)

Total Returns for the periods ended December 31, 2021*:

One Year

Since Inception (12/12/2019)

Ending Value
(12/31/2021)

RPAR Risk Parity ETF – NAV

7.78

%

13.42

%

$12,948

RPAR Risk Parity ETF – Market

7.56

%

13.36

%

12,935

S&P 500 ® Total Return Index

28.71

%

24.00

%

15,550

60% S&P 500 ® Total Return Index/40% Bloomberg U.S. Aggregate Bond Index

15.86

%

15.63

%

13,472

Advanced Research Risk Parity Index

9.34

%

15.69

%

13,487

* Returns for periods greater than one year are annualized

This chart illustrates the performance of a hypothetical $10,000 investment made on December 12, 2019 (commencement of operations), and is not intended to imply any future performance. The returns shown do not reflect the deduction of taxes that a shareholder would pay on fund distributions or the redemption of fund shares. The returns reflect fee waivers in effect for the “NAV” return. In the absence of such waivers, total return would be reduced. The chart assumes reinvestment of capital gains, dividends, and return of capital, if applicable, for a fund and dividends for an index.

Performance data quoted represents past performance and does not guarantee future results. The investment return and principal value of an investment will fluctuate so that an investor’s shares, when redeemed, may be worth more or less than their original cost. Current performance of the Fund may be lower or higher than the performance quoted. Performance data current to the most recent month end may be obtained by calling (833) 540-0039. The Fund’s gross expense ratio is 0.54% and net expense ratio is 0.51% (as of the Fund’s most recently filed prospectus dated March 31, 2021). The Fund’s investment adviser has agreed to waive a portion of its management fees for the Fund through at least March 31, 2022.

5

RPAR Risk Parity ETF

PORTFOLIO ALLOCATION at December 31, 2021 (Unaudited) (1)

Sector/Security Type

% of Total
Portfolio

Exchange Traded Funds

24.5

%

Futures Contracts (2)

23.8

United States Treasury Inflation Indexed Bonds

23.7

Cash & Cash Equivalents (3)

10.1

United States Treasury Bills

7.2

Basic Materials

4.7

Energy

4.1

Industrials

1.2

Consumer (Non-Cyclical)

0.3

Consumer (Cyclical)

0.2

Utilities

0.2

 

Total

100.0

%

(1) Percentages are based on total investments, including derivative contracts.

(2) Represents the notional amount of the futures contracts.

(3) Represents short-term investments.

RPAR Risk Parity ETF

6

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these financial statements.

SCHEDULE OF INVESTMENTS at December 31, 2021

  

 

Shares

 

Value

 

Common Stocks — 15.3%

 

Biotechnology — 0.3%

Corteva, Inc. 

98,521

$ 4,658,073

 

Building Materials — 0.1%

Geberit AG 

1,926

1,575,213

 

Chemicals — 1.3%

CF Industries Holdings, Inc. 

30,971

2,192,127

Ecolab, Inc. 

16,221

3,805,285

FMC Corp. 

17,125

1,881,866

The Mosaic Co. 

52,590

2,066,261

Nutrien Ltd. 

73,383

5,523,695

OCI N.V. (1)

28,729

752,080

PhosAgro PJSC - GDR

57,112

1,232,477

Sociedad Quimica y Minera de Chile S.A. - ADR

33,069

1,667,670

Yara International ASA 

34,155

1,723,572

 

20,845,033

Distribution & Wholesale — 0.1%

Ferguson PLC 

12,500

2,218,750

 

Electrical Components & Equipment — 0.0% (6)

Xinjiang Goldwind Science & Technology Co. Ltd. - H Shares

384,215

750,068

 

Energy — Alternate Sources — 0.6%

Enphase Energy, Inc. (1)

10,253

1,875,684

First Solar, Inc. (1) (2)

7,868

685,775

Plug Power, Inc. (1) (2)

46,381

1,309,336

Siemens Gamesa Renewable Energy S.A. 

44,967

1,077,449

SolarEdge Technologies, Inc. (1) (2)

4,171

1,170,257

Vestas Wind Systems A/S 

72,518

2,217,591

Xinyi Solar Holdings Ltd. 

666,499

1,130,166

 

9,466,258

Food — 0.2%

Mowi ASA 

71,466

1,691,364

Salmar ASA 

16,308

1,124,396

 

2,815,760

Housewares — 0.1%

The Scotts Miracle-Gro Co. (2)

7,853

1,264,333

 

Iron & Steel — 0.7%

Cleveland-Cliffs, Inc. (1) (2)

53,067

1,155,268

Fortescue Metals Group Ltd. 

304,801

4,257,047

Vale S.A. - ADR

484,749

6,796,181

 

12,208,496

  

 

Shares

 

Value

 

Common Stocks — 15.3% (Continued)

 

Machinery — Diversified — 1.6%

AGCO Corp. 

10,085

$ 1,170,062

CNH Industrial NV - Class A (2)

185,767

3,609,453

Deere & Co. 

38,792

13,301,389

Husqvarna AB - Class B 

78,513

1,256,107

IDEX Corp. 

4,175

986,636

Kubota Corp. 

158,255

3,509,219

The Toro Co. 

14,889

1,487,560

Xylem, Inc. 

10,306

1,235,895

 

26,556,321

Mining — 4.7%

Anglo American PLC 

143,653

5,868,232

Antofagasta PLC 

108,904

1,974,347

BHP Group Ltd. - ADR (2)

245,091

14,791,242

Boliden AB 

27,475

1,062,117

Cameco Corp. 

46,521

1,015,754

China Molybdenum Co. Ltd. - H Shares

3,409,010

1,797,139

First Quantum Minerals Ltd. 

76,388

1,830,554

Freeport-McMoRan, Inc. 

154,753

6,457,843

Ganfeng Lithium Co. Ltd. - H Shares 

207,734

3,269,367

Glencore PLC 

1,501,351

7,624,596

Ivanhoe Mines Ltd. (1)

102,501

837,438

Jiangxi Copper Co. Ltd. - H Shares 

664,058

1,062,997

MMC Norilsk Nickel PJSC - ADR

173,762

5,374,459

MP Materials Corp. (1)

18,796

853,714

NAC Kazatomprom JSC - GDR

29,772

1,094,121

OZ Minerals Ltd. 

37,353

766,385

Rio Tinto PLC - ADR (2)

166,628

11,154,078

South32 Ltd. 

515,897

1,504,084

Southern Copper Corp. 

86,616

5,345,073

Sumitomo Metal Mining Co. Ltd. 

32,598

1,231,395

Teck Resources Ltd. - Class B 

50,903

1,468,073

Vedanta Ltd. - ADR (7)

79,549

1,312,559

 

77,695,567

Oil & Gas — 5.4%

BP PLC - ADR

128,078

3,410,717

Canadian Natural Resources Ltd. 

47,395

2,005,512

Cenovus Energy, Inc. 

89,233

1,095,677

Chevron Corp. 

78,786

9,245,537

China Petroleum & Chemical Corp. - H Shares - ADR

70,999

3,302,163

ConocoPhillips 

49,397

3,565,475

Continental Resources Inc. (2)

15,548

695,928

Devon Energy Corp. (2)

27,291

1,202,168

Diamondback Energy, Inc. (2)

7,136

769,618


RPAR Risk Parity ETF

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these financial statements.

7

SCHEDULE OF INVESTMENTS at December 31, 2021 (Continued)

  

 

Shares

 

Value

 

Common Stocks — 15.3% (Continued)

 

Oil & Gas — 5.4% (Continued)

Ecopetrol S.A. - ADR (2)

96,140

$ 1,239,245

Eni S.p.A - ADR

77,907

2,154,129

EOG Resources, Inc. 

23,679

2,103,406

Equinor ASA - ADR

135,020

3,555,077

Exxon Mobil Corp. 

178,808

10,941,261

Gazprom PJSC - ADR

500,150

4,621,386

Hess Corp. 

13,389

991,188

Imperial Oil Ltd. 

31,283

1,129,819

LUKOIL PJSC - ADR

29,813

2,668,263

Novatek PJSC - GDR

12,798

2,997,292

Occidental Petroleum Corp. 

38,495

1,115,970

OMV AG 

15,984

907,944

PetroChina Co. Ltd. - H Shares - ADR (2)

120,752

5,338,446

Pioneer Natural Resources Co. 

10,059

1,829,531

Repsol S.A. 

75,961

901,494

Rosneft Oil Co PJSC - GDR

467,176

3,757,029

Royal Dutch Shell PLC - Class A - ADR

164,341

7,132,399

Suncor Energy, Inc. 

67,169

1,683,014

Surgutneftegas PJSC - ADR

182,689

976,473

TotalEnergies SE - ADR

112,297

5,554,210

Woodside Petroleum Ltd. 

49,031

781,761

 

87,672,132

Water — 0.2%

American Water Works Co., Inc. 

8,897

1,680,287

Veolia Environnement S.A. 

38,136

1,399,065

 

3,079,352

Total Common Stocks

(Cost $213,276,388)

250,805,356

 

Exchange Traded Funds — 35.3%

SPDR Gold MiniShares Trust (1) (2)

9,066,792

164,834,279

Vanguard FTSE Developed Markets ETF (2)

1,624,672

82,955,752

Vanguard FTSE Emerging Markets ETF (2)

2,463,754

121,857,273

Vanguard Total Stock Market ETF 

858,224

207,209,603

Total Exchange Traded Funds

(Cost $505,835,719)

576,856,907

 

United States Treasury Obligations — 44.6%

 

Principal
Amount

United States Treasury Bills — 10.4%

0.100%, 06/09/22 (3) (4)

170,085,000

170,007,115

 

Principal
Amount

United States Treasury Obligations — 44.6% (Continued)

 

US Government Notes/Bonds — 34.2%

2.125%, 2/15/40

10,252,796

$ 15,723,339

2.125%, 2/15/41

41,514,204

64,393,298

0.750%, 2/15/42

47,743,236

60,474,388

0.625%, 2/15/43

44,463,989

55,409,623

1.375%, 2/15/44

46,555,006

66,599,931

0.750%, 2/15/45

45,561,570

58,801,720

1.000%, 2/15/46

40,163,979

55,034,385

0.875%, 2/15/47

37,723,503

51,094,081

1.000%, 2/15/48

35,859,633

50,431,530

1.000%, 2/15/49

31,675,881

45,099,027

0.250%, 2/15/50

19,309,893

23,446,432

0.125%, 2/15/51

9,890,665

11,754,977

 

558,262,731

Total United States Treasury Obligations

(Cost $688,704,842)

728,269,846

 

Short—Term Investments — 1.3%

 

Shares

Money Market Funds — 1.3%

First American Government Obligations Fund, Class X, 0.026% (5)

21,883,362

21,883,362

Total Short — Term Investments

(Cost $21,883,362)

21,883,362

 

Investments Purchased With Collateral From Securities Lending — 13.2%

Mount Vernon Liquid Assets Portfolio, LLC, 0.120% (5)

215,022,720

215,022,720

 

Total Investments Purchased With Collateral From Securities Lending

(Cost $215,022,720)

215,022,720

 

Total Investments in Securities — 109.7%

(Cost $1,644,723,031)

1,792,838,191

Liabilities in Excess of Other Assets – (9.7)%

(158,669,036

)

Total Net Assets — 100.0%

$ 1,634,169,155

ADR   American Depositary Receipt

GDR Global Depositary Receipt

(1) Non-income producing security.

(2) This security or a portion of this security was out on loan as of December 31, 2021. Total loaned securities had a value of $209,919,372 or 12.85% of net assets. The remaining contractual maturity of all of the securities lending transactions is overnight and continuous.

(3) Rate represents the annualized effective yield to maturity from the purchase price.

(4) Zero coupon security.

(5) The rate quoted is the annualized seven-day effective yield as of December 31, 2021.

(6) Does not round to 0.1% or (0.1)%, as applicable.

(7) The security is fair valued by the Fair Valuation Committee. See Note 2.


RPAR Risk Parity ETF

8

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these financial statements.

SCHEDULE OF INVESTMENTS at December 31, 2021 (Continued)

SCHEDULE OF FUTURES CONTRACTS at December 31, 2021

The RPAR Risk Parity ETF (the “Fund”) had the following futures contracts outstanding with PhillipCapital, Inc.

Long Futures
Contracts Outstanding

Number of
Contracts

Notional
Amount

Unrealized
Appreciation
(Depreciation)

Notional
Value

10-Year U.S. Treasury Note Futures (3/31/2022)

2,165

$ 279,488,544

$ 2,976,300

$ 282,464,844

Ultra Long-Term U.S. Treasury Bond Futures (3/31/2022)

1,412

271,848,357

6,492,143

278,340,500

 

$ 551,336,901

$ 9,468,443

$ 560,805,344

RPAR Risk Parity ETF

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these financial statements.

9

STATEMENT OF ASSETS AND LIABILITIES at December 31, 2021

Assets:

Investments in securities, at value (Note 2) (1)

$ 1,792,838,191

Cash

1,213,080

Foreign currency (cost of $7,370)

7,421

Deposits at broker for futures (Note 2)

39,145,243

Receivables:

Fund shares sold

31,109,439

Dividends and interest

2,085,365

Securities lending

32,839

Variation margin receivable

9,468,443

Total assets

1,875,900,021

 

Liabilities:

Collateral received from securites loaned

$ 215,022,720

Payables:

Investment securities purchased

26,079,238

Management fees (Note 4)

628,908

Variation margin payable

Total liabilities

241,730,866

Net Assets

$ 1,634,169,155

 

Components of Net Assets:

Paid-in capital

$ 1,518,125,731

Total distributable (accumulated) earnings (losses)

116,043,424

Net assets

$ 1,634,169,155

 

Net Asset Value (unlimited shares authorized):

Net assets

$ 1,634,169,155

Shares of beneficial interest issued and outstanding

65,100,000

Net asset value

$ 25.10

 

Cost of investments

$ 1,644,723,031

(1) Includes loaned securites with a value of $209,919,372.

RPAR Risk Parity ETF

10

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these financial statements.

STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS

 

 

Period Ended
December 31,
2021
(1)

 

Year Ended
November 30,
2021

 

 

Investment Income:

Dividend income (net of foreign withholding tax of $96,446 and $454,879)

$ 3,638,983

$ 14,837,132

Interest income

3,266,853

16,199,893

Securities lending income (Note 5)

32,839

294,365

Total investment income

6,938,675

31,331,390

 

Expenses:

Management fees (Note 4)

669,051

6,358,541

Total expenses before interest expense and Management fee waiver

669,051

6,358,541

Interest expense

4,384

Less: Management fee waiver (Note 4)

(40,143

)

(381,512

)

Net expenses

628,908

5,981,413

Net investment income (loss)

6,309,767

25,349,977

 

Realized and Unrealized Gain (Loss) on Investments

Net realized gain (loss) on:

Investments

3,350,869

57,856,564

Foreign currency transactions

18,197

8,178

Futures contracts

(34,240,637

)

Change in net unrealized appreciation/depreciation on:

Investments and foreign currency transactions

16,120,729

55,364,353

Futures contracts

(5,352,217

)

14,881,835

Net realized and unrealized gain (loss) on investments

14,137,578

93,870,293

Net increase (decrease) in net assets resulting from operations

$ 20,447,345

$ 119,220,270

(1) The Fund changed its fiscal year end from November 30, 2021 to December 31, 2021 effective as of the close of business on December 29, 2021. The information presented is from December 1, 2021 to December 31, 2021. November 30, 2021 information is presented for this Fund due to the fiscal year end change.

RPAR Risk Parity ETF

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these financial statements.

11

STATEMENT OF CHANGES IN NET ASSETS

 

 

Period Ended
December 31,
2021
(1)

 

Year Ended
November 30,
2021

 

Period Ended
November 30,
2020
(2)

 

 

Increase (Decrease) in Net Assets From:

 

Operations:

Net investment income (loss)

$ 6,309,767

$ 25,349,977

$ 4,508,786

Net realized gain (loss) on investments, and foreign currency transactions

3,369,066

23,624,105

(3,847,389

)

Change in net unrealized appreciation/depreciation on investments, foreign currency transactions, and futures contracts

10,768,512

70,246,188

76,568,529

Net increase (decrease) in net assets resulting from operations

20,447,345

119,220,270

77,229,926

 

Distributions to Shareholders:

Net distributions to shareholders

(20,208,000

)

(13,377,074

)

(2,652,617

)

 

Capital Share Transactions:

Net increase (decrease) in net assets derived from net changes in outstanding shares (3)

84,653,460

560,080,057

808,775,788

Total increase (decrease) in net assets

84,892,805

665,923,253

883,353,097

 

Net Assets:

Beginning of period/year

1,549,276,350

883,353,097

End of period/year

$ 1,634,169,155

$ 1,549,276,350

$ 883,353,097

(1) The Fund changed its fiscal year end from November 30, 2021 to December 31, 2021 effective as of the close of business on December 29, 2021. The information presented is from December 1, 2021 to December 31, 2021.

(2) The Fund commenced operations on December 12, 2019. The information presented is from December 12, 2019 to November 30, 2020.

(3) Summary of share transactions is as follows:

Period Ended
December 31, 2021
(1)

Year Ended
November 30, 2021

Period Ended
November 30, 2020
(2)

Shares

 

Value

Shares

 

Value

Shares

Value

Shares sold

3,375,000

$ 84,653,460

32,025,000

$ 768,343,312

39,900,000

$ 843,009,688

Shares redeemed

(8,700,000

)

(208,263,255

)

(1,500,000

)

(34,233,900

)

Net increase (decrease)

3,375,000

$ 84,653,460

23,325,000

$ 560,080,057

38,400,000

$ 808,775,788

RPAR Risk Parity ETF

12

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these financial statements.

FINANCIAL HIGHLIGHTS  For a capital share outstanding throughout each period

 

Period Ended
December 31,
2021
(1)

Year Ended
November 30,
2021

Year Ended
November 30,
2020
(2)

 

Net asset value, beginning of period

$ 25.10

$ 23.00

$ 20.00

 

Income from Investment Operations:

Net investment income (loss) (3)

0.10

0.48

0.21

Net realized and unrealized gain (loss) on investments

0.22

1.88

2.94

Total from investment operations

0.32

2.36

3.15

 

Less Distributions:

From net investment income

(0.32

)

(0.26

)

(0.15

)

Total distributions

(0.32

)

(0.26

)

(0.15

)

 

Net asset value, end of period

$ 25.10

$ 25.10

$ 23.00

Total return (5)

1.29

% (4)

10.32

%

15.88

% (4)

 

Supplemental Data:

Net assets, end of period (millions)

$ 1,634.2

$ 1,549.3

$ 883.4

Portfolio turnover rate

1

% (4)

16

%

65

% (4)

 

Ratios of Expenses to Average Net Assets:

Before fees waived

0.50

% (6)

0.50

% (7)

0.50

% (6) (7)

After fees waived

0.47

% (6)

0.47

% (7)

0.47

% (6) (7)

 

Ratios of Net Investment Income (Loss) to Average Net Assets:

Before fees waived

4.69

% (6)

1.96%

(8)

0.98

% (6) (8)

After fees waived

4.72

% (6)

1.99%

(8)

1.01

% (6) (8)

(1) The Fund changed its fiscal year end from November 30, 2021 to December 31, 2021. The information presented is from December 1, 2021 to December 31, 2021.

(2) The Fund commenced operations on December 12, 2019. The information presented is from December 12, 2019 to November 30, 2020.

(3) Calculated using average shares outstanding method.

(4) Not annualized.

(5) The total return is based on the Fund’s net asset value. Additional performance information is presented in the Performance Summary.

(6) Annualized.

(7) The ratio of expenses to average net assets includes interest expense on futures. The expense ratios excluding interest expense on futures were 0.50% and 0.47% for the year ended November 30, 2021 and 0.50% and 0.47% for the period ended November 30, 2020.

(8) The ratios of net investment income (loss) to average net assets include interest expense on futures.

13

RPAR Risk Parity ETF

NOTES TO FINANCIAL STATEMENTS  December 31, 2021

NOTE 1 – ORGANIZATION

The RPAR Risk Parity ETF (the “Fund”) is a non-diversified series of shares of beneficial interest of Tidal ETF Trust (the “Trust”). The Trust was organized as a Delaware statutory trust on June 4, 2018 and is registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “1940 Act”), as an open-end management investment company and the offering of the Fund’s shares is registered under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended. The Fund is an investment company and accordingly follows the investment company accounting and reporting guidance of the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Accounting Standard Codification Topic 946 “Financial Services—Investment Companies.” The Fund commenced operations on December 12, 2019.

The investment objective of the Fund is to seek to generate positive returns during periods of economic growth, preserve capital during periods of economic contraction, and preserve real rates of return during periods of heightened inflation.

NOTE 2 – SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES

The following is a summary of significant accounting policies consistently followed by the Fund. These policies are in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”).

A. Security Valuation . Equity securities, which may include Real Estate Investment Trusts (“REITs”), Business Development Companies (“BDCs”), and Master Limited Partnerships (“MLPs”), listed on a securities exchange, market or automated quotation system for which quotations are readily available (except for securities traded on the NASDAQ Stock Market, LLC (“NASDAQ”)), including securities traded over the counter, are valued at the last quoted sale price on the primary exchange or market (foreign or domestic) on which they are traded on the valuation date (or at approximately 4:00 p.m. EST if a security’s primary exchange is normally open at that time), or, if there is no such reported sale on the valuation date, at the most recent quoted bid price or mean between the most recent quoted bid and ask prices for long and short positions. For a security that trades on multiple exchanges, the primary exchange will generally be considered the exchange on which the security is generally most actively traded. For securities traded on NASDAQ, the NASDAQ Official Closing Price will be used. Prices of securities traded on the securities exchange will be obtained from recognized independent pricing agents (“Independent Pricing Agents”) each day that the Fund is open for business.

Debt securities are valued by using an evaluated mean of the bid and asked prices provided by Independent Pricing Agents. The Independent Pricing Agents may employ methodologies that utilize actual market transactions (if the security is actively traded), broker dealer supplied valuations, or other methodologies designed to identify the market value for such securities. In arriving at valuations, such methodologies generally consider factors such as security prices, yields, maturities, call features, ratings and developments relating to specific securities.

For securities for which quotations are not readily available, a fair value will be determined by the Valuation Committee using the Fair Value Procedures approved by the Trust’s Board of Trustees (the “Board”). When a security is “fair valued,” consideration is given to the facts and circumstances relevant to the particular situation, including a review of various factors set forth in the Fair Value Procedures adopted by the Board. Fair value pricing is an inherently subjective process, and no single standard exists for determining fair value. Different funds could reasonably arrive at different values for the same security. The use of fair value pricing by a fund may cause the net asset value of its shares to differ significantly from the net asset value that would be calculated without regard to such considerations.

As described above, the Fund utilizes various methods to measure the fair value of its investments on a recurring basis. U.S. GAAP establishes a hierarchy that prioritizes inputs to valuation methods. The three levels of inputs are:

Level 1 – Unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities that the Fund has the ability to access.

Level 2 – Observable inputs other than quoted prices included in Level 1 that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly or indirectly. These inputs may include quoted prices for the identical instrument on an inactive market, prices for similar instruments, interest rates, prepayment speeds, credit risk, yield curves, default rates and similar data.

14

RPAR Risk Parity ETF

Level 3 – Unobservable inputs for the asset or liability, to the extent relevant observable inputs are not available; representing the Fund’s own assumptions about the assumptions a market participant would use in valuing the asset or liability and would be based on the best information available.

The availability of observable inputs can vary from security to security and is affected by a wide variety of factors, including, for example, the type of security, whether the security is new and not yet established in the marketplace, the liquidity of markets, and other characteristics particular to the security. To the extent that valuation is based on models or inputs that are less observable or unobservable in the market, the determination of fair value requires more judgment. Accordingly, the degree of judgment exercised in determining fair value is greatest for instruments categorized in Level 3.

The inputs used to measure fair value may fall into different levels of the fair value hierarchy. In such cases, for disclosure purposes, the level in the fair value hierarchy within which the fair value measurement falls in its entirety, is determined based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement in its entirety.

The following is a summary of the inputs used to value the Fund’s investments and other financial instruments as of December 31, 2021:

Investments in Securities

Investments
Measured at
Net Asset Value

Level 1

Level 2

Level 3

Total

Common Stocks (1)

$

$ 249,492,797

$

$ 1,312,559

$ 250,805,356

Exchange Traded Funds

576,856,907

576,856,907

United States Treasury Obligations (2)

728,269,846

728,269,846

Short-Term Investments

21,883,362

21,883,362

Investments Purchased With Collateral From Securities Lending (3)

215,022,720

215,022,720

Total Investments in Securities

$ 215,022,720

$ 848,233,066

$ 728,269,846

$ 1,312,559

$ 1,792,838,191

 

Other Financial Instruments (4)

Interest Rate Contracts - Futures

$

$ 9,468,443

$

$

$ 9,468,443

Investments in
Securities at
Fair Value*

Balance as of November 30, 2021

Accrued discounts/premiums

$ 1,312,559

Realized gain (loss)

Change in unrealized appreciation

Purchases

Sales

Transfer into and/or out of Level 3

Balance as of December 31, 2021

1,312,559

 

Change in unrealized appreciation during the period for Level 3 investments held at December 31, 2021

$

* The security (Common Stock) is classified as a Level 3 security due to the security being delisted by the exchange that it was traded on 11/9/2021 and a lack of market quotes. The security was valued at the last close price.

(1) See Schedule of Investments for the industry breakout.

(2) See Schedule of Investments for the security type breakout.

(3) Certain investments that are measured at fair value using the net asset value per share (or its equivalent) practical expedient have not been categorized in the fair value hierarchy. The fair value amounts presented in the table are intended to permit reconciliation of the fair value hierarchy to the amounts presented in the Schedule of Investments.

(4) Other Financial Instruments are derivative instruments not reflected in the Schedule of Investments, such as futures contracts, which are presented at the unrealized appreciation/depreciation on the investment.

NOTES TO FINANCIAL STATEMENTS  December 31, 2021 (Continued)

15

RPAR Risk Parity ETF

The Fund has provided additional disclosures below regarding derivatives and hedging activity intending to improve financial reporting by enabling investors to understand how and why the Fund uses futures contracts (a type of derivative), how they are accounted for and how they affect an entity’s results of operations and financial position. The Fund may use derivatives for risk management purposes or as part of its investment strategies. Derivatives are financial contracts whose values depend on, or are derived from, the value of an underlying asset, reference rate or index. The Fund may use derivatives to earn income and enhance returns, to hedge or adjust the risk profile of its portfolio, to replace more traditional direct investments and to obtain exposure to otherwise inaccessible markets.

The average notional amount for futures contracts is based on the monthly notional amounts. The notional amount for futures contracts represents the U.S. dollar value of the contract as of the day of opening the transaction or latest contract reset date. The Fund’s average notional value of futures contracts outstanding during the period ended December 31, 2021, was $560,805,344. The following tables show the effects of derivative instruments on the financial statements.

Statement of Assets and Liabilities

Fair value of derivative instruments as of December 31, 2021:

Asset Derivatives

Liability Derivatives

Instrument

Balance Sheet Location

Fair Value

Balance Sheet Location

Fair Value

Interest Rate Contracts - Futures

Variation margin receivable
(see Statement of
Assets and liabilities)

$ 9,468,443

Variation margin payable
(see Statement of
Assets and liabilities)

$ —

Statement of Operations

The effect of derivative instruments on the Statement of Operations for the period ended December 31, 2021:

Instrument

Location of Gain (Loss)
on Derivatives
Recognized in Income

Realized Gain (Loss)
on Derivatives
Recognized in Income

Change in Unrealized
Appreciation/Depreciation
on Derivatives
Recognized in Income

Interest Rate Contracts - Futures

Net Realized and Unrealized Gain (Loss) on Investments

$ —

$ (5,352,217)

B. Federal Income Taxes. The Fund has elected to be taxed as a “regulated investment company” and intends to distribute substantially all taxable income to its shareholders and otherwise comply with the provisions of the Internal Revenue Code applicable to regulated investment companies. Therefore, no provision for federal income taxes or excise taxes have been made.

In order to avoid imposition of the excise tax applicable to regulated investment companies, the Fund intends to declare as dividends in each calendar year at least 98.0% of its net investment income (earned during the calendar year) and at least 98.2% of its net realized capital gains (earned during the twelve months ended October 31) plus undistributed amounts, if any, from prior years.

As of December 31, 2021, the Fund did not have any tax positions that did not meet the threshold of being sustained by the applicable tax authority. Generally, tax authorities can examine all the tax returns filed for the last three years. The Fund identifies its major tax jurisdiction as U.S. Federal and the Commonwealth of Delaware; however, the Fund is not aware of any tax positions for which it is reasonably possible that the total amounts of unrecognized tax benefits will change materially.

C. Securities Transactions and Investment Income. Investment securities transactions are accounted for on the trade date. Gains and losses realized on sales of securities are determined on a specific identification basis. Discounts/premiums on debt securities purchased are accreted/amortized over the life of the respective securities using the effective interest method. Dividend income is recorded on the ex-dividend date. Dividends received from REITs generally are comprised of ordinary income, capital gains,

NOTES TO FINANCIAL STATEMENTS  December 31, 2021 (Continued)

16

RPAR Risk Parity ETF

and may include return of capital. Debt income is recorded on an accrual basis. Other non-cash dividends are recognized as investment income at the fair value of the property received. Withholding taxes on foreign dividends have been provided for in accordance with the Trust’s understanding of the applicable country’s tax rules and rates.

D. Foreign Currency . Investment securities and other assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are translated into U.S. dollar amounts at the date of valuation. Purchases and sales of investment securities and income and expense items denominated in foreign currencies are translated into U.S. dollar amounts on the respective dates of such transactions.

The Fund does not isolate that portion of the results of operations resulting from changes in foreign exchange rates on investments from the fluctuations arising from changes in market prices of securities held. Such fluctuations are included with the net realized and unrealized gain or loss from investments.

The Fund reports net realized foreign exchange gains or losses that arise from sales of foreign currencies, currency gains or losses realized between the trade and settlement dates on securities transactions, and the difference between the amounts of dividends, interest, and foreign withholding taxes recorded on the Fund’s books and the U.S. dollar equivalent of the amounts actually received or paid. Net unrealized foreign exchange gains and losses arise from changes in the fair values of assets and liabilities, other than investments in securities at period end, resulting from changes in exchange rates.

E. Futures Contracts. The Fund may purchase futures contracts to gain long exposure to long-term U.S. Treasury bonds. The purchase of futures contracts may be more efficient or cost-effective than buying the underlying securities or assets. A futures contract is an agreement that obligates the buyer to buy and the seller to sell a specified quantity of an underlying asset (or settle for cash the value of a contract based on an underlying asset, rate, or index) at a specific price on the contract maturity date. Upon entering into a futures contract, the Fund is required to pledge to the counterparty an amount of cash, U.S. Government securities or other high-quality debt securities equal to the minimum “initial margin” requirements of the exchange or the broker. Pursuant to a contract entered into with a futures commission merchant, the Fund agrees to receive from or pay to the firm an amount of cash equal to the cumulative daily fluctuation in the value of the contract. Such receipts or payments are known as “variation margin” and are recorded by the Fund as unrealized gains or losses. When the contract is closed, the Fund records a gain or loss equal to the difference between the value of the contract at the time it was opened and the value at the time it was closed. The Fund will cover its current obligations under futures contracts by the segregation of liquid assets or by entering into offsetting transactions or owning positions covering its obligations. The Fund’s use of futures contracts may involve risks that are different from, or possibly greater than, the risk associated with investing directly in securities or other more traditional instruments. These risks include the risk that the value of the futures contracts may not correlate perfectly, or at all, with the value of the assets, reference rates, or indices that they are designed to track. Other risks include: an illiquid secondary market for a particular instrument and possible exchange-imposed price fluctuation limits, either of which may make it difficult or impossible to close out a position when desired; the risk that adverse price movements in an instrument can result in a loss substantially greater than the Fund’s initial investment in that instrument (in some cases, the potential loss is unlimited); and the risk that a counterparty will not perform its obligations. The Fund had futures contracts activity during the period ended December 31, 2021. Realized and unrealized gains and losses are included in the Statement of Operations. The futures contracts held by the Fund are exchange-traded with PhillipCapital, Inc. acting as the futures commission merchant.

F. Deposits at Broker for Futures. Deposits at broker for futures represents amounts that are held by third parties under certain of the Fund’s derivative transactions. Such cash is excluded from cash and equivalents in the Statement of Assets and Liabilities.

G. Distributions to Shareholders. Distributions to shareholders from net investment income, if any, for the Fund are declared and paid at least quarterly. Distributions to shareholders from net realized gains on securities, if any, for the Fund normally are declared and paid on an annual basis. Distributions are recorded on the ex-dividend date.

H. Use of Estimates . The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amount of revenue and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates.

I. Share Valuation . The NAV per share of the Fund is calculated by dividing the sum of the value of the securities held by the Fund, plus cash or other assets, minus all liabilities by the total number of shares outstanding for the Fund, rounded to the nearest cent. The Fund’s shares will not be priced on the days on which the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) is closed for trading.

NOTES TO FINANCIAL STATEMENTS  December 31, 2021 (Continued)

17

RPAR Risk Parity ETF

J. Guarantees and Indemnifications . In the normal course of business, the Fund enters into contracts with service providers that contain general indemnification clauses. The Fund’s maximum exposure under these arrangements is unknown as this would involve future claims that may be made against the Fund that have not yet occurred. However, based on experience, the Fund expects the risk of loss to be remote.

K. Illiquid Securities . Pursuant to Rule 22e-4 under the 1940 Act, the Fund has adopted a Board-approved Liquidity Risk Management Program (the “Program”) that requires, among other things, that the Fund limit its illiquid investments that are assets to no more than 15% of the value of the Fund’s net assets. An illiquid investment is any security that the Fund reasonably expects cannot be sold or disposed of in current market conditions in seven calendar days or less without the sale or disposition significantly changing the market value of the investment. If the Fund should be in a position where the value of illiquid investments held by the Fund exceeds 15% of the Fund’s net assets, the Fund will take such steps as set forth in the Program.

L. Reclassification of Capital Accounts . U.S. GAAP requires that certain components of net assets relating to permanent differences be reclassified between financial and tax reporting. These reclassifications have no effect on net assets or net asset value per share. For the period ended December 31, 2021, no reclassification adjustments were made.

M. Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements . In October 2020, the SEC adopted new Rule 12d1-4 under the 1940 Act and other regulatory changes which are expected to be effective on or about January 19, 2022. Those changes are intended to streamline and enhance the regulatory framework for investments by one fund into another fund or “fund-of-funds arrangements”. These regulatory changes may affect a fund’s ability to invest in other investment companies or pooled investment vehicles or to invest in those investment companies or pooled investment vehicles it believes are most desirable. Management is currently evaluating the impact, if any, of applying this provision.

In October 2020, the SEC adopted new regulations governing the use of derivatives by registered investment companies (“Rule 18f-4”). The Fund will be required to implement and comply with Rule 18f-4 by August 19, 2022. Once implemented, Rule 18f-4 will impose limits on the amount of derivatives a fund can enter into, eliminate the asset segregation framework currently used by funds to comply with Section 18 of the 1940 Act, treat derivatives as senior securities and require funds whose use of derivatives is more than a limited specified exposure amount to establish and maintain a comprehensive derivatives risk management program and appoint a derivatives risk manager. Management is currently assessing the potential impact of the new rule on the Fund’s financial statements.

In December 2020, the SEC adopted a new rule providing a framework for fund valuation practices (“Rule 2a-5”). Rule 2a-5 establishes requirements for determining fair value in good faith for purposes of the 1940 Act. Rule 2a-5 will permit fund boards to designate certain parties to perform fair value determinations, subject to board oversight and certain other conditions. Rule 2a-5 also defines when market quotations are “readily available” for purposes of the 1940 Act and the threshold for determining whether a fund must fair value a security. In connection with Rule 2a-5, the SEC also adopted related recordkeeping requirements and is rescinding previously issued guidance, including with respect to the role of a board in determining fair value and the accounting and auditing of fund investments. The Fund will be required to comply with the rules by September 8, 2022. Management is currently evaluating the impact, if any, of applying this provision.

NOTE 3 – PRINCIPAL RISKS

A. Commodities Risk . The Fund’s exposure to investments in physical commodities subjects the Fund to greater volatility than investments in traditional securities, such as stocks and bonds. The commodities markets may fluctuate rapidly based on a variety of factors, including overall market movements; economic events and policies; changes in interest rates or inflation rates; changes in monetary and exchange control programs; war; acts of terrorism; natural disasters; and technological developments. Variables such as disease, drought, floods, weather, trade, embargoes, tariffs, and other political events, in particular, may have a larger impact on commodity prices than on traditional securities. The prices of commodities can also fluctuate widely due to supply and demand disruptions in major producing or consuming regions. Because certain commodities may be produced in a limited number of countries and may be controlled by a small number of producers, political, economic, and supply-related events in such countries could have a disproportionate impact on the prices of such commodities. These factors may affect the value of the Fund in varying ways, and different factors may cause the value and the volatility of the Fund to move in inconsistent directions at inconsistent rates. The current or “spot” prices of physical commodities may also affect, in a volatile and inconsistent manner, the prices of futures contracts in respect of the relevant commodity.

NOTES TO FINANCIAL STATEMENTS  December 31, 2021 (Continued)

18

RPAR Risk Parity ETF

B. Credit Risk . An issuer or guarantor of debt instruments or the counterparty to a derivatives contract, repurchase agreement or loan of portfolio securities may be unable or unwilling to make its timely interest and/or principal payments or to otherwise honor its obligations. Debt instruments are subject to varying degrees of credit risk, which may be reflected in their credit ratings. There is the chance that the Fund’s portfolio holdings will have their credit ratings downgraded or will default (i.e., fail to make scheduled interest or principal payments), potentially reducing the Fund’s income level or share price.

C. Currency Exchange Rate Risk . The Fund invests, directly or indirectly, in investments denominated in non-U.S. currencies or in securities that provide exposure to such currencies. Changes in currency exchange rates and the relative value of non-U.S. currencies will affect the value of the Fund’s investments and the value of your shares of the Fund (“Shares”). Currency exchange rates can be very volatile and can change quickly and unpredictably. As a result, the value of an investment in the Fund may change quickly and without warning, and you may lose money.

D. Depositary Receipt Risk. Depositary receipts involve risks similar to those associated with investments in foreign securities and certain additional risks. Depositary receipts listed on U.S. or foreign exchanges are issued by banks or trust companies, and entitle the holder to all dividends and capital gains that are paid out on the underlying foreign shares (“Underlying Shares”). When the Fund invests in depositary receipts as a substitute for an investment directly in the Underlying Shares, the Fund is exposed to the risk that the depositary receipts may not provide a return that corresponds precisely with that of the Underlying Shares.

E. Derivatives Risk . The Fund’s derivative investments have risks, including the imperfect correlation between the value of such instruments and the underlying assets or index; the loss of principal, including the potential loss of amounts greater than the initial amount invested in the derivative instrument; the possible default of the other party to the transaction; and illiquidity of the derivative investments. If a counterparty becomes bankrupt or otherwise fails to perform its obligations under a derivative contract due to financial difficulties, the Fund may experience significant delays in obtaining any recovery under the derivative contract in a bankruptcy or other reorganization proceeding. The derivatives used by the Fund may give rise to a form of leverage. Leverage magnifies the potential for gain and the risk of loss. Certain of the Fund’s transactions in derivatives could also affect the amount, timing, and character of distributions to shareholders, which may result in the Fund realizing more short-term capital gain and ordinary income subject to tax at ordinary income tax rates than it would if it did not engage in such transactions, which may adversely impact the Fund’s after-tax returns.

F. Emerging Markets Risk . The Fund may invest in securities issued by companies domiciled or headquartered in emerging market nations. Investments in securities traded in developing or emerging markets, or that provide exposure to such securities or markets, can involve additional risks relating to political, economic, currency, or regulatory conditions not associated with investments in U.S. securities and investments in more developed international markets. Such conditions may impact the ability of the Fund to buy, sell, or otherwise transfer securities, adversely affect the trading market and price for Shares and cause the Fund to decline in value.

G. Equity Market Risk . The Fund will invest in common stocks directly or indirectly through ETFs. Common stocks, such as those held by the Fund, are generally exposed to greater risk than other types of securities, such as preferred stock and debt obligations, because common stockholders generally have inferior rights to receive payment from issuers. The equity securities held in the Fund’s portfolio may experience sudden, unpredictable drops in value or long periods of decline in value. This may occur because of factors that affect securities markets generally or factors affecting specific issuers, industries, or sectors in which the Fund invests. Securities in the Fund’s portfolio may underperform in comparison to securities in the general financial markets, a particular financial market, or other asset classes, due to a number of factors, including inflation (or expectations for inflation), interest rates, global demand for particular products or resources, natural disasters or events, pandemic diseases, terrorism, regulatory events, or government controls.

H. Exchange-Traded Fund (“ETF”) Risks.

Authorized Participants, Market Makers, and Liquidity Providers Concentration Risk . The Fund has a limited number of financial institutions that are authorized to purchase and redeem Shares directly from the Fund (known as “Authorized Participants” or “APs”). In addition, there may be a limited number of market makers and/or liquidity providers in the marketplace. To the extent either of the following events occur, Shares may trade at a material discount to NAV and possibly face delisting: (i) APs exit the business or otherwise become unable to process creation and/or redemption orders and no other APs step forward to perform these services; or (ii) market makers and/or liquidity providers exit the business or significantly reduce their business activities and no other entities step forward to perform their functions.

NOTES TO FINANCIAL STATEMENTS  December 31, 2021 (Continued)

19

RPAR Risk Parity ETF

NOTES TO FINANCIAL STATEMENTS  December 31, 2021 (Continued)

Costs of Buying or Selling Shares . Due to the costs of buying or selling Shares, including brokerage commissions imposed by brokers and bid-ask spreads, frequent trading of Shares may significantly reduce investment results and an investment in Shares may not be advisable for investors who anticipate regularly making small investments.

Shares May Trade at Prices Other Than NAV . As with all ETFs, Shares may be bought and sold in the secondary market at market prices. Although it is expected that the market price of Shares will approximate the Fund’s NAV, there may be times when the market price of Shares is more than the NAV intra-day (premium) or less than the NAV intra-day (discount) due to supply and demand of Shares or during periods of market volatility. This risk is heightened in times of market volatility, periods of steep market declines, and periods when there is limited trading activity for Shares in the secondary market, in which case such premiums or discounts may be significant. Because securities held by the Fund may trade on foreign exchanges that are closed when the Fund’s primary listing exchange is open, the Fund is likely to experience premiums and discounts greater than those of ETFs holding only domestic securities.

Trading . Although Shares are listed on a national securities exchange, such as NYSE Arca, Inc. (the “Exchange”), and may be traded on U.S. exchanges other than the Exchange, there can be no assurance that Shares will trade with any volume, or at all, on any stock exchange. In stressed market conditions, the liquidity of Shares may begin to mirror the liquidity of the Fund’s underlying portfolio holdings, which can be significantly less liquid than Shares.

I. Foreign Securities Risk . Investments in securities or other instruments of non-U.S. issuers involve certain risks not involved in domestic investments and may experience more rapid and extreme changes in value than investments in securities of U.S. companies. Financial markets in foreign countries often are not as developed, efficient, or liquid as financial markets in the United States, and therefore, the prices of non-U.S. securities and instruments can be more volatile. In addition, the Fund will be subject to risks associated with adverse political and economic developments in foreign countries, which may include the imposition of economic sanctions. Generally, there is less readily available and reliable information about non-U.S. issuers due to less rigorous disclosure or accounting standards and regulatory practices.

J. Futures Contracts Risk . A futures contract is a standardized agreement to buy or sell a specific quantity of an underlying instrument at a specific price at a specific future time. A decision as to whether, when, and how to use futures involves the exercise of skill and judgment and even a well-conceived futures transaction may be unsuccessful because of market behavior or unexpected events. In addition to the risks associated with all derivatives, the prices of futures can be highly volatile, using futures can lower total return, and the potential l