ACSI
American Customer Satisfaction ETF
listed on Cboe BZX Exchange, Inc.
PROSPECTUS
January 28, 2022
















The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) has not approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the accuracy or adequacy of this Prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.




TABLE OF CONTENTS
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Fund Sponsor



American Customer Satisfaction ETF - FUND SUMMARY
Investment Objective
The American Customer Satisfaction ETF (“ACSI ETF” or the “Fund”) seeks to track the performance, before fees and expenses, of the American Customer Satisfaction Investable Index (the “Index”).
Fees and Expenses of the Fund
This table describes the fees and expenses you may pay if you buy, hold, and sell shares of the Fund (“Shares”). You may pay other fees, such as brokerage commissions and other fees to financial intermediaries, which are not reflected in the table and Example below.
Annual Fund Operating Expenses (expenses that you pay each year as a percentage of the value of your investment)
Management Fees 0.65%
Distribution and/or Service (12b-1) Fees 0.00%
Other Expenses 0.00%
Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses
0.65%
Expense Example
This Example is intended to help you compare the cost of investing in the Fund with the cost of investing in other funds. The Example assumes that you invest $10,000 in the Fund for the time periods indicated and then redeem all of your Shares at the end of those periods. The Example also assumes that your investment has a 5% return each year and that the Fund’s operating expenses remain the same. The Example does not take into account brokerage commissions that you may pay on your purchases and sales of Shares. Although your actual costs may be higher or lower, based on these assumptions your costs would be:
1 Year 3 Years 5 Years 10 Years
$66 $208 $362 $810
Portfolio Turnover
The Fund pays transaction costs, such as commissions, when it buys and sells securities (or “turns over” its portfolio). A higher portfolio turnover rate may indicate higher transaction costs and may result in higher taxes when Shares are held in a taxable account. These costs, which are not reflected in total annual fund operating expenses or in the Example, affect the Fund’s performance. During the most recent fiscal year ended September 30, 2021, the Fund’s portfolio turnover rate was 50% of the average value of its portfolio.
Principal Investment Strategy
The Fund uses a “passive management” (or indexing) approach to track the performance, before fees and expenses, of the Index. The Index is based on a proprietary methodology created and maintained by CSat Investment Advisory, L.P. (“CSat”), the Fund’s index provider and the investment adviser for the Predecessor Fund (defined below), in partnership with the American Customer Satisfaction Index, LLC, an affiliate of CSat and owner/publisher of the leading national cross-industry measure of customer satisfaction (the “Customer Satisfaction Data”). Calculation of the Customer Satisfaction Data incorporates surveys of more than 100,000 household customers each year to identify trends in customer satisfaction and provide benchmarking insights for companies, industry trade associations, and government agencies.
American Customer Satisfaction Investable Index
The Index uses an objective, rules-based methodology to measure the performance of U.S.-listed companies whose customers have been surveyed and who have been assigned a customer satisfaction score as part of the Customer Satisfaction Data (collectively, “ACSI Companies”).
Construction of the Index begins with over 400 ACSI Companies across 46 industries and 10 economic sectors. The initial universe is then screened to eliminate companies whose stock is not principally listed on a U.S. exchange, whose market capitalization is less than $1 billion, or for which the Customer Satisfaction Data is statistically insignificant. The Index is comprised of ACSI Companies in the 25 industries (as classified by the Customer Satisfaction Data) with the highest customer retention, and the company(ies) with the highest ACSI Score (described below) in each such industry will be included in the Index (the “Index Companies”). One to three ACSI Companies from each industry are included in the Index
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based on the number of ACSI Companies in a given industry. The Index will generally be comprised of 25 to 35 companies at the time of each rebalance of the Index.
A company’s ACSI Score is calculated by utilizing a proprietary model to evaluate customers’ Customer Satisfaction Data based on questions that measure the following facets of satisfaction with a product or service:
Customer Expectations
Customer expectations is a measure of the customer’s anticipation of the quality of a company’s products or services. Expectations represent both prior consumption experience, which includes some nonexperiential information like advertising and word-of-mouth, and a forecast of the company’s ability to deliver quality in the future.
Perceived Quality
Perceived quality is a measure of the customer’s evaluation via recent consumption experience of the quality of a company’s products or services. Quality is measured in terms of both customization, which is the degree to which a product or service meets the customer’s individual needs, and reliability, which is the frequency with which things go wrong with the product or service.
Perceived Value
Perceived value is a measure of quality relative to price paid. Although price (value for money) is often very important to the customer’s first purchase, it usually has a somewhat smaller impact on satisfaction for repeat purchases.
At the time of each rebalance of the Index, the Index is sector-weighted to reflect the overall U.S. large cap market, industry-weighted based on the highest ACSI Score of any Index Company within an industry, and equal-weighted within each industry, subject to the constraints described below.
Sector Weighting. At the time of each rebalance of the Index, the Index weight is allocated to each economic sector based on the aggregate number of the Index Companies in each sector relative to that of each other sector, provided that such weights will be adjusted upward or downward if necessary to better reflect the weight of such sector in the overall U.S. large cap market. Unallocated Index weight resulting from such downward adjustments is re-allocated first equally to sectors requiring an upward weight adjustment and then equally to all sectors to the extent they stay within the Index’s constraints.
Industry Weighting. At the time of each rebalance of the Index, within each economic sector, the Index weight is allocated to each industry based on the highest ACSI Score of any Index Company within such industry relative to the highest ACSI Score for companies in each other industry within such sector.
Security Weighting. At the time of each rebalance of the Index, Index Companies within an industry are equally weighted, subject to a maximum of 12% for any individual Index Company.
The Index is rebalanced and reconstituted on a quarterly basis after market close on the 10th trading day of each January, April, July, and October. The data used to compute each ACSI Company’s score is updated based on the Customer Satisfaction Data on a rolling basis, no less often than quarterly, with new data replacing earlier data collected in the same period of the previous year.
The Index was created by CSat in 2016 in anticipation of the commencement of operations of the Predecessor Fund. CSat is not affiliated with the Fund’s investment adviser.
The Fund’s Investment Strategy
The Fund will generally use a “replication” strategy to achieve its investment objective, meaning it generally will invest in all of the component securities of the Index. However, the Fund may use a “representative sampling” strategy, meaning it may invest in a sample of the securities in the Index whose risk, return and other characteristics closely resemble the risk, return and other characteristics of the Index as a whole, when Toroso Investments, LLC (“Toroso” or the “Adviser”) believes it is in the best interests of the Fund (e.g., when replicating the Index involves practical difficulties or substantial costs, an Index constituent becomes temporarily illiquid, unavailable, or less liquid, or as a result of legal restrictions or limitations that apply to the Fund but not to the Index).
Under normal circumstances, at least 80% of the Fund’s net assets, plus borrowings for investment purposes, will be invested in investments that are tied economically to the United States. Such policy has been adopted as a non-fundamental investment policy and may be changed without shareholder approval upon approval by the Board of Trustees (the “Board”) of Tidal ETF Trust (the “Trust”) and 60 days’ written notice to shareholders.
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The Fund may invest in securities or other investments not included in the Index (such as other exchange-traded funds (“ETFs”)), but which the Adviser believes will help the Fund track the Index. For example, the Fund may invest in securities that are not components of the Index to reflect various corporate actions and other changes to the Index (such as reconstitutions, additions, and deletions).
To the extent the Index concentrates (i.e., holds more than 25% of its total assets) in the securities of a particular industry or group of related industries, the Fund will concentrate its investments to approximately the same extent as the Index.
Principal Investment Risks
The principal risks of investing in the Fund are summarized below. The principal risks are presented in alphabetical order to facilitate finding particular risks and comparing them with those of other funds. Each risk summarized below is considered a “principal risk” of investing in the Fund, regardless of the order in which it appears. As with any investment, there is a risk that you could lose all or a portion of your investment in the Fund. Some or all of these risks may adversely affect the Fund’s net asset value per share (“NAV”), trading price, yield, total return and/or ability to meet its investment objective. For more information about the risks of investing in the Fund, see the section in the Fund’s Prospectus titled “Additional Information About the Fund’s Principal Risks.”
Cybersecurity Risk. With the increased use of technologies such as the Internet to conduct business, the Fund is susceptible to operational, information security, and related risks. Cyber incidents affecting the Fund or its service providers may cause disruptions and impact business operations, potentially resulting in financial losses, interference with the Fund’s ability to calculate its NAV, impediments to trading, the inability of shareholders to transact business, violations of applicable privacy and other laws, regulatory fines, penalties, reputational damage, reimbursement or other compensation costs, or additional compliance costs.
Equity Market Risk. The equity securities held in the Fund’s portfolio may experience sudden, unpredictable drops in value or long periods of decline in value. This may occur because of factors that affect securities markets generally or factors affecting specific issuers, industries, or sectors in which the Fund invests. Common stocks are generally exposed to greater risk than other types of securities, such as preferred stock and debt obligations, because common stockholders generally have inferior rights to receive payment from issuers. In addition, local, regional or global events such as war, acts of terrorism, spread of infectious diseases or other public health issues, recessions, or other events could have a significant negative impact on the Fund and its investments.
ETF Risk. The Fund is an ETF, and, as a result of an ETF’s structure, it is exposed to the following risks:
Authorized Participants, Market Makers, and Liquidity Providers Concentration Risk. The Fund has a limited number of financial institutions that may act as Authorized Participants (“APs”). In addition, there may be a limited number of market makers and/or liquidity providers in the marketplace. To the extent either of the following events occur, Shares may trade at a material discount to NAV and possibly face delisting: (i) APs exit the business or otherwise become unable to process creation and/or redemption orders and no other APs step forward to perform these services, or (ii) market makers and/or liquidity providers exit the business or significantly reduce their business activities and no other entities step forward to perform their functions.
Costs of Buying or Selling Shares. Due to the costs of buying or selling Shares, including brokerage commissions imposed by brokers and bid-ask spreads, frequent trading of Shares may significantly reduce investment results and an investment in Shares may not be advisable for investors who anticipate regularly making small investments.
Shares May Trade at Prices Other Than NAV. As with all ETFs, Shares may be bought and sold in the secondary market at market prices. Although it is expected that the market price of Shares will approximate the Fund’s NAV, there may be times when the market price of Shares is more than the NAV intra-day (premium) or less than the NAV intra-day (discount) due to supply and demand of Shares or during periods of market volatility. This risk is heightened in times of market volatility, periods of steep market declines, and periods when there is limited trading activity for Shares in the secondary market, in which case such premiums or discounts may be significant.
Trading. Although Shares are listed for trading on Cboe BZX Exchange, Inc. (the “Exchange”) and may be traded on U.S. exchanges other than the Exchange, there can be no assurance that Shares will trade with any volume, or at all, on any stock exchange. In stressed market conditions, the liquidity of Shares may begin to mirror the liquidity of the Fund’s underlying portfolio holdings, which can be significantly less liquid than Shares.
Other Investment Companies Risk. The Fund will incur higher and duplicative expenses when it invests in ETFs and other investment companies. By investing in another investment company, the Fund becomes a shareholder of that investment company and bears its proportionate share of the fees and expenses of the other investment company. There is also the risk
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that the Fund may suffer losses due to the investment practices of the underlying funds as the Fund will be subject to substantially the same risks as those associated with the direct ownership of securities held by such investment companies. ETFs may be less liquid than other investments, and thus their share values more volatile than the values of the investments they hold. Investments in ETFs are also subject to the “ETF Risks” described above.
Models and Data Risk. The composition of the Index is heavily dependent on proprietary quantitative models as well as information and data supplied by third parties (“Models and Data”). When Models and Data prove to be incorrect or incomplete, any decisions made in reliance thereon may lead to securities being included in or excluded from the Index that would have been excluded or included had the Models and Data been correct and complete. If the composition of the Index reflects such errors, the Fund’s portfolio can be expected to reflect the errors, too.
Passive Investment Risk. The Fund invests in the securities included in, or representative of, the Index regardless of their investment merit. The Fund does not attempt to outperform the Index or take defensive positions in declining markets. As a result, the Fund’s performance may be adversely affected by a general decline in the market segments relating to the Index.
Recent Market Events Risk. U.S. and international markets have experienced significant periods of volatility in recent years and months due to a number of economic, political and global macro factors including the impact of COVID-19 as a global pandemic, which has resulted in a public health crisis, disruptions to business operations and supply chains, stress on the global healthcare system, growth concerns in the U.S. and overseas, staffing shortages and the inability to meet consumer demand, and widespread concern and uncertainty. The global recovery from COVID-19 is proceeding at slower than expected rates due to the emergence of variant strains and may last for an extended period of time. Continuing uncertainties regarding interest rates, political events, rising government debt in the U.S. and trade tensions also contribute to market volatility.
Sector Risk. To the extent the Fund invests more heavily in particular sectors of the economy, its performance will be especially sensitive to developments that significantly affect those sectors.
Consumer Discretionary Sector Risk. The Fund may invest significantly in companies in the consumer discretionary sector, and therefore the performance of the Fund could be negatively impacted by events affecting this sector. The success of consumer product manufacturers and retailers is tied closely to the performance of domestic and international economies, interest rates, exchange rates, competition, consumer confidence, changes in demographics and consumer preferences. Companies in the consumer discretionary sector depend heavily on disposable household income and consumer spending, and may be strongly affected by social trends and marketing campaigns. These companies may be subject to severe competition, which may have an adverse impact on their profitability. As of September 30, 2021, 28.5% of the Fund’s net assets were invested in the consumer discretionary sector.
Consumer Staples Sector Risk. The Fund may invest significantly in companies in the consumer staples sector, and therefore the performance of the Fund could be negatively impacted by events affecting this sector. Companies in the consumer staples sector, including those in the food and beverage industries, may be affected by general economic conditions, commodity production and pricing, consumer confidence and spending, consumer preferences, interest rates, product cycles, marketing campaigns, competition, and government regulations.
Information Technology Sector Risk. The Fund may invest significantly in companies in the information technology sector, and therefore the performance of the Fund could be be negatively impacted by events affecting this sector. Market or economic factors impacting information technology companies and companies that rely heavily on technological advances could have a significant effect on the value of the Fund’s investments. The value of stocks of information technology companies and companies that rely heavily on technology is particularly vulnerable to rapid changes in technology product cycles, rapid product obsolescence, government regulation and competition, both domestically and internationally, including competition from foreign competitors with lower production costs. Stocks of information technology companies and companies that rely heavily on technology, especially those of smaller, less-seasoned companies, tend to be more volatile than the overall market. Information technology companies are heavily dependent on patent and intellectual property rights, the loss or impairment of which may adversely affect profitability.
Tracking Error Risk. As with all index funds, the performance of the Fund and the Index may differ from each other for a variety of reasons. For example, the Fund incurs operating expenses and portfolio transaction costs not incurred by the Index. In addition, the Fund may not be fully invested in the securities of the Index at all times or may hold securities not included in the Index.
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Performance
Prior to the commencement of the Fund’s operations as a series of the Trust on May 24, 2021, the Fund operated as the American Customer Satisfaction ETF (the “Predecessor Fund”), a series of the ETF Series Solutions, an open-end investment company registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “1940 Act”), that had the same investment objective and strategies as the Fund since the Predecessor Fund’s inception. The Fund assumed the NAV and performance history of the Predecessor Fund. Performance shown in the bar chart and table for periods prior to May 24, 2021 is that of the Predecessor Fund and is not the performance of the Fund. The Predecessor Fund was reorganized into the Fund at the inception of the Fund.
The following performance information provides some indication of the risks of investing in the Fund by showing two aspects of the Fund: volatility and performance. The bar chart and table reflect changes in the Fund’s performance from year to year over the one-year, five-year and since inception periods and show how the Fund’s average annual total returns compare to those of a relevant market index and the Index. The Fund’s past performance is not necessarily an indication of how the Fund will perform in the future. Updated performance information is also available on the Fund’s website at www.acsietf.com.
Calendar Year Total Returns
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During the period of time shown in the bar chart, the Fund’s highest quarterly return was 20.34% for the quarter ended June 30, 2020, and the lowest quarterly return was -21.62% for the quarter ended March 31, 2020.
Average Annual Total Returns
For the Periods Ended December 31, 2021
American Customer Satisfaction ETF 1 Year 5 Years
Since
Inception
(10/31/2016) (1)
Return Before Taxes 23.36% 15.80% 17.01%
Return After Taxes on Distributions 23.27% 15.49% 16.70%
Return After Taxes on Distributions and Sale of Fund Shares 13.90% 12.68% 13.74%
American Customer Satisfaction Investable Index
(reflects no deduction for fees, expenses, or taxes)
24.18% 16.66% 17.86%
Standard & Poor’s 500 (S&P 500 Index)
(reflects no deduction for fees, expenses, or taxes)
28.71% 18.47% 19.11%
(1) The Predecessor Fund commenced operations on October 31, 2016.
After-tax returns are calculated using the historical highest individual federal marginal income tax rates during the period covered by the table above and do not reflect the impact of state and local taxes. Actual after-tax returns depend on an investor’s tax situation and may differ from those shown. After-tax returns shown are not relevant to investors who hold their Shares through tax-deferred arrangements such as an individual retirement account (“IRA”) or other tax-advantaged accounts.
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Management
Investment Adviser    
Toroso Investments, LLC serves as investment adviser to the Fund.
Portfolio Managers     
Michael Venuto, Chief Investment Officer for the Adviser, is primarily responsible for the day-to-day management of the Fund’s portfolio and has been a portfolio manager of the Fund since its inception in May 2021.
Charles A. Ragauss, CFA, Portfolio Manager for the Adviser, is primarily responsible for the day-to-day management of the Fund’s portfolio and has been a portfolio manager of the Fund since its inception in May 2021 and was a portfolio manager of the Predecessor Fund since its inception in October 2016.
Purchase and Sale of Shares
The Fund issues and redeems Shares at NAV only in large blocks known as “Creation Units,” which only APs (typically, broker-dealers) may purchase or redeem. The Fund generally issues and redeems Creation Units in exchange for a portfolio of securities (the “Deposit Securities”) and/or a designated amount of U.S. cash.
Shares are listed on a national securities exchange, such as the Exchange, and individual Shares may only be bought and sold in the secondary market through brokers at market prices, rather than NAV. Because Shares trade at market prices rather than NAV, Shares may trade at a price greater than NAV (premium) or less than NAV (discount).
An investor may incur costs attributable to the difference between the highest price a buyer is willing to pay to purchase Shares (the “bid” price) and the lowest price a seller is willing to accept for Shares (the “ask” price) when buying or selling Shares in the secondary market. This difference in bid and ask prices is often referred to as the “bid-ask spread.”
Information regarding the Fund’s NAV, market price, how often Shares traded on the Exchange at a premium or discount, and bid-ask spreads can be found on the Fund’s website at www.acsietf.com.
Tax Information
Fund distributions are generally taxable to shareholders as ordinary income, qualified dividend income, or capital gains (or a combination), unless an investment is in an IRA or other tax-advantaged account. Distributions on investments made through tax-deferred arrangements may be taxed later upon withdrawal of assets from those accounts.
Financial Intermediary Compensation
If you purchase Shares through a broker-dealer or other financial intermediary (such as a bank) (an “Intermediary”), the Adviser or its affiliates may pay Intermediaries for certain activities related to the Fund, including participation in activities that are designed to make Intermediaries more knowledgeable about exchange-traded products, including the Fund, or for other activities, such as marketing, educational training, or other initiatives related to the sale or promotion of Shares. These payments may create a conflict of interest by influencing the Intermediary and your salesperson to recommend the Fund over another investment. Any such arrangements do not result in increased Fund expenses. Ask your salesperson or visit the Intermediary’s website for more information.
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ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ABOUT THE FUND
Investment Objective. An investment objective is fundamental if it cannot be changed without the consent of the holders of a majority of the outstanding Shares. The Fund’s investment objective has not been adopted as a fundamental investment policy and therefore may be changed without the consent of the Fund’s shareholders upon approval by the Board and written notice to shareholders.
Additional Information About the Index. The American Customer Satisfaction Investable Index (the “Index”) is calculated by Solactive AG (“Solactive”), which is not affiliated with the ACSI ETF, the Adviser, the Fund’s distributor, or any of their respective affiliates. The index calculation agent provides information to the ACSI ETF about the constituents of the Index and does not provide investment advice with respect to the desirability of investing in, purchasing, or selling securities.
In the event a company’s ACSI Score has dropped by more than 10 points as reported in the Customer Satisfaction Data at any time other than at a time such report would be used for a normal Index rebalance, the Index will undergo a special interim rebalance. The special interim rebalance will result in the immediate reduction in the applicable company’s weighting in the Index to the lowest weighting of any company in the applicable sector. The resulting unallocated portion of the Index will be reallocated to the company with the highest weighting in the applicable sector (or equally to multiple companies if multiple companies are tied for the highest weighting).
The following information is in addition to, and should be read along with, the description of the Fund’s principal investment strategies in the section titled “Fund Summary—Principal Investment Strategy” above.
Additional Information About the Customer Satisfaction Data. The Customer Satisfaction Data is the leading national cross-industry measure of customer satisfaction in the United States. This strategic economic indicator is based on customer evaluations of the quality of goods and services purchased in the United States and produced by domestic and foreign firms with substantial U.S. market shares. The Customer Satisfaction Data measures the quality of economic output as a complement to traditional measures of the quantity of economic output. The Customer Satisfaction Data is reported as an overall score and is not a portfolio of investable securities. For example, the Customer Satisfaction Data score for the third quarter of 2021 was 73.7 out of 100.
Publication of the Customer Satisfaction Data was started in the United States in 1994 by researchers at the University of Michigan, in conjunction with the American Society for Quality in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and CFI Group in Ann Arbor, Michigan. The Customer Satisfaction Data was developed to provide information on satisfaction with the quality of products and services available to consumers. Before publication of the Customer Satisfaction Data, no national measure of quality from the perspective of the user was available.
The Customer Satisfaction Data model was derived from a model originally implemented in 1989 in Sweden called the Swedish Customer Satisfaction Barometer (SCSB). Claes Fornell, founder and Chair of American Customer Satisfaction Index, LLC, developed the model and methodology for both the Swedish and American versions. The Customer Satisfaction Data was first published in October 1994, with updates released each quarter. Starting in May 2010, Customer Satisfaction Data became available to the public on a more frequent basis, with results released multiple times per year. This change allows stakeholders to focus more in-depth on different segments of the economy over the entire calendar year. The national Customer Satisfaction Data score continues to be updated on a rolling basis, no less frequently than quarterly, factoring in data from 10 economic sectors and 46 industries.
The Fund’s Investment Strategy. Under normal circumstances, at least 80% of the Fund’s net assets, plus borrowings for investment purposes, will be invested in investments that are tied economically to the United States. Such policy has been adopted as a non-fundamental investment policy and may be changed without shareholder approval upon Board approval and 60 days’ written notice to shareholders.
To the extent the Index concentrates (i.e., holds more than 25% of its total assets) in the securities of a particular industry or group of related industries, the Fund will concentrate its investments to approximately the same extent as the Index.
Manager of Managers Structure
Although the Fund is not currently sub-advised, the Fund and the Adviser have received exemptive relief from the SEC permitting the Adviser (subject to certain conditions and the approval of the Board) to change or select unaffiliated sub-advisers without obtaining shareholder approval. The relief also permits the Adviser to materially amend the terms of agreements with an unaffiliated sub-adviser (including an increase in the fee paid by the Adviser to the unaffiliated sub-adviser (and not paid by the Fund)) or to continue the employment of an unaffiliated sub-adviser after an event that would otherwise cause the automatic termination of services with Board approval, but without shareholder approval. Shareholders
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will be notified of any unaffiliated sub-adviser changes. The Adviser has the ultimate responsibility, subject to oversight by the Board, to oversee a sub-adviser and recommend their hiring, termination and replacement.
Additional Information About the Fund’s Principal Risks. The principal risks are presented in alphabetical order to facilitate finding particular risks and comparing them with those of other funds. Each risk summarized below is considered a “principal risk” of investing in the Fund, regardless of the order in which it appears. As with any investment, there is a risk that you could lose all or a portion of your investment in the Fund. Some or all of these risks may adversely affect the Fund’s NAV per share, trading price, yield, total return and/or ability to meet its investment objective. The following risks could affect the value of your performance in the Fund:
Cybersecurity Risk. With the increased use of technologies such as the Internet to conduct business, the Fund is susceptible to operational, information security, and related risks. In general, cyber incidents can result from deliberate attacks or unintentional events. Cyber attacks include, but are not limited to, gaining unauthorized access to digital systems (e.g., through “hacking” or malicious software coding) for purposes of misappropriating assets or sensitive information, corrupting data, or causing operational disruption. Cyber attacks may also be carried out in a manner that does not require gaining unauthorized access, such as causing denial-of-service attacks on websites (i.e., efforts to make network services unavailable to intended users). Cyber incidents affecting the Fund or its service providers have the ability to cause disruptions and impact business operations, potentially resulting in financial losses, interference with the Fund’s ability to calculate its NAV, impediments to trading, the inability of shareholders to transact business, violations of applicable privacy and other laws, regulatory fines, penalties, reputational damage, reimbursement or other compensation costs, or additional compliance costs. Similar adverse consequences could result from cyber incidents affecting issuers of securities in which the Fund invests, counterparties with which the Fund engages in transactions, governmental and other regulatory authorities, exchange and other financial market operators, banks, brokers, dealers, insurance companies and other financial institutions (including financial intermediaries and service providers for shareholders) and other parties. In addition, substantial costs may be incurred in order to prevent any cyber incidents in the future. While the Fund’s service providers have established business continuity plans in the event of, and risk management systems to prevent, such cyber incidents, there are inherent limitations in such plans and systems including the possibility that certain risks have not been identified. Furthermore, the Fund cannot control the cyber security plans and systems put in place by their service providers or any other third parties whose operations may affect the Fund or its shareholders. As a result, the Fund and its shareholders could be negatively impacted.
Equity Market Risk. Common stocks are susceptible to general stock market fluctuations and to volatile increases and decreases in value as market confidence in and perceptions of their issuers change. These investor perceptions are based on various and unpredictable factors including: expectations regarding government, economic, monetary and fiscal policies; inflation and interest rates; economic expansion or contraction; and global or regional political, economic, public health, and banking crises. As the Fund holds common stock, or common stock equivalents, of any given issuer, it is exposed to greater risk than if it held preferred stocks and debt obligations of the issuer because common stockholders, or holders of equivalent interests, generally have inferior rights to receive payments from issuers in comparison with the rights of preferred stockholders, bondholders, and other creditors of such issuers.
ETF Risks. The Fund is an ETF, and, as a result of an ETF’s structure, is exposed to the following risks:
APs, Market Makers, and Liquidity Providers Concentration Risk. The Fund has a limited number of financial institutions that may act as APs. In addition, there may be a limited number of market makers and/or liquidity providers in the marketplace. To the extent either of the following events occur, Shares may trade at a material discount to NAV and possibly face delisting: (i) APs exit the business or otherwise become unable to process creation and/or redemption orders and no other APs step forward to perform these services, or (ii) market makers and/or liquidity providers exit the business or significantly reduce their business activities and no other entities step forward to perform their functions.
Costs of Buying or Selling Shares. Investors buying or selling Shares in the secondary market will pay brokerage commissions or other charges imposed by brokers, as determined by that broker. Brokerage commissions are often a fixed amount and may be a significant proportional cost for investors seeking to buy or sell relatively small amounts of Shares. In addition, secondary market investors will also incur the cost of the difference between the price at which an investor is willing to buy Shares (the “bid” price) and the price at which an investor is willing to sell Shares (the “ask” price). This difference in bid and ask prices is often referred to as the “spread” or “bid-ask spread.” The bid-ask spread varies over time for Shares based on trading volume and market liquidity, and is generally lower if Shares have more trading volume and market liquidity and higher if Shares have little trading volume and market liquidity. Further, a relatively small investor base in the Fund, asset swings in the Fund, and/or increased market volatility may cause increased bid-ask spreads. Due to the costs of buying or selling Shares, including bid-ask
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spreads, frequent trading of Shares may significantly reduce investment results and an investment in Shares may not be advisable for investors who anticipate regularly making small investments.
Shares May Trade at Prices Other Than NAV. As with all ETFs, Shares may be bought and sold in the secondary market at market prices. Although it is expected that the market price of Shares will approximate the Fund’s NAV, there may be times when the market price of Shares is more than the NAV intra-day (premium) or less than the NAV intra-day (discount) due to supply and demand of Shares or during periods of market volatility. This risk is heightened in times of market volatility, periods of steep market declines, and periods when there is limited trading activity for Shares in the secondary market, in which case such premiums or discounts may be significant.
Trading. Although Shares are listed for trading on the Exchange and may be listed or traded on U.S. and non-U.S. stock exchanges other than the Exchange, there can be no assurance that an active trading market for such Shares will develop or be maintained. Trading in Shares may be halted due to market conditions or for reasons that, in the view of the Exchange, make trading in Shares inadvisable. In addition, trading in Shares on the Exchange is subject to trading halts caused by extraordinary market volatility pursuant to Exchange “circuit breaker” rules, which temporarily halt trading on the Exchange when a decline in the S&P 500® Index during a single day reaches certain thresholds (e.g., 7%, 13%, and 20%). Additional rules applicable to the Exchange may halt trading in Shares when extraordinary volatility causes sudden, significant swings in the market price of Shares. There can be no assurance that Shares will trade with any volume, or at all, on any stock exchange. In stressed market conditions, the liquidity of Shares may begin to mirror the liquidity of the Fund’s underlying portfolio holdings, which can be significantly less liquid than Shares.
Models and Data Risk The Index relies heavily on proprietary quantitative Models and Data. Because the Index is composed based on such Models and Data, when such Models and Data prove to be incorrect or incomplete, the Index and the Fund may not perform as expected.
Other Investment Companies Risks. The Fund will incur higher and duplicative expenses when it invests in ETFs and other investment companies. By investing in another investment company, the Fund becomes a shareholder of that investment company and bears its proportionate share of the fees and expenses of the other investment company. There is also the risk that the Fund may suffer losses due to the investment practices of the underlying funds as the Fund will be subject to substantially the same risks as those associated with the direct ownership of securities held by such investment companies. The Fund may be subject to statutory limits with respect to the amount it can invest in other ETFs, which may adversely affect the Fund’s ability to achieve its investment objective. ETFs may be less liquid than other investments, and thus their share values more volatile than the values of the investments they hold. Investments in ETFs are also subject to the “ETF Risks” described above.
Passive Investment Risk. The Fund invests in the securities included in, or representative of, its Index regardless of their investment merit. The Fund does not attempt to outperform its Index or take defensive positions in declining markets. As a result, the Fund’s performance may be adversely affected by a general decline in the market segments relating to its Index. The returns from the types of securities in which the Fund invests may underperform returns from the various general securities markets or different asset classes. This may cause the Fund to underperform other investment vehicles that invest in different asset classes. Different types of securities (for example, large-, mid- and small-capitalization stocks) tend to go through cycles of doing better – or worse – than the general securities markets. In the past, these periods have lasted for as long as several years.
Recent Market Events Risk. U.S. and international markets have experienced significant periods of volatility in recent years and months due to a number of economic, political and global macro factors including the impact of COVID-19 as a global pandemic and related public health crisis, growth concerns in the U.S. and overseas, uncertainties regarding interest rates, trade tensions, and the threat of tariffs imposed by the U.S. and other countries. In particular, the global spread of COVID-19 has resulted in disruptions to business operations and supply chains, stress on the global healthcare system, growth concerns in the U.S. and overseas, staffing shortages and the inability to meet consumer demand, and widespread concern and uncertainty. The global recovery from COVID-19 is proceeding at slower than expected rates due to the emergence of variant strains and may last for an extended period of time. Health crises and related political, social and economic disruptions caused by the spread of COVID-19 may also exacerbate other pre-existing political, social and economic risks in certain countries. These developments, as well as other events, could result in further market volatility and negatively affect financial asset prices, the liquidity of certain securities and the normal operations of securities exchanges and other markets, despite government efforts to address market disruptions. As a result, the risk environment remains elevated. The Adviser and the Sub-Adviser will monitor developments and seek to manage the Fund in a manner consistent with achieving the Fund’s investment objective, but there can be no assurance that they will be successful in doing so.
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Sector Risk. The Fund’s investing approach may result in an emphasis on certain sectors or sub-sectors of the market at any given time. To the extent the Fund invests more heavily in one sector or sub-sector of the market, it thereby presents a more concentrated risk and its performance will be especially sensitive to developments that significantly affect those sectors or sub-sectors. In addition, the value of Shares may change at different rates compared to the value of shares of a fund with investments in a more diversified mix of sectors and industries. An individual sector or sub-sector of the market may have above-average performance during particular periods, but may also move up and down more than the broader market. The several industries that constitute a sector may all react in the same way to economic, political or regulatory events. The Fund’s performance could also be affected if the sectors or sub-sectors do not perform as expected. Alternatively, the lack of exposure to one or more sectors or sub-sectors may adversely affect performance.
Consumer Discretionary Sector Risk. The success of consumer product manufacturers and retailers is tied closely to the performance of domestic and international economies, interest rates, exchange rates, competition, consumer confidence, changes in demographics and consumer preferences. Companies in the consumer discretionary sector depend heavily on disposable household income and consumer spending, and may be strongly affected by social trends and marketing campaigns. These companies may be subject to severe competition, which may have an adverse impact on their profitability. As of September 30, 2021, 28.5% of the Fund’s net assets were invested in the consumer discretionary sector.
Consumer Staples Sector Risk. Companies in the consumer staples sector, including those in the food and beverage industries, may be affected by general economic conditions, commodity production and pricing, consumer confidence and spending, consumer preferences, interest rates, product cycles, marketing campaigns, competition, and government regulations.
Information Technology Sector Risk. Market or economic factors impacting information technology companies and companies that rely heavily on technological advances could have a significant effect on the value of the Fund’s investments. The value of stocks of information technology companies and companies that rely heavily on technology is particularly vulnerable to rapid changes in technology product cycles, rapid product obsolescence, government regulation and competition, both domestically and internationally, including competition from foreign competitors with lower production costs. Stocks of information technology companies and companies that rely heavily on technology, especially those of smaller, less-seasoned companies, tend to be more volatile than the overall market. Information technology companies are heavily dependent on patent and intellectual property rights, the loss or impairment of which may adversely affect profitability. Additionally, companies in the technology sector may face dramatic and often unpredictable changes in growth rates and competition for the services of qualified personnel.
Tracking Error Risk. As with all index funds, the performance of the Fund and the Index may vary somewhat for a variety of reasons. For example, the Fund incurs operating expenses and portfolio transaction costs not incurred by the Index. In addition, the Fund may not be fully invested in the securities of the Index at all times or may hold securities not included in the Index. The Fund may use a representative sampling strategy to achieve its investment objective, if the Fund’s Adviser believes it is in the best interest of the Fund, which generally can be expected to produce a greater non-correlation risk.
PORTFOLIO HOLDINGS INFORMATION
Information about the Fund’s daily portfolio holdings is available at www.acsietf.com. A description of the Fund’s policies and procedures with respect to the disclosure of the Fund’s portfolio holdings is available in the Fund’s Statement of Additional Information (the “SAI”).
MANAGEMENT
Investment Adviser
Toroso Investments, LLC, located at 898 N. Broadway, Suite 2, Massapequa, New York 11758, is an SEC-registered investment adviser and a Delaware limited liability company. Toroso was founded in and has been managing investment companies since March 2012. Toroso is dedicated to understanding, researching and managing assets within the expanding ETF universe. As of December 31, 2021, Toroso had assets under management of approximately $8.2 billion and served as the investment adviser or sub-adviser for 47 registered funds.
Toroso serves as investment adviser to the Fund, and has overall responsibility for the general management and administration of the Fund pursuant to an investment advisory agreement with the Trust, on behalf of the Fund (the “Advisory Agreement”). The Adviser is responsible for determining the securities purchased and sold by the Fund. The Adviser also arranges for sub-advisory, transfer agency, custody, fund administration, and all other related services necessary for the Fund to operate.
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For the services it provides to the Fund, the Fund pays the Adviser a unified management fee, which is calculated daily and paid monthly, at an annual rate of 0.65% of the Fund’s average daily net assets. For the period of May 24, 2021 (when the Fund became a series of the Trust) through September 30, 2021 the Adviser received an aggregate fee of 0.65% of average net assets. For the period of October 1, 2020 through May 23, 2021 (when the Fund was a series of ETF Series Solutions) CSat received an aggregate fee of 0.65% of average net assets.
Under the Advisory Agreement, in exchange for a single unitary management fee from the Fund, the Adviser has agreed to pay all expenses incurred by the Fund except for interest charges on any borrowings, dividends and other expenses on securities sold short, taxes, brokerage commissions, and other expenses incurred in placing orders for the purchase and sale of securities and other investment instruments, acquired fund fees and expenses, accrued deferred tax liability, extraordinary expenses, distribution fees, and expenses paid by the Fund under any distribution plan adopted pursuant to Rule 12b-1 under the 1940 Act, and the unified management fee payable to the Adviser (collectively, the “Excluded Expenses”).
A discussion regarding the basis for the Board’s approval of the Fund’s Advisory Agreement is available in the Fund’s annual report to shareholders for the reporting period ended September 30, 2021.
Portfolio Managers
The following individuals (each, a “Portfolio Manager”) have served as portfolio managers of the Fund since its inception in 2021 and Mr. Ragauss served as a portfolio manager of the Predecessor Fund. Messrs. Venuto and Ragauss are jointly and primarily responsible for the day-to-day management of the Fund.
Michael Venuto, Chief Investment Officer for the Adviser
Mr. Venuto is a co-founder and has been the Chief Investment Officer of the Adviser since 2012. Mr. Venuto is an ETF industry veteran with over a decade of experience in the design and implementation of ETF-based investment strategies. Previously, he was Head of Investments at Global X Funds where he provided portfolio optimization services to institutional clients. Before that, he was Senior Vice President at Horizon Kinetics where his responsibilities included new business development, investment strategy and client and strategic initiatives.
Charles A. Ragauss, CFA, Portfolio Manager for the Adviser
Mr. Ragauss serves as Portfolio Manager of the Adviser, having joined the Adviser in September 2020. Mr. Ragauss previously served as Chief Operating Officer and in other roles at CSat from April 2016 to September 2020. Previously, Mr. Ragauss was Assistant Vice President at Huntington National Bank (“Huntington”), where he was Product Manager for the Huntington Funds and Huntington Strategy Shares ETFs, a combined fund complex of almost $4 billion in assets under management. At Huntington, he led ETF development bringing to market some of the first actively managed ETFs. Mr. Ragauss joined Huntington in 2010. Mr. Ragauss attended Grand Valley State University where he received his Bachelor of Business Administration in Finance and International Business, as well as a minor in French. He is a member of both the National and West Michigan CFA societies and holds the CFA designation.
CFA® is a registered trademark owned by the CFA Institute.
The Fund’s SAI provides additional information about the Portfolio Managers’ compensation structure, other accounts that a Portfolio Manager manages, and the Portfolio Managers’ ownership of Shares.
FUND SPONSOR
The Adviser has entered into an agreement with CSat, under which CSat assumes the obligation of the Adviser to pay all expenses of the Fund, except Excluded Expenses (such expenses of the Fund, except Excluded Expenses, the “Unitary Expenses”). Although CSat has agreed to be responsible for the Unitary Expenses, the Adviser retains the ultimate obligation to the Fund to pay such expenses. CSat will also provide marketing support for the Fund, including hosting the Fund’s website and preparing marketing materials related to the Fund. For these services and payments, CSat is entitled to a fee, to be paid by the Adviser, based on the total management fee earned by the Adviser under the Advisory Agreement less the Unitary Expenses. CSat does not make investment decisions, provide investment advice, or otherwise act in the capacity of an investment adviser to the Fund.
HOW TO BUY AND SELL SHARES
The Fund issues and redeems Shares only in Creation Units at the NAV per share next determined after receipt of an order from an AP. Only APs may acquire Shares directly from the Fund, and only APs may tender their Shares for redemption directly to the Fund, at NAV. APs must be a member or participant of a clearing agency registered with the SEC and must execute a Participant Agreement that has been agreed to by the Distributor (defined below), and that has been accepted by the
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Fund’s transfer agent, with respect to purchases and redemptions of Creation Units. Once created, Shares trade in the secondary market in quantities less than a Creation Unit.
Most investors buy and sell Shares in secondary market transactions through brokers. Individual Shares are listed for trading on the secondary market on the Exchange and can be bought and sold throughout the trading day like other publicly traded securities.
When buying or selling Shares through a broker, you will incur customary brokerage commissions and charges, and you may pay some or all of the spread between the bid and the offer price in the secondary market on each leg of a round trip (purchase and sale) transaction. In addition, because secondary market transactions occur at market prices, you may pay more than NAV when you buy Shares, and receive less than NAV when you sell those Shares.
Book Entry
Shares are held in book-entry form, which means that no stock certificates are issued. Depository Trust Company (“DTC”) or its nominee is the record owner of all outstanding Shares.
Investors owning Shares are beneficial owners as shown on the records of DTC or its participants. DTC serves as the securities depository for all Shares. DTC’s participants include securities brokers and dealers, banks, trust companies, clearing corporations and other institutions that directly or indirectly maintain a custodial relationship with DTC. As a beneficial owner of Shares, you are not entitled to receive physical delivery of stock certificates or to have Shares registered in your name, and you are not considered a registered owner of Shares. Therefore, to exercise any right as an owner of Shares, you must rely upon the procedures of DTC and its participants. These procedures are the same as those that apply to any other securities that you hold in book-entry or “street name” through your brokerage account.
Frequent Purchases and Redemptions of Shares
The Fund imposes no restrictions on the frequency of purchases and redemptions of Shares. In determining not to approve a written, established policy, the Board evaluated the risks of market timing activities by Fund shareholders. Purchases and redemptions by APs, who are the only parties that may purchase or redeem Shares directly with the Fund, are an essential part of the ETF process and help keep Share trading prices in line with the NAV. As such, the Fund accommodates frequent purchases and redemptions by APs. However, the Board has also determined that frequent purchases and redemptions for cash may increase tracking error and portfolio transaction costs and may lead to the realization of capital gains. To minimize these potential consequences of frequent purchases and redemptions, the Fund employs fair value pricing and may impose transaction fees on purchases and redemptions of Creation Units to cover the custodial and other costs incurred by the Fund in effecting trades. In addition, the Fund and the Adviser reserve the right to reject any purchase order at any time.
Determination of Net Asset Value
The Fund’s NAV is calculated as of the scheduled close of regular trading on the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”), generally 4:00 p.m. Eastern Time, each day the NYSE is open for business. The NAV for the Fund is calculated by dividing the Fund’s net assets by its Shares outstanding.
In calculating its NAV, the Fund generally values its assets on the basis of market quotations, last sale prices, or estimates of value furnished by a pricing service or brokers who make markets in such instruments. If such information is not available for a security held by the Fund or is determined to be unreliable, the security will be valued at fair value estimates under guidelines established by the Board (as described below).
Fair Value Pricing
The Board has adopted procedures and methodologies to fair value Fund securities whose market prices are not “readily available” or are deemed to be unreliable. For example, such circumstances may arise when: (i) a security has been delisted or has had its trading halted or suspended; (ii) a security’s primary pricing source is unable or unwilling to provide a price; (iii) a security’s primary trading market is closed during regular market hours; or (iv) a security’s value is materially affected by events occurring after the close of the security’s primary trading market. Generally, when fair valuing a security, the Fund will take into account all reasonably available information that may be relevant to a particular valuation including, but not limited to, fundamental analytical data regarding the issuer, information relating to the issuer’s business, recent trades or offers of the security, general and/or specific market conditions, and the specific facts giving rise to the need to fair value the security. Fair value determinations are made in good faith and in accordance with the fair value methodologies included in the Board-adopted valuation procedures. Due to the subjective and variable nature of fair value pricing, there can be no assurance that the Adviser will be able to obtain the fair value assigned to the security upon the sale of such security.
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Investments by Other Registered Investment Companies in the Fund
Section 12(d)(1) of the 1940 Act restricts investments by registered investment companies in the securities of other investment companies, including Shares. Registered investment companies are permitted to invest in the Fund beyond the limits set forth in Section 12(d)(1), subject to certain terms and conditions set forth in an SEC exemptive order issued to the Trust or rule under the 1940 Act, including that such investment companies enter into an agreement with the Fund.
Delivery of Shareholder Documents – Householding
Householding is an option available to certain investors of the Fund. Householding is a method of delivery, based on the preference of the individual investor, in which a single copy of certain shareholder documents can be delivered to investors who share the same address, even if their accounts are registered under different names. Householding for the Fund is available through certain broker-dealers. If you are interested in enrolling in householding and receiving a single copy of prospectuses and other shareholder documents, please contact your broker-dealer. If you are currently enrolled in householding and wish to change your householding status, please contact your broker-dealer.
DIVIDENDS, DISTRIBUTIONS, AND TAXES
Dividends and Distributions
The Fund intends to pay out dividends and interest income, if any, annually, and distribute any net realized capital gains to its shareholders at least annually. The Fund will declare and pay income and capital gain distributions, if any, in cash. Distributions in cash may be reinvested automatically in additional whole Shares only if the broker through whom you purchased Shares makes such option available. Your broker is responsible for distributing the income and capital gain distributions to you.
Taxes
The following discussion is a summary of some important U.S. federal income tax considerations generally applicable to investments in the Fund. Your investment in the Fund may have other tax implications. Please consult your tax advisor about the tax consequences of an investment in Shares, including the possible application of foreign, state, and local tax laws.
The Fund intends to qualify each year for treatment as a regulated investment company (a “RIC”) under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended. If it meets certain minimum distribution requirements, a RIC is not subject to tax at the fund-level on income and gains from investments that are timely distributed to shareholders. However, the Fund’s failure to qualify as a RIC or to meet minimum distribution requirements would result (if certain relief provisions were not available) in fund-level taxation and, consequently, a reduction in income available for distribution to shareholders.
Unless your investment in Shares is made through a tax-exempt entity or tax-advantaged account, such as an IRA plan, you need to be aware of the possible tax consequences when the Fund makes distributions, when you sell your Shares listed on the Exchange, and when you purchase or redeem Creation Units (institutional investors only).
The tax legislation commonly referred to as the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the “Tax Act”) made significant changes to the U.S. federal income tax rules for taxation of individuals and corporations, generally effective for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017. Many of the changes applicable to individuals are temporary and would apply only to taxable years before January 1, 2026. There were only minor changes with respect to the specific rules only applicable to RICs, such as the Fund. The Tax Act, however, also made numerous other changes to the tax rules that may affect shareholders and the Fund. Subsequent legislation has modified certain changes to the U.S. federal income tax rules made by the Tax Act which may, in addition, affect shareholders and the Fund. You are urged to consult with your own tax advisor regarding how this legislation affects your investment in the Fund.
Taxes on Distributions
For federal income tax purposes, distributions of net investment income are generally taxable to shareholders as ordinary income or qualified dividend income. Taxes on distributions of net capital gains (if any) are determined by how long the Fund owned the investments that generated them, rather than how long a shareholder has owned their Shares. Sales of assets held by the Fund for more than one year generally result in long-term capital gains and losses, and sales of assets held by the Fund for one year or less generally result in short-term capital gains and losses. Distributions of the Fund’s net capital gain (the excess of net long-term capital gains over net short-term capital losses) that are reported by the Fund as capital gain dividends (“Capital Gain Dividends”) will be taxable as long-term capital gains to shareholders. Distributions of short-term capital gain will generally be taxable to shareholders as ordinary income. Dividends and distributions are generally taxable to you whether you receive them in cash or reinvest them in additional Shares.
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Distributions reported by the Fund as “qualified dividend income” are generally taxed to non-corporate shareholders at rates applicable to long-term capital gains, provided certain holding period and other requirements are met. “Qualified dividend income” generally is income derived from dividends paid by U.S. corporations or certain foreign corporations that are either incorporated in a U.S. possession or eligible for tax benefits under certain U.S. income tax treaties. In addition, dividends that the Fund receives in respect of stock of certain foreign corporations may be qualified dividend income if that stock is readily tradable on an established U.S. securities market. Corporate shareholders may be entitled to a dividends-received deduction for the portion of dividends they receive from the Fund that are attributable to dividends received by the Fund from U.S. corporations, subject to certain limitations.
Shortly after the close of each calendar year, you will be informed of the character of any distributions received from the Fund.
In addition to the federal income tax, certain individuals, trusts, and estates may be subject to a Net Investment Income (“NII”) tax of 3.8%. The NII tax is imposed on the lesser of: (i) a taxpayer’s investment income, net of deductions properly allocable to such income; or (ii) the amount by which such taxpayer’s modified adjusted gross income exceeds certain thresholds ($250,000 for married individuals filing jointly, $200,000 for unmarried individuals and $125,000 for married individuals filing separately). The Fund’s distributions are includable in a shareholder’s investment income for purposes of this NII tax. In addition, any capital gain realized by a shareholder upon a sale or redemption of Fund shares is includable in such shareholder’s investment income for purposes of this NII tax.
In general, your distributions are subject to federal income tax for the year in which they are paid. Certain distributions paid in January, however, may be treated as paid on December 31 of the prior year. Distributions are generally taxable to you even if they are paid from income or gains earned by the Fund before your investment (and thus were included in the Shares’ NAV when you purchased your Shares).
You may wish to avoid investing in the Fund shortly before a dividend or other distribution, because such a distribution will generally be taxable to you even though it may economically represent a return of a portion of your investment.
If you are neither a resident nor a citizen of the United States or if you are a foreign entity, distributions (other than Capital Gain Dividends) paid to you by the Fund will generally be subject to a U.S. withholding tax at the rate of 30%, unless a lower treaty rate applies. The Fund may, under certain circumstances, report all or a portion of a dividend as an “interest-related dividend” or a “short-term capital gain dividend,” which would generally be exempt from this 30% U.S. withholding tax, provided certain other requirements are met.
Under the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (“FATCA”), the Fund may be required to withhold a generally nonrefundable 30% tax on (i) distributions of investment company taxable income and (ii) distributions of net capital gain and the gross proceeds of a sale or redemption of Fund shares paid to (A) certain “foreign financial institutions” unless such foreign financial institution agrees to verify, monitor, and report to the Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”) the identity of certain of its account-holders, among other items (or unless such entity is otherwise deemed compliant under the terms of an intergovernmental agreement between the United States and the foreign financial institution’s country of residence), and (B) certain “non-financial foreign entities” unless such entity certifies to the Fund that it does not have any substantial U.S. owners or provides the name, address, and taxpayer identification number of each substantial U.S. owner, among other items. In December 2018, the IRS and Treasury Department released proposed Treasury Regulations that would eliminate FATCA withholding on Fund distributions of net capital gain and the gross proceeds from a sale or redemption of Fund shares. Although taxpayers are entitled to rely on these proposed Treasury Regulations until final Treasury Regulations are issued, these proposed Treasury Regulations have not been finalized, may not be finalized in their proposed form, and are potentially subject to change. This FATCA withholding tax could also affect the Fund’s return on its investments in foreign securities or affect a shareholder’s return if the shareholder holds its Fund shares through a foreign intermediary. You are urged to consult your tax adviser regarding the application of this FATCA withholding tax to your investment in the Fund and the potential certification, compliance, due diligence, reporting, and withholding obligations to which you may become subject in order to avoid this withholding tax.
The Fund (or a financial intermediary, such as a broker, through which a shareholder owns Shares) generally is required to withhold and remit to the U.S. Treasury a percentage of the taxable distributions and sale or redemption proceeds paid to any shareholder who fails to properly furnish a correct taxpayer identification number, who has underreported dividend or interest income, or who fails to certify that they are not subject to such withholding.
Taxes When Shares are Sold on the Exchange
Any capital gain or loss realized upon a sale of Shares generally is treated as a long-term capital gain or loss if Shares have been held for more than one year and as a short-term capital gain or loss if Shares have been held for one year or less.
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However, any capital loss on a sale of Shares held for six months or less is treated as long-term capital loss to the extent of Capital Gain Dividends paid with respect to such Shares. Any loss realized on a sale will be disallowed to the extent Shares are acquired, including through reinvestment of dividends, within a 61-day period beginning 30 days before and ending 30 days after the sale of substantially identical Shares.
Taxes on Purchases and Redemptions of Creation Units
An AP having the U.S. dollar as its functional currency for U.S. federal income tax purposes who exchanges securities for Creation Units generally recognizes a gain or a loss. The gain or loss will be equal to the difference between the value of the Creation Units at the time of the exchange and the exchanging AP’s aggregate basis in the securities delivered plus the amount of any cash paid for the Creation Units. An AP who exchanges Creation Units for securities will generally recognize a gain or loss equal to the difference between the exchanging AP’s basis in the Creation Units and the aggregate U.S. dollar market value of the securities received, plus any cash received for such Creation Units. The IRS may assert, however, that a loss that is realized upon an exchange of securities for Creation Units may not be currently deducted under the rules governing “wash sales” (for an AP who does not mark-to-market their holdings) or on the basis that there has been no significant change in economic position. Persons exchanging securities should consult their own tax advisor with respect to whether wash sale rules apply and when a loss might be deductible.
Any capital gain or loss realized upon redemption of Creation Units is generally treated as long-term capital gain or loss if Shares comprising the Creation Units have been held for more than one year and as a short-term capital gain or loss if such Shares have been held for one year or less.
The Fund may include a payment of cash in addition to, or in place of, the delivery of a basket of securities upon the redemption of Creation Units. The Fund may sell portfolio securities to obtain the cash needed to distribute redemption proceeds. This may cause the Fund to recognize investment income and/or capital gains or losses that it might not have recognized if it had completely satisfied the redemption in-kind. As a result, the Fund may be less tax efficient if it includes such a cash payment in the proceeds paid upon the redemption of Creation Units.
The foregoing discussion summarizes some of the possible consequences under current federal tax law of an investment in the Fund. It is not a substitute for personal tax advice. You also may be subject to foreign, state, and local tax on Fund distributions and sales of Shares. Consult your personal tax advisor about the potential tax consequences of an investment in Shares under all applicable tax laws. For more information, please see the section entitled “Federal Income Taxes” in the SAI.
DISTRIBUTION
Foreside Fund Services, LLC (the “Distributor”), the Fund’s distributor, is a broker-dealer registered with the SEC. The Distributor distributes Creation Units for the Fund on an agency basis and does not maintain a secondary market in Shares. The Distributor has no role in determining the policies of the Fund or the securities that are purchased or sold by the Fund. The Distributor’s principal address is Three Canal Plaza, Suite 100, Portland, Maine 04101.
The Board has adopted a Distribution (Rule 12b-1) Plan (the “Plan”) pursuant to Rule 12b-1 under the 1940 Act. In accordance with the Plan, the Fund is authorized to pay an amount up to 0.25% of its average daily net assets each year to pay distribution fees for the sale and distribution of its Shares.
No Rule 12b-1 fees are currently paid by the Fund, and there are no plans to impose these fees. However, in the event Rule 12b-1 fees are charged in the future, because the fees are paid out of Fund assets on an ongoing basis, over time these fees will increase the cost of your investment and may cost you more than certain other types of sales charges.
PREMIUM/DISCOUNT INFORMATION
Information regarding how often Shares traded on the Exchange at a price above (i.e., at a premium) or below (i.e., at a discount) the NAV of the Fund can be found on the Fund’s website at www.acsietf.com.
ADDITIONAL NOTICES
Shares are not sponsored, endorsed, or promoted by the Exchange. The Exchange is not responsible for, nor has it participated in the determination of, the timing, prices, or quantities of Shares to be issued, nor in the determination or calculation of the equation by which Shares are redeemable. The Exchange has no obligation or liability to owners of Shares in connection with the administration, marketing, or trading of Shares.
Without limiting any of the foregoing, in no event shall the Exchange have any liability for any lost profits or indirect, punitive, special, or consequential damages even if notified of the possibility thereof.
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CSat owns the Index and the Index methodology and is a licensor of the Index to the Adviser and Solactive, the Fund’s index calculation agent. The Adviser has contracted with Solactive to maintain and calculate the Index used by the Fund. Solactive shall have no liability for any errors or omissions in calculating the Index. The Adviser and ACSI ETF make no representation or warranty, express or implied, to the owners of Shares or any member of the public regarding the advisability of investing in securities generally or in the ACSI ETF particularly or the ability of Index to track the performance of its constituent securities.
The Adviser and the Fund make no representation or warranty, express or implied, to the owners of Shares or any member of the public regarding the advisability of investing in securities generally or in the Fund particularly.
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FINANCIAL HIGHLIGHTS
The financial highlights table is intended to help you understand the Fund’s financial performance for the Fund’s five most recent fiscal years (or the life of the Fund, if shorter). Certain information reflects financial results for a single Share. The total returns in the table represent the rate that an investor would have earned or lost on an investment in the Fund (assuming reinvestment of all dividends and distributions). Information shown prior to May 24, 2021, is that of the Predecessor Fund. On May 24, 2021, pursuant to a reorganization, the Fund acquired all of the assets and assumed all of the liabilities of the Predecessor Fund. Upon completion of the reorganization, the Fund’s shares assumed the performance, financial, and other historical information of those of the Predecessor Fund. This information has been audited by the Fund’s Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm, Cohen & Company, Ltd., whose report, along with the Fund’s financial statements, is incorporated into this Prospectus by reference to the Fund’s annual report to shareholders, which is available upon request.
For a capital share outstanding throughout the year/period
Year Ended Year Ended Year Ended Year Ended Period Ended
September 30, 2021 September 30, 2020 September 30, 2019 September 30, 2018
September 30, 2017(1)
Net asset value, beginning of year/period
$ 37.40  $ 34.12  $ 34.03  $ 29.18  $ 25.00 
Income from Investment Operations:
Net investment income (loss)(2)
0.20  0.47  0.52  0.45  0.40 
Net realized and unrealized gain (loss) on investments
11.69  3.39  0.03 
(8)
4.77  3.83 
Total from investment operations
11.89  3.86  0.55  5.22  4.23 
Less Distributions:
From Net investment income
(0.35) (0.58) (0.46) (0.37) (0.05)
Total distributions
(0.35) (0.58) (0.46) (0.37) (0.05)
Capital Share Transactions:
Transaction fees
—  —  —  0.00 
(7)
— 
Net asset value, end of year/period
$ 48.94  $ 37.40  $ 34.12  $ 34.03  $ 29.18 
Total return(4)
31.91  % 11.44  % 1.86  % 18.02  % 16.92  %
(3)
Ratios / Supplemental Data:
Net assets at end of year/period (millions)
$ 78.3  $ 58.9  $ 58.0  $ 57.8  $ 40.8 
Portfolio turnover rate(6)
50  % 67  % 36  % 72  % 38  %
(3)
Ratio of expenses to average net assets
0.65  % 0.65  % 0.65  % 0.65  % 0.65  %
(5)
Ratio of net investment income (loss) to average net assets 0.42  % 1.37  % 1.59  % 1.41  % 1.56  %
(5)
(1)The Fund commenced operations on October 31, 2016. The information presented is from October 31, 2016 to September 30, 2017.
(2)Calculated based on average shares outstanding method.
(3)Not annualized.
(4)The total return is based on the Fund’s net asset value.
(5)Annualized
(6)Excludes the impact of in-kind transactions.
(7)Represents less than $0.005.
(8)Net realized and unrealized gain (loss) per share in the caption are balancing amounts necessary to reconcile the change in the net asset value per share for the period.
17


American Customer Satisfaction ETF
Adviser
Toroso Investments, LLC
898 N. Broadway, Suite 2
Massapequa, New York 11758
Administrator
Tidal ETF Services LLC 
898 N. Broadway, Suite 2
Massapequa, New York 11758
Distributor
Foreside Fund Services, LLC
Three Canal Plaza, Suite 100
Portland, Maine 04101
Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
Cohen & Company, Ltd.
342 N. Water St., Suite 830
Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53202
Custodian
U.S. Bank National Association
1555 N. Rivercenter Dr. 
Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53212
Legal Counsel
Godfrey & Kahn, S.C.
833 East Michigan Street, Suite 1800
Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53202
Sub-Administrator, Fund Accountant, and Transfer Agent
U.S. Bancorp Fund Services, LLC,
doing business as U.S. Bank Global Fund Services 
615 East Michigan Street 
Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53202

Investors may find more information about the Fund in the following documents:
Statement of Additional Information: The Fund’s SAI provides additional details about the investments of the Fund and certain other additional information. A current SAI dated January 28, 2022, as supplemented from time to time, is on file with the SEC and is herein incorporated by reference into this Prospectus. It is legally considered a part of this Prospectus.
Annual/Semi-Annual Reports: Additional information about the Fund’s investments is available in the Fund’s annual and semi-annual reports to shareholders. In the annual report you will find a discussion of the market conditions and investment strategies that significantly affected the Fund’s performance during its last fiscal year.
You can obtain free copies of these documents, request other information or make general inquiries about the Fund by contacting the Fund at American Customer Satisfaction ETF, c/o U.S. Bank Global Fund Services, P.O. Box 701, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53201-0701 or calling 1-800-617-0004.
Shareholder reports, the Fund’s current Prospectus and SAI and other information about the Fund are available:
Free of charge from the SEC’s EDGAR database on the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov; or
Free of charge from the Fund’s Internet website at www.acsietf.com; or
For a duplicating fee, by e-mail request to publicinfo@sec.gov.
(SEC Investment Company Act File No. 811-23377)