RNS Number : 4714E
International Cons Airlines Group
28 February 2020
 

                                                                                                                                                                                               

Full year results announcement

International Consolidated Airlines Group (IAG) today (February 28, 2020) presented Group consolidated results for the year to December 31, 2019.

IAG period highlights on results (variances against 2018 pro forma1, unless otherwise noted):

•   Fourth quarter operating profit €765 million before exceptional items (2018 pro forma1: €715 million, 2018 statutory: €655 million)

•   Passenger unit revenue for the quarter up 2.2 per cent, down 0.4 per cent at constant currency

•   Airline non-fuel unit costs for the quarter down 1.7 per cent at constant currency

•   Fuel unit costs for the quarter up 5.6 per cent, up 2.4 per cent at constant currency

•   Operating profit before exceptional items for the year to December 31, 2019 of €3,285 million (2018 pro forma1: €3,485 million, 2018 statutory: €3,230 million), down 5.7 per cent

•   Passenger unit revenue for the year up 1.0 per cent and down 0.5 per cent at constant currency

•   Airline non-fuel unit costs for the year down 0.9 per cent at constant currency

•   Fuel unit costs for the year up 9.6 per cent, up 5.7 per cent at constant currency

•   Net foreign exchange impact for the quarter favourable €79 million, and for the year favourable €67 million

•   Profit after tax before exceptional items €2,387 million down 1.4 per cent (down 40.8 per cent on a statutory basis after exceptional items)

•   Final proposed dividend of 17.0 € cents per share

Performance summary:

 

Year to December 31

Statutory

Pro forma

 

Statutory

Highlights € million

2019

20181

Higher /
(lower)

2019

2018
restated2

Passenger revenue

22,468

21,401

5.0 %

22,468

21,401

Total revenue

25,506

24,258

5.1 %

25,506

24,258

Operating profit before exceptional items

3,285

3,485

(5.7)%

3,285

3,230

Exceptional items

(672)

448

nm

(672)

448

Operating profit after exceptional items

2,613

3,933

(33.6)%

2,613

3,678







Available seat kilometres (ASK million)

337,754

324,808

4.0 %



Passenger revenue per ASK (€ cents)

6.65

6.59

1.0 %



Non-fuel costs per ASK (€ cents)

4.80

4.77

0.6 %









Alternative performance measures

2019

20181

Higher/
(lower)

 

 

Profit after tax before exceptional items (€ million)

2,387

2,422

(1.4)%



Adjusted earnings per share (€ cents)

116.8

114.9

1.7 %



Net debt (€ million)

7,571

6,430

17.7 %



Net debt to EBITDA

1.4

1.2

0.2x









Statutory results € million

2019

2018

Higher/
(lower)

 

 

Profit after tax and exceptional items

1,715

2,897

(40.8)%



Basic earnings per share (€ cents)

86.4

142.7

(39.5)%



Cash and interest-bearing deposits

6,683

6,274

6.5 %



Interest-bearing long-term borrowings

14,254

7,509

89.8 %



For definitions refer to the Alternative performance measures section.

1  Pro forma financial information is based on the Group's restated statutory results with an adjustment to reflect the estimated impact of IFRS 16 'Leases' from January 1, 2018. A reconciliation of the pro forma financial information to the Group's statutory results is included in the Alternative performance measures section.

2  December 31, 2018 comparatives are the Group's restated statutory results as reported. The 2018 results have been restated to reclassify the costs the Group incurs in relation to compensation for flight delays and cancellations as a deduction from revenue as opposed to an operating expense. There is no change in operating profit. The amount reclassified for the year to December 31, 2018 was €148 million. Further information is given in Note 2 of the Group financial statements.

Willie Walsh, IAG Chief Executive Officer, said:

"In 2019, we're reporting an operating profit of €3,285 million before exceptional items, down by €200 million compared to last year.

"At constant currency, passenger unit revenue decreased by 0.5 per cent while airline non-fuel unit costs were down 0.9 per cent.

"These are good results in a year affected by disruption and higher fuel prices. We demonstrated our robust and flexible model once again through additional cost control and by reducing capacity growth to reflect market conditions.

"We've increased investment in new aircraft, customer products and operational resilience and this has seen our airlines improve their customer performance scores this year.

"Quarter 4 was strong with an operating profit of €765 million before exceptional items.

"We're pleased to confirm that the Board is proposing a final dividend of 17.0 euro cents per share. This brings the full year dividend to 31.5 euro cents per share, subject to shareholder approval at our AGM in June. In total, we will have returned more than €4.4 billion to our shareholders since 2015."

Trading outlook

The earnings outlook is adversely affected by weaker demand as a result of coronavirus (COVID-19). We are currently experiencing demand weakness on Asian and European routes and a weakening of business travel across our network resulting from the cancellation of industry events and corporate travel restrictions.

In Asia, flights to Mainland China have been suspended. On January 29, British Airways suspended its daily flight to both Beijing and Shanghai and Iberia suspended its three times weekly service to Shanghai on January 31. In addition, some services on other Asian routes have been reduced. From February 13, British Airways reduced its daily Hong Kong service from two to one. From March 13, it will reduce its daily service to Seoul to 3-4 times weekly.

Some of the freed-up longhaul capacity is being redeployed to routes with stronger demand. British Airways has announced additional flights to India, South Africa and the US, while Iberia is increasing capacity on US and domestic routes.

Capacity on Italian routes for March has been significantly reduced through a combination of cancellations and change of aircraft gauge and further capacity reductions will be activated over the coming days. We also expect to make some capacity reductions across our wider shorthaul network. Shorthaul capacity is not being redeployed at this stage.

The net impact of current flight cancellations and redeployed capacity is to lower IAG's FY 2020 planned capacity by approximately 1 per cent in terms of available seat kilometres to 2 per cent for the year. Our operating companies will continue to take mitigating actions to better match supply to demand in line with the evolving situation. Cost and revenue initiatives are being implemented across the business.

IAG is resilient with a strong balance sheet and substantial cash liquidity to withstand the current weakness. We have a management team experienced in similar situations and have demonstrated that we can respond quickly to changing market conditions. We are strongly positioned for the expected recovery in demand.

Given the ongoing uncertainty on the potential impact and duration of COVID-19, it is not possible to give accurate profit guidance for FY 2020 at this stage.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LEI: 959800TZHQRUSH1ESL13

This announcement contains inside information and is disclosed in accordance with the Company's obligations under the Market Abuse Regulation (EU) No 596/2014.

Steve Gunning, Chief Financial Officer

Forward-looking statements:

Certain statements included in this announcement are forward-looking. These statements can be identified by the fact that they do not relate only to historical or current facts. By their nature, they involve risk and uncertainties because they relate to events and depend on circumstances that will occur in the future. Actual results could differ materially from those expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements.

Forward-looking statements can typically be identified by the use of words such as "expects", "may", "will", "could", "should", "intends", "plans", "predicts", "envisages" or "anticipates" or other words of similar meaning. They include, without limitation, any and all projections relating to the results of operations and financial conditions of International Consolidated Airlines Group, S.A. and its subsidiary undertakings from time to time (the 'Group'), as well as plans and objectives for future operations, expected future revenues, financing plans, expected expenditure and divestments relating to the Group and discussions of the Group's business plan. All forward-looking statements in this announcement are based upon information known to the Group on the date of this announcement and speak as of the date of this announcement. Other than in accordance with its legal or regulatory obligations, the Group does not undertake to update or revise any forward-looking statement to reflect any changes in events, conditions or circumstances on which any such statement is based.

It is not reasonably possible to itemise all of the many factors and specific events that could cause the forward-looking statements in this announcement to be incorrect or could otherwise have a material adverse effect on the future operations or results of an airline operating in the global economy. Further information on the primary risks of the business and the Group's risk management process is set out in the Risk management and principal risk factors section in the Annual Report and Accounts 2018; these documents are available on www.iairgroup.com. All forward-looking statements made on or after the date of this announcement and attributable to IAG are expressly qualified in their entirety by the primary risks set out in that section.

IAG Investor Relations Waterside (HAA2), PO Box 365, Harmondsworth, Middlesex, UB7 0GB

Tel: +44 (0)208 564 2990 Investor.relations@iairgroup.com

CONSOLIDATED INCOME STATEMENT


Year to December 31

 

 

Statutory

Statutory

 

Pro forma

€ million

Before

exceptional

items

2019

Exceptional

items

Total

2019

 

Before

exceptional

items

20181

Exceptional

items

Total

20181

Higher/

(lower)

2019

2018

restated2

Passenger revenue

22,468

 

22,468

 

21,401

 

21,401

5.0 %

22,468

21,401

Cargo revenue

1,117

 

1,117

 

1,173

 

1,173

(4.8)%

1,117

1,173

Other revenue

1,921

 

1,921

 

1,684

 

1,684

14.1 %

1,921

1,684

Total revenue

25,506

 

25,506

 

24,258

 

24,258

5.1 %

25,506

24,258

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Employee costs

4,962

672

5,634

 

4,812

(460)

4,352

3.1 %

5,634

4,352

Fuel, oil costs and emissions charges

6,021

 

6,021

 

5,283

 

5,283

14.0 %

6,021

5,283

Handling, catering and other operating costs

2,972

 

2,972

 

2,733

 

2,733

8.7 %

2,972

2,740

Landing fees and en-route charges

2,221

 

2,221

 

2,184

 

2,184

1.7 %

2,221

2,184

Engineering and other aircraft costs

2,092

 

2,092

 

1,857

 

1,857

12.7 %

2,092

1,828

Property, IT and other costs

811

 

811

 

789

12

801

2.8 %

811

930

Selling costs

1,038

 

1,038

 

1,046

 

1,046

(0.8)%

1,038

1,046

Depreciation, amortisation and impairment

2,111

 

2,111

 

1,996

 

1,996

5.8 %

2,111

1,254

Aircraft operating lease costs

-

 

-

 

-

 

-

-

-

890

Currency differences

(7)

 

(7)

 

73

 

73

nm

(7)

73

Total expenditure on operations

22,221

672

22,893

 

20,773

(448)

20,325

7.0 %

22,893

20,580

Operating profit

3,285

(672)

2,613

 

3,485

448

3,933

(5.7)%

2,613

3,678

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Finance costs

(611)

 

(611)

 

(561)

 

(561)

8.9 %

(611)

(231)

Finance income

50

 

50

 

41

 

41

22.0 %

50

41

Net financing credit relating to pensions

26

 

26

 

27

 

27

(3.7)%

26

27

Net currency retranslation credits/(charges)

201

 

201

 

(19)

 

(19)

nm

201

(19)

Other non-operating charges

(4)

 

(4)

 

(9)

 

(9)

(55.6)%

(4)

(9)

Total net non-operating costs

(338)

 

(338)

 

(521)

 

(521)

(35.1)%

(338)

(191)

Profit before tax

2,947

(672)

2,275

 

2,964

448

3,412

(0.6)%

2,275

3,487

Tax

(560)

-

(560)

 

(542)

(32)

(574)

3.3 %

(560)

(590)

Profit after tax for the year

2,387

(672)

1,715

 

2,422

416

2,838

(1.4)%

1,715

2,897

 

Operating figures

20193

 

 

 

20181, 3

 

 

Higher/

(lower)

 

 

Available seat kilometres (ASK million)

337,754

 

 

 

324,808

 

 

4.0 %

 

 

Revenue passenger kilometres (RPK million)

285,745

 

 

 

270,657

 

 

5.6 %

 

 

Seat factor (per cent)

84.6

 

 

 

83.3

 

 

1.3pts

 

 

Passenger numbers (thousands)

118,253

 

 

 

112,920

 

 

4.7 %

 

 

Cargo tonne kilometres (CTK million)

5,577

 

 

 

5,713

 

 

(2.4)%

 

 

Sold cargo tonnes (thousands)

682

 

 

 

702

 

 

(2.8)%

 

 

Sectors

775,486

 

 

 

754,700

 

 

2.8 %

 

 

Block hours (hours)

2,272,904

 

 

 

2,207,374

 

 

3.0 %

 

 

Average manpower equivalent

66,034

 

 

 

64,734

 

 

2.0 %

 

 

Aircraft in service

598

 

 

 

573

 

 

4.4 %

 

 

Passenger revenue per RPK (€ cents)

7.86

 

 

 

7.91

 

 

(0.6)%

 

 

Passenger revenue per ASK (€ cents)

6.65

 

 

 

6.59

 

 

1.0 %

 

 

Cargo revenue per CTK (€ cents)

20.03

 

 

 

20.53

 

 

(2.5)%

 

 

Fuel cost per ASK (€ cents)

1.78

 

 

 

1.63

 

 

9.6 %

 

 

Non-fuel costs per ASK (€ cents)

4.80

 

 

 

4.77

 

 

0.6 %

 

 

Total cost per ASK (€ cents)

6.58

 

 

 

6.40

 

 

2.9 %

 

 

1  Pro forma financial information is based on the Group's restated statutory results with an adjustment to reflect the estimated impact of IFRS 16 'Leases' from January 1, 2018. A reconciliation of the pro forma financial information to the Group's statutory results is included in the Alternative performance measures section.

2  The 2018 statutory results for the Group are the restated consolidated results including the impact of the exceptional items. The 2018 results have been restated to reclassify the costs the Group incurs in relation to compensation for flight delays and cancellations as a deduction from revenue as opposed to an operating expense. There is no change in operating profit. The amount reclassified for the year to December 31, 2018 was €148 million. Further information is given in Note 2 of the Group financial statements.

3  Financial ratios are before exceptional items.

CONSOLIDATED INCOME STATEMENT


Three months to December 31

 

Statutory

Statutory


Pro forma

€ million

Before

exceptional

items

2019

Exceptional

items

Total

2019

 

Before

exceptional

items

20181

Exceptional

items

Total

20181

Higher/

(lower)

2019

2018

restated2

Passenger revenue

5,390

 

5,390

 

5,177

 

5,177

4.1 %

5,390

5,177

Cargo revenue

292

 

292

 

326

 

326

(10.4)%

292

326

Other revenue

532

 

532

 

511

 

511

4.1 %

532

511

Total revenue

6,214

 

6,214

 

6,014

 

6,014

3.3 %

6,214

6,014

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Employee costs

1,249

672

1,921

 

1,223

134

1,357

2.1 %

1,921

1,357

Fuel, oil costs and emissions charges

1,452

 

1,452

 

1,349

 

1,349

7.6 %

1,452

1,349

Handling, catering and other operating costs

736

 

736

 

687

 

687

7.1 %

736

688

Landing fees and en-route charges

522

 

522

 

515

 

515

1.4 %

522

515

Engineering and other aircraft costs

505

 

505

 

551

 

551

(8.3)%

505

543

Property, IT and other costs

229

 

229

 

209

2

211

9.6 %

229

242

Selling costs

225

 

225

 

240

 

240

(6.3)%

225

240

Depreciation, amortisation and impairment

557

 

557

 

517

 

517

7.7 %

557

326

Aircraft operating lease costs

-

 

-

 

-

 

-

-

-

227

Currency differences

(26)

 

(26)

 

8

 

8

nm

(26)

8

Total expenditure on operations

5,449

672

6,121

 

5,299

136

5,435

2.8 %

6,121

5,495

Operating profit

765

(672)

93

 

715

(136)

579

7.0 %

93

519

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Finance costs

(165)

 

(165)

 

(147)

 

(147)

12.2 %

(165)

(65)

Finance income

17

 

17

 

11

 

11

54.5 %

17

11

Net financing credit relating to pensions

7

 

7

 

7

 

7

-

7

7

Net currency retranslation credits/(charges)

108

 

108

 

(13)

 

(13)

nm

108

(13)

Other non-operating charges

(54)

 

(54)

 

(10)

 

(10)

nm

(54)

(10)

Total net non-operating costs

(87)

 

(87)

 

(152)

 

(152)

(42.8)%

(87)

(70)

Profit before tax

678

(672)

6

 

563

(136)

427

20.4 %

6

449

Tax

(105)

-

(105)

 

(71)

8

(63)

47.9 %

(105)

(66)

Profit after tax for the period

573

(672)

(99)

 

492

(128)

364

16.5 %

(99)

383

 

Operating figures

20193

 

 

 

20181, 3

 

 

Higher/

(lower)

 

 

Available seat kilometres (ASK million)

82,005

 

 

 

80,465

 

 

1.9 %

 

 

Revenue passenger kilometres (RPK million)

69,138

 

 

 

65,612

 

 

5.4 %

 

 

Seat factor (per cent)

84.3

 

 

 

81.5

 

 

2.8pts

 

 

Passenger numbers (thousands)

27,805

 

 

 

26,679

 

 

4.2 %

 

 

Cargo tonne kilometres (CTK million)

1,427

 

 

 

1,523

 

 

(6.3)%

 

 

Sold cargo tonnes (thousands)

175

 

 

 

187

 

 

(6.6)%

 

 

Sectors

183,490

 

 

 

182,386

 

 

0.6 %

 

 

Block hours (hours)

541,874

 

 

 

540,988

 

 

0.2 %

 

 

Average manpower equivalent

65,293

 

 

 

64,296

 

 

1.6 %

 

 

Passenger revenue per RPK (€ cents)

7.80

 

 

 

7.89

 

 

(1.2)%

 

 

Passenger revenue per ASK (€ cents)

6.57

 

 

 

6.43

 

 

2.2 %

 

 

Cargo revenue per CTK (€ cents)

20.46

 

 

 

21.41

 

 

(4.4)%

 

 

Fuel cost per ASK (€ cents)

1.77

 

 

 

1.68

 

 

5.6 %

 

 

Non-fuel costs per ASK (€ cents)

4.87

 

 

 

4.91

 

 

(0.7)%

 

 

Total cost per ASK (€ cents)

6.64

 

 

 

6.59

 

 

0.9 %

 

 

1  Pro forma financial information is based on the Group's restated statutory results with an adjustment to reflect the estimated impact of IFRS 16 'Leases' from January 1, 2018. A reconciliation of the pro forma financial information to the Group's statutory results is included in the Alternative performance measures section.

2  The 2018 statutory results for the Group are the restated consolidated results including the impact of the exceptional items. The 2018 results have been restated to reclassify the costs the Group incurs in relation to compensation for flight delays and cancellations as a deduction from revenue as opposed to an operating expense. There is no change in operating profit. The amount reclassified for the three months to December 31, 2018 was €46 million. Further information is given in Note 2 of the Group financial statements.

3  Financial ratios are before exceptional items.

FINANCIAL REVIEW

IATA market growths

The air traffic industry had a positive year; however, performance was impacted by a softer global economic backdrop than previous years, slightly affecting demand. Global capacity grew at a slower pace than demand, which translated into a record load factor of 82.6 per cent, 0.7 points higher than in 2018.

In 2019, airline capacity growth in Europe softened, in line with slowing economic activity, declining business confidence heightened by industrial strikes, Brexit uncertainty and the collapse of several airlines. Capacity still grew 3.6 per cent over the previous year and passenger load factor increased, reaching 85.2 points, the highest throughout all regions.

North America performed slightly better than other regions, sustaining a solid upward trend throughout the year. Despite that, growth eased slightly from softer US economic activity and weaker business confidence. Capacity increased 2.8 per cent, less than the previous year, with passenger load factor up 0.8 points.

Latin America's airline capacity growth slowed versus last year due to social unrest and economic difficulties. Capacity growth of 2.9 per cent was significantly below 2018 growth of 6.6 per cent and passenger load factor in this region increased.

Africa benefited from a generally supportive economic landscape in 2019 and capacity grew significantly more than in 2018 and the highest of all regions at 4.7 per cent, with passenger load factor moderately higher.

Although the Middle East's airline industry growth showed the slowest growth of all the regions year on year, the last quarter of the year saw a sharp increase in capacity, placing the region as the highest in capacity increases globally for these months. Load factor improved 1.4 points on the relatively flat capacity for the year.

Airline capacity growth in the Asia Pacific region was slower than in 2018, but remained relatively high, with an increase of 4.5 per cent, impacted by the economic landscape. Passenger load factor improved 0.4 points.

IATA market growths

Year to December 31, 2019

Capacity ASKs

Passenger load factor

Higher/ (lower)

Europe

3.6%

 85.2

0.4 pts

North America

2.8%

 84.9

0.8 pts

Latin America

2.9%

 82.6

1.0 pts

Africa

4.7%

 71.7

0.3 pts

Middle East

0.1%

 76.2

1.4 pts

Asia Pacific

4.5%

 81.9

0.4 pts

Total market

3.4%

 82.6

0.7 pts

Source: IATA Air Passenger Market Analysis

IAG capacity

In 2019, all of IAG's airlines grew capacity, with total Group capacity up 4.0 per cent.

The increase mainly reflects additional frequencies and increased aircraft gauge on longhaul routes and the full-year impact of network changes in 2018 by British Airways, Aer Lingus and Iberia, as well as growth in LEVEL. New routes were added at Aer Lingus, connecting Dublin with Minneapolis; at British Airways, with new routes such as London Heathrow to Charleston, Pittsburgh, Islamabad and Osaka; and Iberia, with a new service from Madrid to Guayaquil. Vueling's capacity grew through additional domestic frequencies, with expansion in the Balearic and Canary Islands. IAG's shorthaul network also saw increases from the new LEVEL base in Amsterdam.

IAG passenger load factor was higher, once again, than any prior year since the creation of IAG, reaching 84.6 points, up 1.3 points from 2018 and higher than the IATA average.

Market segments

IAG capacity

Year to December 31, 2019

ASKs higher/
(lower)

Passenger load factor

Higher/ (lower)

Domestic

7.3%

87.2

2.2 pts

Europe

1.7%

83.6

0.4 pts

North America

1.4%

84.1

1.8 pts

Latin America and Caribbean

13.3%

86.4

1.7 pts

Africa, Middle East and South Asia

1.0%

83.0

0.6 pts

Asia Pacific

3.7%

85.8

1.1 pts

Total network

4.0%

84.6

1.3 pts

Europe

Eurozone GDP growth for the year was 1.2 per cent, lower than expected by the IMF at the beginning of the year, and 0.7 points lower than in 2018. As was the case for the UK, GDP growth decelerated through the year, although to a lower extent than in the UK. Like the UK, Eurozone consumer confidence and unemployment remained at multi-year lows.

Together, IAG's European and Domestic markets continue to represent the Group's largest region. Growth comes from both capacity and frequency increases as well as new routes.

Capacity in IAG's Domestic markets was higher by 7.3 per cent, mostly from increases in Vueling and Iberia. Vueling launched a number of new routes, including connections between several cities in mainland Spain with the Canary Islands. Capacity at Iberia was increased through increases in frequencies as well as new routes connecting Melilla with Seville, Granada and Almeria. Passenger load factor in IAG's domestic markets increased by 2.2 points despite the strong increase in capacity.

Passenger unit revenues (passenger revenue per ASK) at constant currency ('ccy') in the Domestic markets were up at British Airways, Iberia and Vueling.

The Group's capacity in Europe was increased 1.7 per cent year on year. LEVEL's operations in Vienna started in July 2018 and therefore 2019 included the full year impact of routes from its base into London, Barcelona and Paris, among others. British Airways launched new routes from London Gatwick to Milan, Bilbao and Almeria as well as new services connecting London City with Munich and London Heathrow with Valencia, among others. Iberia's capacity grew mainly from frequency increases and Vueling launched services from Paris to Mallorca, Copenhagen, Porto and Alicante, among others. Load factor for the Group's European market was up 0.4 points.

The Group's passenger unit revenue performance at constant currency in its European market was weaker driven by Vueling, British Airways and Aer Lingus. Iberia's passenger unit revenue performance was flat on a slight capacity increase.?

North America

US GDP growth was 2.3 per cent, only slightly lower than expected by the IMF at the beginning of the year and 0.6 points lower than in 2018. Growth accelerated in Q1 2019, reflecting an upturn in government spending, private inventory investment and in exports, then slowed in Q2 2019 and Q3 2019. The unemployment rate continued to decline, hitting 3.5 per cent in Q4 2019, the lowest rate since 1970.

IAG's North American market accounts for almost 30 per cent of the Group's Available seat kilometres ('ASKs'). Capacity was increased in Iberia, Aer Lingus and LEVEL, with a slight decrease at British Airways, mainly reflecting the pilot's strike. British Airways launched new routes, connecting London Heathrow with Pittsburgh and Charleston and Aer Lingus started operations from Dublin to Minneapolis. Capacity was also increased in Aer Lingus through higher frequencies on several routes, such as Dublin to San Francisco, Seattle and Philadelphia. LEVEL launched a new route in 2019, connecting Barcelona with New York, and increased capacity on its services from Barcelona to Boston and San Francisco. The region's capacity increase also reflects the full year impact of routes launched during 2018. Seat factor for the region was among the best for the Group.

North America passenger unit revenues at ccy were up against last year. Aer Lingus passenger unit revenues were up strongly on a capacity increase of 6.1 per cent. British Airways passenger unit revenues were slightly better, on slightly lower capacity. In 2019, LEVEL's expansion again had a slightly dilutive impact on the Group's passenger unit revenues. Iberia's passenger unit revenues in North America decreased, with a 5.7 per cent capacity increase.

Latin America and Caribbean

Latin America GDP was significantly lower than the IMF expected at the beginning of year, particularly notable for Brazil and Mexico compared to expectations. At a country level, there was a slowdown in growth compared to 2018 in all countries, with Ecuador slipping into recession and both Venezuela and Argentina remaining in recession.

IAG's capacity in Latin America and Caribbean was increased by 13.3 per cent, with the impact of the first full year of Paris operations at LEVEL. Iberia launched a new route, connecting Madrid with Guayaquil, and increased frequencies on its routes from Madrid to San Salvador, Guatemala City, Bogotá and Lima. British Airways capacity was increased through additional capacity from densification of its London Gatwick Boeing 777 fleet and from additional frequencies added on its London Gatwick to Cancún route. Passenger load factor in this region improved and continued to be the highest for the Group, 3.8 points higher than the industry average.

Latin America and Caribbean passenger unit revenues at ccy were down significantly against 2018, partly due to capacity increases and a difficult economic and political landscape.

Africa, Middle East and South Asia (AMESA)

AMESA capacity was increased 1.0 per cent in 2019 primarily from new routes at British Airways. The increase in capacity was mainly due to new routes launched by British Airways, including Dammam via Bahrain and to Islamabad, and increased frequencies in routes from London Heathrow to Mumbai and from London Heathrow and London Gatwick to Marrakech. Iberia increased capacity through higher frequencies on its routes from Madrid to Dakar, Casablanca and Marrakech. Vueling increased capacity on its routes from Barcelona to Algiers, Tangier, Marrakech, Tel Aviv, Beirut and Banjul. Passenger load factor was higher than the previous year once again and was also higher than the industry average.

Africa, Middle East and South Asia passenger unit revenue performance at ccy was better in 2019, with improvements in British Airways and Iberia and a lower performance at Vueling driven by a capacity increase of 12.4 per cent.

Asia Pacific

In Asia Pacific, the Group's capacity was up against last year. Iberia increased capacity significantly by 21.9 per cent, mainly coming from added frequencies on its Madrid-Tokyo route. British Airways increased capacity through a new route connecting London Heathrow with Osaka. Passenger load factor was up 1.1 points on a capacity increase of 3.7 per cent.

Asia Pacific passenger unit revenues at ccy were up against last year. Industry capacity continued to grow over the year following the increases in 2018, but did so at a slower pace, impacted by the economic landscape and challenges coming from US-China trade tensions.

Basis of preparation

The Group has adopted the new accounting standard IFRS 16 'Leases' from January 1, 2019 and has used the modified retrospective transition approach and has not restated comparatives. IFRS 16 eliminates the classification of leases as either operating leases or finance leases and introduces a single lessee accounting model. On the Balance sheet, obligations to make future payments under leases, previously classified as operating leases, are recognised as debt with the associated right of use (ROU) assets. In the Income statement, the operating lease costs are replaced with depreciation (within operating expenditure) and lease interest expense (within non-operating expenditure). For further information see note 33 of the Group financial statements.

The following review is against a pro forma basis for 2018, which provides a consistent basis for comparison with 2019 results, except where otherwise indicated. Pro forma results for 2018 are the Group's statutory results with an adjustment to reflect the estimated impact of IFRS 16 from January 1, 2018, and have been prepared using the same assumptions used for the IFRS 16 transition adjustment at January 1, 2019 (set out in note 33 of the Group financial statements) adjusted for any new aircraft leases entered into during 2018 and using the incremental borrowing rates at January 1, 2019. The IFRS 16 adjustments for aircraft lease liabilities are based on US dollar exchange rates at the transition date. For further information see the Alternative performance measures section.

The current year and comparative figures in this report have been prepared on a pre-exceptional and pro forma basis unless otherwise stated.

Revenue

€ million

2019

Higher/(lower)

Year over year at ccy

 Per ASK at ccy

Passenger revenue

22,468

3.5%

(0.5)%

Cargo revenue

1,117

(7.2)%

?

Other revenue

1,921

11.3%

?

Total revenue

25,506

3.5%

?

Passenger revenue

Passenger revenue for the Group rose 5.0 per cent versus the prior year, with 1.5 points of positive currency impact, while capacity was increased by 4.0 per cent. At constant currency, passenger unit revenue decreased 0.5 per cent from lower yields (passenger revenue/revenue passenger kilometre), down 2.0 per cent, but with an increase in passenger load factor of 1.3 points. At the airline level, passenger unit revenue at ccy increased in British Airways and Vueling, was flat in Aer Lingus and decreased in Iberia.

The Group carried over 118 million passengers, an increase of 4.7 per cent from last year, with higher passenger load factor across the Group. The Group's Net Promoter Score for 2019 was 25.8 per cent, an improvement of 9.5 points versus last year's figure. This came from better regularity, as well as continued product and service improvements. Vueling made improvements to disruption handling and resilience, which made a significant difference for customers in light of the significant Air Traffic Control ('ATC') disruption again in 2019. Net Promoter Score improved at British Airways, Iberia and Vueling, and was flat at Aer Lingus, in the context of increased punctuality challenges at Dublin Airport.

Cargo revenue

2019 was a difficult year for global airfreight, with industry-wide volumes down 3.3 per cent versus 2018. The reduction in demand reflected US-China trade tensions and weaker manufacturing in Europe, notably in Germany. IAG Cargo's performance was better than the market overall, reflecting its strategy to focus on premium products. IAG volumes were down 2.4 per cent, with yield down 4.9 per cent at constant currency, leading to a decrease in Cargo revenue of 7.2 per cent at constant currency. Premium products, including Constant Climate and Critical, performed better than general freight, with a growth in the Constant Fresh perishable movements, particularly out of Latin America and Africa. Industry sectors such as automotive parts were significantly down. IAG Cargo launched a new temperature-controlled facility in Madrid, which gained Good Distribution Practice certification in February. The new facility has been welcomed by customers and has provided new revenue potential for the Spanish hub.

Other revenue

Other revenue rose 14.1 per cent, 11.3 per cent at constant currency. Revenues grew at Iberia's third party maintenance (MRO) business, assisted by greater engine overhaul activity. BA Holidays continued to grow, benefitting from marketing and a focus on IT improvements, resulting in higher conversions into bookings. Other revenue was also boosted by IAG Loyalty, which increased the sale of Avios points to its partners.

Total revenue

Total revenue for the Group rose 5.1 per cent and was up 3.5 per cent at ccy.

Non-fuel unit costs

At constant currency, total non-fuel unit costs decreased 0.1 per cent. Airline non-fuel unit costs (adjusted by the costs associated with generating 'Other revenue', representing the costs of handling and maintenance for other airlines, non-flight products in BA Holidays and costs associated with other miscellaneous non-flight revenue streams), was down 0.9 per cent. Airline non-fuel unit costs improved at a Group level from cost-saving initiatives and efficient growth, with Vueling's investment in resilience and disruption handling reducing passenger assistance costs linked to continuing Air Traffic Control issues in Europe.

Expenditure before exceptional items

Employee costs

Employee costs increased 3.1 per cent before exceptional items for the year. At constant currency, employee unit costs improved 1.4 per cent primarily linked to management initiatives, productivity improvements, the impact of strikes at British Airways on bonus payments and the final quarter of year-on-year benefit from the NAPS pension closure at British Airways in March 2018. This was partially offset by pay increases at all airlines, generally linked to price inflation.

In 2018 British Airways closed its New Airways Pension Scheme (NAPS) to future accrual and British Airways Retirement Plan (BARP) to future contributions from March 31, 2018. The schemes have been replaced by a flexible defined contribution scheme, the British Airways Pension Plan (BAPP). The changes resulted in a reduction in the NAPS IAS 19 defined benefit liability of €872 million, transitional arrangement cash costs of €192 million (recognised as an exceptional in the prior year) and a reduction in current service cost.

Overall, the average number of employees rose by 2.0 per cent for the Group bringing the average workforce to 66,034. Productivity, measured as Available Seat Kilometre ('ASKs') per manpower equivalent, increased 1.9 per cent with improvements at British Airways, Iberia, Vueling and Aer Lingus.

Employee costs

€ million

2019

Higher/(lower)

Year over year at ccy

 Per ASK at ccy

Employee costs

4,962

2.6%

(1.4)%

 

Productivity

?

Higher/(lower)

2019

Year over year

Productivity

5,115

1.9%

Average manpower equivalent

66,034

2.0%

Fuel, oil and emissions costs

Fuel, oil and emissions costs rose by 14.0 per cent in 2019, primarily due to hedging profits in 2018 not repeated in 2019, partially offset by a weaker US dollar and operational efficiencies. The Group hedges its fuel purchases in advance, typically gradually building its cover over three years. This hedging programme smooths the effects of rising (or falling) prices and 2018 benefitted particularly from prices locked in at lower rates in previous years. The Group also gained fuel efficiencies from new generation aircraft and fuel consumption was further reduced by improved operational procedures implemented across the airlines. At ccy and on a unit basis, fuel costs were 5.7 per cent higher.

Fuel, oil and emissions costs

€ million

2019

Higher/(lower)

Year over year at ccy

 Per ASK at ccy

Fuel, oil costs and emissions charges

6,021

10.0%

5.7%

Supplier costs

Total supplier costs for the year increased 5.1 per cent with 0.9 points of adverse currency impact. At ccy and on a unit basis, supplier costs rose 0.2 per cent.

Supplier costs

€ million

2019

Higher/(lower)

Year over year at ccy
(proforma)

Year over year at ccy

(statutory)

Supplier costs per ASK at ccy

?

0.2%?

?

Handling, catering and other operating costs

2,972

7.4%

7.1%

Landing fees and en-route charges

2,221

0.8%

0.8%

Engineering and other aircraft costs

2,092

8.5%

10.2%

Property, IT and other costs

811

1.9%

(12.5)%

Selling costs

1,038

(2.8)%

(2.8)%

Currency differences

(7)

nm

nm

British Airways' supplier unit costs at ccy were up due to investment in customer (catering and lounges), incremental BA Holidays costs (impacting Handling, catering and other operating costs) and inflation, partially offset by one-off compensation received in relation to an IT failure in 2017, aircraft delivery delays and engine issues and from cost saving initiatives. Iberia supplier unit costs at ccy were up from increased Engineering and other aircraft costs related to its third-party MRO business, with a corresponding increase in other revenue, partially offset by lower selling costs due to direct channel growth and continued cost saving initiatives. Vueling supplier unit costs at ccy improved significantly from lower disruption costs in line with improved operational performance as well as the introduction of an action plan identifying saving opportunities from the demand slowdown. This was partially offset by investment in operational resilience for the business, aimed at mitigating the impact of ATC disruption. Aer Lingus supplier unit costs at ccy were up from increased maintenance and handling costs, partially offset by continued cost saving initiatives and efficient growth.

By supplier cost category:

Handling, catering and other operating costs rose 8.7 per cent, excluding currency up 7.4 per cent. More than half of this increase was linked to higher capacity, with 4.7 per cent additional passengers carried in the year and higher activity at BA Holidays, with the corresponding increase in Other revenue. Costs also rose from the impact of disruption caused by the pilots strike at British Airways and price increases in supplier contracts. The Group continued its focus on improving the customer proposition by investing in lounges, catering and service delivery. 

Landing fees and en-route charges were higher by 1.7 per cent, excluding currency up 0.8 per cent. Costs rose primarily from higher activity, with flying hours up 3.0 per cent and sectors flown up 2.8 per cent, offset by reductions of en-route charges at Vueling and Aer Lingus, and London Gatwick rebates at British Airways.

Engineering and other aircraft costs increased 12.7 per cent, excluding currency up 8.5 per cent. Increases were driven by increased flying hours, up 3.0 per cent, contractual price escalation on maintenance contracts, additional component costs at Aer Lingus and higher costs associated with Iberia's third-party maintenance business. Cost increases were partly offset by negotiated improvements in 'pay-as-you-go' contracts and compensation received from manufacturers linked to aircraft availability issues.

Property, IT and other costs were up 2.8 per cent, excluding currency up 1.9 per cent. The increase is due to higher capacity, with lower costs on a unit basis. The improvement reflects the impact of one-off supplier compensation received from the impact of the IT failure in 2017 at British Airways. This was partially offset by investing in resilience and IT infrastructure and from inflation increases on rent and rates.

Selling costs decreased 0.8 per cent, excluding currency down 2.8 per cent. Selling costs benefited from reduced commissions, linked to growth of the new distribution model, together with benefits from the mix of selling channels, with an increase in direct sales. British Airways benefited from an initiative to reduce credit card costs. Iberia achieved efficiencies from targeted marketing spend, which was partially offset by British Airways' investment in its centenary year and new uniform development.

Ownership costs

The Group's ownership costs were up 5.8 per cent, excluding currency up 5.4 per cent. The increase reflects additional depreciation on new aircraft, as well as depreciation on densification and connectivity investments and from the New York JFK terminal project. The increase in ownership costs was partially offset by a reduction in engine overhauls in line with retirement of the Boeing 747 fleet at British Airways. New aircraft are contributing to lower carbon emissions and reduced fuel costs.

€ million

2019

Year over year at ccy
(proforma)

Year over year at ccy (statutory)

Per ASK at ccy

?

1.4%

?

Ownership costs

2,111

5.4%

(1.9)%

 

 

Number of fleet

Higher/(lower)

2019

Year over year

Shorthaul

394

3.7%

Longhaul

204

5.7%


598

4.4%

 

Aircraft deliveries

2019

2018

Airbus A320 family

32

28

Airbus A330

3

6

Airbus A350

8

2

Boeing 787

-

5

Embraer E190

2

1

Total

45

42

Exchange impact before exceptional items

Exchange rate impacts are calculated by retranslating current year results at prior year exchange rates. The reported revenues and expenditures are impacted by the translation of currencies other than euro to the Group's reporting currency of euro, primarily British Airways and Avios. From a transaction perspective, the Group performance is impacted by the fluctuation of exchange rates, primarily exposure to the pound sterling, euro and US dollar. The Group generates a surplus in most currencies in which it does business, except the US dollar, as capital expenditure, debt repayments and fuel purchases typically create a deficit which is managed and partially hedged. Overall, in 2019 the Group operating profit before exceptional items benefitted from €67 million of positive foreign exchange impacts.

The Group hedges its economic exposure from transacting in foreign currencies. The Group does not hedge the translation impact of reporting in euro.

€ million

Favourable/(adverse)

2019

Translation impact

Transaction impact

Total exchange impact

Total exchange impact on revenue

68

325

393

Total exchange impact on operating expenditures

(58)

(268)

(326)

Total exchange impact on operating profit

10

57

67

The exchange rates for the Group were as follows:

?

2019

2018

Higher/ (lower)

Translation - Balance sheet




€ to £?

1.18

1.11

6.3%

Translation - Income statement
(weighted average)




€ to £?

1.13

1.13

-

Transaction
(weighted average)




€ to £

1.13

1.13

-

$ to €

1.12

1.18

(5.1)%

$ to £?

1.27

1.33

(4.5)%

Operating profit before exceptional items

In summary, the Group's operating profit before exceptional items for the year was €3,285 million, a €200 million decrease from last year (on a statutory basis after exceptional items a decrease of €1,065 million mainly due to the exceptional pension credit in 2018 and exceptional pension expense in 2019). The Group's operating margin was lower by 1.5 points to 12.9 per cent. These results reflect the industrial action at British Airways and disruption at London Heathrow in the summer, which had an adverse impact of approximately €170 million. In the second half of the year, weakness and disruption faced by the Group's low-cost segments had a further adverse impact of approximately €45 million.

Operating profit and loss performance of operating companies


British Airways

£ million

?

Aer Lingus
€ million

?

Iberia
€ million

?

Vueling
€ million

2019

Higher/ (lower)1

Higher/ (lower)2

?

2019

Higher/ (lower)1

Higher/ (lower)2

?

2019

Higher/ (lower)1

Higher/ (lower)2

?

2019

Higher/ (lower)1

Higher/ (lower)2

ASKs

186,170

0.9%

0.9% 

?

30,255

4.2%

4.2%?

?

73,354

7.6%

7.6%

?

38,432

2.7%

2.7%

Seat factor
(per cent)

83.6

1.1pts

1.1pts 

?

81.8

0.8pts

0.8pts?

?

87.2

1.7pts

1.7pts

?

86.9

1.5pts

1.5pts

















Passenger revenue

11,899

2.9%

2.9% 

?

2,060

6.1%

6.1%?

?

4,053

7.3%

7.3%

?

2,437

5.2%

5.2%

Cargo revenue

711

(7.6)%

(7.6)% 

?

54

0.6%

0.6%?

?

291

5.8%

5.8%

?

-

-


Other revenue

680

7.6%

7.6% 

?

11

(16.8)%

(16.8)%?

?

1,301

16.2%

16.2%

?

18

(14.8)%

(14.8)%

Total revenue

13,290

2.5%

2.5% 

?

2,125

5.8%

5.8%?

?

5,645

9.2%

9.2%

?

2,455

5.0%

5.0%

Fuel, oil costs and emissions charges

3,237

10.6%

 10.6%

?

460

20.6%

20.6%?

?

1,202

17.6%

17.6%

?

548

12.1%

12.1%

Employee costs

2,529

(0.2)%

(0.2)%

?

405

8.8%

8.8%?

?

1,164

6.7%

6.7%

?

301

8.2%

8.2%

Supplier costs

4,497

2.0%

 (0.7)%

?

854

5.9%

11.9%?

?

2,392

10.5%

10.6%

?

1,116

3.3%

1.5%

EBITDA

3,027

(2.1)%

1.8% 

?

406

(9.6)%

(17.3)%?

?

887

(0.5)%

(0.9)%

?

490

0.0%

4.0%

Ownership costs

1,106

3.7%

8.5% 

?

130

(5.5)%

(30.1)%?

?

390

8.8%

(14.8)%

?

250

10.6%

(7.7)%

Operating profit before exceptional items

1,921

(5.1)%

(1.6)% 

?

276

(11.4)%

(9.5)%?

?

497

(6.7)%

13.8%

?

240

(9.3)%

19.7%

Operating margin

14.5%

(1.1)pts

(0.6)pts 

?

13.0%

(2.5)pts

(2.2)pts?

?

8.8%

(1.5)pts

0.4pts

?

9.8%

(1.5)pts

1.4pts

















Pence/€ cents
















Passenger yield per RPK

7.65

0.6%

0.6%

?

8.32

0.8%

0.8%?

?

6.33

(2.3)%

(2.3)%

?

7.30

0.7%

0.7%

Passenger revenue per ASK

6.39

2.0%

 2.0%

?

6.81

1.8%

1.8%?

?

5.52

(0.3)%

(0.3)%

?

6.34

2.4%

2.4%

Total revenue per ASK

7.14

1.6%

 1.6%

?

7.02

1.5%

1.5%?

?

7.69

1.5%

1.5%

?

6.39

2.3%

2.3%

















Fuel cost per ASK

1.74

9.6%

9.6% 

?

1.52

15.6%

15.6%?

?

1.64

9.3%

9.3%

?

1.43

9.2%

9.2%

Non-fuel costs per ASK

4.37

0.6%

(0.3)% 

?

4.59

1.2%

0.8%?

?

5.38

1.4%

(1.2)%

?

4.34

2.5%

(1.5)%

Total cost per ASK

6.11

3.0%

2.3% 

?

6.11

4.5%

4.2%?

?

7.02

3.2%

1.1%

?

5.76

4.1%

0.9%

1  Proforma

2  Statutory

British Airways' operating profit was £1,921 million, excluding exceptional items, down £104 million over the prior year on a capacity increase of 0.9 per cent.

Passenger unit revenues were up for the year, with higher yields, from strong performance in the North American premium sector, and an increase in load factor.

Non-fuel unit costs were up for the year, due to the growth of BA Holidays. Excluding the impact of BA Holidays, non-fuel unit costs decreased, driven by management initiatives and supplier compensation partly offset by customer investment and contractual price increases.

Overall, British Airways' operating margin declined 1.1 points to 14.5 per cent.

Aer Lingus' operating profit was €276 million, a decrease of €35 million over last year. Capacity increased 4.2 per cent from the addition of a new route connecting Dublin and Minneapolis and increases in capacity to San Francisco, Seattle and Philadelphia.

Aer Lingus' operating margin was 2.5 points lower at 13.0 per cent. Passenger unit revenues were up, with strong longhaul performance and positive retail performance, despite challenging European market conditions.

Aer Lingus non-fuel unit costs were up, primarily driven by increased maintenance and handling costs as well as pay inflation increases, partially offset by continued cost saving initiatives and efficient growth. Fuel unit costs were up versus last year, reflecting higher market fuel prices, with favourable hedge positions having unwound during the year.

Iberia's operating profit before exceptional items was €497 million, down by €36 million versus last year, achieving an operating margin of 8.8 per cent. Capacity for the year was up 7.6 per cent, with a slight reduction in passenger unit revenue from lower yields partially offset by higher passenger load factor.

Iberia's total unit cost performance was up but improved at constant currency. Higher costs were mainly from CPI related price increases and higher maintenance works performed by Iberia's third-party MRO business, as well as higher fuel costs. This was partially offset by decreases in selling costs from direct channel growth and other marketing cost saving initiatives. Employee unit costs continued to improve, with strong increases in productivity through efficiency initiatives.

In 2019, Iberia's Other revenue also increased by 16.2 per cent, primarily from its MRO business.

Vueling's operating profit was €240 million, a decrease of €24 million. Its operating margin of 9.8 per cent was 1.5 points down versus last year.

Vueling adjusted its capacity to offset demand slowdown, however the impact of incidents in Barcelona and strikes impacted revenues. A new disruption protection plan was put in place, contributing to higher costs but offset by Vueling's action plan to identify saving opportunities to cope with demand slowdown. Further cost increases came from a higher fuel bill and inflation-linked price increases in supplier costs.

Vueling invested in an ATC protection plan to safeguard its operations from the impact of future disruption in line with its NEXT strategy and in order to reduce possible future disruption related costs, such as compensation, and impact to revenues.

Exceptional items

For a full list of exceptional items, refer to note 4 of the Financial statements. Below is a summary of the significant exceptional items recorded.

Following British Airways reaching a settlement agreement with the Trustee Directors of its APS pension scheme, the Group recognised an exceptional non-cash net operating charge of €672 million, reflecting the associated increased IAS 19 defined benefit liability of APS. The settlement, approved by the High Court in November 2019, puts an end to a legal dispute over pension increases, which started in 2013.

In 2018 British Airways closed its NAPS pension scheme to future accrual and its BARP pension scheme to future contributions, replacing them with a new defined contribution scheme. The changes led to an exceptional net credit of €678 million. British Airways also reflected the cost of equalising the effects of Guaranteed Minimum Pensions, leading to €94 million charge to employee costs and had restructuring costs of €136 million.

Non-operating costs

Net non-operating costs after exceptional items were €338 million, down from €521 million last year. The translation of non-hedged balance sheet items and movement on US dollar denominated aircraft debt and hedging resulted in a net credit. This was partially offset by higher finance costs due to accelerated bond redemption and interest accrued on bonds issued in 2019.

Taxation

The substantial majority of the Group's activities are taxed where the main operations are based, UK, Spain and Ireland, with corporation tax rates during 2019 of 19 per cent, 25 per cent and 12.5 per cent respectively. The Group's effective tax rate for the year before exceptional items was 19 per cent (2018: 18 per cent) and the income statement tax charge was €560 million (2018: €542 million).

There is no associated Income statement tax credit linked to the 2019 exceptional item, as the value of the accounting surplus is net of 35 per cent tax at source.

Profit after tax and Earnings per share (EPS)

Profit after tax before exceptional items was €2,387 million, down 1.4 per cent. The decrease reflects a lower operating profit from the effect of the pilot strike at British Airways and from significantly higher fuel costs, partially offset by continued cost saving initiatives and capacity adjustments in the face of slower demand. Adjusted earnings per share before exceptional items is a key performance indicator and increased by 1.7 per cent in the year, reflecting the lower operating profit, offset by a lower share base, following the share buyback programme in 2018 and convertible bond redemption in 2019.

Profit after tax and exceptional items was €1,715 million (2018 pro forma: €2,838 million, 2018 statutory: €2,897 million), down 39.6 per cent, due to the exceptional pension charge in 2019 versus an exceptional net gain in 2018.

Dividends

The Board is proposing a final dividend to shareholders of 17.0 euro cents per share, which brings the full year dividend to 31.5 euro cents per share. Subject to shareholder approval at the Annual General Meeting, the final dividend will be paid on July 6, 2020 to shareholders on the register on July 3, 2020.

Dividend policy statement

In determining the level of dividend in any year, the Board considers several factors, including:

•   Earnings of the Group;

•   Ongoing cash requirements and prospects of the Group and its operating companies;

•   Levels of distributable reserves by operating company and efficiency of upstreaming options;

•   Dividend coverage; and

•   Its intention to distribute regular returns to its shareholders in the medium and long-term.

The Company received distributions from each of the four main airlines in 2019. Distributions from British Airways may trigger additional pension contributions if higher than pre-agreed thresholds and in 2019 an increased threshold of 50 per cent of after-tax profit was agreed until September 2022; see note 30 of the Financial statements.

The Company's distributable reserves position was strong, with €5.2 billion available at December 31, 2019 (2018: €5.7 billion).

Liquidity and capital risk management

IAG's objectives when managing capital are to safeguard the Group's ability to continue as a going concern, to maintain an optimal capital structure to reduce the cost of capital and to provide sustainable returns to shareholders. In November 2018, S+P and Moody's assigned IAG with a long?term investment grade credit rating with stable outlook.

The Group monitors capital using net debt to EBITDA and liquidity. In 2019, the Group's net debt to EBITDA ratio increased to 1.4 from 1.2 times, well within the Group's target ceiling of 1.8 times. EBITDA was slightly lower, with the reduction in operating profit partially offset by lower non-operating expenditure. Net debt increased by €1.1 billion, mainly due to higher capital expenditure as the Group continues to invest in the customer experience and in new, fuel-efficient aircraft.

In 2019 the Group financed 41 of the new aircraft delivered during the year, using a range of aircraft-specific financing instruments, including an EETC bond issue by British Airways of $806 million, which were combined with Japanese Operating Leases with Call Options ("JOLCO") as in previous years, bringing the total financing raised to $1,120 million. The Group redeemed outstanding convertible bonds of €500 million and in July issued its first unsecured bonds for an aggregate principal amount of €1 billion, split into two tranches of €500 million due in 2023 and 2027.

Pensions and restructuring reflect payments made to the British Airways APS and NAPS pension plan schemes and restructuring payments for British Airways' and Iberia's transformation plans. Deficit payments to the APS plan ceased effective from January 1, 2019, following an out-of-court settlement which put an end to litigation regarding pension increases that had started in 2013. The full triennial valuation for the NAPS plan, based on the position at March 31, 2018, was agreed during the year, with deficit payments set at €532 million per annum (equivalent to the €354 million plus a cash sweep of up to €177 million under the previous plan), an overfunding protection mechanism and an increased dividend mitigation threshold, whereby, up to September 2022, if British Airways pays dividends in excess of 50 per cent of after-tax profits (previously 35 per cent) additional pension contributions will be made, or a guarantee provided.

Tax cash flows were €224 million lower than in 2018 principally reflecting the early receipt in Spain of a refund for a previous tax deposit, and the receipt in the UK of a one-off repayment following the reassessment of Avios' deferred revenue upon adoption of IFRS 15 'Revenue recognition'.

Shareholder returns reflect cash payments for dividends, buyback programmes and special dividends. In 2018 a buyback programme of €500 million was completed. In 2019 the Group paid a special dividend of €695 million, in addition to normal dividends equivalent to 25 per cent of pre-exceptional profit after tax.

Cash flow

€ million

2019

2018
(statutory)

Movement

Operating profit before exceptional items

3,285

3,230

55

Depreciation, amortisation and impairment

2,111

1,254

857

Pensions

(865)

(843)

(22)

Payments related to restructuring

(180)

(220)

40

Movement in working capital

(70)

(64)

(6)

Other operating movements

279

334

(55)

Interest received

42

37

5?

Interest paid

(481)

(149)

(332)

Tax paid

(119)

(343)

224

Cash flow from operating activities

4,002

3,236

766

Acquisition of PPE and intangible assets?

(3,465)

(2,802)

(663)

Sale of PPE and intangible assets

911

574

337

Other investing movements

(1)

(251)

250

Cash flow from investing activities

(2,555)

(2,479)

(76)

Proceeds from long-term borrowings

2,286

1,078

1,208

Repayments of borrowings and lease liabilities

(2,237)

(1,099)

(1,138)

Net cash flows from financing activities before shareholder returns

49

(21)

70





Levered free cash flow for the year

1,496

736

760

Shareholder returns

(1,308)

(1,077)

(231)

Cash inflow/(outflow) for the year

188

(341)

529

 




Opening cash and interest-bearing deposits

6,274

6,676

(402)

Net foreign exchange differences

221

(61)

282

Closing cash and interest-bearing deposits

6,683

6,274

409

Taking these factors into consideration, the Group's cash inflow for the year was €188 million and after net foreign exchange differences, the increase in cash net of exchange was €409 million. Each operating company holds adequate levels of cash with balances approximately 20 per cent of revenues or higher, sufficient to meet obligations as they fall due.

€ million

2019

2018

Higher/ (lower)

British Airways

3,055

2,780

275

Iberia

1,121

1,191

(70)

Aer Lingus

580

891

(311)

Vueling

820

564

256

IAG and other Group companies

1,107

848

259

Cash and deposits

6,683

6,274

409?

The implementation of IFRS 16, whilst not changing cash, altered where certain items appear on the cash flow statement, notably resulting in higher depreciation, higher interest paid and higher repayment of borrowings. On a like-for-like basis, depreciation was up approximately €115 million, interest paid unchanged and repayment of borrowings up €471 million, mainly linked to the repayment of the IAG 2020 convertible bond.

Net debt (and Adjusted net debt for 2018)

€ million

2019

2018

(statutory)

Higher / (lower)

Debt

7,509

7,331

178

Cash and cash equivalents and interest-bearing deposits

(6,274)

(6,676)

402

Net debt at January 1

1,235

655

580

Adoption of IFRS 16 January 1, 2019

5,195

-

5,195

Net debt at January 1 after adoption of IFRS 16?

6,430?

655?

5,775?

(Increase)/decrease in cash net of exchange

(409)

402

(811)

Net cash outflow from repayments of borrowings and lease liabilities

(2,237)

(1,099)

(1,138)

Net cash inflow from new borrowings

2,286

1,078

1,208

New leases

1,199

-

1,199

(Increase)/decrease in net debt from regular financing

1,248

(21)

1,269

Exchange and other non-cash movements

302

199

103

Net debt at December 31

7,571

1,235

6,336

Capitalised aircraft lease costs

-

7,120

(7,120)

Adjusted net debt at December 31

7,571

8,355

(784)

The Group's net debt position after the adoption of IFRS 16 increased by €1.1 billion over the year from €6,430 million at January 1, 2019 to €7,571 million at the end of the year, mainly due to increased capital expenditure as the Group invested in new fuel-efficient fleet.

Capital commitments

Capital expenditure authorised and contracted for amounted to €12,830 million (2018: €10,831 million) for the Group. Most of this is in US dollars and includes commitments until 2025 for 79 aircraft from the Airbus A320 family, 12 Boeing 787s, 22 Boeing 777s, 33 Airbus A350s, and one Airbus A330.

Overall, the Group maintains flexibility in its fleet plans with the ability to defer, to exercise options and to negotiate different renewal terms. IAG does not have any other off-balance sheet financing arrangements.

Strategic framework

IAG's mission is to be the leading international airline group. This means we will:

•   Win the customer through service and value across our global network;

•   Deliver higher returns to our shareholders through leveraging cost and revenue opportunities across the Group;

•   Attract and develop the best people in the industry;

•   Provide a platform for quality international airlines, leaders in their markets, to participate in consolidation; and

•   Retain the distinct cultures and brands of the individual airlines.

•   Lead the industry in environmental sustainability.

By accomplishing our mission, IAG will help to shape the future of the industry, set new standards of excellence and provide sustainability, security and growth.

IAG's strategic priorities are as follows:

•   Strengthening a portfolio of world-class brands and operations

•   Growing global leadership positions

•   Enhancing the common integrated platform

Principal risks and uncertainties

During the year IAG and its operating companies have continued to further embed the risk framework, which includes processes to identify, assess and manage risks, including emerging risks. The principal risks and uncertainties affecting IAG, detailed on pages 30 to 36 of the Annual Report and Accounts 2018, remain relevant. In general, the Group's strategic risk was stable during the year. As the Group moves into 2020, there is continued political uncertainty, fuel price volatility and the ongoing risk of impact to our operations and reputation from events outside of the Group's control.

 

International Consolidated Airlines Group S.A.

Unaudited full year Consolidated Financial Statements

January 1, 2019 - December 31, 2019

 

 

CONSOLIDATED INCOME STATEMENT

 

 

Year to December 31

€ million

Note

Before

exceptional

items

2019

Exceptional

items

Total

2019

Before

exceptional

items

2018

(Restated)

Exceptional

items

Total

2018

(Restated)









Passenger revenue


22,468


22,468

21,401


21,401

Cargo revenue


1,117


1,117

1,173


1,173

Other revenue


1,921


1,921

1,684


1,684

Total revenue

3

25,506


25,506

24,258


24,258









Employee costs

4, 7

4,962

672

5,634

4,812

(460)

4,352

Fuel, oil costs and emissions charges


6,021


6,021

5,283


5,283

Handling, catering and other operating costs


2,972


2,972

2,740


2,740

Landing fees and en-route charges


2,221


2,221

2,184


2,184

Engineering and other aircraft costs


2,092


2,092

1,828


1,828

Property, IT and other costs


811


811

918

12

930

Selling costs


1,038


1,038

1,046


1,046

Depreciation, amortisation and impairment

5

2,111


2,111

1,254


1,254

Aircraft operating lease costs


-


-

890


890

Currency differences


(7)


(7)

73


73

Total expenditure on operations


22,221

672

22,893

21,028

(448)

20,580

Operating profit


3,285

(672)

2,613

3,230

448

3,678









Finance costs

8

(611)


(611)

(231)


(231)

Finance income

8

50


50

41


41

Net financing credit relating to pensions

8

26


26

27


27

Net currency retranslation credits/(charges)


201


201

(19)


(19)

Other non-operating charges

8

(4)


(4)

(9)


(9)

Total net non-operating costs


(338)


(338)

(191)


(191)

Profit before tax


2,947

(672)

2,275

3,039

448

3,487

Tax

9

(560)

-

(560)

(558)

(32)

(590)

Profit after tax for the year


2,387

(672)

1,715

2,481

416

2,897

















Attributable to:








Equity holders of the parent


2,387


1,715

2,469


2,885

Non-controlling interest


-


-

12


12



2,387


1,715

2,481


2,897

















Basic earnings per share (€ cents)

10

120.3


86.4

122.1


142.7

Diluted earnings per share (€ cents)

10

116.8


84.3

117.7


137.4

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENT OF OTHER COMPREHENSIVE INCOME

 

 

Year to December 31

€ million

Note

2019

2018

Items that may be reclassified subsequently to net profit




Cash flow hedges:




Fair value movements in equity


610

(517)

Reclassified and reported in net profit


141

(480)

Fair value movements on cost of hedging


36

13

Cost of hedging reclassified and reported in net profit

29

(10)

-

Currency translation differences

29

296

(80)









Items that will not be reclassified to net profit




Fair value movements on other equity investments

29

(8)

(5)

Fair value movements on cash flow hedges


(70)

26

Fair value movements on cost of hedging


32

-

Remeasurements of post-employment benefit obligations

29

(788)

(696)

Total other comprehensive income/(loss) for the year, net of tax


239

(1,739)

Profit after tax for the year


1,715

2,897





Total comprehensive income for the year


1,954

1,158





Total comprehensive income is attributable to:




Equity holders of the parent


1,954

1,146

Non-controlling interest

29

-

12



1,954

1,158

Items in the consolidated Statement of other comprehensive income above are disclosed net of tax.

 

 

 

CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEET

€ million

Note

December 31,

2019

December 31,

2018

Non-current assets




Property, plant and equipment

12

19,168

12,437

Intangible assets

15

3,442

3,198

Investments accounted for using the equity method

16

31

31

Other equity investments

17

82

80

Employee benefit assets

30

524

1,129

Derivative financial instruments

26

268

221

Deferred tax assets

9

546

536

Other non-current assets

18

273

309



24,334

17,941

Current assets




Inventories


565

509

Trade receivables

18

2,255

1,597

Other current assets

18

1,314

1,175

Current tax receivable

9

186

383

Derivative financial instruments

26

324

155

Other current interest-bearing deposits

19

2,621

2,437

Cash and cash equivalents

19

4,062

3,837



11,327

10,093

Total assets


35,661

28,034





Shareholders' equity




Issued share capital

27

996

996

Share premium

27

5,327

6,022

Treasury shares


(60)

(68)

Other reserves

29

560

(236)

Total shareholders' equity


6,823

6,714

Non-controlling interest

29

6

6

Total equity


6,829

6,720

Non-current liabilities




Interest-bearing long-term borrowings

23

12,411

6,633

Employee benefit obligations

30

328

289

Deferred tax liability

9

572

453

Provisions

24

2,416

2,268

Derivative financial instruments

26

286

423

Other long-term liabilities

22

71

198



16,084

10,264

Current liabilities




Current portion of long-term borrowings

23

1,843

876

Trade and other payables

20

4,344

3,959

Deferred revenue on ticket sales

21

5,486

4,835

Derivative financial instruments

26

252

656

Current tax payable

9

192

165

Provisions

24

631

559



12,748

11,050

Total liabilities


28,832

21,314

Total equity and liabilities


35,661

28,034

 

CONSOLIDATED CASH FLOW STATEMENT

 

 

Year to December 31

€ million

Note

2019

2018

Cash flows from operating activities




Operating profit after exceptional items


2,613

3,678

Depreciation, amortisation and impairment

5

2,111

1,254

Movement in working capital


(70)

(64)

Increase in trade receivables, prepayments, inventories and other current assets


(935)

(650)

Increase in trade and other payables, deferred revenue on ticket sales and current liabilities


865

586

Payments related to restructuring

24

(180)

(220)

Employer contributions to pension schemes


(870)

(898)

Pension scheme service costs

30

5

55

Provision and other non-cash movements


951

(114)

Interest paid


(481)

(149)

Interest received


42

37

Tax paid


(119)

(343)

Net cash flows from operating activities


4,002

3,236





Cash flows from investing activities




Acquisition of property, plant and equipment and intangible assets


(3,465)

(2,802)

Sale of property, plant and equipment and intangible assets


911

574

(Increase)/decrease in other current interest-bearing deposits


(103)

924

Other investing movements


(1)

61

Net cash flows from investing activities


(2,658)

(1,243)





Cash flows from financing activities




Proceeds from long-term borrowings


2,286

1,078

Repayment of borrowings


(730)

(275)

Repayment of lease liabilities (2018: repayment of finance leases)


(1,507)

(824)

Acquisition of treasury shares


-

(500)

Distributions made to holders of perpetual securities


-

(312)

Dividend paid


(1,308)

(577)

Net cash flows from financing activities


(1,259)

(1,410)





Net increase in cash and cash equivalents


85

583

Net foreign exchange differences


140

(38)

Cash and cash equivalents at 1 January


3,837

3,292

Cash and cash equivalents at year end

19

4,062

3,837





Interest-bearing deposits maturing after more than three months

19

2,621

2,437





Cash, cash equivalents and other interest-bearing deposits

19

6,683

6,274

For details on restricted cash balances refer to note 19 'Cash, cash equivalents and other current interest-bearing deposits'.

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENT OF CHANGES IN EQUITY

For the year to December 31, 2019

€ million

Issued share

capital (note 27)

Share premium (note 27)

Treasury shares (note 27)

Other reserves (note 29)

Retained earnings (note 29)

Total shareholders' equity

Non-controlling interest (note 29)

Total equity

January 1, 2019 as reported

996

6,022

(68)

(3,560)

3,324

6,714

6

6,720

Adoption of IFRS 16

-

-

-

4

(554)

(550)

-

(550)

January 1, 2019

996

6,022

(68)

(3,556)

2,770

6,164

6

6,170










Profit for the year

-

-

-

-

1,715

1,715

-

1,715










Other comprehensive income for the year









Cash flow hedges reclassified and reported in net profit:









Passenger revenue

-

-

-

55

-

55

-

55

Fuel and oil costs

-

-

-

106

-

106

-

106

Currency differences

-

-

-

(26)

-

(26)

-

(26)

Finance costs

-

-

-

6

-

6

-

6

Net change in fair value of cash flow hedges

-

-

-

540

-

540

-

540

Net change in fair value of equity investments

-

-

-

(8)

-

(8)

-

(8)

Net change in fair value of cost of hedging

-

-

-

68

-

68

-

68

Cost of hedging reclassified and reported in net profit

-

-

-

(10)

-

(10)

-

(10)

Currency translation differences

-

-

-

296

-

296

-

296

Remeasurements of post-employment benefit obligations

-

-

-

-

(788)

(788)

-

(788)

Total comprehensive income for the year

-

-

-

1,027

927

1,954

-

1,954

Hedges reclassified and reported in property, plant and equipment

-

-

-

(11)

-

(11)

-

(11)

Cost of share-based payments

-

-

-

-

33

33

-

33

Vesting of share-based payment schemes

-

-

8

-

(14)

(6)

-

(6)

Dividend

-

(695)

-

-

(615)

(1,310)

-

(1,310)

Redemption of convertible bond

-

-

-

(39)

38

(1)

-

(1)

December 31, 2019

996

5,327

(60)

(2,579)

3,139

6,823

6

6,829

 

 

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENT OF CHANGES IN EQUITY

For the year to December 31, 2018

€ million

Issued share

capital (note 27)

Share premium (note 27)

Treasury shares (note 27)

Other reserves (note 29)

Retained earnings (note 29)

Total shareholders' equity

Non-controlling interest (note 29)

Total equity

January 1, 2018

1,029

6,022

(77)

(2,626)

2,278

6,626

307

6,933










Profit for the year

-

-

-

-

2,885

2,885

12

2,897










Other comprehensive income for the year









Cash flow hedges reclassified and reported in net profit:









Passenger revenue

-

-

-

77

-

77

-

77

Fuel and oil costs

-

-

-

(565)

-

(565)

-

(565)

Currency differences

-

-

-

4

-

4

-

4

Finance costs

-

-

-

4

-

4

-

4

Net change in fair value of cash flow hedges

-

-

-

(491)

-

(491)

-

(491)

Net change in fair value of equity investments

-

-

-

(5)

-

(5)

-

(5)

Net change in fair value of cost of hedging

-

-

-

13

-

13

-

13

Currency translation differences

-

-

-

(80)

-

(80)

-

(80)

Remeasurements of post-employment benefit obligations

-

-

-

-

(696)

(696)

-

(696)

Total comprehensive income for

the year

-

-

-

(1,043)

2,189

1,146

12

1,158










Hedges reclassified and reported in property, plant and equipment

-

-

-

(1)

-

(1)

-

(1)

Cost of share-based payments

-

-

-

-

31

31

-

31

Vesting of share-based payment schemes

-

-

9

-

(15)

(6)

-

(6)

Acquisition of treasury shares

-

-

(500)

-

-

(500)

-

(500)

Dividend

-

-

-

-

(582)

(582)

-

(582)

Cancellation of share capital

(33)

-

500

33

(500)

-

-

-

Dividend of a subsidiary

-

-

-

-

-

-

(1)

(1)

Transfer between reserves

-

-

-

77

(77)

-

-

-

Distributions made to holders of perpetual securities

-

-

-

-

-

-

(312)

(312)

December 31, 2018

996

6,022

(68)

(3,560)

3,324

6,714

6

6,720

 

NOTES TO THE consolidated Financial statements

For the year to December 31, 2019

1    Background and general information

International Consolidated Airlines Group S.A. (hereinafter 'International Airlines Group', 'IAG' or the 'Group') is a leading European airline group, formed to hold the interests of airline and ancillary operations. IAG is a Spanish company registered in Madrid and was incorporated on December 17, 2009. On January 21, 2011 British Airways Plc and Iberia Líneas Aéreas de España S.A. Operadora (hereinafter 'British Airways' and 'Iberia' respectively) completed a merger transaction becoming the first two airlines of the Group. Vueling Airlines S.A. ('Vueling') was acquired on April 26, 2013, and Aer Lingus Group Plc ('Aer Lingus') on August 18, 2015. A list of the subsidiaries of the Group is included in the Group investments section.

IAG shares are traded on the London Stock Exchange's main market for listed securities and also on the stock exchanges of Madrid, Barcelona, Bilbao and Valencia (the 'Spanish Stock Exchanges'), through the Spanish Stock Exchanges Interconnection System (Mercado Continuo Español).

2    Significant accounting policies

Basis of preparation

The consolidated financial statements of the Group have been prepared in accordance with the International Financial Reporting Standards as endorsed by the European Union (IFRSs as endorsed by the EU). The consolidated financial statements herein are not the Group's statutory accounts and are unaudited. The consolidated financial statements are rounded to the nearest million unless otherwise stated. These financial statements have been prepared on a historical cost convention except for certain financial assets and liabilities, including derivative financial instruments and other equity investments that are measured at fair value. The carrying value of recognised assets and liabilities that are subject to fair value hedges are adjusted to record changes in the fair values attributable to the risks that are being hedged. The financial statements for the prior year include reclassifications that were made to conform to the current year presentation. The amendments have no material impact on the financial statements.

The Group's financial statements for the year to December 31, 2019 were authorised for issue, and approved by the Board of Directors on February 27, 2020.

The Directors have considered the business activities, the Group's principal risks and uncertainties, and the Group's financial position, including cash flows, liquidity position and available committed facilities. The Directors consider that the Group has adequate resources to remain in operation for the foreseeable future and have therefore continued to adopt the going concern basis in preparing the financial statements.

Changes in accounting policies

The Group has applied IFRS 16 'Leases' and IFRIC 23 'Uncertainty over tax treatments' for the first time for the year to December 31, 2019. There has been no impact arising from the application of IFRIC 23. Further details on the impact of IFRS 16 on the Group accounting policies, financial position and performance are provided in note 33.

There are no other standards, amendments or interpretations in issue but not yet adopted that the Directors anticipate will have a material effect on the reported income or net assets of the Group.

In September 2019, the IFRS Interpretations Committee ('IFRIC') clarified that under IFRS 15 compensation payments for flight delays and cancellations form compensation for passenger losses and accordingly should be recognised as variable compensation and deducted from revenue. This clarification had led the Group to change its accounting policy, which previously classified this compensation as an operating expense. Accordingly, the Group has restated the comparative period for 2018 to reflect €148 million of compensation costs as a deduction from Passenger revenue and a corresponding reduction within Handling, catering and other operating costs. The revenue component of segmental reporting has accordingly been restated. Further details are given in note 33.

Consolidation

The Group financial statements include the financial statements of the Company and its subsidiaries, each made up to December 31, together with the attributable share of results and reserves of associates and joint ventures, adjusted where appropriate to conform to the Group's accounting policies.

Subsidiaries are consolidated from the date of their acquisition, which is the date on which the Group obtains control and continue to be consolidated until the date that such control ceases. Control exists when the Group is exposed to, or has rights to, variable returns from its involvement with the entity and has the ability to affect those returns through its power over the entity.

The Group applies the acquisition method to account for business combinations. The consideration paid is the fair value of the assets transferred, the liabilities incurred and the equity interests issued by the Group. Identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed in a business combination are measured initially at their fair values at the acquisition date. Non-controlling interests represent the portion of profit or loss and net assets in subsidiaries that are not held by the Group and are presented separately within equity in the consolidated Balance sheet. Acquisition-related costs are expensed as incurred.

If the business combination is achieved in stages, the acquisition date fair value of the acquirer's previously held equity interest in the acquiree is remeasured to fair value at the acquisition date through the Income statement.

Goodwill is initially measured as the excess of the aggregate of the consideration transferred and the fair value of non-controlling interest over the net identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed.

All intra-group account balances, including intra-group profits, are eliminated in preparing the consolidated financial statements.

Segmental reporting

Operating segments are reported in a manner consistent with how resource allocation decisions are made by the chief operating decision-maker. The chief operating decision-maker, who is responsible for resource allocation and assessing performance of the operating segments, has been identified as the IAG Management Committee.

Foreign currency translation

a      Functional and presentation currency

Items included in the financial statements of each of the Group's entities are measured using the functional currency, being the currency of the primary economic environment in which the entity operates. In particular, British Airways and Avios have a functional currency of pound sterling. The Group's consolidated financial statements are presented in euros, which is the Group's presentation currency.

b      Transactions and balances

Transactions in foreign currencies are initially recorded in the functional currency using the rate of exchange prevailing on the date of the transaction. Monetary foreign currency balances are translated into the functional currency at the rates ruling at the balance sheet date. Foreign exchange gains and losses resulting from the settlement of such transactions and from the translation at balance sheet exchange rates of monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are recognised in the Income statement, except where hedge accounting is applied. Foreign exchange gains and losses arising on the retranslation of monetary assets and liabilities classified as non-current on the Balance sheet are recognised within Net currency retranslation (charges)/credits in the Income statement. All other gains and losses arising on the retranslation of monetary assets and liabilities are recognised in operating profit.

c      Group companies

The net assets of foreign operations are translated into euros at the rate of exchange ruling at the balance sheet date. Profits and losses of such operations are translated into euros at average rates of exchange during the year. The resulting exchange differences are taken directly to a separate component of equity (Currency translation reserve) until all or part of the interest is sold, when the relevant portion of the cumulative exchange difference is recognised in the Income statement.

Property, plant and equipment

Property, plant and equipment is held at cost. The Group has a policy of not revaluing property, plant and equipment. Depreciation is calculated to write off the cost less the estimated residual value on a straight-line basis, over the economic life of the asset. Residual values, where applicable, are reviewed annually against prevailing market values for equivalently aged assets and depreciation rates adjusted accordingly on a prospective basis.

a      Capitalisation of interest on progress payments

Interest attributed to progress payments made on account of aircraft and other qualifying assets under construction are capitalised and added to the cost of the asset concerned. All other borrowing costs are recognised in the Income statement in the year in which they are incurred.

b      Fleet

All aircraft are stated at the fair value of the consideration given after taking account of manufacturers' credits. Fleet assets owned or right of use ('ROU') assets are disaggregated into separate components and depreciated at rates calculated to write down the cost of each component to the estimated residual value at the end of their planned operational lives (which is the shorter of their useful life or lease term) on a straight-line basis. Depreciation rates are specific to aircraft type, based on the Group's fleet plans, within overall parameters of 23 years and 5 per cent residual value for shorthaul aircraft and between 25 and 29 years (depending on aircraft) and 5 per cent residual value for longhaul aircraft. Right of use assets are depreciated over the shorter of the lease term and the aforementioned depreciation rates.

Cabin interior modifications, including those required for brand changes and relaunches, are depreciated over the lower of five years and the remaining economic life of the aircraft.

Aircraft and engine spares acquired on the introduction or expansion of a fleet, as well as rotable spares purchased separately, are carried as property, plant and equipment and generally depreciated in line with the fleet to which they relate.

Major overhaul expenditure, including replacement spares and labour costs, is capitalised and amortised over the average expected life between major overhauls. All other replacement spares and other costs relating to maintenance of fleet assets (including maintenance provided under 'pay-as-you-go' contracts) are charged to the Income statement on consumption or as incurred respectively.

c      Other property, plant and equipment

Provision is made for the depreciation of all property, plant and equipment. Property, with the exception of freehold land, is depreciated over its expected useful life over periods not exceeding 50 years, or in the case of leasehold properties, over the duration of the lease if shorter, on a straight-line basis. Equipment is depreciated over periods ranging from 4 to 20 years.

d     Leases

The Group leases various aircraft, properties and equipment. The lease terms of these assets are consistent with the determined useful economic life of similar assets within property, plant and equipment.

The Group has applied IFRS 16 using the modified retrospective approach and therefore the comparative information has not been restated and continues to be reported under IAS 17 and IFRIC 4. The details of accounting policies under IAS 17 and IFRIC 4 are disclosed separately if they are different from those under IFRS 16 and the impact of changes is discussed in note 33.

Policy applicable from January 1, 2019

At inception of a contract, the Group assesses whether a contract is, or contains a lease. A contract is or contains, a lease if the contract conveys the right to control the use of an identified asset for a period of time in exchange for consideration.

Leases are recognised as a ROU asset and a corresponding lease liability at the date at which the leased asset is available for use by the Group.

Right of use assets

At the lease commencement date a ROU asset is measured at cost comprising the following: the amount of the initial measurement of the lease liability; any lease payments made at or before the commencement date less any lease incentives received; any initial direct costs; and restoration costs to return the asset to its original condition.

The ROU asset is depreciated over the shorter of the asset's useful life and the lease term on a straight-line basis. If ownership of the ROU asset transfers to the Group at the end of the lease term or the cost reflects the exercise of a purchase option, depreciation is calculated using the estimated useful life of the asset.

Lease liabilities

Lease liabilities are initially measured at their present value, which includes the following lease payments: fixed payments (including in-substance fixed payments), less any lease incentives receivable; variable lease payments that are based on an index or a rate; amounts expected to be payable by the Group under residual value guarantees; the exercise price of a purchase option if the Group is reasonably certain to exercise that option; payments of penalties for terminating the lease, if the lease term reflects the Group exercising that option; and payments to be made under reasonably certain extension options.

The lease payments are discounted using the interest rate implicit in the lease. If that rate cannot be determined, the Group entity's incremental borrowing rate is used.

Each lease payment is allocated between the principal and finance cost. The finance cost is charged to the Income statement over the lease period so as to produce a constant periodic rate of interest on the remaining balance of the lease liability for each period. After the commencement date, the amount of lease liabilities is increased to reflect the accretion of interest and reduced for the lease payments made.

The Group has elected not to recognise ROU assets and lease liabilities for short-term leases that have a lease term of 12 months or less and those leases of low-value assets. Payments associated with short-term leases and leases of low-value assets are recognised on a straight line basis as an expense in the Income statement. Short-term leases are leases with a lease term of 12 months or less, that do not contain a purchase option. Low-value assets comprise IT equipment and small items of office furniture.

The Group is exposed to potential future increases in variable lease payments based on an index or rate, which are not included in the lease liability until they take effect. When adjustments to lease payments based on an index or rate take effect, the lease liability is reassessed and adjusted against the ROU asset. Extension options are included in a number of aircraft, property and equipment leases across the Group and are reflected in the lease payments where the Group is reasonably certain that it will exercise the option.

The Group regularly uses sale and lease transactions to finance the acquisition of aircraft. Each transaction is assessed as to whether it meets the criteria within IFRS 15 'Revenue from contracts with customers' for a sale to have occurred. If a sale has occurred, then the associated asset is de-recognised and a ROU asset and lease liability is recognised. The ROU asset recognised is based on the proportion of the previous carrying amount of the asset that is retained. Any gain or loss is restricted to the amount that relates to the rights that have been transferred to the counter-party to the transaction. Where a sale has not occurred, the asset is retained on the balance sheet within Property, plant and equipment and an asset financed liability recognised equal to the financing proceeds.

Under the transitional requirements of IFRS 16 applying the modified retrospective method, the assets and liabilities on all finance leases prior to January 1, 2019 were transferred into ROU assets and associated lease liabilities. From January 1, 2019 onwards, those new financing arrangements with the following features that do not meet the recognition criteria as a sale under IFRS 15 are therefore not eligible for recognition under IFRS 16: the lessor has legal ownership retention as security against repayment and interest obligations; the Group initially acquired the aircraft or took a major share in the acquisition process from the manufacturer; in view of the contractual conditions, it is virtually certain that the aircraft will be purchased at the end of the lease term. Where new financing arrangements do not meet these recognition criteria due to the fact they are 'in substance purchases' and not leases, the related liability is recognised as an asset financed liability and the assets as an owned asset within Property, plant and equipment.

Policy applicable before January 1, 2019

Where assets are financed through finance leases, under which substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership are transferred to the Group, the assets are treated as if they had been purchased outright. The amount included in the cost of property, plant and equipment represents the aggregate of the capital elements payable during the lease term. The corresponding obligation, reduced by the appropriate proportion of lease payments made, is included in borrowings.

The amount included in the cost of Property, plant and equipment is depreciated on the basis described in the preceding paragraphs on fleet and the interest element of lease payments made is included as an interest expense in the Income statement.

Total minimum payments, measured at inception, under all other lease arrangements, known as operating leases, are charged to the Income statement in equal annual amounts over the period of the lease. In respect of aircraft, certain operating lease arrangements allow the Group to terminate the leases after a limited initial period, without further material financial obligations. In certain cases, the Group is entitled to extend the initial lease period on predetermined terms; such leases are described as extendable operating leases.

In determining the appropriate lease classification, the substance of the transaction rather than the form is considered. Factors considered include but are not limited to the following: whether the lease transfers ownership of the asset to the Group by the end of the lease term; the Group has the option to purchase the asset at the price that is sufficiently lower than the fair value on exercise date; the lease term is for the major part of the economic life of the asset; and the present value of the minimum lease payments amounts to at least substantially all of the fair value of the leased asset.

Intangible assets

a      Goodwill

Goodwill arises on the acquisition of subsidiaries, associates and joint ventures and represents the excess of the consideration paid over the net fair value of the identifiable assets and liabilities of the acquiree. Where the net fair value of the identifiable assets and liabilities of the acquiree is in excess of the consideration paid, a gain on bargain purchase is recognised immediately in the Income statement.

For the purpose of assessing impairment, goodwill is grouped at the lowest levels for which there are separately identifiable cash flows (cash generating units). Goodwill is tested for impairment annually and whenever indicators exist that the carrying value may not be recoverable.

b      Brands

Brands arising on the acquisition of subsidiaries are initially recognised at fair value at the acquisition date. Long established brands that are expected to be used indefinitely are not amortised but assessed annually for impairment.

c      Customer loyalty programmes

Customer loyalty programmes arising on the acquisition of subsidiaries are initially recognised at fair value at the acquisition date. A customer loyalty programme with an expected useful life is amortised over the expected remaining useful life. Established customer loyalty programmes that are expected to be used indefinitely are not amortised but assessed annually for impairment.

d     Landing rights

Landing rights acquired in a business combination are recognised at fair value at the acquisition date. Landing rights acquired from other airlines are capitalised at cost.

Capitalised landing rights based outside the EU are amortised on a straight-line basis over a period not exceeding 20 years. Capitalised landing rights based within the EU are not amortised, as regulations provide that these landing rights are perpetual.

e      Contract based intangibles

Contract based intangibles acquired in a business combination are recognised initially at fair value at the acquisition date and amortised over the remaining life of the contract.

f       Software

The cost to purchase or develop computer software that is separable from an item of related hardware is capitalised separately and amortised on a straight-line basis generally over a period not exceeding five years, with certain specific software developments amortised over a period of up to 10 years.

g     Emissions allowances

Purchased emissions allowances are recognised at cost. Emissions allowances are not revalued or amortised but are tested for impairment whenever indicators exist that the carrying value may not be recoverable.

Impairment of non-financial assets

Assets that have an indefinite useful life are not subject to amortisation and are tested annually for impairment. Assets that are subject to amortisation are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount may not be recoverable. An impairment loss is recognised for the value by which the asset's carrying value exceeds its recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is the higher of an asset's fair value less cost to sell and value-in-use. Non-financial assets other than goodwill that were subject to an impairment are reviewed for possible reversal of the impairment at each reporting date.

a      Property, plant and equipment

The carrying value is reviewed for impairment when events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying value may not be recoverable and the cumulative impairment losses are shown as a reduction in the carrying value of property, plant and equipment.

b      Intangible assets

Intangible assets are held at cost and are either amortised on a straight-line basis over their economic life, or they are deemed to have an indefinite economic life and are not amortised. Indefinite life intangible assets are tested annually for impairment or more frequently if events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying value may not be recoverable.

Investments in associates and joint ventures

An associate is an undertaking in which the Group has a long-term equity interest and over which it has the power to exercise significant influence. Where the Group cannot exercise control over an entity in which it has a shareholding greater than 51 per cent, the equity interest is treated as an associated undertaking.

A joint venture is a type of joint arrangement whereby the parties that have joint control of the arrangement have rights to the net assets of the joint venture. Joint control is the contractually agreed sharing of control of an arrangement, which exists only when decisions about the relevant activities require unanimous consent of the parties sharing control. The considerations made in determining significant influence or joint control are similar to those necessary to determine control over subsidiaries.

Investments in associates and joint ventures are accounted for using the equity method, and initially recognised at cost. The Group's interest in the net assets of associates and joint ventures is included in Investments accounted for using the equity method in the Balance sheet and its interest in their results is included in the Income statement, below operating result. The attributable results of those companies acquired or disposed of during the year are included for the periods of ownership.

Financial instruments

a      Other equity investments

Other equity investments are non-derivative financial assets including listed and unlisted investments, excluding interests in associates and joint ventures. On initial recognition, these equity investments are irrevocably designated as measured at fair value through Other comprehensive income. They are subsequently measured at fair value, with changes in fair value recognised in Other comprehensive income with no recycling of these gains and losses to the Income statement when the investment is sold. Dividends received on other equity investments are recognised in the Income statement.

The fair value of quoted investments is determined by reference to bid prices at the close of business on the balance sheet date. Where there is no active market, fair value is determined using valuation techniques.

b      Other interest-bearing deposits

Other interest-bearing deposits, principally comprising funds held with banks and other financial institutions with contractual cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest, and held in order to collect contractual cash flows, are carried at amortised cost using the effective interest method.

c      Derivative financial instruments and hedging activities

Derivative financial instruments, comprising interest rate swap agreements, foreign exchange derivatives and fuel hedging derivatives (including options, swaps and futures) are initially recognised at fair value on the date a derivative contract is entered into and are subsequently remeasured at their fair value. They are classified as financial instruments through the Income statement. The method of recognising the resulting gain or loss arising from remeasurement depends on whether the derivative is designated as a hedging instrument, and if so, the nature of the item being hedged (as detailed below under cash flow hedges). The time value of options is excluded from the designated hedging instrument and accounted for as a cost of hedging. Movements in the time value of options are recognised in Other comprehensive income until the underlying transaction affects the income statement.

Exchange gains and losses on monetary investments are taken to the Income statement unless the item has been designated and is assessed as an effective hedging instrument. Exchange gains and losses on non-monetary investments are reflected in equity.

d     Long-term borrowings

Long-term borrowings are recorded at amortised cost, including lease liabilities which contain interest rate swaps that are closely related to the underlying financing and as such are not accounted for as an embedded derivative.

e      Cash flow hedges

Changes in the fair value of derivative financial instruments designated as a hedge of a highly probable expected future cash flow and assessed as effective are recorded in equity. Gains and losses on derivative instruments not designated as a cash flow hedge are reported in the Income statement. Gains and losses recorded in equity are reflected in the Income statement when either the hedged cash flow impacts the Income statement or the hedged item is no longer expected to occur.

Certain loan repayment instalments denominated in US dollars, euros, Japanese yen and Chinese yuan are designated as cash flow hedges of highly probable future foreign currency revenues. Exchange differences arising from the translation of these loan repayment instalments are recorded in equity and subsequently reflected in the Income statement when either the future revenue impacts income or its occurrence is no longer expected to occur.

f       Convertible debt

Convertible bonds are classified as compound instruments, consisting of a liability and an equity component. At the date of issue, the fair value of the liability component is estimated using the prevailing market interest rate for similar non-convertible debt, and is subsequently recorded at an amortised cost basis using the effective interest method until extinguished on conversion or maturity of the bonds, and is recognised within Interest-bearing borrowings. The difference between the proceeds of issue of the convertible bond and the fair value assigned to the liability component, representing the embedded option to convert the liability into equity of the Group, is included in Equity portion of convertible bond in Other reserves and is not subsequently remeasured.

Issue costs are apportioned between the liability and equity components of the convertible bonds where appropriate based on their relative carrying values at the date of issue. The portion relating to the equity component is charged directly against equity.

The interest expense on the liability component is calculated by applying the effective interest rate for similar non-convertible debt to the liability component of the instrument. The difference between this value and the interest paid is added to the carrying amount of the liability.

g     Impairment of financial assets

At each balance sheet date, the Group recognises provisions for expected credit losses on financial assets measured at amortised cost, based on 12-month or lifetime losses depending on whether there has been a significant increase in credit risk since initial recognition. The simplified approach, based on the calculation and recognition of lifetime expected credit losses, is applied to contracts that have a maturity of one year or less, including trade receivables.

Employee benefit plans

a      Pension obligations

The Group has both defined benefit and defined contribution plans. A defined contribution plan is a pension plan under which the Group pays fixed contributions into a separate entity. The Group has no legal or constructive obligations to pay further contributions if the fund does not hold sufficient assets to pay all employees the benefits relating to employee service in the current and prior years.

Typically defined benefit plans define an amount of pension benefit that an employee will receive on retirement, usually dependent on one or more factors such as age, years of service and compensation.

The Group's net obligation in respect of defined benefit pension plans is calculated separately for each plan by estimating the amount of future benefit that employees have earned in return for their service in the current and prior years. The benefit is discounted to determine its present value, and the fair value of any plan assets are deducted. The discount rate is the yield at the balance sheet date on AA-rated corporate bonds of the appropriate currency that have durations approximating those of the Group's obligations. The calculation is performed by a qualified actuary using the projected unit credit method. When the net obligation calculation results in an asset for the Group, the recognition of an asset is limited to the present value of any future refunds from the plan or reductions in future contributions to the plan ('the asset ceiling'). The fair value of the plan assets is based on market price information and, in the case of quoted securities, is the published bid price. The fair value of insurance policies which exactly match the amount and timing of some or all benefits payable under the scheme are deemed to be the present value of the related obligations. Longevity swaps are measured at their fair value.

Current service costs are recognised within employee costs in the year in which they arise. Past service costs are recognised in the event of a plan amendment or curtailment, or when the Group recognises related restructuring costs or severance obligations. The net interest is calculated by applying the discount rate used to measure the defined benefit obligation at the beginning of the period to the net defined benefit liability or asset, taking into account any changes in the net defined benefit liability or asset during the period as a result of contributions and benefit payments. Net interest and other expenses related to the defined benefit plans are recognised in the Income statement. Remeasurements, comprising actuarial gains and losses, the effect of the asset ceiling (excluding interest) and the return on plan assets (excluding interest), are recognised immediately in Other comprehensive income. Remeasurements are not reclassified to the Income statement in subsequent periods.

b      Severance obligations

Severance obligations are recognised when employment is terminated by the Group before the normal retirement date, or whenever an employee accepts voluntary redundancy in exchange for these benefits. The Group recognises a provision for severance payments when it is demonstrably committed to either terminating the employment of current employees according to a detailed formal plan without realistic possibility of withdrawal, or providing severance payments as a result of an offer made to encourage voluntary redundancy.

Other employee benefits are recognised when there is deemed to be a present obligation.

Taxation

Current income tax assets and liabilities are measured at the amount expected to be recovered from or paid to the taxation authorities, based on tax rates and laws that are enacted or substantively enacted at the balance sheet date.

Deferred income tax is recognised on all temporary differences arising between the tax bases of assets and liabilities and their carrying amounts in the financial statements, with the following exceptions:

•   Where the temporary difference arises from the initial recognition of goodwill or of an asset or liability in a transaction that is not a business combination that at the time of the transaction affects neither accounting nor taxable profit or loss;

•   In respect of taxable temporary differences associated with investments in subsidiaries or associates, where the timing of the reversal of the temporary differences can be controlled and it is probable that the temporary differences will not reverse in the foreseeable future; and

•   Deferred income tax assets are recognised only to the extent that it is probable that taxable profit will be available against which the deductible temporary differences, carried forward tax credits or tax losses can be utilised.

Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are measured on an undiscounted basis at the tax rates that are expected to apply when the related asset is realised or liability is settled, based on tax rates and laws enacted or substantively enacted at the balance sheet date.

Income tax is charged or credited directly to equity if it relates to items that are credited or charged to equity. Otherwise income tax is recognised in the Income statement.

Inventories

Inventories are valued at the lower of cost and net realisable value. Such cost is determined by the weighted average cost method. Inventories include mainly aircraft spare parts, repairable aircraft engine parts and fuel.

Cash and cash equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents include cash in hand and deposits with any qualifying financial institution repayable on demand or maturing within three months of the date of acquisition and which are subject to an insignificant risk of change in value.

Share-based payments

The Group operates a number of equity-settled, share-based payment plans, under which the Group awards equity instruments of the Group for services rendered by employees. The fair value of the share-based payment plans is measured at the date of grant using a valuation model provided by external specialists. The resulting cost, as adjusted for the expected and actual level of vesting of the plan, is charged to the Income statement over the period in which the options vest. At each balance sheet date before vesting, the cumulative expense is calculated, representing the extent to which the vesting period has expired and management's best estimate of the achievement or otherwise of non-market conditions, and accordingly the number of equity instruments that will ultimately vest. The movement in the cumulative expense since the previous balance sheet date is recognised in the Income statement with a corresponding entry in equity.

Provisions

Provisions are made when an obligation exists for a present liability in respect of a past event and where the amount of the obligation can be reliably estimated.

Employee leaving indemnities and other employee provisions are recorded for flight crew who, meeting certain conditions, have the option of being placed on reserve or of taking early retirement. The Group is obligated to remunerate these employees until they reach the statutory retirement age. The calculation is performed by independent actuaries using the projected unit credit method.

Other employee related provisions are recognised for direct expenditures of business reorganisation such as severance payments (restructuring provisions) where plans are sufficiently detailed and well advanced, and where appropriate communication to those affected has been undertaken at the balance sheet date.

If the effect is material, expected future cash flows are discounted using a rate that reflects, where appropriate, the risks specific to the provision. Where discounting is used, the increase in the provision due to unwinding the discount is recognised as a finance cost.

Revenue recognition

The Group's revenue primarily derives from transportation services for both passengers and cargo. Revenue is recognised when the transportation service has been provided. Passenger tickets are generally paid for in advance of transportation and are recognised, net of discounts, as deferred revenue on ticket sales in current liabilities until the customer has flown. Unused tickets are recognised as revenue after the contracted date of departure using estimates regarding the timing of recognition based on the terms and conditions of the ticket and statistical analysis of historical trends. Revenue is stated net of compensation for flight delays and cancellations, taking into consideration the level of expected claims.

The Group considers whether it is an agent or a principal in relation to transportation services by considering whether it has a performance obligation to provide services to the customer or whether the obligation is to arrange for the services to be provided by a third party. The Group acts as an agent where (i) it collects various taxes and fees assessed on the sale of tickets to passengers and remits these to the relevant taxing authorities; and (ii) where it provides interline services to airline partners outside of the Group.

Other revenue including maintenance; handling; hotel and holiday and commissions is recognised as the related performance obligations are satisfied (over time), being where the control of the goods or services are transferred to the customer.

Customer loyalty programmes

The Group operates five loyalty programmes: Executive Club, Iberia Plus, Avios, Vueling Club and Aer Club. The customer loyalty programmes award travellers Avios points to redeem for various rewards, primarily redemption travel, including flights, hotels and car hire. Avios points are also sold to commercial partners to use in loyalty activity.

The Group has identified several performance obligations associated with the sale of Avios points. Revenue associated with brand and marketing services and revenue associated with Avios points has been determined based on the relative stand-alone selling price of each of the performance obligations. Revenue associated with brand and marketing services is recognised as the points are issued. Revenue allocated to the Avios points is deferred on the balance sheet as a current liability, and recognised when the points are redeemed. When the points are redeemed for products provided by suppliers outside the Group, revenue is recognised in the Income statement net of related costs, as the Group is considered to be an agent in these redemption transactions.

The Group estimates the stand-alone selling price of the brand and marketing performance obligations by reference to the amount that a third party would be prepared to pay in an arm's length transaction for access to comparable brands for the period over which they have access. The stand-alone selling price of Avios points is based on the value of the awards for which the points could be redeemed. The Group also recognises revenue associated with the proportion of award credits which are not expected to be redeemed, based on the results of statistical modelling.

Exceptional items

Exceptional items are those that in management's view need to be separately disclosed by virtue of their size or incidence. The exceptional items recorded in the Income statement include items such as significant settlement agreements with the Group's pension schemes; significant restructuring; the impact of business combination transactions that do not contribute to the ongoing results of the Group; and the impact of the sale, disposal or impairment of an investment in a business.

Business combination transactions include cash items such as the costs incurred to effect the transaction and non-cash items such as accounting gains or losses recognised through the Income statement, such as bargain purchase gains and step acquisition losses.

Critical accounting estimates, assumptions and judgements

The preparation of financial statements requires management to make judgements, estimates and assumptions that affect the application of policies and reported amounts of assets and liabilities, income and expenses. These judgements, estimates and associated assumptions are based on historical experience and various other factors believed to be reasonable under the circumstances. Actual results in the future may differ from judgements and estimates upon which financial information has been prepared. These underlying assumptions are reviewed on an ongoing basis. Revisions to accounting estimates are recognised prospectively.

Estimates

The estimates and assumptions that have a significant risk of causing a material adjustment to the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities within the next financial year are as follows:

a      Employee benefit obligations, employee leaving indemnities, other employee related restructuring

At December 31, 2019 the Group recognised €524 million in respect of employee benefit assets (2018: €1,129 million) and €328 million in respect of employee benefit obligations (2018: €289 million). Further information on employee benefit obligations is disclosed in note 30.

The cost of employee benefit obligations, employee leaving indemnities and other employee related provisions is determined using actuarial valuations. Actuarial valuations involve making assumptions about discount rates, expected rates of return on assets, future salary increases, mortality rates and future pension increases. Due to the long-term nature of these schemes, such estimates are subject to significant uncertainty. The assumptions relating to these schemes are disclosed in note 30. The Group determines the assumptions to be adopted in discussion with qualified actuaries. Any difference between these assumptions and the actual outcome will impact future net assets and total comprehensive income. The sensitivity to changes in pension increase assumptions is disclosed in note 30.

Under the Group's Airways Pension Scheme ('APS') and New Airways Pension Scheme ('NAPS') increases to pensions are based on the annual Government Pension Increase (Review) Orders, which since 2011 have been based on the Consumer Prices Index (CPI). Additionally, in APS there is provision for the Trustee to pay increases up to the level of the Retail Prices Index (RPI), subject to certain affordability tests. Historically market expectations for RPI could be derived by comparing the prices of UK government fixed-interest and index-linked gilts, with CPI assessed by considering the Bank of England's inflation target and comparison of the construction of the two inflation indices.

In February 2019, following the UK House of Lords Economic Affairs Committee report on measuring inflation, the National Statistician concluded that the existing methodology was unsatisfactory and proposed a number of options to the UK Statistics Authority (UKSA). In March 2019, the UKSA recommended to the UK Chancellor of the Exchequer that the publication of the RPI cease at a point to be determined in the future and in the intervening period, the RPI be addressed by bringing in the methods of the CPIH (a proposed variant to CPI). In September 2019, the UK Chancellor of the Exchequer announced his intention to consult with the Bank of England and the UKSA on whether to implement these proposed changes to RPI in the period of 2025 to 2030. On January 13, 2020, it was confirmed that the period of consultation will commence on March 11, 2020 for a period of six weeks.

Following the aforementioned announcement in September 2019, market-implied break-even RPI inflation forward rates for periods after 2030 have reduced in the investment market. Therefore, in assessing RPI and CPI from investment market data, allowance has been made for partial alignment between RPI and CPI from 2030 onwards.

On October 26, 2018 the High Court of Justice of England and Wales issued a judgment in a claim between Lloyds Banking Group Pension Trustees Limited as claimant and Lloyds Banking Group plc and others as defendants (collectively referred to as the 'Lloyds Bank case') regarding the rights of female members of certain pension schemes to equality of treatment in relation to pension benefits. The judgment in the Lloyd's Bank case confirmed that all pension schemes were required to equalise, with immediate application, for the effects of unequal Guaranteed Minimum Pension ('GMP') benefits accrued over the period since May 17, 1990 ('GMP equalisation'). As at December 31, 2018, given the limited timescale from the High Court judgment, the Group undertook a simplified approach to estimating the impact of the GMP. The APS and NAPS estimated DBO as at December 31, 2019 includes allowance for the estimated effect of GMP equalisation based on the assessments made by the respective APS and NAPS Scheme Actuaries.

Restructuring provisions are estimates of future obligations. The Group exercises judgement in determining the expected direct expenditures of reorganisation based on plans which are sufficiently detailed and advanced.

b      Revenue recognition

At December 31, 2019 the Group recognised €5,486 million (2018: €4,835 million) in respect of deferred revenue on ticket sales of which €1,917 million (2018: €1,769 million) related to customer loyalty programmes.

Passenger revenue is recognised when the transportation is provided. At the time of transportation, revenue is also recognised in respect of tickets that are not expected to be used ('unused tickets'). Revenue associated with unused tickets is estimated based on the terms and conditions of the tickets and historical trends.

Revenue associated with the issuance of points under customer loyalty programmes is based on the relative stand-alone selling prices of the related performance obligations (brand, marketing and points), determined using estimation techniques. The transaction price of brand and marketing services is determined using specific brand valuation methodologies. The transaction price of the points is based on the value of the awards for which the points can be redeemed and is reduced to take account of the proportion of the award credits that are not expected to be redeemed by customers. The Group estimates the number of points not expected to be redeemed (using statistical modelling and historical trends) and the mix and fair value of the award credits. A five percentage point change in the assumption of points outstanding and not expected to be redeemed will result in an adjustment to deferred revenue of €100 million, with an offsetting adjustment to revenue and operating profit recognised in the year.

The following three accounting estimates involve a higher degree of judgement or complexity, or are areas where assumptions are significant to the financial statements however these accounting estimates are not major sources of estimation uncertainty that have a significant risk of resulting in material adjustment to the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities within the next year.

c      Income taxes

At December 31, 2019 the Group recognised €546 million in respect of deferred tax assets (2018: €536 million). Further information on current and deferred tax liabilities is disclosed in note 9.

The Group is subject to income taxes in numerous jurisdictions. Estimates are required in determining the worldwide provision for income taxes. There are many transactions and calculations for which the ultimate tax determination is uncertain because it may be unclear how tax law applies to a particular transaction or circumstance. Where the Group determines that it is more likely than not that the tax authorities would accept the position taken in the tax return, amounts are recognised in the financial statements on that basis. Where the amount of tax payable or recoverable is uncertain, the Group recognises a liability based on either: the Group's judgment of the most likely outcome; or, when there is a wide range of possible outcomes, uses a probability weighted average approach.

The Group recognises deferred income tax assets only to the extent that it is probable that the taxable profit will be available against which the deductible temporary differences, carried forward tax credits or tax losses can be utilised. Management consider the operating performance in the current year and the future projections of performance laid out in the approved business plan in order to assess the probability of recoverability. The Business plan relies on the use of assumptions, estimates and judgements in respect of future performance and economics.

d     Impairment of non-financial assets

At December 31, 2019 the Group recognised €2,460 million (2018: €2,403 million) in respect of intangible assets with an indefinite life, including goodwill. Further information on these assets is included in note 15.

The Group assesses whether there are any indicators of impairment for all non-financial assets at each reporting date. Goodwill and intangible assets with indefinite economic lives are tested for impairment annually and at other times when such indicators exist. The recoverable amounts of cash-generating units have been determined based on value-in-use calculations. These calculations require the use of estimates and assumptions as disclosed in note 15.

Other non-financial assets are tested for impairment when there are indicators that the carrying amounts may not be recoverable.

e      Residual values and useful lives of assets

At December 31, 2019 the Group recognised €19,168 million (2018: €12,437 million) in respect of property, plant and equipment, including the ROU assets recognised in the year. Further information on these assets is included in note 12.

The Group estimates useful lives and residual values of property, plant and equipment, including fleet assets based on network plans and recoverable values. Useful lives and residual values are reassessed annually, taking into consideration the latest fleet plans and other business plan information.

Judgement

a      Engineering and other aircraft costs

At December 31, 2019, the Group recognised €1,675 million in respect of maintenance, restoration and handback provisions (2018: €1,359 million). Information on movements on the provision is disclosed in note 24.

The Group has a number of contracts with service providers to replace or repair engine parts and for other maintenance checks. These agreements are complex and generally cover a number of years. The Group exercises judgement in determining the assumptions used to match the consumption of replacement spares and other costs associated with fleet maintenance with the appropriate income statement charge. Aircraft maintenance obligations are based on aircraft utilisation, expected maintenance intervals, future maintenance costs and the aircraft's condition.

b      Determining the lease term of contracts with renewal and termination options

The Group determines the lease term as the non-cancellable term of the lease, together with any periods covered by an option to extend the lease if it is reasonably certain to be exercised, or any periods covered by an option to terminate the lease, if it is reasonably certain not to be exercised. The Group applies judgement in evaluating whether it is reasonably certain whether or not to exercise the option to renew or terminate the lease. Such judgement includes consideration of fleet plans which underpin approved business plans and historic experience regarding the extension of leases. After the commencement date, the Group reassesses the lease term if there is a significant event or change in circumstances and affects the Groups ability to exercise or not to exercise the option to renew or to terminate. Further information is given in note 13.

New standards, amendments and interpretations not yet effective

The IASB and IFRIC have issued the following standards, amendments and interpretations with an effective date after the year end of these financial statements which management believe could impact the Group in future periods. Unless otherwise stated, the Group plans to adopt the following standards, interpretations and amendments on the date they become mandatory:

•   Amendments to references to conceptual framework in IFRS standards, effective for periods beginning on or after January 1, 2020;

•   Definition of a business (amendments to IFRS 3), effective for periods beginning on or after January 1, 2020;

•   Definition of material (amendments to IAS 1 and IAS 8), effective for periods beginning on or after January 1, 2020; and

•   IFRS 17 Insurance contracts, effective for periods beginning on or after January 1, 2021.

In September 2019, the IASB issued amendments to IFRS 9, IAS 39 and IFRS 7, effective January 1, 2020, which concludes phase one of its work to respond to the effects of Interbank Offered Rates (IBOR) reform on financial reporting.  The EU adopted these amendments in January 2020. The Group is currently assessing the impact of these amendments.

3    Segment information

a      Business segments

The chief operating decision-maker is responsible for allocating resources and assessing performance of the operating segments, and has been identified as the IAG Management Committee (IAG MC).

The Group has a number of entities which are managed as individual operating companies including airline and platform functions. Each airline operates its network operations as a single business unit and the IAG MC assesses performance based on measures including operating profit, and makes resource allocation decisions for the airlines based on network profitability, primarily by reference to the passenger markets in which the companies operate. The objective in making resource allocation decisions is to optimise consolidated financial results.

The Group has determined its operating segments based on the way that it treats its businesses and the manner in which resource allocation decisions are made. British Airways, Iberia, Vueling and Aer Lingus have been identified for financial reporting purposes as reportable operating segments. Avios and LEVEL are also operating segments but do not exceed the quantitative thresholds to be reportable and management has concluded that there are currently no other reasons why they should be separately disclosed.

The platform functions of the business primarily support the airline operations. These activities are not considered to be reportable operating segments as they either earn revenues incidental to the activities of the Group and resource allocation decisions are made based on the passenger business or are not reviewed regularly by the IAG MC and are included within Other Group companies.

For the year to December 31, 2019


2019

€ million

British Airways

Iberia

Vueling

Aer Lingus

Other Group companies1

Total

Revenue







Passenger revenue

13,307

4,020

2,437

2,060

644

22,468

Cargo revenue

805

255

-

54

3

1,117

Other revenue

752

912

18

2

237

1,921

External revenue

14,864

5,187

2,455

2,116

884

25,506

Inter-segment revenue

242

458

-

9

575

1,284

Segment revenue

15,106

5,645

2,455

2,125

1,459

26,790








Depreciation, amortisation and impairment

(1,258)

(390)

(250)

(130)

(83)

(2,111)








Operating profit before exceptional items

2,182

497

240

276

90

3,285

Exceptional items (note 4)

(672)

-

-

-

-

(672)

Operating profit after exceptional items

1,510

497

240

276

90

2,613

Net non-operating costs






(338)

Profit before tax






2,275








Total assets

22,312

8,733

3,756

2,131

(1,271)

35,661

Total liabilities

(15,445)

(6,940)

(3,354)

(1,320)

(1,773)

(28,832)

1  Includes eliminations on total assets of €14,982 million and total liabilities of €4,603 million.

For the year to December 31, 2018


2018 (restated)

€ million

British Airways

Iberia

Vueling

Aer Lingus

Other Group companies1

Total

Revenue







Passenger revenue

12,909

3,754

2,317

1,941

480

21,401

Cargo revenue

867

251

-

54

1

1,173

Other revenue

682

749

20

9

224

1,684

External revenue

14,458

4,754

2,337

2,004

705

24,258

Inter-segment revenue

215

417

1

5

538

1,176

Segment revenue

14,673

5,171

2,338

2,009

1,243

25,434








Depreciation, amortisation and impairment

(890)

(207)

(25)

(83)

(49)

(1,254)








Operating profit before exceptional items

2,207

437

200

305

81

3,230

Exceptional items (note 4)

448

-

-

-

-

448

Operating profit after exceptional items

2,655

437

200

305

81

3,678

Net non-operating costs






(191)

Profit before tax






3,487








Total assets

18,531

6,829

1,882

1,915

(1,123)

28,034

Total liabilities

(12,235)

(5,051)

(1,495)

(1,072)

(1,461)

(21,314)

1  Includes eliminations on total assets of €13,681 million and total liabilities of €3,667 million.

b      Geographical analysis

Revenue by area of original sale

 

Year to December 31

€ million

2019

2018 (restated)

UK

8,362

7,945

Spain

4,399

4,027

USA

4,379

4,074

Rest of world

8,366

8,212


25,506

24,258

Assets by area

December 31, 2019

€ million

Property, plant and equipment

Intangible

assets

UK

12,214

1,401

Spain

5,324

1,402

USA

188

19

Rest of world

1,442

620


19,168

3,442

December 31, 2018

€ million

Property, plant and equipment

Intangible

assets

UK

9,017

1,285

Spain

2,512

1,291

USA

29

4

Rest of world

879

618


12,437

3,198

 

4    Exceptional items

 

Year to December 31

€ million

2019

2018

Employee benefit obligations1

672

(584)

Restructuring costs2

-

136

Recognised in expenditure on operations

672

(448)

Total exceptional charge/(credit) before tax

672

(448)

Tax on exceptional items

-

32

Total exceptional charge/(credit) after tax

672

(416)

1      Employee benefit obligations

The exceptional expense of €672 million relates to the past service cost of the Airways Pension Scheme ('APS') settlement agreement described in note 30. This amount arises from the increase in the IAS 19 defined benefit liability of APS following the settlement agreement between the Trustee Directors of APS and British Airways which was approved by the High Court in November 2019. The settlement agreement established higher pensions in payment growth assumptions in future years, resulting in a non-cash increase to the IAS 19 defined benefit liability.

In the year to December 31, 2018:

British Airways closed its New Airways Pension Scheme ('NAPS') to future accrual and British Airways Retirement Plan ('BARP') to future contributions from March 31, 2018. The schemes have been replaced by a flexible defined contribution scheme, the British Airways Pension Plan ('BAPP'). The changes resulted in a one-off reduction of the NAPS IAS 19 defined benefit liability of €872 million and associated transitional arrangement cash costs of €192 million through employee costs. These items are presented net, together with BARP closure costs, as an exceptional credit within the year to December 31, 2018 Income statement of €678 million, with a related tax charge of €58 million.

On October 26, 2018, the High Court of Justice of England and Wales issued a judgment in a claim by Lloyds Banking Group Pension Trustees Limited as claimant to Lloyds Bank plc and others as defendants regarding the rights of female members of certain pension schemes to equality of treatment in relation to pension benefits. The judgment concluded that the claimant is under a duty to amend the schemes in order to equalise benefits for men and women in relation to GMP benefits. The judgment affects some of the occupational pension schemes of British Airways as set out in note 30. The estimated increase in IAS 19 liabilities as a result of the High Court judgment was recorded as an exceptional charge of €94 million in the year to December 31, 2018 Income statement.

2      Restructuring costs

During 2018 British Airways continued to implement the restructuring programme that started in July 2016, to develop a more efficient and cost-effective structure. The overall costs of the programme principally comprised employee severance costs and include other directly associated costs such as onerous lease provisions and asset write down costs. Costs incurred in the year to December 31, 2018 in respect of this programme amounted to €136 million, with a related tax credit of €26 million.

5    Expenses by nature

Operating profit is arrived at after charging

Depreciation, amortisation and impairment of non-current assets:

€ million

2019

2018

Owned assets

776

711

Right of use assets (2018: Finance leased aircraft)

1,153

371

Other leasehold interests

40

40

Amortisation of intangible assets

142

132


2,111

1,254

Operating leases costs:

€ million

2019

2018

Minimum lease rentals

- aircraft

-

890


- property and equipment

-

236

Sub-lease rentals received

-

(12)


-

1,114

Cost of inventories:

€ million

2019

2018

Cost of inventories recognised as an expense, mainly fuel

3,242

3,165

6    Auditors' remuneration

The fees for audit and non-audit services provided by the auditor of the Group's consolidated financial statements and of certain individual financial statements of the consolidated companies, Ernst & Young S.L., and by companies belonging to Ernst & Young's network, were as follows:

€'000

2019

2018

Fees payable for the audit of the Group and individual accounts

3,916

4,328

Fees payable for other services:



Audit of the Group's subsidiaries pursuant to legislation

632

634

Other services pursuant to legislation

496

436

Other services relating to taxation

3

-

Other assurance services

727

506

Services relating to working capital review

1,218

-

Services relating to corporate finance transactions

175

191

All other services

3

305


7,170

6,400

7    Employee costs and numbers

€ million

2019

2018

Wages and salaries

3,334

3,240

Social security costs

561

516

Costs/(credits) related to pension scheme benefits

932

(317)

Other post-retirement benefit costs

-

5

Cost of share-based payments

34

31

Other employee costs1

773

877

Total employee costs

5,634

4,352

1  Other employee costs include allowances and accommodation for crew.

The number of employees during the year and at December 31 was as follows:

 

2019

2018

 

 

December 31, 2019

 

December 31, 2018


Average number of employees

Number of employees

Percentage

of women

Average number of employees

Number of employees

Percentage

of women

Senior executives

201

198

30%

196

208

27%

Ground employees:







Managerial

2,319

1,777

41%

1,857

1,872

40%

Non-managerial

32,968

32,614

34%

33,231

32,159

35%

Technical crew:







Managerial

8,136

7,885

38%

8,569

8,501

38%

Non-managerial

22,410

22,168

59%

20,881

20,791

61%


66,034

64,642


64,734

63,531


The number of employees is based on manpower equivalent. The average headcount for 2019 was 73,299 (2018: 71,472).

8    Finance costs, income and other non-operating (charges)/credits

a      Finance costs

€ million

2019

2018

Interest expense on:



Bank borrowings

(12)

(17)

Asset financed liabilities

(9)

-

Lease liabilities (2018: Finance lease obligations)

(489)

(144)

Provisions unwinding of discount

(37)

(27)

Other borrowings

(77)

(56)

Capitalised interest on progress payments

17

13

Other finance costs

(4)

-


(611)

(231)

 

b      Finance income

€ million

2019

2018

Interest on other interest-bearing deposits

47

33

Other finance income

3

8


50

41

c      Net financing credit relating to pensions

€ million

2019

2018

Net financing credit relating to pensions

26

27

d     Other non-operating charges

€ million

2019

2018

Loss on sale of property, plant and equipment and investments

(22)

(29)

Credit related to equity investments (note 17)

3

5

Share of profits in investments accounted for using the equity method (note 16)

6

5

Realised gain on derivatives not qualifying for hedge accounting

8

20

Unrealised gains/(losses) on derivatives not qualifying for hedge accounting

1

(10)


(4)

(9)

9    Tax

a      Tax charges

Tax (charge)/credit in the Income statement, Other comprehensive income and Statement of changes in equity:

 

2019

 

2018

€ million

Income

statement

Other

comprehensive

income

Statement

of changes

in equity

Total

 

Income

statement

Other

comprehensive

income

Statement

of changes

in equity

Total

Current tax










Movement in respect of prior years

26

(8)

-

18


4

-

-

4

Movement in respect of current year

(494)

146

-

(348)


(475)

162

-

(313)

Total current tax

(468)

138

-

(330)


(471)

162

-

(309)











Deferred tax










Movement in respect of prior years

(14)

-

-

(14)


22

-

-

22

Movement in respect of current year

(79)

(160)

(1)

(240)


(144)

206

-

62

Rate change / rate differences

1

3

-

4


3

(13)

-

(10)

Total deferred tax

(92)

(157)

(1)

(250)


(119)

193

-

74











Total tax

(560)

(19)

(1)

(580)


(590)

355

-

(235)

The current tax credit in Other comprehensive income relates to employee retirement benefit plans of €154 million (2018: €136 million) and cash flow hedges of €16 million tax charge (2018: €26 million tax credit).

Tax in the Statement of changes in equity relates to share-based payment schemes of €1 million (2018: nil).

Within tax in Other comprehensive income is a tax charge of €184 million (2018: tax credit of €222 million) that may be reclassified to the Income statement and a tax credit of €165 million (2018: tax credit of €133 million) that will not.

b      Current tax (liability)/asset

€ million

2019

2018

Balance at January 1

218

180

Income statement

(468)

(471)

Other comprehensive income

138

162

Cash

119

343

Exchange movements and other

(13)

4

Balance at December 31

(6)

218




Current tax asset

186

383

Current tax liability

(192)

(165)

Balance at December 31

(6)

218

c      Deferred tax asset/(liability)

€ million

Fixed assets

Leases

Deferred tax deductions on IFRS 16 transition

Employee leaving indemnities and others

Employee benefit plans

Fair value gain/
losses

Share-based payment schemes

Tax loss carried forwards and tax credits

Other temporary differences

Total

Balance at January 1, 2019

(999)

-

-

348

42

234

16

411

31

83

Adjustments arising on adoption of IFRS 16

287

(148)

31

-

-

-

-

-

-

170

Income statement

4

(26)

(7)

(52)

(7)

-

5

(10)

1

(92)

Other comprehensive income

-

-

-

13

3

(173)

-

-

-

(157)

Statement of changes in equity

-

-

-

-

-

-

(1)

-

-

(1)

Exchange movements and other

(24)

(21)

-

3

3

9

(1)

-

2

(29)

Balance at December 31, 2019

(732)

(195)

24

312

41

70

19

401

34

(26)












Balance at January 1, 2018

(1,029)

-

-

374

140

39

15

430

28

(3)

Income statement

19

-

-

(25)

(96)

-

2

(18)

(1)

(119)

Other comprehensive income

-

-

-

-

(2)

195

-

-

-

193

Exchange movements and other

11

-

-

(1)

-

-

(1)

(1)

4

12

Balance at December 31, 2018

(999)

-

-

348

42

234

16

411

31

83

 

€ million

2019

2018

Deferred tax asset

546

536

Deferred tax liability

(572)

(453)

Balance at December 31

(26)

83

The deferred tax asset mainly arises in Spain. A reversal of €60 million on the deferred tax asset is expected within one year and the remainder beyond one year.

d     Reconciliation of the total tax charge in the income statement

The tax charge is calculated at the domestic rates applicable to pro?ts/(losses) in the country in which the profit/(loss) arise. The tax charge on the profit for the year to December 31, 2019 is higher (2018: lower) than the notional tax charge. The differences are explained below:

€ million

2019

2018

Accounting profit before tax

2,275

3,487




Weighted average tax charge of the Group1

(440)

(671)

Current year tax assets not recognised

(11)

(9)

Disposal and write down of investments

-

1

Effect of tax rate changes

1

3

Employee benefit plans accounted for net of withholding tax - recurring

7

1

Employee benefit plans accounted for net of withholding tax - non-recurring

(128)

53

Euro preferred securities accounted for as non-controlling interests

-

2

Investment incentives

11

10

Movement in respect of prior years

12

26

Non-deductible expenses - recurring items

(14)

(7)

Other items

2

1

Tax charge in the income statement

(560)

(590)

The expected tax charge is calculated by aggregating the expected tax charges arising in each company in the Group and changes each year as tax rates and profit mix change. The corporate tax rates for the Group's main countries of operation are Spain 25% (2018: 25%), the UK 19% (2018: 19%) and Ireland 12.5% (2018: 12.5%).

e      Payroll related taxes and UK Air Passenger Duty

The Group was also subject to other taxes paid during the year which are as follows:

€ million

2019

2018

Payroll related taxes

555

509

UK Air Passenger Duty

967

885


1,522

1,394

f       Factors that may affect future tax charges

Unrecognised temporary differences - losses

€ million

2019

2018

Spanish corporate income tax losses and other temporary differences

47

47

UK capital losses

335

316

Irish capital losses

25

25

Corporate income tax losses outside of the Group's main countries of operation

249

210

None of the unrecognised temporary differences have an expiry date.

Unrecognised temporary differences - investment in subsidiaries and associates

No deferred tax liability has been recognised in respect of €2,959 million (2018: €2,826 million) of temporary differences relating to subsidiaries and associates. The Group either controls the reversal of these temporary differences and it is probable that they will not reverse in the foreseeable future or no tax consequences would arise from their reversal.

Tax rate changes

Reductions in the UK corporation tax rate to 19% (effective from April 1, 2017) and to 18% (effective April 1, 2020) were substantively enacted on October 26, 2015 and an additional reduction to 17% (effective April 1, 2020) was substantively enacted on September 6, 2016. This will reduce the Group's future current tax charge accordingly. The deferred tax on UK temporary differences as at December 31, 2019 is calculated at the rate applicable to the year in which the temporary differences are expected to reverse.

g     Tax related contingent liabilities

The Group has certain contingent liabilities, across all taxes, which at December 31, 2019 amounted to €165 million (December 31, 2018: €60 million). No material losses are likely to arise from such contingent liabilities. As such the Group does not consider it appropriate to make a provision for these amounts. Included in the tax related contingent liabilities is the following:

Merger gain

Following tax audits covering the period 2011 to 2014, the Spanish Tax Authorities issued a corporate income tax assessment to the Company regarding the merger in 2011 between British Airways and Iberia. The assessment is for 69 million, resulting in a contingent liability of €90 million, including accrued interest. The Company subsequently appealed the assessment to the Tribunal Económico-Administrativo Central or 'TEAC' (Central Administrative Tax Tribunal). On October 23, 2019 the TEAC ruled in favour of the Spanish Tax Authorities. The Company subsequently appealed this ruling to the Audiencia Nacional (National High Court) on December 20, 2019. The Company does not expect a hearing at the National High Court until 2021 at the earliest.

The Company disputes the technical merits of the assessment and ruling of the TEAC, both in terms of whether a gain arose and in terms of the quantum of any gain. The Company believes that it has strong arguments to support its appeals. The Company does not consider it appropriate to make a provision for these amounts and accordingly has recognised this matter as a contingent liability.

10  Earnings per share

€ million

2019

2018

Earnings attributable to equity holders of the parent for basic earnings

1,715

2,885

Interest expense on convertible bonds

26

18

Diluted earnings attributable to equity holders of the parent and diluted earnings per share

1,741

2,903

 

 

2019

Number

'000

2018

Number

'000

Weighted average number of ordinary shares in issue1

1,984,073

2,021,622

Assumed conversion on convertible bonds

59,398

72,944

Dilutive employee share schemes outstanding

22,305

18,515

Weighted average number for diluted earnings per share

2,065,776

2,113,081

 

€ cents

2019

2018

Basic earnings per share

86.4

142.7

Diluted earnings per share

84.3

137.4

1  In 2018 included 27 million as the weighted average impact for 66 million treasury shares purchased in the share buyback programme (note 27).

The calculation of basic and diluted earnings per share before exceptional items is included in the Alternative performance measures section.

11  Dividends

€ million

2019

2018

Cash dividend declared



Interim dividend for 2019 of 14.5 € cents per share (2018: 14.5 € cents per share)

288

288

Final dividend for 2018 of 16.5 € cents per share (2017: 14.5 € cents per share)

327

295

Special dividend for 2018 of 35.0 € cents per share

695

-




Proposed cash dividend



Final dividend for 2019 of 17.0 € cents per share

337


The proposed dividend will be distributed from net profit for the year to December 31, 2019.

Proposed dividends on ordinary shares are subject to approval at the annual general meeting and, subject to approval, are recognised as a liability on that date.

12  Property, plant and equipment

€ million

Fleet

Property

Equipment

Total

Cost





Balance at January 1, 2018

19,698

2,143

1,484

23,325

Additions

2,255

79

140

2,474

Disposals

(1,130)

-

(125)

(1,255)

Exchange movements

(310)

(34)

(17)

(361)

Balance at December 31, 2018

20,513

2,188

1,482

24,183

Adoption of IFRS 16

4,783

735

23

5,541

Balance at January 1, 2019

25,296

2,923

1,505

29,724

Additions

3,946

67

147

4,160

Modification of leases

128

94

-

222

Disposals

(1,319)

(85)

(71)

(1,475)

Reclassifications

44

-

(44)

-

Exchange movements

1,287

163

68

1,518

December 31, 2019

29,382

3,162

1,605

34,149

Depreciation and impairment





Balance at January 1, 2018

9,465

1,040

974

11,479

Charge for the year

984

55

83

1,122

Disposals

(562)

-

(95)

(657)

Exchange movements

(164)

(18)

(16)

(198)

Balance at December 31, 2018

9,723

1,077

946

11,746

Adoption of IFRS 16

1,053

1

2

1,056

Balance at January 1, 2019

10,776

1,078

948

12,802

Charge for the year

1,710

169

90

1,969

Disposals

(447)

(63)

(57)

(567)

Reclassifications

8

-

(8)

-

Exchange movements

660

65

52

777

December 31, 2019

12,707

1,249

1,025

14,981

 

Net book values





December 31, 2019

16,675

1,913

580

19,168

January 1, 2019

14,520

1,845

557

16,922

December 31, 2018

10,790

1,111

536

12,437

 

Analysis at December 31, 2019





Owned

5,321

1,028

460

6,809

Right of use assets (note 13)

9,746

774

68

10,588

Progress payments

1,525

110

52

1,687

Assets not in current use

83

1

-

84

Property, plant and equipment

16,675

1,913

580

19,168

Analysis at December 31, 2018





Owned

3,935

987

401

5,323

Finance leased

5,695

4

68

5,767

Progress payments

1,069

118

65

1,252

Assets not in current use

91

2

2

95

Property, plant and equipment

10,790

1,111

536

12,437

The net book value of property comprises:

€ million

2019

2018

Freehold

560

448

Right of use assets (note 13)

774

-

Long leasehold improvements > 50 years

321

330

Short leasehold improvements < 50 years

258

333

Property

1,913

1,111

At December 31, 2019, bank and other loans of the Group are secured on fleet assets with a net book value of €325 million (2018: €467 million).

13  Leases

a      Amounts recognised in the Consolidated balance sheet

Property, plant and equipment includes the following amounts relating to right of use assets:

€ million

 

Fleet

Property

Equipment

Total

Cost






Balance at January 1, 20191


12,491

734

119

13,344

Additions


1,039

13

16

1,068

Modifications of leases


128

94

-

222

Disposals


(23)

-

-

(23)

Reclassifications2


(290)

(4)

(16)

(310)

Exchange movements


509

45

4

558

December 31, 2019


13,854

882

123

14,859

Depreciation






Balance at January 1, 20191


3,056

-

36

3,092

Charge for the year


1,032

104

17

1,153

Disposals


(21)

-

-

(21)

Reclassifications2


(123)

-

-

(123)

Exchange movements


164

4

2

170

December 31, 2019


4,108

108

55

4,271







Net book value






December 31, 2019


9,746

774

68

10,588

January 1, 2019


9,435

734

83

10,252

The net book value of ROU assets recognised at January 1, 2019 includes €5,767 million in respect of assets previously leased through finance leases before the adoption of IFRS 16 (split between €7,793 million at cost and €2,026 million of accumulated depreciation). In 2018 the Group recognised lease assets and lease liabilities in relation to leases that were classified as 'finance leases' under IAS 17 'leases'. The assets were presented in property, plant and equipment and the lease liabilities in the Group's long-term borrowings.

Amounts with a net book value of €187 million were reclassified from ROU assets to Owned Property, plant and equipment at the cessation of the respective leases.

Interest-bearing long-term borrowings includes the following amounts relating to lease liabilities:

€ million

2019

Finance lease liabilities December 31, 2018

5,928

Adoption of IFRS 16 January 1, 2019

5,195

Additions

1,017

Modifications of leases

182

Repayments

(1,941)

Interest expense

489

Exchange movements

176

Lease liability December 31, 2019

11,046



Current

1,694

Non-current

9,352

b      Amounts recognised in the Consolidated income statement

€ million

2019

Amounts not included in the measurement of lease liabilities


Variable lease payments

28

Expenses relating to short-term leases

74

Expenses relating to leases of low-value assets, excluding short-term leases of low value assets

1

Amounts expensed as a result of the recognition of ROU assets and lease liabilities


Interest expense on lease liabilities

489

Gain arising from sale and leaseback transactions

(1)

Depreciation charge

1,153

c      Amounts recognised in the Consolidated cash flow statement

The Group had total cash outflows for leases of €2,057 million in 2019.

The Group is exposed to future cash outflows (on an undiscounted basis) as at December 31, 2019, for which no amount has been recognised in relation to leases not yet commenced to which the Group is committed of €787 million.

d     Maturity profile of the lease liabilities

The maturity profile of the lease liabilities is disclosed in note 25e.

e      Operating lease commitments

From January 1, 2019, the Group has recognised ROU assets and lease liabilities for the leases it has entered into (except for short-term and low-value leases) and accordingly no longer presents operating lease commitments. Having applied the modified retrospective approach to the implementation of IFRS 16, the Group has continued to present the comparative financial information for the aggregate payments, for which there were commitments under operating leases as follows as at December 31:

 

2018

€ million

Fleet

Property, plant and equipment

Total

Within one year

975

148

1,123

Between one and five years

3,049

362

3,411

Over five years

2,235

1,895

4,130

Total

6,259

2,405

8,664

f       Obligations under financing leases

On implementation of IFRS 16, those leases previously recognised as finance leases were reclassified to ROU assets and lease liabilities and are included in section (a) above. Accordingly, the Group no longer presents obligations under finance leases. Having applied the modified retrospective approach to the implementation of IFRS 16, the Group has continued to present the comparative financial information for the aggregate payments, for which there are future minimum lease payments as follows:

€ million

2018

Future minimum payments due


Within one year

876

Between one and five years

3,186

Over five years

2,642


6,704

Less: finance charges

(776)

Present value of minimum lease payments

5,928

The present value of minimum lease payments is as follows:


Within one year

723

Between one and five years

2,734

Over five years

2,471


5,928

g     Extension options

The Group has certain leases which contain extension options exercisable by the Group prior to the non-cancellable contract period. Where practicable, the Group seeks to include extension options in new leases to provide operational flexibility. The Group assesses at lease commencement whether it is reasonably certain to exercise the extension options.

The Group is exposed to future cash outflows (on an undiscounted basis) as at December 31, 2019, for which no amount has been recognised, for potential extension options of €871 million due to it not being reasonably certain that these leases will be extended.

14  Capital expenditure commitments

Capital expenditure authorised and contracted for but not provided for in the accounts amounts to €12,830 million (December 31, 2018: €10,831 million). The majority of capital expenditure commitments are denominated in US dollars, and as such are subject to changes in exchange rates.

The outstanding commitments include €12,673 million for the acquisition of 34 Airbus A320s (from 2020 to 2022), 45 Airbus A321s (from 2020 to 2024), one Airbus A330 (in 2020), 33 Airbus A350s (from 2020 to 2024), four Boeing 777-300s (in 2020), 18 Boeing 777-9s (from 2022 to 2025) and 12 Boeing 787-10s (from 2020 to 2023).

15  Intangible assets and impairment review

a      Intangible assets

€ million

Goodwill

Brand

Customer loyalty programmes

Landing rights1

Software

Other

Total

Cost








Balance at January 1, 2018

596

451

253

1,519

948

128

3,895

Additions

-

-

-

55

195

105

355

Disposals

-

-

-

-

(14)

(20)

(34)

Exchange movements

(1)

-

-

(15)

(13)

(2)

(31)

Balance at December 31, 2018

595

451

253

1,559

1,116

211

4,185

Additions

-

-

-

5

232

120

357

Disposals

-

-

-

-

(28)

(55)

(83)

Exchange movements

3

-

-

52

56

6

117

December 31, 2019

598

451

253

1,616

1,376

282

4,576

Amortisation and impairment








Balance at January 1, 2018

249

-

-

101

475

52

877

Charge for the year

-

-

-

6

123

3

132

Disposals

-

-

-

-

(13)

-

(13)

Exchange movements

-

-

-

(1)

(8)

-

(9)

Balance at December 31, 2018

249

-

-

106

577

55

987

Charge for the year

-

-

-

6

131

5

142

Disposals

-

-

-

-

(28)

-

(28)

Exchange movements

-

-

-

3

30

-

33

December 31, 2019

249

-

-

115

710

60

1,134

Net book values








December 31, 2019

349

451

253

1,501

666

222

3,442

December 31, 2018

346

451

253

1,453

539

156

3,198

1  The net book value includes non-EU based landing rights of €94 million (2018: €100 million) that have a definite life. The remaining life of these landing rights is 15 years.

b      Impairment review

The carrying amounts of intangible assets with indefinite life and goodwill allocated to cash generating units (CGUs) of the Group are:

€ million

Goodwill

Landing rights

Brand

Customer loyalty programmes

Total

2019






Iberia






January 1 and December 31, 2019

-

423

306

-

729







British Airways






January 1, 2019

46

767

-

-

813

Exchange movements

3

49

-

-

52

December 31, 2019

49

816

-

-

865







Vueling






January 1, 2019

28

89

35

-

152

Additions

-

5

-

-

5

January 1 and December 31, 2019

28

94

35

-

157







Aer Lingus






January 1 and December 31, 2019

272

62

110

-

444







Avios






January 1 and December 31, 2019

-

-

-

253

253







Other CGUs






January 1 and December 31, 2019

-

12

-

-

12







December 31, 2019

349

1,407

451

253

2,460

 

€ million

Goodwill

Landing rights

Brand

Customer loyalty programmes

Total

2018






Iberia






January 1 and December 31, 2018

-

423

306

-

729







British Airways






January 1, 2018

47

738

-

-

785

Additions

-

55

-

-

55

Transfer to other Group companies

-

(12)

-

-

(12)

Exchange movements

(1)

(14)

-

-

(15)

December 31, 2018

46

767

-

-

813







Vueling






January 1 and December 31, 2018

28

89

35

-

152







Aer Lingus






January 1 and December 31, 2018

272

62

110

-

444







Avios






January 1 and December 31, 2018

-

-

-

253

253







Other CGUs






January 1, 2018

-

-

-

-

-

Transfer from British Airways

-

12

-

-

12

December 31, 2018

-

12

-

-

12







December 31, 2018

346

1,353

451

253

2,403

Basis for calculating recoverable amount

The recoverable amounts of CGUs have been measured based on their value-in-use.

Value-in-use is calculated using a discounted cash flow model. Cash flow projections are based on the Business plans approved by the relevant operating companies covering a five year period. Cash flows extrapolated beyond the five year period are projected to increase based on long-term growth rates. Cash flow projections are discounted using the CGU's pre-tax discount rate.

Annually the relevant operating companies prepare and approve five year Business plans, and the Board approved the Group three year Business plan in the fourth quarter of the year. The Business plan cash flows used in the value-in-use calculations reflect all restructuring of the business where relevant that has been approved by the Board and which can be executed by Management under existing agreements.

Key assumptions

For each of the internal CGUs the key assumptions used in the value-in-use calculations are as follows:

 

2019

Per cent

British Airways

Iberia

Vueling

Aer Lingus

Avios

Operating margin1

15

10-15

10-14

13-15

20-23

Average ASK growth per annum

2-4

3

1-5

2-11

n/a2

Long-term growth rate

2.2

1.8

1.5

1.8

1.8

Pre-tax discount rate

8.0

9.1

9.4

8.0

8.5

 

 

2018

Per cent

British Airways

Iberia

Vueling

Aer Lingus

Avios

Lease adjusted operating margin3

15

9-15

11-15

15

212

Average ASK growth per annum

3-4

5-6

9-10

7-8

n/a2

Long-term growth rate

2.3

2.0

1.9

1.8

1.9

Pre-tax discount rate

8.3

9.0

8.4

8.3

9.3

1  The Group adopted IFRS 16 from January 1, 2019 at which time a ROU asset was recognised and depreciated over the expected lease term through operating expenses. Accordingly, for 2019 onwards the Group has determined its key assumption to be operating margin.

2  Operating margin (2018: lease adjusted operating margin) for the Avios loyalty reward business is not adjusted for aircraft leases. ASK growth rate assumption is not applicable for Avios, which conducts business with partners both within and outside IAG.

3  Lease adjusted operating margin is the average annual operating result, adjusted for aircraft operating lease costs, as a percentage of revenue over the five year Business plan. It is presented as a percentage point range and is based on past performance, Management's expectation of the market development and incorporating risks into the cash flow estimates.

ASK growth is the average annual increase over the Business plan, based on planned network growth and taking into account Management's expectation of the market.

The long-term growth rate is calculated for each CGU based on the forecasted weighted average exposure in each primary market using gross domestic product (GDP) (source: Oxford Economics). The airline's network plans are reviewed annually as part of the Business plan and reflect Management's plans in response to specific market risk or opportunity.

Pre-tax discount rates represent the current market assessment of the risks specific to each CGU, taking into consideration the time value of money and underlying risks of its primary market. The discount rate calculation is based on the circumstances of the airline industry, the Group and the CGU. It is derived from the weighted average cost of capital (WACC). The WACC takes into consideration both debt and equity available to airlines. The cost of equity is derived from the expected return on investment by airline investors and the cost of debt is broadly based on the Group's interest-bearing borrowings. CGU specific risk is incorporated by applying individual beta factors which are evaluated annually based on available market data. The pre-tax discount rate reflects the timing of future tax flows.

Summary of results

In 2019, Management reviewed the recoverable amount of each of its CGUs and concluded the recoverable amounts exceeded the carrying values. Sensitivities have been considered for each CGU. Reducing long-term growth rates to zero, increasing pre-tax discount rates by 4 percentage points, and increasing the fuel price by 40 per cent, does not result in any impairment.

16  Investments

a      Investments in subsidiaries

The Group's subsidiaries at December 31, 2019 are listed in the Group investments section.

All subsidiary undertakings are included in the consolidation. The proportion of the voting rights in the subsidiary undertakings held directly do not differ from the proportion of ordinary shares held. There have been no significant changes in ownership interests of subsidiaries during the year.

On August 28, 2018, British Airways exercised its option to redeem its €300 million, 6.75 per cent fixed coupon preferred securities which were previously classified as a non-controlling interest. The total non-controlling interest at December 31, 2019 is €6 million (2018: €6 million).

British Airways Employee Benefit Trustee (Jersey) Limited, a wholly-owned subsidiary of British Airways, governs the British Airways Plc Employee Share Ownership Trust (the Trust). The Trust is not a legal subsidiary of IAG; however, it is consolidated within the Group results.

b      Investments in associates and joint ventures

The share of assets, liabilities, revenue and profit of the Group's associates and joint ventures, which are included in the Group's financial statements, are as follows:

€ million

2019

2018

Total assets

122

113

Total liabilities

(92)

(77)

Revenue

112

75

Profit for the year

6

5

The detail of the movement in Investment in associates and joint ventures is shown as follows:

€ million

2019

2018

At beginning of year

31

30

Share of retained profits

6

5

Dividends received

(5)

(2)

Exchange movements

(1)

(2)


31

31

At December 31, 2019 there are no restrictions on the ability of associates or joint ventures to transfer funds to the parent and there are no related contingent liabilities.

At both December 31, 2019 and December 31, 2018 the investment in Sociedad Conjunta para la Emisión y Gestión de Medios de Pago EFC, S.A. exceeded 50 per cent ownership by the Group (50.5 per cent). The entity is treated as a joint venture as decisions regarding its strategy and operations require the unanimous consent of the parties who share control, including IAG.

17  Other equity investments

Other equity investments include the following:

€ million

2019

2018

Listed securities



Comair Limited

10

17

Unlisted securities

72

63


82

80

The credit relating to other equity investments was €3 million (2018: €5 million).

18  Trade and other receivables

€ million

2019

2018

Amounts falling due within one year



Trade receivables

2,368

1,695

Provision for expected credit loss

(113)

(98)

Net trade receivables

2,255

1,597

Prepayments and accrued income

1,040

823

Other non-trade debtors

274

352


3,569

2,772

Amounts falling due after one year



Prepayments and accrued income

258

298

Other non-trade debtors

15

11


273

309

Movements in the provision for expected credit loss were as follows:

€ million

2019

2018

At beginning of year

98

63

Provided during the year

22

36

Released

(1)

(2)

Receivables written off during the year

(8)

1

Exchange movements

2

-


113

98

Trade receivables are generally non-interest-bearing and on 30 days terms (2018: 30 days).

The credit risk exposure on the Group's trade receivables is set out below:

December 31, 2019

€ million

Current

<30 days

30-60 days

>60 days

Trade receivables

1,411

198

208

551

Expected credit loss rate

0.03%

0.16%

0.01%

20.10%

Provision for expected credit loss

1

-

-

112

December 31, 2018

€ million

Current

<30 days

30-60 days

>60 days

Trade receivables

988

163

135

409

Expected credit loss rate

0.04%

0.29%

1.60%

23.26%

Provision for expected credit loss

1

-

2

95

19  Cash, cash equivalents and other current interest-bearing deposits

€ million

2019

2018

Cash at bank and in hand

2,320

2,453

Short-term deposits maturing within three months

1,742

1,384

Cash and cash equivalents

4,062

3,837

Other current interest-bearing deposits maturing after three months

2,621

2,437

Cash, cash equivalents and other interest-bearing deposits

6,683

6,274

Cash at bank is primarily held in AAA money market funds and bank deposits. Short-term deposits are for periods up to three months and earn interest based on the floating deposit rates.

At December 31, 2019 the Group had no outstanding bank overdrafts (2018: nil).

Current interest-bearing deposits are made for periods in excess of three months with maturity typically within 12 months and earn interest based on the market rates available at the time the deposit was made.

At December 31, 2019 Aer Lingus held €41 million of restricted cash (2018: €42 million) within interest-bearing deposits maturing after more than three months to be used for employee related obligations.

a      Net debt

Movements in net debt were as follows:

€ million

Balance at January 1, 2019

IFRS 16 opening adjustment

Cash flows

Exchange movements

New leases and modifications

Non-cash

Balance at December 31, 2019

Bank, other loans and asset financed liabilities

1,581

-

1,556

(12)

-

83

3,208

Lease liabilities

5,928

5,195

(1,507)

176

1,199

55

11,046

Liabilities from financing activities

7,509

5,195

49

164

1,199

138

14,254

Cash and cash equivalents

(3,837)

-

(85)

(140)

-

-

(4,062)

Other current interest-bearing deposits

(2,437)

-

(103)

(81)

-

-

(2,621)


1,235

5,195

(139)

(57)

1,199

138

7,571

 

€ million

Balance at January 1, 2018

Cash flows

Exchange movements

Non-cash

Balance at December 31, 2018

Bank and other loans

1,824

(275)

4

28

1,581

Finance leases

5,507

254

134

33

5,928

Liabilities from financing activities

7,331

(21)

138

61

7,509

Cash and cash equivalents

(3,292)

(583)

38

-

(3,837)

Other current interest-bearing deposits

(3,384)

924

23

-

(2,437)


655

320

199

61

1,235

20  Trade and other payables

€ million

2019

2018

Trade creditors

2,311

2,079

Other creditors

1,099

1,007

Other taxation and social security

271

332

Accruals and deferred income

663

541


4,344

3,959

Average payment days to suppliers - Spanish Group companies

Days

2019

2018

Average payment days for payment to suppliers

33

37

Ratio of transactions paid

32

33

Ratio of transactions outstanding for payment

43

119

 

€ million

2019

2018

Total payments made

7,165

6,306

Total payments outstanding

114

317

21  Deferred revenue on ticket sales

€ million

Customer loyalty programmes

Sales in advance of carriage

Total

Balance at January 1, 2019

1,769

3,066

4,835

Changes in estimates

6

(20)

(14)

Cash received from customers

-

23,029

23,029

Loyalty points issued to customers

844

47

891

Revenue recognised in the income statement1,2

(805)

(22,691)

(23,496)

Exchange movements

103

138

241

Balance at December 31, 2019

1,917

3,569

5,486

 

€ million

Customer loyalty programmes

Sales in advance of carriage

Total

Balance at January 1, 2018

1,752

2,990

4,742

Changes in estimates

-

(8)

(8)

Cash received from customers

-

22,149

22,149

Loyalty points issued to customers

781

-

781

Revenue recognised in the income statement1

(733)

(22,027)

(22,760)

Exchange movements

(31)

(38)

(69)

Balance at December 31, 2018

1,769

3,066

4,835

1  Where the Group acts as an agent in the provision of redemption products and services to customers through loyalty programmes, or in the provision of interline flights to passengers, revenue is recognised in the income statement net of the related costs.

2  Included within revenue recognised in the Income statement is an amount of €3,361 million previously held as deferred revenue at December 31, 2018.

Deferred revenue relating to customer loyalty programmes consists primarily of revenue allocated to performance obligations associated with Avios points. Avios points are issued by the Group's airlines through their loyalty programmes, or are sold to third parties such as credit card providers, who issue them as part of their loyalty programme. Avios points do not have an expiry date and can be redeemed at any time in the future. Revenue may therefore be recognised at any time in the future. Deferred revenue in respect of sales in advance of carriage consists of revenue allocated to airline tickets to be used for future travel. Typically these tickets expire within 12 months after the planned travel date, if they are not used within that time period.

22  Other long-term liabilities

€ million

2019

2018

Non-current trade creditors

6

6

Accruals and deferred income

65

192


71

198

23  Long-term borrowings

a      Current

€ million

2019

2018

Bank and other loans

75

153

Asset financed liabilities

74

-

Lease liabilities (2018: Finance lease obligations)

1,694

723

Interest-bearing long-term borrowings

1,843

876

b      Non-current

€ million

2019

2018

Bank and other loans

1,879

1,428

Asset financed liabilities

1,180

-

Lease liabilities (2018: Finance lease obligations)

9,352

5,205

Interest-bearing long-term borrowings

12,411

6,633

Banks and other loans are repayable up to the year 2028. Bank and other loans of the Group amounting to €266 million (2018: €354 million) are secured on fleet assets with a net book value of €325 million (2018: €467 million) (note 12). Asset financing liabilities are all secured on the associated aircraft or property, plant and equipment.

In July 2019, two senior unsecured bonds were issued by the Group for an aggregate principal amount of €1 billion; €500 million fixed rate 0.50 per cent due in 2023, and €500 million fixed rate 1.50 per cent due in 2027.

During the year the Group early redeemed all of the €500 million 0.25 per cent convertible bonds due in 2020.

c      Total long-term borrowings

€ million

2019

2018

Current portion of long-term borrowings

1,843

876

Interest-bearing long-term borrowings

12,411

6,633

Interest-bearing long-term borrowings

14,254

7,509

d     Bank and other loans

€ million

2019

2018

€500 million fixed rate 0.50 per cent bond 20231

497

-

€500 million fixed rate 1.50 per cent bond 20271

496

-

€500 million fixed rate 0.625 per cent convertible bond 20222

470

460

Floating rate euro mortgage loans secured on aircraft3

226

252

€200 million fixed rate unsecured bonds4

136

175

Fixed rate unsecured US dollar mortgage loan5

71

43

Fixed rate Chinese yuan mortgage loans secured on aircraft6

40

53

Fixed rate unsecured euro loans with the Spanish State (Department of Industry)7

18

13

€500 million fixed rate 0.25 per cent convertible bond 20208

-

482

Floating rate euro syndicate loan secured on investments9

-

99

Floating rate pound sterling mortgage loans secured on aircraft10

-

4


1,954

1,581

Less current instalments due on bank and other loans

(75)

(153)


1,879

1,428

1  In July 2019, the Group issued two tranches of senior unsecured bonds for an aggregate principal amount of €1 billion, €500 million due July 4, 2023 and €500 million due July 4, 2027. The bonds bear a fixed rate of interest of 0.5 per cent and 1.5 per cent per annum annually payable in arrears, respectively. The bonds were issued at 99.417 per cent and 98.803 per cent of their principal amount, respectively, and, unless previously redeemed or purchased and cancelled, will be redeemed at 100 per cent of their principal amount on their respective maturity dates.

2  Senior unsecured bond convertible into ordinary shares of IAG was issued by the Group in November 2015; €500 million fixed rate 0.625 per cent raising net proceeds of €494 million and due in 2022. The Group holds an option to redeem the convertible bond at its principal amount, together with accrued interest, no earlier than two years prior to the final maturity date. The bond contains dividend protection and a total of 40,306,653 options related to the bond were outstanding at December 31, 2019.

3  Floating rate euro mortgage loans are secured on specific aircraft assets of the Group and bear interest of between 0.13 and 1.10 per cent. The loans are repayable between 2024 and 2027.

4  Total of €200 million fixed rate unsecured bonds between 3.5 to 3.75 per cent coupon repayable between 2022 and 2027.

5  Fixed rate unsecured US dollar mortgage loan bearing interest between 1.98 to 2.86 per cent. The loan is repayable in 2023.

6  Fixed rate Chinese yuan mortgage loans are secured on specific aircraft assets of the Group and bear interest of 5.20 per cent. The loans are repayable in 2022.

7  Fixed rate unsecured euro loans with the Spanish State (Department of Industry) bear interest of between nil and 5.68 per cent and are repayable between 2020 and 2028.

8  Senior unsecured bond convertible into ordinary shares of IAG issued in November 2015; €500 million fixed rate 0.25% raising net proceeds of €494 million and due in 2020. The Group held an option to redeem the bond at its principal amount, together with accrued interest, no earlier than two years prior to the final maturity date. The Group exercised its option to early redeem the bond in July 2019 with no conversion to ordinary shares.

9  Floating rate euro syndicate loan secured on specific investment assets of the Group and bears interest of 1.375 per cent above 3 month EURIBOR. The loan was repaid in 2019.

10             Floating rate pound sterling mortgage loans are secured on specific aircraft assets of the Group and bear interest of 0.81 per cent. The loans were repaid in 2019.

e      Total loans, asset financed liabilities and lease liabilities

Million

2019

2018

Loans



Bank:



US dollar

$79

$49

Euro

€380

€364

Pound sterling

-

£4

Chinese yuan

CNY 314

CNY 422


€491

€465




Fixed rate bonds:



Euro

€1,463

€1,116


€1,463

€1,116




Asset financed liabilities



US dollar

$996

-

Euro

€319

-

Japanese yen

¥4,867

-


€1,254

-




Lease liabilities (2018: finance leases)



US dollar

$8,408

$3,259

Euro

€2,142

€2,308

Japanese yen

¥77,984

¥77,379

Pound sterling

£597

£134


€11,046

€5,928





€14,254

€7,509

24  Provisions

€ million

Restoration and handback provisions

Restructuring

provisions

Employee leaving indemnities and other employee related provisions

Legal claims provisions

Other provisions

Total

Net book value January 1, 2019

1,359

693

591

112

72

2,827

Transition to IFRS 16

120

-

-

-

-

120

Net book value January 1, 2019

1,479

693

591

112

72

2,947







Reclassifications

-

-

-

-

(31)

(31)

Provisions recorded during the year

395

26

133

34

110

698

Utilised during the year

(224)

(180)

(76)

(58)

(50)

(588)

Release of unused amounts

(28)

(21)

(2)

(9)

(7)

(67)

Unwinding of discount

14

4

18

1

-

37

Exchange differences

39

6

-

2

4

51

Net book value December 31, 2019

1,675

528

664

82

98

3,047

Analysis:






Current

259

202

58

46

66

631

Non-current

1,416

326

606

36

32

2,416


1,675

528

664

82

98

3,047

Restoration and handback provisions

The provision for restoration and handback costs is maintained to meet the contractual maintenance and return conditions on aircraft held under lease. The provision also includes an amount relating to leased land and buildings where restoration costs are contractually required at the end of the lease. Such costs are capitalised within ROU assets. The provision is long-term in nature, typically covering the leased asset term, which for aircraft is up to 12 years.

 

Restructuring provisions

The restructuring provision includes provisions for voluntary redundancies including the collective redundancy programme for Iberia's Transformation Plan, which provides for payments to affected employees until they reach the statutory retirement age. The amount provided for has been determined by an actuarial valuation made by independent actuaries, and was based on the same assumptions as those made to determine the provisions for obligations to flight crew below, with the exception of the discount rate, which in this case was 0.00 per cent. The payments related to this provision will continue over next nine years. The restructuring provision also includes a provision recognised in 2018 in relation to restructuring plans at British Airways. The payments related to this provision will be made over a maximum of five years.

At December 31, 2019, €513 million of this provision related to collective redundancy programmes (2018: €682 million).

Employee leaving indemnities and other employee related provisions

This provision includes employees leaving indemnities relating to staff under various contractual arrangements.

The Group recognises a provision relating to flight crew who having met certain conditions, have the option of being placed on reserve and retaining their employment relationship until reaching the statutory retirement age, or taking early retirement. The Group is required to remunerate these employees until they reach the statutory retirement age, and an initial provision was recognised based on an actuarial valuation. The provision was reviewed at December 31, 2019 with the use of independent actuaries using the projected unit credit method, based on a discount rate consistent with the iBoxx index of 0.59 per cent and 0.00 per cent (2018: iBoxx index of 1.59 per cent and 0.39 per cent) depending on whether the employees are currently active or not, the PERM/F-2000P mortality tables, and assuming a 1.50 per cent annual increase in the Consumer Price Index (CPI). This is mainly a long-term provision. The amount relating to this provision was €600 million at December 31, 2019 (2018: €523 million).

Legal claims provisions

Legal claims provisions include:

•   Amounts for multi-party claims from groups or employees on a number of matters related to its operations, including claims for additional holiday pay and for age discrimination; and

•   Amounts related to investigations by a number of competition authorities in connection with alleged anti-competitive activity concerning the Group's passenger and cargo businesses.

The final amount required to pay the remaining claims and fines is subject to uncertainty (note 31).

Other provisions

Other provisions include a provision for the Emissions Trading Scheme for CO2 emitted on flights within the EU in excess of the EU Emission Allowances granted.

Reclassifications from other provisions relate to the movement of the provision arising from costs the Group incurs in relation to compensation for flight delays and cancellations into accruals and deferred income within trade payables.

25  Financial risk management objectives and policies

The Group is exposed to a variety of financial risks: market risk (including fuel price risk, foreign currency risk and interest rate risk), counterparty risk and liquidity risk. Further information on the Group's financial instruments exposure to these risks is disclosed on note 26. The Board approves the key strategic principles and the risk appetite, defining the amount of risk that the Group is prepared to retain. The Group's Financial Risk Management programme focuses on the unpredictability of financial markets and seeks to minimise the risk of incremental costs arising from adverse financial markets movements.

The Group Treasury department is responsible for the oversight of the Financial Risk Management programme. Fuel price fluctuations, euro-US dollar and sterling-US dollar exchange rate volatility represents the largest financial risks facing the Group. Other foreign exchange currencies and interest rate risks are also the subject of the Financial Risk Management. The IAG Audit and Compliance Committee approves the Group hedging profile and delegates to the operating company Risk Committee to agree on the degree of flexibility in applying the approved hedging levels. Each operating company Risk Committee meets at least once a month to review and approve a mandate to place hedging cover in the market including the instruments to be used.

The Group Treasury Committee provides a quarterly report on the hedging position to the IAG Management Committee and the Audit and Compliance Committee. The Board reviews the strategy and risk appetite once a year.

a      Fuel price risk

The Group is exposed to fuel price risk. The Group's fuel price risk management strategy aims to provide protection against sudden and significant increases in fuel prices while ensuring that the Group is not competitively disadvantaged in the event of a substantial fall in the price. The Group Treasury Policies determine the list of approved over the counter (OTC) derivative instruments that can contracted with approved counterparties.

The Group strategy is to hedge a proportion of fuel consumption up to three years within the approved hedging profile.

The following table demonstrates the sensitivity of financial instruments to a reasonable possible change in fuel prices, with all other variables held constant, on result before tax and equity:

2019

 

2018

Increase/(decrease)

in fuel price

 per cent

Effect on result

before tax

€ million

Effect on

equity

€ million

 

Increase/(decrease)

in fuel price

 per cent

Effect on result

before tax

€ million

Effect on

equity

€ million

30

-

1,774


30

-

1,613

(30)

-

(1,824)


(30)

(3)

(1,695)

b      Foreign currency risk

The Group presents its consolidated financial statements in euros, has subsidiaries with functional currencies in euro and pound sterling, and conducts business in a number of different countries. Consequently the Group is exposed to currency risk on revenue, purchases and borrowings that are denominated in a currency other than the functional currency of the entity. The currencies in which these transactions are denominated are primarily euro, US dollar and pound sterling. The Group generates a surplus in most currencies in which it does business. The US dollar is an exception as fuel purchases, maintenance expenses and debt repayments denominated in US dollars typically create a deficit.

The Group has a number of strategies to hedge foreign currency risk. The operational US dollar short position is subject to the same governance structure as the fuel hedging strategy set out above. The Group strategy is to hedge a proportion of up to three years within the approved hedging profile.

Each operating company hedges its net balance sheet assets and liabilities in US dollars through a rolling hedging programme using a number of derivative instruments to minimise the profit and loss volatility arising from revaluation of these items into its functional currency. British Airways utilises its euro, Japanese yen and Chinese yuan debt repayments as a hedge of future euro, Japanese yen and Chinese yuan revenues.

The following table demonstrates the sensitivity of the Group's principal foreign exchange exposure to a reasonable possible change in the US dollar, pound sterling and Japanese yen exchange rates, with all other variables held constant, on result before tax and equity:

 

Strengthening/

(weakening) in US dollar rate

 per cent

Effect on result before tax

€ million

Effect on equity

€ million


Strengthening/

(weakening)
in pound

sterling rate

 per cent

Effect on result before tax

€ million

Effect on equity

€ million


Strengthening/

(weakening) in Japanese yen rate

 per cent

Effect on result before tax

€ million

Effect on equity

€ million

2019

10

22

388


10

(23)

(178)


10

(1)

(58)


(10)

-

(365)


(10)

20

171


(10)

2

58













2018

10

(16)

(9)


10

(40)

262


10

(6)

(54)


(10)

18

91


(10)

41

(273)


(10)

1

54

c      Interest rate risk

The Group is exposed to changes in interest rates on debt and on cash deposits.

Interest rate risk on floating rate debt is managed through interest rate swaps, cross currency swaps and interest rate collars. After taking into account the impact of these derivatives, 88 per cent of the Group's borrowings were at fixed rates and 12 per cent were at floating rates.

All cash deposits are generally on tenors less than one year. The interest rate is predominantly fixed for the tenor of the deposit.

The following table demonstrates the sensitivity of the Group's interest rate exposure to a reasonable possible change in the US dollar, euro and sterling interest rates, on result before tax and equity:

 

Strengthening/

(weakening) in

US interest

rate

Basis points

Effect on result before tax

€ million

Effect on equity

€ million

 

Strengthening/

(weakening) in

euro interest

rate

Basis points

Effect on result before tax

€ million

Effect on equity

€ million

 

Strengthening/

(weakening) in sterling interest

rate

Basis points

Effect on result before tax

€ million

Effect on equity

€ million

2019

50

-

19


50

(2)

16


50

2

-


(50)

-

(19)


(50)

2

(13)


(50)

(2)

-











2018

50

(1)

20


50

2

16


50

2

-


(50)

1

(20)


(50)

(2)

(25)


(50)

(2)

-

d     Counterparty risk

The Group is exposed to the non-performance by its counterparties in respect of financial assets receivable. The Group has policies and procedures to monitor the risk by assigning limits to each counterparty by underlying exposure and by operating company. The underlying exposures are monitored on a daily basis and the overall exposure limit by counterparty is periodically reviewed by using available market information.

The financial assets recognised in the financial statements, net of impairment losses (if any), represent the Group's maximum exposure to credit risk, without taking account any guarantees in place or other credit enhancements.

At December 31, 2019 the Group's credit risk position, allocated by region, in respect of treasury managed cash and derivatives was as follows:

 

Mark-to-market of treasury controlled financial

instruments allocated by geography

Region

2019

2018

United Kingdom

41%

42%

Spain

3%

-

Ireland

3%

3%

Rest of Eurozone

30%

33%

Rest of world

23%

22%

e      Liquidity risk

The Group invests cash in interest-bearing accounts, time deposits and money market funds, choosing instruments with appropriate maturities or liquidity to retain sufficient headroom to readily generate cash inflows required to manage liquidity risk. The Group has also committed revolving credit facilities.

At December 31, 2019 the Group had undrawn overdraft facilities of €13 million (2018: €11 million). The Group held undrawn uncommitted money market lines of €nil (2018: €28 million).

The Group held undrawn general and committed aircraft financing facilities:

 

2019

Million

Currency

€ equivalent

Euro facilities expiring between February and October 2020

€129

129

US dollar facility expiring December 2021

$652

587

US dollar facility expiring June 2020

$1,330

1,196

 

 

2018

Million

Currency

€ equivalent

Euro facilities expiring between January and June 2020

€131

131

US dollar facility expiring December 2021

$1,164

1,024

US dollar facility expiring June 2022

$1,044

918

The following table analyses the Group's (outflows) and inflows in respect of financial liabilities and derivative financial instruments into relevant maturity groupings based on the remaining period at December 31 to the contractual maturity date. The amounts disclosed in the table are the contractual undiscounted cash flows and include interest.

€ million

Within 6 months

6-12

months

1-2

years

2-5

years

More than 5 years

Total

2019

Interest-bearing loans and borrowings:







Asset financing liabilities

(56)

(49)

(95)

(289)

(988)

(1,477)

Lease liabilities

(1,073)

(957)

(1,753)

(4,505)

(6,289)

(14,577)

Fixed rate borrowings

(20)

(31)

(46)

(1,158)

(599)

(1,854)

Floating rate borrowings

(13)

(17)

(30)

(110)

(67)

(237)

Trade and other payables

(3,881)

-

1

-

-

(3,880)

Derivative financial instruments (assets):







Interest rate swaps

1

1

1

2

-

5

Forward contracts

115

116

157

96

-

484

Fuel derivatives

66

25

12

2

-

105

Derivative financial instruments (liabilities):







Interest rate swaps

(9)

(19)

(18)

(22)

(1)

(69)

Forward contracts

(47)

(43)

(62)

(86)

-

(238)

Fuel derivatives

(61)

(73)

(90)

(11)

-

(235)

December 31, 2019

(4,978)

(1,047)

(1,923)

(6,081)

(7,944)

(21,973)

 

€ million

Within 6 months

6-12

months

1-2

years

2-5

years

More than 5 years

Total

2018

Interest-bearing loans and borrowings:







Finance lease obligations

(509)

(367)

(882)

(2,304)

(2,642)

(6,704)

Fixed rate borrowings

(53)

(18)

(533)

(645)

(58)

(1,307)

Floating rate borrowings

(18)

(67)

(80)

(93)

(118)

(376)

Trade and other payables

(3,591)

-

(13)

-

-

(3,604)

Derivative financial instruments (assets):







Interest rate derivatives

11

2

2

6

4

25

Foreign exchange contracts

69

58

122

72

-

321

Fuel derivatives

23

18

15

1

-

57

Derivative financial instruments (liabilities):







Interest rate derivatives

(18)

(7)

(13)

(16)

(1)

(55)

Foreign exchange contracts

(16)

(8)

(18)

(16)

-

(58)

Fuel derivatives

(342)

(290)

(270)

(110)

-

(1,012)

December 31, 2018

(4,444)

(679)

(1,670)

(3,105)

(2,815)

(12,713)

f       Offsetting financial assets and liabilities

The Group enters into derivative transactions under ISDA (International Swaps and Derivatives Association) documentation. In general, under such agreements the amounts owed by each counterparty on a single day in respect of all transactions outstanding are aggregated into a single net amount that is payable by one party to the other.

The following financial assets and liabilities are subject to offsetting, enforceable master netting arrangements and similar agreements.

December 31, 2019

€ million

Gross value of financial instruments

Financial instruments that are offset under netting agreements

Net amounts of financial instruments in the balance sheet

Related amounts not offset in the balance sheet

Net amount

Financial assets






Derivative financial assets

550

42

592

(9)

583


Financial liabilities






Derivative financial liabilities

580

(42)

538

(9)

529

 

December 31, 2018

€ million

Gross value of financial instruments

Financial instruments that are offset under netting agreements

Net amounts of financial instruments in the balance sheet

Related amounts not offset in the balance sheet

Net amount

Financial assets






Derivative financial assets

363

13

376

(7)

369







Financial liabilities






Derivative financial liabilities

1,092

(13)

1,079

(7)

1,072

g     Capital risk management

The Group's objectives when managing capital are to safeguard the Group's ability to continue as a going concern to maintain an optimal capital structure, to reduce the cost of capital and to provide returns to shareholders.

The Group monitors capital on the basis of the net debt to EBITDA ratio. For the year to December 31, 2019, the net debt to EBITDA was 1.4 times (2018 pro forma: 1.2 times). The definition and calculation for this performance measure is included in the Alternative performance measures section.

Further detail on liquidity and capital resources and capital risk management is disclosed in the financial review.

26  Financial instruments

a      Financial assets and liabilities by category

The detail of the Group's ?nancial instruments at December 31, 2019 and December 31, 2018 by nature and classi?cation for measurement purposes is as follows:


Financial assets



December 31, 2019

€ million

Amortised cost

Fair value through Other comprehensive income

Fair value through Income statement

Non-financial

assets

Total

carrying

amount by

balance sheet

item

Non-current assets






Other equity investments

-

82

-

-

82

Derivative financial instruments

-

-

268

-

268

Other non-current assets

133

-

-

140

273

 






Current assets






Trade receivables

2,255

-

-

-

2,255

Other current assets

414

-

-

900

1,314

Derivative financial instruments

-

-

324

-

324

Other current interest-bearing deposits

2,621

-

-

-

2,621

Cash and cash equivalents

4,062

-

-

-

4,062

 

 

Financial liabilities

 

 

€ million

 Amortised cost

Fair value through Other comprehensive income

Fair value through Income statement

Non-

financial

liabilities

Total

carrying

amount by

balance sheet

item

Non-current liabilities






Lease liabilities

9,352

-

-

-

9,352

Interest-bearing long-term borrowings

3,059

-

-

-

3,059

Derivative financial instruments

-

-

286

-

286

Other long-term liabilities

12

-

-

59

71

 






Current liabilities






Lease liabilities

1,694

-

-

-

1,694

Current portion of long-term borrowings

149

-

-

-

149

Trade and other payables

3,881

-

-

463

4,344

Derivative financial instruments

-

-

252

-

252

 

 

Financial assets

 

 

December 31, 2018

€ million

Amortised cost

Fair value through Other comprehensive income

Fair value through income statement

Non-financial assets

Total carrying amount by balance sheet item

Non-current assets






Other equity investments

-

80

-

-

80

Derivative financial instruments

-

-

221

-

221

Other non-current assets

154

-

-

155

309

 






Current assets






Trade receivables

1,597

-

-

-

1,597

Other current assets

444

-

-

731

1,175

Derivative financial instruments

-

-

155

-

155

Other current interest-bearing deposits

2,437

-

-

-

2,437

Cash and cash equivalents

3,837

-

-

-

3,837

 

 

Financial liabilities

 

 

€ million

Amortised cost

Fair value through Other comprehensive income

Fair value through Income statement

Non-

financial

liabilities

Total

carrying

amount by

balance sheet

item

Non-current liabilities






Interest-bearing long-term borrowings

6,633

-

-

-

6,633

Derivative financial instruments

-

-

423

-

423

Other long-term liabilities

13

-

-

185

198

 






Current liabilities






Current portion of long-term borrowings

876

-

-

-

876

Trade and other payables

3,591

-

-

368

3,959

Derivative financial instruments

-

-

656

-

656

b      Fair value of financial assets and financial liabilities

The fair values of the Group's financial instruments are disclosed in hierarchy levels depending on the nature of the inputs used in determining the fair values and using the following methods and assumptions:

Level 1: Quoted prices (unadjusted) in active markets for identical assets and liabilities. A market is regarded as active if quoted prices are readily and regularly available from an exchange, dealer, broker, industry group, pricing service, or regulatory agency, and those prices represent actual and regularly occurring market transactions on an arm's length basis. Level 1 methodologies (market values at the balance sheet date) were used to determine the fair value of listed asset investments classified as equity investments and listed interest-bearing borrowings.

Level 2: Inputs other than quoted prices included within Level 1 that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly or indirectly. The fair value of financial instruments that are not traded in an active market is determined by valuation techniques. These valuation techniques maximise the use of observable market data where it is available and rely as little as possible on entity specific estimates. Derivative instruments are measured based on the market value of instruments with similar terms and conditions at the balance sheet date using forward pricing models. Counterparty and own credit risk is deemed to be not significant. The fair value of the Group's interest-bearing borrowings including leases is determined by discounting the remaining contractual cash flows at the relevant market interest rates at the balance sheet date.

Level 3: Inputs for the asset or liability that are not based on observable market data.

The fair value of cash and cash equivalents, other current interest-bearing deposits, trade receivables, other current assets and trade and other payables approximate their carrying value largely due to the short-term maturities of these instruments.

The carrying amounts and fair values of the Group's financial assets and liabilities at December 31, 2019 are as follows:

 

Fair value

Carrying

value

€ million

Level 1

Level 2

Level 3

Total

Total

Financial assets






Other equity investments

10

-

72

82

82

Derivative financial assets:






Interest rate swaps1

-

1

-

1

1

Foreign exchange contracts1

-

488

-

488

488

Fuel derivatives1

-

103

-

103

103







Financial liabilities






Interest-bearing loans and borrowings:






Asset financed liabilities

-

1,623

-

1,623

1,254

Fixed rate borrowings

1,640

136

-

1,776

1,728

Floating rate borrowings

-

226

-

226

226

Derivative financial liabilities:






Interest rate derivatives2

-

67

-

67

67

Foreign exchange contracts2

-

240

-

240

240

Fuel derivatives2

-

231

-

231

231

1  Current portion of derivative financial assets is €324 million

2  Current portion of derivative financial liabilities is €252 million

The carrying amounts and fair values of the Group's financial assets and liabilities at December 31, 2018 are set out below:

 

Fair value

Carrying value

€ million

Level 1

Level 2

Level 3

Total

Total

Financial assets






Equity investments

17

-

63

80

80

Derivative financial assets:






Interest rate derivatives1

-

12

-

12

12

Foreign exchange contracts1

-

321

-

321

321

Fuel derivatives1

-

43

-

43

43







Financial liabilities






Interest-bearing loans and borrowings:






Finance lease obligations

-

6,086

-

6,086

5,928

Fixed rate borrowings

1,096

113

-

1,209

1,226

Floating rate borrowings

-

355

-

355

355

Derivative financial liabilities:






Forward currency contracts2

-

43

-

43

43

Foreign exchange contracts2

-

54

-

54

54

Fuel derivatives2

-

982

-

982

982

1  Current portion of derivative financial assets is €155 million.

2  Current portion of derivative financial liabilities is €656 million.

There have been no transfers between levels of fair value hierarchy during the year.

The financial instruments listed in the previous table are measured at fair value in the consolidated financial statements, with the exception of interest-bearing borrowings, which are measured at amortised cost.

c      Level 3 financial assets reconciliation

The following table summarises key movements in Level 3 financial assets:

€ million

2019

2018

Opening balance for the year

63

56

Additions

6

8

Exchange movements

3

(1)

Closing balance for the year

72

63

d     Hedges

Cash flow hedges

At December 31, 2019 the Group's principal risk management activities that were hedging future forecast transactions were:

•   Future loan repayments in foreign currency (predominantly US dollar loan repayments), hedging foreign exchange fluctuations on revenue cash inflows. Remeasurement gains and losses on the loans are recognised in equity and transferred to the income statement within revenue when the loan is repaid (generally in instalments over the life of the loan).

•   Foreign exchange contracts, hedging foreign currency exchange risk on revenue cash inflows and certain operational payments. Remeasurement gains and losses on the derivatives are recognised in equity and transferred to the income statement or balance sheet to match against the related cash inflow or outflow.

•   Forward crude, gas oil and jet kerosene derivative contracts, hedging price risk on fuel expenditure. Remeasurement gains and losses on the derivatives are recognised in equity and transferred to the income statement within fuel, oil costs and emissions charges to match against the related fuel cash outflow.

•   Interest rate contracts, hedging interest rate risk on floating rate debt and certain operational payments.

The amounts included in equity including the periods over which the related cash flows are expected to occur are summarised below:

(Gains)/losses in respect of cash flow hedges included within equity

€ million

2019

2018

Loan repayments to hedge future revenue

141

682

Foreign exchange contracts to hedge future revenue and expenditure1

(80)

(216)

Crude, gas oil and jet kerosene derivative contracts1

113

933

Derivatives used to hedge interest rates1

72

34

Instruments for which hedge accounting no longer applies1

355

22


601

1,455

Related tax credit

(94)

(267)

Total amount included within equity

507

1,188

1  The carrying value of derivative instruments recognised in assets and liabilities is analysed in parts a and b above.

The notional amounts of significant financial instruments used as cash flow hedging instruments are set out below:

Notional principal amounts

€ million

Hedge range

Within 1 year

1-2 years

2-5 years

Total December 31, 2019

Foreign exchange contracts to hedge future revenue and expenditure from US dollars to pound sterling1

1.17-1.51

3,493

1,810

1,359

6,662

Foreign exchange contracts to hedge future revenue and expenditure from US dollars to euros1

0.74-1.39

1,397

1,091

483

2,971

1  Represents the value of the hedged item.

Notional principal amounts

€ million

Hedge range

Within 1 year

1-2 years

2-5 years

Total December 31, 2018

Foreign exchange contracts to hedge future revenue and expenditure from US dollars to pound sterling1

1.22-1.50

1,982

1,858

1,685

5,525

Foreign exchange contracts to hedge future revenue and expenditure from US dollars to euros1

1.06-1.34

2,299

1,993

2,197

6,489

1  Represents the value of the hedged item.

The movements in other comprehensive income in relation to cash flow hedges are set out below:

For the year to December 31, 2019

€ million

(Gains)/losses recognised in Other comprehensive income1

(Gains)/losses associated with ineffectiveness recognised in the Income statement2

Total recognised (gains)/

losses

Gains/(losses) reclassified to the Income statement

Gains/(losses) reclassified to the Balance sheet

Loan repayments to hedge future revenue

(106)

-

(106)

(20)

-

Foreign exchange contracts to hedge future revenue and expenditure

20

-

20

99

7

Crude, gas oil and jet kerosene derivative contracts

(622)

8

(614)

(178)

-

Derivatives used to hedge interest rates

56

-

56

(11)

-

Instruments for which hedge accounting no longer applies

(38)

-

(38)

(54)

-


(690)

8

(682)

(164)

7

1  Gains and losses recognised in Other comprehensive income represent gains and losses on the hedged items

2  Ineffectiveness recognised in the Income statement is presented as Realised and Unrealised gains and losses on derivatives not qualifying for hedge accounting within non-operating items.

For the year to December 31, 2018

€ million

(Gains)/losses recognised in Other comprehensive income1

(Gains)/losses associated with ineffectiveness recognised in the Income statement2

Total recognised (gains)/

losses

Gains/(losses) reclassified to the Income statement

Gains/(losses) reclassified to the Balance sheet

Loan repayments to hedge future revenue

208

-

208

(82)

-

Foreign exchange contracts to hedge future revenue and expenditure

(387)

-

(387)

10

1

Crude, gas oil and jet kerosene derivative contracts

732

16

748

672

-

Derivatives used to hedge interest rates

37

-

37

(2)

-

Instruments for which hedge accounting no longer applies

6

-

6

(2)

-


596

16

612

596

1

1  Gains and losses recognised in Other comprehensive income represent gains and losses on the hedged items.

2  Ineffectiveness recognised in the Income statement is presented as Realised and Unrealised gains and losses on derivatives not qualifying for hedge accounting within non-operating items.

The Group has no significant fair value hedges at December 31, 2019 and 2018.

27  Share capital, share premium and treasury shares

Allotted, called up and fully paid

Number of shares

'000s

Ordinary share capital

€ million

Share premium

€ million

January 1, 2018: Ordinary shares of €0.50 each

2,057,990

1,029

6,022

Cancellation of ordinary shares of €0.50 each

(65,957)

(33)

-

January 1, 2019: Ordinary shares of €0.50 each

1,992,033

996

6,022

Special 2018 dividend of €0.35 per share



(695)

December 31, 2019

1,992,033

996

5,327

A total of 1.0 million shares were issued to employees during the year as a result of vesting of employee share schemes. At December 31, 2019 the Group held 7.7 million shares (2018: 8.7 million) which represented 0.39 per cent of the issued share capital of the Company.

During 2018, IAG carried out a €500 million share buyback programme as part of its corporate finance strategy to return cash to shareholders. The programme was executed between May and October 2018 during which time IAG acquired and subsequently cancelled 65,956,660 ordinary shares.

28  Share-based payments

The Group operates share-based payment schemes as part of the total remuneration package provided to employees. These schemes comprise both share option schemes where employees acquire shares at an option price and share award plans whereby shares are issued to employees at no cost, subject to the achievement by the Group of specified performance targets.

a      IAG Performance Share Plan

The IAG Performance Share Plan (PSP) is granted to senior executives and managers of the Group who are most directly involved in shaping and delivering business success over the medium to long term. From 2015, the awards have been made as nil-cost options, and also have a two-year additional holding period after the end of the performance period, before vesting takes place. The awards made since 2015 will vest based one-third on achievement of IAG's TSR performance targets relative to the MSCI European Transportation Index, one-third based on achievement of earnings per share targets, and one-third based on achievement of Return on Invested Capital targets.

b      IAG Incentive Award Deferral Plan

The IAG Incentive Award Deferral Plan (IADP) is granted to qualifying employees based on performance and service tests. It will be awarded when an incentive award is triggered subject to the employee remaining in employment with the Group for three years after the grant date. The relevant population will receive 50 per cent of their incentive award up front in cash, and the remaining 50 per cent in shares after three years through the IADP.

c      Share-based payment schemes summary

 

Outstanding at January 1, 2019

Granted number

Lapsed number

Vested number

Outstanding at December 31, 2019

Vested and exercisable December 31, 2019


'000s

'000s

'000s

'000s

'000s

'000s

Performance Share Plans

16,549

6,456

(3,783)

(44)

19,178

52

Incentive Award Deferral Plans

4,238

2,113

(213)

(1,665)

4,473

17


20,787

8,569

(3,996)

(1,709)

23,651

69

The fair value of equity-settled share-based payment plans determined using the Monte-Carlo valuation model, taking into account the terms and conditions upon which the plans were granted, used the following assumptions:

 

December 31,

2019

December 31,

2018

Expected share price volatility (per cent)

35

35

Expected comparator group volatility (per cent)

20

20

Expected comparator correlation (per cent)

55

60

Expected life of options (years)

4.8

4.6

Weighted average share price at date of grant (£)

5.67

6.91

Weighted average fair value (£)

1.93

4.01

Volatility was calculated with reference to the Group's weekly pound sterling share price volatility. The expected volatility reflects the assumption that the historical volatility is indicative of future trends, which may not necessarily be the actual outcome. The fair value of the PSP also takes into account a market condition of TSR as compared to strategic competitors. No other features of share-based payment plans granted were incorporated into the measurement of fair value.

The Group recognised a share-based payment charge of €34 million for the year to December 31, 2019 (2018: €31 million).

29  Other reserves and non-controlling interests

For the year to December 31, 2019

 

Other reserves

 

€ million

Retained earnings

Unrealised gains and losses1

Time value of options2

Currency translation3

Equity portion of convertible bond4

Merger reserve5

Redeemed capital reserve6

Total other reserves

Non-controlling interest7

January 1, 2019

3,324

(1,138)

10

(136)

101

(2,467)

70

(236)

6

Adoption of IFRS 16

(554)

8

(4)

-

-

-

-

(550)

-











Profit for the year

1,715

-

-

-

-

-

-

1,715

-











Other comprehensive income for the year










Cash flow hedges reclassified and reported in net profit:










Passenger revenue

-

55

-

-

-

-

-

55

-

Fuel and oil costs

-

106

-

-

-

-

-

106

-

Currency differences

-

(26)

-

-

-

-

-

(26)

-

Finance costs

-

6

-

-

-

-

-

6

-

Net change in fair value of cash flow hedges

-

540

-

-

-

-

-

540

-

Net change in fair value of other equity investments

-

(8)

-

-

-

-

-

(8)

-

Net change in fair value of cost of hedging

-

-

68

-

-

-

-

68

-

Cost of hedging reclassified and reported in the net profit

-

-

(10)

-

-

-

-

(10)

-

Currency translation differences

-

-

-

296

-

-

-

296

-

Remeasurements of post-employment benefit obligations

(788)

-

-

-

-

-

-

(788)

-











Hedges reclassified and reported in property, plant and equipment

-

(7)

(4)

-

-

-

-

(11)

-

Cost of share-based payments

33

-

-

-

-

-

-

33

-

Vesting of share-based payment schemes

(14)

-

-

-

-

-

-

(14)

-

Dividend

(615)

-

-

-

-

-

-

(615)

-

Redemption of convertible bond

38

-

-

-

(39)

-

-

(1)

-

December 31, 2019

3,139

(464)

60

160

62

(2,467)

70

560

6

 

 

Other reserves

 

€ million

Retained earnings

Unrealised gains and losses1

Time value of options2

Currency translation3

Equity portion of convertible bond4

Merger reserve5

Redeemed capital reserve6

Total other reserves

Non-controlling interest7

January 1, 2018

2,278

(161)

(3)

(133)

101

(2,467)

37

(348)

307











Profit for the year

2,885

-

-

-

-

-

-

2,885

12











Other comprehensive income for the year










Cash flow hedges reclassified and reported in net profit:










Passenger revenue

-

77

-

-

-

-

-

77

-

Fuel and oil costs

-

(565)

-

-

-

-

-

(565)

-

Currency differences

-

4

-

-

-

-

-

4

-

Finance costs

-

4

-

-

-

-

-

4

-

Net change in fair value of cash flow hedges

-

(491)

-

-

-

-

-

(491)

-

Net change in fair value of cost of hedging

-

-

13

-

-

-

-

13

-

Net change in fair value of other equity investments

-

(5)

-

-

-

-

-

(5)

-

Currency translation differences

-

-

-

(80)

-

-

-

(80)

-

Remeasurements of post-employment benefit obligations

(696)

-

-

-

-

-

-

(696)

-











Hedges reclassified and reported in property, plant and equipment

-

(1)

-

-

-

-

-

(1)

-

Cost of share-based payments

31

-

-

-

-

-

-

31

-

Vesting of share-based payment schemes

(15)

-

-

-

-

-

-

(15)

-

Dividend

(582)

-

-

-

-

-

-

(582)

-

Cancellation of treasury shares

(500)

-

-

-

-

-

33

(467)

-

Dividend of a subsidiary

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

(1)

Transfer between reserves

(77)

-

-

77

-

-

-

-

-

Distributions made to holders of perpetual securities

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

(312)

December 31, 2018

3,324

(1,138)

10

(136)

101

(2,467)

70

(236)

6

1  The unrealised gains and losses reserve records fair value changes on equity investments and the portion of the gain or loss on a hedging instrument in a cash flow hedge that is determined to be an effective hedge.

2  The time value of options reserve records fair value changes on the cost of hedging.

3  The currency translation reserve records exchange differences arising from the translation of the financial statements of non-euro functional currency subsidiaries and investments accounted for under the equity method into the Group's reporting currency of euros. The movement through this reserve is affected by the fluctuations in the pound sterling to euro foreign exchange translation rate.

4  The equity portion of convertible bond reserve represents the equity portion of convertible bonds issued. At December 31, 2019, this related to the €500 million fixed rate 0.625 per cent convertible bond (note 23). During 2019 the Group exercised its option to early redeem the €500 million fixed rate 0.25 per cent convertible bond with no conversion to ordinary shares.

5  The merger reserve originated from the merger transaction between British Airways and Iberia. The balance represents the difference between the fair value of the Group on the transaction date, and the fair value of Iberia and the book value of British Airways (including its reserves).

6  The redeemed capital reserve represents the nominal value of the decrease in share capital, relating to cancelled shares.

7  On August 28, 2018, British Airways exercised its option to redeem its €300 million, 6.75 per cent fixed coupon preferred security which was previously classified as a non-controlling interest. The total non-controlling interest at December 31, 2019 is €6 million (2018: €6 million).

30  Employee benefit obligations

The Group operates a variety of post-employment benefit arrangements, covering both defined contribution and defined benefit schemes. The Group also has a scheme for flight crew who meet certain conditions and therefore have the option of being placed on reserve and retaining their employment relationship until reaching the statutory retirement age, or taking early retirement (note 24).

Defined contribution schemes

The Group operates a number of defined contribution schemes for its employees.

Costs recognised in respect of defined contribution pension plans in Spain, UK and Ireland for the year to December 31, 2019 were €262 million (2018: €214 million).

Defined benefit schemes

APS and NAPS

The principal funded defined benefit pension schemes within the Group are the Airways Pension Scheme (APS) and the New Airways Pension Scheme (NAPS), both of which are in the UK and are closed to new members. NAPS was closed to future accrual from March 31, 2018, resulting in a reduction of the defined benefit obligation. Following closure members' deferred pensions will now be increased annually by inflation up to five per cent per annum (measured using the Government's annual Pension Increase (Review) Orders, which since 2011 have been based on CPI). As part of the closure of NAPS to future accrual in 2018, British Airways agreed to make certain additional transition payments to NAPS members if the deficit had reduced more than expected at either the 2018 or 2021 valuations. No payment was triggered by the 2018 valuation and no allowance for such payments following the 2021 valuation has been made in the valuation of the defined benefit obligation.

APS has been closed to new members since 1984. The benefits provided under APS are based on final average pensionable pay and, for the majority of members, are subject to inflationary increases in payment.

As reported in previous years, the Trustee of APS has proposed an additional discretionary increase above CPI inflation for pensions in payment for the year to March 31, 2014. British Airways challenged the decision and initiated legal proceedings to determine the legitimacy of the discretionary increase. The High Court issued a judgment in May 2017, which determined that the Trustee had the power to grant discretionary increases, whilst reiterating the Trustee must take into consideration all relevant factors, and ignore irrelevant factors. British Airways appealed the judgment to the Court of Appeal. In July 2018 the Court of Appeal released its judgment, upholding British Airways' appeal, concluding the Trustee did not have the power to introduce a discretionary increase rule.

Subsequently, in April 2019 the Trustee Directors of the Airways Pension Scheme unanimously agreed with British Airways terms for an out-of-court settlement and on November 11, 2019 the APS discretionary pension increase settlement agreement ('the Agreement') was ratified by the High Court. This brought to an end the dispute that commenced in 2013, that would otherwise have proceeded to final appeal at the Supreme Court. Under the Agreement, the Trustee of APS are permitted, subject to certain affordability tests, to award discretionary increases so that APS pensions are increased up to the annual change in the Retail Prices Index (RPI) from 2021 with interim catch-up increases tending to RPI prior to 2021. British Airways ceased to pay further deficit recovery contributions from January 1, 2019, including cash sweep payments. British Airways has provided a €47 million indemnity, which is payable in full or part as appropriate following the triennial valuation of the scheme as at March 31, 2027 if that valuation shows that the scheme is not able to pay pension increases at RPI for the remaining life of the scheme. The APS actuarial valuation as at March 31, 2015 and March 31, 2018 was completed in November 2019. The APS actuarial valuation at March 31, 2018 resulted in a surplus of €683 million.

APS and NAPS are governed by separate Trustee Boards. Although APS and NAPS have separate Trustee Boards, much of the business of the two schemes is common. Some main Board and committee meetings are held in tandem although each Trustee Board reaches its decisions independently. There are three sub committees which are separately responsible for the governance, operation and investments of each scheme. British Airways Pension Trustees Limited holds the assets of both schemes on behalf of their respective Trustees.

Deficit payment plans are agreed with the Trustee of each scheme every three years based on the actuarial valuation rather than the IAS 19 accounting valuation. In October 2019, the latest deficit recovery plan was agreed as at March 31, 2018 with respect to NAPS (see note 30i below). The actuarial valuations performed as at March 31, 2018 for APS and NAPS are different to the valuation performed as at December 31, 2019 under IAS 19 'Employee Benefits' mainly due to timing differences of the measurement dates and to the specific scheme assumptions in the actuarial valuation compared with IAS 19 guidance used in the accounting valuation assumptions. For example, IAS 19 requires the discount rate to be based on corporate bond yields regardless of how the assets are actually invested, which may not result in the calculations in this report being a best estimate of the cost to the Group of providing benefits under either Scheme. The investment strategy of each Scheme is likely to change over its life, so the relationship between the discount rate and the expected rate of return on each Scheme's assets may also change.

Other plans

British Airways provides certain additional post-retirement healthcare benefits to eligible employees in the US through the US Post-Retirement Medical Benefit plan (US PRMB) which is considered to be a defined benefit scheme. In addition, Aer Lingus operates certain defined benefit plans, both funded and unfunded.

The defined benefit plans expose the Company to actuarial risks, such as longevity risk, interest rate risk, inflation risk and market (investment) risk, including currency risk.

Cash payments

Cash payments in respect to pension obligations comprise normal employer contributions by the Group; deficit contributions based on the agreed deficit payment plan with APS and NAPS; and cash sweep payments relating to additional payments made conditional on the level of cash in British Airways. Total payments for the year to December 31, 2019 net of service costs were €865 million (2018: €843 million) being the employer contributions of €870 million (2018: €716 million) less the current service cost of €5 million (2018: €55 million) (note 30b) and including payments made under transitional arrangements on the closure of NAPS to future accrual in 2018 of €182 million.

a      Employee benefit schemes recognised on the Balance sheet

 

2019

€ million

APS

NAPS

Other1

Total

Scheme assets at fair value

8,830

22,423

428

31,681

Present value of scheme liabilities

(8,401)

(21,650)

(731)

(30,782)

Net pension asset/(liability)

429

773

(303)

899

Effect of the asset ceiling2

(127)

(565)

-

(692)

Other employee benefit obligations

-

-

(11)

(11)

December 31, 2019

302

208

(314)

196

Represented by:





Employee benefit assets




524

Employee benefit obligations




(328)





196

 

 

2018

€ million

APS

NAPS

Other1

Total

Scheme assets at fair value

8,372

18,846

382

27,600

Present value of scheme liabilities

(7,110)

(17,628)

(645)

(25,383)

Net pension asset/(liability)

1,262

1,218

(263)

2,217

Effect of the asset ceiling2

(469)

(896)

-

(1,365)

Other employee benefit obligations

-

-

(12)

(12)

December 31, 2018

793

322

(275)

840

Represented by: