2022-10-26TaxableFixedIncomeFunds-Retail-January
 

ALLSPRING FUNDS TRUST
PART B
ALLSPRING TAXABLE FIXED INCOME FUNDS
STATEMENT OF ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

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Statement of Additional Information
January 1, 2023
Taxable Fixed Income Funds

Fund
A
C
A2
R6
Administrator
Institutional
Allspring Adjustable Rate Government Fund
ESAAX
ESACX
-
-
ESADX
EKIZX
Allspring Conservative Income Fund
-
-
WCIAX
-
-
WCIIX
Allspring Core Plus Bond Fund
STYAX
WFIPX
-
STYJX
WIPDX
WIPIX
Allspring Government Securities Fund
SGVDX
WGSCX
-
-
WGSDX
SGVIX
Allspring High Yield Bond Fund
EKHAX
EKHCX
-
-
EKHYX
EKHIX
Allspring Short Duration Government Bond Fund
MSDAX
MSDCX
-
MSDRX
MNSGX
WSGIX
Allspring Short-Term Bond Plus Fund
SSTVX
WFSHX
-
SSTYX
-
SSHIX
Allspring Short-Term High Yield Bond Fund1
SSTHX
WFHYX
-
-
WDHYX
STYIX
Allspring Ultra Short-Term Income Fund
SADAX
WUSTX
WUSNX
-
WUSDX
SADIX
1. Effective January 17, 2023, the Allspring Short-Term High Yield Bond Fund will be renamed the Allspring Short-Term High Income Fund.

Allspring Funds Trust (the “Trust”) is an open-end, management investment company. This Statement of Additional Information (“SAI”) contains additional information about the above referenced series of the Trust in the Allspring family of funds - (each, a “Fund” and collectively, the “Funds”).
This SAI is not a prospectus and should be read in conjunction with the Funds’ Prospectuses (each a “Prospectus” and collectively the “Prospectuses”) dated January 1, 2023. The audited financial statements for the Funds, which include the portfolios of investments and report of the independent registered public accounting firm for the fiscal year ended August 31, 2022, are hereby incorporated by reference to the Funds’   Annual Reports dated as of August 31, 2022. The Prospectuses, Annual Reports and Semi-Annual Reports may be obtained free of charge by visiting www.allspringglobal.com, calling 1-800-222-8222 or writing to Allspring Funds, P.O. Box 219967, Kansas City, MO 64121-9967.
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Taxable Fixed Income Funds
HISTORICAL FUND INFORMATION
The Trust was organized as a Delaware statutory trust on March 10, 1999. On March 25, 1999, the Board of Trustees of Norwest Advantage Funds (“Norwest”), the Board of Directors of Stagecoach Funds, Inc. (“Stagecoach”) and the Board of Trustees of the Trust (the “Board”), approved an Agreement and Plan of Reorganization providing for, among other things, the transfer of the assets and stated liabilities of various predecessor Norwest and Stagecoach portfolios to certain Funds of the Trust (the “Reorganization”). Prior to November 5, 1999, the effective date of the Reorganization, the  Trust had only nominal assets.
On December 16, 2002, the Boards of Trustees of The Montgomery Funds and The Montgomery Funds II (collectively, “Montgomery”) approved an Agreement and Plan of Reorganization providing for, among other things, the transfer of the assets and stated liabilities of various predecessor Montgomery portfolios into various Funds of the Trust. The effective date of the reorganization was June 9, 2003.
On February 3, 2004, the Board, and on February 18, 2004, the Board of Trustees of The Advisors’ Inner Circle Fund (“AIC Trust”), approved an Agreement and Plan of Reorganization providing for, among other things, the transfer of the assets and stated liabilities of various predecessor AIC Trust portfolios into various Funds of the Trust. The effective date of the reorganization was July 26, 2004.
In August and September 2004, the Boards of Directors of the Strong family of funds (“Strong”) and the Board approved an Agreement and Plan of Reorganization providing for, among other things, the transfer of the assets and stated liabilities of various predecessor Strong mutual funds into various Funds of the Trust. The effective date of the reorganization was April 8, 2005.
On December 30, 2009, the Board of Trustees of Evergreen Funds (“Evergreen”), and on January 11, 2010, the Board, approved an Agreement and Plan of Reorganization providing for, among other things, the transfer of the assets and stated liabilities of various predecessor Evergreen portfolios and Wells Fargo Advantage Funds portfolios to certain Funds of the Trust. The effective date of the reorganization was July 12, 2010 for certain Evergreen Funds, and July 19, 2010 for the remainder of the Evergreen Funds.
On December 15, 2015, the Wells Fargo Advantage Funds changed its name to the Wells Fargo Funds.
On December 6, 2021, the Wells Fargo Funds changed its name to the Allspring Funds.
The Adjustable Rate Government Fund commenced operations on July 12, 2010, as successor to the Evergreen Adjustable Rate Fund. The predecessor fund commenced operations on October 1, 1991.
The Conservative Income Fund commenced operations on May 31, 2013.
The Core Plus Bond Fund commenced operations on November 8, 1999, as successor to the Stagecoach Strategic Income Fund. The predecessor Stagecoach Strategic Income Fund commenced operations on July 13, 1998. The Fund changed its name from the Wells Fargo Income Plus Fund to the Wells Fargo Core Plus Bond Fund on February 1, 2016.
The Government Securities Fund commenced operations on April 11, 2005, as successor to the Strong Government Securities Fund. The predecessor Strong Government Securities Fund commenced operations on October 29, 1986.
The High Yield Bond Fund commenced operations on July 9, 2010, as successor to the Evergreen High Income Fund. The predecessor fund commenced operations on September 11, 1935.
The Short Duration Government Bond Fund commenced operations on June 9, 2003, as successor to the Montgomery Short Duration Government Bond Fund. The predecessor fund commenced operations on December 18, 1992. The Fund changed its name from the Montgomery Short Duration Government Bond Fund to the Short Duration Government Bond Fund effective April 11, 2005.
The Short-Term Bond Plus Fund commenced operations on April 11, 2005, as successor to the Strong Short-Term Bond Fund and the Strong Short-Term Income Fund. The predecessor Strong Short-Term Bond Fund commenced operations on August 31, 1987 and the predecessor Strong Short-Term Income Fund commenced operations on

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October 31, 2002. The Fund changed its name from the Wells Fargo Short-Term Bond Fund to the Wells Fargo Short-Term Bond Plus Fund on August 3, 2020.
The Short-Term High Yield Bond Fund commenced operations on April 11, 2005, as successor to the Strong Short-Term High Yield Bond Fund. The predecessor Strong Short-Term High Yield Bond Fund commenced operations on June 30, 1997.
The Ultra Short-Term Income Fund commenced operations on April 11, 2005, as successor to the Strong Ultra Short-Term Income Fund. The predecessor Strong Ultra Short-Term Income Fund commenced operations on November 25, 1988.
FUND INVESTMENT POLICIES AND RISKS
Fundamental Investment Policies
Each Fund has adopted the following fundamental investment policies; that is, they may not be changed without approval by the holders of a majority (as defined under the 1940 Act) of the outstanding voting securities of each Fund.
The Funds may not:
(1) purchase the securities of issuers conducting their principal business activity in the same industry if, immediately after the purchase and as a result thereof, the value of a Fund’s investments in that industry would equal or exceed 25% of the current value of the Fund’s total assets, provided that this restriction does not limit a Fund’s investments in (i) securities issued or guaranteed by the U.S. Government, its agencies or instrumentalities, (ii) securities of other investment companies, or (iii) repurchase agreements; and does not limit Allspring Conservative Income Fund’s investments in the banking industry.
(2) purchase securities of any issuer if, as a result, with respect to 75% of a Fund’s total assets, more than 5% of the value of its total assets would be invested in the securities of any one issuer or the Fund’s ownership would be more than 10% of the outstanding voting securities of such issuer, provided that this restriction does not limit a Fund’s investments in securities issued or guaranteed by the U.S. Government, its agencies and instrumentalities, or investments in securities of other investment companies;
(3) borrow money, except to the extent permitted under the 1940 Act, including the rules, regulations and any exemptive orders obtained thereunder;
(4) issue senior securities, except to the extent permitted under the 1940 Act, including the rules, regulations and any exemptive orders obtained thereunder;
(5) make loans to other parties if, as a result, the aggregate value of such loans would exceed one-third of a Fund’s total assets. For the purposes of this limitation, entering into repurchase agreements, lending securities and acquiring any debt securities are not deemed to be the making of loans;
(6) underwrite securities of other issuers, except to the extent that the purchase of permitted investments directly from the issuer thereof or from an underwriter for an issuer and the later disposition of such securities in accordance with a Fund’s investment program may be deemed to be an underwriting;
(7) purchase or sell real estate unless acquired as a result of ownership of securities or other instruments (but this shall not prevent a Fund from investing in securities or other instruments backed by real estate or securities of companies engaged in the real estate business); or
(8) purchase or sell commodities, provided that (i) currency will not be deemed to be a commodity for purposes of this restriction, (ii) this restriction does not limit the purchase or sale of futures contracts, forward contracts or options, and (iii) this restriction does not limit the purchase or sale of securities or other instruments backed by commodities or the purchase or sale of commodities acquired as a result of ownership of securities or other instruments.

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Non-Fundamental Investment Policies
Each Fund has adopted the following non-fundamental policies; that is, they may be changed by the Trustees at any time without approval of the Fund’s shareholders.
(1) Each Fund may invest in shares of other investment companies to the extent permitted under the 1940 Act, including the rules, regulations and any exemptive orders obtained thereunder, provided however, that no Fund that has knowledge that its shares are purchased by another investment company investor pursuant to Section 12(d)(1)(G) of the 1940 Act will acquire any securities of registered open-end management investment companies or registered unit investment trusts in reliance on Section 12(d)(1)(F) or 12(d)(1)(G) of the 1940 Act.
(2) Each Fund may not acquire any illiquid investment if, immediately after the acquisition, the Fund would have invested more than 15% of its net assets in illiquid investments that are assets.
(3) Each Fund may invest in financial instruments subject to the Commodity Exchange Act of 1936, as amended (“CEA”), including futures, options on futures, and swaps (“commodity interests”), consistent with its investment policies and the 1940 Act, including the rules, regulations and interpretations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) thereunder or any exemptive orders obtained thereunder, and consistent with investment in commodity interests that would allow the Fund’s investment adviser to claim an exclusion from being a “commodity pool operator” as defined by the CEA.
(4) Each Fund may lend securities from its portfolio to approved brokers, dealers and financial institutions, to the extent permitted under the 1940 Act, including the rules, regulations and exemptions thereunder, which currently limit such activities to one-third of the value of the Fund’s total assets (including the value of the collateral received). Any such loans of portfolio securities will be fully collateralized based on values that are marked-to-market daily.
(5) Each Fund may not make investments for the purpose of exercising control or management, provided that this restriction does not limit  the Fund’s investments in securities of other investment companies or investments in entities created under the laws of foreign countries to facilitate investment in securities of that country.
(6) Each Fund may not purchase securities on margin (except for short-term credits necessary for the clearance of transactions).
(7) Each Fund may not sell securities short, unless it owns or has the right to obtain securities equivalent in kind and amount to the securities sold short (short sales “against the box”), and provided that transactions in futures contracts and options are not deemed to constitute selling securities short.
(8) Each Fund that is subject to Rule 35d-1 (the “Names Rule”) under the 1940 Act, and that has a non-fundamental policy or policies in place to comply with the Names Rule, has adopted the following policy.
Shareholders will receive at least 60 days’ notice of any change to a Fund’s non-fundamental policy complying with the Names Rule. The notice will be provided in Plain English in a separate written document, and will contain the following prominent statement or similar statement in bold-face type: “Important Notice Regarding Change in Investment Policy.” This statement will appear on both the notice and the envelope in which it is delivered, unless it is delivered separately from other communications to investors, in which case the statement will appear either on the notice or the envelope in which the notice is delivered.
The investment policy of the Core Bond Fund concerning “80% of the Fund’s net assets” may be changed by the Board of Trustees without shareholder approval, but shareholders would be given at least 60 days’ notice.
Further Explanation of Investment Policies
With respect to repurchase agreements, each Fund invests only in repurchase agreements that are fully collateralized by securities issued or guaranteed by the U.S. Government, its agencies or instrumentalities. For purposes of each Fund’s fundamental investment policy with respect to concentration, the Fund does not consider such repurchase agreements to constitute an industry or group of industries because the Fund chooses to look through such securities to the underlying collateral, which is itself excepted from the Fund’s concentration policy. In addition, each Fund does not consider mortgage-backed securities and asset-backed securities, whether government-issued or privately issued, to represent interests in any particular industry or group of industries, and therefore the 25% concentration restriction noted above does not limit to investments in such securities.

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Notwithstanding the foregoing policies, any other investment companies in which the Funds may invest have adopted their own investment policies, which may be more or less restrictive than those listed above, thereby allowing  the Funds to participate in certain investment strategies indirectly that are prohibited under the fundamental and non-fundamental investment policies listed above.
With respect to the exclusion of investments in other investment companies from the fundamental investment policy regarding concentration, Allspring Funds Management will use reasonable efforts to consider the amount of any one industry represented by the investments held in other investment companies when monitoring a Fund’s compliance with its fundamental investment policy regarding industry concentration.
Additional Approved Investment Strategies and Certain Associated Risks
In addition to the principal investment strategies set forth in the Prospectus(es), the Funds may also use futures, options or swap agreements, as well as other derivatives, to manage risk or to enhance return. Please refer to a Fund’s Prospectuses for information regarding the Fund’s anticipated use of derivatives, if any, as a principal investment strategy. Please note that even if a Fund’s Prospectuses do not currently include information regarding derivatives, or only includes information regarding certain derivative instruments, the Fund may use any of the derivative securities described below, at any time, and to any extent consistent with the Fund’s other principal investment strategies.
DERIVATIVE SECURITIES
Derivatives are financial instruments that derive their value, at least in part, from the value of another security or asset, the level of an index (e.g., the S&P 500 Index) or a rate (e.g., the Euro Interbank Offered Rate (“Euribor”)), or the relative change in two or more reference assets, indices or rates. The most common types of derivatives are forward contracts, futures, options and swap agreements. Some forms of derivative instruments, such as exchange-traded futures and options on securities, commodities, or indices, are traded on regulated exchanges, like the Chicago Board of Trade and the Chicago Mercantile Exchange. These types of derivative instruments are standardized contracts that can easily be bought and sold, and whose market values are determined and published daily. Non-standardized derivative instruments, on the other hand, tend to be more specialized or complex, and may be harder to value. Other common types of derivative instruments include forward foreign currency contracts, linked securities and structured products, participation notes and agreements, collateralized mortgage obligations, inverse floaters, stripped securities, warrants, and swaptions.
A Fund may take advantage of opportunities to invest in a type of derivative that is not presently contemplated for use by the Fund, or that is not currently available, but that may be developed in the future, to the extent such opportunities are both consistent with the Fund’s investment objective and legally permissible. The trading markets for less traditional and/or newer types of derivative instruments are less developed than the markets for traditional types of derivative instruments and provide less certainty with respect to how such instruments will perform in various economic scenarios.
A Fund may use derivative instruments for a variety of reasons, including: i) to employ leverage to enhance returns; ii) to increase or decrease exposure to particular securities or markets; iii) to protect against possible unfavorable changes in the market value of securities held in, or to be purchased for, its portfolio (i.e., to hedge); iv) to protect its unrealized gains reflected in the value of its portfolio; v) to facilitate the sale of portfolio securities for investment purposes; vi) to reduce transaction costs; vii) to manage the effective maturity or duration of its portfolio; and/or viii) to maintain cash reserves while remaining fully invested.
The risks associated with the use of derivative instruments are different from, and potentially much greater than, the risks associated with investing directly in the underlying instruments on which the derivatives are based. The value of some derivative instruments in which a Fund may invest may be particularly sensitive to changes in prevailing interest rates, and, like the other investments of the Fund, the ability of the Fund to successfully utilize derivative instruments may depend, in part, upon the ability of the sub-adviser to forecast interest rates and other economic factors correctly. If the sub-adviser incorrectly forecasts such factors and has taken positions in derivatives contrary to prevailing market trends, the Fund could be exposed to additional, unforeseen risks, including the risk of loss.
Because certain derivatives have a leverage component, adverse changes in the value or level of the underlying asset, reference rate, or index can result in a loss substantially greater than the amount invested in the derivative

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itself. The risk of loss is heightened when a Fund uses derivative instruments to enhance its returns or as a substitute for a position or security, rather than solely to hedge or offset the risk of a position or security held by a Fund. Certain derivatives have the potential for unlimited loss, regardless of the size of the initial investment.
Additional risks of derivative instruments include, but are not limited to: i) the risk of disruption of a Fund’s ability to trade in derivative instruments because of regulatory compliance problems or regulatory changes; ii) credit risk of counterparties to derivative contracts; and iii) market risk (i.e., exposure to adverse price changes). The possibility of default by the issuer or the issuer’s credit provider may be greater for derivative instruments than for other types of instruments. The sub-adviser utilizes a variety of internal risk management procedures to ensure that derivatives are closely monitored, and that their use is consistent with a particular Fund’s investment objective, policies, restrictions and quality standards, and does not expose such Fund to undue risk.
A hedging strategy may fail if the correlation between the value of the derivative instruments and the other investments in a Fund’s portfolio is not consistent with the sub-adviser’s expectations. If the sub-adviser’s expectations are not met, it is possible that the hedging strategy will not only fail to protect the value of a Fund’s portfolio, but the Fund may also lose money on the derivative instrument itself.
In the case of credit derivatives, which are a form of derivative that includes credit default swaps and total return swaps, payments of principal and interest are tied to the performance of one or more reference obligations or assets. The same general risks inherent in derivative transactions are present. However, credit derivative transactions also carry with them greater risks of imperfect correlation between the performance and price of the underlying reference security or asset, and the general performance of the designated interest rate or index which is the basis for the periodic payment.
Certain derivative transactions may be modified or terminated only by mutual consent of a Fund and its counterparty and certain derivative transactions may be terminated by the counterparty or the Fund, as the case may be, upon the occurrence of certain Fund-related or counterparty-related events, which may result in losses or gains to the Fund based on the market value of the derivative transactions entered into between the Fund and the counterparty. In addition, such early terminations may result in taxable events and accelerate gain or loss recognition for tax purposes. It may not be possible for a Fund to modify, terminate, or offset the Fund’s obligations or the Fund’s exposure to the risks associated with a derivative transaction prior to its termination or maturity date, which may create a possibility of increased volatility and/or decreased liquidity to the Fund. Upon the expiration or termination of a particular contract, a Fund may wish to retain a Fund’s position in the derivative instrument by entering into a similar contract, but may be unable to do so if the counterparty to the original contract is unwilling to enter into the new contract and no other appropriate counterparty can be found, which could cause the Fund not to be able to maintain certain desired investment exposures or not to be able to hedge other investment positions or risks, which could cause losses to the Fund. Furthermore, after such an expiration or termination of a particular contract, a Fund may have fewer counterparties with which to engage in additional derivative transactions, which could lead to potentially greater exposure to one or more counterparties and which could increase the cost of entering into certain derivatives. In such cases, the Fund may lose money.
The Funds might not employ any of the strategies described herein, and no assurance can be given that any strategy used will succeed. Also, with some derivative strategies, there is the risk that a Fund may not be able to find a suitable counterparty for a derivative transaction. In addition, some over-the-counter (“OTC”) derivative instruments may be illiquid. Derivative instruments traded in the OTC market are also subject to the risk that the other party will not meet its obligations. The use of derivative instruments may also increase the amount and accelerate the timing of taxes payable by shareholders.
A Fund’s use of derivative instruments also is subject to broadly applicable investment policies. For example, a Fund may not invest more than a specified percentage of its assets in “illiquid securities,” including those derivative instruments that are not transferable or that do not have active secondary markets.
When a Fund buys or sells a derivative that is cleared through a central clearing party, an initial margin deposit with a future commission merchant (“FCM”) is typically required subject to certain exceptions for uncleared swaps under applicable rules. If the value of a Fund’s derivatives that are cleared through a central clearing party decline, the Fund will be required to make additional “variation margin” payments to the FCM. If the value of a Fund’s derivatives

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that are cleared through a central clearing party increases, the FCM will be required to make additional “variation margin” payments to the Fund. This process is known as “marking-to-market” and is calculated on a daily basis.
Central clearing arrangements with respect to derivative instruments may be less favorable to the Funds than bilateral arrangements, because the Funds may be required to provide greater amounts of margin for cleared transactions than for bilateral transactions. Also, in contrast to bilateral derivatives transactions, following a period of notice to a Fund, a central clearing party generally can require termination of existing cleared transactions at any time or increase margin requirements.
While some strategies involving derivative instruments can reduce the risk of loss, they can also reduce the opportunity for gain, or even result in losses by offsetting favorable price movements in related investments or otherwise. This is due, in part, to: i) the possible inability of a Fund to purchase or sell a portfolio security at a time that otherwise would be favorable; ii) the possible need to sell a portfolio security at a disadvantageous time because the Fund is required to maintain asset coverage or offsetting positions in connection with transactions in derivative instruments; and/or iii) the possible inability of a Fund to close out or liquidate its derivatives positions. Accordingly, there is the risk that such strategies may fail to serve their intended purposes, and may reduce returns or increase volatility. These strategies also entail transactional expenses.
It is possible that current and/or future legislation and regulation with respect to derivative instruments may limit or prevent a Fund from using such instruments as a part of its investment strategy, and could ultimately prevent a Fund from being able to achieve its investment objective. For example, Title VII of the Dodd-Frank Act made broad changes to the OTC derivatives market and granted significant authority to the SEC and the CFTC to regulate OTC derivatives and market participants. Other provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act include: i) position limits that may impact a Fund’s ability to invest in futures, options and swaps in a manner that efficiently meets its investment objective; ii) capital and margin requirements; and iii) the mandatory use of clearinghouse mechanisms for many OTC derivative transactions. In addition, the SEC, CFTC and exchanges are authorized to take extraordinary actions in the event of a market emergency, including, for example, the implementation or reduction of speculative position limits, the implementation of higher margin requirements, the establishment of daily price limits and the suspension of trading. The regulation of futures, options and swaps transactions in the United States is subject to modification by government and judicial action. Changes to U.S. tax laws may affect the use of derivatives by the Funds. It is impossible to fully predict the effects of past, present or future legislation and regulation in this area, but the effects could be substantial and adverse.
On October 28, 2020, the SEC adopted Rule 18f-4 under the 1940 Act providing for the regulation of a registered investment company’s use of derivatives and certain related instruments. Under Rule 18f-4 a fund’s derivatives exposure is limited through a value-at-risk test. Funds whose use of derivatives is more than a limited specified exposure amount are required to adopt and implement a comprehensive derivatives risk management program, subject to oversight by a fund’s board of trustees, and appoint a derivatives risk manager. Subject to certain conditions, limited derivatives users (as defined in Rule 18f-4), however, would not be subject to the full requirements of Rule 18f-4. In connection with the adoption of Rule 18f-4, the SEC also eliminated the asset segregation framework arising from prior SEC guidance for covering derivatives and certain financial instruments. Compliance with Rule 18f-4 will not be required until August 19, 2022. As the Funds come into compliance, the Funds’ approaches to asset segregation and coverage requirements will be impacted. In addition, Rule 18f-4 could restrict a Fund’s abilities to engage in certain derivatives transactions and/or increase the costs of such derivatives transactions, which could adversely affect the value or performance of the Fund.
The regulation of derivatives is a rapidly changing area of law and is subject to modification by government and judicial action. In addition, the SEC, CFTC and the exchanges are authorized to take extraordinary actions in the event of a market emergency, including, for example, the implementation or reduction of speculative position limits, the implementation of higher margin requirements, the establishment of daily price limits and the suspension of trading. It is not possible to predict fully the effects of current or future regulation. Changing regulation may, among various possible effects, increase the cost of entering into derivatives transactions, require more assets of the Fund to be used for collateral in support of those derivatives than is currently the case, restrict the ability of the Fund to enter into certain types of derivative transactions, or could limit the Fund’s ability to pursue its investment strategies. New requirements, even if not directly applicable to the Fund, may increase the cost of the Fund’s investments and cost of doing business.

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Futures Contracts. A futures contract is an agreement to buy or sell a security or other asset at a set price on a future date. An option on a future gives the holder of the option the right, which may or may not be exercised, to buy or sell a position in a futures contract from or to the writer of the option, at a specified price on or before a specified expiration date. Futures contracts and options on futures are standardized and exchange-traded, where the exchange serves as the ultimate counterparty for all contracts. Consequently, the primary credit risk on such contracts is the creditworthiness of the exchange. In addition, futures contracts and options on futures are subject to market risk (i.e., exposure to adverse price changes).
An interest rate, commodity, foreign currency or index futures contract provides for the future sale or purchase of a specified quantity of a financial instrument, commodity, foreign currency or the cash value of an index at a specified price and time. A futures contract on an index is an agreement pursuant to which a party agrees to pay or receive an amount of cash equal to the difference between the value of the index at the close of the last trading day of the contract and the price at which the index contract was originally written. Although the value of an index might be a function of the value of certain specified securities, no physical delivery of these securities is made. A public market exists in futures contracts covering a number of indexes as well as financial instruments and foreign currencies. To the extent that a Fund may invest in foreign currency-denominated securities, it also may invest in foreign currency futures contracts and options thereon. Certain of the Funds also may invest in commodity futures contracts and options thereon. A commodity futures contract is an agreement to buy or sell a commodity, such as an energy, agricultural or metal commodity at a later date at a price and quantity agreed-upon when the contract is bought or sold.
Futures contracts often call for making or taking delivery of an underlying asset; however, futures are exchange-traded, so that a party can close out its position on the exchange for cash, without ever having to make or take delivery of an asset. Closing out a futures position is affected by purchasing or selling an offsetting contract for the same aggregate amount with the same delivery date; however, there can be no assurance that a liquid market will exist at a time a Fund seeks to close out an exchange-traded position, including options positions.
A Fund may purchase and write call and put options on futures contracts. The holder of an option on a futures contract has the right, in return for the premium paid, to assume a long position (call) or short position (put) in a futures contract at a specified exercise price at any time during the period of the option. Upon exercise of a call option, the holder acquires a long position in the futures contract and the writer is assigned the opposite short position. In the case of a put option, the opposite is true. A call option is “in the money” if the value of the futures contract that is the subject of the option exceeds the exercise price. A put option is “in the money” if the exercise price exceeds the value of the futures contract that is the subject of the option. The potential loss related to the purchase of futures options is limited to the premium paid for the option (plus transaction costs). Because the value of the option is fixed at the time of sale, there are no daily cash payments to reflect changes in the value of the underlying contract; however, the value of the option may change daily, and that change would be reflected in the net asset value (“NAV”) of a Fund.
There are several risks associated with the use of futures contracts and options on futures as hedging instruments. A purchase or sale of a futures contract may result in losses in excess of the amount invested in the futures contract. There can be no guarantee that there will be a correlation between price movements in a hedging vehicle and the securities being hedged. In addition, there are significant differences between securities and futures markets that could result in an imperfect correlation between the markets, causing a given hedge not to achieve its objectives. The degree of imperfection of correlation depends on circumstances such as variations in speculative market demand for futures and options on futures contracts for securities, including technical influences in futures and options trading, and differences between the financial instruments being hedged and the instruments underlying the standard contracts available for trading in such respects as interest rate levels, maturities, and creditworthiness of issuers. A decision as to whether, when and how to hedge involves the exercise of skill and judgment, and even a well-conceived hedge may be unsuccessful to some degree because of market behavior or unexpected interest rate trends.
Futures contracts on U.S. Government securities have historically been highly correlated to their respective underlying U.S. Government securities. However, to the extent a Fund enters into such futures contracts, the value of the futures will not fluctuate in direct proportion to the value of the Fund’s holdings of U.S. Government securities. Thus, the anticipated spread between the price of a futures contract and its respective underlying security may be

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affected by differences in the nature of their respective markets. The spread may also be affected by differences in initial and variation margin requirements, the liquidity of such markets and the participation of speculators in such markets.
There are several additional risks associated with transactions in commodity futures contracts, including but not limited to:
Storage: Unlike the financial futures markets, in the commodity futures markets there are costs of physical storage associated with purchasing the underlying commodity. The price of the commodity futures contract will reflect the storage costs of purchasing the physical commodity, including the time value of money invested in the physical commodity. To the extent that the storage costs for an underlying commodity change while a Fund is invested in futures contracts on that commodity, the value of the futures contract may change proportionately.
 
Reinvestment: In the commodity futures markets, producers of the underlying commodity may decide to hedge the price risk of selling the commodity by selling futures contracts today to lock in the price of the commodity at delivery tomorrow. In order to induce speculators to purchase the other side of the same futures contract, the commodity producer generally must sell the futures contract at a lower price than the expected future spot price. Conversely, if most hedgers in the futures market are purchasing futures contracts to hedge against a rise in prices, then speculators will only sell the other side of the futures contract at a higher futures price than the expected future spot price of the commodity. The changing nature of the hedgers and speculators in the commodity markets will influence whether futures prices are above or below the expected future spot price, which can have significant implications for a Fund. If the nature of hedgers and speculators in futures markets has shifted when it is time for a Fund to reinvest the proceeds of a maturing contract in a new futures contract, the Fund might reinvest at higher or lower futures prices, or choose to pursue other investments.
 
Other Economic Factors: The commodities which underlie commodity futures contracts may be subject to additional economic and non-economic variables, such as drought, floods, weather, livestock disease, embargoes, tariffs, and international economic, political and regulatory developments. These factors may have a larger impact on commodity prices and commodity-linked instruments, including futures contracts, than on traditional securities. Certain commodities are also subject to limited pricing flexibility because of supply and demand factors. Others are subject to broad price fluctuations as a result of the volatility of the prices for certain raw materials and the instability of supplies of other materials. These additional variables may create additional investment risks which subject a Fund’s investments to greater volatility than investments in traditional securities.
 
The requirements for qualification as a regulated investment company may limit the extent to which a Fund may enter into futures and options on futures positions. Unless otherwise noted in the section entitled “Non-Fundamental Investment Policies,” each of the Funds has claimed an exclusion from the definition of “Commodity Pool Operator” (“CPO”) found in Rule 4.5 of the Commodity Exchange Act (“CEA”). Accordingly, the manager of each such Fund, as well as each sub-adviser, is not subject to registration or regulation as a CPO with respect to the Funds under the CEA.
Options. A Fund may purchase and sell both put and call options on various instruments, including, but not limited to, fixed-income or other securities or indices in standardized contracts traded on foreign or domestic securities exchanges, boards of trade, or similar entities, or quoted on NASDAQ or on an OTC market, and agreements, sometimes called cash puts, which may accompany the purchase of a new issue of bonds from a dealer. A Fund may also write covered straddles consisting of a combination of calls and puts written on the same underlying securities or indices.
An option on a security (or index) is a contract that gives the holder of the option, in return for a premium, the right to buy from (in the case of a call) or sell to (in the case of a put) the writer of the option the security underlying the option (or the cash value of the index) at a specified exercise price often at any time during the term of the option for American options or only at expiration for European options. The writer of an option on a security has the obligation upon exercise of the option to deliver the underlying security upon payment of the exercise price (in the case of a call) or to pay the exercise price upon delivery of the underlying security (in the case of a put). Certain put options written by a Fund may be structured to have an exercise price that is less than the market value of the underlying securities that would be received by the Fund. Upon exercise, the writer of an option on an index is obligated to pay the difference between the cash value of the index and the exercise price multiplied by the specified multiplier for

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the index option. An index is designed to reflect features of a particular financial or securities market, a specific group of financial instruments or securities, or certain economic indicators.
If an option written by a Fund expires unexercised, the Fund realizes a capital gain equal to the premium received at the time the option was written. If an option purchased by a Fund expires unexercised, the Fund realizes a capital loss equal to the premium paid. Prior to the earlier of exercise or expiration, an exchange-traded option may be closed out by an offsetting purchase or sale of an option of the same series (type, exchange, underlying security or index, exercise price, and expiration). There can be no assurance, however, that a closing purchase or sale transaction can be effected when a Fund desires.
A Fund may sell put or call options it has previously purchased, which could result in a net gain or loss depending on whether the amount realized on the sale is more or less than the premium and other transaction costs paid on the put or call option which is sold. Prior to exercise or expiration, an option may be closed out by an offsetting purchase or sale of an option of the same series. A Fund will realize a capital gain from a closing purchase transaction if the cost of the closing option is less than the premium received from writing the option, or, if it is more, the Fund will realize a capital loss. If the premium received from a closing sale transaction is more than the premium paid to purchase the option, the Fund will realize a capital gain or, if it is less, the Fund will realize a capital loss. The principal factors affecting the market value of a put or a call option include supply and demand, interest rates, the current market price of the underlying security or index in relation to the exercise price of the option, the volatility of the underlying security or index, and the time remaining until the expiration date.
The value of an option purchased or written is marked to market daily and is valued at the closing price on the exchange on which it is traded or, if not traded on an exchange or no closing price is available, at the mean between the last bid and ask prices.
There are several risks associated with transactions in options on securities and on indexes. For example, there are significant differences between the securities and options markets that could result in an imperfect correlation between these markets, causing a given transaction not to achieve its objectives. A decision as to whether, when and how to use options involves the exercise of skill and judgment, and even a well-conceived transaction may be unsuccessful to some degree because of market behavior or unexpected events.
The writer of an American option typically has no control over the time when it may be required to fulfill its obligation as a writer of the option. Once an option writer has received an exercise notice, it cannot effect a closing purchase transaction in order to terminate its obligation under the option and must deliver the underlying security at the exercise price. To the extent a Fund writes a put option, the Fund has assumed the obligation during the option period to purchase the underlying investment from the put buyer at the option’s exercise price if the put buyer exercises its option, regardless of whether the value of the underlying investment falls below the exercise price. This means that a Fund that writes a put option may be required to take delivery of the underlying investment and make payment for such investment at the exercise price. This may result in losses to the Fund and may result in the Fund holding the underlying investment for some period of time when it is disadvantageous to do so.
If a put or call option purchased by a Fund is not sold when it has remaining value, and if the market price of the underlying security remains equal to or greater than the exercise price (in the case of a put), or remains less than or equal to the exercise price (in the case of a call), the Fund will lose its entire investment in the option. Also, where a put or call option on a particular security is purchased to hedge against price movements in a related security, the price of the put or call option may move more or less than the price of the related security.
If trading were suspended in an option purchased by a Fund, the Fund would not be able to close out the option. If restrictions on exercise were imposed, the Fund might be unable to exercise an option it has purchased. Except to the extent that a call option on an index written by a Fund is covered by an option on the same index purchased by the Fund, movements in the index may result in a loss to the Fund; however, such losses may be mitigated by changes in the value of the Fund’s securities during the period the option was outstanding.
To the extent that a Fund writes a call option on a security it holds in its portfolio and intends to use such security as the sole means of “covering” its obligation under the call option, the Fund has, in return for the premium on the option, given up the opportunity to profit from a price increase in the underlying security above the exercise price

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during the option period, but, as long as its obligation under such call option continues, has retained the risk of loss should the price of the underlying security decline.
Foreign Currency Options. Funds that may invest in foreign currency-denominated securities may buy or sell put and call options on foreign currencies. These Funds may buy or sell put and call options on foreign currencies either on exchanges or in the OTC market. A put option on a foreign currency gives the purchaser of the option the right to sell a foreign currency at the exercise price until the option expires. A call option on a foreign currency gives the purchaser of the option the right to purchase the currency at the exercise price until the option expires. Currency options traded on U.S. or other exchanges may be subject to position limits which may limit the ability of a Fund to reduce foreign currency risk using such options. OTC options differ from exchange-traded options in that they are bilateral contracts with price and other terms negotiated between buyer and seller, and generally do not have as much market liquidity as exchange-traded options. Under definitions adopted by the CFTC and SEC, many foreign currency options are considered swaps for certain purposes, including determination of whether such instruments need to be exchange-traded and centrally cleared.
Stock Index Options. A Fund may purchase and write (i.e., sell) put and call options on stock indices to gain exposure to comparable market positions in the underlying securities or to manage risk (i.e., hedge) on direct investments in the underlying securities. A stock index fluctuates with changes of the market values of the stocks included in the index. For example, some stock index options are based on a broad market index, such as the S&P 500 Index or a narrower market index, such as the S&P 100 Index. Indices may also be based on an industry or market segment. A Fund may, for the purpose of hedging its portfolio, subject to applicable securities regulations, purchase and write put and call options on stock indices listed on foreign and domestic stock exchanges. The effectiveness of purchasing or writing stock index options will depend upon the extent to which price movements of the securities in a Fund’s portfolio correlate with price movements of the stock index selected. Because the value of an index option depends upon movements in the level of the index rather than the price of a particular stock, whether a Fund will realize a gain or loss from purchasing or writing stock index options depends upon movements in the level of stock prices in the stock market generally or, in the case of certain indices, in an industry or market segment, rather than movements in the price of particular stock.
There is a key difference between stock options and stock index options in connection with their exercise. In the case of stock options, the underlying security, common stock, is delivered. However, upon the exercise of a stock index option, settlement does not occur by delivery of the securities comprising the index. The option holder who exercises the stock index option receives an amount of cash if the closing level of the stock index upon which the option is based is greater than (in the case of a call) or less than (in the case of a put) the exercise price of the option. This amount of cash is equal to the difference between the closing price of the stock index and the exercise price of the option expressed in dollars times a specified multiple.
Swap Agreements. Swap agreements are derivative instruments that can be individually negotiated and structured to include exposure to a variety of different types of investments or market factors. Depending on their structure, swap agreements may increase or decrease a Fund’s exposure to long- or short-term interest rates, foreign currency values, mortgage securities, corporate borrowing rates, or other factors such as security prices or inflation rates. A Fund may enter into a variety of swap agreements, including interest rate, index, commodity, equity, credit default and currency exchange rate, among others, each of which may include special features, such as caps, collars and floors.
Swap agreements are usually entered into without an upfront payment because the value of each party’s position is the same. The market values of the underlying commitments will change over time, resulting in one of the commitments being worth more than the other and the net market value creating a risk exposure for one party or the other.
A Fund may enter into swap agreements for any legal purpose consistent with its investment objectives and policies, such as attempting to obtain or preserve a particular return or spread at a lower cost than obtaining a return or spread through purchases and/or sales of instruments in other markets, to protect against currency fluctuations, as a duration management technique, to protect against any increase in the price of securities a Fund anticipates purchasing at a later date, to engage in short transactions on a basket of securities, or to gain exposure to certain markets in a more cost efficient manner.

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OTC swap agreements are bilateral contracts entered into primarily by institutional investors for periods ranging from a few weeks to more than one year. In a standard OTC swap transaction, two parties agree to exchange the returns (or differentials in rates of return) earned or realized on particular predetermined investments or instruments. The gross returns to be exchanged or “swapped” between the parties are generally calculated with respect to a “notional amount,” i.e., the return on or change in value of a particular dollar amount invested at a particular interest rate, in a particular foreign (non-U.S.) currency, or in a “basket” of securities or commodities representing a particular index. A “quanto” or “differential” swap combines both an interest rate and a currency transaction. Certain swap agreements, such as interest rate swaps, are traded on exchanges and cleared through central clearing counterparties. Other forms of swap agreements include interest rate caps, under which, in return for a premium, one party agrees to make payments to the other to the extent that interest rates exceed a specified rate, or “cap”; interest rate floors, under which, in return for a premium, one party agrees to make payments to the other to the extent that interest rates fall below a specified rate, or “floor”; and interest rate collars, under which a party sells a cap and purchases a floor or vice versa in an attempt to protect itself against interest rate movements exceeding given minimum or maximum levels. A total return swap agreement is a contract in which one party agrees to make periodic payments to another party based on the change in market value of underlying assets, which may include a single stock, a basket of stocks, or a stock index during the specified period, in return for periodic payments based on a fixed or variable interest rate or the total return from other underlying assets. Consistent with a Fund’s investment objectives and general investment policies, certain of the Funds may invest in commodity swap agreements. For example, an investment in a commodity swap agreement may involve the exchange of floating-rate interest payments for the total return on a commodity index. In a total return commodity swap, a Fund will receive the price appreciation of a commodity index, a portion of the index, or a single commodity in exchange for paying an agreed-upon fee. If the commodity swap is for one period, a Fund may pay a fixed fee, established at the outset of the swap. However, if the term of the commodity swap is more than one period, with interim swap payments, a Fund may pay an adjustable or floating fee. With a “floating” rate, the fee may be pegged to a base rate, such as Euribor, and is adjusted each period. Therefore, if interest rates increase over the term of the swap contract, a Fund may be required to pay a higher fee at each swap reset date.
A Fund may also enter into combinations of swap agreements in order to achieve certain economic results. For example, a Fund may enter into two swap transactions, one of which offsets the other for a period of time. After the offsetting swap transaction expires, the Fund would be left with the economic exposure provided by the remaining swap transaction. The intent of such an arrangement would be to lock in certain terms of the remaining swap transaction that a Fund may wish to gain exposure to in the future without having that exposure during the period the offsetting swap is in place.
Most types of swap agreements entered into by the Funds will calculate the obligations of the parties to the agreement on a “net basis.” Consequently, a Fund’s current obligations (or rights) under a swap agreement will generally be equal only to the net amount to be paid or received under the agreement based on the relative values of the positions held by each party to the agreement (the “net amount”). A Fund’s current obligations under a swap agreement will be accrued daily (offset against any amounts owed to the Fund). Obligations under swap agreements so covered will not be construed to be “senior securities” for purposes of a Fund’s investment restriction concerning senior securities.
Swap agreements are sophisticated instruments that typically involve a small investment of cash relative to the magnitude of risks assumed. As a result, swaps can be highly volatile and may have a considerable impact on a Fund’s performance. Depending on how they are used, swap agreements may increase or decrease the overall volatility of a Fund’s investments and its share price and yield. Additionally, the extent to which a Fund’s use of swap agreements will be successful in furthering its investment objective will depend on the sub-adviser’s ability to correctly predict whether certain types of investments are likely to produce greater returns than other investments.
Moreover, a Fund bears the risk of loss of the amount expected to be received under a swap agreement in the event of the default or bankruptcy of a swap agreement counterparty. When a counterparty’s obligations are not fully secured by collateral, then a Fund is essentially an unsecured creditor of the counterparty. If the counterparty defaults, the Fund will have contractual remedies, but there is no assurance that a counterparty will be able to meet its obligations pursuant to such contracts or that, in the event of default, the Fund will succeed in enforcing contractual remedies. Counterparty risk still exists even if a counterparty’s obligations are secured by collateral

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because a Fund’s interest in collateral may not be perfected or additional collateral may not be promptly posted as required. Counterparty risk also may be more pronounced if a counterparty’s obligations exceed the amount of collateral held by a Fund (if any), the Fund is unable to exercise its interest in collateral upon default by the counterparty, or the termination value of the instrument varies significantly from the marked-to-market value of the instrument. The sub-adviser will closely monitor the credit of a swap agreement counterparty in order to attempt to minimize this risk. Certain restrictions imposed on the Funds by the Internal Revenue Code may limit the Funds’ ability to use swap agreements. The swaps market is subject to increasing regulations, in both U.S. and non-U.S. markets. It is possible that developments in the swaps market, including additional government regulation, could adversely affect a Fund’s ability to terminate existing swap agreements or to realize amounts to be received under such agreements.
The use of swaps is a highly specialized activity that requires investment techniques, risk analyses and tax planning different from those associated with traditional investments. The use of a swap requires an understanding, not only of the reference asset, interest rate, or index, but also of the terms of the swap agreement, without the benefit of observing the performance of the swap under all possible market conditions. Because OTC swap agreements are bilateral contracts that may be subject to contractual restrictions on transferability and termination, and because they may have remaining terms of greater than seven days, OTC swap agreements may be considered illiquid and subject to a Fund’s limitation on investments in illiquid securities. To the extent that a swap is not liquid, it may not be possible to initiate a transaction or liquidate a position at an advantageous time or price, which may result in significant losses.
Moreover, like most other investments, swap agreements are subject to the risk that the market value of the instrument will change in a way detrimental to a Fund’s interest. A Fund bears the risk that the sub-adviser will not accurately forecast future market trends or the values of assets, reference rates, indexes, or other economic factors in establishing swap positions for the Fund. If the sub-adviser attempts to use a swap as a hedge on, or as a substitute for, a portfolio investment, the Fund will be exposed to the risk that the swap will have or will develop an imperfect correlation with the portfolio investment. This could cause substantial losses for the Fund. While hedging strategies involving swap instruments can reduce the risk of loss, they can also reduce the opportunity for gain or even result in losses by offsetting favorable price movements in other Fund investments. In addition, because swap transactions generally do not involve the delivery of securities or other underlying assets or principal, the risk of loss with respect to swap agreements and swaptions (described below) generally is limited to the net amount of payments that a Fund is contractually obligated to make. There is also a risk of a default by the other party to a swap agreement or swaption, in which case a Fund may not receive the net amount of payments that such Fund contractually is entitled to receive.
Many swaps are complex, and their valuation often requires modeling and judgment, which increases the risk of mispricing or incorrect valuation. The pricing models used may not produce valuations that are consistent with the values a Fund realizes when it closes or sells an over-the-counter derivative. Valuation risk is more pronounced when a Fund enters into an over-the-counter swap with specialized terms, because the market value of a swap, in some cases, is partially determined by reference to similar derivatives with more standardized terms. Incorrect valuations may result in increased cash payment requirements to counterparties, undercollateralization and/or errors in calculation of a Fund’s net asset value.
A Fund also may enter into options to enter into a swap agreement (“swaptions”). These transactions give a party the right (but not the obligation), in return for payment of a premium, to enter into a new swap agreement or to shorten, extend, cancel or otherwise modify an existing swap agreement, at some designated future time on specified terms. A Fund may write (sell) and purchase put and call swaptions. Depending on the terms of the particular option agreement, a Fund will generally incur a greater degree of risk when it writes a swaption than it will incur when it purchases a swaption. When a Fund purchases a swaption, it risks losing only the amount of the premium it has paid should it decide to let the option expire unexercised. However, when a Fund writes a swaption, upon exercise of the option the Fund will become obligated according to the terms of the underlying agreement.
Commodity-Linked Swap Agreements. Commodity-linked swaps are two-party contracts in which the parties agree to exchange the return or interest rate on one instrument for the return of a particular commodity, commodity index or commodities futures or options contract. The payment streams are calculated by reference to an agreed upon notional amount. A one-period swap contract operates in a manner similar to a forward or futures contract because

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there is an agreement to swap a commodity for cash at only one forward date. A Fund may engage in swap transactions that have more than one period and more than one exchange of commodities.
In a total return commodity swap, a Fund will receive the price appreciation of a commodity index, a portion of the index, or a single commodity in exchange for paying an agreed-upon fee. If the commodity swap is for one period, the Fund will pay a fixed fee, established at the outset of the swap. However, if the term of the commodity swap is more than one period, with interim swap payments, the Fund will pay an adjustable or floating fee. With a “floating” rate, the fee is pegged to a base rate such as Euribor, and is adjusted each period. Therefore, if interest rates increase over the term of the swap contract, a Fund may be required to pay a higher fee at each swap reset date.
A Fund’s ability to invest in commodity-linked swaps may be adversely affected by changes in legislation, regulations or other legally binding authority. Under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), a Fund must derive at least 90% of its gross income from qualifying sources to qualify as a regulated investment company. The Internal Revenue Service has also issued a revenue ruling which holds that income derived from commodity-linked swaps is not qualifying income with respect to the 90% threshold. As a result, a Fund’s ability to directly invest in commodity-linked swaps as part of its investment strategy is limited to a maximum of 10% of its gross income. Failure to comply with the restrictions in the Code and any future legislation or guidance may cause a Fund to fail to qualify as a regulated investment company, which may adversely impact a shareholder’s return. Alternatively, a Fund may forego such investments, which could adversely affect the Fund’s ability to achieve its investment goal.
Credit Default Swap Agreements. A Fund may enter into OTC and cleared credit default swap agreements, which may reference one or more debt securities or obligations that are or are not currently held by a Fund. The protection “buyer” in an OTC credit default swap agreement is generally obligated to pay the protection “seller” an upfront or a periodic stream of payments over the term of the contract until a credit event, such as a default, on a reference obligation has occurred. If a credit event occurs, the seller generally must pay the buyer the “par value” (full notional value) of the swap in exchange for an equal face amount of deliverable obligations of the reference entity described in the swap, or the seller may be required to deliver the related net cash amount, if the swap is cash settled. A Fund may be either the buyer or seller in the transaction. If a Fund is a buyer and no credit event occurs, the Fund may recover nothing if the swap is held through its termination date. However, if a credit event occurs, the buyer generally may elect to receive the full notional value of the swap in exchange for an equal face amount of deliverable obligations of the reference entity whose value may have significantly decreased. As a seller, a Fund generally receives an upfront payment or a fixed rate of income throughout the term of the swap provided that there is no credit event. As the seller, a Fund would effectively add leverage to its portfolio because, in addition to its total net assets, a Fund would be subject to investment exposure on the notional amount of the swap.
The spread of a credit default swap is the annual amount the protection buyer must pay the protection seller over the length of the contract, expressed as a percentage of the notional amount. Market perceived credit risk increases as spreads widen; market perceived credit risk decreases as spreads narrow. Wider credit spreads and decreasing market values, when compared to the notional amount of the swap, represent a deterioration of the credit soundness of the issuer of the reference obligation and a greater likelihood or risk of default or other credit event occurring as defined under the terms of the agreement. For credit default swap agreements on asset-backed securities and credit indices, the quoted market prices and resulting values, as well as the annual payment rate, serve as an indication of the current status of the payment/performance risk. A Fund’s obligations under a credit default swap agreement will be accrued daily (offset against any amounts owing to the Fund).
Credit default swap agreements sold by a Fund may involve greater risks than if a Fund had invested in the reference obligation directly because, in addition to general market risks, credit default swaps are subject to illiquidity risk and counterparty credit risk (with respect to OTC credit default swaps). A Fund will enter into uncleared credit default swap agreements generally with counterparties that meet certain standards of creditworthiness. A buyer generally also will lose its investment and recover nothing should no credit event occur and the swap is held to its termination date. If a credit event were to occur, the value of any deliverable obligation received by the seller, coupled with the upfront or periodic payments previously received, may be less than the full notional value it pays to the buyer, resulting in a loss of value to the seller. In addition, there may be disputes between the buyer and seller of a credit default swap agreement or within the swaps market as a whole as to whether a credit event has occurred or what the payment should be. Such disputes could result in litigation or other delays, and the outcome could be adverse for the buyer or seller.

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Interest Rate Swap Agreements. Interest rate swap agreements may be used to obtain or preserve a desired return or spread at a lower cost than through a direct investment in an instrument that yields the desired return or spread. They are financial instruments that involve the exchange of one type of interest rate cash flow for another type of interest rate cash flow on specified dates in the future. In a standard interest rate swap transaction, two parties agree to exchange their respective commitments to pay fixed or floating interest rates on a predetermined specified (notional) amount. The swap agreement’s notional amount is the predetermined basis for calculating the obligations that the swap counterparties have agreed to exchange. Under most swap agreements, the obligations of the parties are exchanged on a net basis. The two payment streams are netted out, with each party receiving or paying, as the case may be, only the net amount of the two payments. Interest rate swaps can be based on various measures of interest rates, including Euribor, swap rates, Treasury rates and foreign interest rates.
Swap agreements will tend to shift a Fund’s investment exposure from one type of investment to another. For example, if a Fund agreed to pay fixed rates in exchange for floating rates while holding fixed-rate bonds, the swap would tend to decrease a Fund’s exposure to long-term interest rates. Another example is if a Fund agreed to exchange payments in dollars for payments in foreign currency, the swap agreement would tend to decrease a Fund’s exposure to U.S. interest rates and increase its exposure to foreign currency and interest rates.
Total Return Swap Agreements. Total return swap agreements are contracts in which one party agrees to make periodic payments to another party based on the change in market value of the assets underlying the contract, which may include a specified security, basket of securities or securities indices during the specified period, in return for periodic payments based on a fixed or variable interest rate or the total return from other underlying assets. Total return swap agreements may be used to obtain exposure to a security or market without owning or taking physical custody of such security or investing directly in such market. Total return swap agreements may effectively add leverage to a Fund’s portfolio because, in addition to its total net assets, a Fund would be subject to investment exposure on the notional amount of the swap.
Total return swap agreements are subject to the risk that a counterparty will default on its payment obligations to a Fund thereunder, and conversely, that a Fund will not be able to meet its obligation to the counterparty. Generally, a Fund will enter into total return swaps on a net basis (i.e., the two payment streams are netted against one another with a Fund receiving or paying, as the case may be, only the net amount of the two payments).
Contracts for Differences. Contracts for differences are swap arrangements in which the parties agree that their return (or loss) will be based on the relative performance of two different groups or baskets of securities. Often, one or both baskets will be an established securities index. A Fund’s return will be based on changes in value of theoretical long futures positions in the securities comprising one basket (with an aggregate face value equal to the notional amount of the contract for differences) and theoretical short futures positions in the securities comprising the other basket. A Fund also may use actual long and short futures positions and achieve similar market exposure by netting the payment obligations of the two contracts. A Fund typically enters into contracts for differences (and analogous futures positions) when the sub-adviser believes that the basket of securities constituting the long position will outperform the basket constituting the short position. If the short basket outperforms the long basket, a Fund will realize a loss, even in circumstances when the securities in both the long and short baskets appreciate in value.
Cross-Currency Swap Agreements. Cross currency swap agreements are similar to interest rate swaps, except that they involve multiple currencies. A Fund may enter into a cross currency swap agreement when it has exposure to one currency and desires exposure to a different currency. Typically, the interest rates that determine the currency swap payments are fixed, although occasionally one or both parties may pay a floating rate of interest. Unlike an interest rate swap agreement, however, the principal amounts are exchanged at the beginning of the contract and returned at the end of the contract. In addition to paying and receiving amounts at the beginning and termination of the agreements, both sides will have to pay in full periodically based upon the currency they have borrowed. Changes in foreign exchange currency rates and changes in interest rates may negatively affect currency swaps.
Volatility, Variance and Correlation Swap Agreements. A Fund also may enter into forward volatility agreements, also known as volatility swaps. In a volatility swap, the counterparties agree to make payments in connection with changes in the volatility (i.e., the magnitude of change over a specified period of time) of an underlying reference instrument, such as a currency, rate, index, security or other financial instrument. Volatility swaps permit the parties

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to attempt to hedge volatility risk and/or take positions on the projected future volatility of an underlying reference instrument. For example, a Fund may enter into a volatility swap in order to take the position that the reference instrument’s volatility will increase over a particular period of time. If the reference instrument’s volatility does increase over the specified time, the Fund will receive a payment from its counterparty based upon the amount by which the reference instrument’s realized volatility level exceeds a volatility level agreed upon by the parties. If the reference instrument’s volatility does not increase over the specified time, the Fund will make a payment to the counterparty based upon the amount by which the reference instrument’s realized volatility level falls below the volatility level agreed upon by the parties. Payments on a volatility swap will be greater if they are based upon the mathematical square of volatility (i.e., the measured volatility multiplied by itself, which is referred to as “variance”). This type of a volatility swap is frequently referred to as a variance swap. Certain of the Funds may engage in variance swaps. Correlation swaps are contracts that provide exposure to increases or decreases in the correlation between the prices of different assets or different market rates. Certain of the Funds may engage in variance swaps and correlation swaps.
Interest Rate Futures Contracts and Options on Interest Rate Futures Contracts. A Fund may invest in interest rate futures contracts and options on interest rate futures contracts for various investment reasons, including to serve as a substitute for a comparable market position in the underlying securities. A Fund may also sell options on interest rate futures contracts as part of closing purchase transactions to terminate its options positions. No assurance can be given that such closing transactions can be effected or as to the degree of correlation between price movements in the options on interest rate futures and price movements in a Fund’s portfolio securities which are the subject of the transaction.
Bond prices are established in both the cash market and the futures market. In the cash market, bonds are purchased and sold with payment for the full purchase price of the bond being made in cash, generally within five business days after the trade. In the futures market, a contract is made to purchase or sell a bond in the future for a set price on a certain date. Historically, the prices for bonds established in the futures markets have tended to move generally in the aggregate in concert with the cash market prices and have maintained fairly predictable relationships. Accordingly, a Fund may use interest rate futures contracts as a defense, or hedge, against anticipated interest rate changes. A Fund presently could accomplish a similar result to that which it hopes to achieve through the use of interest rate futures contracts by selling bonds with long maturities and investing in bonds with short maturities when interest rates are expected to increase, or conversely, selling bonds with short maturities and investing in bonds with long maturities when interest rates are expected to decline. However, because of the liquidity that is often available in the futures market, the protection is more likely to be achieved, perhaps at a lower cost and without changing the rate of interest being earned by a Fund, through using futures contracts.
Inverse Floaters. Inverse floaters (also known as “residual interest bonds”) are inverse floating rate debt securities. The interest rate on an inverse floater varies inversely with a floating rate (which may be reset periodically by a “Dutch” auction, a remarketing agent or by reference to a short-term tax-exempt interest rate index). A change in the interest rate on the referenced security or index will inversely affect the rate of interest paid on an inverse floater. That is, income on inverse floating rate debt securities will decrease when interest rates increase, and will increase when interest rates decrease.
Markets for inverse floaters may be less developed and more volatile, and may experience less or varying degrees of liquidity relative to markets for more traditional securities, especially during periods of instability in credit markets. The value of an inverse floater is generally more volatile than that of a traditional fixed-rate bond having similar credit quality, redemption provisions and maturity. Inverse floaters may have interest rate adjustment formulas that generally reduce or, in the extreme cases, eliminate the interest paid to a Fund when short-term interest rates rise, and increase the interest paid to a Fund when short-term interest rates fall. The value of an inverse floater also tends to fall faster than the value of a fixed-rate bond when interest rates rise, and conversely, the value of an inverse floater tends to rise more rapidly when interest rates fall. Inverse floaters tend to underperform fixed-rate bonds in a rising long-term interest rate environment, but tend to outperform fixed-rate bonds when long-term interest rates decline.
Inverse floaters have the effect of providing a degree of investment leverage because they may increase or decrease in value in response to changes (e.g., changes in market interest rates) at a rate that is a multiple of the rate at which fixed-rate securities increase or decrease in response to the same changes. As a result, the market values of such

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securities are generally more volatile than the market values of fixed-rate securities (especially during periods when interest rates are fluctuating). A Fund could lose money and its net asset value could decline if movements in interest rates are incorrectly anticipated. To seek to limit the volatility of these securities, a Fund may purchase inverse floating obligations that have shorter-term maturities or that contain limitations on the extent to which the interest rate may vary. Certain investments in such obligations may be illiquid. Furthermore, where such a security includes a contingent liability, in the event of an adverse movement in the underlying index or interest rate, a Fund may be required to pay substantial additional margin to maintain the position.
A Fund may either participate in structuring an inverse floater or purchase an inverse floater in the secondary market. When structuring an inverse floater, a Fund will transfer fixed-rate securities held in the Fund’s portfolio to a trust. The trust then typically issues the inverse floaters and the floating rate notes that are collateralized by the cash flows of the fixed-rate securities. In return for the transfer of the securities to the trust, the Fund receives the inverse floaters and cash associated with the sale of the notes from the trust.
Inverse floaters are sometimes created by depositing municipal securities in a tender option bond trust (“TOB Trust”). In a tender option bond (“TOB”) transaction, a TOB Trust issues a floating rate certificate (“TOB Floater”) and a residual interest certificate (“TOB Residual”) and utilizes the proceeds of such issuance to purchase a fixed-rate municipal bond (“Fixed-Rate Bond”) that either is owned or identified by a Fund. The TOB Floater is generally issued to third party investors (typically a money market fund) and the TOB Residual is generally issued to the Fund that sold or identified the Fixed-Rate Bond. The TOB Trust divides the income stream provided by the Fixed-Rate Bond to create two securities, the TOB Floater, which is a short-term security, and the TOB Residual, which is a longer-term security. The interest rates payable on the TOB Residual issued to a Fund bear an inverse relationship to the interest rate on the TOB Floater. The interest rate on the TOB Floater is reset by a remarketing process typically every 7 to 35 days. After income is paid on the TOB Floater at current rates, the residual income from the Fixed-Rate Bond goes to the TOB Residual. Therefore, rising short-term rates result in lower income for the TOB Residual, and vice versa. In the case of a TOB Trust that utilizes the cash received (less transaction expenses) from the issuance of the TOB Floater and TOB Residual to purchase the Fixed Rate Bond from a Fund, the Fund may then invest the cash received in additional securities, generating leverage for the Fund.
The TOB Residual may be more volatile and less liquid than other municipal bonds of comparable maturity. In most circumstances, the TOB Residual holder bears substantially all of the underlying Fixed-Rate Bond’s downside investment risk and also benefits from any appreciation in the value of the underlying Fixed-Rate Bond. Investments in a TOB Residual typically will involve greater risk than investments in Fixed-Rate Bonds.
The TOB Residual held by a Fund provides the Fund with the right to: i) cause the holders of the TOB Floater to tender their notes at par; and ii) cause the sale of the Fixed-Rate Bond held by the TOB Trust, thereby collapsing the TOB Trust. TOB Trusts are generally supported by a liquidity facility provided by a third-party bank or other financial institution (the “Liquidity Provider”) that provides for the purchase of TOB Floaters that cannot be remarketed. The holders of the TOB Floaters have the right to tender their certificates in exchange for payment of par plus accrued interest on a periodic basis (typically weekly) or on the occurrence of certain mandatory tender events. The tendered TOB Floaters are remarketed by a remarketing agent, which is typically an affiliated entity of the Liquidity Provider. If the TOB Floaters cannot be remarketed, the TOB Floaters are purchased by the TOB Trust either from the proceeds of a loan from the Liquidity Provider or from a liquidation of the Fixed-Rate Bond.
The TOB Trust may also be collapsed without the consent of a Fund, as the TOB Residual holder, upon the occurrence of certain “tender option termination events” (or “TOTEs”), as defined in the TOB Trust agreements. Such termination events typically include the bankruptcy or default of the municipal bond, a substantial downgrade in credit quality of the municipal bond, or a judgment or ruling that interest on the Fixed-Rate Bond is subject to federal income taxation. Upon the occurrence of a termination event, the TOB Trust would generally be liquidated in full with the proceeds typically applied first to any accrued fees owed to the trustee, remarketing agent and liquidity provider, and then to the holders of the TOB Floater up to par plus accrued interest owed on the TOB Floater and a portion of gain share, if any, with the balance paid out to the TOB Residual holder. In the case of a mandatory termination event (“MTE”), after the payment of fees, the TOB Floater holders would be paid before the TOB Residual holders (i.e., the Fund). In contrast, in the case of a TOTE, after payment of fees, the TOB Floater holders and the TOB Residual holders would be paid pro rata in proportion to the respective face values of their certificates.

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Participation Notes. Participation notes (“P-notes”) are participation interest notes that are issued by banks and broker-dealers and are designed to offer a return linked to a particular equity, debt, currency or market. An investment in a P-note involves additional risks beyond the risks normally associated with a direct investment in the underlying security, and the P-note’s performance may differ from the underlying security’s performance. While the holder of a P-note is entitled to receive from the bank or issuing broker-dealer any dividends paid on the underlying security, the holder is not entitled to the same rights (e.g., voting rights) as an owner of the underlying stock. P-notes are considered general unsecured contractual obligations of the banks or broker-dealers that issue them. As such, a Fund must rely on the creditworthiness of the issuer of a P-note for their investment returns on such P-note, and would have no rights against the issuer of the underlying security. There is also no assurance that there will be a secondary trading market for a P-note or that the trading price of a P-note will equal the value of the underlying security. Additionally, issuers of P-notes and the calculation agent may have broad authority to control the foreign exchange rates related to the P-notes and discretion to adjust the P-note’s terms in response to certain events.
Stock Index Futures Contracts and Options on Stock Index Futures Contracts. Stock index futures and options on stock index futures provide exposure to comparable market positions in the underlying securities or to manage risk (i.e., hedge) on direct investments in the underlying securities. A stock index future obligates the seller to deliver (and the purchaser to take), effectively, an amount of cash equal to a specific dollar amount times the difference between the value of a specific stock index at the close of the last trading day of the contract and the price at which the agreement is made. No physical delivery of the underlying stocks in the index is made. With respect to stock indices that are permitted investments, each Fund intends to purchase and sell futures contracts on the stock index for which it can obtain the best price with consideration also given to liquidity.
Options on stock index futures give the purchaser the right, in return for the premium paid, to assume a position in a stock index futures contract (a long position if the option is a call and a short position if the option is a put), at a specified exercise price at any time during the period of the option. Upon exercise of the option, the delivery of the futures position by the writer of the option to the holder of the option will be accompanied by delivery of the accumulated balance in the writer’s futures margin account, which represents the amount by which the market price of the stock index futures contract, at exercise, exceeds (in the case of a call) or is less than (in the case of a put) the exercise price of the option on the stock index future. If an option is exercised on the last trading day prior to the expiration date of the option, the settlement will be made entirely in cash equal to the difference between the exercise price of the option and the closing level of the index on which the future is based on the expiration date. Purchasers of options who fail to exercise their options prior to the exercise date suffer a loss of the premium paid.
Synthetic Convertible Securities. Synthetic convertible securities are derivative positions composed of two or more different securities whose investment characteristics, taken together, resemble those of convertible securities. For example, a Fund may purchase a non-convertible debt security and a warrant or option, which enables a Fund to have a convertible-like position with respect to a company, group of companies or a stock index. Synthetic convertible securities are typically offered by financial institutions and investment banks in private placement transactions. Upon conversion, a Fund generally receives an amount in cash equal to the difference between the conversion price and the then current value of the underlying security. Unlike a true convertible security, a synthetic convertible comprises two or more separate securities, each with its own market value. Therefore, the market value of a synthetic convertible is the sum of the values of its fixed-income component and its convertible component. For this reason, the values of a synthetic convertible and a true convertible security may respond differently to market fluctuations. In addition to the general risks of convertible securities and the special risks of enhanced convertible securities, there are risks unique to synthetic convertible securities. In addition, the component parts of a synthetic convertible security may be purchased simultaneously or separately; and the holder of a synthetic convertible faces the risk that the price of the stock, or the level of the market index underlying the convertibility component will decline. Exposure to more than one issuer or participant will increase the number of parties upon which the investment depends and the complexity of that investment and, as a result, increase a Fund’s credit risk and valuation risk. A Fund only invests in synthetic convertibles with respect to companies whose corporate debt securities are rated “A” or higher by Moody’s or S&P and will not invest more than 15% of its net assets in such synthetic securities and other illiquid securities.

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Permitted Investment Activities and Certain Associated Risks  
Set forth below are descriptions of permitted investment activities for the Funds and certain of their associated risks. The activities are organized into various categories. To the extent that an activity overlaps two or more categories, the activity is referenced only once in this section. Not all of the Funds participate in all of the investment activities described below. In addition, with respect to any particular Fund, to the extent that an investment activity is described in such Fund’s Prospectus as being part of its principal investment strategy, the information provided below regarding such investment activity is intended to supplement, but not supersede, the information contained in the Prospectus, and the Fund may engage in such investment activity in accordance with the limitations set forth in the Prospectus. To the extent an investment activity is described in this SAI that is not referenced in the Prospectus, a Fund under normal circumstances will not engage in such investment activity with more than 15% of its assets unless otherwise specified below. Unless otherwise noted or required by applicable law, the percentage limitations included in this SAI apply at the time of purchase of a security.
For purposes of monitoring the investment policies and restrictions of the Funds (with the exception of the loans of portfolio securities policy described below), the amount of any securities lending collateral held by a Fund will be excluded in calculating total assets.
DEBT SECURITIES
Debt securities include bonds, corporate debt securities and similar instruments, issued by various U.S. and non-U.S. public- or private-sector entities. The issuer of a debt security has a contractual obligation to pay interest at a stated rate on specific dates and to repay principal (the debt security’s face value) periodically or on a specified maturity date. An issuer may have the right to redeem or “call” a debt security before maturity, in which case the investor may have to reinvest the proceeds at lower market rates. The value of fixed-rate debt securities will tend to fall when interest rates rise, and rise when interest rates fall. The values of “floating-rate” or “variable-rate” debt securities, on the other hand, fluctuate much less in response to market interest-rate movements than the value of fixed-rate debt securities. Debt securities may be senior or subordinated obligations. Senior obligations, including certain bonds and corporate debt securities, generally have the first claim on a corporation’s earnings and assets and, in the event of liquidation, are paid before subordinated debt. Debt securities may be unsecured (backed only by the issuer’s general creditworthiness) or secured (also backed by specified collateral).
Debt securities are interest-bearing investments that promise a stable stream of income; however, the prices of such securities are inversely affected by changes in interest rates and, therefore, are subject to the risk of market price fluctuations. Longer-term securities are affected to a greater extent by changes in interest rates than shorter-term securities. The values of debt securities also may be affected by changes in the credit rating or financial condition of the issuing entities. Certain securities that may be purchased by a Fund, such as those rated “Baa” or lower by Moody’s Investors Service, Inc. (“Moody’s”) and “BBB” or lower by Standard & Poor’s Rating Group (“S&P”) and Fitch Investors Service, Inc. (“Fitch”) tend to be subject to greater issuer credit risk, to greater market fluctuations and pricing uncertainty, and to less liquidity than lower-yielding, higher-rated debt securities. A Fund could lose money if the issuer fails to meet its financial obligations. If a security held by a Fund is downgraded, such Fund may continue to hold the security until such time as the Fund’s sub-adviser determines it to be advantageous for the Fund to sell the security. Investing in debt securities is subject to certain risks including, among others, credit and interest rate risk, as more fully described in this section.
A Fund may purchase instruments that are not rated if, as determined by the Fund’s sub-adviser, such obligations are of investment quality comparable to other rated investments that are permitted to be purchased by such Fund. After purchase by a Fund, a security may cease to be rated, or its rating may be reduced below the minimum required for purchase by such Fund. Neither event will require a sale of such security by the Fund. To the extent the ratings given by Moody’s, Fitch or S&P may change as a result of changes in such organizations’ rating systems, a Fund will attempt to use comparable ratings as standards for investments in accordance with the investment policies contained in its Prospectus and in this SAI.
Certain of the debt obligations a Fund may purchase (including certificates of participation, commercial paper and other short-term obligations) may be backed by a letter of credit from a bank or insurance company. A letter of credit guarantees that payment to a lender will be received on time and for the correct amount, and is typically unconditional and irrevocable. In the event that the indebted party is unable to make payment on the debt

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obligation, the bank or insurance company will be required to cover the full or remaining amount of the debt obligation.
Corporate debt securities are long and short term fixed-income securities typically issued by businesses to finance their operations. The issuer of a corporate debt security has a contractual obligation to pay interest at a stated rate on specific dates and to repay principal periodically or on a specified maturity date. The rate of interest on a corporate debt security may be fixed, floating, or variable, and could vary directly or inversely with respect to a reference rate. An issuer may have the right to redeem or “call” a corporate debt security before maturity, in which case the investor may have to reinvest the proceeds at lower market rates. The value of fixed-rate corporate debt securities will tend to fall when interest rates rise and rise when interest rates fall. Senior obligations generally have the first claim on a corporation’s earnings and assets and, in the event of liquidation, are paid before subordinated debt. Corporate debt securities may be unsecured (backed only by the issuer’s general creditworthiness) or secured (also backed by specified collateral). Because of the wide range of types and maturities of corporate debt securities, as well as the range of creditworthiness of issuers, corporate debt securities can have widely varying risk/return profiles.
LIBOR Transition. The Funds’ investments, payment obligations and financing terms may be based on floating rates, such as London Inter-bank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”), Euro Interbank Offered Rate (“EURIBOR”) and other similar types of reference rates (each, a “Reference Rate”). On July 27, 2017, the Chief Executive of the U.K. Financial Conduct Authority (“FCA”), which regulates LIBOR, announced that the FCA will no longer persuade nor compel banks to submit rates for the calculation of LIBOR and certain other Reference Rates after 2021. On March 5, 2021, the FCA and the ICE Benchmark Administration (“IBA”) announced that most LIBOR settings will no longer be published after December 31, 2021 and a majority of U.S. dollar LIBOR settings will cease publication after June 30, 2023. Specifically, the IBA announced that all LIBOR settings will either cease to be provided by any administrator, or no longer be representative immediately after December 31, 2021, for all four LIBOR settings (Great British Pound (“GBP”), Euro, Swiss Franc and Japanese Yen) and for the one-week and two-month U.S. dollar LIBOR settings, and immediately after June 30, 2023 for the remaining U.S. dollar LIBOR settings, including three-month U.S. dollar LIBOR. While the FCA may consult on the issue of requiring the IBA to produce certain LIBOR tenors on a synthetic basis, it has announced that all 35 LIBOR settings will either cease to be provided by any administrator or will no longer be representative as of the dates published by the IBA. Various financial industry groups have begun planning for that transition and certain regulators and industry groups have taken actions to establish alternative Reference Rates. Replacement rates that have been identified include the Secured Overnight Financing Rate (“SOFR”), which is intended to replace U.S. dollar LIBOR and measures the cost of overnight borrowings through repurchase agreement transactions collateralized with U.S. Treasury securities, and the Sterling Overnight Index Average Rate (“SONIA”), which is intended to replace GBP LIBOR and measures the overnight interest rate paid by banks for unsecured transactions in the sterling market, although other replacement rates could be adopted by market participants.
The termination of certain Reference Rates presents risks to the Funds. At this time, it is not possible to exhaustively identify or predict the effect of any such changes, any establishment of alternative Reference Rates or any other reforms to Reference Rates that may be enacted in the UK or elsewhere. The elimination of a Reference Rate, or any other changes or reforms to the determination or supervision of Reference Rates, could have an adverse impact on the market for, or value of any, securities or payments linked to those Reference Rates and other financial obligations held by a Fund, or on its overall financial condition or results of operations. In addition, any substitute Reference Rate, and any pricing adjustments imposed by a regulator or by counterparties or otherwise, may adversely affect a Fund’s performance and/or net asset value.
Negative Interest Rates. Certain countries have recently experienced negative interest rates on deposits and debt instruments have traded at negative yields. A negative interest rate policy is an unconventional central bank monetary policy tool where nominal target interest rates are set with a negative value (i.e., below zero percent) intended to help create self-sustaining growth in the local economy. Negative interest rates may become more prevalent among non-U.S. issuers, and potentially within the U.S. To the extent a Fund has a bank deposit or holds a debt instrument with a negative interest rate to maturity, the Fund would generate a negative return on that investment. While negative yields can be expected to reduce demand for fixed-income investments trading at a negative interest rate, investors may be willing to continue to purchase such investments for a number of reasons including, but not limited to, price insensitivity, arbitrage opportunities across fixed-income markets or rules-based

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investment strategies. If negative interest rates become more prevalent in the market, it is expected that investors will seek to reallocate assets to other income-producing assets such as investment grade and high-yield debt instruments, or equity investments that pay a dividend. This increased demand for higher yielding assets may cause the price of such instruments to rise while triggering a corresponding decrease in yield and the value of debt instruments over time.
Asset-Backed Securities. Asset-backed securities are securities that are secured or “backed” by pools of various types of assets on which cash payments are due at fixed intervals over set periods of time. Asset-backed securities are created in a process called securitization. In a securitization transaction, an originator of loans or an owner of accounts receivable of a certain type of asset class sells such underlying assets to a special purpose entity, so that there is no recourse to such originator or owner. Payments of principal and interest on asset-backed securities typically are tied to payments made on the pool of underlying assets in the related securitization. Such payments on the underlying assets are effectively “passed through” to the asset-backed security holders on a monthly or other regular, periodic basis. The level of seniority of a particular asset-backed security will determine the priority in which the holder of such asset-backed security is paid, relative to other security holders and parties in such securitization. Examples of underlying assets include consumer loans or receivables, home equity loans, credit card loans, student loans, automobile loans or leases, and timeshares, although other types of receivables or assets also may be used as underlying assets.
While asset-backed securities typically have a fixed, stated maturity date, low prevailing interest rates may lead to an increase in the prepayments made on the underlying assets. This may cause the outstanding balances due on the underlying assets to be paid down more rapidly. As a result, a decrease in the originally anticipated interest from such underlying securities may occur, causing the asset-backed securities to pay-down in whole or in part prior to their original stated maturity date. Prepayment proceeds would then have to be reinvested at the lower prevailing interest rates. Conversely, prepayments on the underlying assets may be less than anticipated, especially during periods of high or rising interest rates, causing an extension in the duration of the asset-backed securities. The impact of any prepayments made on the underlying assets may be difficult to predict and may result in greater volatility.
Delinquencies or losses that exceed the anticipated amounts for a given securitization could adversely impact the payments made on the related asset-backed securities. This is a reason why, as part of a securitization, asset-backed securities are often accompanied by some form of credit enhancement, such as a guaranty, insurance policy, or subordination. Credit protection in the form of derivative contracts may also be purchased. In certain securitization transactions, insurance, credit protection, or both may be purchased with respect to only the most senior classes of asset-backed securities, on the underlying collateral pool, or both. The extent and type of credit enhancement varies across securitization transactions.
Asset-backed securities carry additional risks including, but not limited to, the possibility that: i) the creditworthiness of the credit support provider may deteriorate; and ii) such securities may become less liquid or harder to value as a result of market conditions or other circumstances.
Money Market Instruments. Money market instruments provide short-term funds to businesses, financial institutions and governments. They are debt instruments issued with maturities of thirteen months or less, and that are determined to present minimal credit risk. Because of their short-term maturities and by whom these debt instruments are issued, money market instruments are extremely liquid and provide relatively few risks. Common money market instruments include Treasury bills, certificates of deposit, commercial paper, banker’s acceptances, and repurchase agreements among others.
Adjustable Rate Obligations. Adjustable rate obligations include demand notes, medium term notes, bonds, commercial paper, and certificates of participation in such instruments. The interest rate on adjustable rate obligations may be floating or variable. For certain adjustable-rate obligations, the rate rises and declines based on the movement of a reference index of interest rates and is adjusted periodically according to a specified formula. Adjustable-rate securities generally are less sensitive to interest rate changes, but may lose value if their interest rates do not rise as much, or as quickly, as interest rates in general. Conversely, adjustable-rate securities generally will not increase in value if interest rates decline. When a Fund holds adjustable-rate securities, a reduction in market or reference interest rates will reduce the income received from such securities.

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Adjustable-rate obligations include floating- and variable-rate obligations. The interest rate on a variable-rate demand obligation is adjusted automatically at specified intervals, while the interest rate on floating-rate obligations is adjusted when the rate on the underlying index changes. These obligations typically have long-stated maturities and may have a conditional or unconditional demand feature that permits the holder to demand payment of principal at any time or at specified intervals. Variable-rate demand notes also include master demand notes that are obligations that permit a Fund to invest fluctuating amounts, which may change daily without penalty, pursuant to direct arrangements between the Fund, as lender, and the borrower. The borrower may have a right, after a given period, to prepay at its discretion the outstanding principal amount of the obligations plus accrued interest upon a specified number of days’ notice to the holders of such obligations. For more information, refer to “Variable Amount Master Demand Notes.”
Some adjustable rate obligations may be secured by letters of credit or other credit support arrangements provided by banks. Such credit support arrangements often include unconditional and irrevocable letters of credit that are issued by a third party, usually a bank, which assumes the obligation for payment of principal and interest in the event of default by the issuer. Letters of credit are designed to enhance liquidity and ensure repayment of principal and any accrued interest if the underlying variable rate demand obligation should default. Some variable rate obligations feature other credit enhancements, such as standby bond purchase agreements (“SBPAs”). A SBPA can feature a liquidity facility that is designed to provide funding for the purchase price of variable rate obligations that fail to be remarketed. The liquidity facility provider is obligated solely to advance funds for the purchase of tendered variable rate bonds that fail to be remarketed and does not guarantee the repayment of principal or interest. The liquidity facility provider’s obligations under the SBPA are subject to conditions, including the continued creditworthiness of the underlying borrower or issuer, and the facility may terminate upon the occurrence of certain events of default or at the expiration of its term. In addition, a liquidity facility provider may fail to perform its obligations.
A Fund may be unable to timely dispose of a variable rate obligation if the issuer defaults and the letter of credit or liquidity facility provider fails to perform its obligations or the facility otherwise terminates and a successor letter of credit or liquidity provider is not immediately obtained. The potential adverse impact to a Fund resulting from the inability of a letter of credit or liquidity facility provider to meet its obligations could be magnified to the extent the provider also furnishes credit support for other variable-rate obligations held by the Fund.
In the case of adjustable-rate securities that are not subject to a demand feature, a Fund is reliant on the secondary market for liquidity. In addition, there generally is no established secondary market for master demand notes because they are direct lending arrangements between the lender and borrower. Accordingly, where these obligations are not secured by letters of credit, SBPAs or other credit support arrangements, a Fund is dependent on the ability of the borrower to pay principal and interest in accordance with the terms of the obligations. The failure by a Fund to receive scheduled interest or principal payments on a loan would adversely affect the income of the Fund and would likely reduce the value of its assets, which would be reflected in a reduction in the Fund’s NAV.
Adjustable-rate obligations may or may not be rated by nationally recognized statistical ratings organizations (e.g., Moody’s Investors Service, Inc. (“Moody’s”), Standard & Poor’s Rating Group (“S&P”), or Fitch Investors Service, Inc. (“Fitch”)). Adjustable-rate obligations are subject to credit and other risks generally associated with debt securities.
Bank Obligations. Bank obligations include certificates of deposit, time deposits, bankers’ acceptances, and other short-term obligations of domestic banks, foreign subsidiaries of domestic banks, foreign branches of domestic banks, domestic and foreign branches of foreign banks, domestic savings and loan associations and other banking institutions. Certificates of deposit are negotiable certificates evidencing the obligation of a bank to repay funds deposited with it for a specified period of time. Time deposits are non-negotiable deposits maintained in a banking institution for a specified period of time at a stated interest rate. Bankers’ acceptances are credit instruments evidencing the obligation of a bank to pay a draft drawn on it by a customer. These instruments reflect the obligation both of the bank and of the customer to pay the face amount of the instrument upon maturity. Other short-term obligations may include uninsured, direct obligations of the banking institution bearing fixed, floating or variable interest rates.
The activities of U.S. banks and most foreign banks are subject to comprehensive regulations. New legislation or regulations, or changes in interpretation and enforcement of existing laws or regulations, may affect the manner of

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operations and profitability of domestic banks. With respect to such obligations issued by foreign branches of domestic banks, foreign subsidiaries of domestic banks, and domestic and foreign branches of foreign banks, a Fund may be subject to additional investment risks that are different in some respects from those incurred by a Fund that invests only in debt obligations of domestic issuers. Such risks include political, regulatory or economic developments, the possible imposition of foreign withholding and other taxes (at potentially confiscatory levels) on amounts realized on such obligations, the possible establishment of exchange controls or the adoption of other foreign governmental restrictions that might adversely affect the payment of principal and interest on these obligations and the possible seizure or nationalization of foreign deposits. In addition, foreign branches of domestic banks and foreign banks may be subject to less stringent reserve requirements and to different regulatory, accounting, auditing, reporting and recordkeeping standards than those applicable to domestic branches of U.S. banks.
Banks may be particularly susceptible to certain economic factors, such as interest rate changes or adverse developments in the market for real estate. Fiscal and monetary policy and general economic cycles can affect the availability and cost of funds, loan demand and asset quality and thereby impact the earnings and financial conditions of banks. Further, the traditional banking industry is experiencing increased competition from alternative types of financial institutions.
Collateralized Debt Obligations (“CDOs”). CDOs pool together assets that generate cash flow, and repackages these pools into discrete tranches that can be sold to investors. CDOs include collateralized loan obligations (“CLOs”), collateralized bond obligations (“CBOs”), and other similarly structured securities. CLOs and CBOs are distinguished by their underlying securities. CLOs are securities comprised of bundles of corporate loans; CBOs are securities backed by a collection of bonds or other CDOs.
The tranches in a CDO vary substantially in their risk profiles and level of yield. Tranches bear losses in the reverse order of their seniority with respect to one another. The most junior tranche is generally the tranche that bears the highest level of risk, but also generally bears the highest coupon rates. The senior tranches are generally safer because they have first priority on payback from the collateral in the event of default. As a result, the senior tranches of a CDO generally have a higher credit rating and offer lower coupon rates than the junior tranches. Despite the protection, even the most senior tranches can experience substantial losses due to the rate of actual defaults on the underlying collateral. The type of collateral used as underlying securities in a particular CDO therefore may substantially impact the risk associated with purchasing the securities.
CDOs can also be divided into two main categories: cash and synthetic. Cash CDOs are secured by cash assets, such as loans and corporate bonds. Synthetic CDOs are secured by credit default swaps or other noncash assets that provide exposure to a portfolio of fixed-income assets.
Cash CDOs can be further subdivided into two types: cash flow and market value. Cash flow and market value CDOs differ from each other in the manner by which cash flow is generated to pay the security holders, the manner in which the structure is credit-enhanced, and how the pool of underlying collateral is managed. Cash flow CDOs are collateralized by a pool of high-yield bonds or loans, which pay principal and interest on a regular basis. Credit enhancement is achieved by having subordinated tranches of securities. The most senior/highest-rated tranche will be the last to be affected by any interruption of cash flow from the underlying assets. In a cash flow CDO, the collateral manager endeavors to maintain a minimum level of diversification and weighted average rating among the underlying assets in an effort to mitigate severity of loss. Market value CDOs receive payments based on the mark-to-market returns on the underlying collateral. Credit enhancement for market value CDOs is achieved by specific overcollateralization levels in the form of advance rates assigned to each underlying collateral asset. Because principal and interest payments on the securities come from collateral cash flows and sales of collateral, which the collateral manager monitors, returns on market value CDOs are substantially related to the collateral manager’s performance.
CDOs carry the risk of uncertainty of timing of cash flows. Such a risk depends on the type of collateral, the degree of diversification, and the specific tranche in which a Fund invests. Typically, CDOs are issued through private offerings and are not registered under the securities laws. However, an active dealer market may exist for such securities, thereby allowing such securities to trade consistent with an exemption from registration under Rule 144A under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended. Further risks include the possibility that distributions from the

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collateral will not be adequate to make interest payments, and that the quality of the collateral may decline in value or default.
Commercial Paper. Commercial paper is a short-term, promissory note issued by a bank, corporation or other borrower to finance short-term credit needs. Commercial paper is typically unsecured but it may be supported by letters of credit, surety bonds or other forms of collateral. Commercial paper may be sold at par or on a discount basis and typically has a maturity from 1 to 270 days. Like bonds, and other fixed-income securities, commercial paper prices are susceptible to fluctuations in interest rates. As interest rates rise, commercial paper prices typically will decline and vice versa. The short-term nature of a commercial paper investment, however, makes it less susceptible to such volatility than many other securities. Variable amount master demand notes are a type of commercial paper. They are demand obligations that permit the investment of fluctuating amounts at varying market rates of interest pursuant to arrangements between the issuer and a commercial bank acting as agent for the payee of such notes whereby both parties have the right to vary the amount of the outstanding indebtedness on the notes.
Dollar Roll Transactions. Dollar roll transactions are transactions wherein a Fund sells fixed-income securities and simultaneously makes a commitment to purchase similar, but not identical, securities at a later date from the same party and at a predetermined price. Mortgage-backed security dollar rolls and U.S. Treasury dollar rolls are types of dollar rolls. Like a forward commitment, during the roll period, no payment is made by a Fund for the securities purchased, and no interest or principal payments on the securities purchased accrue to the Fund, but the Fund assumes the risk of ownership. A Fund is compensated for entering into dollar roll transactions by the difference between the current sales price and the forward price for the future purchase, as well as by the interest earned on the cash proceeds of the initial sale. Dollar roll transactions may result in higher transaction costs for a Fund.
Like other when-issued securities or firm commitment agreements, dollar roll transactions involve the risk that the market value of the securities sold by a Fund may decline below the price at which the Fund is committed to purchase similar securities. In the event the buyer of securities from a Fund under a dollar roll transaction becomes insolvent, the Fund’s use of the proceeds of the transaction may be restricted pending a determination by the other party, or its trustee or receiver, whether to enforce the Fund’s obligation to repurchase the securities. A Fund will engage in dollar roll transactions for the purpose of acquiring securities for its portfolio and not for investment leverage.
High-Yield Securities. High-yield securities (also known as “junk bonds”) are debt securities that are rated below investment-grade, or are unrated and deemed by the Fund’s sub-adviser to be below investment-grade, or are in default at the time of purchase. These securities are considered to be high-risk investments and have a much greater risk of default (or in the case of bonds currently in default, of not returning principal). High-yield securities also tend to be more volatile than higher-rated securities of similar maturity. The value of these debt securities can be affected by overall economic conditions, interest rates, and the creditworthiness of the individual issuers. These securities tend to be less liquid and more difficult to value than higher-rated securities. If market quotations are not readily available for the Funds’ lower-rated or nonrated securities, these securities will be valued by a method that the Funds’ Boards believe reflects their fair value.
The market values of certain high yield and comparable unrated securities tend to be more sensitive to individual corporate developments and changes in economic conditions than investment-grade securities. Adverse publicity and investor perceptions, whether or not based on fundamental analysis, may decrease the values and liquidity of high yield securities, especially in a thinly traded market. In addition, issuers of high yield and comparable unrated securities often are highly leveraged and may not have more traditional methods of financing available to them. Their ability to service their debt obligations, especially during an economic downturn or during sustained periods of high interest rates, may be impaired.
High yield and comparable unrated securities are typically unsecured and frequently are subordinated to senior indebtedness. A Fund may incur additional expenses to the extent that it is required to seek recovery upon a default in the payment of principal or interest on its portfolio holdings. The existence of limited trading markets for high yield and comparable unrated securities may diminish a Fund’s ability to: i) obtain accurate market quotations for purposes of valuing such securities and calculating its net asset value; and ii) sell the securities either to meet redemption requests or to respond to changes in the economy or in financial markets.

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Inflation-Protected Debt Securities. Inflation-protected debt securities, including Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities (“TIPS”), are instruments whose principal is adjusted for inflation, as indicated by specific indexes. For example, the principal of TIPS is adjusted for inflation as indicated by the Consumer Price Index. As inflation falls, the principal value of inflation-protected securities will be adjusted downward and the interest payable will be reduced. As inflation rises, the principal value of inflation-protected securities will be adjusted upward, and the interest payable will be increased. A Fund’s yield and return will reflect both any inflation adjustment to interest income and the inflation adjustment to principal.
While these securities are designed to protect holders from long term inflationary trends, short term increases in inflation may lead to a decline in value. If interest rates rise due to reasons other than inflation (for example, due to changes in currency exchange rates), holders of these securities may not be protected to the extent that the increase is not reflected in the debt securities’ inflationary measure. Income fluctuations associated with changes in market interest rates are expected to be low; however, income fluctuations associated with changes in inflation are expected to be high. The value of inflation-indexed bonds is expected to change in response to changes in real interest rates. Real interest rates are tied to the relationship between nominal interest rates and the rate of inflation. If nominal interest rates increase at a faster rate than inflation, real interest rates may rise, leading to a decrease in value of inflation-indexed bonds. In certain interest rate environments, such as when real interest rates are rising faster than nominal interest rates, inflation indexed bonds may experience greater losses than other fixed-income securities with similar durations.
For federal income tax purposes, both interest payments and the difference between original principal and the inflation-adjusted principal of inflation-protected debt securities will be treated as interest income subject to taxation. Interest payments are taxable when received or accrued. The inflation adjustment to principal is subject to tax in the year the adjustment is made, not at maturity of the security when the cash from the repayment of principal is received.
Inflation-protected debt securities are subject to greater risk than traditional debt securities if interest rates rise in a low inflation environment. Generally, the value of an inflation-protected debt security will fall when real interest rates rise and will rise when real interest rates fall.
Loan Participations. A loan participation gives a Fund an undivided proportionate interest in a partnership or trust that owns a loan or instrument originated by a bank or other financial institution. Typically, loan participations are offered by banks or other financial institutions or lending syndicates and are acquired by multiple investors. Principal and interest payments are passed through to the holder of the loan participation. Loan participations may carry a demand feature permitting the holder to tender the participations back to the bank or other institution. Loan participations, however, typically do not provide the holder with any right to enforce compliance by the borrower, nor any rights of set-off against the borrower, and the holder may not directly benefit from any collateral supporting the loan in which it purchased a loan participation. As a result, the holder may assume the credit risk of both the borrower and the lender that is selling the loan participation.
Loan participations in which a Fund may invest are subject generally to the same risks as debt securities in which the Fund may invest. Loan participations in which a Fund invests may be made to finance highly leveraged corporate acquisitions. The highly leveraged capital structure of the borrowers in such transactions may make such loan participations especially vulnerable to adverse changes in economic or market conditions. Loan participations generally are subject to restrictions on transfer, and only limited opportunities may exist to sell such loan participations in secondary markets. As a result, a Fund may be unable to sell loan participations at a time when it may otherwise be desirable to do so, or may be able to sell them only at a price below their fair market value. Market bids may be unavailable for loan participations from time to time; a Fund may find it difficult to establish a fair value for loan participations held by it. Many loan participations in which a Fund invests may be unrated, and the Fund’s sub-adviser will be required to rely exclusively on its analysis of the borrower in determining whether to acquire, or to continue to hold, a loan participation. In addition, under legal theories of lender liability, a Fund potentially might be held liable as a co-lender.
Mortgage-Backed Securities. Mortgage-backed securities, also called mortgage pass-through securities, are issued in securitizations (see “Asset-Backed Securities” section) and represent interests in “pools” of underlying mortgage loans that serve as collateral for such securities. These mortgage loans may have either fixed or adjustable interest

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rates. A guarantee or other form of credit support may be attached to a mortgage-backed security to protect against default on obligations. Similar to asset-backed securities, the monthly payments made by the individual borrowers on the underlying mortgage loans are effectively “passed through” to the holders of the mortgage-backed securities (net of administrative and other fees paid to various parties) as monthly principal and interest payments. Some mortgage-backed securities make payments of both principal and interest at a range of specified intervals, while others make semiannual interest payments at a predetermined rate and repay principal only at maturity. An economic downturn—particularly one that contributes to an increase in delinquencies and defaults on residential mortgages, falling home prices, and unemployment—may adversely affect the market for and value of mortgage-backed securities.
The stated maturities of mortgage-backed securities may be shortened by unscheduled prepayments of principal on the underlying mortgage loans, and the expected maturities may be extended in rising interest-rate environments. Therefore, it is not possible to predict accurately the maturity of a particular mortgage-backed security. Variations in the maturities of mortgage-backed securities resulting from prepayments will affect the yield of each such security and the portfolio as a whole. Rates of prepayment of principal on the underlying mortgage loans in mortgage-backed securitizations that are faster than expected may expose the holder to a lower rate of return upon reinvestment of proceeds at lower prevailing interest rates. Also, if a mortgage-backed security has been purchased at a premium and is backed by underlying mortgage loans that are subject to prepayment, the value of the premium would effectively be lost or reduced if prepayments are made on such underlying collateral. Conversely, to the extent a mortgage-backed security is purchased at a discount, both a scheduled payment of principal and an unscheduled payment of principal would increase current and total returns, as well as accelerate the recognition of income.
Mortgage-backed securities are subject to credit risk, which includes the risk that the holder may not receive all or part of its interest or principal because the issuer, or any credit enhancer and/or the underlying mortgage borrowers have defaulted on their obligations. Credit risk is increased for mortgage-backed securities that are subordinated to another security (i.e., if the holder of a mortgage-backed security is entitled to receive payments only after payment obligations to holders of the other security are satisfied). The more deeply subordinated the security, the greater the credit risk associated with the security will be.
In addition, the Funds may purchase some mortgage-backed securities through private placements that are restricted as to further sale. Mortgage-backed securities issued by private issuers, whether or not such obligations are subject to guarantees by the private issuer, typically entail greater credit risk than mortgage-backed securities guaranteed by a government association or government-sponsored enterprise. The performance of mortgage-backed securities issued by private issuers depends, in part, on the financial health of any guarantees and the performance of the mortgage pool backing such securities. An unexpectedly high rate of defaults on mortgages held by a mortgage pool may limit substantially the pool’s ability to make payments of principal or interest to the holder of such mortgage-backed securities, particularly if such securities are subordinated, thereby reducing the value of such securities and, in some cases, rendering them worthless. The risk of such defaults is generally higher in the case of mortgage pools that include “subprime” mortgages.
Like other fixed-income securities, when interest rates rise, the value of mortgage-backed securities generally will decline and may decline more than other fixed-income securities as the expected maturity extends. Conversely, when interest rates decline, the value of mortgage-backed securities having underlying collateral with prepayment features may not increase as much as other fixed-income securities as the expected maturity shortens. Payment of principal and interest on some mortgage-backed securities issued or guaranteed by a government agency (but not the market value of the securities themselves) is guaranteed by a U.S. Government sponsored entity, such as Government National Mortgage Association (“GNMA”), the Federal National Mortgage Association (“FNMA”) and the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (“FHLMC”). Unlike FHLMC and FNMA, which act as both issuers and guarantors of mortgage-backed securities, GNMA only provides guarantees of mortgage-backed securities. Only GNMA guarantees are backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Government. Mortgage-backed securities issued or guaranteed by FHLMC or FNMA are not backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Government. FHLMC and FNMA are authorized to borrow money from the U.S. Treasury or the capital markets, but there can be no assurance that they will be able to raise funds as needed or that their existing capital will be sufficient to satisfy their guarantee obligations. Mortgage-backed securities created by private issuers (such as commercial banks, savings and loan

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institutions, private mortgage insurance companies, mortgage bankers and other secondary market issuers) may be supported by various forms of insurance or guarantees, including individual loan, title, pool and hazard insurance. Mortgage-backed securities that are not insured or guaranteed generally offer a higher rate of return in the form of interest payments, but also expose the holders to greater credit risk.
Adjustable-Rate Mortgage Securities (“ARMS”). ARMS represent an ownership interest in a pool of mortgage loans that generally carry adjustable interest rates, and in some cases principal repayment rates, that are reset periodically. ARMS are issued, guaranteed or otherwise sponsored by governmental agencies such as GNMA, by government-sponsored entities such as FNMA or FHLMC, or by private issuers. Mortgage loans underlying ARMS typically provide for a fixed initial mortgage interest rate for a specified period of time and, thereafter, the interest rate may be subject to periodic adjustments based on changes in an applicable index rate. Adjustable interest rates can cause payment increases that some borrowers may find difficult to make.
The mortgage loans underlying ARMS guaranteed by GNMA are typically federally insured by the Federal Housing Administration or guaranteed by the Department of Veterans Affairs, whereas the mortgage loans underlying ARMS issued by FNMA or FHLMC are typically conventional residential mortgages which are not so insured or guaranteed, but which conform to specific underwriting, size and maturity standards. ARMS are also offered by private issuers.
As a result of adjustable interest rates, the yields on ARMS typically lag behind changes in the prevailing market interest rate. This results in ARMS generally experiencing less decline in value during periods of rising interest rates than traditional long-term, fixed-rate mortgage-backed securities. On the other hand, during periods of declining interest rates, the interest rates on the underlying mortgages may reset downward with a similar lag. As a result, the values of ARMS are expected to rise less than the values of securities backed by fixed-rate mortgages during periods of declining interest rates.
Collateralized Mortgage Obligations (“CMOs”). CMOs are debt obligations that may be collateralized by whole mortgage loans, but are more typically collateralized by portfolios of mortgage-backed securities guaranteed by GNMA, FHLMC, or FNMA, and divided into classes. CMOs are structured into multiple classes, often referred to as “tranches,” with each class bearing a different stated maturity and entitled to a different schedule for payments of principal and interest, including pre-payments. Payments of principal on the underlying securities, including prepayments, are first “passed through” to investors holding the class of securities with the shortest maturity; investors holding classes of securities with longer maturities receive payments on their securities only after the more senior classes have been retired. A longer duration or greater sensitivity to interest rate fluctuations generally increases the risk level of a CMO. CMOs may be less liquid and may exhibit greater price volatility than other types of mortgage-backed securities. Examples of CMOs include commercial mortgage-backed securities and adjustable-rate mortgage securities.
Commercial Mortgage-Backed Securities (“CMBS”). CMBS are securities that reflect an interest in, and are secured by, mortgage loans on commercial real property, such as loans for hotels, restaurants, shopping centers, office buildings, and apartment buildings. Interest and principal payments from the underlying loans are passed through to CMBS holders according to a schedule of payments. Because the underlying commercial mortgage loans tend to be structured with prepayment penalties, CMBS generally carry less prepayment risk than securities backed by residential mortgage loans.
Investing in CMBS expose a Fund to the risks of investing in the commercial real estate securing the underlying mortgage loans. These risks include the effects of local and other economic conditions on real estate markets, the ability of tenants to make loan payments and the ability of a commercial property to attract and retain tenants. The value of CMBS may change because of: i) actual or perceived changes in the creditworthiness of the borrowers or their tenants; ii) deterioration in the general state of commercial real estate or in the types of properties backing the CMBS; or iii) overall economic conditions. Credit quality of the CMBS depends primarily on the quality of the loans themselves and on the structure of the particular deal. While CMBS are sold both in public transactions registered with the SEC and in private placement transactions, CMBS may be less liquid and exhibit greater price volatility than other types of mortgage-backed or asset-backed securities.
Stripped Securities

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The following Funds are limited to investing up to 10% of their total assets in stripped mortgage-backed securities: Government Securities Fund, Short-Term Bond Plus Fund, Short-Term High Yield Bond Fund, and Ultra Short-Term Income Fund. Short Duration Government Bond Fund is limited to investing up to 10% of its total assets in stripped treasury and stripped mortgage-backed securities, including zero coupon bonds. Securities issued by the U.S. Treasury and certain securities issued by government authorities and government-sponsored enterprises are eligible to be stripped into interest components and principal components. Stripped securities are purchased by the Funds at a discount to their face value. These securities generally are structured to make a lump-sum payment at maturity and do not make periodic payments of principal or interest. Hence, the duration of these securities tends to be longer and they are therefore more sensitive to interest-rate fluctuations than similar securities that offer periodic payments over time. SMBS are often structured with two classes that receive different proportions of the interest and principal distributions on a pool of mortgage assets. SMBS that are structured to receive interest only are extremely sensitive to changes in the prevailing interest rates as well as the rate of principal payments (including prepayments) on the related underlying mortgage assets, and are therefore much more volatile than SMBS that receive principal only.
Stripped securities may also include participations in trusts that hold U.S. Treasury securities where the trust participations evidence ownership in either the future interest payments or the future principal payments on the obligations. These participations are normally issued at a discount to their “face value,” and can exhibit greater price volatility than ordinary debt securities.
Municipal Bonds. Municipal bonds are debt obligations of a governmental entity issued to obtain funds for various public purposes that obligate the municipality to pay the holder a specified sum of money at specified intervals and to repay the principal amount of the loan at maturity. The two principal classifications of municipal bonds are “general obligation” and “revenue” bonds. General obligation bonds are typically, but not always, supported by the municipality’s general taxing authority, while revenue bonds are supported by the revenues from one or more particular project, facility, class of facilities, or activity. The revenue bond classification encompasses industrial revenue bonds (“IRBs”) (formerly known as industrial development bonds). IRBs are organized by a government entity but the proceeds are directed to a private, for-profit business. IRBs are backed by the credit and security of the private, for-profit business. IRBs are typically used to support a specific project, such as to build or acquire factories or other heavy equipment and tools. With an IRB, the sponsoring government entity holds title to the underlying collateral until the bonds are paid in full. In certain circumstances, this may provide a federal tax exempt status to the bonds, and many times a property tax exemption on the collateral. With an IRB, the sponsoring government entity is not responsible for bond repayment and the bonds do not affect the government’s credit rating. Under the Internal Revenue Code, certain revenue bonds are considered “private activity bonds” and interest paid on such bonds is treated as an item of tax preference for purposes of calculating federal alternative minimum tax liability.
Certain of the municipal obligations held by the Funds may be insured as to the timely payment of principal and interest. The insurance policies usually are obtained by the issuer of the municipal obligation at the time of its original issuance. In the event that the issuer defaults on interest or principal payment, the insurer will be notified and will be required to make payment to the bondholders. Although the insurance feature is designed to reduce certain financial risks, the premiums for insurance and the higher market price sometimes paid for insured obligations may reduce the Funds’ current yield. To the extent that securities held by the Funds are insured as to principal and interest payments by insurers whose claims-paying ability rating is downgraded by a nationally recognized statistical ratings organization (e.g., Moody’s, S&P, or Fitch), the value of such securities may be affected. There is, however, no guarantee that the insurer will meet its obligations. Moreover, the insurance does not guarantee the market value of the insured obligation or the net asset value of the Funds’ shares. In addition, such insurance does not protect against market fluctuations caused by changes in interest rates and other factors. The Funds also may purchase municipal obligations that are additionally secured by bank credit agreements or escrow accounts. The credit quality of companies which provide such credit enhancements will affect the value of those securities.
The risks associated with municipal bonds vary. Local and national market forces—such as declines in real estate prices and general business activity—may result in decreasing tax bases, fluctuations in interest rates, and increasing construction costs, all of which could reduce the ability of certain issuers of municipal bonds to repay

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their obligations. Certain issuers of municipal bonds have also been unable to obtain additional financing through, or must pay higher interest rates on, new issues, which may reduce revenues available for issuers of municipal bonds to pay existing obligations.
Because of the large number of different issuers of municipal bonds, the variance in size of bonds issued, and the range of maturities within the issues, most municipal bonds do not trade on a daily basis, and many trade only rarely. Because of this, the spread between the bid and offer may be wider, and the time needed to purchase or sell a particular bond may be longer than for other securities.
Municipal securities are typically issued together with an opinion of bond counsel to the issuer that the interest paid on those securities will be excludable from gross income for federal income tax purposes. Such opinion may have been issued as of a date prior to the date that a Fund acquired the municipal security. Subsequent to a Fund’s acquisition of such a municipal security, however, the security may be determined to pay, or to have paid, taxable income. As a result, the treatment of dividends previously paid or to be paid by a Fund as “exempt-interest dividends” could be adversely affected, subjecting the Fund’s shareholders to increased federal income tax liabilities. Under highly unusual circumstances, the Internal Revenue Service may determine that a municipal bond issued as tax-exempt should in fact be taxable. If any Fund held such a bond, it might have to distribute taxable income, or reclassify as taxable, ordinary income that was previously distributed as exempt-interest dividends.
Changes or proposed changes in state or federal tax laws could impact the value of municipal debt securities that a Fund may purchase. Also, the failure or possible failure of such debt issuances to qualify for tax-exempt treatment may cause the prices of such municipal securities to decline, possibly adversely affecting the value of a Fund’s portfolio. Such a failure could also result in additional taxable income to a Fund and/or shareholders.
Municipal Leases. Municipal leases are obligations in privately arranged loans to state or local government borrowers and may take the form of a lease, installment purchase or conditional sales contract (which typically provide for the title to the leased asset to pass to the governmental issuer). They are issued by state and local governments and authorities to acquire land, equipment, and facilities. An investor may purchase these obligations directly, or it may purchase participation interests in such obligations. Interest income from such obligations is generally exempt from local and state taxes in the state of issuance. “Participations” in such leases are undivided interests in a portion of the total obligation. Participations entitle their holders to receive a pro rata share of all payments under the lease. Municipal leases and participations therein frequently involve special risks.
Municipal leases may be subject to greater risks than general obligation or revenue bonds. In most cases, municipal leases are not backed by the taxing authority of the issuers and may have limited marketability. Certain municipal lease obligations contain “non-appropriation” clauses, which provide that the municipality has no obligation to make lease or installment purchase payments in future years unless money is appropriated for such purpose in the relevant years. Investments in municipal leases are thus subject to the risk that the legislative body will not make the necessary appropriation and the issuer fails to meet its obligation. Municipal leases may also be subject to “abatement risk.” The leases underlying certain municipal lease obligations may state that lease payments are subject to partial or full abatement. That abatement might occur, for example, if material damage to or destruction of the leased property interferes with the lessee’s use of the property. However, in some cases that risk might be reduced by insurance covering the leased property, or by the use of credit enhancements such as letters of credit to back lease payments, or perhaps by the lessee’s maintenance of reserve monies for lease payments. While the obligation might be secured by the lease, it might be difficult to dispose of that property in case of a default.
Municipal Market Data Rate Locks. A municipal market data rate lock (“MMD Rate Lock”) permits an issuer that anticipates issuing municipal bonds in the future to, in effect, lock in a specified interest rate. A MMD Rate Lock also permits an investor (e.g., a Fund) to lock in a specified rate for a portion of its portfolio in order to: i) preserve returns on a particular investment or a portion of its portfolio; ii) manage duration; and/or iii) protect against increases in the prices of securities to be purchased at a later date. By using an MMD Rate Lock, a Fund can create a synthetic long or short position, allowing the Fund to select what the sub-adviser believes is an attractive part of the yield curve. A Fund will ordinarily use these transactions as a hedge or for duration or risk management, but may enter into them to enhance income or gains, or to increase yield, for example, during periods of steep interest rate yield curves (i.e., wide differences between short term and long term interest rates).

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A MMD Rate Lock is a contract between the investor and the MMD Rate Lock provider pursuant to which the parties agree to make payments to each other on a notional amount, contingent upon whether the Municipal Market Data AAA General Obligation Scale is above or below a specified level on the expiration date of the contract. For example, if a Fund buys an MMD Rate Lock and the Municipal Market Data AAA General Obligation Scale is below the specified level on the expiration date, the counterparty to the contract will make a payment to the Fund equal to the specified level minus the actual level, multiplied by the notional amount of the contract. If the Municipal Market Data AAA General Obligation Scale is above the specified level on the expiration date, the Fund will make a payment to the counterparty equal to the actual level minus the specified level, multiplied by the notional amount of the contract. In connection with investments in MMD Rate Locks, there is a risk that municipal yields will move in the opposite direction than anticipated by a Fund, which would cause the Fund to make payments to its counterparty in the transaction that could adversely affect the Fund’s performance.
Stand-by Commitments. A Fund may purchase municipal securities together with the right to resell the underlying municipal securities to the seller or a third party (typically an institution such as a bank or broker-dealer that is believed to continually satisfy credit quality requirements) at an agreed-upon price or yield within specified periods prior to their maturity dates. Such a right to resell is commonly known as a stand-by commitment, and the aggregate price that a Fund pays for securities with a stand-by commitment may be higher than the price that otherwise would be paid. The primary purpose of this practice is to permit a Fund to be as fully invested as practicable in municipal securities while preserving the necessary flexibility and liquidity to meet unanticipated redemptions. In this regard, a Fund acquires stand-by commitments solely to facilitate portfolio liquidity and does not exercise its rights thereunder for trading purposes.
When a Fund pays directly or indirectly for a stand-by commitment, its cost is reflected as unrealized depreciation for the period during which the commitment is held. Stand-by commitments do not affect the average weighted maturity of a Fund’s portfolio of securities.
The principal risk of stand-by commitments is that the writer of a commitment may default on its obligation to repurchase the securities when a Fund exercises its stand-by commitment. Stand-by commitments are not separately marketable and there may be differences between the maturity of the underlying security and the maturity of the commitment.
Taxable Municipal Obligations. Certain municipal obligations may be subject to federal income tax for a variety of reasons. Taxable municipal obligations are typically issued by municipalities or their agencies for purposes which do not qualify for federal tax exemption, but do qualify for state and local tax exemptions. For example, a taxable municipal obligation would not qualify for the federal income exemption where (a) the governmental entity did not receive necessary authorization for tax-exempt treatment from state or local government authorities, (b) the governmental entity exceeds certain regulatory limitations on the cost of issuance for tax-exempt financing, or (c) the governmental entity finances public or private activities that do not qualify for the federal income tax exemption. These non-qualifying activities might include, for example, certain types of multi-family housing, certain professional and local sports facilities, refinancing of certain municipal debt, and borrowing to replenish a municipality’s underfunded pension plan. Generally, payments on taxable municipal obligations depend on the revenues generated by the projects, excise taxes or state appropriations, or whether the debt obligations can be backed by the government’s taxing power. Due to federal taxation, taxable municipal obligations typically offer yields more comparable to other taxable sectors such as corporate bonds or agency bonds than to other municipal obligations.
U.S. Territories, Commonwealths and Possessions Obligations. A Fund may invest in municipal securities issued by certain territories, commonwealths and possessions of the United States, including but not limited to, Puerto Rico, Guam, and the U.S. Virgin Islands, that pay interest that is exempt from federal income tax and state personal income tax. The value of these securities may be highly sensitive to events affecting the fiscal stability of the issuers. These issuers may face significant financial difficulties for various reasons, including as the result of events that cannot be reasonably anticipated or controlled, such as social conflict or unrest, labor disruption and natural disasters. In particular, economic, legislative, regulatory or political developments affecting the ability of the issuers to pay interest or repay principal may significantly affect the value of a Fund’s investments. These developments can include or arise from, for example, insolvency of an issuer, uncertainties related to the tax status of the securities, tax base erosion, state or federal constitutional limits on tax increases or other actions, budget deficits and other financial difficulties, or changes in the credit ratings assigned to the issuers. The value of a Fund’s shares will be

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negatively impacted to the extent it invests in such securities. Further, there may be a limited market for certain of these municipal securities, and the Fund could face illiquidity risks.
Municipal securities issued by Puerto Rico and its agencies and instrumentalities have been subject to multiple credit downgrades as a result of Puerto Rico’s ongoing fiscal challenges and uncertainty about its ability to make full repayment on these obligations. The majority of Puerto Rico’s debt is issued by the major public agencies that are responsible for many of the island’s public functions, such as water, wastewater, highways, electricity, education and public construction. Certain risks specific to Puerto Rico concern state taxes, e-commerce spending, and underfunded pension liabilities. Any debt restructuring could reduce the principal amount due, the interest rate, the maturity and other terms of Puerto Rico municipal securities, which could adversely affect the value of such securities.
Municipal Notes. Municipal notes generally are used to provide short-term operating or capital needs and typically have maturities of one year or less. Notes sold as interim financing in anticipation of collection of taxes, a bond sale or receipt of other revenues are usually general obligations of the issuer. The values of outstanding municipal securities will vary as a result of changing market evaluations of the ability of their issuers to meet the interest and principal payments (i.e., credit risk). Such values also will change in response to changes in the interest rates payable on new issues of municipal securities (i.e., market risk). The category includes, but is not limited to, tax anticipation notes, bond anticipation notes, revenue anticipation notes, revenue anticipation warrants, and tax and revenue anticipation notes.
U.S. Government Obligations. U.S. Government obligations include direct obligations of the U.S. Treasury, including Treasury bills, notes and bonds, the principal and interest payments of which are backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. This category also includes other securities issued by U.S. Government agencies or U.S. Government sponsored entities, such as the Government National Mortgage Association (“GNMA”), Federal National Mortgage Association (“FNMA”) and Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (“FHLMC”). U.S. Government Obligations issued by U.S. Government agencies or government-sponsored entities may not be backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Government.
GNMA, a wholly owned U.S. Government corporation, is authorized to guarantee, with the full faith and credit of the U.S. Government, the timely payment of principal and interest on securities issued by institutions approved by GNMA and backed by pools of mortgages insured by the Federal Housing Administration or the Department of Veterans Affairs. Securities issued by FNMA and FHLMC are not backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Government. Pass-through securities issued by FNMA are guaranteed as to timely payment of principal and interest by FNMA but are not backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Government. FHLMC guarantees the timely payment of interest and ultimate collection or scheduled payment of principal, but its guarantees are not backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Government.
While U.S. Treasury obligations are backed by the “full faith and credit” of the U.S. Government, such securities are nonetheless subject to risk. U.S. Government obligations are subject to low but varying degrees of credit risk, and are still subject to interest rate and market risk. From time to time, uncertainty regarding congressional action to increase the statutory debt ceiling could: i) increase the risk that the U.S. Government may default on payments on certain U.S. Government securities; ii) cause the credit rating of the U.S. Government to be downgraded or increase volatility in both stock and bond markets; iii) result in higher interest rates; iv) reduce prices of U.S. Treasury securities; and/or v) increase the costs of certain kinds of debt. U.S. Government obligations may be adversely affected by a default by, or decline in the credit quality of, the U.S. Government. In the past, U.S. sovereign credit has experienced downgrades, and there can be no guarantee that it will not be downgraded in the future. Further, if a U.S. Government-sponsored entity is negatively impacted by legislative or regulatory action, is unable to meet its obligations, or its creditworthiness declines, the performance of a Fund that holds securities of the entity will be adversely impacted.
Under the direction of the Federal Housing Finance Agency (“FHFA”), FNMA and FHLMC have entered into a joint initiative to develop a common securitization platform for the issuance of a uniform mortgage-backed security (the “Single Security Initiative”) that aligns the characteristics of FNMA and FHLMC certificates. The Single Security Initiative was implemented in June 2019, and the effects it may have on the market for mortgage-backed securities are uncertain.

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Variable Amount Master Demand Notes. Variable amount master demand notes are obligations that permit the investment of fluctuating amounts at varying market rates of interest pursuant to arrangements between the issuer and the Funds whereby both parties have the right to vary the amount of the outstanding indebtedness on the notes.
Because these obligations are direct lending arrangements between the lender and borrower, it is not contemplated that such instruments generally will be traded, and there generally is no established secondary market for these obligations, although they are redeemable at face value. For variable amount master demand notes that are not secured by letters of credit or other credit support arrangements, a Fund’s right to recover is dependent on the ability of the borrower to pay principal and interest on schedule or on demand. Variable amount master demand notes that are secured by collateral are subject to the risk that the collateral securing the notes will decline in value or have no value. A decline in value of the collateral, whether as a result of market value declines, bankruptcy proceedings or otherwise, could cause the note to be undercollateralized. Variable amount master demand notes are typically not rated by credit rating agencies, and a Fund may invest in notes that are not rated only if the sub-adviser determines, at the time of investment, the obligations are of comparable credit quality to the other obligations in which the Fund may invest.
Zero-Coupon, Step-Up Coupon, and Pay-in-Kind Securities. Zero-coupon, step-up coupon, and pay-in-kind securities are types of debt securities that do not make regular cash interest payments. Asset-backed securities, convertible securities, corporate debt securities, foreign securities, high-yield securities, mortgage-backed securities, municipal securities, participation interests, stripped securities, U.S. Government and related obligations and other types of debt instruments may be structured as zero-coupon, step-up coupon, and pay-in-kind securities.
Instead of making periodic interest payments, zero-coupon securities are sold at discounts from face value. The interest earned by the investor from holding this security to maturity is the difference between the maturity value and the purchase price. Step-up coupon bonds are debt securities that do not pay interest for a specified period of time and then, after the initial period, pay interest at a series of different rates. Pay-in-kind securities normally give the issuer an option to pay cash at a coupon payment date or to give the holder of the security a similar security with the same coupon rate and a face value equal to the amount of the coupon payment that would have been made. To the extent these securities do not pay current cash income, the market prices of these securities would generally be more volatile and likely to respond to a greater degree to changes in interest rates than the market prices of securities that pay cash interest periodically having similar maturities and credit qualities.
EQUITY SECURITIES
Equity securities represent an ownership interest, or the right to acquire an ownership interest, in an issuer. Different types of equity securities provide different voting and dividend rights and priority in the event of the bankruptcy and/or insolvency of the issuer. Equity securities include common stocks and certain preferred stocks, certain types of convertible securities and warrants (see “Other Securities Section below”). Equity securities other than common stock are subject to many of the same risks as common stock, although possibly to different degrees. The risks of equity securities are generally magnified in the case of equity investments in distressed companies.
Equity securities fluctuate in value and the prices of equity securities tend to move by industry, market or sector. When market conditions favorably affect, or are expected to favorably affect, an industry, the share prices of the equity securities of companies in that industry tend to rise. Conversely, negative news or a poor outlook for a particular industry can cause the share prices of such securities of companies in that industry to decline. Investing in equity securities poses risks specific to an issuer, as well as to the particular type of company issuing the equity securities. For example, investing in the equity securities of small- or mid-capitalization companies can involve greater risk than is customarily associated with investing in stocks of larger, more-established companies. Small- or mid-capitalization companies often have limited product lines, limited operating histories, limited markets or financial resources, may be dependent on one or a few key persons for management, and can be more susceptible to financial losses. Also, their securities may be thinly traded (and therefore may have to be sold at a discount from current prices or sold in small lots over an extended period of time) and may be subject to wider price swings, thus creating a greater risk of loss than securities of larger capitalization companies.
Common Stock. Common stock represents a unit of equity ownership of a corporation. Owners typically are entitled to vote on the election of directors and other important corporate governance matters, and to receive dividend payments, if any, on their holdings. However, ownership of common stock does not entitle owners to participate in

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the day-to-day operations of the corporation. Common stocks of domestic and foreign public corporations can be listed, and their shares traded, on domestic stock exchanges, such as the NYSE or the NASDAQ Stock Market. Domestic and foreign corporations also may have their shares traded on foreign exchanges, such as the London Stock Exchange or Tokyo Stock Exchange. Common stock may be privately placed or publicly offered.
The price of common stock is generally affected by corporate earnings, anticipated dividend payments, types of products or services offered, projected growth rates, experience of management, liquidity, and general market conditions. In the event that a corporation declares bankruptcy or is liquidated, the claims of secured and unsecured creditors and owners of bonds and preferred stock take precedence over the claims of those who own common stock.
The value of common stock may fall due to changes in general economic conditions that impact the market as a whole, as well as factors that directly relate to a specific company or its industry. Such general economic conditions include changes in interest rates, periods of market turbulence or instability, or general and prolonged periods of economic decline and cyclical change. It is possible that a drop in the stock market may depress the price of most or all of the common stocks in a Fund’s portfolio. Common stock is also subject to the risk that investor sentiment toward particular industries will become negative. The value of a company’s common stock may fall because of various factors, including an increase in production costs that negatively impact other companies in the same region, industry or sector of the market. The value of common stock also may decline significantly over a short period of time due to factors specific to a company, including decisions made by management or lower demand for the company’s products or services.
Preferred Stock. Preferred stock represents an equity interest in a company that generally entitles the holder to receive, in preference to the holders of other stocks, such as common stocks, dividends and a fixed share of the proceeds resulting from a liquidation of the company. Some preferred stock also entitles holders to receive additional liquidation proceeds on the same basis as holders of a company’s common stock and, thus, also represent an ownership interest in that company. Distributions on preferred stock generally are taxable as dividend income, rather than interest payments, for federal income tax purposes.
Preferred stock generally has no maturity date, so its market value is dependent on the issuer’s business prospects for an indefinite period of time. Preferred stock may pay fixed or adjustable rates of return. Preferred stock is subject to issuer-specific and market risks generally applicable to equity securities. A company generally pays dividends on its preferred stock only after making required payments to holders of its bonds and other debt. For this reason, the value of preferred stock will usually react more strongly than bonds and other debt to actual or perceived changes in the company’s financial condition or prospects. Preferred stock of smaller companies may be more vulnerable to adverse developments than preferred stock of larger companies. In addition, preferred stock is subordinated to all debt obligations in the event of insolvency, and an issuer’s failure to make a dividend payment is generally not an event of default entitling the preferred shareholders to take action.
Auction preferred stock (“APS”) is a type of adjustable-rate preferred stock with a dividend determined periodically in a Dutch auction process by institutional bidders. An APS is distinguished from standard preferred stock because its dividends change more frequently. Shares typically are bought and sold at face values generally ranging from $100,000 to $500,000 per share. Holders of APS may not be able to sell their shares if an auction fails, such as when there are more shares of APS for sale at an auction than there are purchase bids.
Trust-preferred securities, also known as trust-issued securities, are securities that have characteristics of both debt and equity instruments and are typically treated by the Funds as debt investments. Generally, trust-preferred securities are cumulative preferred stocks issued by a trust that is created by a financial institution, such as a bank holding company. The financial institution typically creates the trust with the objective of increasing its capital by issuing subordinated debt to the trust in return for cash proceeds that are reflected on the financial institution’s balance sheet.
The primary asset owned by a trust is the subordinated debt issued to the trust by the financial institution. The financial institution makes periodic interest payments on the debt as discussed further below. The financial institution will own the trust’s common securities, which typically represents a small percentage of the trust’s capital structure. The remainder of the trust’s capital structure typically consists of trust-preferred securities which are sold

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to investors. The trust uses the proceeds from selling the trust-preferred securities to purchase the subordinated debt issued by the financial institution.
The trust uses the interest received from the financial institution on its subordinated debt to make dividend payments to the holders of the trust-preferred securities. The dividends are generally paid on a quarterly basis and are often higher than other dividends potentially available on the financial institution’s common stocks. The interests of the holders of the trust-preferred securities are senior to those of the financial institution’s common stockholders in the event that the financial institution is liquidated, although their interests are typically subordinated to those of other holders of other debt issued by the institution.
In certain instances, the structure involves more than one financial institution and thus, more than one trust. In such a pooled offering, an additional separate trust may be created. This trust will issue securities to investors and use the proceeds to purchase the trust-preferred securities issued by trust-preferred trust subsidiaries of the participating financial institutions. In such a structure, the trust-preferred securities held by the investors are backed by other trust-preferred securities issued by the trust subsidiaries.
If a financial institution is financially unsound and defaults on interest payments to the trust, the trust will not be able to make dividend payments to holders of the trust-preferred securities (e.g, a Fund), as the trust typically has no business operations other than holding the subordinated debt issued by the financial institution(s) and issuing the trust-preferred securities and common stock backed by the subordinated debt.
Real Estate/REIT Securities. Common, preferred and convertible securities of issuers in real estate-related industries, real estate-linked derivatives and real estate investment trusts (“REITs”) provide exposure to the real estate sector. Each of these types of investments is subject to risks similar to those associated with direct ownership of real estate, including loss to casualty or condemnation, increases in property taxes and operating expenses, zoning law amendments, changes in interest rates, overbuilding and increased competition, variations in market value, and possible environmental liabilities.
REITs are pooled investment vehicles that own, and typically operate, income-producing real estate. If a REIT meets certain requirements, including distributing to shareholders substantially all of its taxable income (other than net capital gains), then it is not generally taxed on the income distributed to shareholders. REITs are subject to management fees and other expenses, and so the Funds that invest in REITs will bear their proportionate share of the costs of the REITs’ operations, which are not shown as acquired fund fees and expenses in a Fund’s fee table.
There are three general categories of REITs: Equity REITs, Mortgage REITs and Hybrid REITs. Equity REITs invest primarily in direct fee ownership or leasehold ownership of real property; they derive most of their income from rents. Mortgage REITs invest mostly in mortgages on real estate, which may secure construction, development or long-term loans, and the main source of their income is mortgage interest payments. Hybrid REITs hold both ownership and mortgage interests in real estate.
Along with the risks common to different types of real estate-related securities, REITs, no matter the type, involve additional risk factors. These include poor performance by the REIT’s manager, changes to the tax laws, and failure by the REIT to qualify for tax-free distribution of income or exemption under the 1940 Act. Furthermore, REITs are not typically diversified and are heavily dependent on cash flows from property owners and/or tenants.
A Fund or some of the REITs in which a Fund may invest may be permitted to hold senior or residual interests in real estate mortgage investment conduits (“REMICs”) or debt or equity interests in taxable mortgage pools. A Fund may also hold interests in “Re-REMICs”, which are interests in securitizations formed by the contribution of asset backed or other similar securities into a trust which then issues securities in various tranches. The Funds may participate in the creation of a Re-REMIC by contributing assets to the issuing trust and receiving junior and/or senior securities in return. An interest in a Re-REMIC security may be riskier than the securities originally held by and contributed to the issuing trust, and the holders of the Re-REMIC securities will bear the costs associated with the securitization.
Special Purpose Acquisition Companies. A Fund may invest in stock, warrants, and other securities of special purpose acquisition companies (SPACs) or similar special purpose entities that pool funds to seek potential acquisition or merger opportunities. A SPAC is typically a publicly traded company that raises funds through an initial public offering (IPO) for the purpose of acquiring or merging with an unaffiliated company to be identified subsequent to the SPAC’s IPO. SPACs are often used as a vehicle to transition a company from private to publicly

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traded. The securities of a SPAC are often issued in “units” that include one share of common stock and one right or warrant (or partial right or warrant) conveying the right to purchase additional shares or partial shares. Unless and until a transaction is completed, a SPAC generally invests its assets (less a portion retained to cover expenses) in U.S. Government securities, money market fund securities and cash. To the extent the SPAC is invested in cash or similar securities, this may impact a Fund’s ability to meet its investment objective. If an acquisition or merger that meets the requirements for the SPAC is not completed within a pre-established period of time, the invested funds are returned to the SPAC’s shareholders, less certain permitted expenses, and any rights or warrants issued by the SPAC will expire worthless. Because SPACs and similar entities have no operating history or ongoing business other than seeking acquisitions, the value of their securities is particularly dependent on the ability of the entity’s management to identify and complete a suitable transaction. Some SPACs may pursue acquisitions or mergers only within certain industries or regions, which may further increase the volatility of their securities’ prices. In addition to purchasing publicly traded SPAC securities, a Fund may invest in SPACs through additional financings via securities offerings that are exempt from registration under the federal securities laws (restricted securities) and private investment in public equity transactions (PIPEs). No public market will exist for these restricted securities unless and until they are registered for resale with the SEC, and such securities may be considered illiquid and/or be subject to restrictions on resale. It may also be difficult to value restricted securities issued by SPACs.
An investment in a SPAC is subject to a variety of risks, including that: a significant portion of the funds raised by the SPAC for the purpose of identifying and effecting an acquisition or merger may be expended during the search for a target transaction; an attractive acquisition or merger target may not be identified and the SPAC will be required to return any remaining invested funds to shareholders; attractive acquisition or merger targets may become scarce if the number of SPACs seeking to acquire operating businesses increases; any proposed merger or acquisition may be unable to obtain the requisite approval, if any, of SPAC shareholders and/or antitrust and securities regulators; an acquisition or merger once effected may prove unsuccessful and an investment in the SPAC may lose value; the warrants or other rights with respect to the SPAC held by the Fund may expire worthless or may be repurchased or retired by the SPAC at an unfavorable price; the Fund may be delayed in receiving any redemption or liquidation proceeds from a SPAC to which it is entitled; an investment in a SPAC may be diluted by subsequent public or private offerings of securities in the SPAC or by other investors exercising existing rights to purchase securities of the SPAC; SPAC sponsors generally purchase interests in the SPAC at more favorable terms than investors in the IPO or subsequent investors on the open market; no or only a thinly traded market for shares of or interests in a SPAC may develop, leaving the Fund unable to sell its interest in a SPAC or to sell its interest only at a price below what the Fund believes is the SPAC security’s value; and the values of investments in SPACs may be highly volatile and may depreciate significantly over time.
FOREIGN SECURITIES
Unless otherwise stated in a Fund’s prospectus, the decision on whether stocks and other securities or investments are deemed to be “foreign” is based primarily on the issuer’s place of organization/incorporation, but the Fund may also consider the issuer’s domicile, principal place of business, primary stock exchange listing, sources of revenue or other factors, such as, in the case of asset-backed or other collateralized securities, the countries in which the collateral backing the securities is located. Foreign equity securities include common stocks and certain preferred stocks, certain types of convertible securities and warrants (see “Equity Securities” above and “Other Securities Section” below). Foreign debt securities may be structured as fixed-, variable- or floating-rate obligations or as zero-coupon, pay-in-kind and step-coupon securities and may be privately placed or publicly offered (see “Debt Securities” above).
Foreign securities may include securities of issuers in emerging and frontier market countries, which carry heightened risks relative to investments in more developed foreign markets. Unless otherwise stated in a Fund’s prospectus, countries are generally characterized by a Fund’s sub-adviser as “emerging market countries” by reference to a broad market index, by reference to the World Bank’s per capita income brackets or based on the sub-adviser’s qualitative judgments about a country’s level of economic and institutional development, and include markets commonly referred to as “frontier markets.” An emerging market is generally in the earlier stages of its industrialization cycle with a low per capita gross domestic product (“GDP”) and a low market capitalization to GDP ratio relative to those in the United States and the European Union. Frontier market countries generally have smaller

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economies and even less developed capital markets than typical emerging market countries and, as a result, the risks of investing in emerging market countries are magnified in frontier market countries.
Investments in or exposure to foreign securities involve certain risks not associated with investments in or exposure to securities of U.S. companies. For example, foreign markets can be extremely volatile. Foreign securities may also be less liquid than securities of U.S. companies so that a Fund may, at times, be unable to sell foreign securities at desirable times and/or prices. Brokerage commissions, custodial costs, currency conversion costs and other fees are also generally higher for foreign securities. A Fund may have limited or no legal recourse in the event of default with respect to certain foreign debt securities, including those issued by foreign governments.
The performance of a Fund may also be negatively affected by fluctuations in a foreign currency’s strength or weakness relative to the U.S. dollar, particularly to the extent the Fund invests a significant percentage of its assets in foreign securities or other assets denominated in non-U.S. currencies. Currency rates in foreign countries may fluctuate significantly over short or long periods of time for a number of reasons, including changes in interest rates, imposition of currency exchange controls and economic or political developments in the U.S. or abroad. A Fund may also incur currency conversion costs when converting foreign currencies into U.S. dollars and vice versa.
It may be difficult to obtain reliable information about the securities and business operations of certain foreign issuers. It may also be difficult to evaluate such information, as well as foreign economic trends, due to foreign regulation and accounting standards. Governments or trade groups may compel local agents to hold securities in designated depositories that are not subject to independent evaluation. Additionally, investments in certain countries may subject a Fund to tax rules, the application of which may be uncertain. Countries may amend or revise their existing tax laws, regulations and/or procedures in the future, possibly with retroactive effect. Changes in or uncertainties regarding the laws, regulations or procedures of a country could reduce the after-tax profits of a Fund, directly or indirectly, including by reducing the after-tax profits of companies located in such countries in which the Fund invests, or result in unexpected tax liabilities for the Fund.
Global economies and financial markets have become increasingly interconnected, which increases the possibility that conditions in one country or region might adversely impact issuers in a different country or region. Any attempt by a Fund to hedge against or otherwise protect its portfolio, or to profit from such circumstances, may fail and, accordingly, an investment in a Fund could lose money over short or long periods. For example, the economies of many countries or regions in which a Fund may invest are highly dependent on trading with certain key trading partners. Reductions in spending on products and services by these key trading partners, the institution of tariffs or other trade barriers, or a slowdown in the economies of key trading partners may adversely affect the performance of securities in which a Fund may invest. The severity or duration of adverse economic conditions may also be affected by policy changes made by governments or quasi-governmental organizations. The imposition of sanctions by the United States or another government on a country could cause disruptions to the country’s financial system and economy, which could negatively impact the value of securities. To the extent a Fund holds securities of an issuer that becomes subject to sanctions, such securities may also become less liquid and a Fund may be forced to sell securities when it otherwise would not have done so. The risks posed by sanctions may be heightened to the extent a Fund invests significantly in the affected country or region or in issuers from the affected country that depend on global markets.
In addition, foreign securities may be impacted by economic, political, social, diplomatic or other conditions or events (including, for example, military confrontations, war and terrorism), as well as the seizure, expropriation or nationalization of a company or its assets or the assets of a particular investor or category of investors. A foreign government may also restrict an issuer from paying principal and interest on its debt obligations to investors outside the country. It may also be difficult to use foreign laws and courts to force a foreign issuer to make principal and interest payments on its debt obligations.
Although it is not uncommon for governments to enter into trade agreements that would, among other things, reduce barriers among countries, increase competition among companies and reduce government subsidies, there are no assurances that such agreements will achieve their intended economic objectives. There is also a possibility that such trade arrangements: i) will not be implemented; ii) will be implemented, but not completed; iii) or will be completed, but then partially or completely unwound. It is also possible that a significant participant could choose to abandon a trade agreement, which could diminish its credibility and influence. Any of these occurrences could

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have adverse effects on the markets of both participating and non-participating countries, including appreciation or depreciation of currencies, a significant increase in exchange rate volatility, a resurgence in economic protectionism and an undermining of confidence in markets. Such developments could have an adverse impact on a Fund’s investments in the debt of countries participating in such trade agreements.
Some foreign countries prohibit or impose substantial restrictions on investments in their capital markets, particularly their equity markets, by foreign entities, like the Funds. For example, certain countries may require governmental approval prior to investments by foreign persons or limit the amount of investment by foreign persons in a particular company, or limit the investment by foreign persons to only a specific class of securities of a company which may have less advantageous terms (including price) than securities of the company available for purchase by nationals. Even in instances where there is no individual investment quota that applies, trading may be subject to aggregate and daily investment quota limitations that apply to foreign entities in the aggregate. Such limitations may restrict a Fund from investing on a timely basis, which could affect the Fund’s ability to effectively pursue its investment strategy. Investment quotas are also subject to change. In instances where governmental approval is required, there can be no assurance that a Fund will be able to obtain such approvals in a timely manner. In addition, changes to restrictions on foreign ownership of securities subsequent to a Fund’s purchase of such securities may have an adverse effect on the value of such shares.
Regulations that govern the manner in which foreign investors may invest in companies in certain countries can subject a Fund to trading, clearance and settlement procedures that could pose risks to the Fund. For example, a Fund may be required in certain countries to invest initially through a local broker or other entity, and then have the shares purchased re-registered in the name of the Fund. Re-registration may, in some instances, not be able to occur on a timely basis, resulting in a delay during which the Fund may be denied certain of its rights as an investor, including rights as to dividends or to be made aware of certain corporate actions. In certain other countries, shares may be held only through a nominee structure whereby a local company holds purchased shares as nominee on behalf of foreign investors. The precise nature and rights of a Fund as the beneficial owner of shares held through such a nominee structure may not be well defined under local law, and as a result, should such local company become insolvent, there is a risk that such shares may not be regarded as held for the beneficial ownership of the Fund, but rather as part of the general assets of the local company available for general distribution to its creditors.
Investments in companies that use a special structure known as a variable interest entity (“VIE”) may pose additional risks. Chinese operating companies sometimes use such structures to raise capital from non-Chinese investors. In a VIE structure, a China-based operating company establishes an entity (typically offshore) that enters into service and other contracts with the Chinese company designed to provide economic exposure to the company. The offshore entity then issues exchange-traded shares that are sold to the public, including non-Chinese investors. It is important to note that shares of the offshore entity are not equity ownership interests in the Chinese operating company and the contractual arrangements put in place may not be as effective in providing operational control as direct equity ownership. Further, while the VIE structure is a longstanding industry practice that is well known to Chinese officials and regulators, it is not formally recognized under Chinese law. Risks associated with such investments therefore include the risk that the Chinese government could determine at any time and without notice that the underlying contractual arrangements on which control of the VIE is based violate Chinese law, which may result in a significant loss in the value of an investment in a listed company that uses a VIE structure; that a breach of the contractual agreements between the listed company and the China-based VIE (or its officers, directors, or Chinese equity owners) will likely be subject to Chinese law and jurisdiction, which raises questions about whether and how the listed company or its investors could seek recourse in the event of an adverse ruling as to its contractual rights; and that investments in the listed company may be affected by conflicts of interest and duties between the legal owners of the China-based VIE and the stockholders of the listed company, which may adversely impact the value of investments of the listed company.
The Chinese government has taken positions that prevent the U.S. Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (“PCAOB”) from inspecting the audit work and practices of accounting firms in mainland China and Hong Kong for compliance with U.S. law and professional standards. Accordingly, information about the Chinese securities in which a Fund invests may be less reliable or complete, particularly with respect to securities of issuers that are audited by accounting firms not subject to PCAOB inspection. Under amendments to the Sarbanes-Oxley Act enacted in December 2020, a Chinese company with securities listed on a U.S. exchange (including those that use a VIE

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structure or otherwise) may be de-listed if the PCAOB is unable to inspect the accounting firm used by such company.
A Fund’s foreign debt securities are generally held outside of the United States in the primary market for the securities in the custody of certain eligible foreign banks and trust companies (“foreign sub-custodians”), as permitted under the 1940 Act. Settlement practices for foreign securities may differ from those in the United States. Some countries have limited governmental oversight and regulation of industry practices, stock exchanges, depositories, registrars, brokers and listed companies, which increases the risk of corruption and fraud and the possibility of losses to a Fund. In particular, under certain circumstances, foreign securities may settle on a delayed delivery basis, meaning that a Fund may be required to make payment for securities before the Fund has actually received delivery of the securities or deliver securities prior to the receipt of payment. Typically, in these cases, the Fund will receive evidence of ownership in accordance with the generally accepted settlement practices in the local market entitling the Fund to delivery or payment at a future date, but there is a risk that the security will not be delivered to the Fund or that payment will not be received, although the Fund and its foreign sub-custodians take reasonable precautions to mitigate this risk. Losses can also result from lost, stolen or counterfeit securities; defaults by brokers and banks; failures or defects of the settlement system; or poor and improper recordkeeping by registrars and issuers.
There is a practice in certain foreign markets under which an issuer’s securities are blocked from trading at the custodian or sub-custodian level for a specified number of days before and, in certain instances, after a shareholder meeting where such shares are voted. This is referred to as “share blocking.” The blocking period can last up to several weeks. Share blocking may prevent a Fund from buying or selling securities during this period, because during the time shares are blocked, trades in such securities will not settle. It may be difficult or impossible to lift blocking restrictions, with the particular requirements varying widely by country. To avoid these restrictions, a sub-adviser, on behalf of a Fund, may abstain from voting proxies in markets that require share blocking.
Foreign Debt Securities. Foreign debt securities may be structured as fixed-, variable- or floating-rate obligations, or as zero-coupon, pay-in-kind and step-coupon securities. They include fixed-income securities of foreign issuers and securities or contracts payable or denominated in non-U.S. currencies. Investments in, or exposure to, foreign debt securities involve certain risks not associated with securities of U.S. issuers. Unless otherwise stated in a Fund’s prospectus, the decision on whether a security is deemed to be “foreign” is based primarily on the issuer’s place of organization/incorporation, but the Fund may also consider the issuer’s domicile, principal place of business, primary stock exchange listing, sources of revenue or other factors.
Foreign debt securities may include securities of issuers in emerging and frontier market countries, which carry heightened risks relative to investments in more developed foreign markets. Unless otherwise stated in a Fund’s prospectus, countries are generally characterized by a Fund’s sub-adviser as “emerging market countries” by reference to a broad market index, by reference to the World Bank’s per capita income brackets or based on the sub-adviser’s qualitative judgments about a country’s level of economic and institutional development, and include markets commonly referred to as “frontier markets.” An emerging market is generally in the earlier stages of its industrialization cycle with a low per capita GDP and a low market capitalization to GDP ratio relative to those in the United States and the European Union. Frontier market countries generally have smaller economies and even less developed capital markets than typical emerging market countries and, as a result, the risks of investing in emerging market countries are magnified in frontier market countries.
Investments in or exposure to foreign debt securities involve certain risks not associated with investments in or exposure to securities of U.S. companies. For example, foreign markets can be extremely volatile. Foreign debt securities may also be less liquid than securities of U.S. issuers so that a Fund may, at times, be unable to sell foreign debt securities at desirable times and/or prices. Transaction fees, custodial costs, currency conversion costs and other fees are also generally higher for foreign debt securities. A Fund may have limited or no legal recourse in the event of default with respect to certain foreign debt securities, including those issued by foreign governments. Foreign debt securities carry many of the same risks as other types of foreign securities. For more information, refer to “Foreign Securities.”
During periods of very low or negative interest rates, a Fund’s foreign debt investments may be unable to generate or maintain positive returns. Certain countries have recently experienced negative interest rates on certain

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fixed-income instruments. Very low or negative interest rates may magnify interest rate risk. Changing interest rates, including rates that fall below zero, may have unpredictable effects on markets, may result in heightened market volatility, and may detract from Fund performance to the extent a Fund is exposed to such interest rates.
The cost of servicing foreign debt will also generally be adversely affected by rising international interest rates, because many external debt obligations bear interest at rates which are adjusted based upon international interest rates. Furthermore, there is a risk of restructuring of certain foreign debt obligations that could reduce and reschedule interest and principal payments.
The performance of a Fund may also be negatively affected by fluctuations in a foreign currency’s strength or weakness relative to the U.S. dollar, particularly to the extent the Fund invests a significant percentage of its assets in foreign debt securities denominated in non-U.S. currencies. Currency rates in foreign countries may fluctuate significantly over short or long periods of time for a number of reasons, including changes in interest rates, imposition of currency exchange controls and economic or political developments in the U.S. or abroad. A Fund may also incur currency conversion costs when converting foreign currencies into U.S. dollars and vice versa.
It may be difficult to obtain reliable information about the securities and business operations of certain foreign issuers. It may also be difficult to evaluate such information, as well as foreign economic trends, due to foreign regulation and accounting standards. Governments or trade groups may compel local agents to hold securities in designated depositories that are not subject to independent evaluation. Additionally, investments in certain countries may subject a Fund to tax rules, the application of which may be uncertain. Countries may amend or revise their existing tax laws, regulations and/or procedures in the future, possibly with retroactive effect. Changes in or uncertainties regarding the laws, regulations or procedures of a country could reduce the after-tax profits of a Fund, directly or indirectly, including by reducing the after-tax profits of companies located in such countries in which the Fund invests, or result in unexpected tax liabilities for the Fund.
Global economies and financial markets have become increasingly interconnected, which increases the possibility that conditions in one country or region might adversely impact issuers in a different country or region. Any attempt by a Fund to hedge against or otherwise protect its portfolio, or to profit from such circumstances, may fail and, accordingly, an investment in a Fund could lose money over short or long periods. For example, the economies of many countries or regions in which a Fund may invest are highly dependent on trading with certain key trading partners. Reductions in spending on products and services by these key trading partners, the institution of tariffs or other trade barriers, or a slowdown in the economies of key trading partners may adversely affect the performance of securities in which a Fund may invest. The severity or duration of adverse economic conditions may also be affected by policy changes made by governments or quasi-governmental organizations. The imposition of sanctions by the United States or another government on a country could cause disruptions to the country’s financial system and economy, which could negatively impact the value of securities. The risks posed by sanctions may be heightened to the extent a Fund invests significantly in the affected country or region or in issuers from the affected country that depend on global markets.
In addition, foreign debt securities may be impacted by economic, political, social, diplomatic or other conditions or events (including, for example, military confrontations, war and terrorism), as well as the seizure, expropriation or nationalization of a company or its assets or the assets of a particular investor or category of investors. A foreign government may also restrict an issuer from paying principal and interest on its debt obligations to investors outside the country. It may also be difficult to use foreign laws and courts to force a foreign issuer to make principal and interest payments on its debt obligations.
Further, investments in certain countries may subject a Fund to tax rules, the application of which may be uncertain. Countries may amend or revise their existing tax laws, regulations and/or procedures in the future, possibly with retroactive effect. Changes in, or uncertainties regarding the laws, regulations or procedures of a country could reduce the after-tax profits of a Fund, directly or indirectly, including by reducing the after-tax profits of companies located in such countries in which the Fund invests, or result in unexpected tax liabilities for the Fund.
Although it is not uncommon for governments to enter into trade agreements that would, among other things, reduce barriers among countries, increase competition among companies and reduce government subsidies, there are no assurances that such agreements will achieve their intended economic objectives. There is also a possibility that such trade arrangements: i) will not be implemented; ii) will be implemented, but not completed; iii) or will be

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completed, but then partially or completely unwound. It is also possible that a significant participant could choose to abandon a trade agreement, which could diminish its credibility and influence. Any of these occurrences could have adverse effects on the markets of both participating and non-participating countries, including appreciation or depreciation of currencies, a significant increase in exchange rate volatility, a resurgence in economic protectionism and an undermining of confidence in markets. Such developments could have an adverse impact on a Fund’s investments in the debt of countries participating in such trade agreements.
A Fund’s foreign debt securities are generally held outside of the United States in the primary market for the securities in the custody of certain eligible foreign banks and trust companies (“foreign sub-custodians”), as permitted under the 1940 Act. Settlement practices for foreign securities may differ from those in the United States. Some countries have limited governmental oversight and regulation of industry practices, stock exchanges, depositories, registrars, brokers and listed companies, which increases the risk of corruption and fraud and the possibility of losses to a Fund. In particular, under certain circumstances, foreign securities may settle on a delayed delivery basis, meaning that a Fund may be required to make payment for securities before the Fund has actually received delivery of the securities or deliver securities prior to the receipt of payment. Typically, in these cases, the Fund will receive evidence of ownership in accordance with the generally accepted settlement practices in the local market entitling the Fund to delivery or payment at a future date, but there is a risk that the security will not be delivered to the Fund or that payment will not be received, although the Fund and its foreign sub-custodians take reasonable precautions to mitigate this risk. Losses can also result from lost, stolen or counterfeit securities; defaults by brokers and banks; failures or defects of the settlement system; or poor and improper recordkeeping by registrars and issuers.
Foreign Currency Contracts. To the extent that a Fund may i) invest in securities denominated in foreign currencies, ii) temporarily hold funds in bank deposits or other money market investments denominated in foreign currencies, or iii) engage in foreign currency contract transactions, the Fund may be affected favorably or unfavorably by exchange control regulations or changes in the exchange rate between such currencies and the U.S. dollar. The rate of exchange between the U.S. dollar and other currencies is determined by the forces of supply and demand in the foreign exchange markets. The international balance of payments and other economic and financial conditions, market interest rates, government intervention, speculation and other factors affect these forces. A Fund may engage in foreign currency transactions in order to hedge its portfolio and to attempt to protect it against uncertainty in the level of future foreign exchange rates in the purchase and sale of securities. A Fund may also engage in foreign currency transactions to increase exposure to a foreign currency or to shift exposure to foreign currency fluctuations from one country to another.
Forward foreign currency contracts are also contracts for the future delivery of a specified currency at a specified time and at a specified price. These contracts may be bought or sold to protect a Fund against a possible loss resulting from an adverse change in the relationship between foreign currencies and the U.S. dollar or to increase exposure to a particular foreign currency. These transactions differ from futures contracts in that they are usually conducted on a principal basis instead of through an exchange, and therefore there are no brokerage fees, margin deposits are negotiated between the parties, and the contracts are settled through different procedures. The sub-advisers will consider on an ongoing basis the creditworthiness of the institutions with which each Fund will enter into such forward foreign currency contracts.
The use of foreign currency contracts involves the risk of imperfect correlation between movements in contract prices and movements in the price of the currencies to which the contracts relate. The successful use of foreign currency transaction strategies also depends on the ability of the sub-adviser to correctly forecast interest rate movements, currency rate movements and general stock market price movements. There can be no assurance that the sub-adviser’s forecasts will be accurate. Accordingly, a Fund may be required to buy or sell additional currency on the spot market (and bear the expense of such transaction) if the sub-adviser’s predictions regarding the movement of foreign currency or securities markets prove inaccurate. Also, foreign currency transactions, like currency exchange rates, can be affected unpredictably by intervention (or the failure to intervene) by U.S. or foreign governments or central banks, or by currency controls or political developments. Such events may prevent or restrict a Fund’s ability to enter into foreign currency transactions, force the Fund to exit a foreign currency transaction at a disadvantageous time or price or result in penalties for the Fund, any of which may result in a loss to the Fund. When such contracts are used for hedging purposes, they are intended to reduce the risk of loss due to a

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decline in the value of the hedged currency, but at the same time, they tend to limit any potential gain which might result should the value of such currency increase.
Foreign currency contracts may be either futures contracts or forward contracts. Similar to other futures contracts, a foreign currency futures contract is an agreement for the future delivery of a specified currency at a specified time and at a specified price that will be secured by margin deposits, is regulated by the CFTC and is traded on designated exchanges. A Fund will incur brokerage fees when it purchases and sells foreign currency futures contracts.
Foreign currency futures contracts carry the same risks as other futures contracts, but also entail risks associated with international investing. Similar to other futures contracts, a foreign currency futures contract is an agreement for the future delivery of a specified currency at a specified time and at a specified price that will be secured by margin deposits, is regulated by the CFTC and is traded on designated exchanges. A Fund will incur brokerage fees when it purchases and sells futures contracts.
To the extent a Fund may invest in securities denominated in foreign currencies, and may temporarily hold funds in bank deposits or other money market investments denominated in foreign currencies, the Fund may be affected favorably or unfavorably by exchange control regulations or changes in the exchange rates between such currencies and the U.S. dollar. The rate of exchange between the U.S. dollar and other currencies is determined by the forces of supply and demand in the foreign exchange markets. The international balance of payments and other economic and financial conditions, government intervention, speculation and other factors affect these forces.
If a decline in the exchange rate for a particular currency is anticipated, a Fund may enter into a foreign currency futures position as a hedge. If it is anticipated that an exchange rate for a particular currency will rise, a Fund may enter into a foreign currency futures position to hedge against an increase in the price of securities denominated in that currency. These foreign currency futures contracts will only be used as a hedge against anticipated currency rate changes. Although such contracts are intended to minimize the risk of loss due to a decline in the value of the hedged currency, at the same time, they tend to limit any potential gain which might result should the value of such currency increase.
The use of foreign currency futures contracts involves the risk of imperfect correlation between movements in futures prices and movements in the price of currencies which are the subject of the hedge. The successful use of foreign currency futures contracts also depends on the ability of the sub-adviser to correctly forecast interest rate movements, currency rate movements and general stock market price movements. There can be no assurance that the sub-adviser’s judgment will be accurate. The use of foreign currency futures contracts also exposes a Fund to the general risks of investing in futures contracts, including: the risk of an illiquid market for the foreign currency futures contracts and the risk of adverse regulatory actions. Any of these events may cause a Fund to be unable to hedge its currency risks, and may cause a Fund to lose money on its investments in foreign currency futures contracts.
Recent Events in European Countries. A number of countries in Europe have experienced severe economic and financial difficulties. Many non-governmental issuers, and even certain governments, have defaulted on, or been forced to restructure, their debts; many other issuers have faced difficulties obtaining credit or refinancing existing obligations; financial institutions have in many cases required government or central bank support, have needed to raise capital, and/or have been impaired in their ability to extend credit; and financial markets in Europe and elsewhere have experienced extreme volatility and declines in asset values and liquidity. These difficulties may continue, worsen or spread within and beyond Europe. Responses to the financial problems by European governments, central banks and others, including austerity measures and reforms, may not work, may result in social unrest and may limit future growth and economic recovery or have other unintended consequences. Further defaults or restructurings by governments and others of their debt could have additional adverse effects on economies, financial markets and asset valuations around the world.
The United Kingdom formally left the European Union (“EU”) on January 31, 2020 (a measure commonly referred to as “Brexit”). In December 2020, the United Kingdom and the EU entered into a new trading relationship. The agreement allows for continued trading free of tariffs, but institutes other new requirements for trading between the United Kingdom and the EU. Aspects of the EU-United Kingdom trade relationship remain subject to further

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negotiation. Due to political uncertainty, it is not possible to anticipate the form or nature of the future trading relationship between the EU and the United Kingdom.
Since the citizens of the United Kingdom voted via referendum to leave the EU in June 2016, global financial markets have experienced significant volatility due to the uncertainty around Brexit. Even with a new trading relationship having been established, there will likely continue to be considerable uncertainty about the potential impact of these developments on United Kingdom, European and global economies and markets. There is also the possibility of withdrawal movements within other EU countries and the possibility of additional political, economic and market uncertainty and instability. Brexit and any similar developments may have negative effects on economies and markets, such as increased volatility and illiquidity and potentially lower economic growth in the United Kingdom, EU and globally, which may adversely affect the value of a Fund’s investments. Whether or not a Fund invests in securities of issuers located in Europe or with significant exposure to European issuers or countries, these events could result in losses to the Fund, as there may be negative effects on the value and liquidity of the Fund’s investments and/or the Fund’s ability to enter into certain transactions.
Russia launched a large-scale invasion of Ukraine on February 24, 2022, significantly amplifying already existing geopolitical tensions. Actual and threatened responses to such military action may impact the markets for certain Russian commodities and may likely have collateral impacts on markets globally. As a result of this military action, the United States and many other countries (“Sanctioning Bodies) have instituted various economic sanctions against Russian individuals and entities (including corporate and banking). These sanctions include, but are not limited to: a prohibition on doing business with certain Russian companies, officials and oligarchs; a commitment by certain countries and the European Union to remove selected Russian banks from the Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunications “SWIFT,” the electronic banking network that connects banks globally; and restrictive measures to prevent the Russian Central Bank from undermining the impact of the sanctions. The Sanctioning Bodies, or others, could also institute broader sanctions on Russia. These sanctions and the resulting market environment could result in the immediate freeze of Russian securities, commodities, resources, and/or funds invested in prohibited assets, impairing the ability of a Fund to buy, sell, receive or deliver those securities and/or assets. Further, due to closures of certain markets and restrictions on trading certain securities, the value of certain securities held by the Fund could be significantly impacted, which could lead to such securities being valued at zero. Sanctions could also result in Russia taking counter measures or retaliatory actions which may further impair the value and liquidity of Russian securities, including cyber actions. The extent and duration of the military action, resulting sanctions imposed and other punitive action taken and resulting future market disruptions, including declines in its stock markets, the value of Russian sovereign debt and the value of the ruble against the U.S. dollar, cannot be easily predicted, but could be significant. Any such disruptions caused by Russian military action or other actions (including terror attacks, cyberattacks and espionage) or resulting actual and threatened responses to such activity, including purchasing and financing restrictions, boycotts or changes in consumer or purchaser preferences, sanctions, tariffs or cyberattacks on the Russian government, Russian companies or Russian individuals, including politicians, may impact Russia’s economy and a Fund’s investments in Russian securities. As Russia produces and exports large amounts of crude oil and gas, any acts of terrorism, armed conflict or government interventions (such as the imposition of sanctions or other governmental restrictions on trade) causing disruptions of Russian oil and gas exports could negatively impact the Russian economy and, thus, adversely affect the financial condition, results of operations or prospects of related companies. Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, the responses of countries and political bodies to Russia’s actions, and the potential for wider conflict may increase financial market volatility and could have severe adverse effects on regional and global economic markets, including the markets for certain securities and commodities, such as oil and natural gas.
Depositary Receipts. American Depositary Receipts (“ADRs”), Global Depositary Receipts (“GDRs”) and European Depositary Receipts (“EDRs”) represent interests in securities of foreign companies that have been deposited with a U.S. financial institution, such as a bank or trust company, and that trade on an exchange or over-the-counter (“OTC”).
A Fund may invest in depositary receipts through “sponsored” or “unsponsored” facilities. A sponsored facility is established jointly by the issuer of the underlying security and a depositary (the issuing bank or trust company), whereas a depositary may establish an unsponsored facility without participation by the issuer of the deposited security.

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Holders of unsponsored depositary receipts generally bear all the costs of such facilities, and the depositary of an unsponsored facility frequently is under no obligation to distribute interest holder communications received from the issuer of the deposited security or to pass through voting rights to the holders of such receipts in respect of the deposited securities. The issuers of unsponsored depositary receipts are not obligated to disclose material information in the United States; as such, there may be limited information available regarding such issuers and/or limited correlation between available information and the market value of depositary receipts.
ADRs represent interests in foreign issuers that trade on U.S. exchanges or OTC. ADRs represent the right to receive securities of the foreign issuer deposited with the issuing bank or trust company. Generally, ADRs are denominated in U.S. dollars and are designed for use in the U.S. securities markets. The depositaries that issue ADRs are usually U.S. financial institutions, such as a bank or trust company, but the underlying securities are issued by a foreign issuer.
GDRs may be issued in U.S. dollars or other currencies and are generally designed for use in securities markets outside the United States. GDRs represent the right to receive foreign securities and may be traded on the exchanges of the depositary’s country. The issuing depositary, which may be a foreign or a U.S. entity, converts dividends and the share price into the shareholder’s home currency. EDRs are generally issued by a European bank and traded on local exchanges.
Although an issuing bank or trust company may impose charges for the collection of dividends on foreign securities that underlie ADRs, GDRs and EDRs, and for the conversion of ADRs, GDRs and EDRs into their respective underlying securities, there are generally no fees imposed on the purchase or sale of ADRs, GDRs and EDRs, other than transaction fees ordinarily involved with trading stocks. ADRs, GDRs and EDRs may be less liquid or may trade at a lower price than the underlying securities of the issuer. Additionally, receipt of corporate information about the underlying issuer may be untimely.
Emerging Market Securities. Unless otherwise stated in a Fund’s prospectus, countries are generally characterized by a Fund’s sub-adviser as “emerging market countries” by reference to a broad-based market index, such as the MSCI Emerging Markets Index, by reference to the World Bank’s per capita income brackets or based on the sub-adviser’s qualitative judgments about a country’s level of economic and institutional development, and include markets commonly referred to as “frontier markets.” An emerging market is generally in the earlier stages of its industrialization cycle with a low per capita GDP and a low market capitalization to GDP ratio relative to those in the United States and the European Union. The countries included in the MSCI Emerging Market Index are Brazil, Chile, China, Colombia, the Czech Republic, Egypt, Greece, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Korea, Kuwait, Malaysia, Mexico, Peru, the Philippines, Poland, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey and the United Arab Emirates, and may change from time to time. Frontier market countries generally have smaller economies and even less developed capital markets than typical emerging market countries (which themselves have increased investment risk relative to investing in more developed markets) and, as a result, the risks of investing in emerging market countries are magnified in frontier market countries.
Investing in emerging markets may involve risks in addition to and greater than those generally associated with investing in the securities markets of developed countries. For example, economies in emerging market countries may be dependent on relatively few industries that are more susceptible to local and global changes. Securities markets in these countries can also be relatively small and have substantially lower trading volumes. As a result, securities issued in these countries may be more volatile and less liquid, and may be more difficult to value, than securities issued in countries with more developed economies and/or markets.
Certain emerging market countries lack uniform accounting, auditing and financial reporting and disclosure standards, have less governmental supervision of financial markets than developed countries, and have less developed legal systems than developed countries. Certain governments may be more unstable and present greater risks of nationalization or restrictions on foreign ownership of local companies. Repatriation of investment income, capital and the proceeds of sales by foreign investors may require governmental registration and/or approval in some emerging market countries. Some emerging market countries may also impose punitive taxes that could adversely affect the prices of securities. While a Fund will only invest in markets where these restrictions are considered acceptable by the Fund’s sub-adviser, a country could impose new or additional repatriation restrictions after the Fund’s investment. If this happens, the Fund’s response might include, among other things, applying to the

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appropriate authorities for a waiver of the restrictions or engaging in transactions in other markets designed to offset the risks of decline in that country. Such restrictions will be considered in relation to a Fund’s liquidity needs and other factors. Further, some attractive equity securities may not be available to a Fund if foreign shareholders already hold the maximum amount legally permissible.
While government involvement in the private sector varies in degree among emerging market countries, such involvement may in some cases include government ownership of companies in certain sectors, wage and price controls or imposition of trade barriers and other protectionist measures. With respect to any developing country, there is no guarantee that some future economic or political crisis will not lead to price controls, forced mergers of companies, expropriation, or creation of government monopolies to the possible detriment of a Fund’s investments. In addition, rapid fluctuations in inflation rates may have negative impacts on the economies and securities markets of certain emerging market countries.
Additionally, there may be increased settlement risk for transactions in securities of emerging market issuers. Settlement systems in emerging market countries are generally less organized than those in developed markets. Supervisory authorities may also be unable to apply standards comparable to those in developed markets. Thus, there may be risks that settlement may be delayed and that cash or securities belonging to a Fund may be in jeopardy because of failures of or defects in the systems. In particular, market practice may require that payment be made before receipt of the security being purchased or that delivery of a security be made before payment is received. In such cases, default by a broker or bank (the “counterparty”) through whom the transaction is effected might cause the Fund to suffer a loss. A Fund will seek, where possible, to use counterparties whose financial status is such that this risk is reduced. However, there can be no certainty that a Fund will be successful in eliminating this risk, particularly as counterparties operating in emerging market countries frequently lack the standing or financial resources of those in developed countries. There may also be a danger that, because of uncertainties in the operation of settlement systems in individual markets, competing claims may arise with respect to securities held by or to be transferred to a Fund. A Fund and its shareholders may also encounter substantial difficulties in obtaining and enforcing judgments against individuals residing outside of the U.S. and companies domiciled outside of the U.S.
Taxation of dividends, interest and capital gains received by a Fund varies among emerging market countries and, in some cases, is comparatively high. In addition, emerging market countries typically have less well-defined tax laws and procedures, and such laws may permit retroactive taxation so that a Fund could become subject in the future to local tax liability that it had not reasonably anticipated in conducting its investment activities or valuing its assets.
Sovereign Debt Obligations. Sovereign debt instruments are issued or guaranteed by foreign governments or their agencies, including those of emerging market countries. Sovereign debt may be in the form of conventional securities or other types of debt instruments, such as loans or loan participations. The debt obligations of a foreign government or entity may not be supported by the full faith and credit of such foreign government. Sovereign debt of emerging market countries may involve a high degree of risk, and may be in default or present the risk of default. Governmental entities responsible for repayment of the debt may fail to repay principal and interest when due, and may require renegotiation or rescheduling of debt payments. Prospects for repayment of principal and interest may depend on political and economic factors. A Fund may have limited or no legal recourse in the event of default with respect to sovereign debt obligations. Sovereign debt instruments and foreign debt securities share many of the same risks. For more information, refer to “Foreign Debt Securities.”
Unless otherwise stated in a Fund’s prospectus, countries are generally characterized by a Fund’s sub-adviser as “emerging market countries” by reference to a broad market index, by reference to the World Bank’s per capita income brackets or based on the sub-adviser’s qualitative judgments about a country’s level of economic and institutional development, and include markets commonly referred to as “frontier markets.” An emerging market is generally in the earlier stages of its industrialization cycle with a low per capita GDP and a low market capitalization to GDP ratio relative to those in the United States and the European Union. Frontier market countries generally have smaller economies and even less developed capital markets than typical emerging market countries and, as a result, the risks of investing in emerging market countries are magnified in frontier market countries.
The performance of sovereign debt instruments may be negatively affected by fluctuations in a foreign currency’s strength or weakness relative to the U.S. dollar, particularly to the extent the Fund invests a significant percentage of

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its assets in sovereign debt instruments denominated in non-U.S. currencies. Currency rates in foreign countries may fluctuate significantly over short or long periods of time for a number of reasons, including changes in interest rates, imposition of currency exchange controls and economic or political developments in the U.S. or abroad.
Global economies and financial markets have become increasingly interconnected, which increases the possibility that conditions in one country or region might adversely impact issuers in a different country or region. Sovereign debt instruments may be impacted by economic, political, social, diplomatic or other conditions or events (including, for example, military confrontations, war and terrorism). Any attempt by a Fund to hedge against or otherwise protect its portfolio, or to profit from such circumstances, may fail and, accordingly, an investment in a Fund could lose money over short or long periods. For example, the economies of many countries or regions in which a Fund may invest are highly dependent on trading with certain key trading partners. Reductions in spending on products and services by these key trading partners, the institution of tariffs or other trade barriers, or a slowdown in the economies of key trading partners may adversely affect the performance of securities in which a Fund may invest. The severity or duration of adverse economic conditions may also be affected by policy changes made by governments or quasi-governmental organizations. The imposition of sanctions by the United States or another government on a country could cause disruptions to the country’s financial system and economy, which could negatively impact the value of securities, including sovereign debt instruments. The risks posed by sanctions may be heightened to the extent a Fund invests significantly in the affected country or region or in issuers from the affected country that depend on global markets.
Although it is not uncommon for governments to enter into trade agreements that would, among other things, reduce barriers among countries, increase competition among companies and reduce government subsidies, there are no assurances that such agreements will achieve their intended economic objectives. There is also a possibility that such trade arrangements: i) will not be implemented; ii) will be implemented, but not completed; iii) or will be completed, but then partially or completely unwound. It is also possible that a significant participant could choose to abandon a trade agreement, which could diminish its credibility and influence. Any of these occurrences could have adverse effects on the markets of both participating and non-participating countries, including appreciation or depreciation of currencies, a significant increase in exchange rate volatility, a resurgence in economic protectionism and an undermining of confidence in markets. Such developments could have an adverse impact on a Fund’s investments in the debt of countries participating in such trade agreements.
Further, investments in certain countries may subject a Fund to tax rules, the application of which may be uncertain. Countries may amend or revise their existing tax laws, regulations and/or procedures in the future, possibly with retroactive effect. Changes in, or uncertainties regarding the laws, regulations or procedures of a country could directly or indirectly reduce the after-tax profits of a Fund.
Supranational Entity Securities. Debt security investments may include the debt securities of “supranational” entities, which are international groups or unions in which the power and influence of member states transcend national boundaries or interests in order to share in decision making and vote on issues concerning the collective body. They include international organizations designated or supported by governments to promote economic reconstruction or development and international banking institutions and related government agencies, such as the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (part of the World Bank), the European Union, the Asian Development Bank and the Inter-American Development Bank. The governmental members of these supranational entities are “stockholders” that typically make capital contributions and may be committed to make additional capital contributions if the entity is unable to repay its borrowings. There can be no assurance that the constituent foreign governments will continue to be able or willing to honor their capitalization commitments for such entities.
Supranational Entity Securities are subject to risks in addition to those relating to foreign government and sovereign debt securities and debt securities generally. Issuers of such debt securities may be unwilling to pay interest and repay principal, or otherwise meet obligations, when due and may require that the conditions for payment be renegotiated. The foreign governmental or other organizations supporting such supranational issuers may be immune from lawsuits in the event of the issuer’s failure or inability to pay the obligations when due. Issuers may be dependent on expected disbursements from foreign governmental or other organizations.
OTHER PERMITTED INVESTMENT ACTIVITIES

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Borrowing. Generally, under the 1940 Act, a Fund may borrow money only from banks in an amount not exceeding 1/3 of its total assets (including the amount borrowed) less liabilities (other than borrowings). A Fund may borrow money for temporary or emergency purposes, including for short-term redemptions and liquidity needs. Borrowing involves special risk considerations. Interest costs on borrowings may fluctuate with changing market rates of interest and may partially offset or exceed the return earned on borrowed funds (or on the assets that were retained rather than sold to meet the needs for which funds were borrowed). Under adverse market conditions, a Fund might have to sell portfolio securities to meet interest or principal payments at a time when investment considerations would not favor such sales. Reverse repurchase agreements and other similar investments that involve a form of leverage have characteristics similar to borrowings. A Fund may enter into reverse repurchase agreements or similar financing transactions, notwithstanding the requirements of Sections 18(c) and 18(f)(1) of the 1940 Act, if the Fund, (i) treats such transactions as borrowings and complies with the asset coverage requirements of Section 18, and combines the aggregate amount of indebtedness associated with all reverse repurchase agreements or similar financing transactions with the aggregate amount of any other senior securities representing indebtedness when calculating the asset coverage ratio; or (ii) treats all reverse repurchasing agreements or similar financing transactions as “derivatives transactions” as defined in Rule 18f-4 of the 1940 Act and complies with all requirements of Rule 18f-4. To help meet short-term redemptions and liquidity needs, the Funds are parties to a revolving credit agreement whereby a Fund is permitted to use bank borrowings for temporary or emergency purposes.
Commodity-Related Investments. The value of commodities investments will generally be affected by overall market movements and factors specific to a particular industry or commodity, which may include weather, embargoes, tariffs, and health, political, international and regulatory developments. Economic and other events (whether real or perceived) can reduce the demand for commodities, which may reduce market prices and cause the value of Fund shares to fall. The frequency and magnitude of such changes cannot be predicted. Exposure to commodities and commodities markets may subject a Fund to greater volatility than investments in traditional securities. No active trading market may exist for certain commodities investments, which may impair the ability of a Fund to sell or to realize the full value of such investments in the event of the need to liquidate such investments. In addition, adverse market conditions may impair the liquidity of actively traded commodities investments. Certain types of commodities instruments (such as total return swaps and commodity-linked notes) are subject to the risk that the counterparty to the instrument will not perform or will be unable to perform in accordance with the terms of the instrument.
Certain commodities are subject to limited pricing flexibility because of supply and demand factors. Others are subject to broad price fluctuations as a result of the volatility of the prices for certain raw materials and the instability of supplies of other materials. These additional variables may create additional investment risks and result in greater volatility than investments in traditional securities. The commodities that underlie commodity futures contracts and commodity swaps may be subject to additional economic and non-economic variables, such as drought, floods, weather, livestock disease, embargoes, tariffs, and international economic, political and regulatory developments. Unlike the financial futures markets, in the commodity futures markets there are costs of physical storage associated with purchasing the underlying commodity. The price of the commodity futures contract will reflect the storage costs of purchasing the physical commodity, including the time value of money invested in the physical commodity. To the extent that the storage costs for an underlying commodity change while a Fund is invested in futures contracts on that commodity, the value of the futures contract may change proportionately.
In the commodity futures markets, producers of the underlying commodity may decide to hedge the price risk of selling the commodity by selling futures contracts today to lock in the price of the commodity at delivery tomorrow. In order to induce speculators to purchase the other side of the same futures contract, the commodity producer generally must sell the futures contract at a lower price than the expected future spot price. Conversely, if most hedgers in the futures market are purchasing futures contracts to hedge against a rise in prices, then speculators will only sell the other side of the futures contract at a higher futures price than the expected future spot price of the commodity. The changing nature of the hedgers and speculators in the commodity markets will influence whether futures prices are above or below the expected future spot price, which can have significant implications for a Fund. If the nature of hedgers and speculators in futures markets has shifted when it is time for a Fund to reinvest the proceeds of a maturing contract in a new futures contract, the Fund might reinvest at higher or lower futures prices, or choose to pursue other investments

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Environmental, Social and Governance (“ESG”) Considerations. As a firm, Allspring Global Investments (“Allspring”) believes that considering ESG issues and sustainability themes in its investment strategies and stewardship activities enhances its ability to manage risk more comprehensively and generate sustainable long-term returns. To that end, Allspring portfolio managers are provided with access to various forms of ESG-related data, which, where appropriate, they may incorporate into their investment processes in ways that are consistent with their asset classes and strategies. For example, teams may integrate ESG-related information into different aspects of their investment analysis, including industry analysis, management quality assessment, company strategy analysis, or fair value analysis, which may include adjustments to forecasted company financials (such as sales or operating costs), or valuation model variables (such as discount rates or terminal values). Additionally, direct communication with company management teams on a range of issues, including ESG and sustainability issues, is often an important component of their extensive independent fundamental research.
In addition to ESG data from external sources, Allspring investment teams may have developed their own processes, which may include scoring, to assess ESG and sustainability risks. An example is our ESG scoring framework called ESGiQ, which applies insights from its research analysts and contributes to communication, idea sharing, and collaboration across Allspring’s global platform. ESGiQ leverages the Sustainability Accounting Standards Board (SASB) materiality framework and builds upon it to focus analysis on issues believed to most likely affect a company’s financial condition, operating performance or risk profile.
A Fund that takes into consideration sustainability and/or ESG characteristics may forgo investments or make investments that differ from an otherwise similar investment strategy that does not take such considerations into account. These actions may cause a Fund to perform differently than otherwise similar funds, or the market as a whole. ESG data, including that from third-party data providers, may be incomplete, inaccurate or unavailable. As a result, there is a risk that a portfolio manager may incorrectly assess a security or issuer. Funds that do not have ESG-focused strategies may consider ESG related factors when evaluating a security for purchase but are not prohibited from purchasing or continuing to hold securities that do not meet specified ESG criteria.
Loans of Portfolio Securities. Portfolio securities of a Fund may be loaned pursuant to guidelines approved by the Board to brokers, dealers and financial institutions, provided: i) the loan is secured continuously by collateral consisting of cash, securities of the U.S. Government, its agencies or instrumentalities, or an irrevocable letter of credit issued by a bank organized under the laws of the United States, organized under the laws of a state, or a foreign bank that has filed an agreement with the Federal Reserve Board to comply with the same rules and regulations applicable to U.S. banks in securities credit transactions, initially in an amount at least equal to 100% of the value of the loaned securities (which includes any accrued interest or dividends), with the borrower being obligated, under certain circumstances, to post additional collateral on a daily marked-to-market basis, all as described in further detail in the following paragraph; although the loans may not be fully supported at all times if, for example, the instruments in which cash collateral is invested decline in value or the borrower fails to provide additional collateral when required in a timely manner or at all; ii) the Fund may at any time terminate the loan and request the return of the loaned securities upon sufficient prior notification; iii) the Fund will receive any interest or distributions paid on the loaned securities; and iv) the aggregate market value of loaned securities will not at any time exceed the limits established under the 1940 Act.
For lending its securities, a Fund will earn either a fee payable by the borrower (on loans that are collateralized by U.S. Government securities or a letter of credit) or the income on instruments purchased with cash collateral (after payment of a rebate fee to the borrower and a portion of the investment income to the securities lending agent). Cash collateral may be invested on behalf of a Fund by the Fund’s sub-adviser in U.S. dollar-denominated short-term money market instruments that are permissible investments for the Fund and that, at the time of investment, are considered high-quality. Currently, cash collateral generated from securities lending is invested in shares of Securities Lending Cash Investments, LLC (the “Cash Collateral Fund”). The Cash Collateral Fund is a Delaware limited liability company that is exempt from registration under the 1940 Act. The Cash Collateral Fund is managed by Allspring Funds Management, LLC (“Allspring Funds Management”) and is sub-advised by Allspring Global Investments, LLC (“Allspring Investments”). The Cash Collateral Fund is required to comply with the credit quality, maturity and other limitations set forth in Rule 2a-7 under the 1940 Act. The Cash Collateral Fund seeks to provide preservation of principal and daily liquidity by investing in high-quality, U.S. dollar-denominated short-term money market instruments. The Cash Collateral Fund may invest in securities with fixed, variable, or floating rates of

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interest. The Cash Collateral Fund seeks to maintain a stable price per share of $1.00, although there is no guarantee that this will be achieved. Income on shares of the Cash Collateral Fund is reinvested in shares of the Cash Collateral Fund. The net asset value of a Fund will be affected by an increase or decrease in the value of the securities loaned by it, and by an increase or decrease in the value of instruments purchased with cash collateral received by it.
The interests in the Cash Collateral Fund are not insured by the FDIC, and are not deposits, obligations of, or endorsed or guaranteed in any way by any banking entity. Any losses in the Cash Collateral Fund will be borne solely by the Cash Collateral Fund.
Loans of securities involve a risk that the borrower may fail to return the securities when due or when recalled by a Fund or may fail to provide additional collateral when required. In either case, a Fund could experience delays in recovering securities or could lose all or part of the value of the loaned securities. Although voting rights, or rights to consent, attendant to securities on loan pass to the borrower, loans may be recalled at any time and generally will be recalled if a material event affecting the investment is expected to be presented to a shareholder vote, so that the securities may be voted by a Fund.
Each lending Fund pays a portion of the income (net of rebate fees) or fees earned by it from securities lending to a securities lending agent. Goldman Sachs Bank USA, an unaffiliated third party doing business as Goldman Sachs Agency Lending, currently acts as securities lending agent for the Funds, subject to the overall supervision of the Funds’ manager.
Investment Companies. These securities include shares of other affiliated or unaffiliated open-end investment companies (i.e., mutual funds), closed-end funds, exchange-traded funds (“ETFs”), UCITS funds (pooled investment vehicles established in accordance with the Undertaking for Collective Investment in Transferable Securities adopted by European Union member states) and business development companies. A Fund may invest in securities of other investment companies up to the limits prescribed in Section 12(d) under the 1940 Act, the rules and regulations thereunder and any exemptive relief currently or in the future available to a Fund.
Except with respect to funds structured as funds-of-funds or so-called master/feeder funds or other funds whose strategies otherwise allow such investments, the 1940 Act generally requires that a fund limit its investments in another investment company or series thereof so that, as of the time at which a securities purchase is made: i) no more than 3% of the outstanding voting stock of any one investment company or series thereof will be owned by a fund or by companies controlled by a fund; ii) no more than 5% of the value of its total assets will be invested in the securities of any one investment company; and iii) no more than 10% of the value of its total assets will be invested in the aggregate in securities of other investment companies.
In October 2020, the SEC adopted a new regulatory framework, including new Rule 12d1-4 under the 1940 Act, for fund-of-funds arrangements. This new regulatory framework included, among other things, the rescission of certain SEC exemptive orders and rules permitting investments in excess of the statutory limits and the withdrawal of certain related SEC staff no-action letters. While this new regulatory framework permits the Funds to enter into more types of fund-of-funds structures and to invest in other investment companies beyond the statutory limits without an exemptive order, it also imposes several conditions, including: (i) limits on ownership and voting of acquired fund shares; (ii) evaluations and findings by investment advisers of funds in fund-of-funds arrangements; (iii) investment agreements between funds in fund-of-funds arrangements; and (iv) limits on complex fund-of-funds structures. These regulatory changes may adversely impact a Fund’s investment strategies and operations to the extent that it invests, or might otherwise have invested, in shares of other investment companies or private funds (including investments that rely on exclusions in Sections 3(c)(1) or 3(c)(7) of the 1940 Act from the definition of investment company). In addition, these regulatory changes may adversely impact a Fund’s investment strategies and operations to the extent that it is invested in by other investment companies or it invests in other investment companies or private funds in reliance on Rule 12d1-4 or Section 12(d)(1)(G).
Other investment companies in which a Fund invests can be expected to pay fees and other operating expenses, such as investment advisory and administration fees, that would be in addition to those paid by the Fund. Other investment companies may include ETFs, which are publicly-traded unit investment trusts, open-end funds or depositary receipts that seek to track the performance of specific indices or companies in related industries (e.g., passive ETFs), and index funds. A passive ETF or index fund is an investment company that seeks to track the performance of an index (before fees and expenses) by holding in its portfolio either the securities that comprise the

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index or a representative sample of the securities in the index. Passive ETFs or index funds in which the Funds invest will incur expenses not incurred by their applicable indices. Certain securities comprising the indices tracked by passive ETFs or index funds may, from time to time, temporarily be unavailable, which may further impede a passive ETF’s or index fund’s ability to track their respective indices. An actively-managed ETF is an investment company that seeks to outperform the performance of an index.
ETFs generally are subject to the same risks as the underlying securities the ETFs are designed to track and to the risks of the specific sector or industry tracked by the ETF. ETFs also are subject to the risk that their prices may not totally correlate to the prices of the underlying securities the ETFs are designed to track and the risk of possible trading halts due to market conditions or for other reasons. Although ETFs that track broad market indexes are typically large and their shares are fairly liquid, ETFs that track more specific indexes tend to be newer and smaller, and ETFs have limited redemption features. Additionally, to the extent an ETF holds securities traded in markets that close at a different time from the ETF’s listing exchange, liquidity in such securities may be reduced after the applicable closing times, and during the time when the ETF’s listing exchange is open but after the applicable market closing, fixing or settlement times, bid/ask spreads and the resulting premium or discount to the ETF’s shares’ NAV may widen.
In addition, a Fund may invest in the securities of closed-end investment companies. Because shares of closed-end investment companies trade on a stock exchange or in the OTC market, they may trade at a premium or discount to their net asset values, which may be substantial, and their potential lack of liquidity could result in greater volatility. In addition, closed-end investment companies may employ leverage, which also subjects the closed-end investment company to increased risks such as increased volatility. Moreover, closed-end investment companies incur their own fees and expenses.
Private Placement and Other Restricted Securities. Private placement securities are securities sold in offerings that are exempt from registration under the 1933 Act. They are generally eligible for sale only to certain eligible investors. Private placements often may offer attractive opportunities for investment not otherwise available on the open market. However, private placement and other “restricted” securities typically cannot be resold without registration under the 1933 Act or the availability of an exemption from registration (such as Rules 144A (a “Rule 144A Security”)), and may not be readily marketable because they are subject to legal or contractual delays in or restrictions on resale. Asset-backed securities, common stock, convertible securities, corporate debt securities, foreign securities, high-yield securities, money market instruments, mortgage-backed securities, municipal securities, participation interests, preferred stock and other types of equity and debt instruments may be privately placed or restricted securities.
Private placement and other restricted securities typically may be resold only to qualified institutional buyers, or in a privately negotiated transaction, or to a limited number of qualified purchasers, or in limited quantities after they have been held for a specified period of time and other conditions are met for an exemption from registration. Private placement and other restricted securities may be considered illiquid securities, as they typically are subject to restrictions on resale as a matter of contract or under federal securities laws. Because there may be relatively few potential qualified purchasers for such securities, especially under adverse market or economic conditions, or in the event of adverse changes in the financial condition of the issuer, a Fund could find it more difficult to sell such securities when it may be advisable to do so or it may be able to sell such securities only at prices lower than if such securities were more widely held and traded. At times, it also may be more difficult to determine the fair value of such securities for purposes of computing a Fund’s net asset value due to the absence of an active trading market. Delay or difficulty in selling such securities may result in a loss to a Fund. Restricted securities that are “illiquid” are subject to each Fund’s policy of not investing or holding more than 15% of its net assets in illiquid securities. The term “illiquid” in this context refers to securities that cannot be disposed of within seven days in the ordinary course of business at approximately the amount at which a Fund has valued the securities.
The manager typically will evaluate the liquidity characteristics of each Rule 144A Security proposed for purchase by a Fund on a case-by-case basis and will consider the following factors, among others, in its evaluation: i) the frequency of trades and quotes for the Rule 144A Security; ii) the number of dealers willing to purchase or sell the Rule 144A Security and the number of other potential purchasers; iii) dealer undertakings to make a market in the Rule 144A Security; and iv) the nature of the Rule 144A Security and the nature of the marketplace trades (e.g., the time needed to dispose of the Rule 144A Security, the method of soliciting offers and the mechanics of transfer).

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The manager will apply a similar process to evaluating the liquidity characteristics of other restricted securities. A restricted security that is deemed to be liquid when purchased may not continue to be deemed to be liquid for as long as it is held by a Fund. As a result of the resale restrictions on 144A securities, there is a greater risk that they will become illiquid than securities registered with the SEC.
Convertible Securities. A convertible security is a bond, debenture, note, preferred stock, or other security that may be converted or exchanged (by the holder or by the issuer) within a specified period of time into a certain amount of common stock of the same or a different issuer. As such, convertible securities combine the investment characteristics of debt and equity securities. A convertible security provides a fixed-income stream and the opportunity, through its conversion feature, to participate in the capital appreciation resulting from a market price advance in its underlying common stock.
As with a straight fixed-income security, a convertible security tends to increase in market value when interest rates decline and decrease in value when interest rates rise. Like a common stock, the value of a convertible security also tends to increase as the market value of the underlying stock rises, and it tends to decrease as the market value of the underlying stock declines. Because its value can be influenced by both interest-rate and market movements, a convertible security tends not to be as sensitive to interest rate changes as a similar fixed-income security, and tends not to be as sensitive to share price changes as its underlying stock.
Investing in convertible securities is subject to certain risks in addition to those generally associated with debt securities. Certain convertible securities, particularly securities that are convertible into securities of an issuer other than the issuer of the convertible security, may be or become illiquid and, therefore, may be more difficult to resell in a timely fashion or for a fair price, which could result in investment losses.
The creditworthiness of the issuer of a convertible security is important because the holder of a convertible security will typically have recourse only to the issuer. In addition, a convertible security may be subject to conversion or redemption by the issuer, but only after a specified date and under circumstances established at the time the security is issued. This feature may require a holder to convert the security into the underlying common stock, even if the value of the underlying common stock has declined substantially. In addition, companies that issue convertible securities frequently are small- or mid-capitalization companies and, accordingly, carry the risks associated with investments in such companies.
While the Funds use the same criteria to evaluate the credit quality of a convertible debt security that they would use for a more conventional debt security, a convertible preferred stock is treated like a preferred stock for a Fund’s credit evaluation, as well as financial reporting and investment limitation purposes.
Contingent Convertible Bonds. Contingent convertible bonds are a type of convertible security typically issued by non-U.S. banks. Unlike more traditional convertible securities, which typically may convert into equity after the issuer’s common stock has reached a certain strike price, the trigger event for a contingent convertible bond is typically a decline in the issuing bank’s capital threshold below a specified level. Contingent convertible bonds typically are subordinated to other debt instruments of the issuer and generally rank junior to the claims of all holders of unsubordinated obligations of the issuer. Coupon payments on contingent convertible securities may be discretionary and may be cancelled by the issuer. Contingent convertible bonds are a new form of instrument, and the market and regulatory environment for contingent convertible bonds is evolving. Therefore, it is uncertain how the overall market for contingent convertible bonds would react to a triggering event or coupon suspension applicable to one issuer. A Fund may lose money on its investment in a contingent convertible bond when holders of the issuer’s equity securities do not.
Exchange-Traded Notes. Exchange-traded notes (“ETNs”) are generally notes representing debt of an issuer, usually a financial institution. ETNs combine aspects of both bonds and ETFs. An ETN’s returns are based on the performance of one or more underlying assets, reference rates or indexes, minus fees and expenses. Similar to ETFs, ETNs are listed on an exchange and traded in the secondary market. However, unlike an ETF, an ETN can be held until the ETN’s maturity, at which time the issuer will pay a return linked to the performance of the specific asset, index or rate (“reference instrument”) to which the ETN is linked minus certain fees. Unlike regular bonds, ETNs do not make periodic interest payments, and principal is not protected.

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The value of an ETN may be influenced by, among other things, time to maturity, levels of supply and demand for the ETN, volatility and lack of liquidity in underlying markets, changes in the applicable interest rates, the performance of the reference instrument, changes in the issuer’s credit rating and economic, legal, political or geographic events that affect the reference instrument. An ETN that is tied to a reference instrument may not replicate the performance of the reference instrument. ETNs also incur certain expenses not incurred by their applicable reference instrument. Some ETNs that use leverage can, at times, be relatively illiquid and, thus, they may be difficult to purchase or sell at a fair price. Levered ETNs are subject to the same risk as other instruments that use leverage in any form. While leverage allows for greater potential returns, the potential for loss is also greater. Finally, additional losses may be incurred if the investment loses value because, in addition to the money lost on the investment, the loan still needs to be repaid.
Because the return on an ETN is dependent on the issuer’s ability or willingness to meet its obligations, the value of the ETN may change due to a change in the issuer’s credit rating, despite there being no change in the underlying reference instrument. The market value of ETN shares may differ from the value of the reference instrument. This difference in price may be due to the fact that the supply and demand in the market for ETN shares at any point in time is not always identical to the supply and demand in the market for the assets underlying the reference instrument that the ETN seeks to track.
There may be restrictions on a Fund’s right to redeem its investment in an ETN, which is generally designed to be held until maturity. A Fund’s decision to sell its ETN holdings may be limited by the unavailability or limited nature of a secondary market. A Fund could lose some or all of the amount invested in an ETN.
Illiquid Securities. Pursuant to Rule 22e-4 under the 1940 Act, a Fund (other than a money market Fund) may not acquire any “illiquid investment” if, immediately after the acquisition, the Fund would have invested more than 15% of its net assets in illiquid investments that are assets. An “illiquid investment” is any investment that such a Fund reasonably expects cannot be sold or disposed of in current market conditions in seven calendar days or less without the sale or disposition significantly changing the market value of the investment. Illiquid investments include repurchase agreements with a notice or demand period of more than seven days, certain over-the-counter derivative instruments, and securities and other financial instruments that are not readily marketable, unless, based upon a review of the relevant market, trading and investment-specific considerations, those investments are determined not to be illiquid. The Funds (other than the money market Funds) have implemented a liquidity risk management program and related procedures to identify illiquid investments pursuant to Rule 22e-4, and the Board has approved the designation of Allspring Funds Management  to administer the liquidity risk management program and related procedures. The money market Funds may invest up to 5% of its net assets in illiquid investments. The 15% and 5% limits are applied as of the date a Fund purchases an illiquid investment. It is possible that a Fund’s holding of illiquid investment could exceed the 15% limit (5% for the money market Funds), for example as a result of market developments or redemptions.
Each Fund may purchase certain restricted securities that can be resold to institutional investors and which may be determined not to be illiquid investments pursuant to the Trust’s liquidity risk management program. In many cases, those securities are traded in the institutional market under Rule 144A under the 1933 Act and are called Rule 144A securities.
Investments in illiquid investments involve more risks than investments in similar securities that are readily marketable. Illiquid investments may trade at a discount from comparable, more liquid investments. Investment of a Fund’s assets in illiquid investments may restrict the ability of the Fund to dispose of its investments in a timely fashion and for a fair price as well as its ability to take advantage of market opportunities. The risks associated with illiquidity will be particularly acute where a Fund’s operations require cash, such as when a Fund has net redemptions, and could result in the Fund borrowing to meet short-term cash requirements or incurring losses on the sale of illiquid investments.
Illiquid investments are often restricted securities sold in private placement transactions between issuers and their purchasers and may be neither listed on an exchange nor traded in other established markets. In many cases, the privately placed securities may not be freely transferable under the laws of the applicable jurisdiction or due to contractual restrictions on resale. To the extent privately placed securities may be resold in privately negotiated transactions, the prices realized from the sales could be less than those originally paid by the Fund or less than the

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fair value of the securities. In addition, issuers whose securities are not publicly traded may not be subject to the disclosure and other investor protection requirements that may be applicable if their securities were publicly traded. If any privately placed securities held by a Fund are required to be registered under the securities laws of one or more jurisdictions before being resold, the Fund may be required to bear the expenses of registration. Private placement investments may involve investments in smaller, less seasoned issuers, which may involve greater risks than investments in more established companies. These issuers may have limited product lines, markets or financial resources, or they may be dependent on a limited management group. In making investments in private placement securities, a Fund may obtain access to material non-public information, which may restrict the Fund’s ability to conduct transactions in those securities.
Master Limited Partnerships. Master limited partnerships (“MLPs”) are publicly traded partnerships primarily engaged in the transportation, storage, processing, refining, marketing, exploration, production, and mining of minerals and natural resources. Investments in securities of MLPs involve risks that differ from investments in common stock, including risks related to limited control and limited rights to vote on matters affecting the MLP, risks related to potential conflicts of interest between the MLP and the MLP’s general partner, cash flow risks, dilution risks and risks related to the general partner’s right to require unit-holders to sell their common units at an undesirable time or price. Certain MLP securities may trade in lower volumes due to their smaller capitalizations. Accordingly, those MLPs may be subject to more abrupt or erratic price movements and may lack sufficient market liquidity to enable a Fund to effect sales at an advantageous time or without a substantial decline in price. MLPs are generally considered interest-rate sensitive investments. During periods of interest rate volatility, these investments may not provide attractive returns. Depending on the state of interest rates in general, the use of MLPs could enhance or harm the overall performance of a Fund. MLPs are subject to various risks related to the underlying operating companies they control, including dependence upon specialized management skills and the risk that such companies may lack or have limited operating histories. The success of a Fund’s investments also will vary depending on the underlying industry represented by the MLP’s portfolio.
A Fund must recognize income that it receives from underlying MLPs for tax purposes, even if the Fund does not receive cash distributions from the MLPs in an amount necessary to pay such tax liability. In addition, a percentage of a distribution received by a Fund as the holder of an MLP interest may be treated as a return of capital, which would reduce the Fund’s adjusted tax basis in the interests of the MLP, which will result in an increase in the amount of income or gain (or decrease in the amount of loss) that will be recognized by the Fund for tax purposes upon the sale of any such interests or upon subsequent distributions in respect of such interests. Furthermore, any return of capital distribution received from the MLP may require the Fund to restate the character of its distributions and amend any shareholder tax reporting previously issued. MLPs do not pay U.S. federal income tax at the partnership level. Rather, each partner is allocated a share of the partnership’s income, gains, losses, deductions and expenses. A change in current tax law, or a change in the underlying business mix of a given MLP, could result in an MLP being treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes, which would result in the MLP being required to pay U.S. federal income tax (as well as state and local income taxes) on its taxable income. The classification of an MLP as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes would have the effect of reducing the amount of cash available for distribution by the MLP. If any MLP in which a Fund invests were treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes, it could result in a reduction of the value of a Fund’s investment in the MLP and lower income to a Fund.
Repurchase Agreements. A repurchase agreement is an agreement wherein a Fund purchases a security for a relatively short period of time (usually less than or up to seven days) and, at the time of purchase, the seller agrees to repurchase that security from the Fund at a mutually agreed upon time and price (representing the Fund’s cost plus interest). The repurchase agreement specifies the yield during the purchaser’s holding period. Entering into repurchase agreements allows a Fund to earn a return on cash in the Fund’s portfolio that would otherwise remain un-invested.
Repurchase agreements also may be viewed as loans made by a Fund that are collateralized by the securities subject to repurchase, which may consist of a variety of security types. The maturities of the underlying securities in a repurchase agreement transaction may be greater than twelve months, although the maximum term of a repurchase agreement will always be less than twelve months. Repurchase agreements may involve risks in the event of default or insolvency of the counterparty that has agreed to repurchase the securities from a Fund, including possible

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delays or restrictions upon the Fund’s ability to sell the underlying security and additional expenses in seeking to enforce the Fund’s rights and recover any losses. Although the Fund seeks to limit the credit risk under a repurchase agreement by carefully selecting counterparties and accepting only high quality collateral, some credit risk remains. The counterparty could default, which may make it necessary for the Fund to incur expenses to liquidate the collateral. In addition, the collateral may decline in value before it can be liquidated by the Fund.
A Fund may enter into reverse repurchase agreements under which the Fund sells portfolio securities and agrees to repurchase them at an agreed-upon future date and price. Use of a reverse repurchase agreement may be preferable to a regular sale and later repurchase of securities, because it avoids certain market risks and transaction costs. A Fund may elect to (i) treat the reverse repurchase agreements as borrowings and comply with the asset coverage requirements of Section 18, and combine the aggregate amount of indebtedness associated with all reverse repurchase agreements or similar financing transactions with the aggregate amount of any other senior securities representing indebtedness when calculating the asset coverage ratio; or (ii) treat all reverse repurchasing agreements or similar financing transactions as “derivatives transactions” as defined in Rule 18f-4 of the 1940 Act and comply with all requirements of Rule 18f-4.
In the event that the buyer of securities under a reverse repurchase agreement files for bankruptcy or becomes insolvent, a Fund’s use of proceeds from the agreement may be restricted pending a determination by the other party, or its trustee or receiver, whether to enforce a Fund’s obligation to repurchase the securities. Reverse repurchase agreements may be viewed as a form of borrowing.
Short Sales. A short sale is a transaction in which a Fund sells a security it may not own in anticipation of a decline in market value of that security. When a Fund makes a short sale, the proceeds it receives are retained by the broker until the Fund replaces the borrowed security. In order to deliver the security to the buyer, a Fund must arrange through a broker to borrow the security and, in so doing, the Fund becomes obligated to replace the security borrowed at its market price at the time of replacement, whatever that price may be. A Fund’s ability to enter into short sales transactions is limited by the requirements of the 1940 Act.
Short positions in futures and options create opportunities to increase a Fund’s return but, at the same time, involve special risk considerations and may be considered speculative. Since a Fund in effect profits from a decline in the price of the futures or options sold short without having to invest the full purchase price of the futures or options on the date of the short sale, a Fund’s NAV per share will tend to increase more when the futures or options it has sold short decrease in value, and to decrease more when the futures or options it has sold short increase in value, than would otherwise be the case if it had not engaged in such short sales. Short sales theoretically involve unlimited loss potential, as the market price of futures or options sold short may continuously increase, although a Fund may mitigate such losses by replacing the futures or options sold short before the market price has increased significantly. Under adverse market conditions, a Fund might have difficulty purchasing futures or options to meet its short sale delivery obligations, and might have to sell portfolio securities to raise the capital necessary to meet its short sale obligations at a time when fundamental investment considerations would not favor such sales.
If a Fund makes a short sale “against the box,” it would not immediately deliver the securities sold and would not receive the proceeds from the sale. The seller is said to have a short position in the securities sold until it delivers the securities sold, at which time it receives the proceeds of the sale. A sub-adviser’s decision to make a short sale “against the box” may be a technique to hedge against market risks when the sub-adviser believes that the price of a security may decline, causing a decline in the value of a security owned by the Fund or a security convertible into or exchangeable for such security. In such case, any future losses in the Fund’s long position would be reduced by a gain in the short position. Short sale transactions may have adverse tax consequences to a Fund and its shareholders.
As short sale borrowings are “derivatives transactions” under Rule 18f-4, therefore they are exempted from the requirements of Section 18 of the 1940 Act.
Warrants. Warrants are instruments, typically issued with preferred stock or bonds, that give the holder the right to purchase a given number of shares of common stock at a specified price, usually during a specified period of time. The price usually represents a premium over the applicable market value of the common stock at the time of the warrant’s issuance. Warrants have no voting rights with respect to the common stock, receive no dividends and have no rights with respect to the assets of the issuer. Warrants do not pay a fixed dividend. Investments in warrants

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involve certain risks, including the possible lack of a liquid market for the resale of the warrants, potential price fluctuations as a result of speculation or other factors and failure of the price of the common stock to rise. A warrant becomes worthless if it is not exercised within the specified time period.
When-Issued and Delayed-Delivery Transactions and Forward Commitments. Certain securities may be purchased or sold on a when-issued or delayed-delivery basis, and contracts to purchase or sell securities for a fixed price at a future date beyond customary settlement time may also be made. Delivery and payment on such transactions normally take place within 120 days after the date of the commitment to purchase. Securities purchased or sold on a when-issued, delayed-delivery or forward commitment basis involve a risk of loss if the value of the security to be purchased declines, or the value of the security to be sold increases, before the settlement date.
Any when-issued, forward-settling securities and non-standard settlement cycle securities transaction will not be treated as a senior securities if the Fund intends to physically settle the transaction and the transaction will settle within 35 days of its trade date.
Other Risks
Large Shareholder Risk. To the extent a large number of shares of a Fund is held by a single shareholder or a small group of shareholders, the Fund is subject to the risk that redemption by those shareholders of all or a large portion of their shares will adversely affect the Fund’s performance by forcing the Fund to sell securities, potentially at disadvantageous prices, to raise the cash needed to satisfy such redemption requests. This risk may be heightened during periods of declining or illiquid markets, or to the extent that such large shareholders have short investment horizons or unpredictable cash flow needs. Such redemptions may also increase transaction costs and/or have adverse tax consequences for remaining shareholders. In certain situations, redemptions by large shareholders may also cause a Fund to liquidate.
Liquidation Risk. There can be no assurance that a Fund will grow to or maintain a viable size and, pursuant to the Declaration of Trust, the Board is authorized to close and/or liquidate a Fund at any time. In the event of the liquidation of a Fund, the expenses, timing and tax consequences of such liquidation may not be favorable to some or all of the Fund’s shareholders.
In addition to the possibility that redemptions by large shareholders may cause a Fund to liquidate (as discussed above), other factors and events that may lead to the liquidation of a Fund include changes in laws or regulations governing the Fund or affecting the type of assets in which the Fund invests, or economic developments or trends having a significant adverse impact on the business or operations of the Fund.
After a Fund liquidation is announced, such Fund may begin to experience greater redemption activity as the Fund approaches its liquidation date. As portfolio managers effect portfolio transactions to meet redemptions and prepare the Fund for liquidation, the Fund may not meet its investment objective and principal investment strategies. The Fund will incur transaction costs as a result of these portfolio transactions which will indirectly be borne by the Fund’s shareholders. The Fund may be required to make a distribution of income and capital gains realized, if any, from liquidating its portfolio. It is anticipated that any distribution would be paid to shareholders prior to liquidation. Shareholders of the Fund on the date of liquidation would receive a distribution of their account proceeds on the settlement date in complete redemption of their shares. In the event of a liquidation, please consult with a tax advisor to determine your specific tax consequences, if any.
Operational and Cybersecurity Risks. Fund operations, including business, financial, accounting, data processing systems or other operating systems and facilities may be disrupted, disabled or damaged as a result of a number of factors, including events that are wholly or partially beyond our control. For example, there could be electrical or telecommunications outages; degradation or loss of internet or web services; natural disasters, such as earthquakes, tornados and hurricanes; disease pandemics; or events arising from local or larger scale political or social events, as well as terrorist acts.
The Funds are also subject to the risk of potential cyber incidents, which may include, but are not limited to, the harming of or unauthorized access to digital systems (for example, through “hacking” or infection by computer viruses or other malicious software code), denial-of-service attacks on websites, and the inadvertent or intentional release of confidential or proprietary information. Cyber incidents may, among other things, harm Fund operations, result in financial losses to a Fund and its shareholders, cause the release of confidential or highly restricted

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information, and result in regulatory penalties, reputational damage, and/or increased compliance, reimbursement or other compensation costs. Fund operations that may be disrupted or halted due to a cyber incident include trading, the processing of shareholder transactions, and the calculation of a Fund’s net asset value.
Issues affecting operating systems and facilities through cyber incidents, any of the scenarios described above, or other factors, may harm the Funds by affecting a Fund’s manager, sub-adviser(s), or other service providers, or issuers of securities in which a Fund invests. Although the Funds have business continuity plans and other safeguards in place, including what the Funds believe to be robust information security procedures and controls, there is no guarantee that these measures will prevent cyber incidents or prevent or ameliorate the effects of significant and widespread disruption to our physical infrastructure or operating systems. Furthermore, the Funds cannot directly control the security or other measures taken by unaffiliated service providers or the issuers of securities in which the Funds invest. Such risks at issuers of securities in which the Funds invest could result in material adverse consequences for such issuers, and may cause a Fund’s investment in such securities to lose value.
COVID-19/Coronavirus.  In 2019, an outbreak of respiratory disease caused by a novel coronavirus was detected in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China and has since spread globally. The disease, coronavirus disease 2019 (abbreviated as “COVID-19”), and concern about its spread resulted in disruptions to global markets, including through border closings, restrictions on travel and large gatherings, expedited and enhanced health screenings, quarantines, cancellations, business and school closings, disruptions to employment and supply chains, reduced productivity,  and reduced customer and client activity in multiple markets and sectors. On March 11, 2020, the World Health  Organization announced that it had made the assessment that COVID-19 can be characterized as a pandemic. The impacts of COVID-19, and other epidemics and pandemics that may arise in the future, could adversely affect the economies of many nations, particular regions, or the entire global economy, individual companies and investment products, and the market in general. The full extent of such impacts cannot necessarily be foreseen at the present time. The impacts may last for an extended period of time, and may exacerbate other pre-existing political, social and economic risks in certain countries. The risk of further spreading of COVID-19, and new variants of COVID-19, has led to significant changes in the global market place and resulted in volatility in the financial markets. The value of a Fund and the securities in which a Fund invests may be adversely affected by impacts caused by COVID-19, including variants thereof, and other epidemics and pandemics that may arise in the future.

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TRUSTEES AND OFFICERS
The following information supplements, and should be read in conjunction with, the section in each Prospectus entitled “Management of the Funds.”
General
The following table provides basic information about the Trustees and those Officers of the Trust who perform policy-making functions. Each of the Trustees and Officers listed below acts in identical capacities for the Allspring family of funds which consists of, as of August 31, 2022,  124 series comprising Allspring Funds Trust, Allspring Variable Trust, Allspring Master Trust and four closed-end funds  (collectively the “Fund Complex” or the “Trusts”). The business address of each Trustee and Officer is 525 Market Street, 12th Floor, San Francisco, CA 94105. Each Trustee and Officer serves an indefinite term, with the Trustees subject to retirement from service as required pursuant to the Trust’s retirement policy at the end of the calendar year in which a Trustee turns 75.
Information for Trustees, all of whom are not “interested” persons of the Trust, as that term is defined under the 1940 Act (“Independent Trustees”), appears below. In addition to the Officers listed below, the Funds have appointed an Anti-Money Laundering Compliance Officer.
Name and Year of Birth
Position Held with Registrant/Length of Service1
Principal Occupation(s) During Past 5 Years or Longer