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JOHCM CREDIT INCOME FUND

Institutional Shares (JOCIX)

Advisor Shares (JOCEX)

Investor Shares (Not currently offered)

Class Z Shares (Not currently offered)

JOHCM EMERGING MARKETS

OPPORTUNITIES FUND

Institutional Shares (JOEMX)

Advisor Shares (JOEIX)

Investor Shares (JOEAX)

Class Z Shares (Not currently offered)

JOHCM GLOBAL SELECT FUND

Institutional Shares (JOGIX)

Advisor Shares (JOGEX)

Investor Shares (Not currently offered)

Class Z Shares (Not currently offered)

JOHCM INTERNATIONAL SELECT FUND

Institutional Shares (JOHIX)

Investor Shares (JOHAX)

Class Z Shares (Not currently offered)

TSW EMERGING MARKETS FUND

Institutional Shares (TSWMX)

Advisor Shares (Not currently offered)

Investor Shares (Not currently offered)

Class Z Shares (Not currently offered)

JOHCM EMERGING MARKETS DISCOVERY FUND

(formerly, JOHCM Emerging Markets Small Mid Cap Equity Fund)

Institutional Shares (JOMMX)

Advisor Shares (JOMEX)

Investor Shares (Not currently offered)

Class Z Shares (Not currently offered)

JOHCM GLOBAL INCOME BUILDER FUND

Institutional Shares (JOBIX)

Advisor Shares (JOFIX)

Investor Shares (JOIIX)

Class Z Shares (Not currently offered)

JOHCM INTERNATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES FUND

Institutional Shares (JOPSX)

Advisor Shares (Not currently offered)

Investor Shares (Not currently offered)

Class Z Shares (Not currently offered)

REGNAN GLOBAL EQUITY IMPACT SOLUTIONS

Institutional Shares (REGIX)

Advisor Shares (Not currently offered)

Investor Shares (Not currently offered)

Class Z Shares (Not currently offered)

TSW HIGH YIELD BOND FUND

Institutional Shares (TSWHX)

Advisor Shares (Not currently offered)

Investor Shares (Not currently offered)

Class Z Shares (Not currently offered)

TSW LARGE CAP VALUE FUND

Institutional Shares (TSWEX)

Advisor Shares (Not currently offered)

Investor Shares (Not currently offered)

Class Z Shares (Not currently offered)


 485BPOS

STATEMENT OF ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

January 27, 2023

 

This Statement of Additional Information (“SAI”) is not a prospectus. This SAI is intended to provide additional information regarding the activities and operations of JOHCM Credit Income Fund, JOHCM Emerging Markets Discovery Fund (formerly, JOHCM Emerging Markets Small Mid Cap Equity Fund), JOHCM Emerging Markets Opportunities Fund, JOHCM Global Income Builder Fund, JOHCM Global Select Fund, JOHCM International Opportunities Fund, JOHCM International Select Fund, Regnan Global Equity Impact Solutions, TSW Emerging Markets Fund, TSW High Yield Bond Fund, and TSW Large Cap Value Fund (each, a “Fund” and collectively, the “Funds”). This SAI should be read in conjunction with the prospectus dated January 27, 2023. A copy of the prospectus can be obtained at no charge by writing to the transfer agent, The Northern Trust Company, 50 South LaSalle Street, Chicago, Illinois 60603, or by calling 866-260-9549 (toll free) or 312-557-5913. The Funds’ prospectus (“Prospectus”) is incorporated by reference into this SAI.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

DESCRIPTION OF THE TRUST AND THE FUNDS

     1  

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ABOUT THE FUNDS’ INVESTMENTS AND RISKS

     1  

Investment Strategies and Risks

     1  

Investment Restrictions

     22  

SHARES OF THE FUNDS

     24  

MANAGEMENT OF THE TRUST

     24  

Additional Information About the Trustees

     28  

CODE OF ETHICS

     29  

DISTRIBUTION

     29  

CONTROL PERSONS AND PRINCIPAL HOLDERS OF SECURITIES

     31  

Control Persons and Principal Holders

     31  

Management Ownership

     38  

INVESTMENT ADVISORY AND OTHER SERVICES

     38  

The Investment Adviser

     38  

Advisory Fees

     39  

The Subadviser

     40  

Fund Services

     47  

Distributor

     49  

Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

     49  

BROKERAGE ALLOCATION AND OTHER PRACTICES

     49  

DISCLOSURE OF PORTFOLIO HOLDINGS

     50  

DETERMINATION OF SHARE PRICE

     52  

REDEMPTION IN-KIND

     52  

TAX CONSIDERATIONS

     53  

PROXY VOTING POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

     64  

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

     65  

APPENDIX A

     A-1  

Proxy Voting Policies and Procedures

     A-2  


DESCRIPTION OF THE TRUST AND THE FUNDS

JOHCM Funds Trust (the “Trust”) is a Massachusetts business trust operating under an Amended and Restated Agreement and Declaration of Trust (the “Declaration of Trust”) dated December 4, 2020. The Trust is an open-end investment company. The Declaration of Trust permits the Board of Trustees (“Trustees” or “Board”) to authorize and issue an unlimited number of shares of beneficial interest of separate series. This Statement of Additional Information relates to the JOHCM Credit Income Fund, JOHCM Emerging Markets Discovery Fund (formerly, JOHCM Emerging Markets Small Mid Cap Equity Fund), JOHCM Emerging Markets Opportunities Fund, JOHCM Global Income Builder Fund, JOHCM Global Select Fund, JOHCM International Opportunities Fund, JOHCM International Select Fund, Regnan Global Equity Impact Solutions, TSW Emerging Markets Fund, TSW High Yield Bond Fund, and TSW Large Cap Value Fund (each, a “Fund” and collectively, the “Funds”), each a series of the Trust. The investment adviser to each of the Funds is JOHCM (USA) Inc (“JOHCM USA” or the “Adviser”). The subadviser to TSW Emerging Markets Fund, TSW High Yield Bond Fund, and TSW Large Cap Value Fund is Thompson, Siegel & Walmsley LLC, a Delaware limited liability company (“TSW” or the “Subadviser”). Each Fund is a diversified fund.

Each Fund listed in the table below has assumed all of the assets and liabilities of its respective predecessor fund (each, a “Predecessor Fund”). Each of JOHCM Credit Income Fund, JOHCM Emerging Markets Opportunities Fund, JOHCM Emerging Markets Discovery Fund, JOHCM Global Income Builder Fund, JOHCM Global Select Fund, JOHCM International Opportunities Fund and JOHCM International Select Fund was a series of Advisers Investment Trust prior to a reorganization which closed on July 19, 2021. The investment adviser to each of those Funds was J O Hambro Capital Management Limited. The TS&W Equity Portfolio was a series of The Advisors’ Inner Circle Fund prior to a reorganization which closed on December 6, 2021. The investment adviser to the TSW Large Cap Value Fund was TSW. Any historical information provided in this SAI for a Fund listed in the table below, prior to each Fund’s respective date of reorganization, is that of the respective Predecessor Fund.

 

Predecessor Fund    Fund

JOHCM Credit Income Fund

   JOHCM Credit Income Fund

JOHCM Emerging Markets Opportunities Fund

   JOHCM Emerging Markets Opportunities Fund

JOHCM Emerging Markets Small Mid Cap Equity Fund

   JOHCM Emerging Markets Discovery Fund (formerly JOHCM Emerging Markets Small Mid Cap Equity Fund)

JOHCM Global Income Builder Fund

   JOHCM Global Income Builder Fund

JOHCM Global Equity Fund

   JOHCM Global Select Fund

JOHCM International Opportunities Fund

   JOHCM International Opportunities Fund

JOHCM International Select Fund

   JOHCM International Select Fund

TS&W Equity Portfolio

   TSW Large Cap Value Fund

For information concerning the purchase and redemption of shares of the Funds, see “How to Purchase Shares” and “How to Redeem Shares” in the Prospectus. For a description of the methods used to determine the share price and value of the Funds’ assets, see “Pricing Your Shares” in the Prospectus and “Determination of Share Price” in this Statement of Additional Information.

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ABOUT THE FUNDS’ INVESTMENTS AND RISKS

Investment Strategies and Risks

All principal investment strategies and risks of each Fund are discussed in the Prospectus. This section contains a more detailed discussion of some of the investments the Funds may make, some of the techniques the Funds may use, and the risks related to those techniques and investments. Additional non-principal strategies and risks also are discussed here.

Arbitrage Transactions

A Fund may engage in arbitrage transactions involving near contemporaneous purchase of securities on one market and sale of those securities on another market to take advantage of pricing differences between markets. To the extent a Fund engages in arbitrage transactions, it will incur a gain to the extent that proceeds exceed costs and a loss to the extent that costs exceed proceeds. The risk of an arbitrage transaction, therefore, is that the participating Fund may not be able to sell securities subject to an arbitrage at prices exceeding the costs of purchasing those securities.

 

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Borrowing

Each Fund may borrow money equal to 33 1/3% of its total assets for cash management or investment purposes. Borrowing may exaggerate changes in the net asset value (“NAV”) of a Fund’s shares and in the return on the Fund’s portfolio. Although the principal of any borrowing will be fixed, a Fund’s assets may change in value during the time the borrowing is outstanding. The Funds may be required to liquidate portfolio securities at a time when it would be disadvantageous to do so in order to make payments with respect to any borrowing. In an interest rate arbitrage transaction, a Fund borrows money at one interest rate and lends the proceeds at another, higher interest rate. These transactions involve a number of risks, including the risks that the borrower will fail or otherwise become insolvent or that there will be a significant change in prevailing interest rates.

The Trust, on behalf of certain of the Funds, has entered into a $100 million revolving credit facility agreement (the “Credit Agreement”) with Northern Trust for liquidity or for other temporary or emergency purposes. The Credit Agreement permits the Funds to borrow up to an aggregate amount of $100 million, $50 million of which is committed and $50 million of which is uncommitted at any time outstanding, subject to asset coverage and other limitations as specified in the Credit Agreement. Borrowing results in interest expense and other fees and expenses that may impact the Funds’ expenses, including any net expense ratios. The costs of borrowing may reduce the total returns for a Fund. The Credit Agreement also imposes an ongoing commitment fee on undrawn committed amounts under the credit facility, which is allocated between the Funds, and, within each Fund, to each share class, on a pro rata basis, based on such Fund’s (or such share classes, as appropriate) average daily net asset value.

Commercial Paper, Cash and Other High Quality Investments

The Funds may purchase commercial paper. Commercial paper consists of short-term (usually from one to 270 days) unsecured promissory notes issued by corporations in order to finance current operations. The Funds may only invest in commercial paper rated at least “Prime-2” or better by Moody’s or rated “A-2” or better by S&P or, if the security is unrated, the Adviser or the Subadviser determines that it is of equivalent quality.

Each of the Funds may temporarily invest a portion of their assets in cash or other cash items pending other investments or to maintain liquid assets required in connection with some of the Funds’ investments. These cash items and other high quality debt securities may include fixed income securities issued by the governments, agencies or instrumentalities of the U.S. and other developed market countries (e.g., Japan and Canada), bankers’ acceptances, and bank certificates of deposit. If the Funds’ custodian (the “Custodian”) holds cash on behalf of a Fund, the Fund may be an unsecured creditor in the event of the insolvency of the Custodian. In addition, the Fund will be subject to credit risk with respect to the Custodian.

Convertible Securities

A convertible security is a security (a bond or preferred stock) that may be exchanged or converted at a stated price within a specified period into a specified number of shares of common stock of the same or a different issuer. Convertible securities may take the form of convertible preferred stock, convertible bonds or debentures, units consisting of “usable” bonds and warrants or a combination of the features of several of these securities. Convertible securities are senior to common stocks in an issuer’s capital structure, but are usually subordinated to similar non-convertible securities. While providing a fixed-income stream (generally higher in yield than the income derivable from common stock but lower than that afforded by a similar nonconvertible security), a convertible security also gives an investor the opportunity, through its conversion feature, to participate in the capital appreciation of the issuing company depending upon a market price advance in the convertible security’s underlying common stock. A convertible security may be subject to redemption at the option of the issuer at a price established in the convertible security’s governing instrument. If a convertible security held by a Fund is called for redemption, the Fund will be required to permit the issuer to redeem the security, convert it into the underlying common stock or sell it to a third party.

A contingent convertible security is a hybrid debt security typically issued by a non-U.S. bank that may be convertible into equity or may be written down if a pre-specified trigger event, such as a decline in capital ratio below a prescribed threshold, occurs. If such a trigger event occurs, a Fund may lose the principal amount invested on a permanent or temporary basis or the contingent convertible security may be converted to equity. Coupon payments on contingent convertible securities may be discretionary and may be cancelled by the issuer. Due to uncertainty surrounding coupon payments, contingent convertible securities may be volatile, and their price may decline rapidly in the event that coupon payments are suspended. The value of contingent convertible securities is unpredictable, and holders of contingent convertible securities may suffer a loss of capital when comparable equity holders do not.

 

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Corporate Debt Securities

Corporate debt securities may include investment grade bonds (defined as Baa3 or higher by Moody’s or BBB- or higher by S&P) or the equivalent by any other nationally recognized statistical rating organization (“NRSRO”) or in unrated bonds that are determined by the Adviser or the Subadviser to be of comparable quality at the time of investment. Fixed rate securities pay a specified rate of interest or dividends. Floating rate securities pay a rate that is adjusted periodically by reference to a specified index or market rate. In addition, the Funds may create “synthetic” bonds which approximate desired risk and return profiles. This may be done where a “non-synthetic” security having the desired risk/return profile either is unavailable (e.g., short-term securities of certain foreign governments) or possesses undesirable characteristics (e.g., interest payments on the security would be subject to non-U.S. withholding taxes).

All debt securities are subject to the risk of an issuer’s credit risk, which is the risk that the issuer will be unable to meet principal and interest payments on the obligation and may also be subject to price volatility due to such factors as market interest rates, market perception of the creditworthiness of the issuer and general market liquidity. To the extent a Fund holds fixed income securities, it may also be subject to market risk. Market risk (or “interest rate risk”) relates to changes in a security’s value as a result of changes in interest rates. In general, the values of fixed income securities increase when interest rates fall and decrease when interest rates rise. Credit risk relates to the ability of an issuer to make payments of principal and interest.

Mortgage-Backed Securities

Mortgage-backed securities are interests in pools of mortgage loans that various governmental, government-related and private organizations assemble as securities for sale to investors. Unlike most debt securities, which pay interest periodically and repay principal at maturity or on specified call dates, mortgage-backed securities make monthly payments that consist of both interest and principal payments. In effect, these payments are a “pass-through” of the monthly payments made by the individual borrowers on their mortgage loans, net of any fees paid to the issuer or guarantor of such securities. Since homeowners usually have the option of paying either part or all of the loan balance before maturity, the effective maturity of a mortgage-backed security is often shorter than is stated.

Governmental entities, private insurers and mortgage poolers may insure or guarantee the timely payment of interest and principal of these pools through various forms of insurance or guarantees, including individual loan, title, pool and hazard insurance and letters of credit. The Adviser or the Subadviser will consider such insurance and guarantees and the creditworthiness of the issuers thereof in determining whether a mortgage-related security meets its investment quality standards. It is possible that the private insurers or guarantors will not meet their obligations under the insurance policies or guarantee arrangements.

Although the market for such securities is becoming increasingly liquid, securities issued by certain private organizations may not be readily marketable.

Currency Risk

The value of foreign securities is affected by changes in currency rates, foreign tax laws (including withholding or other tax), government policies (in this country or abroad), relations between nations and trading, settlement, custodial and other operational risks. An increase in the strength of the U.S. dollar relative to other currencies may cause the value of investments to decline. Certain foreign currencies may be particularly volatile, and foreign governments may intervene in the currency markets causing a decline in value or liquidity in foreign holdings, whose value is tied to the affected foreign currency. Currency exchange rates can be affected unpredictably as a result of intervention (or the failure to intervene) by the U.S. or foreign governments, central banks, or supranational agencies such as the International Monetary Fund, or by currency or exchange controls or political and economic developments in the United States or abroad. Some of the currencies in emerging markets have experienced devaluations relative to the U.S. dollar, and major adjustments have been made periodically in certain such currencies. Certain developing countries face serious exchange constraints. In addition, costs will be incurred in connection with conversions between various currencies.

Funds that are permitted to invest in securities denominated in foreign currencies may buy or sell foreign currencies or deal in forward foreign currency contracts, currency futures contracts and options, and options on currencies. Those Funds may use such currency instruments for hedging, investment, and/or currency risk management. Forward foreign currency contracts are contracts between two parties to purchase and sell a specified quantity of a particular currency at a specified price, with delivery and settlement to take place on a specified future date. A forward foreign currency contract can reduce a Fund’s exposure to changes in the value of the currency it will deliver and can increase its exposure to changes in the value of the currency it will receive for the duration of the contract. The effect on the value of a Fund is similar to the effect of selling securities denominated in one currency and purchasing securities denominated in another currency. A Fund also may purchase or sell options on currencies. Options on currencies possess many of the same characteristics as options on securities and generally operate in a similar manner. They may be traded on an exchange or in the OTC markets. Options on currencies traded on U.S. or other exchanges may be subject to position limits, which may limit the ability of a Fund to reduce foreign currency risk using options. See “Foreign Currency Forward Contracts, Futures, and Options” below for additional information.

 

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Depositary Receipts

The Funds may invest in sponsored and unsponsored American Depositary Receipts (“ADRs”), Global Depositary Receipts (“GDRs”) and European Depositary Receipts (“EDRs”), which are receipts issued by a bank or trust company evidencing ownership of underlying securities issued by a foreign issuer. In certain cases, depositary receipts may also be issued through programs in local markets, such as Thai Non-voting Depositary Receipts. ADRs, in sponsored form, are designed for use in the U.S. securities markets. EDRs are the European equivalent of ADRs and are designed to attract investment capital from the European region. GDRs are designed to raise capital in the U.S. and foreign securities markets. The underlying shares of depositary receipts are held in trust by a custodian bank or similar financial institution in the issuer’s home country. Depositary receipts are alternatives to directly purchasing the underlying foreign securities in their national markets and currencies. A sponsoring company provides financial information to the bank and may subsidize administration of the ADR, EDR or GDR. Unsponsored ADRs, EDRs and GDRs may be created by a broker-dealer or depository bank without the participation of the foreign issuer. Holders of these unsponsored depositary receipts generally bear all the costs of the ADR, EDR or GDR facility, whereas foreign issuers typically bear certain costs in a sponsored depositary receipt. The bank or trust company depositary of an unsponsored depositary receipt may be under no obligation to distribute shareholder communications received from the foreign issuer or to pass through voting rights. Some Funds may also invest in certain depositary receipts without voting rights, for example, Thai NVDRs. Thai NVDRs are traded on the Stock exchange of Thailand and are similar to other depositary receipts, except that they do not allow the holder to participate in company decision making through voting. The securities underlying a Thai NVDR may include, ordinary shares, preferred shares, warrants or Transferable Subscription Rights. Unsponsored depositary receipts may carry more risk than sponsored depositary receipts because of the absence of financial information provided by the underlying company. Many of the risks described below regarding foreign securities apply to investments in ADRs, EDRs and GDRs. Depositary Receipts also may be subject to liquidity risk.

Equity Securities

Equity securities consist of common stock, preferred stock, securities convertible into common and preferred stock, rights, warrants, income trusts, and Master Limited Partnerships (“MLP”). Common stocks, the most familiar type, represent an equity (ownership) interest in a corporation. Preferred stocks represent an equity interest in an issuer that pays dividends at a specified rate and that has precedence over common stock in the payment of dividends or in the event of issuer liquidation or bankruptcy. Warrants are options to purchase equity securities at a specified price for a specific time period. Rights are similar to warrants, but normally have a short duration and are distributed by the issuer to its shareholders. Convertible securities are bonds, debentures, notes, preferred stocks that may be converted or exchanged into shares of the underlying common stock at a stated exchange ratio. Income trusts and Master Limited Partnerships units are equity investments and may lack diversification as such trusts are primarily invested in oil and gas, pipelines, and other infrastructures whereas MLPs are primarily engaged in the transportation, storage, processing, refining, marketing, exploration, productions, and mining of minerals and natural resources. Although equity securities have a history of long-term growth in value, their prices fluctuate based on changes in a company’s financial condition and on overall market and economic conditions.

Investments in equity securities are subject to inherent market risks and fluctuations in value due to earnings, economic conditions and other factors beyond the control of the Adviser or the Subadviser. As a result, the return and NAV of a Fund will fluctuate. Securities in the Funds’ portfolios may not increase as much as the market as a whole and some undervalued securities may continue to be undervalued for long periods of time. Although profits in some Fund holdings may be realized quickly, it is not expected that most investments will appreciate rapidly.

Smaller Company Equity Securities. The Funds may invest in equity securities of companies with small market capitalizations. Such investments may involve greater risk than is usually associated with larger, more established companies. Companies with small market capitalizations often have limited product lines, markets or financial resources and may be dependent upon a relatively small management group. These securities may have limited marketability and may be subject to more abrupt or erratic movements in price than securities of companies with larger market capitalizations or market averages in general. To the extent a Fund invests in securities with small market capitalizations, the NAV of the Fund may fluctuate more widely than market averages.

Foreign Currency Forward Contracts, Futures, and Options

When investing in foreign securities, a Fund usually effects currency exchange transactions on a spot (i.e., cash) basis at the spot rate prevailing in the foreign exchange market. A Fund incurs expenses in converting assets from one currency to another.

 

4


Forward Contracts. The Funds may enter into foreign currency forward contracts for the purchase or sale of a fixed quantity of a foreign currency at a future date (“forward contracts”) for hedging purposes, either to “lock-in” the U.S. dollar purchase price of the securities denominated in a foreign currency or the U.S. dollar value of interest and dividends to be paid on such securities, or to hedge against the possibility that the currency of a foreign country in which a Fund has investments may suffer a decline against the U.S. dollar, as well as for non-hedging purposes. The Funds may also enter into a forward contract on one currency in order to hedge against risk of loss arising from fluctuations in the value of a second currency (“cross hedging”). Forward contracts are traded over-the-counter, and not on organized commodities or securities exchanges. As a result, such contracts operate in a manner distinct from exchange-traded instruments, and their use involves certain risks beyond those associated with transactions in futures contracts or options traded on an exchange, including counterparty credit risk.

Only a limited market, if any, currently exists for hedging transactions relating to currencies in many emerging market countries, or to securities of issuers domiciled or principally engaged in business in emerging market countries, in which the Funds may invest. This may limit a Fund’s ability to effectively hedge its investments in those emerging markets.

Foreign Currency Futures. Generally, foreign currency futures provide for the delivery of a specified amount of a given currency, on the settlement date, for a pre-negotiated price denominated in U.S. dollars or other currency. Foreign currency futures contracts would be entered into for the same reason and under the same circumstances as forward contracts. The Adviser or the Subadviser will assess such factors as cost spreads, liquidity and transaction costs in determining whether to utilize futures contracts or forward contracts in its foreign currency transactions and hedging strategy.

Purchasers and sellers of foreign currency futures contracts are subject to the same risks that apply to the buying and selling of futures generally. A Fund must accept or make delivery of the underlying foreign currency, through banking arrangements, in accordance with any U.S. or foreign restrictions or regulations regarding the maintenance of foreign banking arrangements by U.S. residents and may be required to pay any fees, taxes or charges associated with such delivery which are assessed in the issuing country.

Foreign Currency Options. The Funds may purchase and write options on foreign currencies for purposes similar to those involved with investing in forward contracts. For example, in order to protect against declines in the dollar value of portfolio securities which are denominated in a foreign currency, or to protect against potential declines in its portfolio securities that are denominated in foreign currencies.

The value of a foreign currency option depends upon the value of the underlying currency relative to the U.S. dollar. As a result, the price of the option position may vary with changes in the value of either or both currencies and have no relationship to the investment merits of a foreign security, including foreign securities held in a “hedged” investment portfolio. Because foreign currency transactions occurring in the interbank market involve substantially larger amounts than those that may be involved in the use of foreign currency options, investors may be disadvantaged by having to deal in an odd lot market (generally consisting of transactions of less than $1 million) for the underlying foreign currencies at prices that are less favorable than for round lots.

As in the case of other kinds of options, the use of foreign currency options constitutes only a partial hedge, and the Funds could be required to purchase or sell foreign currencies at disadvantageous exchange rates, thereby incurring losses. The purchase of an option on a foreign currency may not necessarily constitute an effective hedge against fluctuations in exchange rates and, in the event of rate movements adverse to a Fund’s position, the Fund may forfeit the entire amount of the premium plus related transaction costs.

Options on foreign currencies written or purchased by the Funds may be traded on U.S. or foreign exchanges or over the counter. There is no systematic reporting of last sale information for foreign currencies traded over the counter or any regulatory requirement that quotations available through dealers or other market sources be firm or revised on a timely basis.

Available quotation information is generally representative of very large transactions in the interbank market and thus may not reflect relatively smaller transactions (i.e., less than $1 million) where rates may be less favorable. The interbank market in foreign currencies is a global, around-the-clock market. To the extent that the U.S. options markets are closed while the markets for the underlying currencies remain open, significant price and rate movements may take place in the underlying markets that are not reflected in the options market.

Interest Rate Futures: An interest rate futures contract is an exchange-traded contract in which the specified underlying security is either an interest-bearing fixed income security or an inter-bank deposit. Two examples of common interest rate futures contracts are U.S. Treasury futures and Eurodollar futures contracts. The specified security for U.S. Treasury futures is a U.S. Treasury security. The specified security for Eurodollar futures is the London Interbank Offered Rate (LIBOR), which is a daily reference rate based on the interest rates at which banks offer to lend unsecured funds to other banks in the London wholesale money market.

 

5


Additional Risk Factors. As a result of its investments in foreign securities, the Funds may receive interest or dividend payments, or the proceeds of the sale or redemption of such securities, in the foreign currencies in which such securities are denominated. In that event, a Fund may convert such currencies into dollars at the then current exchange rate. Under certain circumstances, however, such as where the Adviser or the Subadviser believes that the applicable rate is unfavorable at the time the currencies are received or the Adviser or the Subadviser anticipates, for any other reason, that the exchange rate will improve, the Fund may hold such currencies for an indefinite period of time. In addition, a Fund may be required to receive delivery of the foreign currency underlying forward foreign currency contracts it has entered into. This could occur, for example, if an option written by the Fund is exercised or the Fund is unable to close out a forward contract. The Funds may hold foreign currency in anticipation of purchasing foreign securities.

The Funds may also elect to take delivery of the currencies’ underlying options or forward contracts if, in the judgment of the Adviser or the Subadviser, it is in the best interest of a Fund to do so. In such instances as well, a Fund may convert the foreign currencies to dollars at the then current exchange rates, or may hold such currencies for an indefinite period of time.

While the holding of currencies will permit the Funds to take advantage of favorable movements in the applicable exchange rate, it also exposes the Funds to risk of loss if such rates move in a direction adverse to a Fund’s position. Such losses could reduce any profits or increase any losses sustained by the Funds from the sale or redemption of securities, and could reduce the dollar value of interest or dividend payments received. In addition, the holding of currencies could adversely affect a Fund’s profit or loss on currency options or forward contracts, as well as its hedging strategies.

Foreign and Emerging Markets Investments

Investing in foreign securities generally represents a greater degree of risk than investing in domestic securities, due to possible exchange controls or exchange rate fluctuations, limits on repatriation of capital, less publicly available information as a result of accounting, auditing, and financial reporting standards different from those used in the U.S., more volatile markets, potentially less securities regulation, less favorable tax provisions, political or economic instability, war, or expropriation. As a result of its investments in foreign securities, the Funds may receive interest or dividend payments, or the proceeds of the sale or redemption of such securities, in the foreign currencies in which such securities are denominated.

Each of the Funds will also invest in countries or regions with relatively low gross national product per capita compared to the world’s major economies, and in countries or regions with the potential for rapid economic growth (emerging markets). The Adviser or the Subadviser includes within its definition of an emerging market country, any country: (i) having an “emerging stock market” as defined by the International Finance Corporation; (ii) with low-to-middle-income economies according to the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (the “World Bank”); or (iii) listed in World Bank publications as developing.

The risks of investing in foreign securities may be intensified in the case of investments in emerging markets. Securities of many issuers in emerging markets may be less liquid and more volatile than securities of comparable domestic issuers. Emerging markets also may have different clearance and settlement procedures, and in certain markets there have been times when settlements have been unable to keep pace with the volume of securities transactions, making it difficult to conduct such transactions. Delays in settlement could result in temporary periods when a portion of the assets of the Funds are uninvested and no return is earned thereon. Securities prices in emerging markets can be significantly more volatile than in the more developed nations of the world, reflecting the greater uncertainties of investing in less established markets and economies. The economies of countries with emerging markets may be predominantly based on only a few industries, may be highly vulnerable to changes in local or global trade conditions, and may suffer from extreme and volatile debt burdens or inflation rates. Local securities markets may trade a small number of securities and may be unable to respond effectively to increases in trading volume, potentially making prompt liquidation of substantial holdings difficult or impossible at times. Securities of issuers located in countries with emerging markets may have limited marketability and may be subject to more abrupt or erratic price movements.

Certain emerging markets may require governmental approval for the repatriation of investment income, capital, or the proceeds of sales of securities by foreign investors. In addition, if deterioration occurs in an emerging market’s balance of payments or for other reasons, a country could impose temporary restrictions on foreign capital remittances. The Funds could be adversely affected by delays in, or a refusal to grant, any required governmental approval for repatriation of capital, as well as by the application to the Funds of any restrictions on investments.

Certain European countries in which the Funds may invest have recently experienced significant volatility in financial markets and may continue to do so in the future. On January 31, 2020, the United Kingdom (the “UK”) left the European Union (the “EU”) (commonly known as “Brexit”). An agreement between the UK and the EU governing their future trade relationship became effective January 1, 2021, but critical aspects of the relationship remain unresolved and subject to further negotiation and agreement. Brexit has resulted in volatility in European and global markets and could have negative long-term impacts on financial markets in the UK and

 

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throughout Europe. There is still considerable uncertainty relating to the potential consequences of the exit, how the negotiations for new trade agreements will be conducted, and whether the UK’s exit will increase the likelihood of other countries also departing the EU. During this period of uncertainty, the negative impact on not only the UK and European economies, but the broader global economy, could be significant, potentially resulting in increased market volatility and illiquidity, political, economic, and legal uncertainty, and lower economic growth for companies that rely significantly on Europe for their business activities and revenues. Any further exits from the EU, or the possibility of such exits, or the abandonment of the Euro, may cause additional market disruption globally and introduce new legal and regulatory uncertainties.

A Fund may, as part of its principal investment strategy, invest in frontier market countries. A sub-set of emerging markets, frontier markets are less developed than other emerging markets and are the most speculative. Frontier countries generally have smaller economies or less developed capital markets than traditional emerging market countries and, as a result, the risks of investing in emerging market countries are magnified in frontier countries. They have the least number of investors and may not have a stock market on which to trade. Economic or political instability may cause larger price changes in frontier market securities than in securities of issuers based in more developed foreign countries, including securities of issuers in larger emerging markets. Frontier markets generally receive less investor attention than developed markets or larger emerging markets. Most frontier markets consist chiefly of stocks of financial, telecommunications, and consumer companies that count on monthly payments from customers. Investments in this sector are typically illiquid, nontransparent, and subject to very low levels of regulation and high transaction fees. Frontier market investments may be subject to substantial political and currency risk. The risk of investing in frontier markets can be increased due to government ownership or control of parts of private sector and of certain companies; trade barriers, exchange controls, managed adjustments in relative currency values, and other protectionist measures imposed or negotiated by frontier market countries or their trading partners; and the relatively new and unsettled securities laws in many frontier market countries. These risks can result in the potential for extreme price volatility.

Investments in certain foreign emerging market debt obligations may be restricted or controlled to varying degrees. These restrictions or controls may at times preclude investment in certain foreign emerging market debt obligations and increase the expenses of the Funds.

Impact and Socially Responsible Investing

The application of a Fund’s impact and socially responsible investment criteria may affect a Fund’s exposure to certain sectors or types of investments and may impact a Fund’s relative investment performance depending on whether such sectors or investments are in or out of favor with the market. Certain companies in which a Fund may invest may be dependent or significantly affected by developing technologies, short product life cycles, competition from new market entrants, fluctuations in energy prices and supply and demand of alternative energy sources. These investments may also be dependent on the government policies of U.S. and foreign governments, including tax incentives and subsidies, as well as on political support for certain environmental initiatives. In addition, under certain market conditions, a Fund may underperform funds that invest in a broader array of investments. There can be no assurance that the operations of a given issuer in which a Fund invests will in fact have the desired positive impact.

Initial Public Offerings (“IPOs”)

The Adviser or the Subadviser generally attempts to allocate IPOs on a pro rata basis. However, due to the typically small size of the IPO allocation available to the Funds and the nature and market capitalization of the companies involved in IPOs, pro rata allocation may not always be possible. Because IPO shares frequently are volatile in price, the Funds may hold IPO shares for a very short period of time. As a Fund’s assets grow, the effect of the Fund’s investments in IPOs on the Fund’s performance probably will decline, which could reduce a Fund’s performance. This may increase the turnover of a Fund’s portfolio and may lead to increased expenses to a Fund, such as commissions and transaction costs. By selling shares of an IPO, a Fund may realize taxable capital gains that it will subsequently distribute to shareholders. Most IPOs involve a high degree of risk not normally associated with offerings of more seasoned companies. Companies involved in IPOs generally have limited operating histories, and their prospects for future profitability are uncertain. These companies often are engaged in new and evolving businesses and are particularly vulnerable to competition and to changes in technology, markets and economic conditions. They may be dependent on certain key managers and third parties, need more personnel and other resources to manage growth and require significant additional capital. They may also be dependent on limited product lines and uncertain property rights and need regulatory approvals. Investors in IPOs can be affected by substantial dilution in the value of their shares, by sales of additional shares and by concentration of control in existing management and principal shareholders. Stock prices of IPOs can also be highly unstable, due to the absence of a prior public market, the small number of shares available for trading and limited investor information.

 

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Large Shareholder Risk

To the extent that a significant portion of a Fund’s shares are held by a limited number of shareholders or their affiliates, there is a risk that the subscription and redemption activities of these shareholders with regard to Fund shares could disrupt the Fund’s investment strategies, which could have adverse consequences for the Fund and other shareholders (e.g., by requiring the Fund to sell investments at inopportune times or causing the Fund to maintain larger-than-expected cash positions pending acquisition of investments). In addition, institutional separate accounts managed by the Manager may invest in the Fund and, therefore, the Manager at times may have discretionary authority over redemption decisions by a significant portion of the investor base holding shares of the Fund. In such instances, the Manager’s decision to make changes to or rebalance its client’s allocations in the separate accounts may impact the Fund’s performance.

Litigation and Enforcement Risk

The Funds may invest in companies involved in significant restructuring. These types of companies tend to involve increased litigation risk, including for investors in these companies. This risk may be greater in the event a Fund takes a large position or is otherwise prominently involved. The expense of defending against (or asserting) claims and paying any amounts pursuant to settlements or judgments would be borne by the Fund (directly if it were directly involved or indirectly in the case claims by or against an underlying company or settlements or judgments paid by an underlying company). Further, ownership of companies over certain threshold levels involves additional filing requirements and substantive regulation on such owners, and if the Fund fails to comply with all of these requirements, the Fund may be forced to disgorge profits, pay fines or otherwise bear losses or other costs from such failure to comply.

In addition, there have been a number of widely reported instances of violations of securities laws through the misuse of confidential information. Such violations may result in substantial liabilities for damages caused to others, for the disgorgement of profits realized and for penalties. Investigations and enforcement proceedings may be charged with involvement in such violations. Furthermore, if persons associated with a company in which the Fund invested engages in such violations, the Fund could be exposed to losses.

Loans

The Funds may invest in fixed and floating rate loans (“Loans”). Loans may include senior floating rate loans (“Senior Loans”) and secured and unsecured loans, second lien or more junior loans (“Junior Loans”) and bridge loans or bridge facilities (“Bridge Loans”). Loans are typically arranged through private negotiations between borrowers in the U.S. or in foreign or emerging markets which may be corporate issuers or issuers of sovereign debt obligations (“Borrowers”) and one or more financial institutions and other lenders (“Lenders”). Generally, the Funds invest in Loans by purchasing assignments of all or a portion of Loans (“Assignments”) or Loan participations (“Participations”) from third parties.

A Fund has direct rights against the Borrower on the Loan when it purchases an Assignment. Because Assignments are arranged through private negotiations between potential assignees and potential assignors, however, the rights and obligations acquired by the Fund as the purchaser of an Assignment may differ from, and be more limited than, those held by the assigning Lender. With respect to Participations, typically, the Fund will have a contractual relationship only with the Lender and not with the Borrower. The agreement governing Participations may limit the rights of the Fund to vote on certain changes which may be made to the Loan agreement, such as waiving a breach of a covenant. However, the holder of a Participation will generally have the right to vote on certain fundamental issues such as changes in principal amount, payment dates and interest rate. Participations may entail certain risks relating to the creditworthiness of the parties from which the participations are obtained.

A Loan is typically originated, negotiated and structured by a U.S. or foreign commercial bank, insurance company, finance company or other financial institution (the “Agent”) for a group of Loan investors. The Agent typically administers and enforces the Loan on behalf of the other Loan investors in the syndicate. The Agent’s duties may include responsibility for the collection of principal and interest payments from the Borrower and the apportionment of these payments to the credit of all Loan investors. The Agent is also typically responsible for monitoring compliance with the covenants contained in the Loan agreement based upon reports prepared by the Borrower. In addition, an institution, typically but not always the Agent, holds any collateral on behalf of the Loan investors. In the event of a default by the Borrower, it is possible, though unlikely, that the Fund could receive a portion of the borrower’s collateral. If the Fund receives collateral other than cash, any proceeds received from liquidation of such collateral will be available for investment as part of the Fund’s portfolio.

 

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In the process of buying, selling and holding Loans, the Fund may receive and/or pay certain fees. These fees are in addition to interest payments received and may include facility fees, commitment fees, commissions and prepayment penalty fees. When the Fund buys or sells a Loan it may pay a fee. In certain circumstances, the Fund may receive a prepayment penalty fee upon prepayment of a Loan.

Additional Information concerning Senior Loans. Senior Loans typically hold the most senior position in the capital structure of the Borrower, are typically secured with specific collateral and have a claim on the assets and/or stock of the Borrower that is senior to that held by subordinated debt holders and shareholders of the Borrower. Collateral for Senior Loans may include (i) working capital assets, such as accounts receivable and inventory; (ii) tangible fixed assets, such as real property, buildings and equipment; (iii) intangible assets, such as trademarks and patent rights; and/or, (iv) security interests in shares of stock of subsidiaries or affiliates.

Additional Information concerning Junior Loans. Junior Loans include secured and unsecured loans including subordinated loans, second lien and more junior loans, and bridge loans. Second lien and more junior loans (“Junior Lien Loans”) are generally second or further in line in terms of repayment priority. In addition, Junior Lien Loans may have a claim on the same collateral pool as the first lien or other more senior liens or may be secured by a separate set of assets. Junior Loans generally give investors priority over general unsecured creditors in the event of an asset sale.

Additional Information concerning Bridge Loans. Bridge Loans are short-term loan arrangements (e.g., 12 to 18 months) typically made by a Borrower in anticipation of intermediate-term or long-term permanent financing. Most Bridge Loans are structured as floating-rate debt with step-up provisions under which the interest rate on the Bridge Loan rises the longer the Loan remains outstanding. In addition, Bridge Loans commonly contain a conversion feature that allows the Bridge Loan investor to convert its Loan interest to senior exchange notes if the Loan has not been prepaid in full on or prior to its maturity date. Bridge Loans typically are structured as Senior Loans but may be structured as Junior Loans.

Additional Information concerning Unfunded Commitments. Unfunded commitments are contractual obligations pursuant to which the Fund agrees to invest in a Loan at a future date. Typically, the Fund receives a commitment fee for entering into the Unfunded Commitment.

Additional Information concerning Synthetic Letters of Credit. Loans may include synthetic letters of credit. In a synthetic letter of credit transaction, the Lender typically creates a special purpose entity or a credit-linked deposit account for the purpose of funding a letter of credit to the borrower. When the Fund invests in a synthetic letter of credit, the Fund is typically paid a rate based on the Lender’s borrowing costs and the terms of the synthetic letter of credit. Synthetic letters of credit are typically structured as Assignments with the Fund acquiring direct rights against the Borrower.

Risk Factors of Loans. Loans are subject to the risks associated with debt obligations in general including interest rate risk, credit risk and market risk. When a Loan is acquired from a Lender, the risk includes the credit risk associated with the Borrower of the underlying Loan. The Fund may incur additional credit risk when the Fund acquires a participation in a Loan from another lender because the Fund must assume the risk of insolvency or bankruptcy of the other lender from which the Loan was acquired. To the extent that Loans involve Borrowers in foreign or emerging markets, such Loans are subject to the risks associated with foreign investments or investments in emerging markets in general. The following outlines some of the additional risks associated with Loans.

High Yield Securities Risk. The Loans that the Fund invests in may not be rated by an NRSRO, will not be registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) or any state securities commission and will not be listed on any national securities exchange. To the extent that such high yield Loans are rated, they typically will be rated below investment grade and are subject to an increased risk of default in the payment of principal and interest as well as the other risks described under “Non-Investment-Grade Debt Securities. Loans are vulnerable to market sentiment such that economic conditions or other events may reduce the demand for Loans and cause their value to decline rapidly and unpredictably.

Liquidity Risk. Loans that are deemed to be liquid at the time of purchase may become illiquid or less liquid. No active trading market may exist for certain Loans and certain Loans may be subject to restrictions on resale or have a limited secondary market. Certain Loans may be subject to irregular trading activity, wide bid/ask spreads and extended trade settlement periods. The inability to dispose of certain Loans in a timely fashion or at a favorable price could result in losses to the Fund.

Collateral and Subordination Risk. With respect to Loans that are secured, the Fund is subject to the risk that collateral securing the Loan will decline in value or have no value or that the Fund’s lien is or will become junior in payment to other liens. A decline in value of the collateral, whether as a result of market value declines, bankruptcy proceedings or otherwise, could cause the Loan to be under collateralized or unsecured. In such event, the Fund may have the ability to require that the Borrower pledge additional collateral. The Fund, however, is subject to the risk that the Borrower may not pledge such additional collateral or a sufficient amount of collateral. In some cases, there may be no formal requirement for the Borrower to pledge additional collateral. In addition, collateral

 

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may consist of assets that may not be readily liquidated, and there is no assurance that the liquidation of such assets would satisfy a Borrower’s obligation on a Loan. If the Fund were unable to obtain sufficient proceeds upon a liquidation of such assets, this could negatively affect Fund performance.

If a Borrower becomes involved in bankruptcy proceedings, a court may restrict the ability of a Fund to demand immediate repayment of the Loan by Borrower or otherwise liquidate the collateral. A court may also invalidate the Loan or a Fund’s security interest in collateral or subordinate the Fund’s rights under a Senior Loan or Junior Loan to the interest of the Borrower’s other creditors, including unsecured creditors, or cause interest or principal previously paid to be refunded to the Borrower. If a court required interest or principal to be refunded, it could negatively affect Fund performance. Such action by a court could be based, for example, on a “fraudulent conveyance” claim to the effect that the Borrower did not receive fair consideration for granting the security interest in the Loan collateral to the Fund. For Senior Loans made in connection with a highly leveraged transaction, consideration for granting a security interest may be deemed inadequate if the proceeds of the Loan were not received or retained by the Borrower, but were instead paid to other persons (such as shareholders of the Borrower) in an amount which left the Borrower insolvent or without sufficient working capital. There are also other events, such as the failure to perfect a security interest due to faulty documentation or faulty official filings, which could lead to the invalidation of the Fund’s security interest in Loan collateral. If a Fund’s security interest in Loan collateral is invalidated or a Senior Loan were subordinated to other debt of an Borrower in bankruptcy or other proceedings, the Fund would have substantially lower recovery, and perhaps no recovery on the full amount of the principal and interest due on the Loan, or the Fund could have to refund interest. Lenders and investors in Loans can be sued by other creditors and shareholders of the Borrowers. Losses can be greater than the original Loan amount and occur years after the principal and interest on the Loan have been repaid.

Agent Risk. Selling Lenders, Agents and other entities who may be positioned between the Fund and the Borrower will likely conduct their principal business activities in the banking, finance and financial services industries. Investments in Loans may be more impacted by a single economic, political or regulatory occurrence affecting such industries than other types of investments. Entities engaged in such industries may be more susceptible to, among other things, fluctuations in interest rates, changes in the Federal Open Market Committee’s monetary policy, government regulations concerning such industries and concerning capital raising activities generally and fluctuations in the financial markets generally. An Agent, Lender or other entity positioned between the Fund and the Borrower may become insolvent or enter FDIC receivership or bankruptcy.

A Fund might incur certain costs and delays in realizing payment on a Loan or suffer a loss of principal and/ or interest if assets or interests held by the Agent, Lender or other party positioned between the Fund and the Borrower are determined to be subject to the claims of the Agent’s, Lender’s or such other party’s creditors.

Junior Loan Risk. Junior Loans are subject to the same general risks inherent to any Loan investment. Due to their lower place in the Borrower’s capital structure and possible unsecured status, Junior Loans involve a higher degree of overall risk than Senior Loans of the same Borrower. Junior Loans that are Bridge Loans generally carry the expectation that the Borrower will be able to obtain permanent financing in the near future. Any delay in obtaining permanent financing subjects the Bridge Loan investor to increased risk. A Borrower’s use of Bridge Loans also involves the risk that the Borrower may be unable to locate permanent financing to replace the Bridge Loan, which may impair the Borrower’s perceived creditworthiness.

Mezzanine Loan Risk. In addition to the risk factors described above, mezzanine loans are subject to additional risks. Unlike conventional mortgage loans, mezzanine loans are not secured by a mortgage on the underlying real property but rather by a pledge of equity interests (such as a partnership or limited liability company membership) in the property owner or another company in the ownership structures that has control over the property. Such companies are typically structured as special purpose entities. Generally, mezzanine loans may be more highly leveraged than other types of Loans and subordinate in the capital structure of the Borrower. While foreclosure of a mezzanine loan generally takes substantially less time than foreclosure of a traditional mortgage, the holders of a mezzanine loan have different remedies available versus the holder of a first lien mortgage loan. In addition, a sale of the underlying real property would not be unencumbered, and thus would be subject to encumbrances by more senior mortgages and liens of other creditors. Upon foreclosure of a mezzanine loan, the holder of the mezzanine loan acquires an equity interest in the Borrower. However, because of the subordinate nature of a mezzanine loan, the real property continues to be subject to the lien of the mortgage and other liens encumbering the real estate. In the event the holder of a mezzanine loan forecloses on its equity collateral, the holder may need to cure the Borrower’s existing mortgage defaults or, to the extent permissible under the governing agreements, sell the property to pay off other creditors. To the extent that the amount of mortgages and senior indebtedness and liens exceed the value of the real estate, the collateral underlying the mezzanine loan may have little or no value.

Foreclosure Risk. There may be additional costs associated with enforcing a Fund’s remedies under a Loan including additional legal costs and payment of real property transfer taxes upon foreclosure in certain jurisdictions. As a result of these additional costs, the Fund may determine that pursuing foreclosure on the Loan collateral is not worth the associated costs. In addition, if the Fund incurs costs and the collateral loses value or is not recovered by the Fund in foreclosure, the Fund could lose more than its original investment in the Loan. Foreclosure risk is heightened for Junior Loans, including certain mezzanine loans.

 

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Market Disruption and Geopolitical Risk

Geopolitical, environmental and other events may disrupt securities markets and adversely affect global economies and markets. These disruptions could prevent a Fund from implementing its investment strategies and achieving its investment objectives, and increase a Fund’s exposure to the other risks. Given the increasing interdependence among global economies and markets, conditions in one country, market, or region might adversely affect markets, issuers, and/or foreign exchange rates in other countries, including the U.S. War, terrorism, public health crises, and geopolitical events, such as sanctions, tariffs, trade disputes, the imposition of exchange controls or other cross-border trade barriers, have led, and in the future may lead, to increased short-term market volatility and may have adverse long-term effects on U.S. and world economies and markets generally. Terrorism in the U.S. and around the world has had a similar global impact and has increased geopolitical risk.

Natural and environmental disasters, such as earthquakes and tsunamis, can be highly disruptive to economies and markets, adversely impacting individual companies and industries, securities markets, interest rates, credit ratings, inflation, investor sentiment, and other factors affecting the value of a Fund’s investments. Similarly dramatic disruptions can be caused by communicable diseases, epidemics, pandemics, plagues and other public health crises.

Communicable diseases, including those that result in pandemics or epidemics, may pose significant threats to human health, and such diseases, along with any efforts to contain their spread, may be highly disruptive to both global and local economies and markets, with significant negative impact on individual issuers, sectors, industries, and asset classes. Significant public health crises, including those triggered by the transmission of a communicable disease and efforts to contain it may result in, among other things, border closings and other significant travel restrictions and disruptions, significant disruptions to business operations, supply chains and customer activity, lower consumer demand for goods and services, event cancellations and restrictions, service cancellations, reductions and other changes, significant challenges in healthcare service preparation and delivery, and prolonged quarantines, as well as general concern and uncertainty. All of these disruptive effects were present, for example, in the global pandemic linked to the outbreak of respiratory disease caused by a novel coronavirus designated as COVID-19 that was first reported in China in December 2019. The effects of any disease outbreak may be greater in countries with less developed disease prevention and control programs and may also exacerbate other pre-existing political, social, economic, market and financial risks. A pandemic and its effects may be short term or may last for an extended period of time, and in either case can result in significant market volatility, exchange trading suspensions and closures, declines in global financial markets, higher default rates, and a substantial economic downturn or recession. The foregoing could impair a Fund’s ability to maintain operational standards (such as with respect to satisfying redemption requests), disrupt the operations of a Fund’s service providers, adversely affect the value and liquidity of a Fund’s investments, and negatively impact a Fund’s performance, and overall prevent a Fund from implementing its investment strategies and achieving its investment objective.

Securities and financial markets may be susceptible to market manipulation or other fraudulent trade practices, which could disrupt the orderly functioning of these markets or adversely affect the values of investments traded in these markets, including investments held by a Fund.

Market disruptions, including sudden government interventions (e.g., currency controls), can also prevent a Fund from implementing its investment strategies efficiently and achieving its investment objectives. For example, a market disruption may adversely affect the orderly functioning of the securities markets and may cause a Fund’s derivatives counterparties to discontinue offering derivatives on some underlying securities, reference rates, or indices, or to offer them on a more limited basis.

While the U.S. government has honored its credit obligations continuously for more than 200 years, it remains possible that the U.S. could default on its obligations. While it is impossible to predict the consequences of such an unprecedented event, it is likely that a default by the U.S. would be highly disruptive to the U.S. and global securities markets and could significantly impair the value of a Fund’s investments. Similarly, political events within the U.S. can result in the shutdown of government services, which could negatively affect the U.S. economy, decrease the value of many Fund investments, and increase uncertainty in or impair the operation of the U.S. or other securities markets.

Many financial instruments use or may use a floating rate based on LIBOR, which is the offered rate for short-term Eurodollar deposits between major international banks. On March 5, 2021, the U.K. Financial Conduct Authority (“FCA”) and LIBOR’s administrator, ICE Benchmark Administration (“IBA”), announced that most LIBOR settings will no longer be published after the end of 2021 and a majority of U.S. dollar LIBOR settings will no longer be published after June 30, 2023. In addition, global regulators have announced that, with limited exceptions, no new LIBOR-based contracts should be entered into after 2021.

 

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The transition away from and eventual elimination of LIBOR may adversely affect the interest rates on, and liquidity and value of, certain assets and liabilities of a Fund that are tied to LIBOR. These may include bank loans, floating rate securities, structured securities (including asset-backed and mortgage-backed securities), other debt securities, derivatives, and other assets or liabilities tied to LIBOR, particularly insofar as the documentation governing such instruments does not include “fall back” provisions addressing the transition from LIBOR. Actions by regulators have resulted in the establishment of alternative reference rates to LIBOR in most major currencies. Markets are developing in response to these new rates. Questions around liquidity of investments impacted by these rates, and how to appropriately adjust these rates at the time of transition, remain a concern. The effect of any changes to, or discontinuation of, LIBOR on a Fund will vary depending, among other things, on (1) existing fallback or termination provisions in individual contracts and (2) the extent to which industry participants adopt new reference rates and fallbacks for both legacy and new products and instruments. In March 2022, the U.S. federal government enacted legislation to establish a process for replacing LIBOR in certain existing contracts that do not already provide for the use of a clearly defined or practicable replacement benchmark rate as described in the legislation. Generally speaking, for contracts that do not contain a fallback provision as described in the legislation, a benchmark replacement recommended by the Federal Reserve Board will effectively automatically replace the USD LIBOR benchmark in the contract after June 30, 2023. The recommended benchmark replacement will be based on the Secured Overnight Financing Rate (SOFR) published by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, including certain spread adjustments and benchmark replacement conforming changes. It is difficult to predict the full impact of the transition away from LIBOR on the Funds. The transition process may involve, among other things, increased volatility or illiquidity in markets for instruments that rely on LIBOR. The transition may also result in a reduction in the value of certain LIBOR-based investments held by the Funds or reduce the effectiveness of related transactions such as hedges. Any such effects of the transition away from LIBOR, as well as other unforeseen effects, could result in losses for the Funds. Because the usefulness of LIBOR as a benchmark may deteriorate during the transition period, these effects could occur at any time.

Unexpected political, regulatory and diplomatic events within the United States and abroad may affect investor and consumer confidence and may adversely impact financial markets and the broader economy, perhaps suddenly and to a significant degree. The current political climate and the further escalation of a trade war between China and the United States may have an adverse effect on both the U.S. and Chinese economies, as each country has imposed tariffs on the other country’s products. In January 2020, the U.S. and China signed a “Phase 1” trade agreement that reduced some U.S. tariffs on Chinese goods while boosting Chinese purchases of American goods. However, this agreement left in place a number of existing tariffs, and it is unclear whether further trade agreements may be reached in the future. Events such as these and their impact on a Fund are difficult to predict and it is unclear whether further tariffs may be imposed or other escalating actions may be taken in the future.

In February 2022, Russia commenced a large-scale military attack on Ukraine. The outbreak of hostilities between the two countries could result in more widespread conflict and could have a severe adverse effect on the regional and the global financial markets and economies. In addition, sanctions imposed on Russia, Russian individuals, and Russian corporate and banking entities by the U.S. and other countries, and any sanctions imposed in the future, may have a significant adverse impact on the Russian economy and related markets. Such actions may also result in a decline in the value and liquidity of Russian securities and a weakening of the ruble, and will impair a Fund’s ability to buy, sell, receive, or deliver Russian securities. In addition, securities market trading halts related to the conflict could adversely impact the value and liquidity of a Fund’s holdings and could impair a Fund’s ability to transact in and/or value portfolio securities. The ramifications of the conflict and related sanctions may negatively impact other regional and global financial markets (including in Europe and the U.S.), companies in other countries (including those that have done business in Russia), and various sectors, industries and markets for securities and commodities, such as oil and natural gas. The price and liquidity of a Fund’s investments may fluctuate widely as a result of the conflict and related events. The extent and duration of the military conflict or future escalation of such hostilities (including cyberattacks), the extent and impact of existing and future sanctions, market disruptions and volatility, and the result of any diplomatic negotiations cannot be predicted. These and any related events could have a significant adverse impact on Fund performance and the value of an investment in a Fund.

 

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Master Limited Partnerships (MLP)

The Funds may invest in limited partnerships in which the ownership units are publicly traded. MLP units are registered with the SEC and are freely traded on a securities exchange or in the over-the-counter market. Generally, a MLP is operated under the supervision of one or more managing general partners. Limited partners (like a Fund that invest in a MLP) are not involved in the day-to-day management of the partnership. They are allocated income and capital gains associated with the partnership project in accordance with the terms established in the partnership agreement. MLPs make distributions that are similar to dividends, and these are generally paid out on a quarterly basis. Some distributions received by a Fund with respect to its investments in MLPs may, if distributed by the Fund, be treated as a return of capital because of accelerated deductions available with respect to the activities of such MLPs and the MLPs’ distribution policies. Generally speaking, MLP investment returns are enhanced during periods of declining/low interest rates and tend to be negatively influenced when interest rates are rising. As an income vehicle, the unit price can be influenced by general interest rate trends independent of specific underlying fundamentals. In addition, most MLPs are fairly leveraged and typically carry a portion of “floating” rate debt. As such, a significant upward swing in interest rates would result in higher interest expense. Furthermore, most MLPs grow by acquisitions partly financed by debt, and higher interest rates could make it more difficult to transact accretive acquisitions.

MLPs are generally engaged in the transportation, storage, processing, refining, marketing, exploration, production, and mining of minerals and natural resources. To the extent that a MLP’s interests are all in a particular industry, the MLP will, accordingly, be negatively impacted by economic events impacting that industry. The risks of investing in a MLP are generally those involved in investing in a partnership as opposed to a corporation. For example, state law governing partnerships is often less restrictive than state law governing corporations. Accordingly, there may be fewer protections afforded to investors in a MLP than investors in a corporation. In addition, MLPs may be subject to state taxation in certain jurisdictions which will have the effect of reducing the amount of income paid by the MLP to its investors.

For purposes of qualifying as a regulated investment company under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), a Fund is not permitted to invest more than 25% of its total assets in MLPs treated as “qualified publicly traded partnerships” for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Additionally, while MLPs are typically treated as partnerships for U.S. federal income tax purposes, changes in U.S. tax laws could revoke the pass-through attributes that provide the tax efficiencies that make MLPs attractive investment structures and could have the effect of reducing the amount of cash available for distribution by the MLP, resulting in a reduction of the value of a Fund’s investment in the MLP and lower income to the Fund. Changes in the laws, regulations or related interpretations relating to a Fund’s investments in MLPs could increase the Fund’s expenses, reduce its cash distributions, negatively impact the value of an investment in an MLP, or otherwise impact the Fund’s ability to implement its investment strategy. See the “Tax Considerations” section of the SAI for more information about these and other special tax considerations that can arise in respect of a Fund’s investments in MLPs.

Models and Data Risk

The Adviser or the Subadviser may utilize various proprietary quantitative models in connection with providing investment management services to a Fund. There is a possibility that one or all of the quantitative models may fail to identify profitable opportunities at any time. Furthermore, the models may incorrectly identify opportunities and these misidentified opportunities may lead to substantial loss. Data used in the construction of models may prove to be inaccurate or stale, which may result in losses for a Fund. Investments selected using the models may perform differently than expected as a result of, among other things, the market factors used in creating models, the weight given to each such market factor, changes from the market factors’ historical trends and technical issues in the construction and implementation of the models (e.g., data problems, and/or software issues). The Adviser or the Subadviser’s judgments about the weightings among various models and strategies may be incorrect, adversely affecting performance.

Municipal Bonds and Municipal Securities Risks

Government obligations in which the Funds may invest also include municipal securities, which are obligations, often bonds and notes, issued by or on behalf of states, territories and possessions of the United States and the District of Columbia and their political subdivisions, agencies, authorities and instrumentalities, the interest on which is typically exempt from federal income tax.

Municipal bonds are generally considered riskier investments than Treasury securities. The prices and yields on municipal securities are subject to change from time to time and depend upon a variety of factors, including general money market conditions, the financial condition of the issuer (or other entities whose financial resources are supporting the municipal security), general conditions in the market for tax-exempt obligations, the size of a particular offering and the maturity of the obligation and the rating(s) of the issue. Contrary to historical trends, in recent years, the market has encountered increased rates of default and lower yields on municipal bonds. This is a product of significant reductions in revenues for many states and municipalities as well as residual effects of a generally weakened economy.

 

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Changes in a municipality’s financial health may make it difficult for the municipality to make interest and principal payments when due. A number of municipalities have had significant financial problems recently, and these and other municipalities could, potentially, continue to experience significant financial problems resulting from lower tax revenues and/or decreased aid from state and local governments in the event of an economic downturn. This could decrease a Fund’s income or hurt the ability to preserve capital and liquidity. Under some circumstances, municipal securities might not pay interest unless the state legislature or municipality authorizes money for that purpose. Some securities, including municipal lease obligations, carry additional risks. For example, they may be difficult to trade or interest payments may be tied only to a specific stream of revenue. Since some municipal securities may be secured or guaranteed by banks and other institutions, the risk to a Fund could increase if the banking or financial sector suffers an economic downturn and/or if the credit ratings of the institutions issuing the guarantee are downgraded or at risk of being downgraded by a national rating organization. If such events were to occur, the value of the security could decrease or the value could be lost entirely, and it may be difficult or impossible for the Fund to sell the security at the time and the price that normally prevails in the market. Interest on municipal obligations, while generally exempt from federal income tax, may not be exempt from federal alternative minimum tax.

The interest rates on inverse floating rate municipal securities bear an inverse relationship to the interest rate on another security or the value of an index. The market value of the inverse floating rate security will vary inversely with changes in market interest rates and will be more volatile in response to interest rate changes than that of a fixed rate obligation. An investment in these securities typically will involve greater risk than an investment in a fixed rate security. Inverse floating rate instruments may be considered to be leveraged, including if their interest rates vary by a magnitude that exceeds the magnitude of a change in a reference rate of interest (typically a short-term interest rate). As a result, the market prices of inverse floating rate securities may be highly sensitive to changes in interest rates and in prepayment rates on the underlying securities and may decrease significantly when interest rates increase or prepayment rates change.

Non-Investment-Grade Debt Securities

The Funds may invest in non-investment-grade securities. Non-investment-grade securities, also referred to as “high yield securities” or “junk bonds,” are debt securities that are rated lower than the four highest rating categories by a nationally recognized statistical rating organization (for example, lower than Baa3 by Moody’s Investors Service, Inc. or lower than BBB- by Standard & Poor’s) or are determined to be of comparable quality by the Fund’s Adviser or the Subadviser. These securities are generally considered to be, on balance, highly speculative with respect to capacity to pay interest and repay principal in accordance with the terms of the obligation and will generally involve more credit risk than securities in the investment-grade categories. Investment in these securities generally provides greater income and increased opportunity for capital appreciation than investments in higher quality securities, but they also typically entail greater price volatility and principal and income risk.

Some high yield securities are issued by smaller, less-seasoned companies, while others are issued as part of a corporate restructuring, such as an acquisition, merger, or leveraged buyout. Companies that issue high yield securities are often highly leveraged and may not have available to them more traditional methods of financing. Therefore, the risk associated with acquiring the securities of such issuers generally is greater than is the case with investment-grade securities. Some high yield securities were once rated as investment-grade but have been downgraded to junk bond status because of financial difficulties experienced by their issuers.

The market values of high yield securities tend to reflect individual issuer developments to a greater extent than do investment-grade securities, which in general react to fluctuations in the general level of interest rates. High yield securities also tend to be more sensitive to economic conditions than are investment-grade securities. A projection of an economic downturn or of a period of rising interest rates, for example, could cause a decline in junk bond prices because the advent of a recession could lessen the ability of a highly leveraged company to make principal and interest payments on its debt securities. If an issuer of high yield securities held by the Fund defaults, in addition to risking payment of all or a portion of interest and principal, the Fund may incur additional expenses to seek recovery.

The secondary market on which high yield securities are traded may be less liquid than the market for investment-grade securities. Less liquidity in the secondary trading market could adversely affect the ability of the Fund to sell a high yield security or the price at which the Fund could sell a high yield security, and could adversely affect the daily NAV of Fund Shares. When secondary markets for high yield securities are less liquid than the market for investment-grade securities, it may be more difficult to value the securities because such valuation may require more research, and elements of judgment may play a greater role in the valuation because there is less reliable, objective data available.

A Fund will not necessarily dispose of a security if a credit-rating agency downgrades the rating of the security below its rating at the time of purchase.

 

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Options

The Funds may invest in covered put and covered call options and write covered put and covered call options on securities in which it may invest directly and that are traded on registered domestic securities exchanges. The writer of a call option, who receives a premium, has the obligation, upon exercise of the option, to deliver the underlying security against payment of the exercise price during the option period. The writer of a put, who receives a premium, has the obligation to buy the underlying security, upon exercise, at the exercise price during the option period.

A Fund may write put and call options on securities only if they are “covered,” and such options must remain “covered” as long as the Fund is obligated as a writer. Transactions using options (other than options that the Fund has purchased) expose the Fund to an obligation to another party. The Funds will not enter into any such transactions unless it owns either (i) an offsetting (“covered”) position in securities or other options or (ii) cash or liquid securities with a value sufficient at all times to cover its potential obligations not covered as provided in (i) above. A call option is also covered if a Fund maintains appropriate liquid securities with a value equal to the strike price or holds on a share-for-share or equal principal amount basis a call on the same security as the call written where the exercise price of the call held is equal to or less than the exercise price of the call written or greater than the exercise price of the call written if appropriate liquid assets representing the difference are segregated by the Fund. A put option is “covered” if a Fund maintains appropriate liquid securities with a value equal to the exercise price, or owns on a share-for-share or equal principal amount basis a put on the same security as the put written where the exercise price of the put held is equal to or greater than the exercise price of the put written.

There are numerous risks associated with transactions in options. The principal factors affecting the market value of an option include supply and demand, interest rates, current market price of the underlying index or security in relation to the exercise price of the option, the actual or perceived volatility of the underlying index or security and the time remaining until the expiration date. The premium received for an option written by a Fund is recorded as an asset of the Fund and its obligation under the option contract as an equivalent liability. A Fund then adjusts over time the liability as the market value of the option changes. The value of each written option will be marked to market daily.

A decision as to whether, when and how to write call options involves the exercise of skill and judgment, and even a well-conceived transaction may be unsuccessful to some degree because of market behavior or unexpected events. The Funds may write straddles (covered or uncovered) consisting of a combination of a call and a put written on the same underlying security. A straddle will be covered when sufficient assets are deposited to meet the Fund’s immediate obligations. The Fund may use the same liquid assets to cover both the call and put options where the exercise price of the call and put are the same, or the exercise price of the call is higher than that of the put. In such cases, the Fund will also segregate liquid assets equivalent to the amount, if any, by which the put is “in the money.”

Options on securities indices are similar to options on securities except that, rather than the right to take or make delivery of securities at a specified price, an option on a securities index gives the holder the right to receive, upon exercise of the option, an amount of cash if the closing level of the securities index upon which the option is based is greater than, in the case of a call, or less than, in the case of a put, the exercise price of the option. This amount of cash is equal to the difference between the closing price of the index and the exercise price of the option expressed in dollars times a specified multiple. The writer of the option is obligated, in return for the premium received, to make delivery of this amount. Unlike options on securities, all settlements are in cash, and gain or loss depends on price movements in the securities market generally (or in a particular industry or segment of the market) rather than price movements in individual securities.

Because the exercise of index options is settled in cash, sellers of index call options cannot provide in advance for their potential settlement obligations by acquiring and holding the underlying securities. When a call option sold by a Fund is exercised or closed out, a Fund may be required to sell portfolio securities or to deliver portfolio securities to the option purchaser to satisfy its obligations when it would not otherwise choose to do so, or a Fund may choose to sell portfolio securities to realize gains to offset the losses realized upon option exercise. Such sales or delivery would involve transaction costs borne by a Fund and may also result in realization of taxable capital gains, including short-term capital gains taxed to individuals at ordinary income tax rates, and may adversely impact a Fund’s after-tax returns.

 

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OTC Options Risks. The Funds may be required to treat as illiquid OTC options purchased and securities being used to cover certain written OTC options, and it will treat the amount by which such formula price exceeds the intrinsic value of the option (i.e., the amount, if any, by which the market price of the underlying security exceeds the exercise price of the option) as an illiquid investment. The Funds may also purchase and write so-called dealer options.

Participants in OTC options markets typically are not subject to the same level of credit evaluation and regulatory oversight as are members of exchange-based markets and therefore OTC derivatives generally expose a Fund to greater counterparty risk than exchange-traded derivatives.

Risks of Derivatives Generally

Derivatives can be highly volatile and involve risks in addition to, and potentially greater than, the risks of the underlying asset(s). Derivatives can be complex instruments and can involve analysis and processing that differs from that required for other investment types. If the value of a derivative does not correlate well with the particular market or other asset class the derivative is intended to provide exposure to, the derivative may not have the effect intended. Derivatives can also reduce the opportunity for gains or result in losses by offsetting positive returns in other investments. Derivatives can be less liquid than other types of investments.

A Fund investing in derivatives will be subject to credit risk with respect to the counterparties to any over-the-counter derivatives contracts purchased by a Fund as well as the clearing broker and clearing houses through which the Fund maintains its futures, exchange-listed and other cleared derivatives. If a counterparty (including a clearing broker or clearing house) becomes bankrupt or otherwise fails to perform its obligations, a Fund may experience significant delays in obtaining any recovery in a bankruptcy or other reorganization proceeding. A Fund may obtain only a limited recovery or may obtain no recovery in such circumstances.

Because many derivatives have a leverage component, adverse changes in the value or level of the underlying asset, reference rate or index can result in a loss substantially greater than the amount invested in the derivative itself. Certain derivatives have the potential for unlimited loss, regardless of the size of the initial investment. When a Fund uses derivatives for leverage, investments in the Fund will tend to be more volatile, resulting in larger gains or losses in response to market changes.

Options on securities, futures contracts, and options on currencies may be traded on foreign exchanges. Such transactions may not be regulated as effectively as similar transactions in the United States, may not involve a clearing mechanism and related guarantees, and are subject to the risk of governmental actions affecting trading in, or the prices of, foreign securities. The value of such positions also could be adversely affected by (1) other complex foreign political, legal and economic factors, (2) lesser availability than in the United States of data on which to make trading decisions, (3) delays in the Adviser or the Subadviser’s ability to act upon economic events occurring in foreign markets during non-business hours in the United States, (4) the imposition of different exercise and settlement terms and procedures and margin requirements than in the United States, and (5) lesser trading volume.

U.S. and non U.S. legislative and regulatory reforms, including those related to the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act have resulted in, and may in the future result in, new regulation of derivative instruments and a Fund’s use of such instruments. Such regulations could, among other things, restrict the Fund’s ability to engage in derivative transactions (for example, by making certain types of derivative instruments or transactions no longer available to a Fund), establish new margin requirements and/or increase the costs of derivatives transactions, and the Fund may as a result be unable to execute its investment strategies in a manner its portfolio managers might otherwise choose.

In October 2020, the SEC adopted Rule 18f-4 under the 1940 Act providing for the regulation of registered investment companies’ use of derivatives and certain financing transactions (e.g., reverse repurchase agreements). Among other things, Rule 18f-4 requires that funds that invest in derivative instruments beyond a specified limited amount to apply a value-at-risk based limit to their use of certain derivative instruments and financing transactions and to adopt and implement a derivatives risk management program. Funds that use derivative instruments (beyond certain currency and interest rate hedging transactions) in a limited amount are not subject to the full requirements of Rule 18f-4. In connection with the adoption of Rule 18f-4, funds are no longer required to comply with the asset segregation framework arising from prior SEC guidance for covering certain derivative instruments and related transactions.

 

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A notice claiming an exclusion from the definition of the term “commodity pool operator” under the Commodity Exchange Act, as amended (“CEA”), and the rules of the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (“CFTC”) promulgated thereunder, with respect to the Funds’ operation has been filed with the National Futures Association. Accordingly, the Funds are not currently subject to registration or regulation as a commodity pool operator.

Participatory Notes & Other Equity-Linked Instruments Risk. Each of the Funds may invest in equity-linked instruments, including participatory notes. Participatory notes issued by banks or broker-dealers are designed to replicate the performance of certain non-U.S. companies traded on a non-U.S. exchange. Participatory notes are a type of equity-linked instrument that generally are traded over-the-counter. Even though a participatory note is intended to reflect the performance of the underlying equity securities on a one-to-one basis so that investors will not normally gain or lose more in absolute terms than they would have made or lost had they invested in the underlying securities directly, the performance results of participatory notes (like all equity-lined instruments) will not replicate exactly the performance of the issuers or markets that the notes seek to replicate due to transaction costs and other expenses. Investments in equity-linked instruments like participatory notes involve risks normally associated with a direct investment in the underlying securities. In addition, equity-lined instruments are subject to counterparty risk, which is the risk that the broker-dealer or bank that issues the notes will not fulfill its contractual obligation to complete the transaction with a Fund. Such instruments generally constitute general unsecured, unsubordinated contractual obligations of the banks or broker-dealers that issue them, and each Fund is relying on the creditworthiness of such banks or broker-dealers and has no rights under the instrument against the issuers of the securities underlying such participatory notes. There can be no assurance that the trading price or value of equity-linked instruments will equal the value of the underlying value of the equity securities they seek to replicate.

Other Investment Companies

The Funds may invest in securities issued by other investment companies, including shares of money market funds, exchange traded funds (“ETFs”), open-end and closed-end investment companies, real estate investment trusts, and passive foreign investment companies.

ETFs may not be actively managed. Rather, an ETF’s objective may track the performance of a specified index. Therefore, securities may be purchased, retained and sold by ETFs at times when an actively managed trust would not do so. As a result, a Fund may have a greater risk of loss (and a correspondingly greater prospect of gain) from changes in the value of the securities that are heavily weighted in the index than would be the case if the ETF were not fully invested in such securities. Because of this, an ETF’s price can be volatile. In addition, the results of an ETF will not match the performance of the specified index due to reductions in the ETF’s performance attributable to transaction and other expenses, including fees paid by the ETF to service providers.

 

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The value of commodity-linked ETFs may be affected by changes in overall market movements, commodity index volatility, change in interest rates, or factors affecting a particular industry or commodity, such as drought, floods, weather, livestock disease, embargoes, tariffs, and international economic, political and regulatory developments. The prices of commodity-related ETFs may fluctuate quickly and dramatically and may not correlate to price movements in other asset classes, such as stocks, bonds and cash

The Funds may invest in shares of closed-end funds that are trading at a discount to NAV or at a premium to NAV. There can be no assurance that the market discount on shares of any closed-end fund purchased by a Fund will ever decrease. In fact, it is possible that this market discount may increase and a Fund may suffer realized or unrealized capital losses due to further decline in the market price of the securities of such closed-end funds, thereby adversely affecting the NAV of a Fund’s shares. Similarly, there can be no assurance that any shares of a closed-end fund purchased by a Fund at a premium will continue to trade at a premium or that the premium will not decrease subsequent to a purchase of such shares by the Fund. Also, there may be a limited secondary market for shares of closed-end funds.

Closed-end funds may issue senior securities (including preferred stock and debt obligations) for the purpose of leveraging the closed-end fund’s common shares in an attempt to enhance the current return to such closed-end fund’s common shareholders. A Fund’s investment in the common shares of closed-end funds that are financially leveraged may create an opportunity for greater total return on its investment, but at the same time may be expected to exhibit more volatility in market price and NAV than an investment in shares of investment companies without a leveraged capital structure.

Shares of closed-end funds and ETFs are not individually redeemable, but are traded on securities exchanges. The prices of such shares are based upon, but not necessarily identical to, the value of the securities held by the issuer. There is no assurance that the requirements of the securities exchange necessary to maintain the listing of shares of any closed-end fund or ETF will continue to be met.

Real estate investment trusts (“REITs”) are pooled investment vehicles that invest primarily in income producing real estate or real estate related loans or interest. REITs are generally classified as equity REITs, mortgage REITs or a combination of equity and mortgage REITs. Equity REITs invest the majority of their assets directly in real property and derive income primarily from the collection of rents. Equity REITs can also realize capital gains by selling property that has appreciated in value. Mortgage REITs invest the majority of their assets in real estate mortgages and derive income from the collection of interest payments. Similar to investment companies, REITs are not taxed on income distributed to shareholders provided they comply with several requirements of the Code. A Fund will indirectly bear its proportionate share of expenses incurred by REITs in which the Fund invests in addition to the expenses incurred directly by the Fund.

Investing in REITs involves certain unique risks in addition to those risks associated with investing in the real estate industry in general. Equity REITs may be affected by changes in the value of the underlying property owned by the REITs, while mortgage REITs may be affected by the quality of any credit extended. REITs are dependent upon management skills and on cash flows, are not diversified, and are subject to default by borrowers and self-liquidation. REITs are also subject to the possibilities of failing to qualify for favorable tax treatment under the Code and failing to maintain their exemption from registration under the 1940 Act.

REITs (especially mortgage REITs) are also subject to interest rate risks. When interest rates decline, the value of a REIT’s investment in fixed rate obligations can be expected to rise. Conversely, when interest rates rise, the value of a REIT’s investment in fixed rate obligations can be expected to decline. In contrast, as interest rates on adjustable rate mortgage loans are reset periodically, yields on a REIT’s investment in such loans will gradually align themselves to fluctuate less dramatically in response to interest rate fluctuations than would investments in fixed rate obligations.

Investment in REITs involves risks similar to those associated with investing in small capitalization companies. These risks include limited financial resources, infrequent or limited trading, and more abrupt or erratic price movements than larger company securities. In addition, small capitalization stocks, such as certain REITs, historically have been more volatile in price than the larger capitalization stocks included in the S&P 500 Index.

Some of the countries in which the Funds may invest may not permit, or may place economic restrictions on, direct investment by outside investors. Investments in such countries may be permitted only through foreign government-approved or government-authorized investment vehicles, which may include other investment companies. These funds may also invest in other investment companies that invest in foreign securities. Investing through such vehicles may involve frequent or layered fees or expenses and may also be subject to limitation under the 1940 Act. As a shareholder of another investment company, a Fund would bear, along with other shareholders, its pro rata portion of the other investment company’s expenses, including advisory fees. Those expenses would be in addition to the advisory and other expenses that a Fund bears directly in connection with its own operations.

 

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Preferred Stock

Preferred stocks, like some debt obligations, are generally fixed-income securities. Shareholders of preferred stocks normally have the right to receive dividends at a fixed rate when and as declared by the issuer’s board of directors, but do not participate in other amounts available for distribution by the issuing corporation. Dividends on the preferred stock may be cumulative, and all cumulative dividends usually must be paid prior to shareholders of common stock receiving any dividends. Because preferred stock dividends must be paid before common stock dividends, preferred stocks generally entail less risk than common stocks. Upon liquidation, preferred stocks are entitled to a specified liquidation preference, which is generally the same as the par or stated value, and are senior in right of payment to common stock. Preferred stocks are, however, equity securities in the sense that they do not represent a liability of the issuer and, therefore, do not offer as great a degree of protection of capital or assurance of continued income as investments in corporate debt securities. Preferred stock dividends are not guaranteed and management can elect to forego the preferred dividend, resulting in a loss to a Fund. Preferred stocks are generally subordinated in right of payment to all debt obligations and creditors of the issuer, and convertible preferred stocks may be subordinated to other preferred stock of the same issue. Preferred stocks lack voting rights and the Adviser or the Subadviser may incorrectly analyze the security, resulting in a loss to a Fund.

Regulatory Risk

Changes in the laws or regulations of the United States or other countries, including any changes to applicable tax laws and regulations, could impair the ability of a Fund to achieve its investment objective and could increase the operating expenses of the Fund.

Repurchase Agreements

To maintain liquidity, each Fund may enter into repurchase agreements (agreements to purchase U.S. Treasury notes and bills, subject to the seller’s agreement to repurchase them at a specified time and price) with well-established registered securities dealers or banks.

A repurchase agreement is a transaction in which a Fund purchases a security and, at the same time, the seller (normally a commercial bank or broker-dealer) agrees to repurchase the same security (and/or a security substituted for it under the repurchase agreement) at an agreed-upon price and date in the future. The resale price is in excess of the purchase price, as it reflects an agreed-upon market interest rate effective for the period of time during which the Fund holds the securities. Repurchase agreements may be viewed as a type of secured lending. The purchaser maintains custody of the underlying securities prior to their repurchase; thus the obligation of the bank or dealer to pay the repurchase price on the date agreed to is, in effect, secured by such underlying securities. If the value of such securities is less than the repurchase price, the other party to the agreement is required to provide additional collateral so that all times the collateral is at least 102 % of the repurchase price.

The majority of these transactions run from day to day and not more than seven days from the original purchase. However, the maturities of the securities subject to repurchase agreements are not subject to any limits and may exceed one year. The securities will be marked to market every business day so that their value is at least equal to the amount due from the seller, including accrued interest. A Fund’s risk is limited to the ability of the seller to pay the agreed-upon sum on the delivery date.

Although repurchase agreements carry certain risks not associated with direct investments in securities, each Fund intends to enter into repurchase agreements only with banks and dealers believed by the Adviser or the Subadviser to present minimum credit risks in accordance with guidelines established by the Board of Trustees.

Illiquid Securities

Each Fund may invest in illiquid securities. Each Fund will invest no more than 15% of its net assets in illiquid securities, including repurchase agreements and time deposits of more than seven days’ duration. The absence of a regular trading market for illiquid securities imposes additional risks on investments in these securities. Illiquid securities may be difficult to value and may often be disposed of only after considerable expense and delay. The SEC has adopted a liquidity risk management rule (the “Liquidity Rule”) that requires the Funds to establish a liquidity risk management program (the “LRMP”). The Trustees, including a majority of the Trustees who are not “interested persons” (within the meaning of Section 2(a)(19) of the 1940 Act) of the Trust or of the Adviser (the “Independent Trustees”), have designated the Adviser to administer the Funds’ LRMP. Under the LRMP, the Adviser assesses, manages, and periodically reviews the Funds’ liquidity risk. The Liquidity Rule defines “liquidity risk” as the risk that the Funds could not meet requests to redeem shares issued by the Funds without significant dilution of remaining investors’ interests in the Funds. The liquidity of the Funds’ portfolio investments is determined based on relevant market, trading and investment-specific considerations under the LRMP. To the extent that an investment is deemed to be an illiquid investment or a less liquid investment, the Funds can expect to be exposed to greater liquidity risk. While the LRMP attempts to assess and manage liquidity risk, there is no guarantee it will be effective in its operations and may not reduce the liquidity risk inherent in a Fund’s investments.

 

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Rights

Rights are usually granted to existing shareholders of a corporation to subscribe to shares of a new issue of common stock before it is issued to the public. The right entitles its holder to buy common stock at a specified price. Rights have similar features to warrants, except that the life of a right is typically much shorter, usually a few weeks. The risk of investing in a right is that the right may expire prior to the market value of the common stock exceeding the price fixed by the right.

Securities Issued in PIPE Transactions

Some Funds may invest in securities that are purchased in private investment in public equity (“PIPE”) transactions. Securities acquired by the Fund in such transactions are subject to resale restrictions under securities laws. While issuers in PIPE transactions typically agree that they will register the securities for resale by the Fund after the transaction closes (thereby removing resale restrictions), there is no guarantee that the securities will in fact be registered. In addition, a PIPE issuer may require the Fund to agree to other resale restrictions as a condition to the sale of such securities. Thus, a Fund’s ability to resell securities acquired in PIPE transactions may be limited, and even though a public market may exist for such securities, the securities held by the Fund may be deemed illiquid.

Structured Investments

A structured investment is a security having a return tied to an underlying index or other security or asset class. Structured investments generally are individually negotiated agreements and may be traded over-the-counter. Structured investments are organized and operated to restructure the investment characteristics of the underlying security. This restructuring involves the deposit with or purchase by an entity, such as a corporation or trust, or specified instruments (such as commercial bank loans) and the issuance by that entity or one or more classes of securities (“structured securities”) backed by, or representing interests in, the underlying instruments. The cash flow on the underlying instruments may be apportioned among the newly issued structured securities to create securities with different investment characteristics, such as varying maturities, payment priorities and interest rate provisions, and the extent of such payments made with respect to structured securities is dependent on the extent of the cash flow on the underlying instruments. Because structured securities typically involve no credit enhancement, their credit risk generally will be equivalent to that of the underlying instruments. Investments in structured securities are generally of a class of structured securities that is either subordinated or unsubordinated to the right of payment of another class. Subordinated structured securities typically have higher yields and present greater risks than unsubordinated structured securities. Structured instruments include structured notes. In addition to the risks applicable to investments in structured investments and debt securities in general, structured notes bear the risk that the issuer may not be required to pay interest on the structured note if the index rate rises above or falls below a certain level. Structured securities are typically sold in private placement transactions, and there currently is no active trading market for structured securities. Investments in government and government-related restructured debt instruments are subject to special risks, including the inability or unwillingness to repay principal and interest, requests to reschedule or restructure outstanding debt and requests to extend additional loan amounts. Structured investments include a wide variety of instruments including, without limitation, collateralized debt obligations, credit linked notes, and participation notes and participatory notes.

Swaps Risk

The Fund, as the purchaser in a swap, bears the risk that the investment might expire worthless. It also would be subject to counterparty risk—the risk that the counterparty may fail to satisfy its payment obligations to the Fund in the event of a default (or similar event). In addition, as a purchaser in a credit default swap, the Fund’s investment would only generate income in the event of an actual default (or similar event) by the issuer of the underlying obligation.

As the seller in a credit default swap, the Fund effectively adds economic leverage to its portfolio because, in addition to its total net assets, the Fund is subject to investment exposure on the notional amount of the swap. If no event of default (or similar event) occurs, the Fund would keep the premium payments received from the counterparty and generally would have no payment obligations, with the exception of an initial payment made on the credit default swap or any margin requirements with the credit default swap counterparty. For credit default swap agreements, trigger events for payment under the agreement vary by the type of underlying investment (e.g., corporate and sovereign debt and asset-backed securities) and by jurisdiction (e.g., United States, Europe and Asia).

If the Fund enters into a credit default swap agreement, the Fund will write insurance protection on the full notional amount of the agreement. Whether the Fund’s use of swap agreements or swaptions will be successful in furthering its investment objectives will depend on the Adviser’s ability to predict correctly whether certain types of investments are likely to produce greater returns than

 

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other investments. Swaps are highly specialized instruments that require investment techniques, risk analyses, and tax planning different from those associated with traditional investments. The use of a swap requires an understanding not only of the referenced asset, reference rate, or index but also of the swap itself, without the benefit of observing the performance of the swap under all possible market conditions. Like most other investments, swap agreements are subject to the risk that the market value of the instrument will change in a way detrimental to the Fund’s interest. The Fund bears the risk that the Adviser will not accurately forecast future market trends or the values of assets, reference rates, indexes, or other economic factors in establishing swap positions for the Fund. Because swaps are two-party contracts that may be subject to contractual restrictions on transferability and termination and because, they may have terms of greater than seven days, swap agreements may be considered to be illiquid. If a swap is not liquid, it may not be possible to initiate a transaction or liquidate a position at an advantageous time or price, which may result in significant losses.

Moreover, the Fund bears the risk of loss of the amount expected to be received under a swap agreement in the event of the default or bankruptcy of a swap agreement counterparty. When a counterparty’s obligations are not fully secured by collateral, then the Fund is essentially an unsecured creditor of the counterparty. If the counterparty defaults, the Fund will have contractual remedies, but there is no assurance that a counterparty will be able to meet its obligations pursuant to such contracts or that, in the event of default, the Fund will succeed in enforcing contractual remedies. Counterparty risk still exists even if a counterparty’s obligations are secured by collateral because the Fund’s interest in collateral may not be perfected or additional collateral may not be promptly posted as required. Counterparty risk also may be more pronounced if a counterparty’s obligations exceed the amount of collateral held by the Fund (if any), the Fund is unable to exercise its interest in collateral upon default by the counterparty, or the termination value of the instrument varies significantly from the marked-to-market value of the instrument.

U.S. Government Securities

The Funds may invest in obligations issued or guaranteed by the U.S. government or its agencies or instrumentalities, including bills, notes and bonds issued by the U.S. Treasury. Obligations of certain agencies and instrumentalities of the U.S. government, such as the Government National Mortgage Association (“GNMA”), are supported by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Treasury; others, such as those of Fannie Mae (“FNMA”), are supported by the right of the issuer to borrow from the Treasury; still others, such as those of the Federal Farm Credit Banks or the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (“FHLMC”), are supported only by the credit of the instrumentality. No assurance can be given that the U.S. government would provide financial support to U.S. government-sponsored agencies or instrumentalities, such as FNMA, or the FHLMC, since it is not obligated to do so by law. These agencies or instrumentalities are supported by the issuer’s right to borrow specific amounts from the U.S. Treasury, the discretionary authority of the U.S. government to purchase certain obligations from such agencies or instrumentalities, or the credit of the agency or instrumentality. Whether backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Treasury or not, U.S. government securities are not guaranteed against price movements due to fluctuating interest rates.

Ginnie Mae

Ginnie Mae is the principal governmental guarantor of mortgage-related securities. Ginnie Mae is a wholly-owned corporation of the U.S. government within the Department of Housing and Urban Development. Securities issued by Ginnie Mae are treasury securities, which means the full faith and credit of the U.S. government backs them. Ginnie Mae guarantees the timely payment of principal and interest on securities issued by institutions approved by Ginnie Mae and backed by pools of Federal Housing Administration-insured or Veterans Administration guaranteed mortgages. Ginnie Mae does not guarantee the market value or yield of mortgage-backed securities or the value of the Funds’ shares. To buy Ginnie Mae securities, the Funds may have to pay a premium over the maturity value of the underlying mortgages, which the Funds may lose if prepayment occurs.

Freddie Mac

Freddie Mac is stockholder-owned corporation established by the U.S. Congress to create a continuous flow of funds to mortgage lenders. Freddie Mac supplies lenders with the money to make mortgages and packages the mortgages into marketable securities. The system is designed to create a stable mortgage credit system and reduce the rates paid by homebuyers. Freddie Mac, not the U.S. government, guarantees timely payment of principal and interest.

Warrants

Warrants are securities that are usually issued with a bond or preferred stock but may trade separately in the market. A warrant allows its holder to purchase a specified amount of common stock at a specified price for a specified time. The risk of investing in a warrant is that the warrant may expire prior to the market value of the common stock exceeding the price fixed by the warrant. The Funds do not invest in warrants but may receive them pursuant to a corporate event involving one of its portfolio holdings. In addition, the percentage increase or decrease in the market price of a warrant may tend to be greater than the percentage increase or decrease in the market price of the optioned common stock.

 

21


When-Issued or Delayed-Delivery Securities

The Funds may purchase securities on a “when-issued” or “delayed delivery” basis. Although the payment and interest terms of these securities are established at the time a Fund enters into the commitment, the securities may be delivered and paid for a month or more after the date of purchase, when their value may have changed. A Fund makes such commitments only with the intention of actually acquiring the securities, but may sell the securities before settlement date if the investment adviser deems it advisable for investment reasons.

The use of these investment strategies, as well as any borrowing by the fund, may increase NAV fluctuation.

Securities purchased on a when-issued or delayed-delivery basis are recorded as assets on the day following the purchase and are marked-to-market daily. A Fund will not invest more than 25% of its assets in when-issued or delayed delivery securities, does not intend to purchase such securities for speculative purposes and will make commitments to purchase securities on a when-issued or delayed-delivery basis with the intention of actually acquiring the securities. However, the Fund reserves the right to sell acquired when-issued or delayed-delivery securities before their settlement dates if deemed advisable.

Temporary Defensive Position

From time to time, each Fund may take temporary defensive positions that are inconsistent with the Fund’s principal investment strategies, in attempting to respond to adverse market, economic, political, or other conditions. For example, a Fund may hold all or a portion of its assets in money market instruments (high quality income securities with maturities of less than one year), securities of money market funds or U.S. government repurchase agreements. A Fund may also invest in such investments at any time to maintain liquidity or pending selection of investments in accordance with its policies. As a result, a Fund may not achieve its investment objective.

Fund Operations

Operational Risk. An investment in a Fund, like any fund, can involve operational risks arising from factors such as processing errors, human errors, inadequate or failed internal or external processes, failures in systems and technology, changes in personnel and errors caused by third-party service providers. The occurrence of any of these failures, errors or breaches could result in a loss of information, regulatory scrutiny, reputational damage or other events, any of which could have a material adverse effect on a Fund. While the Funds seek to minimize such events through controls and oversight, there may still be failures that could cause losses to a Fund.

Information Security Risk. The Funds, and their service providers, may be prone to operational and information security risks resulting from cyber-attacks. Cyber-attacks include, among other behaviors, stealing or corrupting data maintained online or digitally, denial of service attacks on websites, the unauthorized release of confidential information or various other forms of cyber security breaches. Cyber-attacks affecting the Funds or the Adviser or the Subadviser, Custodian, transfer agent, fund accounting agent, financial intermediaries, and other third-party service providers may adversely impact the Funds. For instance, cyber-attacks may interfere with the processing of shareholder transactions, impact the Funds’ ability to calculate their NAVs, cause the release of private shareholder information or confidential business information, impede security trading, subject the Funds to regulatory fines, financial losses and/or cause reputational damage. The Funds may also incur additional costs for cyber security risk management purposes. Similar types of cyber-security risks are also present for issues or securities in which the Funds may invest, which could result in material adverse consequences for such issuers and may cause the Funds’ investment in such companies to lose value.

Investment Restrictions

Fundamental Investment Limitations. The investment limitations described below have been adopted by the Trust with respect to each Fund and are fundamental (“Fundamental”), i.e., they may not be changed without the affirmative vote of a majority of the outstanding shares of a Fund. As used in the Prospectus and the Statement of Additional Information, the term “majority” of the outstanding shares of a Fund means the lesser of: (1) 67% or more of the outstanding shares of the Fund present at a meeting, if the holders of more than 50% of the outstanding shares of the Fund are present or represented at such meeting; or (2) more than 50% of the outstanding shares of the Fund. All other investment practices, which may be changed by the Board of Trustees without the approval of shareholders to the extent permitted by applicable law, regulation or regulatory policy, are considered non-fundamental. A Fund may:

 

22


1. Borrowing Money. Borrow money to the extent consistent with applicable law, regulation or order from time to time.

2. Senior Securities. Issue senior securities to the extent consistent with applicable law, regulation or order from time to time.

3. Underwriting. Act as underwriter of securities to the extent consistent with applicable law, regulation or order from time to time.

4. Real Estate. Purchase, sell, or hold real estate or interests in real estate to the extent consistent with applicable law, regulation or order from time to time.

5. Commodities. Invest in commodities to the extent consistent with applicable law, regulation or order from time to time.

6. Loans. Make loans to others to the extent consistent with applicable law, regulation or order from time to time.

7. Concentration. Not purchase any securities which would cause more than 25% of the value of the Fund’s total assets at the time of purchase to be invested in the securities of issuers conducting their principal business activities in the same industry; provided that there shall be no limit on the purchase of U.S. government securities, including securities issued by any agency or instrumentality of the U.S. government, and related repurchase agreements.

In determining whether a transaction is permitted by applicable law, regulation, or order, the Funds currently construe fundamental policies (1) and (2) above not to prohibit any transaction that is permitted under Section 18 of the 1940 Act and the rules thereunder, as interpreted or modified, or as may otherwise be permitted by regulators having jurisdiction from time to time. Under the 1940 Act, a “senior security” does not include any promissory note or evidence of indebtedness when such loan is for temporary purposes only and in an amount not exceeding 5% of the value of the total assets of the issuer at the time the loan is made. A loan is presumed to be for temporary purposes if it is repaid within sixty days and is not extended or renewed. Provisions of the 1940 Act permit the Funds to borrow from a bank, provided that the borrowing Funds maintains continuous asset coverage (that is, total assets including borrowings, less liabilities exclusive of borrowings) of 300% of the amount borrowed, with exceptions for borrowings not in excess of 5% of the Fund’s total assets made for temporary administrative purposes.

For purposes of fundamental policy (5) above, all swap agreements and other derivative instruments that were not classified as commodity interests or commodity contracts prior to July 21, 2010 are not deemed to be commodities or commodity contracts.

Except as otherwise required by applicable law, with respect to the percentages adopted by the Trust as maximum limitations on its investment policies and limitations, an excess above the fixed percentage will not be a violation of the policy or limitation unless the excess results immediately and directly from the acquisition of any security or the action taken.

Non-Fundamental Investment Restrictions. The investment restrictions described below may be changed by the Board of Trustees without shareholder approval. Shareholders will be given 60 days’ advance notice of any change to the following non-fundamental policies:

JOHCM Credit Income Fund: The Fund invests, under normal circumstances, at least 80% of its net assets (plus the amount of any borrowings for investment purposes) in fixed income securities.

JOHCM Emerging Markets Discovery Fund (formerly, JOHCM Emerging Markets Small Mid Cap Equity Fund): The Fund invests, under normal circumstances, at least 80% of its net assets (plus the amount of any borrowings for investment purposes) in equity securities issued by companies located in emerging markets, including frontier markets.

JOHCM Emerging Markets Opportunities Fund: The Fund invests, under normal circumstances, at least 80% of its net assets (plus the amount of any borrowings for investment purposes) in equity securities of companies located in emerging markets.

JOHCM Global Income Builder Fund: The Fund invests, under normal circumstances, at least 80% of its net assets (plus the amount of any borrowings for investment purposes) in income producing securities.

 

23


Regnan Global Equity Impact Solutions: The Fund invests, under normal circumstances, at least 80% of its net assets (plus the amount of any borrowings for investment purposes) in equity securities of companies that the portfolio managers believe satisfy their criteria for positive social or environmental impact.

TSW Emerging Markets Fund: The Fund invests, under normal circumstances, at least 80% of its net assets (plus the amount of any borrowings for investment purposes) in equity securities of companies that are located in emerging market countries, including frontier markets.

TSW High Yield Bond Fund: The Fund invests, under normal circumstances, at least 80% of its net assets (plus the amount of any borrowings for investment purposes) in high yield fixed income securities, also known as “junk bonds” (higher risk, lower rated fixed income securities rated BB or below by at least one nationally recognized statistical rating organization or determined to be of a similar quality by TSW).

TSW Large Cap Value Fund: The Fund invests, under normal circumstances, at least 80% of its net assets (plus the amount of any borrowings for investment purposes) in equity securities of companies with large market capitalizations.

SHARES OF THE FUNDS

Shares in the Funds are offered in multiple classes. Each Fund is currently authorized to issue Advisor Shares, Investor Shares, Institutional Shares and Class Z Shares. The differences between the share classes are summarized in the Prospectus under the heading “How to Purchase Shares – Share Classes.” The procedures for purchasing shares of the Funds are summarized in the Prospectus under “How to Purchase Shares,” and the procedures for redeeming shares of the Funds are summarized in the Prospectus under “How to Redeem Shares.”

MANAGEMENT OF THE TRUST

The Board of Trustees and Trust Officers

The Board of Trustees supervises the business activities of the Trust and appoints the officers. Each Trustee serves until the termination of the Trust unless the Trustee dies, resigns, retires, or is removed. The Board plans to meet four times a year to review the progress and status of the Trust. The following table provides information regarding each Trustee who is not an “interested person” of the Trust, as defined in the 1940 Act (each an “Independent Trustee”).

 

Name, Address and

Year of Birth1

  

Position(s)

Held with
the Trust

   Term of
Office/Length
of Time Served
  

Principal Occupation(s)
During Past 5 Years

   Number of
Portfolios in
the Trust
Overseen by
Trustee
   Other
Directorships
Held by
Trustee
During Past
5 Years

Joseph P. Gennaco

(1961)

   Trustee    Since
inception
   Sole Principal at JPG Consulting, LLC (April 2019 – present); Independent Non-Executive Director at BNY Mellon International Limited (January 2019 – May 2021); Executive at BNY Mellon (July 2005 – December 2018).    11    None

Barbara A. McCann

(1961)

   Trustee    Since
inception
   None.    11    None

Kevin J. McKenna

(1957)

   Trustee    Since
inception
   None.    11    None

 

24


Name, Address and
Year of Birth1

  

Position(s)
Held with
the Trust

   Term of
Office/Length
of Time Served
  

Principal Occupation(s)
During Past 5 Years

   Number of
Portfolios in
the Trust
Overseen by
Trustee 
   Other
Directorships
Held by
Trustee
During Past
5 Years

Beth K. Werths

(1968)

   Trustee and Chair    Since
inception
   Executive Vice President and International General Counsel at Natixis Investment Management (February 2007 – November 2020).    11    None

 

1 

The mailing address of each Trustee is 53 State Street, 13th Floor Boston, MA, 02109.

The following table provides information regarding each Trustee who is an “interested person” of the Trust, as defined in the 1940 Act and each officer of the Trust.

 

Name, Address and
Year of Birth1

  

Position(s)
Held with
the Trust

   Term of
Office/Length
of Time Served
  

Principal Occupation(s)
During Past 5 Years

   Number of
Portfolios in
the Trust
Overseen by
Trustee 
   Other
Directorships
Held by
Trustee
During Past
5 Years

Nicholas Good2

(1973)

   Trustee    Since
inception
   Chief Executive Officer of Pendal Group Limited (March 2021 – January 2023); Chief Executive Officer of JOHCM (USA) Inc (December 2019 – 2021); Executive Vice President and Chief Growth & Strategy Officer at State Street Global Advisors (April 2018 – November 2019); Co-Head of Global SPDR Business at State Street Global Advisors (May 2016 – April 2018).    11    None

David Lane2

(1967)

   Trustee    Since
2023
   Chief Executive, Americas, Perpetual Limited (January 2023 – present); Group Executive, Perpetual Limited (April 2017 – January 2023).    11    None

Jonathan Weitz

(1976)

   President and Chief Executive Officer    Since
inception
   Chief Operating Officer, US, JOHCM (USA) Inc (2020 – present); Senior Vice President – Business Manager JOHCM (USA) Inc (2016 – 2020); Partner and Management Committee Member Century Capital Management (2003 – 2016).    N/A    N/A

Max Kadis

(1970)

   Vice President    Since
2022
   Operations Manager, US, JOHCM (USA) Inc (2022 – present); Vice President BNY Mellon Asset Servicing (2006 – 2022).    N/A    N/A

 

25


Name, Address and
Year of Birth1

  

Position(s)
Held with
the Trust

   Term of
Office/ Length
of Time Served
  

Principal Occupation(s)
During Past 5 Years

   Number of
Portfolios in
the Trust
Overseen by
Trustee 
   Other
Directorships
Held by
Trustee
During Past
5 Years

Troy Sheets

(1971)

   Treasurer    Since
inception
   Senior Director, Foreside Financial Group, LLC (2016 – present).    N/A    N/A

David Lebisky

(1972)

   Chief Compliance Officer    Since
2021
   Compliance Manager, US, JOHCM (USA) Inc (March 2021 – present); President, Lebisky Compliance Consulting LLC (2015 – 2020)    N/A    N/A

Mary Lomasney

(1957)

   Secretary    Since
inception
   Head of Legal and Compliance, US, JOHCM (USA) Inc (2016 – present); Managing Director BNY Mellon (2007 – 2015).    N/A    N/A

Matthew J. Broucek

(1988)

   Assistant Secretary    Since
inception
   Vice President, Northern Trust Global Fund Services Fund Governance Solutions (2016 – present).    N/A    N/A

 

1 

The mailing address of each Trustee and officer is 53 State Street, 13th Floor Boston, MA, 02109.

2 

Nicholas Good is an “interested person” of the Trust because he was the Chief Executive Officer of Pendal Group Limited through January 2023. David Lane is an “interested person” of the Trust because he is Chief Executive, Americas, of Perpetual Limited, the parent company of JOHCM (USA) Inc.

Securities Ownership

For each Trustee, the following table discloses the dollar range of equity securities beneficially owned by the Trustee in the Trust, and, on an aggregate basis, in any registered investment companies overseen by the Trustee within the Trust’s family of investment companies. The dollar ranges used in the table are (i) None; (ii) $1-$10,000; (iii) $10,001-$50,000; (iv) $50,001-$100,000; and (v) Over $100,000.

Securities Ownership as of December 31, 2022

 

Name

   JOHCM
Credit
Income
Fund
     JOHCM
Emerging
Markets
Opportunities
Fund
     JOHCM
Emerging
Markets
Discovery
Fund
     JOHCM
Global
Income
Builder Fund
     JOHCM
Global Select
Fund
     JOHCM
International
Opportunities
Fund
     JOHCM
International
Select Fund
     Regnan
Global
Equity
Impacts
Solutions
     TSW
Emerging
Markets
Fund
     TSW
High
Yield
Bond
Fund
     TSW
Large
Cap
Value
Fund
     Total
Invested in
All
Funds(1)
 

Independent Trustees

                                   

Joseph P. Gennaco

     None        None        None        None        None        None        None        None        None        None        None        None  

Barbara A. McCann

     None        None        None        None        None        None        None        None        None        None        None        None  

Kevin J. McKenna

     None        $1 - $10,000        $1 - $10,000        $1 - $10,000        $1 - $10,000        None        $1 - $10,000       
$10,001 -
$50,000

 
     None        None        None       
$50,001 -
$100,000

 

Beth K. Werths

     None        None        None        None        None        None        None        None        None        None        None        None  

Interested Trustees

                                   

Nicholas Good

     None        None        None        None        None        None       
$50,001 -
$100,000

 
     None        None        None        None       
$50,001 -
$100,000

 

David Lane

     None        None        None        None        None        None        None        None        None        None        None        None  

 

1 

Total Invested in all Funds is aggregate dollar range of equity securities in all registered investment companies overseen by Trustee in family of investment companies.

 

26


Trustee Compensation

Trustees who are deemed “interested persons” of the Trust and officers of the Trust receive no compensation from the Funds. The Trust has no retirement or pension plans. The compensation paid to the Trustees for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2022 for the Trust is set forth in the following table.

 

Name of Trustee

   Aggregate
Compensation
from the Funds
     Total
Compensation
from the Trust
 

Joseph P. Gennaco

     $131,000        $131.000  

Barbara A. McCann

     $123,000        $123,000  

Kevin J. McKenna

     $123,000        $123,000  

Beth K. Werths

     $127,000        $127,000  

Leadership Structure and Board of Trustees

The primary responsibility of the Board of Trustees is to represent the interests of the shareholders of the Trust and to provide oversight of the management of the Trust. Four of the Trustees on the Board are independent of and not affiliated with the Adviser or its affiliates. The Board has adopted Fund Governance Guidelines to provide guidance for effective leadership. The guidance sets forth criteria for Board membership, trustee orientation and continuing education and annual trustee evaluations. The Board reviews quarterly reports from the investment advisers providing management services to the Funds, as well as quarterly reports from the Chief Compliance Officer (“CCO”) and other service providers. This process allows the Board to effectively evaluate issues that impact the Trust as a whole as well as issues that are unique to each Fund. The Board has determined that this leadership structure is appropriate to ensure that the regular business of the Board is conducted efficiently while still permitting the Trustees to effectively fulfill their fiduciary and oversight obligations. Each committee typically holds its meetings concurrently with the regularly scheduled meetings of the full Board.

The Trustees have delegated day-to-day operations to various service providers whose activities they oversee. The Trustees have also engaged legal counsel that is independent of the Adviser or the Subadviser or its affiliates to advise them on matters relating to their responsibilities in connection with the Trust. The Trustees meet separately in an executive session at least quarterly and meet separately in executive session with the Funds’ CCO at least annually. On an annual basis, the Board conducts a self-assessment and evaluates its structure and the structure of its committees. The Board has three standing committees, the Audit Committee, the Nominating and Governance Committee, and the Investment Committee.

All of the Independent Trustees are members of the Audit Committee. The Audit Committee’s function is to oversee the Trust’s accounting and financial reporting policies and practices, its internal controls and, as appropriate, the internal controls of certain service providers; to oversee the quality and objectivity of the Trust’s financial statements and the independent audit thereof; and to act as a liaison between the Trust’s independent registered public accounting firm and the full Board of Trustees. The Audit Committee is able to focus Board time and attention to matters of interest to shareholders and, through its private sessions with the Trust’s auditor, CCO and legal counsel, stay fully informed regarding management decisions. The Audit Committee convened two times during the fiscal year ended September 30, 2022.

All of the Independent Trustees are members of the Nominating and Governance Committee. Among other things, the Nominating and Governance Committee nominates candidates for election to the Board of Trustees, makes nominations for membership on all committees, and oversees a program for the orientation and continued education of Independent Trustees. The Nominating and Governance Committee also reviews as necessary the responsibilities of any committees of the Board and whether there is a continuing need for each committee, whether there is a need for additional committees of the Board, and whether committees should be combined or reorganized. The Nominating and Governance Committee makes recommendations for any such action to the full Board. The Nominating and Governance Committee also considers candidates for trustees nominated by shareholders. Shareholders may recommend candidates for Board positions by forwarding their correspondence to the Secretary of the Trust at the Trust’s address and the shareholder communication will be forwarded to the Nominating and Governance Committee Chairperson for evaluation. The Nominating and Governance Committee convened two times during the fiscal year ended September 30, 2022.

All of the Independent Trustees are members of the Investment Committee. The Investment Committee meets with the Adviser and portfolio management to monitor ongoing developments involving the Funds’ portfolios. Among other things, the Investment

 

27


Committee (i) reviews and monitors the performance of the Funds and (ii) monitors and discusses changes to the Funds’ investment teams, policies, and/or processes. The Investment Committee is a newly organized committee and did not meet during the fiscal year ended September 30, 2022.

Board Oversight of Risk

The Funds are subject to a number of risks, including investment, compliance, operational and financial risks, among others. Risk oversight forms part of the Board’s general oversight of the Funds and is addressed as part of various Board and committee activities. Day-to-day risk management with respect to the Funds resides with the Adviser, the Subadviser or other service providers, subject to supervision by Fund Management. The Audit Committee and the Board oversee efforts by management and service providers to manage risks to which the Funds may be exposed. For example, the Board meets with portfolio managers and receives regular reports regarding investment and liquidity risks. The Board meets with the CCO and receives regular reports regarding compliance and regulatory risks. The Audit Committee meets with the Trust’s Treasurer and receives regular reports regarding fund operations and risks related to the valuation, and overall financial reporting of the Funds. From its review of these reports and discussions with management, the Board learns in detail about the material risks to which each Fund is exposed, enabling a dialogue about how management and service providers mitigate those risks.

Not all risks that may affect the Funds can be identified nor can controls be developed to eliminate or mitigate their occurrence or effects. It may not be practical or cost effective to eliminate or mitigate certain risks, the processes and controls employed to address certain risks may be limited in their effectiveness, and some risks are simply beyond the reasonable control of the Funds or the Adviser, Subadviser, their affiliates, or other service providers. Moreover, it is necessary to bear certain risks (such as investment-related risks) to achieve the Funds’ goals. As a result of the foregoing and other factors, the Funds’ ability to manage risk is subject to substantial limitations. The Trustees believe that their current oversight approach is an appropriate way to manage risks facing each Fund, whether investment, compliance, financial, or otherwise. The Trustees may, at any time in their discretion, change the manner in which they conduct risk oversight of the Funds.

Additional Information About the Trustees

The Board believes each of the Trustees has demonstrated leadership abilities and possesses experience, qualifications, and skills valuable to the Trust. Each of the Trustees has substantial business and professional experience where they have had the opportunity to develop the ability to critically review, evaluate and access information provided to them.

Below is additional information concerning each particular Trustee and his or her attributes. The information provided below, and in the chart above, is not all-inclusive. Many Trustee attributes involve intangible elements, such as intelligence, work ethic, the ability to work together, and the ability to communicate effectively, exercise judgment, ask incisive questions, manage people and problems or develop solutions.

Joseph P. Gennaco has over 40 years’ worth of experience with various areas of business and finance including: Operations, Technology, Finance, Risk & Compliance, and all facets of Distribution including Sales, Marketing, Relationship Management, and Product Development. Mr. Gennaco has held a number of executive management roles, including COO of BNY Mellon Asset Management with approximately $1.8 trillion of assets under management, and President and COO of The Boston Company Asset Management an active equity manager with approximately $50 billion in asset under management.

Nicholas Good has served as a trustee of the Trust since its inception and in light of his former roles of Chief Executive Officer of Pendal Group Limited and Chief Executive Officer of JOHCM (USA) Inc has an in-depth knowledge of the Funds from a performance, risk and commercial perspective. Mr. Good possesses over 20 years’ worth of experience in asset management.

David Lane is a C-Suite executive with broad experience across asset management, wealth management and investment banking. Through his over 30-year career, Mr. Lane has a demonstrated history of applying leadership, stakeholder management, strategic and transactional skills.

Barbara A. McCann is a senior financial services executive who is skilled at developing and implementing business strategies. Ms. McCann has a proven record of executing business initiatives through managing teams within and across business lines. She managed the BNY Mellon Institutional Funds Group, during which time she succeeded in growing the group’s assets under management from $1.5 billion to over $5.5 billion in the span of two years. Ms. McCann has worked closely with sales, compliance, legal investment managers and operational groups to ensure continued growth of the funds she has overseen, and she is familiar with many funds and investment boutiques. Ms. McCann also served as the Secretary of the Mellon Institutional Funds Group Board.

Kevin J. McKenna has over 30 years of experience in the investment management industry. He has managed a wide variety of fixed income portfolios, overseen the launch of fund initial public offerings on the

 

28


New York Stock Exchange, and supervised a large and complex fixed-income investment platform. Mr. McKenna has also served as Managing Director and Chief Operating Officer for a large multi-asset team, where he served as the team’s primary point of contact with corporate Internal Audit and Risk Management groups while also managing the local profit and loss and talent function. Separately, Mr. McKenna sat on the Regional and Global Management Committees of a leading global prime broker.

Beth K. Werths has senior executive level experience in business and management that provides her with an insightful perspective on strategic planning, risk oversight, operational matters and crisis management that is valuable to the Board. Her legal expertise and leadership on global governance, regulatory, product development, information technology and information security issues contribute to her skills in the areas of risk management, compliance, internal controls, legislative advocacy and cybersecurity. She provides the Board with considerable knowledge and insight regarding the financial services industry as well as governance, regulatory and investor relations issues that are relevant to large corporations. She has a record of demonstrated executive leadership and integrity and has served in roles where she counsels other senior executives and boards.

CODE OF ETHICS

The Trust, the Adviser, the Subadviser and the principal underwriter have each adopted a Code of Ethics (the “Code”) under Rule 17j-1 of the 1940 Act. The personnel subject to the Code are permitted to invest in securities, including securities that may be purchased or held by the Fund.

DISTRIBUTION

The Funds have adopted a plan pursuant to Rule 12b-1 under the 1940 Act, applicable to Advisor Shares and Investor Shares that permits each Fund to pay for certain distribution and promotion activities related to marketing their shares and other shareholder services (the “Plan”). Pursuant to the Plan, a Fund will pay its principal underwriter a fee for the principal underwriter’s services in connection with the sales and promotion of the Fund and the provision of shareholder services to Fund shareholders, including its expenses in connection therewith, at an annual rate of ten basis points (0.10%) of each of the Funds’ average daily net assets attributable to Advisor Shares, twenty-five basis points (0.25%) of each of the Funds’ average daily net assets attributable to Investor Shares. Payments received by the principal underwriter pursuant to the Plan may be greater or less than distribution expenses incurred by the principal underwriter with respect to the applicable class and are in addition to fees paid by each Fund pursuant to the Investment Advisory Agreement. The principal underwriter may in turn pay others for distribution and shareholder servicing as described below.

The Plan has been approved by the Funds’ Board of Trustees, including a majority of the Independent Trustees who have no direct or indirect financial interest in the Plan or any related agreement. Continuation of the Plan and the related agreements must be approved by the Trustees annually, in the same manner, and a Plan or any related agreement may be terminated at any time without penalty by a majority of such Independent Trustees or by a majority of the outstanding shares of the applicable class. Any amendment increasing the maximum percentage payable under a Plan or other material change must be approved by a majority of the outstanding shares of the applicable class, and all other material amendments to a Plan or any related agreement must be approved by a majority of the Independent Trustees.

The table below show the amount of Rule 12b-1 fees incurred for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2022.

 

Fund

   Rule 12b-1 fees
incurred
 

JOHCM Credit Income Fund – Advisor Shares

   $ 11  

JOHCM Credit Income Fund – Investor Shares

   $ 0  

JOHCM Emerging Markets Discovery Fund – Advisor Shares

   $ 12,839  

JOHCM Emerging Markets Opportunities Fund – Advisor Shares

   $ 85,534  

JOHCM Emerging Markets Opportunities Fund – Investor Shares

   $ 21,117  

JOHCM Global Income Builder Fund – Advisor Shares

   $ 7,805  

JOHCM Global Income Builder Fund – Investor Shares

   $ 153  

JOHCM Global Select Fund – Advisor Shares

   $ 38,372  

JOHCM International Select Fund – Investor Shares

   $ 1,662,227  

 

29


Financial Intermediaries

The Funds may authorize certain financial intermediaries to accept purchase and redemption orders on its behalf. A Fund will be deemed to have received a purchase or redemption order when a financial intermediary or its designee accepts the order. These orders will be priced at the NAV next calculated after the order is accepted.

The Funds may enter into agreements with financial intermediaries under which a Fund pays the financial intermediaries for services, such as networking, sub-transfer agency and/or omnibus recordkeeping. The Funds may also reimburse the Adviser or JOHCM Funds Distributors, LLC (the “Distributor”) for amounts they pay to financial intermediaries for the provision of such services. The amount of such payments and/or reimbursements and the manner in which such amount is calculated are reviewed by the Trustees periodically. The amount of such payments permitted to be made outside the Plan is currently capped by resolution of the Board. Any payments made pursuant to agreements between the Funds and financial intermediaries are in addition to, rather than in lieu of, shareholder servicing fees that a financial intermediary may be receiving under an agreement with the Distributor. The Funds may enter into certain agreements with financial intermediaries that require payments for sub-transfer agency services in excess of the Board-approved cap on payments and/or reimbursements to financial intermediaries. In such instances the Adviser will pay, out of its own profits, the difference between the amount due under the agreement with the financial intermediary and the cap on such payments and/or reimbursements approved by the Board of Trustees.

Financial intermediaries are firms that sell shares of mutual funds, including the Funds, for compensation and/or provide certain administrative and account maintenance services to mutual fund investors. Financial intermediaries may include, among others, brokers, financial planners or advisers, banks, and insurance companies. In some cases, a financial intermediary may hold its clients’ Fund shares in nominee name. Shareholder services provided by a financial intermediary may (though they will not necessarily) include, among other things: processing and mailing trade confirmations, periodic statements, prospectuses, annual reports, semiannual reports, shareholder notices, and other SEC-required communications; capturing and processing tax data; issuing and mailing dividend checks to shareholders who have selected cash distributions; preparing record date shareholder lists for proxy solicitations; collecting and posting distributions to shareholder accounts; and establishing and maintaining systematic withdrawals and automated investment plans and shareholder account registrations. The Funds may from time to time purchase securities issued by financial intermediaries that provide such services, or their affiliates; however, in selecting investments for a Fund, no preference will be shown for such securities.

The compensation paid by the Funds or the Adviser or its affiliates to a financial intermediary is typically paid continually over time, during the period when the financial intermediary’s clients hold investments in the Funds. The amount of continuing compensation paid by a Fund or the Adviser or its affiliates to different financial intermediaries for shareholder services varies. The compensation is typically a percentage of the value of the financial intermediary’s clients’ investments in a Fund or a per account fee. The variation in compensation may, but will not necessarily, reflect enhanced or additional services provided by the financial intermediary.

If payments to financial intermediaries by a mutual fund, distributor or adviser for a particular mutual fund complex exceed payments by other mutual fund complexes, a shareholder’s financial adviser and the financial intermediary employing him or her may have an incentive to recommend that fund complex over others. Please speak with a financial adviser to learn more about the total amounts paid to that financial adviser and his or her firm by the Distributor and its affiliates and by sponsors of other mutual funds he or she may recommend to you. You should also consult disclosures made by your financial intermediary at the time of purchase. You should ask your financial intermediary whether it receives additional cash compensation payments, as described below, from the Adviser or its affiliates.

 

30


If you are purchasing, selling, exchanging or holding Fund shares through a program of services offered by a financial intermediary, you may be required by the financial intermediary to pay additional fees. You should contact the financial intermediary for information concerning what additional fees, if any, may be charged.

The Adviser and/or their affiliates may make payments to financial intermediaries for distribution, shareholder servicing, marketing and promotional activities and related expenses out of their profits and other available sources, including profits from their relationships with the Funds. These payments are not reflected as Fund expenses in the fee table contained in the Prospectus. The total amount of these payments may be substantial, may be substantial to any given recipient, and may exceed the costs and expenses incurred by the recipient for any fund-related marketing or shareholder servicing activities. The payments described in this paragraph are often referred to as “revenue sharing payments.” Revenue sharing arrangements are separately negotiated between the Adviser and/or their affiliates, and the recipients of these payments. Revenue sharing payments may also include non-cash compensation to financial intermediaries and their representatives in the form of (1) occasional gifts; (2) occasional meals, tickets or other entertainment; and/or (3) sponsorship support of regional or national conferences or seminars.

Revenue sharing payments create an incentive for a financial intermediary or its employees or associated persons to recommend or sell shares of a Fund to you. Contact your financial intermediary for details about revenue sharing payments it receives or may receive. Revenue sharing payments, as well as payments by a Fund under the Plan or for recordkeeping and/or shareholder services, also benefit the Adviser and their affiliates to the extent the payments result in more assets being invested in the Fund(s) on which fees are being charged.

As of December 31, 2022, the Adviser, Distributor, and/or their affiliates made revenue sharing payments (as described above) to the financial intermediaries listed below (or their affiliates or successors). Any additions, modifications, or deletions to the financial intermediaries identified in this list that have occurred since December 31, 2022, are not reflected. You may ask your financial intermediary if it receives such payments.

Charles Schwab

National Financial Services, LLC

Goldman Sachs

Fidelity Investments Institutional Operations Company

GWFS Equities, Inc.

J.P. Morgan Securities LLC

MSCS Financial

John Hancock

LPL Financial

Financial Data Services LLC

Morgan Stanley

Pershing

Principal

Raymond James & Associates, Inc.

RBC Capital Markets, LLC

Securian

TD Ameritrade

UBS

US Bank

Wells Fargo Clearing Services

Wells Fargo Advisors, LLC

CONTROL PERSONS AND PRINCIPAL HOLDERS OF SECURITIES

Control Persons and Principal Holders

Shareholders who beneficially own more than 25% of the shares of a Fund are presumed to “control” the Fund as that term is defined under the 1940 Act. Persons controlling a Fund can affect the outcome of proposals submitted to the shareholders for approval, including changes to the Fund’s fundamental policies or the terms of the Investment Advisory Agreement with the Adviser. As of December 31, 2022, the persons listed below owned of record 5% or more of a class of the Fund’s outstanding shares.

 

31


Perpetual Limited has contributed seed capital that may represent ownership of up to 100% of certain share classes of the Regnan Global Equity Impact Solutions, TSW Emerging Markets Fund and the TSW High Yield Bond Fund. As such, Pendal Ltd. shall be deemed a control person of such Funds. It is anticipated that over time this percentage of ownership will decrease. Perpetual Limited is a publicly listed company incorporated in Australia, with its registered address at 123 Pitt Street Level 12 Sydney, NSW 2000.

 

JOHCM Emerging Markets Opportunities Fund – Institutional Shares  

Shareholder Name, Address

  % Ownership  

Shareholder Name, Address

  % Ownership  

National Financial Services LLC*

499 Washington Blvd 5th Floor

Jersey City, NJ 07310

  44.80%  

Pershing LLC

1 Pershing Plaza

Jersey City, NJ 07399

    18.18%  

Morgan Stanley

1 New York Plaza

New York, NY 10004

  7.40%  

MAC Co. A C*

500 Grant Street Room 151-1010

Pittsburg, PA 15258

    5.26%  

*   Beneficial owner with respect to multiple accounts.

     
JOHCM Emerging Markets Opportunities Fund – Advisor Shares  

Shareholder Name, Address

  % Ownership  

Shareholder Name, Address

  % Ownership  

National Financial Services LLC*

499 Washington Blvd 5th Floor

Jersey City, NJ 07310

  79.15%   Mid Atlantic Trust Company FBO* 1251 Waterfront Place Suite 525 Pittsburg, PA 15222     10.92%  

Charles Schwab & Co Inc*

211 Main Street

San Francisco, CA 94105

  7.62%    

 

*

Beneficial owner with respect to multiple accounts.

 

32


JOHCM Emerging Markets Opportunities Fund – Investor Shares

Shareholder Name, Address

   % Ownership  

Shareholder Name, Address

   % Ownership

TD Ameritrade Inc

200 S 108th Ave.

Omaha, NE 68154

   45.37%  

National Financial Services LLC*

499 Washington Blvd

Jersey City, NJ 07310

   22.30%

Charles Schwab & Co Inc

211 Main Street

San Francisco, CA 94105

   13.44%  

Pershing LLC

1 Pershing Plaza

Jersey City, NJ 07399

   9.45%

LPL Financial

4707 Executive Drive

San Diego, CA 92121

   9.35%     

 

*

Beneficial owner with respect to multiple accounts.

 

JOHCM Global Select Fund – Institutional Shares

Shareholder Name, Address

   % Ownership  

Shareholder Name, Address

   % Ownership

Charles Schwab & Co Inc

211 Main Street

San Francisco, CA 94105

   49.36%  

National Financial Services LLC*

499 Washington Blvd 5th Floor

Jersey City, NJ 07310

   22.50%

SEI Private Trust Company CO Customer*

One Freedom Valley Drive

Oaks, PA 19456

   5.98%     

 

*

Beneficial owner with respect to multiple accounts.

 

33


JOHCM Global Select Fund – Advisor Shares

Shareholder Name, Address

  % Ownership                                                                       

Charles Schwab and Co Inc

211 Main Street

San Francisco, CA 94105

  92.53%    
JOHCM International Select Fund – Institutional Shares

Shareholder Name, Address

  % Ownership  

Shareholder Name, Address

  % Ownership

SEI Private Trust Company C O Customers*

One Freedom Valley Drive Oaks, PA 19456

  19.78%  

Charles Schwab & Co Inc*

211 Main Street

San Francisco, CA 94105

  18.26%

National Financial Services LLC*

499 Washington Blvd 5th Floor

Jersey City, NJ 07310

  17.43%  

Pershing LLC

1 Pershing Plaza

Jersey City, NJ 07399

  12.99%

*   Beneficial owner with respect to multiple accounts.

 
JOHCM International Select Fund – Investor Shares

Shareholder Name, Address

  % Ownership                                                                       

National Financial Services LLC*

499 Washington Blvd 5th Floor

Jersey City, NJ 07310

  91.12%    

 

*

Beneficial owner with respect to multiple accounts.

 

34


JOHCM Emerging Markets Discovery Fund (formerly, JOHCM Emerging Markets Small Mid Cap Equity Fund) – Advisor
Shares

Shareholder Name, Address

  % Ownership  

Shareholder Name, Address

  % Ownership

National Financial Services LLC*

499 Washington Blvd 5th Floor

Jersey City, NJ 07310

  86.98%  

Charles Schwab & Co Inc

211 Main Street

Attn Mutual Funds

San Francisco, CA 94105

  11.95%

 

*

Beneficial owner with respect to multiple accounts.

 

35


JOHCM Global Income Builder Fund – Advisor Shares

Shareholder Name, Address

  % Ownership  

Shareholder Name, Address

  % Ownership

Charles Schwab & Co Inc*

211 Main Street

San Francisco, CA 94105

  66.19%  

James L Nederlander

1501 Broadway 14th Floor

New York, NY 10036

  26.78%

 

36


JOHCM Global Income Builder Fund – Investor Shares

Shareholder Name, Address

  % Ownership  

Shareholder Name, Address

  % Ownership

LPL Financial

4707 Executive Drive

San Diego, CA 92121

  93.20%  

TD Ameritrade Inc

200 S 108th Ave.

Omaha, NE 68154

  6.58%

 

JOHCM Credit Income Fund – Advisor Shares

Shareholder Name, Address

  % Ownership                               

Pendal Group Limited

2 Chifley Square Level 14

The Chifley Tower

Sydney, New South Wales

2000 010

  100%    

 

37


Management Ownership

As of December 31, 2022, the Trustees and officers of the Trust owned less than 1% of each class of each Fund.

INVESTMENT ADVISORY AND OTHER SERVICES

The Investment Adviser

JOHCM USA serves as the investment adviser to the Funds. JOHCM USA’s principal place of business is 53 State Street, 13th Floor Boston, MA, 02109. JOHCM USA is a wholly-owned indirect subsidiary of Perpetual Limited. Perpetual Limited is a diversified financial services company with a registered office in Sydney. JOHCM USA is an investment adviser registered with the SEC in the U.S. under the 1940 Act. As investment adviser to the Funds, JOHCM USA continuously reviews, supervises, and administers each Fund’s investment program. JOHCM USA also ensures compliance with each Fund’s investment policies and guidelines. As of September 30, 2022, JOHCM USA had approximately $12.3 billion in assets under management.

Under the terms of the Trust’s Investment Advisory Agreement with JOHCM USA (“Advisory Agreement”), JOHCM USA, subject to the supervision of the Board of Trustees, provides or arranges to be provided to the Funds such investment advice as its deems advisable and will furnish or arrange to be furnished a continuous investment program for the Funds consistent with each Fund’s investment objective and policies. As compensation for advisory services, the Funds are obligated to pay JOHCM USA fees computed and accrued daily and paid monthly at the annual rates set forth below:

 

Fund   Percentage of Average Daily Net Assets  

JOHCM Credit Income Fund

    0.55

JOHCM Emerging Markets Discovery Fund*

    1.30

JOHCM Emerging Markets Opportunities Fund

    0.90

JOHCM Global Income Builder Fund

    0.67

JOHCM Global Select Fund

    0.89

JOHCM International Opportunities Fund

    0.75

JOHCM International Select Fund

    0.89%/0.87 %** 

Regnan Global Equity Impact Solutions

    0.75

TSW Emerging Markets Fund

    0.80

TSW High Yield Bond Fund

    0.50

TSW Large Cap Value Fund

    0.58

 

*

Formerly, JOHCM Emerging Markets Small Mid Cap Equity Fund.

** 

0.89% of average daily net assets up to $15 billion; 0.87% of average daily net assets in excess of $15 billion.

 

38


The Advisory Agreement will continue in effect for its initial term until the first anniversary of the date of effectiveness, and on a year-to-year basis thereafter, provided that continuance is approved at least annually by specific approval of the Board of Trustees or by vote of the holders of a majority of the outstanding voting securities of each Fund. In either event, it must also be approved by a majority of the Trustees who are neither parties to the Advisory Agreement nor interested persons, as defined in the 1940 Act, at a meeting called for the purpose of voting on such approval. The Advisory Agreement may be terminated at any time without the payment of any penalty by the Board of Trustees or by vote of a majority of the outstanding voting securities of a Fund on not more than 60 days’ written notice to the Adviser. In the event of its assignment, the Advisory Agreement will terminate automatically.

The Adviser has contractually agreed to waive fees and reimburse expenses to the extent that total annual operating expenses (excluding brokerage costs, interest, taxes, dividends, litigation and indemnification expenses, expenses associated with investments in underlying investment companies, and extraordinary expenses) to amounts specified in the Prospectus of each Fund until January 28, 2024. If it becomes unnecessary for the Adviser to waive fees or make reimbursements, the Adviser may recapture any of its prior waivers or reimbursements for a period not to exceed three years from the date on which the waiver or reimbursement was made to the extent that such a recapture does not cause the total annual fund operating expenses (excluding brokerage costs, interest, taxes, dividends, litigation and indemnification expenses, expenses associated with investments in underlying investment companies, and extraordinary expenses) to exceed the applicable expense limitation that was in effect at the time of the waiver or reimbursement. The agreement to waive fees and reimburse expenses may be terminated by the Board of Trustees at any time and will terminate automatically upon termination of the Advisory Agreement.

Advisory Fees

The following table sets forth the amount of the advisory fee paid by the Trust to the Adviser for the fiscal years ended September 30, 2022, September 30, 2021, and September 30, 2020. Because some of the Funds may be newly formed, such Funds did not pay any advisory fee amounts to the Adviser during the period noted for such Funds.

 

     Fiscal Year Ended
September 30, 2022
     Fiscal Year Ended
September 30, 2021
     Fiscal Year Ended
September 30, 2020
 

Fund

   Fees
Earned
     Fees
Waived/
Reimbursed
    Advisory
Fees
Recouped
by
JOHCM
     Fees
Earned
     Fees
Waived/
Reimbursed
     Advisory
Fees
Recouped
by
JOHCM
     Fees
Earned
     Fees
Waived/
Reimbursed
     Advisory
Fees
Recouped
by
JOHCM
 

JOHCM Credit Income Fund

     $32,618        $(98,309     $0        $28,287        $72,630        $0        $3,301        $10,656        N/A  

JOHCM Emerging Markets Discovery Fund*

     $571,603        $(108,217     $0        $648,263        $121,435        $0        $412,692        $201,003        $0  

JOHCM Emerging Markets

Opportunities Fund

     $6,959,164        $ —         $0        $7,143,120        $1,430        $0        $5,506,266        $0        $0  

JOHCM Global Income Builder Fund

     $571,792        $(128,903     $0        $611,230        $64,790        $0        $615,746        $123,468        $0  

JOHCM Global Select Fund

     $4,164,417        $(26,536     $0        $5,005,998        $989        $0        $3,913,672        $0        $0  

JOHCM International Opportunities Fund

     $18,237        $(53,119     $0        $26,240        $47,718        $0        $17,707        $80,299        $0  

JOHCM International Select Fund

     $97,454,154        $ —         $0        $108,677,435        $21,314        $0        $78,431,569        $0        $0  

Regnan Global Equity Impact Solutions**

     $59,728        $(250,001     $0        $1,555        $16,338        $0        N/A        N/A        N/A  

TSW Emerging Markets Fund

     $55,262        $(84,709     $0        N/A        N/A        N/A        N/A        N/A        N/A  

TSW High Yield Bond Fund

     $54,139        $(135,241     $0        N/A        N/A        N/A        N/A        N/A        N/A  

TSW Large Cap Value Fund***

     $227,840        $(77,784     $0        $284,739        $215,525        $0        $269,150        $194,313        $0  

 

39


*

Formerly, JOHCM Emerging Markets Small Mid Cap Equity Fund.

**

Fund commenced operations on August 23, 2021.

***

Fiscal years ended September 30, 2022; October 31, 2021; and October 31, 2020 and includes amounts paid by the predecessor fund to the predecessor adviser prior to the reorganization. For the fiscal year ended September 30, 2022, amounts earned by the Adviser from the TSW Large Cap Fund were $200,130 with $47,532 of fees waived/reimbursed by the Adviser.

The Subadviser

TSW serves as the subadviser to the TSW Emerging Markets Fund, TSW High Yield Bond Fund, and TSW Large Cap Value Fund (each, a “TSW Fund,” and together, the “TSW Funds”). TSW’s principal place of business is 6641 W. Broad Street, Suite 600, Richmond, Virginia 23230. The Subadviser serves as subadviser pursuant to a subadvisory agreement (the “Subadvisory Agreement”). Under the Subadvisory Agreement, subject to the supervision of the Board and the Adviser, the Subadviser furnishes a continuous investment program for the allocated assets consistent with the TSW Funds’ investment objectives and policies; and places orders pursuant to its investment determinations, as further detailed in the Subadvisory Agreement. TSW is an indirect wholly owned subsidiary of Perpetual Limited.

The Subadvisory Agreement will continue in effect for its initial term until the first anniversary of the date of effectiveness, and thereafter from year to year provided such continuance is specifically approved at least annually (a) by the Board or by a majority of the outstanding voting securities of the Funds (as defined in the 1940 Act), and (b) in either event, by a majority of the Independent Trustees with such Independent Trustees casting votes in person at a meeting called for such purpose. Any party to the Subadvisory Agreement may terminate the Subadvisory Agreement without penalty, in each case on not less than 60 days’ written notice to the other party.

The Subadvisory Agreement provides that the Subadviser will not be liable for any error of judgment, mistake of law or any other act or omission or for any loss arising out of any investment, but the Subadviser is not protected against any liability to the Funds or the Adviser to which the Subadviser would be subject by reason of willful misconduct, bad faith or negligence in the performance of its duties or by reason of its reckless disregard of its obligations and duties under the Subadvisory Agreement.

As compensation for its services, the Adviser pays to TSW a monthly base fee for its services as indicated in the table below (the “Base Subadvisory Fee”). The Base Subadvisory Fee for a TSW Fund may be reduced pro rata by the Adviser to the extent that the Adviser waives fees or reimburses expenses, as described in the Subadvisory Agreement. The amount of such reduction will be calculated by multiplying (a) the amount of the waiver by (b) the ratio between the Base Subadvisory Fee and the investment advisory fee to which the Adviser is entitled under the terms of the Advisory Agreement; provided, however, that the fee payable to the Subadviser will not be less than zero.

 

Fund    Base
Subadvisory
Fee
  Contractual
Advisory
Fee

TSW Emerging Markets Fund

   0.65%   0.80%

TSW High Yield Bond Fund

   0.35%   0.50%

TSW Large Cap Value Fund

   0.43%   0.58%

 

40


Portfolio Manager Holdings

The following table discloses the dollar range of equity securities beneficially owned by each portfolio manager in the Fund(s) the portfolio manager manages as of September 30, 2022.

 

Fund

  

Individual(s)

   Dollar Range of
Equity Securities
 

JOHCM Credit Income Fund

     
   Giorgio Caputo      None  
   Adam Gittes      None  

JOHCM Emerging Markets Opportunities Fund

     
   James Syme*      None  
   Paul Wimborne*      None  
   Ada Chan*      None  

JOHCM Emerging Markets Discovery Fund**

     
   Emery Brewer      $100,001 - $500,000  
   Dr. Ivo Kovachev*      None  
   Stephen Lew      $50,001 - $100,000  

JOHCM Global Income Builder Fund

     
   Giorgio Caputo      Over $1,000,000  
   Adam Gittes      None  
   Robert Hordon      Over $1,000,000  

JOHCM Global Select Fund

     
   Christopher J.D. Lees*      None  
   Nudgem Richyal*      None  

JOHCM International Opportunities Fund

     
   Robert Lancastle*      None  
   Ben Leyland*      None  

JOHCM International Select Fund

     
   Christopher J.D. Lees*      None  
   Nudgem Richyal*      None  

Regnan Global Equity Impact Solutions

     
   Tim Crockford*      None  
   Mohsin Ahmad*      None  

TSW Emerging Markets Fund

     
   Elliott W. Jones      None  

TSW High Yield Bond Fund

     
   William M. Bellamy      None  

TSW Large Cap Value Fund

     
   Bryan F. Durand      None  
   Brett P. Hawkins      $100,001 - $500,000  

 

*

Please note that, as a non-U.S. resident, the Portfolio Manager is unable to invest directly in the Fund.

**

Formerly, JOHCM Emerging Markets Small Mid Cap Equity Fund.

Other Portfolio Manager Information

The portfolio managers are also responsible for managing other account portfolios in addition to the respective Fund that they manage.

 

41


A portfolio manager’s management of other accounts may give rise to potential conflicts of interest in connection with their management of the Fund investments on the one hand and the investments of the other accounts, on the other. The side-by-side management of a Fund and other accounts presents a variety of potential conflicts of interests. For example, the portfolio manager may purchase or sell securities for one portfolio and not another. The performance of securities within one portfolio may differ from the performance of securities in another portfolio.

In some cases, another account managed by the same portfolio manager may compensate the Adviser based on performance of the portfolio held by that account. Performance-based fee arrangements may create an incentive for the Adviser to favor higher-fee-paying accounts over other accounts, including accounts that are charged no performance-based fees, in the allocation of investment opportunities. The Adviser has adopted policies and procedures that seek to mitigate such conflicts and to ensure that all clients are treated fairly and equally.

Another potential conflict could arise in instances in which securities considered as investments for the Funds are also appropriate investments for other investment accounts managed by the Adviser. When a decision is made to buy or sell a security by a Fund and one or more of the other accounts, the adviser may aggregate the purchase or sale of the securities and will allocate the securities transactions in a manner it believes to be equitable under the circumstances. However, a variety of factors can determine whether a particular account may participate in a particular aggregated transaction. Because of such differences, there may be differences in invested positions and securities held in accounts managed according to similar strategies. When aggregating orders, the Adviser employs procedures designed to ensure accounts will be treated in a fair and equitable manner and no account will be favored over any other. The Adviser has implemented specific policies and procedures to address any potential conflicts.

The following tables indicate the number of accounts and asset under management (in millions) for each type of account for each portfolio manager (and research analysts responsible for day-to-day management) as of September 30, 2022. The Funds are not included in the “Registered Investment Companies” total.

Christopher J.D. Lees, Senior Fund Manager, JOHCM Global Select Fund and JOHCM International Select Fund

 

     Number of Accounts      Assets Under Management
(in millions)
 

Account Type

   Total      Subject to a
Performance
Fee
     Total      Subject to a
Performance
Fee
 

Registered Investment Companies

     2        0      $ 1,027.0      $ 0  

Other Pooled Investment Vehicles

     9        4      $ 3,041.0      $ 2,158.5  

Other Accounts

     4        1      $ 1,981.7      $ 752.5  

Total

     15        5      $ 6,049.7      $ 2,911.0  

Nudgem Richyal, Senior Fund Manager, JOHCM Global Select Fund and JOHCM International Select Fund

 

     Number of Accounts      Assets Under Management
(in millions)
 

Account Type

   Total      Subject to a
Performance
Fee
     Total      Subject to a
Performance
Fee
 

Registered Investment Companies

     2        0      $ 1,027.0      $ 0  

Other Pooled Investment Vehicles

     9        4      $ 3,041.0      $ 2,158.5  

Other Accounts

     4        1      $ 1,981.7      $ 752.5  

Total

     15        5      $ 6,049.7      $ 2,911.0  

 

42


James Syme, Senior Fund Manager, JOHCM Emerging Markets Opportunities Fund

 

     Number of Accounts      Assets Under Management
(in millions)
 

Account Type

   Total      Subject to a
Performance
Fee
     Total      Subject to a
Performance
Fee
 

Registered Investment Companies

     0        0      $ 0      $ 0  

Other Pooled Investment Vehicles

     5        2      $ 1,157.3      $ 263.2  

Other Accounts

     1        0      $ 40.9        0  

Total

     6        2      $ 1,198.2      $ 263.2  

Paul Wimborne, Senior Fund Manager, JOHCM Emerging Markets Opportunities Fund

 

     Number of Accounts      Assets Under Management
(in millions)
 

Account Type

   Total      Subject to a
Performance
Fee
     Total      Subject to a
Performance
Fee
 

Registered Investment Companies

     0        0      $ 0      $ 0  

Other Pooled Investment Vehicles

     5        2      $ 1,157.3      $ 263.2  

Other Accounts

     1        0      $ 40.9        0  

Total

     6        2      $ 1,198.2      $ 263.2  

Ada Chan, Fund Manager, JOHCM Emerging Markets Opportunities Fund

 

     Number of Accounts      Assets Under Management
(in millions)
 

Account Type

   Total      Subject to a
Performance
Fee
     Total      Subject to a
Performance
Fee
 

Registered Investment Companies

     0        0      $ 0      $ 0  

Other Pooled Investment Vehicles

     5        2      $ 1,157.3      $ 263.2  

Other Accounts

     1        0      $ 40.9        0  

Total

     6        2      $ 1,198.2      $ 263.2  

Tim Crockford, Senior Fund Manager, Regnan Global Equity Impact Solutions

 

     Number of Accounts      Assets Under Management
(in millions)
 

Account Type

   Total      Subject to a
Performance
Fee
     Total      Subject to a
Performance
Fee
 

Registered Investment Companies

     0        0      $ 0      $ 0  

Other Pooled Investment Vehicles

     3        0      $ 318.0      $ 0  

Other Accounts

     0        0      $ 0      $ 0  

Total

     3        0      $ 318.0      $ 0  

 

43


Mohsin Ahmad, Fund Manager, Regnan Global Equity Impact Solutions

 

     Number of Accounts      Assets Under Management
(in millions)
 

Account Type

   Total      Subject to a
Performance
Fee
     Total      Subject to a
Performance
Fee
 

Registered Investment Companies

     0        0      $ 0      $ 0  

Other Pooled Investment Vehicles

     3        0      $ 318.0      $ 0  

Other Accounts

     0        0      $ 0      $ 0  

Total

     3        0      $ 318.0      $ 0  

Emery Brewer, Senior Fund Manager, JOHCM Emerging Markets Discovery Fund (formerly, JOHCM Emerging Markets Small Mid Cap Equity Fund)

 

     Number of Accounts      Assets Under Management
(in millions)
 

Account Type

   Total      Subject to a
Performance
Fee
     Total      Subject to a
Performance
Fee
 

Registered Investment Companies

     2        0      $ 348.4      $ 0  

Other Pooled Investment Vehicles

     4        2      $ 263.0      $ 153.4  

Other Accounts

     5        3      $ 461.6      $ 298.8  

Total

     11        5      $ 1,073.0      $ 452.2  

Dr. Ivo Kovachev, Senior Fund Manager, JOHCM Emerging Discovery Fund (formerly, JOHCM Emerging Markets Small Mid Cap Equity Fund)

 

     Number of Accounts      Assets Under Management
(in millions)
 

Account Type

   Total      Subject to a
Performance
Fee
     Total      Subject to a
Performance
Fee
 

Registered Investment Companies

     2        0      $ 348.4      $ 0  

Other Pooled Investment Vehicles

     4        2      $ 263.0      $ 153.4  

Other Accounts

     5        3      $ 461.6      $ 298.8  

Total

     11        5      $ 1,073.0      $ 452.2  

Stephen Lew, Senior Fund Manager, JOHCM Emerging Markets Discovery Fund (formerly, JOHCM Emerging Markets Small Mid Cap Equity Fund)

 

     Number of Accounts      Assets Under Management
(in millions)
 

Account Type

   Total      Subject to a
Performance
Fee
     Total      Subject to a
Performance
Fee
 

Registered Investment Companies

     1        0      $ 149.9      $ 0  

Other Pooled Investment Vehicles

     1        1      $ 55.9      $ 55.1  

Other Accounts

     0        0      $ 0      $ 0  

Total

     2        1      $ 205.8      $ 55.1  

 

44


Ben Leyland, Senior Fund Manager, JOHCM International Opportunities Fund

 

     Number of Accounts      Assets Under Management
(in millions)
 

Account Type

   Total      Subject to a
Performance
Fee
     Total      Subject to a
Performance
Fee
 

Registered Investment Companies

     0        0      $ 0      $ 0  

Other Pooled Investment Vehicles

     4        1      $ 3,877.9      $ 600.3  

Other Accounts

     3        0      $ 707.6      $ 0  

Total

     7        1      $ 4,585.5      $ 600.3  

Robert Lancastle, Senior Fund Manager, JOHCM International Opportunities Fund

 

     Number of Accounts      Assets Under Management
(in millions)
 

Account Type

   Total      Subject to a
Performance
Fee
     Total      Subject to a
Performance
Fee
 

Registered Investment Companies

     0        0      $ 0      $ 0  

Other Pooled Investment Vehicles

     4        1      $ 3,877.9      $ 600.3  

Other Accounts

     3        0      $ 527.7      $ 0  

Total

     7        1      $ 4,405.6      $ 600.3  

Giorgio Caputo, Senior Fund Manager, JOHCM Global Income Builder Fund and JOHCM Credit Income Fund

 

     Number of Accounts      Assets Under Management
(in millions)
 

Account Type

   Total      Subject to a
Performance
Fee
     Total      Subject to a
Performance
Fee
 

Registered Investment Companies

     0        0      $ 0      $ 0  

Other Pooled Investment Vehicles

     1        0      $ 162.6      $ 0  

Other Accounts

     0        0      $ 0      $ 0  

Total

     1        0      $ 162.6      $ 0  

Adam Gittes, Senior Fund Manager, JOHCM Global Income Builder Fund and JOHCM Credit Income Fund

 

     Number of Accounts      Assets Under Management
(in millions)
 

Account Type

   Total      Subject to a
Performance
Fee
     Total      Subject to a
Performance
Fee
 

Registered Investment Companies

     0        0      $ 0      $ 0  

Other Pooled Investment Vehicles

     1        0      $ 162.6      $ 0  

Other Accounts

     0        0      $ 0      $ 0  

Total

     1        0      $ 162.6      $ 0  

Robert Hordon, Senior Fund Manager, JOHCM Global Income Builder Fund

 

     Number of Accounts      Assets Under Management
(in millions)
 

Account Type

   Total      Subject to a
Performance
Fee
     Total      Subject to a
Performance
Fee
 

Registered Investment Companies

     0        0      $ 0      $ 0  

Other Pooled Investment Vehicles

     1        0      $ 162.6      $ 0  

Other Accounts

     0        0      $ 0      $ 0  

Total

     1        0      $ 162.6      $ 0  

 

45


Elliott W. Jones, Portfolio Manager, TSW Emerging Markets Fund

 

     Number of Accounts      Assets Under Management
(in millions)
 

Account Type

   Total      Subject to a
Performance
Fee
     Total      Subject to a
Performance
Fee
 

Registered Investment Companies

     0        0      $ 0      $ 0  

Other Pooled Investment Vehicles

     0        0      $ 0      $ 0  

Other Accounts

     0        0      $ 0      $ 0  

Total

     0        0      $ 0      $ 0  

William M. Bellamy, Portfolio Manager, TSW High Yield Bond Fund

 

     Number of Accounts      Assets Under Management
(in millions)
 

Account Type

   Total      Subject to a
Performance
Fee
     Total      Subject to a
Performance
Fee
 

Registered Investment Companies

     1        0      $ 623.9      $ 0  

Other Pooled Investment Vehicles

     0        0      $ 0      $ 0  

Other Accounts

     24        0      $ 180.2      $ 0  

Total

     25        0      $ 804.1      $ 0  

Brett P. Hawkins, Co-Portfolio Manager, TSW Large Cap Value Fund

 

     Number of Accounts      Assets Under Management
(in millions)
 

Account Type

   Total      Subject to a
Performance
Fee
     Total      Subject to a
Performance
Fee
 

Registered Investment Companies

     5        0      $ 2,121.3      $ 0  

Other Pooled Investment Vehicles

     3        0      $ 233.8      $ 0  

Other Accounts

     31        0      $ 2,278.9      $ 0  

Total

     39        0      $ 4,634.0      $ 0  

Bryan F. Durand, Co-Portfolio Manager, TSW Large Cap Value Fund

 

     Number of Accounts      Assets Under Management
(in millions)
 

Account Type

   Total      Subject to a
Performance
Fee
     Total      Subject to a
Performance
Fee
 

Registered Investment Companies

     0        0      $ 0      $ 0  

Other Pooled Investment Vehicles

     0        0      $ 0      $ 0  

Other Accounts

     2        0      $ 8.5      $ 0  

Total

     2        0      $ 8.5      $ 0  

Portfolio Manager Compensation

JOHCM USA

JOHCM USA compensates the portfolio managers for their management of the Funds. The portfolio managers’ compensation consists of a combination of some or all of the following: a base salary, a revenue share (proportion of the management fee generated as well as performance fees earned by the firm from the non-U.S. mutual fund portfolios they manage), and equity interest in the firm.

 

46


TSW

TSW compensates the TSW Fund’s portfolio managers for their management of the Funds. TSW compensation strategy is to provide competitive base salaries commensurate with an individual’s responsibility and provide incentive bonus awards that may significantly exceed base salary. Annually, the TSW compensation committee is responsible for determining the discretionary bonuses, utilizing an analytical and qualitative assessment process. While it is not a formulaic decision, factors used to determine compensation include: overall firm success, investment team performance and individual contribution. A portion of the bonus (up to 35%) may be deferred into the stock of Perpetual, TSW Funds or a combination of the two. All qualified employees participate in the TSW Employees’ Retirement Plan.

Fund Services

The Northern Trust Company, 50 South LaSalle Street, Chicago, Illinois 60603, serves as the Administrator (“Administrator”) for the Funds and serves as the Funds’ Transfer Agent, Custodian, and Fund Accounting Agent. The Custodian acts as the Trust’s depository, provides safekeeping of its portfolio securities, collects all income and other payments with respect thereto, disburses funds at the Trust’s request, and maintains records in connection with its duties. The Transfer Agent maintains the records of each shareholder’s account, answers shareholders’ inquiries concerning their accounts, processes purchases and redemptions of Fund shares, acts as dividend and distribution disbursing agent, and performs other accounting and shareholder service functions. The fees and certain expenses of the Transfer Agent, Custodian, Fund Accounting Agent, and Administrator are paid by the Funds.

The Administration Fees paid by each Fund (or the Predecessor Funds for periods prior to the reorganizations) to the Administrator, for the last three fiscal years, inclusive of certain ancillary administration support fees related to Form N-PORT, are set forth in the table below:

 

     Fiscal Year Ended
September 30, 2022
     Fiscal Year Ended
September 30, 2021
     Fiscal Year Ended
September 30, 2020
 

Fund

   Fees Earned     Fees
Waived/
Reimbursed
     Fees
Earned
     Fees
Waived/
Reimbursed
     Fees Earned      Fees
Waived/
Reimbursed
 

JOHCM Credit Income Fund1

   $ 21,497     $ 6,765      $ 141,815      $ 122,906      $ 20,945      $ 18,259  

JOHCM Emerging Markets Discovery Fund2

   $ 97,160     $ 15,513      $ 161,251      $ 34,726      $ 213,825      $ 4,470  

JOHCM Emerging Markets Opportunities Fund

   $ 407,048     $ 70,471      $ 708,071      $ 103,301      $ 726,112      $ 0  

JOHCM Global Income Builder

   $ 46,347     $ 7,857      $ 155,782      $ 102,436      $ 182,634      $ 15,646  

JOHCM Global Select Fund

   $ 178,669     $ 7,309      $ 267,318      $ 31,772      $ 287,283      $ 0  

JOHCM International Opportunities Fund

   $ 18,215     $ 6,591      $ 145,756      $ 121,852      $ 173,289      $ 120,847  

JOHCM International Select Fund

   $ 3,735,835     $ 135,415      $ 5,829,086      $ 671,811      $ 5,517,310      $ 0  

Regnan Global Equity Impact Solutions3

   $ 29,864     $ 0      $ 3,165      $ 0        N/A        N/A  

TSW Emerging Markets Fund4

   $ 11,811     $ 0        N/A        N/A        N/A        N/A  

TSW High Yield Bond Fund5

   $ 13,252     $ 0        N/A        N/A        N/A        N/A  

TSW Large Cap Value Fund6

   $ 48,097 *    $ 0        125,002      $ 0      $ 125,344      $ 0  

 

1 

Fund commenced operations on August 17, 2020.

2

Formerly, JOHCM Emerging Markets Small Mid Cap Equity Fund.

3 

Fund commenced operations on August 23, 2021.

4

For the period from December 21, 2021, commencement of operations, to September 30, 2022.

5

For the period from October 26, 2021, commencement of operations, to September 30, 2022.

6 

Fiscal year ended October 31 and represent amounts paid to the Predecessor Fund’s administrator SEI Investments Global Fund Services.

* 

For the period from November 1, 2021 to September 30, 2022.

 

47


For fiscal years ended September 30, 2022, September 30, 2021, and September 30, 2020, the Funds (or the Predecessor Funds for periods prior to the reorganizations) paid to Foreside Management Services, LLC, Foreside Financial Group, LLC, and Foreside Fund Officer Services, LLC (compliance and financial control services service provider) the following fees:

 

     Fiscal Year Ended
September 30, 2022
     Fiscal Year Ended
September 30, 2021
     Fiscal Year Ended
September 30, 2020
 

Fund

   Fees
Earned
     Fees
Waived/
Reimbursed
     Fees
Earned
     Fees
Waived/
Reimbursed
     Fees
Earned
     Fees
Waived/
Reimbursed
 

JOHCM Credit Income Fund1

   $ 213        N/A      $ 553        N/A      $ 125        N/A  

JOHCM Emerging Markets Discovery Fund2

   $ 1,536        N/A      $ 5,230        N/A      $ 4,880        N/A  

JOHCM Emerging Markets Opportunities Fund

   $ 27,221        N/A      $ 81,373        N/A      $ 91,577        N/A  

JOHCM Global Select Fund

   $ 16,259        N/A      $ 56,998        N/A      $ 63,778        N/A  

JOHCM Global Income Builder

   $ 3,003        N/A      $ 9,344        N/A      $ 14,237        N/A  

JOHCM International Opportunities Fund

   $ 86        N/A      $ 381        N/A      $ 316        N/A  

JOHCM International Select Fund

   $ 380,976        N/A      $ 1,245,133        N/A      $ 1,363,310        N/A  

Regnan Global Equity Impact Solutions3

   $ 290        N/A      $ 7        N/A        N/A        N/A  

TSW Emerging Markets
Fund4

   $ 268        N/A        N/A        N/A        N/A        N/A  

TSW High Yield Bond Fund

   $ 409        N/A        N/A        N/A        N/A        N/A  

TSW Large Cap Value Fund5

   $ 1,931        N/A        N/A        N/A        N/A        N/A  

 

1 

Fund commenced operations on August 17, 2020.

2

Formerly, JOHCM Emerging Markets Small Mid Cap Equity Fund.

3

Fund commenced operations on August 23, 2021.

4

For the period from December 21, 2021, commencement of operations, to September 30, 2022.

5

For the period from October 26, 2021, commencement of operations, to September 30, 2022.

* 

For the period from November 1, 2021 to September 30, 2022.

Prior to July 19, 2021, Carne Global Financial Services (US) LLC (“Carne”) provided Risk Management and Oversight Services for the below Predecessor Funds pursuant to a written agreement between Advisers Investment Trust, on behalf of the relevant Predecessor Funds, and Carne, including providing the Risk Officer to the Predecessor Funds to administer the fund risk program and oversee the analysis of investment performance and performance of service providers. The fees were paid by the Predecessor Funds.

 

48


For fiscal years ended September 30, 2021 and September 30, 2020, each applicable Predecessor Fund paid Carne the following fees pursuant to this agreement:

 

     Fiscal Year Ended
September 30, 2021
     Fiscal Year Ended
September 30, 2020
 

Fund

   Fees
Earned
     Fees
Waived/
Reimbursed
     Fees
Earned
     Fees
Waived/
Reimbursed
 

JOHCM Credit Income Fund1

   $ 0        N/A        43        N/A  

JOHCM Emerging Markets Opportunities Fund

   $ 3,928        N/A        5,332        N/A  

JOHCM Emerging Markets Discovery Fund

   $ 254        N/A        285        N/A  

JOHCM Global Select Fund

   $ 2,756        N/A        3,730        N/A  

JOHCM Global Income Builder Fund

   $ 449        N/A        811        N/A  

JOHCM International Opportunities Fund

   $ 18        N/A        21        N/A  

JOHCM International Select Fund

   $ 59,440        N/A        80,074        N/A  

 

1 

Fund commenced operations on August 17, 2020.

Distributor

JOHCM Funds Distributors, LLC, the Distributor, an affiliate of Foreside Financial Group, LLC (d/b/a ACA Group), located at 3 Canal Plaza, Suite 100, Portland, Maine 04101, provides distribution services to the Funds pursuant to a distribution agreement with the Trust. Under its agreement with the Trust, the Distributor acts as an agent of the Trust in connection with the offering of the shares of the Funds on a continuous basis. The Distributor has no obligation to sell any specific quantity of Fund shares. The Distributor, and its officers, have no role in determining each Funds’ investment policies or which securities to buy or sell.

The Distributor may enter into agreements with selected broker-dealers, banks, or other financial institutions for distribution of shares of the Funds. The Trust in its discretion also may from time to time, subject to applicable law, issue shares of the Funds other than through the Distributor.

Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

The firm of PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, One North Wacker Drive, Chicago, Illinois 60606, serves as the independent registered public accounting firm for the Funds in accordance with the requirements of the 1940 Act and the rules thereunder. PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP provides audit services, audit-related services, tax services and other services relating to SEC filings.

BROKERAGE ALLOCATION AND OTHER PRACTICES

Subject to policies established by the Board of Trustees, the Adviser or the Subadviser is responsible for each Fund’s portfolio decisions and the placing of the Fund’s portfolio transactions. In placing portfolio transactions, the Adviser or the Subadviser seek the best qualitative execution, taking into account such factors as price (including the applicable brokerage commission or dealer spread), the execution capability, financial responsibility, and responsiveness of the broker or dealer and the brokerage and research services provided by the broker or dealer. The Adviser or the Subadviser generally seek favorable prices and commission rates that are reasonable in relation to the benefits received.

All decisions concerning the purchase and sale of securities and the allocation of brokerage commissions on behalf of the Funds are made by the Adviser or the Subadviser. In selecting broker-dealers to use for such transactions, the Adviser or the Subadviser will seek to achieve the best overall result for a Fund taking into consideration a range of factors that include not just price, but also the broker’s reliability, reputation in the industry, financial standing, infrastructure, research and execution services and ability to accommodate special transaction needs. The Adviser or the Subadviser will use knowledge of each Fund’s circumstances and requirements to determine the factors that the Adviser or the Subadviser takes into account for the purpose of providing each Fund with “best execution.”

Under a participating affiliate arrangement, JOHCM USA may borrow personnel and resources from its affiliates, JOH Ltd., to execute trades for the Funds. JOHCM USA may utilize this arrangement for both United Kingdom securities and non-United Kingdom securities for all JOHCM Funds, including JOHCM Funds which are otherwise managed by portfolio management teams based in the United States.

 

49


Over-the-counter transactions will be placed either directly with principal market makers or with broker-dealers, if the same or a better price, including commissions and executions, is available. Fixed income securities are normally purchased directly from the issuer, an underwriter, or a market maker. Purchases include a concession paid by the issuer to the underwriter and the purchase price paid to a market maker may include the spread between the bid and asked prices.

The following table shows the dollar amount of brokerage commissions paid by the below Funds (or the Predecessor Funds for periods prior to the reorganizations) to firms that provided research and brokerage services and the approximate dollar amount of transactions involved during the fiscal years ended September 30, 2022, September 30, 2021, and September 30, 2020 (unless indicated otherwise below).

 

Fund

   Fiscal Year Ended
September 30, 2022
     Fiscal Year Ended
September 30, 2021
     Fiscal Year Ended
September 30, 2020
 

JOHCM Credit Income Fund1

   $ 102      $ 356      $ 138  

JOHCM Emerging Markets Discovery Fund2

   $ 84,516      $ 145,291      $ 78,166  

JOHCM Emerging Markets Opportunities Fund

   $ 441,741      $ 401,947      $ 478,744  

JOHCM Global Income Builder Fund

   $ 91,122      $ 59,792      $ 62,259  

JOHCM Global Select Fund

   $ 332,534      $ 307,844      $ 188,699  

JOHCM International Opportunities Fund

   $ 1,767      $ 1,192      $ 1,314  

JOHCM International Select Fund

   $ 6,592,201      $ 6,718,542      $ 4,182,367  

Regnan Global Equity Impact Solutions3

   $ 6,720      $ 811        N/A  

TSW Emerging Markets Fund4

   $ 9,713        N/A        N/A  

TSW High Yield Bond Fund5

   $ 0        N/A        N/A  

TSW Large Cap Value Fund*

   $ 13,287      $ 237,957      $ 25,692  

 

1 

Fund commenced operations on August 17, 2020.

2

Formerly, JOHCM Emerging Markets Small Mid Cap Equity Fund.

3

Fund commenced operations on August 23, 2021.

4

Fund commenced operations on December 21, 2021.

5

Fund commenced operations on October 26, 2021.

*

For the period November 1, 2021 through September 30, 2022 and the fiscal years ended October 31, 2021, and October 31, 2020, respectively.

During the fiscal year ended September 30, 2022, the Funds acquired and sold securities of the following regular broker/dealers and at year end owned the amounts of securities of such regular broker/dealers, as defined in Rule 10b-1 under the 1940 Act, or their parent companies as noted in the table below.

 

Fund

   Name of Regular
Broker/Dealer of which
the Fund Held Securities
   Market Value as of
September 30, 2022
 

JOHCM Credit Income Fund

   JPMorgan Chase & Co.    $ 105,000  

JOHCM Global Income Builder Fund

   JPMorgan Chase & Co.    $ 903,129  

DISCLOSURE OF PORTFOLIO HOLDINGS

The Funds will not disclose (or authorize the Custodian or principal underwriter to disclose) portfolio holdings information to any person or entity except as follows:

 

   

To persons providing services to the Funds who have a need to know such information in order to fulfill their obligations to the Funds, such as portfolio managers, administrators, custodians, pricing services, proxy voting services, accounting and auditing services, liquidity vendors, and research and trading services, and the Trust’s Board of Trustees;

 

   

In connection with periodic reports that are available to shareholders and the public;

 

   

To mutual fund rating or statistical agencies or persons performing similar functions;

 

50


   

Pursuant to a regulatory request or as otherwise required by law; or

 

   

To persons approved in writing by the CCO or President of the Trust.

Monthly top ten holdings and active weightings for each Fund are available on its website (www.johcm.com/us/our-funds) and on TSW’s website (https://www.tswinvest.com/strategies) 15 calendar days after each month-end. In addition to this monthly disclosure, each Fund may also make publicly available its portfolio holdings at other dates as may be determined from time to time. To find the top ten holdings and active weightings for each Fund, click on “Asset Allocation” in the right hand column next to the Fund. The same information is also available by calling the Trust at 866-260-9549 (toll free) or 312-557-5913.

A complete listing of quarter-end portfolio holdings for each Fund is available on its website (www.johcm.com/us/our-funds) and on TSW’s website (https://www.tswinvest.com/strategies) 10 calendar days after each quarter-end. To find the quarter end portfolio holdings for each Fund, click on “Overview” in the right hand column next to the Fund and then click on “Quarterly Holdings” next to “Fund Material”. The same information is also available by calling the Trust at 866-260-9549 (toll free) or 312-557-5913. The Funds will disclose portfolio holdings quarterly, in the annual and semi-annual Reports, as well as in filings with the SEC, in each case no later than 60 days after the end of the applicable fiscal period.

Pursuant to policies and procedures adopted by the Board of Trustees, the Funds have ongoing arrangements to release portfolio holdings information on a daily basis to the Adviser, the Subadviser, Administrator, Transfer Agent, Fund Accounting Agent, and Custodian and on an as needed basis to other third parties providing services to the Funds. The Adviser, the Subadviser, Administrator, Transfer Agent, Fund Accounting Agent and Custodian receive portfolio holdings information daily in order to carry out the essential operations of the Funds. The Funds disclose portfolio holdings to their auditors, legal counsel, proxy voting services (if applicable), pricing services, printers, parties to merger and reorganization agreements and their agents, and prospective or newly hired investment advisers or sub-advisers. The lag between the date of the information and the date on which the information is disclosed will vary based on the identity of the party to whom the information is disclosed. For instance, the information may be provided to auditors within days of the end of an annual period, while the information may be given to legal counsel at any time. The Funds, the Adviser, the Subadviser, the Transfer Agent, the Fund Accounting Agent, and the Custodian, are prohibited from entering into any special or ad hoc arrangements with any person to make available information about the Funds’ portfolio holdings without the specific approval of the Trust’s CCO or President. Any party wishing to release portfolio holdings information on an ad hoc or special basis must submit any proposed arrangement to the CCO, which will review the arrangement to determine (i) whether the arrangement is in the best interests of the Funds’ shareholders, (ii) whether the information will be kept confidential (based on the factors discussed below), (iii) whether sufficient protections are in place to guard against personal trading based on the information, and (iv) whether the disclosure presents a conflict of interest between the interests of Fund shareholders and those of the Adviser, the Subadviser, or any affiliated person of the Funds, the Adviser or the Subadviser. The CCO will provide to the Board of Trustees on a quarterly basis a report regarding all portfolio holdings information released on an ad hoc or special basis. Additionally, the Adviser and any affiliated persons of the Adviser, are prohibited from receiving compensation or other consideration, for themselves or on behalf of the Funds, as a result of disclosing the Funds’ portfolio holdings. The Trust’s CCO monitors compliance with these procedures, and reviews their effectiveness on an annual basis.

Information disclosed to third parties, whether on an ongoing or ad hoc basis, is disclosed under conditions of confidentiality. “Conditions of confidentiality” include (i) confidentiality clauses in written agreements, (ii) confidentiality implied by the nature of the relationship (e.g., attorney-client relationship), (iii) confidentiality required by fiduciary or regulatory principles (e.g., custody relationships) or (iv) understandings or expectations between the parties that the information will be kept confidential. The agreements with the Funds’ Adviser, Subadviser, Transfer Agent, Fund Accounting Agent, and Custodian contain confidentiality clauses, which the Board and these parties have determined extend to the disclosure of nonpublic information about the Funds’ portfolio holdings and the duty not to trade on the non-public information. The Trust believes that these are reasonable procedures to protect the confidentiality of the Funds’ portfolio holdings and will provide sufficient protection against personal trading based on the information.

Portfolio Turnover

The JOHCM Credit Income Fund showed significant variations in portfolio turnover rates between fiscal years 2020 and 2021. The variation in portfolio turnover between the 2020 and 2021 fiscal years is due to the fact that the Fund’s 2020 measurement period was August 17, 2020 (commencement of operations) through September 30, 2020 and does not represent a full fiscal year. Additionally, portfolio repositioning during the 2021 fiscal year resulted in a higher portfolio turnover rate than is anticipated under normal circumstances.

The Regnan Global Equity Impact Solutions Fund showed significant variations in portfolio turnover rates between fiscal years 2021 and 2022. Compared with the initial fiscal period from August 23, 2021, commencement of operations, to September 30, 2021, the Fund experienced a significant increase in its portfolio turnover rate to 49.28% for the fiscal year ended 2022, which the portfolio managers consider to be more typical for the Fund.

 

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DETERMINATION OF SHARE PRICE

The price (NAV) of the shares of each Fund is determined at the close of trading of the NYSE, normally 4:00 p.m. ET/3:00 p.m. CT except for the following days on which the share price of each Fund is not calculated: Saturdays and Sundays; U.S. national holidays including New Year’s Day, Martin Luther King, Jr. Day, Presidents’ Day, Good Friday, Memorial Day, Juneteenth National Independence Day, Independence Day, Labor Day, Thanksgiving Day, and Christmas Day.

Security prices are generally provided by a third party pricing service approved by the Trustees as of the close of the NYSE, normally at 4:00 pm ET, each business day on which the share price of the Funds are calculated (as defined in each Fund’s prospectus).

Equity securities (including options, rights, warrants, futures, and options on futures) traded in the over-the-counter market or on a primary exchange shall be valued at the closing price or last trade price, as applicable, as determined by the primary exchange. If no sale occurred on the valuation date, the securities will be valued at the latest quotations available from the designated pricing vendor as of the closing of the primary exchange. Significant bid-ask spreads, or infrequent trading may indicate a lack of readily available market quotations. Securities traded on more than one exchange will first be valued at the last sale price on the principal exchange, and then the secondary exchange. The NASD National Market System is considered an exchange. Investments in other open-end registered investment companies are valued at their respective NAV as reported by such companies.

Fixed-income securities will be valued at the latest quotations available from the designated pricing vendor. These quotations will be derived by an approved independent pricing service based on their proprietary calculation models. In the event that market quotations are not readily available for short-term debt instruments, securities with less than 61 days to maturity may be valued at amortized cost as long as there are no credit or other impairments of the issuer.

In the event an approved pricing service is unable to provide a readily available quotation, the security may be priced by an alternative source, such as a broker who covers the security and can provide a daily market quotation. The appropriateness of the alternative source, such as the continued use of the broker, will be reviewed and ratified quarterly by the Fund’s Adviser in its Board-appointed role as valuation designee. For any security for which quotations are (1) not readily available, (2) not provided by an approved pricing service or broker, or (3) determined to not accurately reflect their value, such security’s fair value will be determined by the Adviser, with oversight by the Board, using procedures approved by the Board.

Non-U.S. securities, currencies and other assets and liabilities denominated in non-U.S. currencies are translated into U.S. dollars at the exchange rate of such currencies against the U.S. dollar, as of valuation time, as provided by an independent pricing service approved by the Board.

REDEMPTION IN-KIND

The Funds ordinarily do not intend to redeem shares in any form except cash. However, if the amount redeemed is over the lesser of $250,000 or 1% of a Fund’s net assets, each Fund has the right to redeem shares by giving the redeeming shareholder the amount that exceeds the lesser of $250,000 or 1% of the Fund’s net assets in securities instead of cash. In the event that an in-kind distribution is made, a shareholder may incur additional expenses, such as the payment of brokerage commissions, on the sale or other disposition of the securities received from a Fund.

 

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TAX CONSIDERATIONS

The following tax information supplements and should be read in conjunction with the tax information contained in each Fund’s Prospectus. The Prospectus generally describes the U.S. federal income tax treatment of each Fund and its shareholders. This section of the SAI provides additional information concerning U.S. federal income taxes. It is based on the Code, applicable U.S. Treasury Regulations, judicial authority, and administrative rulings and practice, all as in effect as of the date of this SAI and all of which are subject to change, including with retroactive effect. The following discussion is only a summary of some of the important U.S. federal tax considerations generally applicable to investments in each Fund. There may be other tax considerations applicable to particular shareholders. Shareholders should consult their own tax advisers regarding their particular situation and the possible application of foreign, state and local tax laws.

Special tax rules apply to investments through defined contribution plans and other tax-qualified plans or tax-advantaged arrangements. Shareholders should consult their tax advisers to determine the suitability of Fund shares as an investment through such plans and arrangements and the precise effect of an investment on their particular tax situation.

Qualification as a Regulated Investment Company

Each Fund has elected or will elect to be treated as a regulated investment company (“RIC”) under Subchapter M of the Code and intends each year to qualify and to be eligible to be treated as such. In order to qualify for the special tax treatment accorded RICs and their shareholders, each Fund must, among other things: (a) derive at least 90% of its gross income for each taxable year from: (i) dividends, interest, payments with respect to certain securities loans, and gains from the sale or other disposition of stock, securities or foreign currencies, or other income (including but not limited to gains from options, futures, or forward contracts) derived with respect to its business of investing in such stock, securities, or currencies; and (ii) net income derived from interests in “qualified publicly traded partnerships” (as defined below); (b) diversify its holdings so that, at the end of each quarter of the Fund’s taxable year: (i) at least 50% of the fair market value of its total assets consists of: (A) cash and cash items (including receivables), U.S. government securities and securities of other RICs; and (B) other securities (other than those described in clause (A)) limited in respect of any one issuer to a value that does not exceed 5% of the value of the Fund’s total assets and 10% of the outstanding voting securities of such issuer; and (ii) not more than 25% of the value of the Fund’s total assets is invested, including through corporations in which the Fund owns a 20% or more voting stock interest, in the securities of any one issuer (other than those described in clause (i)(A)), the securities (other than securities of other RICs) of two or more issuers the Fund controls and which are engaged in the same, similar, or related trades or businesses, or the securities of one or more qualified publicly traded partnerships; and (c) distribute with respect to each taxable year at least 90% of the sum of its investment company taxable income (as that term is defined in the Code without regard to the deduction for dividends paid—generally taxable ordinary income and the excess, if any, of net short-term capital gains over net long-term capital losses, taking into account any capital loss carryforwards) and its net tax-exempt income, for such year.

In general, for purposes of the 90% gross income requirement described in (a) above, income derived from a partnership will be treated as qualifying income only to the extent such income is attributable to items of income of the partnership which would be qualifying income if realized directly by the RIC. However, 100% of the net income derived from an interest in a “qualified publicly traded partnership” (generally defined as a partnership (x) the interests in which are traded on an established securities market or are readily tradable on a secondary market or the substantial equivalent thereof, and (y) that derives less than 90% of its income from the qualifying income described in paragraph (a)(i) above) will be treated as qualifying income. In general, such entities will be treated as partnerships for federal income tax purposes because they meet the passive income requirement under Code section 7704(c)(2). In addition, although in general the passive loss rules of the Code do not apply to RICs, such rules do apply to a RIC with respect to items attributable to an interest in a qualified publicly traded partnership. Certain of a Fund’s investments in MLPs and ETFs, if any, may qualify as interests in qualified publicly traded partnerships.

For purposes of the diversification test in (b) above, the term “outstanding voting securities of such issuer” will include the equity securities of a qualified publicly traded partnership and in the case of a Fund’s investments in loan participations, the Fund shall treat both the financial intermediary and the issuer of the underlying loan as an issuer. Also, for purposes of the diversification test in (b) above, the identification of the issuer (or, in some cases, issuers) of a particular Fund investment can depend on the terms and conditions of that investment. In some cases, identification of the issuer (or issuers) is uncertain undercurrent law, and an adverse determination or future guidance by the Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”) with respect to issuer identification for a particular type of investment may adversely affect a Fund’s ability to meet the diversification test in (b) above. The qualifying income and diversification requirements described above may limit the extent to which a Fund can engage in certain derivative transactions, as well as the extent to which it can invest in MLPs and certain commodity-linked ETFs.

If a Fund qualifies as a RIC that is accorded special tax treatment, the Fund will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax on investment company taxable income and net capital gain (i.e., the excess of net long-term capital gain over net short-term capital loss, determined with reference to any capital loss carryforwards) distributed in a timely manner to its shareholders in the form of dividends (including Capital Gain Dividends, as defined below).

 

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If a Fund were to fail to meet the income, diversification or distribution test described above, the Fund could in some cases cure such failure, including by paying a Fund-level tax, paying interest, making additional distributions, or disposing of certain assets. If the Fund were ineligible to or otherwise did not cure such failure for any year, or if the Fund were otherwise to fail to qualify as a RIC accorded special tax treatment for such year, the Fund would be subject to tax on its taxable income at corporate rates, and all distributions from earnings and profits, including any distributions of net tax-exempt income (if any) and net long-term capital gains, would be taxable to shareholders as ordinary income. Some portions of such distributions may be eligible for the dividends-received deduction in the case of corporate shareholders and may be eligible to be treated as “qualified dividend income” in the case of shareholders taxed as individuals, provided, in both cases, the shareholder meets certain holding period and other requirements in respect of the Fund’s shares (as described below). In addition, a Fund could be required to recognize unrealized gains, pay substantial taxes and interest and make substantial distributions before re-qualifying as a RIC that is accorded special tax treatment.

Each Fund intends to distribute at least annually to its shareholders all or substantially all of its investment company taxable income (computed without regard to the dividends-paid deduction), its net tax-exempt income (if any), and its net capital gain (that is, the excess of net long-term capital gain over net short-term capital loss, in each case determined with reference to any loss carryforwards). However, no assurance can be given that a Fund will not be subject to U.S. federal income taxation. Any taxable income, including any net capital gain retained by a Fund, will be subject to tax at the Fund level at regular corporate rates.

In the case of net capital gain, each Fund is permitted to designate the retained amount as undistributed capital gain in a timely notice to its shareholders who would then, in turn, be: (i) required to include in income for U.S. federal income tax purposes, as long-term capital gain, their shares of such undistributed amount; and (ii) entitled to credit their proportionate shares of the tax paid by the Fund on such undistributed amount against their U.S. federal income tax liabilities, if any, and to claim refunds on a properly-filed U.S. tax return to the extent the credit exceeds such liabilities. If a Fund makes this designation, for U.S. federal income tax purposes, the tax basis of shares owned by a shareholder of the Fund would be increased by an amount equal to the difference between the amount of undistributed capital gains included in the shareholder’s gross income under clause (i) of the preceding sentence and the tax deemed paid by the shareholder under clause (ii) of the preceding sentence. A Fund is not required to, and there can be no assurance a Fund will, make this designation if it retains all or a portion of its net capital gain in a taxable year.

In determining its net capital gain, including in connection with determining the amount available to support a Capital Gain Dividend (as defined below), its taxable income, and its earnings and profits, a RIC generally may elect to treat part or all of any post-October capital loss (defined as any net capital loss attributable to the portion of the taxable year after October 31 or, if there is no such loss, the net long-term capital loss or net short-term capital loss attributable to any such portion of the taxable year) or late-year ordinary loss (generally, the sum of its: (i) net ordinary loss from the sale, exchange or other taxable disposition of property, attributable to the portion of the taxable year after October 31, and (ii) other net ordinary loss attributable to the portion, if any, of the taxable year after December 31) as if incurred in the succeeding taxable year.

In order to comply with the distribution requirements described above applicable to RICs, a Fund generally must make the distributions in the same taxable year that it realizes the income and gain, although in certain circumstances, a Fund may make the distributions in the following taxable year in respect of income and gains from the prior taxable year.

If a Fund declares a distribution to shareholders of record in October, November, or December of one calendar year and pays the distribution in January of the following calendar year, the Fund and its shareholders will be treated as if the Fund paid the distribution on December 31 of the earlier year.

Excise Tax

If a Fund were to fail to distribute in a calendar year at least an amount equal to the sum of 98% of its ordinary income for such year and 98.2% of its capital gain net income for the one-year period ending October 31 of such year (or December 31 of that year if the Fund is permitted to elect and so elects), plus any such amounts retained from the prior year, the Fund would be subject to a nondeductible 4% excise tax on the undistributed amounts.

Each Fund intends generally to make distributions sufficient to avoid the imposition of the 4% excise tax. However, no assurance can be given that a Fund will not be subject to the excise tax.

For purposes of the required excise tax distribution, a RIC’s ordinary gains and losses from the sale, exchange or other taxable disposition of property that would otherwise be taken into account after October 31 of a calendar year generally are treated as arising on January 1 of the following calendar year, in the case of a Fund with a December 31 year end that is eligible to make and makes the election described above, no such gains or losses will be so treated. Also, for these purposes, a Fund will be treated as having distributed any amount on which it is subject to corporate income tax in the taxable year ending within the calendar year.

 

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Capital Loss Carryforwards

Capital losses in excess of capital gains (“net capital losses”) are not permitted to be deducted against a Fund’s net investment income. Instead, potentially subject to certain limitations, each Fund is able to carry forward a net capital loss from any taxable year to offset its capital gains, if any, realized during a subsequent taxable year. Distributions from capital gains are generally made after applying any available capital loss carryforwards. Capital loss carryforwards are reduced to the extent they offset current-year net realized capital gains, whether the Fund retains or distributes such gains.

If a Fund incurs or has incurred net capital losses, those losses will be carried forward to one or more subsequent taxable years without expiration; any such carryover losses will retain their character as short-term or long-term.

See each Fund’s most recent annual shareholder report for each Fund’s available capital loss carryforwards, if any, as of the end of its most recently ended fiscal year.

Fund Distributions

For U.S. federal income tax purposes, distributions of investment income generally are taxable to shareholders as ordinary income. Taxes on distributions of capital gains are determined by how long a Fund owned (or is deemed to have owned) the investments that generated them, rather than how long a shareholder has owned his or her shares. In general, a Fund will recognize long-term capital gain or loss on investments it has owned for more than one year, and short-term capital gain or loss on investments it has owned for one year or less. Tax rules can alter a Fund’s holding period in investments and thereby affect the tax treatment of gain or loss on such investments. Distributions of net capital gain that are properly reported by a Fund as capital gain dividends (“Capital Gain Dividends”) will be taxable to shareholders as long-term capital gains includible in net capital gain and taxed to individuals at reduced rates relative to ordinary income. The IRS and the Department of the Treasury have issued regulations that impose special rules in respect of Capital Gain Dividends received through partnership interests constituting “applicable partnership interests” under Section 1061 of the Code. Distributions from capital gains generally are made after applying any available capital loss carryforwards. Distributions of net short-term capital gain (as reduced by any net long-term capital loss for the taxable year) will be taxable to shareholders as ordinary income. Distributions of investment income reported by a Fund as derived from “qualified dividend income” will be taxed in the hands of individuals at the rates applicable to net capital gain, provided holding period and other requirements are met at both the shareholder and Fund level.

The Code generally imposes a 3.8% Medicare contribution tax on the net investment income of certain individuals, trusts and estates to the extent their income exceeds certain threshold amounts. For these purposes, “net investment income” generally includes, among other things: (i) distributions paid by a Fund of net investment income and capital gains as described above; and (ii) any net gain from the sale, exchange or other taxable disposition of Fund shares. Shareholders are advised to consult their tax advisors regarding the possible implications of this additional tax on their investment in a Fund.

As required by federal law, detailed federal tax information with respect to each calendar year will be furnished to each shareholder early in the succeeding year.

If, in and with respect to any taxable year, a Fund makes a distribution to a shareholder in excess of the Fund’s current and accumulated earnings and profits, the excess distribution will be treated as a return of capital to the extent of such shareholder’s tax basis in its shares, and thereafter as capital gain. A return of capital is not taxable, but it reduces a shareholder’s tax basis in its shares, thus reducing any loss or increasing any gain on a subsequent taxable disposition by the shareholder of its shares. To the extent a Fund makes distributions of capital gains in excess of the Fund’s net capital gain for the taxable year (as reduced by any available capital loss carryforwards from prior taxable years), there is a possibility that the distributions will be taxable as ordinary dividend distributions, even though distributed excess amounts would not have been subject to tax if retained by the Fund.

Distributions are taxable as described herein whether shareholders receive them in cash or reinvest them in additional shares.

A dividend paid to shareholders in January generally is deemed to have been paid by a Fund on December 31 of the preceding year, if the dividend was declared and payable to shareholders of record on a date in October, November or December of that preceding year.

 

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Distributions on a Fund’s shares generally are subject to U.S. federal income tax as described herein to the extent they do not exceed the Fund’s realized income and gains, even though such distributions may economically represent a return of a particular shareholder’s investment. Such distributions are likely to occur in respect of shares purchased at a time when the Fund’s NAV reflects either unrealized gains, or realized but undistributed income or gains, that were therefore included in the price the shareholder paid. Such distributions may reduce the fair market value of the Fund’s shares below the shareholder’s cost basis in those shares. As described above, a Fund is required to distribute realized income and gains regardless of whether the Fund’s NAV also reflects unrealized losses.

In order for some portion of the dividends received by a Fund shareholder to be “qualified dividend income” that is eligible for taxation at long-term capital gain rates, the Fund must meet holding period and other requirements with respect to some portion of the dividend-paying stocks in its portfolio and the shareholder must meet holding period and other requirements with respect to the Fund’s shares. In general, a dividend is not treated as qualified dividend income (at either the Fund or shareholder level): (1) if the dividend is received with respect to any share of stock held for fewer than 61 days during the 121-day period beginning on the date which is 60 days before the date on which such share becomes ex-dividend with respect to such dividend (or, in the case of certain preferred stock, 91 days during the 181-day period beginning 90 days before such date); (2) to the extent that the recipient is under an obligation (whether pursuant to a short sale or otherwise) to make related payments with respect to positions in substantially similar or related property; (3) if the recipient elects to have the dividend income treated as investment income for purposes of the limitation on deductibility of investment interest; or (4) if the dividend is received from a foreign corporation that is: (a) not eligible for the benefits of a comprehensive income tax treaty with the United States (with the exception of dividends paid on stock of such a foreign corporation readily tradable on an established securities market in the United States); or (b) treated as a passive foreign investment company.

In general, distributions of investment income reported by a Fund as derived from qualified dividend income are treated as qualified dividend income in the hands of a shareholder taxed as an individual, provided the shareholder meets the holding period and other requirements described above with respect to the Fund’s shares.

If the aggregate qualified dividends received by a Fund during a taxable year are 95% or more of its gross income (excluding net long-term capital gain over net short-term capital loss), then 100% of the Fund’s dividends (other than dividends properly reported as Capital Gain Dividends) are eligible to be treated as qualified dividend income.

In general, dividends of net investment income received by corporate shareholders of a Fund qualify for the dividends-received deduction generally available to corporations to the extent of the amount of eligible dividends received by the Fund from domestic corporations for the taxable year. A dividend received by a Fund will not be treated as a dividend eligible for the dividends-received deduction: (1) if it has been received with respect to any share of stock that the Fund has held for less than 46 days (91 days in the case of certain preferred stock) during the 91-day period beginning on the date which is 45 days before the date on which such share becomes ex-dividend with respect to such dividend (during the 181-day period beginning 90 days before such date in the case of certain preferred stock); or (2) to the extent that the Fund is under an obligation (pursuant to a short sale or otherwise) to make related payments with respect to positions in substantially similar or related property. Moreover, the dividends received deduction may otherwise be disallowed or reduced: (1) if the corporate shareholder fails to satisfy the foregoing requirements with respect to its shares of the Fund; or (2) by application of various provisions of the Code (for instance, the dividends-received deduction is reduced in the case of a dividend received on debt-financed portfolio stock (generally, stock acquired with borrowed funds)).

Any distribution of income that is attributable to: (i) income received by a Fund in lieu of dividends with respect to securities on loan pursuant to a securities lending transaction; or (ii) dividend income received by the Fund on securities it temporarily purchased from a counterparty pursuant to a repurchase agreement that is treated for U.S. federal income tax purposes as a loan by the Fund, will not constitute qualified dividend income to individual shareholders and will not be eligible for the dividends-received deduction for corporate shareholders.

Distributions by a Fund to its shareholders that the Fund properly reports as “section 199A dividends,” as defined and subject to certain conditions described below, are treated as qualified REIT dividends in the hands of non-corporate shareholders. Non-corporate shareholders are permitted a federal income tax deduction equal to 20% of qualified REIT dividends received by them, subject to certain limitations. Very generally, a “section 199A dividend” is any dividend or portion thereof that is attributable to certain dividends received by the Fund from REITs, to the extent such dividends are properly reported as such by the Fund in a written notice to its shareholders. A section 199A dividend is treated as a qualified REIT dividend only if the shareholder receiving such dividend holds the dividend-paying Fund shares for at least 46 days of the 91-day period beginning 45 days before the shares become ex-dividend, and is not under an obligation to make related payments with respect to a position in substantially similar or related property. A Fund is permitted to report such part of its dividends as section 199A dividends as are eligible, but is not required to do so.

 

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Subject to future regulatory guidance to the contrary, distributions attributable to qualified publicly traded partnership income from a Fund’s investments in MLPs will ostensibly not qualify for the deduction available to non-corporate taxpayers in respect of such amounts received directly from an MLP.

Tax Implications of Certain Fund Investments

Special Rules for Debt Obligations. Some debt obligations with a fixed maturity date of more than one year from the date of issuance (and zero-coupon debt obligations with a fixed maturity date of more than one year from the date of issuance) will be treated as debt obligations that are issued originally at a discount. Generally, the original issue discount (“OID”) is treated as interest income and is included in a Fund’s income and required to be distributed by the Fund over the term of the debt security, even though payment of that amount is not received until a later time, upon partial or full repayment or disposition of the debt security. In addition, payment-in-kind securities will give rise to income which is required to be distributed and is taxable even though the Fund holding the security receives no interest payment in cash on the security during the year.

Some debt obligations with a fixed maturity date of more than one year from the date of issuance that are acquired by a Fund in the secondary market may be treated as having “market discount.” Very generally, market discount is the excess of the stated redemption price of a debt obligation (or in the case of an obligation issued with OID, its “revised issue price”) over the purchase price of such obligation. Generally, any gain recognized on the disposition of, and any partial payment of principal on, a debt security having market discount is treated as ordinary income to the extent the gain, or principal payment, does not exceed the “accrued market discount” on such debt security. Alternatively, a Fund may elect to accrue market discount currently, in which case the Fund will be required to include the accrued market discount in the Fund’s income (as ordinary income) and thus distribute it over the term of the debt security, even though payment of that amount is not received until a later time, upon partial or full repayment or disposition of the debt security. The rate at which the market discount accrues, and thus is included in a Fund’s income, will depend upon which of the permitted accrual methods the Fund elects.

Some debt obligations with a fixed maturity date of one year or less from the date of issuance may be treated as having OID or, in certain cases, “acquisition discount” (very generally, the excess of the stated redemption price over the purchase price). Each Fund will be required to include the OID or acquisition discount in income (as ordinary income) and thus distribute it over the term of the debt security, even though payment of that amount is not received until a later time, upon partial or full repayment or disposition of the debt security. The rate at which OID or acquisition discount accrues, and thus is included in a Fund’s income, will depend upon which of the permitted accrual methods the Fund elects.

If a Fund holds the foregoing kinds of obligations, or other obligations subject to special rules under the Code, it may be required to pay out as an income distribution each year an amount which is greater than the total amount of cash interest the Fund actually received. Such distributions may be made from the cash assets of the Fund or, if necessary, by disposition of portfolio securities including at a time when it may not be advantageous to do so. These dispositions may cause the Fund to realize higher amounts of short-term capital gains (generally taxed to shareholders at ordinary income tax rates) and, in the event the Fund realizes net capital gains from such transactions, its shareholders may receive a larger Capital Gain Dividend than if the Fund had not held such obligations.

Securities Purchased at a Premium. Very generally, where a Fund purchases a bond at a price that exceeds the redemption price at maturity – that is, at a premium – the premium is amortizable over the remaining term of the bond. In the case of a taxable bond, if the Fund makes an election applicable to all such bonds it purchases, which election is irrevocable without consent of the IRS, the Fund reduces the current taxable income from the bond by the amortized premium and reduces its tax basis in the bond by the amount of such offset; upon the disposition or maturity of such bonds acquired on or after January 4, 2013, the Fund is permitted to deduct any remaining premium allocable to a prior period. In the case of a tax-exempt bond, tax rules require the Fund to reduce its tax basis by the amount of amortized premium.

A portion of the OID accrued on certain high yield discount obligations may not be deductible to the issuer and will instead be treated as a dividend paid by the issuer for purposes of the dividends received deduction. In such cases, if the issuer of the high-yield discount obligations is a domestic corporation, dividend payments by a Fund may be eligible for the dividends received deduction to the extent attributable to the deemed dividend portion of such OID.

 

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At-risk or Defaulted Securities. Investments in debt obligations that are at risk of or in default present special tax issues for a Fund. Tax rules are not entirely clear about issues such as whether or to what extent a Fund should recognize market discount on a debt obligation, when the Fund may cease to accrue interest, OID or market discount, when and to what extent the Fund may take deductions for bad debts or worthless securities and how the Fund should allocate payments received on obligations in default between principal and income. These and other related issues will be addressed by a Fund when, as and if it invests in such securities, in order to seek to ensure that it distributes sufficient income to preserve its status as a RIC and does not become subject to U.S. federal income or excise tax.

Certain Investments in REITs. Any investment by a Fund in equity securities of REITs qualifying as such under Subchapter M of the Code may result in the Fund’s receipt of cash in excess of the REIT’s earnings; if the Fund distributes these amounts, these distributions could constitute a return of capital to Fund shareholders for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Dividends received by a Fund from a REIT will not qualify for the corporate dividends-received deduction and generally will not constitute qualified dividend income.

Certain distributions made by the Fund attributable to dividends received by the Funds from REITs may qualify as “qualified REIT dividends” in the hands of non-corporate shareholders, as discussed above.

Mortgage-Related Securities. A Fund may invest directly or indirectly in real estate mortgage investment conduits (“REMICs”) (including by investing in residual interests in collateralized mortgage obligations (“CMOs”) with respect to which an election to be treated as a REMIC is in effect) or equity interests in taxable mortgage pools (“TMPs”). Under a notice issued by the IRS in October 2006 and Treasury regulations that have yet to be issued but may apply retroactively, a portion of each Fund’s income (including income allocated to the Fund from a REIT or other pass-through entity) that is attributable to a residual interest in a REMIC or an equity interest in a TMP (referred to in the Code as an “excess inclusion”) will be subject to U.S. federal income tax in all events. This notice also provides, and the regulations are expected to provide, that excess inclusion income of a RIC will be allocated to shareholders of the RIC in proportion to the dividends received by such shareholders, with the same consequences as if the shareholders held the related interest directly. As a result, a Fund investing in such interests may not be a suitable investment for charitable remainder trusts, as noted below.

In general, excess inclusion income allocated to shareholders: (i) cannot be offset by net operating losses (subject to a limited exception for certain thrift institutions); (ii) will constitute unrelated business taxable income (“UBTI”) to entities (including a qualified pension plan, an individual retirement account, a 401(k) plan, a Keogh plan or other tax-exempt entity) subject to taxon UBTI, thereby potentially requiring such an entity that is allocated excess inclusion income, and otherwise might not be required to file a tax return, to file a tax return and pay tax on such income; and (iii) in the case of a non-U.S. shareholder, will not qualify for any reduction in U.S. federal withholding tax. A shareholder will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on such inclusions notwithstanding any exemption from such income tax otherwise available under the Code.

Foreign Currency Transactions. Any transaction by a Fund in foreign currencies, foreign currency-denominated debt obligations or certain foreign currency options, futures contracts or forward contracts (or similar instruments) may give rise to ordinary income or loss to the extent such income or loss results from fluctuations in the value of the foreign currency concerned. Any such net gains could require a larger dividend toward the end of the calendar year. Any such net losses generally will reduce and potentially require the recharacterization of prior ordinary income distributions. Such ordinary income treatment may accelerate Fund distributions to shareholders and increase the distributions taxed to shareholders as ordinary income. Any net ordinary losses so created cannot be carried forward by a Fund to offset income or gains earned in subsequent taxable years.

Foreign currency gains generally are treated as qualifying income for purposes of the 90% gross income test described above. There is a remote possibility that the Secretary of the Treasury will issue contrary tax regulations with respect to foreign currency gains that are not directly related to a RIC’s principal business of investing in stocks or securities (or options or futures with respect to stocks or securities), and such regulations could apply retroactively.

Passive Foreign Investment Companies. Equity investments by a Fund in certain “passive foreign investment companies” (“PFICs”) could potentially subject the Fund to a U.S. federal income tax (including interest charges) on distributions received from the company or on proceeds received from the disposition of shares in the company. This tax cannot be eliminated by making distributions to Fund shareholders. However, a Fund may elect to avoid the imposition of that tax. For example, a Fund may elect to treat a PFIC as a “qualified electing fund” (i.e., make a “QEF election”), in which case the Fund will be required to include its share of the PFIC’s income and net capital gains annually, regardless of whether it receives any distribution from the PFIC. A Fund also may make an election to mark the gains (and to a limited extent losses) in such holdings “to the market” as though it had sold (and, solely for purposes of this mark-to-market election, repurchased) its holdings in those PFICs on the last day of the Fund’s taxable year. Such gains and losses are treated as ordinary income and loss. The QEF and mark-to-market elections may accelerate the recognition of income (without the receipt of cash) and increase the amount required to be distributed by the Fund to avoid taxation. Making either of

 

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these elections therefore may require the Fund to liquidate other investments (including when it is not advantageous to do so) to meet its distribution requirement, which also may accelerate the recognition of gain and affect the Fund’s total return. Dividends paid by PFICs will not be eligible to be treated as “qualified dividend income.” A foreign issuer in which a Fund invests will not be treated as a PFIC with respect to the Fund if such issuer is a controlled foreign corporation (“CFC”) for U.S. federal income tax purposes and the Fund holds (directly, indirectly, or constructively) 10% or more of the voting interests in or total value of such issuer. In such a case, a Fund generally would be required to include in gross income each year, as ordinary income, its share of certain amounts of a CFC’s income, whether or not the CFC distributes such amounts to the Fund.

Because it is not always possible to identify a foreign corporation as a PFIC, a Fund may incur the tax and interest charges described above in some instances.

Options and Futures

In general, option premiums received by a Fund are not immediately included in the income of the Fund. Instead, the premiums are recognized when the option contract expires, the option is exercised by the holder, or the Fund transfers or otherwise terminates the option (e.g., through a closing transaction). If a call option written by a Fund is exercised and the Fund sells or delivers the underlying stock, the Fund generally will recognize capital gain or loss equal to (a) sum of the strike price and the option premium received by the Fund minus (b) the Fund’s basis in the stock. Such gain or loss generally will be short-term or long-term depending upon the holding period of the underlying stock. If securities are purchased by a Fund pursuant to the exercise of a put option written by it, the Fund generally will subtract the premium received for purposes of computing its cost basis in the securities purchased. Gain or loss arising in respect of a termination of the Fund’s obligation under an option other than through the exercise of the option will be short-term gain or loss depending on whether the premium income received by the Fund is greater or less than the amount paid by the Fund (if any) in terminating the transaction. Thus, for example, if an option written by a Fund expires unexercised, the Fund generally will recognize short-term gain equal to the premium received.

A Fund’s options activities may include transactions constituting straddles for U.S. federal income tax purposes, that is, that trigger the U.S. federal income tax straddle rules contained primarily in Section 1092 of the Code. Such straddles include, for example, positions in a particular security, or an index of securities, and one or more options that offset the former position, including options that are “covered” by a Fund’s long position in the subject security. Very generally, where applicable, Section 1092 requires: (i) that losses be deferred on positions deemed to be offsetting positions with respect to “substantially similar or related property,” to the extent of unrealized gain in the latter; and (ii) that the holding period of such a straddle position that has not already been held for the long-term holding period be terminated and begin anew once the position is no longer part of a straddle. Options on single stocks that are not “deep in the money” may constitute qualified covered calls, which generally are not subject to the straddle rules; the holding period on stock underlying qualified covered calls that are “in the money” although not “deep in the money” will be suspended during the period that such calls are outstanding. These straddle rules and the rules governing qualified covered calls could cause gains that would otherwise constitute long-term capital gains to be treated as short-term capital gains, and distributions that would otherwise constitute “qualified dividend income” or qualify for the dividends-received deduction to fail to satisfy the holding period requirements and therefore to be taxed as ordinary income or to fail to qualify for the dividends-received deduction, as the case may be.

The tax treatment of certain positions entered into by a Fund (including regulated futures contracts, certain foreign currency positions and certain listed non-equity options) will be governed by section 1256 of the Code (“section 1256 contracts”). Gains or losses on section 1256 contracts generally are considered 60% long-term and 40% short-term capital gains or losses (“60/40”), although certain foreign currency gains and losses from such contracts may be treated as ordinary in character. Also, section 1256 contracts held by a Fund at the end of each taxable year (and, for purposes of the 4% excise tax, on certain other dates as prescribed under the Code) are “marked to market” with the result that unrealized gains or losses are treated as though they were realized and the resulting gain or loss is treated as ordinary or 60/40 gain or loss, as applicable.

Other Derivatives, Hedging, and Related Transactions. In addition to the special rules described above in respect of futures and options transactions, each Fund’s transactions in other derivative instruments (e.g., forward contracts and swap agreements), as well as any of its hedging, short sale, securities loan or similar transactions, may be subject to one or more special tax rules (e.g., notional principal contract, straddle, constructive sale, wash sale and short sale rules). These rules may affect whether gains and losses recognized by a Fund are treated as ordinary or capital, accelerate the recognition of income or gains to the Fund, defer losses to the Fund, and cause adjustments in the holding periods of the Fund’s securities, thereby affecting, among other things, whether capital gains and losses are treated as short-term or long-term. These rules could therefore affect the amount, timing and/or character of distributions to shareholders.

Because these and other tax rules applicable to these types of transactions are in some cases uncertain undercurrent law, an adverse determination or future guidance by the IRS with respect to these rules (which determination or guidance could be retroactive) may affect whether a Fund has made sufficient distributions, and otherwise satisfied the relevant requirements, to maintain its qualification as a RIC and avoid a Fund-level tax.

 

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Commodity-Linked Instruments. A Fund’s investments in commodity-linked instruments can be limited by the Fund’s intention to qualify as a RIC, and can bear on the Fund’s ability to so qualify. Income and gains from certain commodity-linked instruments do not constitute qualifying income to a RIC for purposes of the 90% gross income test described above. The tax treatment of some other commodity-linked instruments in which a Fund might invest is not certain, in particular with respect to whether income or gains from such instruments constitute qualifying income to a RIC. If a Fund were to treat income or gain from a particular instrument as qualifying income and the income or gain were later determined not to constitute qualifying income and, together with any other nonqualifying income, caused the Fund’s nonqualifying income to exceed 10% of its gross income in any taxable year, the Fund would fail to qualify as a RIC unless it is eligible to and does pay a tax at the Fund level.

Exchange-Traded Notes, Structured Notes. The tax rules are uncertain with respect to the treatment of income or gains arising in respect of commodity-linked ETNs and certain commodity-linked structured notes; also, the timing and character of income or gains arising from ETNs can be uncertain. An adverse determination or future guidance by the IRS (which determination or guidance could be retroactive) may affect a Fund’s ability to qualify for treatment as a RIC and to avoid a fund-level tax.

Book-Tax Differences. Certain of a Fund’s investments in derivative instruments and foreign currency-denominated instruments, and any of the Fund’s transactions in foreign currencies and hedging activities, are likely to produce a difference between its book income and the sum of its taxable income and net tax-exempt income (if any). If such a difference arises, and the Fund’s book income is less than the sum of its taxable income and net tax-exempt income, the Fund could be required to make distributions exceeding book income to qualify as a RIC that is accorded special tax treatment and to avoid an entity-level tax. In the alternative, if the Fund’s book income exceeds the sum of its taxable income (including realized capital gains) and net tax-exempt income, the distribution (if any) of such excess generally will be treated as: (i) a dividend to the extent of the Fund’s remaining earnings and profits (including earnings and profits arising from tax-exempt income); (ii) thereafter, as a return of capital to the extent of the recipient’s basis in its shares; and (iii) thereafter as gain from the sale or exchange of a capital asset.

Investments in Other RICs. A Fund’s investments in shares of another mutual fund, an ETF or another company that qualifies as a RIC (each, an “investment company”) can cause the Fund to be required to distribute greater amounts of net investment income or net capital gain than the Fund would have distributed had it invested directly in the securities held by the investment company, rather than in shares of the investment company. Further, the amount or timing of distributions from a Fund qualifying for treatment as a particular character (e.g., long-term capital gain, exempt interest, eligibility for dividends-received deduction, etc.) will not necessarily be the same as it would have been had the Fund invested directly in the securities held by the investment company. If a Fund receives dividends from an investment company and the investment company reports such dividends as qualified dividend income, then the Fund is permitted in turn to report a portion of its distributions as qualified dividend income, provided the Fund meets holding period and other requirements with respect to shares of the investment company.

If a Fund receives dividends from an investment company and the investment company reports such dividends as eligible for the dividends-received deduction, then the Fund is permitted in turn to report its distributions derived from those dividends as eligible for the dividends-received deduction as well, provided the Fund meets holding period and other requirements with respect to shares of the investment company.

Investments in Master Limited Partnerships and Certain Non-U.S. Entities. A Fund’s ability to make direct and indirect investments in MLPs and certain non-U.S. entities is limited by the Fund’s intention to qualify as a RIC, and if the Fund does not appropriately limit such investments or if such investments are recharacterized for U.S. federal income tax purposes, the Fund’s status as a RIC may be jeopardized. Among other limitations, the Fund is permitted to have no more than 25% of the value of its total assets invested in qualified publicly traded partnerships, including MLPs.

Subject to any future regulatory guidance to the contrary, any distribution of income attributable to qualified publicly traded partnership income from a Fund’s investment in a MLP will ostensibly not qualify for the deduction that would be available to a non-corporate shareholder were the shareholder to own such MLP directly.

Tax-Exempt Shareholders

Income of a RIC that would be UBTI if earned directly by a tax-exempt entity generally will not constitute UBTI when distributed to a tax-exempt shareholder of the RIC. Notwithstanding this “blocking” effect, a tax-exempt shareholder could realize UBTI by virtue of its investment in a Fund if shares in the Fund constitute debt-financed property in the hands of the tax-exempt shareholder within the meaning of Code Section 514(b).

 

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A tax-exempt shareholder may also recognize UBTI if a Fund recognizes “excess inclusion income” derived from direct or indirect investments in residual interests in REMICs or equity interests in TMPs as described above, if the amount of such income recognized by the Fund exceeds the Fund’s investment company taxable income (after taking into account deductions for dividends paid by the Fund).

In addition, special tax consequences apply to charitable remainder trusts (“CRTs”) that invest in RICs that invest directly or indirectly in residual interests in REMICs or equity interests in TMPs. Under legislation enacted in December 2006, a CRT (as defined in section 664 of the Code) that realizes any UBTI for a taxable year must pay an excise tax annually of an amount equal to such UBTI. Under IRS guidance issued in October 2006, a CRT will not recognize UBTI as a result of investing in a Fund that recognizes “excess inclusion income.” Rather, if at any time during any taxable year a CRT (or one of certain other tax-exempt shareholders, such as the United States, a state or political subdivision, or an agency or instrumentality thereof, and certain energy cooperatives) is a record holder of a share in a Fund that recognizes “excess inclusion income,” then the Fund will be subject to a tax on that portion of its “excess inclusion income” for the taxable year that is allocable to such shareholders at the highest federal corporate income tax rate. The extent to which this IRS guidance remains applicable in light of the December 2006 legislation is unclear. To the extent permitted under the 1940 Act, each Fund may elect to specially allocate any such tax to the applicable CRT, or other shareholder, and thus reduce such shareholder’s distributions for the year by the amount of the tax that relates to such shareholder’s interest in the Fund.

CRTs and other tax-exempt investors are urged to consult their tax advisors concerning the consequences of investing in a Fund.

Sale, Exchange or Redemption of Shares

The sale, exchange or redemption of Fund shares may give rise to a gain or loss.

In general, any gain or loss realized upon a taxable disposition of shares will be treated as long-term capital gain or loss if the shares have been held for more than 12 months. Otherwise, the gain or loss on the taxable disposition of Fund shares will be treated as short-term capital gain or loss. However, any loss realized upon a taxable disposition of Fund shares held by a shareholder for six months or less will be treated as long-term, rather than short-term, to the extent of any Capital Gain Dividends received (or deemed received) by the shareholder with respect to the shares.

Further, all or a portion of any loss realized upon a taxable disposition of Fund shares will be disallowed under the Code’s “wash-sale” rule if other substantially identical shares are purchased, including by means of dividend reinvestment, within 30 days before or after the disposition. In such a case, the basis of the newly purchased shares will be adjusted to reflect the disallowed loss.

Tax Shelter Reporting Regulations

Under U.S. Treasury Regulations, if a shareholder recognizes a loss of $2 million or more for an individual shareholder or $10 million or more for a corporate shareholder, the shareholder must file with the IRS a disclosure statement on IRS Form 8886. Direct shareholders of portfolio securities are in many cases excepted from this reporting requirement, but under current guidance, shareholders of a RIC are not excepted. Future guidance may extend the current exception from this reporting requirement to shareholders of most or all RICs. The fact that a loss is reportable under these regulations does not affect the legal determination of whether the taxpayer’s treatment of the loss is proper. Shareholders should consult with their tax advisors to determine the applicability of these regulations in light of their individual circumstances.

Foreign Taxation

Income, proceeds and gains received by a Fund (or RICs in which the Fund has invested) from sources within foreign countries may be subject to withholding and other taxes imposed by such countries. Tax treaties between certain countries and the United States may reduce or eliminate such taxes. This will decrease the Fund’s yield on securities subject to such taxes. If more than 50% of a Fund’s assets at taxable year end consists of the securities of foreign corporations, the Fund may elect to permit shareholders to claim a credit or deduction on their income tax returns for their pro rata portions of qualified taxes paid by the Fund to foreign countries in respect of foreign securities that the Fund has held for at least the minimum period specified in the Code. In such a case, shareholders will include in gross income from foreign sources their pro rata shares of such taxes paid by the Fund. A shareholder’s ability to claim an offsetting foreign tax credit or deduction in respect of foreign taxes paid by a Fund is subject to certain limitations imposed by the Code, which may result in the shareholder’s not receiving a full credit or deduction (if any) for the amount of such taxes. Shareholders who do not itemize on their U.S. federal income tax returns may claim a credit (but not a deduction) for such foreign taxes.

 

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Even if a Fund were eligible to make such an election for a given year, it may determine not to do so. Shareholders that are not subject to U.S. federal income tax, and those who invest in a Fund through tax-advantaged accounts (including those who invest through individual retirement accounts or other tax-advantaged retirement plans), generally will receive no benefit from any tax credit or deduction passed through by the Fund.

Foreign Shareholders

Distributions by a Fund to shareholders that are not “U.S. persons” within the meaning of the Code (“foreign shareholders”) properly reported by the Fund as: (1) Capital Gain Dividends; (2) short-term capital gain dividends; and (3) interest-related dividends, each as defined below and subject to certain conditions described below, generally are not subject to withholding of U.S. federal income tax.

In general, the Code defines (1) “short-term capital gain dividends” as distributions of net short-term capital gains in excess of net long-term capital losses and (2) “interest-related dividends” as distributions from U.S. source interest income of types similar to those not subject to U.S. federal income tax if earned directly by an individual foreign shareholder, in each case to the extent such distributions are properly reported as such by the Fund in a written notice to shareholders. The exceptions to withholding for Capital Gain Dividends and short-term capital gain dividends do not apply to (A) distributions to an individual foreign shareholder who is present in the United States for a period or periods aggregating 183 days or more during the year of the distribution and (B) distributions attributable to gain that is treated as effectively connected with the conduct by the foreign shareholder of a trade or business within the United States under special rules regarding the disposition of U.S. real property interests as described below. The exception to withholding for interest-related dividends does not apply to distributions to a foreign shareholder (A) that has not provided a satisfactory statement that the beneficial owner is not a U.S. person, (B) to the extent that the dividend is attributable to certain interest on an obligation if the foreign shareholder is the issuer or is a 10% shareholder of the issuer, (C) that is within certain foreign countries that have inadequate information exchange with the United States, or (D) to the extent the dividend is attributable to interest paid by a person that is a related person of the foreign shareholder and the foreign shareholder is a controlled foreign corporation. If a Fund invests in a RIC that pays such distributions to the Fund, such distributions retain their character as not subject to withholding if properly reported when paid by the Fund to foreign shareholders. The Fund may report such part of its dividends as interest-related and/or short-term capital gain dividends as are eligible, but is not required to do so. In the case of shares held through an intermediary, the intermediary may withhold even if the Fund reports all or a portion of a payment as an interest-related or short-term capital gain dividend to shareholders.

Foreign shareholders should contact their intermediaries regarding the application of these rules to their accounts.

Distributions by a Fund to foreign shareholders other than Capital Gain Dividends, short-term capital gain dividends and interest-related dividends (e.g., dividends attributable to dividend and foreign-source interest income or to short-term capital gains or U.S. source interest income to which the exception from withholding described above does not apply) are generally subject to withholding of U.S. federal income tax at a rate of 30% (or lower applicable treaty rate).

A foreign shareholder is not, in general, subject to U.S. federal income tax on gains (and is not allowed a deduction for losses) realized on the sale of shares of a Fund unless: (i) such gain is effectively connected with the conduct by the foreign shareholder of a trade or business within the United States; (ii) in the case of a foreign shareholder that is an individual, the shareholder is present in the United States for a period or periods aggregating 183 days or more during the year of the sale and certain other conditions are met; or (iii) the special rules relating to gain attributable to the sale or exchange of “U.S. real property interests” (“USRPIs”) apply to the foreign shareholder’s sale of shares of the Fund (as described below).

Subject to certain exceptions (e.g., for a Fund that is a “United States real property holding corporation” as described below), a Fund is generally not required (and does not expect) to withhold on the amount of a non-dividend distribution (i.e., a distribution that is not paid out of the Fund’s current earnings and profits for the applicable taxable year or accumulated earnings and profits) when paid to its foreign shareholders.

Special rules would apply if a Fund were a qualified investment entity (“QIE”) because it is either a “U.S. real property holding corporation” (“USRPHC”) or would be a USRPHC but for the operation of certain exceptions to the definition of USRPIs described below. Very generally, a USRPHC is a domestic corporation that holds USRPIs the fair market value of which equals or exceeds 50% of the sum of the fair market values of the corporation’s USRPIs, interests in real property located outside the United States, and other trade or business assets. USRPIs generally are defined as any interest in U.S. real property and any interest (other than solely as a creditor) in a USRPHC or, very generally, an entity that has been a USRPHC in the last five years. A Fund that holds, directly or indirectly, significant interests in REITs may be a USRPHC. Interests in domestically controlled QIEs, including REITs and RICs that are QIEs, not-greater-than-10% interests in publicly traded classes of stock in REITs and not-greater-than-5% interests in publicly traded classes of stock in RICs generally are not USRPIs, but these exceptions do not apply for purposes of determining whether a Fund is a QIE.

 

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If an interest in a Fund were a USRPI, the Fund would be required to withhold U.S. tax on the proceeds of a share redemption by a greater-than-5% foreign shareholder, in which case such foreign shareholder generally would also be required to file U.S. tax returns and pay any additional taxes due in connection with the redemption.

Moreover, if a Fund were a USRPHC or, very generally, had been one in the last five years, it would be required to withhold on amounts distributed to a greater-than-5% foreign shareholder to the extent such amounts would not be treated as a dividend, i.e., are in excess of the Fund’s current and accumulated “earnings and profits” for the applicable taxable year. Such withholding generally is not required if the Fund is a domestically controlled QIE.

If a Fund were a QIE, under a special “look-through” rule, any distributions by the Fund to a foreign shareholder (including, in certain cases, distributions made by the Fund in redemption of its shares) attributable directly or indirectly to: (i) distributions received by the Fund from a lower-tier RIC or REIT that the Fund is required to treat as USRPI gain in its hands; and (ii) gains realized on the disposition of USRPIs by the Fund would retain their character as gains realized from USRPIs in the hands of the Fund’s foreign shareholders and would be subject to U.S. tax withholding. In addition, such distributions could result in the foreign shareholder being required to file a U.S. tax return and pay tax on the distributions at regular U.S. federal income tax rates. The consequences to a foreign shareholder, including the rate of such withholding and character of such distributions (e.g., as ordinary income or USRPI gain), would vary depending upon the extent of the foreign shareholder’s current and past ownership of the Fund.

Foreign shareholders of each Fund also may be subject to “wash sale” rules to prevent the avoidance of the tax-filing and – payment obligations discussed above through the sale and repurchase of Fund shares.

Foreign shareholders should consult their tax advisers and, if holding shares through intermediaries, their intermediaries, concerning the application of these rules to their investment in a Fund.

Foreign shareholders with respect to whom income from a Fund is effectively connected with a trade or business conducted by the foreign shareholder within the United States will in general be subject to U.S. federal income tax on the income derived from the Fund at the graduated rates applicable to U.S. citizens, residents or domestic corporations, whether such income is received in cash or reinvested in shares of the Fund and, in the case of a foreign corporation, may also be subject to a branch profits tax. If a foreign shareholder is eligible for the benefits of a tax treaty, any effectively connected income or gain will generally be subject to U.S. federal income tax on a net basis only if it is also attributable to a permanent establishment maintained by the shareholder in the United States. More generally, foreign shareholders who are residents in a country with an income tax treaty with the United States may obtain different tax results than those described herein, and are urged to consult their tax advisors.

In order to qualify for any exemptions from withholding described above or for lower withholding tax rates under income tax treaties, or to establish an exemption from backup withholding, a foreign shareholder must comply with special certification and filing requirements relating to its non-U.S. status (including, in general, furnishing an IRS Form W-8BEN, W-8BEN-E or substitute form). Foreign shareholders should consult their tax advisers in this regard.

Special rules (including withholding and reporting requirements) apply to foreign partnerships and those holding Fund shares through foreign partnerships. Additional considerations may apply to foreign trusts and estates. Investors holding Fund shares through foreign entities should consult their tax advisers about their particular situation.

A foreign shareholder may be subject to state and local tax and to the U.S. federal estate tax in addition to the U.S. federal income tax referred to above.

Backup Withholding

Each Fund generally is required to withhold and remit to the U.S. Treasury a percentage of the taxable distributions and redemption proceeds paid to any individual shareholder who fails to properly furnish the Fund with a correct taxpayer identification number, who has under-reported dividend or interest income, or who fails to certify to the Fund that he or she is not subject to such withholding.

Backup withholding is not an additional tax. Any amounts withheld may be credited against the shareholder’s U.S. federal income tax liability, provided the appropriate information is furnished to the IRS.

 

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Shareholder Reporting Obligations With Respect to Foreign Bank and Financial Accounts

Shareholders that are U.S. persons and own, directly or indirectly, more than 50% of a Fund could be required to report annually their “financial interest” in the Fund’s “foreign financial accounts,” if any, on FinCEN Form 114, Report of Foreign Bank and Financial Accounts (“FBAR”). Shareholders should consult a tax advisor, and persons investing in the Fund through an intermediary should contact their intermediary, regarding the applicability to them of this reporting requirement.

Other Reporting and Withholding Requirements

Sections 1471-1474 of the Code and the U.S. Treasury and IRS guidance issued thereunder (collectively, “FATCA”) generally require each Fund to obtain information sufficient to identify the status of each of its shareholders under FATCA or under an applicable intergovernmental agreement (an “IGA”) between the United States and a foreign government. If a shareholder fails to provide the requested information or otherwise fails to comply with FATCA or an IGA, a Fund may be required to withhold under FATCA at a rate of 30% with respect to that shareholder on ordinary dividends it pays. The IRS and the Department of Treasury have issued proposed regulations providing that these withholding rules will not apply to the gross proceeds of share redemptions or Capital Gain Dividends a Fund pays. If a payment by a Fund is subject to FATCA withholding, the Fund is required to withhold even if such payment would otherwise be exempt from withholding under the rules applicable to foreign shareholders described above (e.g., interest-related dividends and short-term capital gain dividends).

Each prospective investor is urged to consult its tax adviser regarding the applicability of FATCA and any other reporting requirements with respect to the prospective investor’s own situation, including investments through an intermediary.

General Considerations

The U.S. federal income tax discussion set forth above is for general information only. Prospective investors should consult their tax advisers regarding the specific federal tax consequences of purchasing, holding, and disposing of shares of a Fund, as well as the effects of state, local, foreign, and other tax law and any proposed tax law changes.

PROXY VOTING POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

The Board of Trustees has delegated responsibilities for decisions regarding proxy voting for securities held by each Fund to the Adviser, which has delegated such responsibilities to the Subadviser for certain Funds, subject to the general oversight of the Board. The Adviser and the Subadviser have adopted written proxy voting policies and procedures (“Proxy Policy”) as required by Rule 206(4)-6 under the 1940 Act, as amended, consistent with its fiduciary obligations. The Proxy Policy has been approved by the Board of Trustees. The Proxy Policy is designed and implemented in a manner reasonably expected to ensure that voting and consent rights are exercised prudently and solely in the best economic interests of the Funds and their shareholders considering all relevant factors and without undue influence from individuals or groups who may have an economic interest in the outcome of a proxy vote. Any conflict between the best economic interests of the Funds and the Adviser’s and Subadviser’s interests will be resolved in the Funds’ favor pursuant to the Proxy Policy.

The Adviser’s and Subadviser’s proxy voting policies and procedures are attached as Appendix A.

Investors may obtain a copy of the proxy voting policies and procedures by writing to the Trust in the name of the pertinent Fund c/o The Northern Trust Company, P.O. Box 4766, Chicago, Illinois 60680-4766 or by calling the Trust at 866-260-9549 (toll free) or 312-557-5913. Information about how each Fund voted proxies relating to portfolio securities during the most recent 12-month period ending June 30 is available without charge, upon request, by calling the Trust at 866-260-9549 (toll free) or 312-557-5913 and on the SEC’s website at https://www.sec.gov/.

 

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FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

Audited financial statements for the Funds as of September 30, 2022, including notes thereto, and the report of PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP thereon, are incorporated by reference from the Trust’s September 30, 2022 Annual Report. The Trust’s September 30, 2022 Annual Report was filed electronically with the SEC on December 2, 2022 (Accession No. 0001193125-22-297425).

 

 

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APPENDIX A

J O HAMBRO CAPITAL MANAGEMENT LIMITED

JOHCM (USA) INC

PROXY VOTING PROCEDURES SUMMARY

JOHCM USA has established procedures to ensure that all proxies that are received are properly distributed and voted on a timely basis in the best interest of the client. JOHCM USA uses ISS ProxyExchange (“ISS”) as its proxy research and proxy voting service provider. All proxies that are received are properly distributed and voted on a timely basis. The investment teams have discretion to make a voting decision based upon their analysis of the proposals, their engagement with the company and any available ISS research or based upon established voting guidelines.

Should a conflict of interest arise between JOHCM USA’s interests and those of a client, JOHCM USA will arrange a discussion with such client to review the proxy voting materials and the conflict and will obtain the client’s consent before voting. If JOHCM USA is not able to obtain the client’s consent, JOHCM USA shall take reasonable steps to ensure, and must be able to demonstrate that those steps resulted in, a decision to vote the proxies in the best interests of the client.

Once the proxy has been voted, it is recorded and stored on the ISS ProxyExchange system. These records contain the proxy statements received on behalf of the client and the record of votes cast on behalf of the client. The Adviser also retains any documents that it has prepared which were material to making a decision on how to vote, or that memorialized the basis for the decision, and records of the client’s requests for proxy voting information and any written response.

Clients may request a copy of our proxy voting policy or information regarding this proxy voting policy, including how JOHCM USA voted on specific proxies.

 

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THOMPSON, SIEGEL & WALMSLEY LLC

PROXY VOTING POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

Policy

TSW has a fiduciary responsibility to its clients for voting proxies, where authorized, for portfolio securities consistent with the best economic interests of its clients. TSW maintains written policies and procedures as to the handling, research, voting and reporting of proxy voting and makes appropriate disclosures about our Firm’s proxy voting policies and practices in Form ADV Part 2A. In addition, we review our policies and practices no less than annually for adequacy; to make sure they have been implemented effectively, and to make sure they continue to be reasonably designed to ensure that proxies are voted in the best interests of our clients. Our policy and practice include the responsibility to monitor corporate actions and potential conflicts of interest, receive and vote client proxies, and make information available to clients about the voting of proxies for their portfolio securities while maintaining relevant and required records.

Background

Proxy voting is an important right of shareholders, and reasonable care and diligence should be undertaken to ensure that such rights are properly exercised.

Investment advisers registered with the SEC, and which exercise voting authority with respect to client securities, are required by Rule 206(4)-6 of the Advisers Act to (a) adopt and implement written policies and procedures that are reasonably designed to ensure that client securities are voted in the best interests of clients, which should include how an adviser addresses material conflicts that may arise between an adviser’s interests and those of its clients; (b) disclose to clients how they may obtain information from the adviser with respect to the voting of proxies for their securities; (c) describe to clients a summary of its proxy voting policies and procedures and, upon request, furnish a copy to its clients; and (d) maintain certain records relating to the adviser’s proxy voting activities when the adviser does have proxy voting authority.

A related companion release by the SEC also adopted rule and form amendments under the Securities Act and Investment Company Act similar to the above which TSW complies with when acting as a sub-adviser to a mutual fund.

Responsibility

TSW’s Compliance Officer (Proxy Coordinator) has the responsibility for the organization and monitoring of our proxy voting policy, practices, and recordkeeping. Implementation and disclosure, including outlining our voting guidelines in our procedures, is the responsibility of the CCO and Director of Operations. TSW has retained the services of a third-party provider, Institutional Shareholder Services, Inc. (“ISS”) to assist with the proxy process. ISS is a Registered Investment Adviser under the Advisers Act. It is a leading provider of proxy voting and corporate governance services. ISS provides TSW proxy proposal research and voting recommendations and votes proxies on TSW’s behalf in accordance with ISS’s standard voting guidelines. Those guidelines cover the following areas:

 

   

Operational Issues

 

   

Board of Directors

 

   

Proxy Contests

 

   

Anti-takeover Defenses and Voting Related Issues

 

   

Mergers and Corporate Restructurings

 

   

State of Incorporation

 

   

Capital Structure

 

   

Executive & Director Compensation

 

   

Equity Compensation Plans

 

   

Specific Treatment of Certain Award Types in Equity Plan Evaluations

 

   

Other Compensation Proposals & Policies

 

   

Shareholder Proposals on Compensation

 

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Social/Environmental Issues

 

   

Consumer Issues and Public Safety

 

   

Environment and Energy

 

   

General Corporate Issues

 

   

Labor Standards and Human Rights

 

   

Military Business

 

   

Workplace Diversity

 

   

Mutual Fund Proxies

TSW generally believes that voting proxies in a manner that is favorable to a business’s long-term performance and valuation is in its clients’ best interests. However, a uniform voting policy may not be in the best interest of all clients. While TSW applies ISS’s standard policy to most clients, where appropriate we utilize ISS’s Taft-Hartley or Catholic policy guidelines to meet specific requirements.

TSW’s Proxy Coordinator is responsible for monitoring ISS’s voting procedures on an ongoing basis. TSW’s general procedure regarding the voting of proxies is addressed below. For instances not directly addressed in this policy the Proxy Oversight Representative should act in accordance with the principles outlined in the SEC’s Guidance Regarding Proxy Voting Responsibilities of Investment Advisers issued in August 2019 in consultation with the Proxy Coordinator.

Procedure

TSW has adopted various procedures and internal controls to review, monitor and ensure the Firm’s Proxy Voting policy is observed, implemented properly and amended or updated, as appropriate, which include the following:

Voting Procedures

 

   

Upon timely receipt of proxy materials, ISS will automatically release vote instructions on client’s behalf as soon as custom research is completed. TSW retains authority to override the votes (before cut-off date) if TSW disagrees with the vote recommendation.

 

   

The Proxy Coordinator will monitor the voting process at ISS via ISS’s Proxy Exchange website (ISS’s online voting and research platform). Records of which accounts are voted, how accounts are voted, and how many shares are voted are kept electronically with ISS.

 

   

For proxies not received by ISS, TSW and ISS will make a best effort attempt to receive ballots from the clients’ custodian prior to the vote cutoff date.

 

   

TSW is responsible for account maintenance – opening and closing of accounts, transmission of holdings and account environment monitoring. ISS will email TSW Compliance personnel to get approval when closing an account that was not directed by TSW.

 

   

The Director of Operations (Proxy Oversight Representative) will keep abreast of any critical or exceptional events or events qualifying as a conflict of interest via ISS Proxy Exchange website and email.

 

   

Investment teams should keep the Proxy Oversight Representative and Proxy Coordinator informed of material issues affecting pending or upcoming proxy votes. If the Proxy Oversight Representative and Proxy Coordinator become aware of additional information that would reasonably be expected to affect TSW’s vote, then this information should be considered prior to voting.

 

   

TSW has the ability to override ISS recommended vote instructions and will do so if believed to be in the best interest of the client. All changes are documented and coordinated between the Proxy Oversight Representative and/or Proxy Coordinator and the Portfolio Manager and/or Research Analyst. Changes generally occur as a result of TSW’s communication with issuer management regarding matters pertaining to securities held when the issuer questions or disputes ISS’s voting recommendation.

 

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All proxies are voted solely in the best interest of clients on a best efforts basis. Proactive communication takes place via regular meetings with ISS’s Client Relations team.

Disclosure

TSW will provide conspicuously displayed information in its Disclosure Document summarizing this Proxy Voting policy, including a statement that clients may request information regarding how TSW voted a client’s proxies, and that clients may request a copy of these policies and procedures.

See Form ADV, Part 2A – Item 17 – Voting Client Securities

Client Requests for Information

 

   

All client requests for information regarding proxy votes, or policies and procedures, received by any associate should be forwarded to the Proxy Coordinator.

 

   

In response to any request, the Proxy Coordinator will prepare a response to the client with the information requested, and as applicable, will include the name of the issuer, the proposal voted upon, and how TSW voted the client’s proxy with respect to each proposal about which the client inquired.

Voting Guidelines

 

   

TSW has a fiduciary responsibility under ERISA to vote ERISA Plan proxies unless the Plan directs otherwise. TSW will vote proxies when directed by non-ERISA clients. In the absence of specific voting guidelines from the client and upon timely receipt of proxy materials from the custodian, TSW will vote proxies in the best interests of each particular client according to the recommended election of ISS. ISS’s policy is to vote all proxies from a specific issuer the same way for each client, ab sent qualifying restrictions from a client. Clients are permitted to place reasonable restrictions on TSW’s voting authority in the same manner that they may place such restrictions on the actual selection of account securities.

 

   

ISS will generally vote in favor of routine corporate housekeeping proposals such as the election of directors and selection of auditors absent conflicts of interest raised by auditors’ non-audit services.

 

   

ISS will generally vote against proposals that cause board members to become entrenched, reduce shareholder control over management or in some way diminish shareholders’ present or future value.

 

   

In reviewing proposals, ISS will further consider the opinion of management and the effect on management, and the effect on shareholder value and the issuer’s business practices.

 

   

A complete summary of ISS’s U.S. and International voting guidelines is available at: https://www.issgovernance.com/policy

Forensic Testing Procedures

 

   

No less than quarterly, TSW’s Proxy Coordinator will review the ISS Proxy Exchange list of accounts voted to ensure all appropriate accounts are being voted.

 

   

TSW will conduct periodic tests to review proxy voting records and the application of general voting guidelines, especially in circumstances such as corporate events (e.g., mergers and acquisition transactions, dissolutions, conversions, consolidations, etc.) or contested director elections. Any matter warranting additional, often issuer-specific review will be escalated to the Portfolio Manager and Research Analyst as needed.

 

   

TSW occasionally communicates directly with issuer management regarding matters pertaining to securities held in the portfolio when it questions or disputes ISS’s voting recommendation.

Conflicts of Interest

 

   

TSW will identify any conflicts that exist between the interests of the adviser and each client by reviewing the relationship of TSW with the issuer of each security to determine if TSW or any of its associates has any financial, business or personal relationship with the issuer.

 

   

If a material conflict of interest exists, the Proxy Coordinator will instruct ISS to vote using ISS’s standard policy guidelines which are derived independently from TSW.

 

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TSW will maintain a record of the voting resolution of any conflict of interest.

 

   

ISS also maintains a Conflicts Policy which indicates how they address any potential conflicts of interest and is available at: https://www.issgovernance.com/compliance/due-diligencematerials

Practical Limitations Relating to Proxy Voting

TSW makes a best effort to vote proxies. In certain circumstances, it may be impractical or impossible for TSW to do so. Identifiable circumstances include:

 

   

Limited Value: Where TSW has concluded that to do so would have no identifiable economic benefit to the client-shareholder;

 

   

Unjustifiable Cost: When the costs of or disadvantages resulting from voting, in TSW’s judgment, outweigh the economic benefits of voting;

 

   

Securities Lending: If securities are on loan on the record date, the client lending the security cannot vote the proxy. Because TSW generally is not aware of when a security is on loan, we will not likely have the opportunity to recall the security prior to the record date; and

 

   

Failure to receive proxy statements: TSW may not be able to vote proxies in connection with certain holdings, most frequently for foreign securities, if it does not receive the account’s proxy statement in time to vote the proxy.

Recordkeeping

TSW and/or ISS shall retain the following proxy records in accordance with the SEC’s five-year retention requirement:

 

   

These policies and procedures and any amendments;

 

   

Each proxy statement that ISS receives;

 

   

A record of each vote that ISS casts on behalf of TSW;

 

   

Any document ISS created that was material to making a decision regarding how to vote proxies, or that memorializes that decision; and

 

   

A copy of each client request for information on how ISS voted such client’s proxies (i.e., Vote Summary Report), and a copy of any response.

Due Diligence and Error Procedures

TSW will periodically perform due diligence on ISS, focusing on the following areas:

 

   

Adequacy of ISS’s staffing and personnel;

 

   

Adequacy/robustness of ISS’s Policies and Procedures and review of their policies for conflict issues;

 

   

Adequacy of control environment and operational controls of ISS (i.e., SSAE 18);

 

   

Review of any specific conflicts ISS may have with regard to TSW;

 

   

Review of ISS for any business changes that may affect services provided to TSW; and

 

   

Review quarterly reporting package provided by ISS and enhance this package as necessary for any additional information that is needed.

TSW will take the following steps should there ever be an issue/error that occurs with regard to its proxy voting responsibilities:

 

   

Follow up with ISS to determine the cause of and the details surrounding the issue;

 

   

Report back to the affected client immediately with such details and how the issue will be resolved;

 

   

Put additional controls in place if necessary, to prevent such issues from occurring in the future; and

 

   

Report back to the affected client with the final resolution and any remedial steps.

 

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