The information in this Prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This Prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and is not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.Subject to completion, February 14, 2022
PROSHARES TRUST II

Common Units of Beneficial Interest

Fund
Benchmark
ProShares VIX Mid-Term Futures ETF (VIXM)
S&P 500® VIX Mid-Term Futures Index
ProShares Ultra Bloomberg Natural Gas (BOIL)
Bloomberg Natural Gas SubindexSM
ProShares UltraShort Bloomberg Natural Gas (KOLD)
Bloomberg Natural Gas SubindexSM
ProShares UltraShort Silver (ZSL)
Bloomberg Silver SubindexSM
ProShares UltraShort Gold (GLL)
Bloomberg Gold SubindexSM
ProShares UltraShort Australian Dollar (CROC)
The U.S. dollar price of the Australian dollar
ProShares Ultra Euro (ULE)
The U.S. dollar price of the euro
ProShares Short Euro (EUFX)
The U.S. dollar price of the euro
ProShares UltraShort Euro (EUO)
The U.S. dollar price of the euro
ProShares Ultra Yen (YCL)
The U.S. dollar price of the Japanese yen
ProShares UltraShort Yen (YCS)
The U.S. dollar price of the Japanese yen
 
 
ProShares Trust II (the “Trust”) is a Delaware statutory trust organized into separate series. The Trust may from time to time offer to sell common units of beneficial interest (“Shares”) of any or all of the series of the Trust listed above (each, a “Fund” and collectively, the “Funds”) or other series of the Trust. Shares represent units of fractional undivided beneficial interest in and ownership of a series of the Trust. Each Fund’s Shares are offered on a continuous basis. With the exception of the Shares of the ProShares VIX Mid-Term Futures ETF, the Shares of each Fund are listed for trading on NYSE Arca, Inc. under the ticker symbol shown above next to each Fund’s name. The Shares of the ProShares VIX Mid-Term Futures ETF are listed for trading on Cboe BZX Exchange, Inc. (collectively with the NYSE Arca, Inc., the “Exchange”). Please note that the Trust has series other than the Funds.
The ProShares VIX Mid-Term Futures ETF seeks investment results, before fees and expenses, that match the performance of the S&P 500® VIX Mid-Term Futures Index (the “Index”).
Each of the other Funds is “geared” (each, a “Geared Fund” and collectively, the “Geared Funds”) which means that each has an investment objective to seek daily investment results, before fees and expenses, that correspond either to a multiple (2x), the inverse (-1x) or an inverse multiple (-2x) of the performance of a benchmark for a single day, not for any other period. The Geared Funds do not seek to achieve their stated investment objective over a period greater than a single day. A “single day” is measured from the time a Fund calculates its respective net asset value (“NAV”) to the time of the Fund’s next NAV calculation. The NAV calculation times for the Funds typically range from 7:00 a.m. to 4:15 p.m. (Eastern Time). Please see the section entitled “Summary-Creation and Redemption Transactions” for additional details on the NAV calculation times for the Funds.
The Funds seek to achieve their respective investment objectives through the appropriate amount of exposure to its benchmark. Each Fund also has the ability to engage in swap transactions, forward contracts, options contacts, and other instruments in order to achieve its investment objective, in the manner and to the extent described herein. The Funds will not invest directly in any commodities or currencies.
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The ProShares VIX Mid-Term Futures ETF may be referred to herein as the “VIX Futures Fund” or the “Matching Fund.” The ProShares Ultra Bloomberg Natural Gas (the “Ultra Natural Gas Fund”) and the ProShares UltraShort Bloomberg Natural Gas (the “UltraShort Natural Gas Fund”) may be collectively referred to as the “Natural Gas Funds.” The ProShares UltraShort Silver (the “UltraShort Silver Fund”) and the ProShares UltraShort Gold (the “UltraShort Gold Fund”) may be collectively referred to as the “Precious Metals Funds.” The ProShares UltraShort Australian Dollar (the “UltraShort Australian Dollar Fund”), the ProShares Ultra Euro (the “Ultra Euro Fund”), the ProShares Short Euro (the “Short Euro Fund” or the “Short Fund”), ProShares UltraShort Euro (the “UltraShort Euro Fund”), the ProShares Ultra Yen (the “Ultra Yen Fund”) and the ProShares UltraShort Yen (the “UltraShort Yen Fund”) may be collectively referred to as the “Currency Funds.” The Ultra Natural Gas Fund, the Ultra Euro Fund and the Ultra Yen Fund may be collectively referred to as the “Ultra Funds.” The UltraShort Natural Gas Fund, the UltraShort Australian Dollar Fund, the UltraShort Euro Fund, the UltraShort Yen Fund and the Precious Metals Funds may be collectively referred to as the “UltraShort Funds.”

INVESTING IN THE SHARES INVOLVES SIGNIFICANT RISKS. PLEASE REFER TO “RISK FACTORS” BEGINNING ON PAGE 13.
THE FUNDS PRESENT SIGNIFICANT RISKS NOT APPLICABLE TO OTHER TYPES OF FUNDS. THE FUNDS ARE NOT APPROPRIATE FOR ALL INVESTORS. THE VIX FUTURES FUND INCLUDES RISKS RELATING TO INVESTING IN AND SEEKING EXPOSURE TO VIX FUTURES CONTRACTS. THE GEARED FUNDS THAT USE LEVERAGE ARE RISKIER THAN SIMILARLY BENCHMARKED EXCHANGE-TRADED FUNDS THAT DO NOT USE LEVERAGE. AN INVESTOR SHOULD ONLY CONSIDER AN INVESTMENT IN A GEARED FUND IF HE OR SHE UNDERSTANDS THE CONSEQUENCES OF SEEKING DAILY LEVERAGED, DAILY INVERSE OR DAILY INVERSE LEVERAGED INVESTMENT RESULTS, INCLUDING THE IMPACT OF COMPOUNDING ON GEARED FUND PERFORMANCE.
THE RETURN OF A GEARED FUND FOR A PERIOD LONGER THAN A SINGLE DAY IS THE RESULT OF ITS RETURN FOR EACH DAY COMPOUNDED OVER THE PERIOD AND USUALLY WILL DIFFER IN AMOUNT AND POSSIBLY EVEN DIRECTION FROM THE GEARED FUND’S STATED MULTIPLE TIMES THE RETURN OF THE BENCHMARK FOR THE SAME PERIOD. THESE DIFFERENCES CAN BE SIGNIFICANT.
THE FUNDS’ INVESTMENTS MAY BE ILLIQUID AND/OR HIGHLY VOLATILE AND THE FUNDS MAY EXPERIENCE LARGE LOSSES FROM BUYING, SELLING OR HOLDING SUCH INVESTMENTS. AN INVESTOR IN ANY OF THE FUNDS COULD POTENTIALLY LOSE THE FULL PRINCIPAL VALUE OF HIS/HER INVESTMENT WITHIN A SINGLE DAY.
SHAREHOLDERS WHO INVEST IN THE FUNDS SHOULD ACTIVELY MANAGE AND MONITOR THEIR INVESTMENTS, AS FREQUENTLY AS DAILY.
The Short Euro Fund seeks daily investment results, before fees and expenses, that correspond to the inverse (-1x) of the performance of its benchmark for a single day, not for any other period. Each Ultra Fund seeks daily investment results, before fees and expenses, that correspond to two times (2x) the performance of its benchmark for a single day, not for any other period. Each UltraShort Fund seeks daily investment results, before fees and expenses, that correspond to two times the inverse (-2x) of the performance of its benchmark for a single day, not for any other period.
The return of a Geared Fund for a period longer than a single day is the result of its return for each day compounded over the period and usually will differ in amount and possibly even direction from the Geared Fund’s stated multiple times the return of the Geared Fund’s benchmark for the same period. Daily compounding of a Geared Fund’s investment returns can dramatically and adversely affect its longer-term performance especially during periods of high volatility. Volatility has a negative impact on Geared Fund performance and the volatility of a Geared Fund’s benchmark may be at least as important to a Geared Fund’s return as the return of the Fund’s benchmark.
The Geared Funds that use leverage should produce returns for a single day that are more volatile than those of its respective benchmark. For example, the return for a single day of each of the Ultra Natural Gas Fund, the Ultra Euro Fund and the Ultra Yen Fund with its (2x) multiple should be approximately two times as volatile for a single day as the return of a fund with an objective of matching the same benchmark. The return for a single day of each of the UltraShort Natural Gas Fund, the UltraShort Silver Fund, the
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UltraShort Gold Fund, the UltraShort Australian Dollar Fund, the UltraShort Euro Fund, and the UltraShort Yen Fund with a -2x multiple should be approximately two times as volatile for a single day as the inverse of the return of a fund with an objective of matching the same benchmark.
THE VIX FUTURES FUND PRESENTS DIFFERENT RISKS THAN OTHER TYPES OF FUNDS, INCLUDING RISKS RELATING TO INVESTING AND SEEKING EXPOSURE TO VIX FUTURES CONTRACTS. AN INVESTOR SHOULD ONLY CONSIDER AN INVESTMENT IN THE VIX FUTURES FUND IF HE OR SHE UNDERSTANDS THE CONSEQUENCES OF SEEKING EXPOSURE TO VIX FUTURES CONTRACTS. THE VIX FUTURES FUND GENERALLY IS INTENDED TO BE USED ONLY FOR SHORT-TERM HORIZONS.
The VIX Futures Fund is benchmarked to the S&P 500 VIX Mid-Term Futures Index. The VIX Futures Fund is not benchmarked to the VIX Index (which is commonly referred to as the “VIX”). The S&P 500 VIX Mid-Term Futures Index and the VIX are two separate indices and can be expected to perform very differently.
The VIX is a non-investable index that measures the implied volatility of the S&P 500. For these purposes, “implied volatility” is a measure of the expected volatility (i.e., the rate and magnitude of variations in performance) of the S&P 500 over the next 30 days. The VIX does not represent the actual volatility of the S&P 500. The VIX is calculated based on the prices of a constantly changing portfolio of S&P 500 put and call options. The S&P 500 VIX Mid-Term Futures Index, the index used by the VIX Futures Fund, consists of mid-term VIX futures contracts. As such, the performance of the Index can be expected to be very different from the actual volatility of the S&P 500 or the performance of the VIX. As a result, the performance of the Funds also can be expected to be very different from the actual volatility of the S&P 500 or the performance of the VIX.
Unlike certain other asset classes that, in general, have historically increased in price over long periods of time, the volatility of the S&P 500 as measured by the VIX has historically reverted to a long-term average level over time. This means that the potential upside of an investment in the VIX Futures Fund may be limited. In addition, gains of the VIX Futures Fund, if any, may be subject to significant and unexpected reversals. Investors holding Shares of the VIX Futures Fund beyond short-term periods have an increased risk of losing all or a substantial portion of their investment.
Each Fund will distribute to shareholders a Schedule K-1 that will contain information regarding the income and expenses of the Fund.
NEITHER THE TRUST NOR ANY FUND IS A MUTUAL FUND OR ANY OTHER TYPE OF INVESTMENT COMPANY AS DEFINED IN THE INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940, AS AMENDED (THE “1940 ACT”), AND NEITHER IS SUBJECT TO REGULATION THEREUNDER. SHAREHOLDERS DO NOT HAVE THE PROTECTIONS ASSOCIATED WITH OWNERSHIP OF SHARES IN AN INVESTMENT COMPANY REGISTERED UNDER THE 1940 ACT. SEE RISK FACTOR ENTITLED “SHAREHOLDERS DO NOT HAVE THE PROTECTIONS ASSOCIATED WITH OWNERSHIP OF SHARES IN AN INVESTMENT COMPANY REGISTERED UNDER THE 1940 ACT IN PART ONE OF THIS PROSPECTUS FOR MORE INFORMATION.
Each Fund continuously offers and redeems Shares only in large blocks of Shares known as “Creation Units”, each of which consists of 50,000 Shares (25,000 Shares with respect to the VIX Futures Fund). Only Authorized Participants (as defined herein) may purchase and redeem Shares from a Fund and then only in Creation Units. An Authorized Participant is an entity that has entered into an Authorized Participant Agreement with the Trust and ProShare Capital Management LLC (the “Sponsor”). Shares are offered to Authorized Participants in Creation Units at each Fund’s respective NAV. Authorized Participants may then offer to the public, from time to time, Shares from any Creation Unit they create at a per-Share market price. The form of Authorized Participant Agreement and the related Authorized Participant Procedures Handbook set forth the terms and conditions under which an Authorized Participant may purchase or redeem a Creation Unit. Authorized Participants will not receive from any Fund, the Sponsor, or any of their affiliates, any fee or other compensation in connection with their sale of Shares to the public. An Authorized Participant may receive commissions or fees from investors who purchase Shares through their commission or fee-based brokerage accounts.
These securities have not been approved or disapproved by the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) or any state securities commission nor has the SEC or any state securities commission passed upon the accuracy or adequacy of this Prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
-3

THE COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION HAS NOT PASSED UPON THE MERITS OF PARTICIPATING IN THIS POOL NOR HAS THE COMMISSION PASSED ON THE ADEQUACY OR ACCURACY OF THIS DISCLOSURE DOCUMENT.


February ___, 2022
The Shares are neither interests in nor obligations of the Sponsor, Wilmington Trust Company, or any of their respective affiliates. The Shares are not insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation or any other governmental agency.
This Prospectus has two parts: the offered series disclosure and the general pool disclosure. These parts are bound together and are incomplete if not distributed together to prospective participants.
COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION
RISK DISCLOSURE STATEMENT
YOU SHOULD CAREFULLY CONSIDER WHETHER YOUR FINANCIAL CONDITION PERMITS YOU TO PARTICIPATE IN A COMMODITY POOL. IN SO DOING, YOU SHOULD BE AWARE THAT COMMODITY INTEREST TRADING CAN QUICKLY LEAD TO LARGE LOSSES AS WELL AS GAINS. SUCH TRADING LOSSES CAN SHARPLY REDUCE THE NET ASSET VALUE OF THE POOL AND CONSEQUENTLY THE VALUE OF YOUR INTEREST IN THE POOL. IN ADDITION, RESTRICTIONS ON REDEMPTIONS MAY AFFECT YOUR ABILITY TO WITHDRAW YOUR PARTICIPATION IN THE POOL.
FURTHER, COMMODITY POOLS MAY BE SUBJECT TO SUBSTANTIAL CHARGES FOR MANAGEMENT, AND ADVISORY AND BROKERAGE FEES. IT MAY BE NECESSARY FOR THOSE POOLS THAT ARE SUBJECT TO THESE CHARGES TO MAKE SUBSTANTIAL TRADING PROFITS TO AVOID DEPLETION OR EXHAUSTION OF THEIR ASSETS. THIS DISCLOSURE DOCUMENT CONTAINS A COMPLETE DESCRIPTION OF EACH EXPENSE TO BE CHARGED TO THIS POOL, AT PAGES 80 THROUGH 84, AND A STATEMENT OF THE PERCENTAGE RETURN NECESSARY TO BREAK EVEN, THAT IS, TO RECOVER THE AMOUNT OF YOUR INITIAL INVESTMENT, AT PAGES 80 THROUGH 84.
THIS BRIEF STATEMENT CANNOT DISCLOSE ALL THE RISKS AND OTHER FACTORS NECESSARY TO EVALUATE YOUR PARTICIPATION IN THIS COMMODITY POOL. THEREFORE, BEFORE YOU DECIDE TO PARTICIPATE IN THIS COMMODITY POOL, YOU SHOULD CAREFULLY STUDY THIS DISCLOSURE DOCUMENT, INCLUDING A DESCRIPTION OF THE PRINCIPAL RISK FACTORS OF THIS INVESTMENT, AT PAGES 13 THROUGH 51.
YOU SHOULD ALSO BE AWARE THAT THIS COMMODITY POOL MAY TRADE FOREIGN FUTURES OR OPTIONS CONTRACTS. TRANSACTIONS ON MARKETS LOCATED OUTSIDE THE UNITED STATES, INCLUDING MARKETS FORMALLY LINKED TO A UNITED STATES MARKET, MAY BE SUBJECT TO REGULATIONS WHICH OFFER DIFFERENT OR DIMINISHED PROTECTION TO THE POOL AND ITS PARTICIPANTS. FURTHER, UNITED STATES REGULATORY AUTHORITIES MAY BE UNABLE TO COMPEL THE ENFORCEMENT OF THE RULES OF REGULATORY AUTHORITIES OR MARKETS IN NON-UNITED STATES JURISDICTIONS WHERE TRANSACTIONS FOR THE POOL MAY BE EFFECTED.
SWAPS TRANSACTIONS, LIKE OTHER FINANCIAL TRANSACTIONS, INVOLVE A VARIETY OF SIGNIFICANT RISKS. THE SPECIFIC RISKS PRESENTED BY A PARTICULAR SWAP TRANSACTION NECESSARILY DEPEND UPON THE TERMS OF THE TRANSACTION AND YOUR CIRCUMSTANCES. IN GENERAL, HOWEVER, ALL SWAPS TRANSACTIONS INVOLVE SOME COMBINATION OF MARKET RISK, CREDIT RISK, COUNTERPARTY CREDIT RISK, FUNDING RISK, LIQUIDITY RISK, AND OPERATIONAL RISK.
-4

HIGHLY CUSTOMIZED SWAPS TRANSACTIONS IN PARTICULAR MAY INCREASE LIQUIDITY RISK, WHICH MAY RESULT IN A SUSPENSION OF REDEMPTIONS. HIGHLY LEVERAGED TRANSACTIONS MAY EXPERIENCE SUBSTANTIAL GAINS OR LOSSES IN VALUE AS A RESULT OF RELATIVELY SMALL CHANGES IN THE VALUE OR LEVEL OF AN UNDERLYING OR RELATED MARKET FACTOR. IN EVALUATING THE RISKS AND CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH A PARTICULAR SWAP TRANSACTION, IT IS IMPORTANT TO CONSIDER THAT A SWAP TRANSACTION MAY, IN CERTAIN INSTANCES, BE MODIFIED OR TERMINATED ONLY BY MUTUAL CONSENT OF THE ORIGINAL PARTIES AND SUBJECT TO AGREEMENT ON INDIVIDUALLY NEGOTIATED TERMS. THEREFORE, IT MAY NOT BE POSSIBLE FOR THE COMMODITY POOL OPERATOR TO MODIFY, TERMINATE, OR OFFSET THE POOL’S OBLIGATIONS OR THE POOL’S EXPOSURE TO THE RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH A TRANSACTION PRIOR TO ITS SCHEDULED TERMINATION DATE.

THIS PROSPECTUS DOES NOT INCLUDE ALL OF THE INFORMATION OR EXHIBITS IN THE REGISTRATION STATEMENT OF THE TRUST. INVESTORS CAN READ AND COPY THE ENTIRE REGISTRATION STATEMENT AT THE PUBLIC REFERENCE FACILITIES MAINTAINED BY THE SEC IN WASHINGTON, D.C.

THE TRUST WILL FILE QUARTERLY AND ANNUAL REPORTS WITH THE SEC. INVESTORS CAN READ AND COPY THESE REPORTS AT THE SEC PUBLIC REFERENCE FACILITIES IN WASHINGTON, D.C. PLEASE CALL THE SEC AT 1-800-SEC-0330 FOR FURTHER INFORMATION.
THE FILINGS OF THE TRUST ARE POSTED AT THE SEC WEBSITE AT WWW.SEC.GOV.
REGULATORY NOTICES
NO DEALER, SALESMAN OR ANY OTHER PERSON HAS BEEN AUTHORIZED TO GIVE ANY INFORMATION OR TO MAKE ANY REPRESENTATION NOT CONTAINED IN THIS PROSPECTUS, AND, IF GIVEN OR MADE, SUCH OTHER INFORMATION OR REPRESENTATION MUST NOT BE RELIED UPON AS HAVING BEEN AUTHORIZED BY THE TRUST, ANY OF THE FUNDS, THE SPONSOR, THE AUTHORIZED PARTICIPANTS OR ANY OTHER PERSON.
THIS PROSPECTUS DOES NOT CONSTITUTE AN OFFER OR SOLICITATION TO SELL OR A SOLICITATION OF AN OFFER TO BUY, NOR SHALL THERE BE ANY OFFER, SOLICITATION, OR SALE OF THE SHARES IN ANY JURISDICTION IN WHICH SUCH OFFER, SOLICITATION, OR SALE IS NOT AUTHORIZED OR TO ANY PERSON TO WHOM IT IS UNLAWFUL TO MAKE ANY SUCH OFFER, SOLICITATION, OR SALE.

AUTHORIZED PARTICIPANTS MAY BE REQUIRED TO DELIVER A PROSPECTUS WHEN TRANSACTING IN SHARES. SEE “PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION” IN PART TWO OF THIS PROSPECTUS.
-5

PROSHARES TRUST II
Table of Contents
 
SUMMARY
4
Important Information About the Funds
4
Overview
5
The VIX Futures Fund
5
The Natural Gas Funds
5
The Precious Metals Funds
6
The Currency Funds
6
Purchases and Sales in the Secondary Market
7
Creation and Redemption Transactions
7
Breakeven Amounts
8
Important Tax Information
9
RISK FACTOR SUMMARY
Risks Related to All Funds
Risks Specific to the Geared Funds, VIX Futures Fund, Natural Gas Funds, Precious Metals Funds, and Currency Funds
RISK FACTORS
CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
DESCRIPTION OF EACH FUND’S BENCHMARK
DESCRIPTION OF THE MID-TERM VIX FUTURES FUND’S INDEX
The S&P 500 VIX Mid-Term Futures Index
Information about the Index Licensor
DESCRIPTION OF THE NATURAL GAS FUNDS’ BENCHMARK
Bloomberg Natural Gas SubindexSM
Information About the Index Licensor
DESCRIPTION OF THE PRECIOUS METALS FUNDS’ BENCHMARKS
Bloomberg Silver SubindexSM
Information About the Index Licensor
Bloomberg Gold SubindexSM
Information About the Index Licensor
DESCRIPTION OF THE CURRENCY FUNDS’ BENCHMARKS
Australian dollar
Euro
Japanese Yen
INVESTMENT OBJECTIVES AND PRINCIPAL INVESTMENT STRATEGIES
Investment Objectives
Principal Investment Strategies
PERFORMANCE OF THE OFFERED COMMODITY POOLS OPERATED BY THE COMMODITY POOL OPERATOR
MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
CHARGES
Breakeven Table
MATERIAL U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS
Status of the Funds
U.S. Shareholders
-i-

 
Page
GENERAL POOL DISCLOSURE
PERFORMANCE OF THE OTHER COMMODITY POOLS OPERATED BY THE COMMODITY POOL OPERATOR
USE OF PROCEEDS
WHO MAY SUBSCRIBE
CREATION AND REDEMPTION OF SHARES
Creation Procedures
Redemption Procedures
Creation and Redemption Transaction Fee
Special Settlement
LITIGATION
DESCRIPTION OF THE SHARES; THE FUNDS; CERTAIN MATERIAL TERMS OF THE TRUST AGREEMENT
Description of the Shares
Principal Office; Location of Records; Fiscal Year
The Funds
The Trustee
The Sponsor
Duties of the Sponsor
Ownership or Beneficial Interest in the Funds
Management; Voting by Shareholders
Recognition of the Trust and the Funds in Certain States
Possible Repayment of Distributions Received by Shareholders
Shares Freely Transferable
Book-Entry Form
Reports to Shareholders
Net Asset Value (“NAV”)
Indicative Optimized Portfolio Value (“IOPV”)
Termination Events
DISTRIBUTIONS
THE ADMINISTRATOR
THE CUSTODIAN
THE TRANSFER AGENT
THE DISTRIBUTOR
Description of SEI
THE SECURITIES DEPOSITORY; BOOK-ENTRY ONLY SYSTEM; GLOBAL SECURITY
SHARE SPLITS OR REVERSE SPLITS
CONFLICTS OF INTEREST
MATERIAL CONTRACTS
Administration and Accounting Agreement
Transfer Agency and Service Agreement
Custody Agreement
Distribution Agreement
PURCHASES BY EMPLOYEE BENEFIT PLANS
General
“Plan Assets”
Ineligible Purchasers
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Page
PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION
Buying and Selling Shares
Authorized Participants
Likelihood of Becoming a Statutory Underwriter
General
LEGAL MATTERS
EXPERTS
WHERE INVESTORS CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION
RECENT FINANCIAL INFORMATION AND ANNUAL REPORTS
PRIVACY POLICY
The Trust’s Commitment to Investors
The Information the Trust Collects About Investors
How the Trust Handles Investors’ Personal Information
How the Trust Safeguards Investors’ Personal Information
INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE OF CERTAIN DOCUMENTS
FUTURES COMMISSION MERCHANTS
Litigation and Regulatory Disclosure Relating to FCMs
Margin Levels Expected to be Held at the FCMs
SWAP COUNTERPARTIES
Litigation and Regulatory Disclosure Relating to Swap Counterparties
APPENDIX A—GLOSSARY OF DEFINED TERMS
A-1
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PART ONE
OFFERED SERIES DISCLOSURE
SUMMARY
Investors should read the following summary together with the more detailed information in this Prospectus before investing in Shares of any of the Funds, including the information under the caption “Risk Factors,” and all exhibits to this Prospectus and the information incorporated by reference in this Prospectus, including the financial statements and the notes to those financial statements in the Trust’s Annual Report on Form 10-K, and the Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, and Current Reports, if any, on Form 8-K. Please see the section entitled “Incorporation by Reference of Certain Documents” in Part Two of this Prospectus. Investors should also read any updated Prospectus, supplements to this Prospectus, notices and press releases, and other important information about the Funds which are posted on the Sponsor’s website at www.ProShares.com.
For ease of reference, any references throughout this Prospectus to various actions taken by any or all of the Funds are actually actions taken by the Trust on behalf of such Funds.
The definitions of capitalized terms used in this Prospectus can be found in the Glossary of Defined Terms in Appendix A and throughout this Prospectus.
Important Information About the Funds
THE FUNDS PRESENT SIGNIFICANT RISKS NOT APPLICABLE TO OTHER TYPES OF FUNDS. THE FUNDS ARE NOT APPROPRIATE FOR ALL INVESTORS. THE VIX FUTURES FUND INCLUDES RISKS RELATING TO INVESTING IN AND SEEKING EXPOSURE TO VIX FUTURES CONTRACTS. THE GEARED FUNDS THAT USE LEVERAGE ARE RISKIER THAN SIMILARLY BENCHMARKED EXCHANGE-TRADED FUNDS THAT DO NOT USE LEVERAGE. AN INVESTOR SHOULD ONLY CONSIDER AN INVESTMENT IN A GEARED FUND IF HE OR SHE UNDERSTANDS THE CONSEQUENCES OF SEEKING DAILY LEVERAGED, DAILY INVERSE OR DAILY INVERSE LEVERAGED INVESTMENT RESULTS, INCLUDING THE IMPACT OF COMPOUNDING ON GEARED FUND PERFORMANCE.
THE RETURN OF A GEARED FUND FOR A PERIOD LONGER THAN A SINGLE DAY IS THE RESULT OF ITS RETURN FOR EACH DAY COMPOUNDED OVER THE PERIOD AND USUALLY WILL DIFFER IN AMOUNT AND POSSIBLY EVEN DIRECTION FROM THE GEARED FUND’S STATED MULTIPLE TIMES THE RETURN OF THE FUND’S BENCHMARK FOR THE SAME PERIOD. THESE DIFFERENCES CAN BE SIGNIFICANT.
THE FUNDS’ INVESTMENTS MAY BE ILLIQUID (I.E., DIFFICULT OR IMPOSSIBLE TO SELL AT THE DESIRED PRICE) AND/OR HIGHLY VOLATILE AND THE FUNDS MAY EXPERIENCE LARGE LOSSES FROM BUYING, SELLING OR HOLDING SUCH INVESTMENTS. AN INVESTOR IN ANY OF THE FUNDS COULD POTENTIALLY LOSE THE FULL PRINCIPAL VALUE OF HIS/HER INVESTMENT WITHIN A SINGLE DAY.
SHAREHOLDERS WHO INVEST IN THE FUNDS SHOULD ACTIVELY MANAGE AND MONITOR THEIR INVESTMENTS,
AS FREQUENTLY AS DAILY.
The Short Euro Fund seeks daily investment results, before fees and expenses, that correspond to the inverse (-1x) of the performance of its benchmark for a single day, not for any other period. Each UltraShort Fund seeks daily investment results, before fees and expenses, that correspond to two times the inverse (-2x) of the performance of its benchmark for a single day, not for any other period. Each Ultra Fund seeks daily investment results, before fees and expenses, that correspond to two times (2x) the performance of its benchmark for a single day, not for any other period. The return of a Geared Fund for a period longer than a single day is the result of its return for each day compounded over the period and usually will differ in amount and possibly even direction from the Geared Fund’s stated multiple times the return of the Geared Fund’s benchmark for the same period. These differences can be significant. Daily compounding of a Geared Fund’s investment returns can dramatically and adversely affect its longer-term performance, especially during periods of high volatility.
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Volatility has a negative impact on Geared Fund performance and the volatility of a Geared Fund’s benchmark may be at least as important to a Geared Fund’s return as the return of the Geared Fund’s benchmark. Each Geared Fund (except for the Short Euro Fund) uses leverage and should produce returns for a single day that are more volatile than that of its benchmark. For example, the return for a single day of an Ultra Fund with a 2x multiple should be approximately two times as volatile for a single day as the return of a fund with an objective of matching the same benchmark. The return for a single day of an UltraShort Fund with a -2x multiple should be approximately two times as volatile for a single day as the return of a fund with an objective of matching the same benchmark. The Short Euro Fund is designed to return for a single day the inverse (-1x) of the return that would be expected of a fund with an objective of matching the same benchmark for such day.
THE VIX FUTURES FUND PRESENTS DIFFERENT RISKS THAN OTHER TYPES OF FUNDS, INCLUDING RISKS RELATING TO INVESTING AND SEEKING EXPOSURE TO VIX FUTURES CONTRACTS. AN INVESTOR SHOULD ONLY CONSIDER AN INVESTMENT IN THE VIX FUTURES FUND IF HE OR SHE UNDERSTANDS THE CONSEQUENCES OF
SEEKING EXPOSURE TO VIX FUTURES CONTRACTS.
The VIX Futures Fund is benchmarked to the S&P 500 VIX Mid-Term Futures Index (the “Index”), an investable index of VIX futures contracts. The VIX Futures Fund is a matching fund (the “Matching Fund”) which seeks results, before fees and expenses, that over time match the performance of the Index. The VIX Futures Fund is not benchmarked to the VIX Index (which is commonly referred to as the “VIX”). The VIX is a non-investable index that measures the implied volatility of the S&P 500. For these purposes, “implied volatility” is a measure of the expected volatility (i.e., the rate and magnitude of variations in performance) of the S&P 500 over the next 30 days. The VIX does not represent the actual volatility of the S&P 500. The VIX is calculated based on the prices of a constantly changing portfolio of S&P 500 put and call options. The index underlying the VIX Futures Fund consists of mid-term VIX futures contracts.
THE PERFORMANCE OF THE INDEX AND THE VIX FUTURES FUND CAN BE EXPECTED TO BE VERY DIFFERENT
FROM THE ACTUAL VOLATILITY OF THE S&P 500 OR THE PERFORMANCE OF THE VIX INDEX.
Unlike certain other asset classes that, in general, have historically increased in price over long periods of time, the volatility of the S&P 500 as measured by the VIX has historically reverted to a long-term average level over time. This means that the potential upside of an investment in the VIX Futures Fund may be limited. In addition, gains of the VIX Futures Fund, if any, may be subject to significant and unexpected reversals. Investors holding Shares of the VIX Futures Fund beyond short-term periods have an increased risk of losing a substantial portion of their investment. Historically, the longer an investor’s holding period in the VIX Futures Fund, the greater the potential of loss. The VIX Futures Fund generally is intended to be used only for short-term investment horizons.
Overview
Each Fund is listed below along with its respective benchmark.
The VIX Futures Fund
Fund Name
Benchmark
ProShares VIX Mid-Term Futures ETF
S&P 500® VIX Mid-Term Futures Index
The Natural Gas Funds
Fund Name
Benchmark
ProShares Ultra Bloomberg Natural Gas
Bloomberg Natural Gas SubindexSM
ProShares UltraShort Bloomberg Natural Gas
Bloomberg Natural Gas SubindexSM
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The Precious Metals Funds
Fund Name
Benchmark
ProShares UltraShort Silver
Bloomberg Silver SubindexSM
ProShares UltraShort Gold
Bloomberg Gold SubindexSM
The Currency Funds
Fund Name
Benchmark
ProShares UltraShort Australian Dollar
The U.S. dollar price of the Australian dollar
ProShares Ultra Euro
The U.S. dollar price of the euro
ProShares Short Euro
The U.S. dollar price of the euro
ProShares UltraShort Euro
The U.S. dollar price of the euro
ProShares Ultra Yen
The U.S. dollar price of the Japanese yen
ProShares UltraShort Yen
The U.S. dollar price of the Japanese yen
The VIX Futures Fund
The VIX Futures Fund is sometimes referred to herein as the “Matching Fund.” This Fund offers investors the opportunity to obtain “matching” (i.e., not leveraged, inverse or inverse leveraged) exposure to its underlying benchmark, as described herein.
The Geared Funds
The Geared Funds currently include the following Funds: the Natural Gas Funds, the Precious Metals Funds and the Currency Funds.
The “Short Fund” seeks daily investment results, before fees and expenses, that correspond to the inverse (-1x) of the performance of its benchmark for a single day. Each “UltraShort Fund” seeks daily investment results, before fees and expenses, that correspond to two times the inverse (-2x) of the performance of its benchmark. Each “Ultra Fund” seeks daily investment results, before fees and expenses, that correspond to two times (2x) of the performance of its benchmark. The Geared Funds do not seek to achieve their stated objective over a period greater than a single day. A “single day” is measured from the time the Fund calculates its net asset value (“NAV”) to the time of the Fund’s next NAV calculation.
Each Geared Fund seeks to engage in daily rebalancing to position its portfolio so that its exposure to its benchmark is consistent with its daily investment objective. The impact of changes to the value of a Fund’s benchmark each day will affect whether such Fund’s portfolio needs to be rebalanced. For example, if the Short Fund’s or an UltraShort Fund’s benchmark has risen on a given day, net assets of such Fund should fall (assuming there were no Creation Units issued). As a result, inverse exposure will need to be decreased. Conversely, if the Short Fund’s or an UltraShort Fund’s benchmark has fallen on a given day, net assets of such Fund should rise (assuming there were no Creation Unit redemptions). As a result, inverse exposure will need to be increased. For an Ultra Fund, the Fund’s long exposure will need to be increased on days when such Fund’s benchmark rises (assuming there were no Creation Unit redemptions) and decreased on days when such Fund’s benchmark falls (assuming there were no Creation Units issued). The time and manner in which a Geared Fund rebalances its portfolio may vary from day to day at the discretion of the Sponsor depending upon market conditions and other circumstances.
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DAILY REBALANCING AND THE COMPOUNDING OF EACH DAY’S RETURN OVER TIME MEANS THAT THE RETURN OF EACH GEARED FUND FOR A PERIOD LONGER THAN A SINGLE DAY WILL BE THE RESULT OF EACH DAY’S RETURNS COMPOUNDED OVER THE PERIOD, WHICH WILL VERY LIKELY DIFFER FROM A MULTIPLE (2X), THE INVERSE (-1X) OR AN INVERSE MULTIPLE (-2X) OF THE RETURN OF THE GEARED FUND’S BENCHMARK FOR THE SAME PERIOD. A GEARED FUND WILL LOSE MONEY IF ITS BENCHMARK’S PERFORMANCE IS FLAT OVER TIME, AND A GEARED FUND CAN LOSE MONEY REGARDLESS OF THE PERFORMANCE OF ITS BENCHMARK, AS A RESULT OF DAILY REBALANCING,
THE BENCHMARK’S VOLATILITY, COMPOUNDING AND OTHER FACTORS.
All Funds
Each of the Funds intends to invest in Financial Instruments to gain the appropriate amount of exposure to its benchmark in the manner and to the extent described herein. “Financial Instruments” are instruments whose value is derived from the value of an underlying asset, rate or benchmark (such asset, rate or benchmark, a “Reference Asset”) and include futures contracts, swap agreements, forward contracts, option contracts, and other instruments. The Funds will not invest directly in any commodities or currencies.
In seeking to achieve the Funds’ investment objectives, the Sponsor uses a mathematical approach to investing. Using this approach, the Sponsor determines the type, quantity and mix of Financial Instruments that the Sponsor believes, in combination, should produce daily returns consistent with the Funds’ objectives.
The Funds are not actively managed by traditional methods (e.g., by effecting changes in the composition of a portfolio on the basis of judgments relating to economic, financial and market conditions with a view toward obtaining positive results under all market conditions). Each Fund seeks to remain fully invested at all times in Financial Instruments and money market instruments that, in combination, provide exposure to its underlying benchmark consistent with its investment objective, even during periods in which the benchmark is flat or moving in a manner which causes the value of a Fund to decline.
The Sponsor has the authority to change a Fund’s investment objective, benchmark or investment strategy at any time, or to terminate the Trust or a Fund, in each case, without shareholder approval or advance notice, subject to applicable regulatory requirements.
ProShare Capital Management LLC, a Maryland limited liability company, serves as the Trust’s Sponsor and commodity pool operator. The principal office of the Sponsor and the Funds is located at 7272 Wisconsin Avenue, 21st Floor, Bethesda, Maryland 20814. The telephone number of the Sponsor and each of the Funds is (240) 497-6400.
Purchases and Sales in the Secondary Market
The Shares of each Fund are listed on NYSE Arca, Inc. with the exception of Shares of the VIX Mid-Term Futures ETF which are listed for trading on the Cboe BZX Exchange, Inc. (the “Exchange”) under the ticker symbols shown on the front cover of this Prospectus. Secondary market purchases and sales of Shares are subject to ordinary brokerage commissions and charges.
Creation and Redemption Transactions
Only an Authorized Participant may purchase (i.e., create) or redeem Shares with the Funds. Authorized Participants may create and redeem Shares only in large blocks of Shares known as “Creation Units”, each of which consists of 50,000 Shares (25,000 Shares with respect to the VIX Futures Fund). An “Authorized Participant” is an entity that has entered into an Authorized Participant Agreement with the Trust and the Sponsor. Creation Units are offered to Authorized Participants at each Fund’s NAV. Creation Units in a Fund are expected to be created when there is sufficient demand for Shares in such Fund that the market price per Share is at a premium to the NAV per Share. Authorized Participants will likely sell such Shares to the public at prices that are expected to reflect, among other factors, the trading price of the Shares of such Fund and the supply of and demand for the Shares at the time of sale. Similarly, it is expected that Creation Units in a Fund will be redeemed when the market price per Share of such Fund is at a discount to the NAV per Share. The Sponsor expects that the exploitation of such arbitrage opportunities by Authorized Participants and their clients will tend to cause the public trading price of the Shares to track the NAV per
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Share of a Fund over time, though there can be no guarantees this will be the case. Retail investors seeking to purchase or sell Shares on any day effect such transactions in the secondary market at the market price per Share, rather than in connection with the creation or redemption of Creation Units.
A creation transaction, which is subject to acceptance by SEI Investments Distribution Co. (“SEI” or the “Distributor”), generally takes place when an Authorized Participant deposits a specified amount of cash (unless as provided otherwise in this Prospectus) in exchange for a specified number of Creation Units. Similarly, Shares can be redeemed only in Creation Units, generally for cash (unless as provided otherwise in this Prospectus). Except when aggregated in Creation Units, Shares are not redeemable. The prices at which creations and redemptions occur are based on the next calculation of the NAV after an order is received in proper form, as described in the Authorized Participant Agreement and the related Authorized Participant Procedures Handbook. From time to time the Sponsor, in its sole discretion, may impose limits on the number of Creation Units that may be created each day by each Authorized Participant, or on the total number of Creation Units that may be created by all Authorized Participants on such day, or may suspend the purchase and/or redemption of Creation Units altogether. For example, the Sponsor may impose such limits or suspension if it believes doing so would help a Fund manage its portfolio, such as by allowing a Fund to comply with counterparty or position limits, or to manage or otherwise comply with Share registration requirements, or in response to significant and/or rapid increases in the size of a Fund as a result of an increase in creation activity. The manner by which Creation Units are purchased and redeemed is governed by the terms of this Prospectus, the Authorized Participant Agreement and Authorized Participant Procedures Handbook. Creation and redemption orders are not effective until accepted by the Distributor and may be rejected or revoked. By placing a purchase order, an Authorized Participant agrees to deposit cash (unless as provided otherwise in this Prospectus) with The Bank of New York Mellon (“BNYM”, the “Custodian”, the “Transfer Agent” and the “Administrator”), acting in its capacity as custodian of the Funds.
Creation and redemption transactions must be placed each day with SEI by the create/redeem cut-off time (stated below) to receive that day’s NAV. The Sponsor may require orders to be placed earlier if, for example, the Exchange or other exchange material to the valuation or operation of such Fund closes before such cut-off time. Because the primary trading session for the commodities and/or futures contracts underlying certain of the Funds have different closing (or fixing) times than U.S. Equity markets, the create/redeem cut-off time and NAV calculation time for each Fund may differ. See the section entitled “Net Asset Value” for additional information about the NAV calculations.
Underlying Benchmark
Create/Redeem Cut-off
NAV Calculation Time
S&P 500 VIX Mid-Term Futures Index
2:00 p.m. (Eastern Time)
4:00 p.m. (Eastern Time)
Bloomberg Natural Gas SubindexSM
2:00 p.m. (Eastern Time)
2:30 p.m. (Eastern Time)
Bloomberg Silver SubindexSM
1:00 p.m. (Eastern Time)
1:25 p.m. (Eastern Time)
Bloomberg Gold SubindexSM
1:00 p.m. (Eastern Time)
1:30 p.m. (Eastern Time)
Australian dollar
3:00 p.m. (Eastern Time)
4:00 p.m. (Eastern Time)
Euro
3:00 p.m. (Eastern Time)
4:00 p.m. (Eastern Time)
Yen
3:00 p.m. (Eastern Time)
4:00 p.m. (Eastern Time)
Breakeven Amounts
A Fund will be profitable only if returns from the Fund’s investments exceed its “breakeven amount.” Estimated breakeven amounts are set forth in the table below. The estimated breakeven amounts represent the estimated amount of trading income that each Fund would need to achieve during one year to offset the Fund’s estimated fees, costs and expenses, net of any interest income earned by the Fund on its investments. Estimated amounts do not represent actual results, which may be different. It is not possible to predict whether a Fund will break even at the end of the first twelve months of an investment or any other period. See “Charges—Breakeven Table,” beginning on page 80, for more detailed tables showing Breakeven Amounts.
Fund Name
Breakeven Amount
(% Per Annum of
Average
Daily NAV)*
Assumed
Selling
Price
Per Share*
Breakeven Amount
($ for the
Assumed Selling
Price Per Share)*
ProShares VIX Mid-Term Futures ETF
0.98%
$35.00
$0.34
ProShares Ultra Bloomberg Natural Gas
1.61%
$40.00
$0.64
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Fund Name
Breakeven Amount
(% Per Annum of
Average
Daily NAV)*
Assumed
Selling
Price
Per Share*
Breakeven Amount
($ for the
Assumed Selling
Price Per Share)*
ProShares UltraShort Bloomberg Natural Gas
1.88%
$10.00
$0.19
ProShares UltraShort Silver
1.49%
$30.00
$0.45
ProShares UltraShort Gold
1.37%
$35.00
$0.48
ProShares Ultra Euro
0.98%
$15.00
$0.15
ProShares Short Euro
0.97%
$45.00
$0.44
ProShares UltraShort Euro
0.98%
$25.00
$0.25
ProShares UltraShort Australian Dollar
1.03%
$50.00
$0.52
ProShares Ultra Yen
0.98%
$50.00
$0.49
ProShares UltraShort Yen
0.98%
$80.00
$0.78

*
The breakeven analysis set forth in this table assumes that the Shares have a constant NAV equal to the amount shown. The amount approximates the NAV of such shares based on recent NAV history as of November 30, 2021, rounded to the nearest $5. The actual NAV of each Fund differs and is likely to change on a daily basis. The numbers in this chart have been rounded to the nearest 0.01.
Important Tax Information
Please note that each Fund will distribute to each shareholder a Schedule K-1 that will contain information regarding the shareholder’s share of income and expense items of the Fund. Schedule K-1 is a complex form and shareholders may find that preparing tax returns may require additional time or may require the assistance of an accountant or other tax preparer, at an additional expense to the shareholder.
-9

RISK FACTOR SUMMARY
Risks Related to All Funds
Each Fund seeks to achieve its investment objective even during periods when the performance of the Fund’s benchmark is flat or when the benchmark is moving in a manner that may cause the value of the Fund to decline.
There is no guarantee that any Fund will achieve its investment objective.
Potential negative impact from rolling futures positions; there have been extended periods in the past where the investment strategies utilized by the Funds have caused significant and sustained losses.
The number of underlying components included in a Fund’s benchmark may impact the volatility of such benchmark, which could adversely affect an investment in the Shares.
Possible illiquid markets may cause or exacerbate losses; the large size of the positions the Funds may acquire increases these risks.
Changes implemented by the benchmark provider that affect the composition and valuation of the benchmark could negatively impact the performance of the benchmark and therefore the performance of the Funds.
For the Funds linked to a benchmark, changes implemented by the benchmark provider that affect the composition and valuation of the benchmark could negatively impact the performance of the Funds.
The particular benchmark used by a Fund may underperform other asset classes and may underperform other indices or benchmarks based upon the same underlying Reference Asset.
A Fund may change its investment objective, benchmark and investment strategies, and/or may terminate, at any time without shareholder approval.
There may be circumstances that could prevent or make it impractical for a Fund to operate in a manner consistent with its investment objective and investment strategies.
Historical correlation trends between Fund benchmarks and other asset classes may not continue or may reverse, limiting or eliminating any potential diversification or other benefit from owning a Fund.
The lack of active trading markets for the Shares may result in losses upon the sale of such Shares.
Investors may be adversely affected by redemption or creation orders that are subject to postponement, suspension or rejection under certain circumstances.
The NAV per Share may not correspond to the market price per Share.
Investors may be adversely affected by an overstatement or understatement of a Fund’s NAV due to the valuation method employed or errors in the NAV calculation.
The liquidity of the Shares may also be affected by the withdrawal from participation of Authorized Participants, which could adversely affect the market price of the Shares.
Shareholders that are not Authorized Participants may only purchase or sell their Shares in secondary trading markets, and the conditions associated with trading in secondary markets may adversely affect investors’ investment in the Shares.
A Fund’s listing exchange may halt trading in Shares of the Fund which would adversely impact investors’ ability to sell Shares and could lead to investor losses.
Shareholders do not have the protections associated with ownership of shares in an investment company registered under the 1940 Act.
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Regulatory changes or actions may alter the operations and profitability of the Funds.
Regulatory and exchange daily price limits, position limits and accountability levels may cause the Sponsor to restrict the creation of Creation Units which could have a negative impact on the operation of each Fund, prevent a Fund from achieving its investment objective, and disrupt secondary market trading of Fund Shares.
The use of futures contracts may expose the Funds to liquidity and other risks, which could result in significant loss to the Funds.
Margin requirements and position limits applicable to futures contracts and the ability of and market required by swap counterparties may limit a Fund’s ability to achieve sufficient exposure and prevent a Fund from achieving its investment objective.
The insolvency of a futures commission merchant (“FCM”) or clearinghouse or the failure of an FCM or clearinghouse to properly segregate Fund assets held as margin on futures transactions may result in losses to the Funds.
A Fund’s performance could be adversely affected if an FCM reduces its internal risk limits for the Fund.
The use of swap agreements may expose the Funds to liquidity risk, counterparty credit risk and other risks, which could result in significant loss to the Funds.
The use of derivatives, such as swap agreements and forward contracts, exposes the Funds to counterparty credit risks.
The use of options strategies may expose the Funds to significant loss and liquidity, counterparty and other risks.
Use of an options strategy is costly and may not protect a Fund.
Shareholders’ tax liability may exceed cash distributions on the Shares.
Investors in our Funds may be exposed to various tax risks, as described in further detail below.
Natural disasters and public health disruptions, such as the COVID-19 virus, may have a significant negative impact on the performance of each Fund; the risks and other information described herein could become outdated as a result of such events.
Financial markets, including the benchmark and Financial Instruments used by a Fund and Fund Shares may be subject to unusual trading activity, volatility, and potential fraud and/or manipulation by third parties, which could have a negative impact on the performance of the benchmark and the Fund or the liquidity and price of Fund Shares.
Benchmark changes and market transactions, including the daily rebalancing of futures contracts by the Funds may have a significant impact on the trading, liquidity and price of the futures contracts underlying the benchmark and, in turn, a significant impact on the performance of the benchmark and the Funds and the trading, liquidity, and price of Fund Shares.
Purchases of Creation Units by Authorized Participants may be limited or suspending by the Sponsor in its sole discretion. For example, the Sponsor may limit or suspend the purchase of Creation Units if it believes doing so would help a Fund manage its portfolio, such as by allowing a Fund to comply with counterparty or position limits, or to manage or otherwise comply with Share registration requirements, or in response to significant and/or rapid increases in the size of a Fund as a result of an increase in creation activity. This may, among other things, cause Fund Shares to trade at a premium to NAV or otherwise have a negative impact on the liquidity and trading of Fund Shares.
Risks Specific to the Geared Funds, VIX Futures Fund, Natural Gas Funds, Precious Metals Funds, and Currency Funds
The use of leveraged or inverse leveraged positions increases risk and could result in the total loss of an investor’s investment within a single day.
Due to the compounding of daily returns, a Geared Fund’s returns over periods longer than a single day will likely differ in amount and possibly even direction from the Fund’s stated multiple times the return of its benchmark for such period. Intraday price performance of Geared Fund shares will likely differ from the Fund’s stated daily multiple times the performance of its benchmark for such day.
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Intraday price performance of Geared Fund shares will likely differ from the Fund’s stated daily multiple times the performance of its benchmark for such day.
To achieve a high degree of correlation with their applicable underlying benchmarks, the Geared Funds seek to rebalance their portfolios daily to keep exposure consistent with their respective investment objectives. Various market factors may adversely affect such Geared Funds’ ability to adjust exposure to requisite levels.
The Natural Gas Funds are linked to an index of natural gas futures contracts, and are not directly linked to the “spot” price of natural gas. Natural Gas futures contracts may perform very differently from the spot price of natural gas.
The Precious Metals Funds do not hold gold or silver bullion. Rather, the Precious Metals Funds use Financial Instruments to gain exposure to gold or silver bullion. Using Financial Instruments to obtain exposure to gold or silver bullion may cause tracking error and subject the Precious Metals Funds to the effects of contango and backwardation as described herein.
Currency exchange rates may be susceptible to distortion, manipulation and their values may fluctuate drastically.
VIX futures contracts can be highly volatile and the Fund may experience sudden and large losses when buying, selling or holding such instruments.
-12

RISK FACTORS
Investing in the Funds involves significant risks not applicable to other types of investments. The Funds may be highly volatile and you could potentially lose the full principal value of your investment within a single day. Before you decide to purchase any Shares, you should consider carefully the risks described below together with all of the other information included in this Prospectus, as well as information found in documents incorporated by reference in this Prospectus. These risk factors may be amended, supplemented or superseded from time to time by risk factors contained in any periodic report, prospectus supplement, post-effective amendment or in other reports filed with the SEC in the future.
The assets that the Funds invest in can be highly volatile and the Funds may experience sudden and large losses when buying, selling or holding such instruments; you can lose all of your investment within a single day.
Investments linked to commodity or currency markets can be highly volatile compared to investments in traditional securities and the Funds may experience sudden and large losses. These markets may fluctuate widely based on a variety of factors including changes in overall market movements, political and economic events, wars, acts of terrorism, natural disasters (including disease, epidemics and pandemics) and changes in interest rates or inflation rates. High volatility may have an adverse impact on the performance of the Funds. An investor in any of the Funds could potentially lose the full principal value of his or her investment within a single day.
Risks Specific to the Geared Funds
The use of leveraged or inverse leveraged positions increases risk and could result in the total loss of an investor’s investment within a single day.
Each of the Geared Funds (except for the Short Euro Fund) utilizes leverage in seeking to achieve its investment objective and will lose more money in market environments adverse to its daily investment objective than funds that do not employ leverage. The use of leveraged and/or inverse leveraged positions increases risk and could result in the total loss of an investor’s investment within a single day. The more a Fund invests in leveraged positions, the more this leverage will magnify any losses on those investments. A Fund’s investments in leveraged positions generally requires a small investment relative to the amount of investment exposure assumed. As a result, such investments may give rise to losses that far exceed the amount invested in those instruments.
For example, because the Ultra Funds and the UltraShort Funds offered hereby include a two times (2x) or a two times inverse (-2x) multiplier, a single-day movement in the benchmark for one of these Funds approaching 50% at any point in the day could result in the total loss or almost total loss of an investment in such Fund if that movement is contrary to the investment objective of the Fund. This would be the case with downward single-day or intraday movements in the underlying benchmark of an Ultra Fund or upward single day or intraday movements in the benchmark of an UltraShort Fund, even if the underlying benchmark maintains a level greater than zero at all times and even if the benchmark subsequently moves in an opposite direction, eliminating all or a portion of the prior adverse movement. It is not possible to predict when sudden large changes in the daily movement of a benchmark may occur.
Due to the compounding of daily returns, a Geared Fund’s returns over periods longer than a single day will likely differ in amount and possibly even direction from the Fund’s stated multiple times the return of its benchmark for such period.
Each of the Geared Funds is “geared” which means that each has an investment objective to seek daily investment results, before fees and expenses, that correspond either to two times (2x), the inverse (-1x) or two times the inverse (-2x) of the performance of a benchmark for a single day, not for any other period. A single day is measured from the time a Fund calculates its respective net asset value (“NAV”) to the time of the Fund’s next NAV calculation. The NAV calculation times for the Funds typically range from 7:00 a.m. to 4:15 p.m. (Eastern Time); please see the section entitled “Summary–Creation and Redemption Transactions” above for additional details on the NAV calculation times for the Funds. The return of a Geared Fund for a period longer than a single day is the result of its return for each day compounded over the period and usually will differ from two times (2x), the inverse (-1x) or two times the inverse (-2x) of the return of the Geared Fund’s benchmark for the same period. Compounding is the cumulative effect of applying investment gains and losses and income to the principal amount invested over time. Gains or losses experienced over a given period will increase or reduce the principal amount invested from which the subsequent period’s returns are calculated. The effects of compounding will likely cause the performance of a Geared Fund to differ from the Geared Fund’s stated multiple times the return of its benchmark for the same period. The effect of compounding becomes more pronounced as benchmark volatility
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and holding period increase. The impact of compounding will impact each shareholder differently depending on the period of time an investment in a Geared Fund is held and the volatility of the benchmark during the holding period of an investment in the Geared Fund.
A Geared Fund will lose money if its benchmark’s performance is flat over time, and a Geared Fund can lose money regardless of the performance of an underlying benchmark, as a result of daily rebalancing, the benchmark’s volatility, compounding and other factors. Longer holding periods, higher benchmark volatility, inverse exposure and greater leverage each affect the impact of compounding on a Geared Fund’s returns. Daily compounding of a Geared Fund’s investment returns can dramatically and adversely affect performance, especially during periods of high volatility. Volatility has a negative impact on Geared Fund performance and the volatility of a Geared Fund’s benchmark may be at least as important to a Geared Fund’s return for a period as the return of the Fund’s benchmark.
Each of the Ultra Fund and UltraShort Fund uses leverage and should produce returns for a single day that are more volatile than that of its benchmark. For example, the return for a single day of an Ultra Fund with a 2x multiple should be approximately two times as volatile for a single day as the return of a fund with an objective of matching the performance of the same benchmark. The return for a single day of an UltraShort Fund with a -2x multiple should be approximately two times as volatile for a single day as the inverse of the return of a fund with an objective of matching the performance of the same benchmark.
The Geared Funds are not appropriate for all investors and present different risks than other funds. The Geared Funds (other than the Short Euro Fund) use leverage and are riskier than similarly benchmarked exchange-traded funds that do not use leverage. An investor should only consider an investment in a Geared Fund if he or she understands the consequences of seeking daily leveraged, daily inverse or daily inverse leveraged investment results for a single day. Shareholders who invest in the Geared Funds should actively manage and monitor their investments, as frequently as daily.
The hypothetical examples below illustrate how daily geared fund returns can behave for periods longer than a single day. Each involves a hypothetical fund XYZ that seeks returns that are two times (2x) the daily performance of benchmark XYZ, before fees and expenses. On each day, fund XYZ performs in line with its objective (two times (2x) the benchmark’s daily performance before fees and expenses). Notice that, in the first example (showing an overall benchmark loss for the period), over the entire seven-day period, the fund’s total return is more than two times (2x) the loss of the period return of the benchmark. For the seven-day period, benchmark XYZ lost 3.26% while fund XYZ lost 7.01% (versus -6.52% (or 2 x -3.26%)).
 
Benchmark XYZ
Fund XYZ
Level
Daily
Performance
Daily
Performance
Net Asset
Value
Start
100.00
 
 
$100.00
Day 1
97.00
-3.00%
-6.00%
$94.00
Day 2
99.91
3.00%
6.00%
$99.64
Day 3
96.91
-3.00%
-6.00%
$93.66
Day 4
99.82
3.00%
6.00%
$99.28
Day 5
96.83
-3.00%
-6.00%
$93.32
Day 6
99.73
3.00%
6.00%
$98.92
Day 7
96.74
-3.00%
-6.00%
$92.99
Total Return
 
-3.26%
-7.01%
 
Similarly, in another example (showing an overall benchmark gain for the period), over the entire seven-day period, the fund’s total return is considerably less than two times (2x) that of the period return of the benchmark. For the seven-day period, benchmark XYZ gained 2.72% while fund XYZ gained 4.86% (versus 5.44% (or 2 × 2.72%)).
 
Benchmark XYZ
Fund XYZ
Level
Daily
Performance
Daily
Performance
Net Asset
Value
Start
100.00
 
 
$100.00
Day 1
103.00
3.00%
6.00%
$106.00
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Benchmark XYZ
Fund XYZ
Level
Daily
Performance
Daily
Performance
Net Asset
Value
Day 2
99.91
-3.00%
-6.00%
$99.64
Day 3
102.91
3.00%
6.00%
$105.62
Day 4
99.82
-3.00%
-6.00%
$99.28
Day 5
102.81
3.00%
6.00%
$105.24
Day 6
99.73
-3.00%
-6.00%
$98.92
Day 7
102.72
3.00%
6.00%
$104.86
Total Return
 
2.72%
4.86%
 
These effects are caused by compounding, which exists in all investments, but has a more significant impact in geared funds. In general, during periods of higher benchmark volatility, compounding will cause an Ultra Fund’s returns for periods longer than a single day to be less than two times (2x) the return of its benchmark (or less than the inverse (-1x) or two times the inverse (-2x) of the return of its benchmark for a Short Fund or an UltraShort Fund, respectively). This effect becomes more pronounced as volatility increases. Conversely, in periods of lower benchmark volatility (particularly when combined with higher benchmark returns), an Ultra Fund’s returns over longer periods can be greater than two times (2x) the return of its benchmark (or greater than two times the inverse (-2x) of the return of its benchmark for an UltraShort Fund). Actual results for a particular period are also dependent on the magnitude of the benchmark return in addition to the benchmark volatility. Similar effects exist for a Short Fund and an UltraShort Fund, and the significance of these effects may be even greater with such inverse, inverse leveraged or leveraged funds.
The graphs that follow illustrate this point. Each of the graphs shows a simulated hypothetical one-year performance of a benchmark compared with the performance of a geared fund that perfectly achieves its geared daily investment objective. The graphs demonstrate that, for periods greater than a single day, a geared fund is likely to underperform or overperform (but not match) the benchmark performance (or the inverse of the benchmark performance) times the multiple stated as the daily fund objective. Investors should understand the consequences of holding daily rebalanced funds for periods longer than a single day and should actively manage and monitor their investments, as frequently as daily. A one-year period is used solely for illustrative purposes. Deviations from the benchmark return (or the inverse of the benchmark return) times the fund multiple can occur over periods as short as two days (each day as measured from NAV to NAV) and may also occur in periods of a single day, or even intra-day. To isolate the impact of daily leveraged, inverse or inverse leveraged exposure, these graphs assume: a) no fund expenses or transaction costs; b) borrowing/lending rates of zero percent (to obtain required leveraged, inverse or inverse leveraged exposure) and cash reinvestment rates of zero percent; and c) the fund consistently maintaining perfect exposure (-1x, -2x or 2x) as of the fund’s NAV time each day. If these assumptions were different, the fund’s performance would be different than that shown. If fund expenses, transaction costs and financing expenses greater than zero percent were included, the fund’s performance would also be different than shown. Each of the graphs also assumes a volatility rate of 45% which is an approximate average of the five-year historical volatility rate of the most volatile benchmark referenced herein (the daily performance of Bloomberg Natural Gas Subindex) as of November 30, 2021. A benchmark’s volatility rate is a statistical measure of the magnitude of fluctuations in its returns.
HYPOTHETICAL PERFORMANCE RESULTS HAVE MANY INHERENT LIMITATIONS. NO REPRESENTATION IS BEING MADE THAT ANY BENCHMARK OR FUND WILL OR IS LIKELY TO ACHIEVE GAINS OR LOSSES SIMILAR TO THOSE SHOWN OR WILL EXPERIENCE VOLATILITY SIMILAR TO THAT SHOWN. THE INFORMATION PROVIDED IN THE CHART BELOW IS FOR ILLUSTRATIVE PURPOSES ONLY.
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One-Year Simulation; Benchmark Flat (0%)
(Annualized Benchmark Volatility 45%)
The graph above shows a scenario where the benchmark, which exhibits day-to-day volatility, is flat or trendless over the year (i.e., provides a return of 0% over the course of the year), but the Short Fund (-1x) is down.
HYPOTHETICAL PERFORMANCE RESULTS HAVE MANY INHERENT LIMITATIONS. NO REPRESENTATION IS BEING MADE THAT ANY BENCHMARK OR FUND WILL OR IS LIKELY TO ACHIEVE GAINS OR LOSSES SIMILAR TO THOSE SHOWN OR WILL EXPERIENCE VOLATILITY SIMILAR TO THAT SHOWN. THE INFORMATION PROVIDED IN THE CHART BELOW IS FOR ILLUSTRATIVE PURPOSES ONLY.
One-Year Simulation; Benchmark Down 36%
(Annualized Benchmark Volatility 45%)
-16

The graph above shows a scenario where the benchmark, which exhibits day-to-day volatility, is down over the year, but the Short Fund (-1x) is up less than the inverse of the benchmark.
HYPOTHETICAL PERFORMANCE RESULTS HAVE MANY INHERENT LIMITATIONS. NO REPRESENTATION IS BEING MADE THAT ANY BENCHMARK OR FUND WILL OR IS LIKELY TO ACHIEVE GAINS OR LOSSES SIMILAR TO THOSE SHOWN OR WILL EXPERIENCE VOLATILITY SIMILAR TO THAT SHOWN. THE INFORMATION PROVIDED IN THE CHART BELOW IS FOR ILLUSTRATIVE PURPOSES ONLY.
One-Year Simulation; Benchmark Up 36%
(Annualized Benchmark Volatility 45%)
The graph above shows a scenario where the benchmark, which exhibits day-to-day volatility, is up over the year, but the Short Fund (-1x) is down more than the inverse of the benchmark.
HYPOTHETICAL PERFORMANCE RESULTS HAVE MANY INHERENT LIMITATIONS. NO REPRESENTATION IS BEING MADE THAT ANY BENCHMARK OR FUND WILL OR IS LIKELY TO ACHIEVE GAINS OR LOSSES SIMILAR TO THOSE SHOWN OR WILL EXPERIENCE VOLATILITY SIMILAR TO THAT SHOWN. THE INFORMATION PROVIDED IN THE CHART BELOW IS FOR ILLUSTRATIVE PURPOSES ONLY.
-17

One-Year Simulation; Benchmark Flat (0%)
(Annualized Benchmark Volatility 45%)
The graph above shows a scenario where the benchmark, which exhibits day-to-day volatility, is flat or trendless over the year (i.e., provides a return of 0% over the course of the year), but the Ultra Fund (2x) and the UltraShort Fund (-2x) are both down.
HYPOTHETICAL PERFORMANCE RESULTS HAVE MANY INHERENT LIMITATIONS. NO REPRESENTATION IS BEING MADE THAT ANY BENCHMARK OR FUND WILL OR IS LIKELY TO ACHIEVE GAINS OR LOSSES SIMILAR TO THOSE SHOWN OR WILL EXPERIENCE VOLATILITY SIMILAR TO THAT SHOWN. THE INFORMATION PROVIDED IN THE CHART BELOW IS FOR ILLUSTRATIVE PURPOSES ONLY.
One-Year Simulation; Benchmark Down 36%
(Annualized Benchmark Volatility 45%)
-18

The graph above shows a scenario where the benchmark, which exhibits day-to-day volatility, is down over the year, but the Ultra Fund (2x) is down less than two times the benchmark and the UltraShort Fund (-2x) is up less than two times the inverse of the benchmark.
HYPOTHETICAL PERFORMANCE RESULTS HAVE MANY INHERENT LIMITATIONS. NO REPRESENTATION IS BEING MADE THAT ANY BENCHMARK OR FUND WILL OR IS LIKELY TO ACHIEVE GAINS OR LOSSES SIMILAR TO THOSE SHOWN OR WILL EXPERIENCE VOLATILITY SIMILAR TO THAT SHOWN. THE INFORMATION PROVIDED IN THE CHART BELOW IS FOR ILLUSTRATIVE PURPOSES ONLY.
One-Year Simulation; Benchmark Up 36%
(Annualized Benchmark Volatility 45%)
The graph above shows a scenario where the benchmark, which exhibits day-to-day volatility, is up over the year, but the Ultra Fund (2x) is up less than two times the benchmark and the UltraShort Fund (-2x) is down less than two times the inverse of the benchmark.
The historical five-year average volatility of the benchmarks utilized by the Funds ranges from 6.62% to 44.71% as of November 30, 2021, as set forth in the table below.
Benchmark
Historical
Five-Year Average
November 30, 2021
S&P 500 VIX Mid-Term Futures Index
35.50%
Bloomberg Natural Gas SubindexSM
44.71%
Bloomberg Silver SubindexSM
28.91%
Bloomberg Gold SubindexSM
14.44%
The U.S. dollar price of the Australian dollar
8.93%
The U.S. dollar price of the euro
6.62%
The U.S. dollar price of the Japanese yen
7.16%
Historical average volatility does not predict future volatility, which may be significantly higher or lower than historical averages.
Fund performance for periods greater than a single day can be estimated given any set of assumptions for the following factors: a) benchmark volatility; b) benchmark performance; c) period of time; d) financing rates associated with leveraged exposure; and e) other Fund expenses. The tables below illustrate the impact of two factors that affect a geared fund’s performance: benchmark volatility and benchmark
-19

return. Benchmark volatility is a statistical measure of the magnitude of fluctuations in the returns of a benchmark and is calculated as the standard deviation of the natural logarithms of one plus the benchmark return (calculated daily), multiplied by the square root of the number of trading days per year (assumed to be 252). The tables show estimated fund returns for a number of combinations of benchmark volatility and benchmark return over a one-year period. To isolate the impact of daily leveraged, inverse or inverse leveraged exposure, these tables assume: a) no fund expenses or transaction costs; b) borrowing/lending rates of zero percent (to obtain required leveraged, inverse or inverse leveraged exposure) and cash reinvestment rates of zero percent; and c) the fund consistently maintaining perfect exposure (2x, -1x, -2x) as of the fund’s NAV time each day. If these assumptions were different, the fund’s performance would be different than that shown. If fund expenses, transaction costs and financing expenses were included, the fund’s performance would be different than that shown.
The first table below shows an example in which a geared fund has an investment objective to correspond (before fees and expenses) to two times (2x) the daily performance of a benchmark. The geared fund could incorrectly be expected to achieve a 20% return on a yearly basis if the benchmark return was 10%, absent the effects of compounding. However, as the table shows, with a benchmark volatility of 40%, such a fund would return 3.1%. In the charts below, shaded areas represent those scenarios where a geared fund with the investment objective described will outperform (i.e., return more than) the benchmark performance times the stated multiple in the fund’s investment objective; conversely areas not shaded represent those scenarios where the fund will underperform (i.e., return less than) the benchmark performance times the multiple stated as the daily fund objective.
HYPOTHETICAL PERFORMANCE RESULTS HAVE MANY INHERENT LIMITATIONS. NO REPRESENTATION IS BEING MADE THAT ANY BENCHMARK OR FUND WILL OR IS LIKELY TO ACHIEVE GAINS OR LOSSES SIMILAR TO THOSE SHOWN OR WILL EXPERIENCE VOLATILITY SIMILAR TO THAT SHOWN. THE INFORMATION PROVIDED IN THE CHART BELOW IS FOR ILLUSTRATIVE PURPOSES ONLY.
Estimated Fund Return Over One Year When the Fund’s Objective is to Seek Daily Investment Results, Before Fees and Expenses, that Correspond to Two Times (2x) the Performance of a Benchmark for a Single Day.
One Year
Benchmark
Performance
Two Times (2x)
One Year
Benchmark
Performance
Benchmark Volatility
0%
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
30%
35%
40%
45%
50%
55%
60%
65%
70%
-60%
-120%
-84.0%
-84.0%
-84.2%
-84.4%
-84.6%
-85.0%
-85.4%
-85.8%
-86.4%
-86.9%
-87.5%
-88.2%
-88.8%
-89.5%
-90.2%
-55%
-110%
-79.8%
-79.8%
-80.0%
-80.2%
-80.5%
-81.0%
-81.5%
-82.1%
-82.7%
-83.5%
-84.2%
-85.0%
-85.9%
-86.7%
-87.6%
-50%
-100%
-75.0%
-75.1%
-75.2%
-75.6%
-76.0%
-76.5%
-77.2%
-77.9%
-78.7%
-79.6%
-80.5%
-81.5%
-82.6%
-83.6%
-84.7%
-45%
-90%
-69.8%
-69.8%
-70.1%
-70.4%
-70.9%
-71.6%
-72.4%
-73.2%
-74.2%
-75.3%
-76.4%
-77.6%
-78.9%
-80.2%
-81.5%
-40%
-80%
-64.0%
-64.1%
-64.4%
-64.8%
-65.4%
-66.2%
-67.1%
-68.2%
-69.3%
-70.6%
-72.0%
-73.4%
-74.9%
-76.4%
-77.9%
-35%
-70%
-57.8%
-57.9%
-58.2%
-58.7%
-59.4%
-60.3%
-61.4%
-62.6%
-64.0%
-65.5%
-67.1%
-68.8%
-70.5%
-72.3%
-74.1%
-30%
-60%
-51.0%
-51.1%
-51.5%
-52.1%
-52.9%
-54.0%
-55.2%
-56.6%
-58.2%
-60.0%
-61.8%
-63.8%
-65.8%
-67.9%
-70.0%
-25%
-50%
-43.8%
-43.9%
-44.3%
-45.0%
-46.0%
-47.2%
-48.6%
-50.2%
-52.1%
-54.1%
-56.2%
-58.4%
-60.8%
-63.1%
-65.5%
-20%
-40%
-36.0%
-36.2%
-36.6%
-37.4%
-38.5%
-39.9%
-41.5%
-43.4%
-45.5%
-47.7%
-50.2%
-52.7%
-55.3%
-58.1%
-60.8%
-15%
-30%
-27.8%
-27.9%
-28.5%
-29.4%
-30.6%
-32.1%
-34.0%
-36.1%
-38.4%
-41.0%
-43.7%
-46.6%
-49.6%
-52.6%
-55.7%
-10%
-20%
-19.0%
-19.2%
-19.8%
-20.8%
-22.2%
-23.9%
-26.0%
-28.3%
-31.0%
-33.8%
-36.9%
-40.1%
-43.5%
-46.9%
-50.4%
-5%
-10%
-9.8%
-10.0%
-10.6%
-11.8%
-13.3%
-15.2%
-17.5%
-20.2%
-23.1%
-26.3%
-29.7%
-33.3%
-37.0%
-40.8%
-44.7%
0%
0%
0.0%
-0.2%
-1.0%
-2.2%
-3.9%
-6.1%
-8.6%
-11.5%
-14.8%
-18.3%
-22.1%
-26.1%
-30.2%
-34.5%
-38.7%
5%
10%
10.3%
10.0%
9.2%
7.8%
5.9%
3.6%
0.8%
-2.5%
-6.1%
-10.0%
-14.1%
-18.5%
-23.1%
-27.7%
-32.5%
10%
20%
21.0%
20.7%
19.8%
18.3%
16.3%
13.7%
10.6%
7.0%
3.1%
-1.2%
-5.8%
-10.6%
-15.6%
-20.7%
-25.9%
15%
30%
32.3%
31.9%
30.9%
29.3%
27.1%
24.2%
20.9%
17.0%
12.7%
8.0%
3.0%
-2.3%
-7.7%
-13.3%
-19.0%
20%
40%
44.0%
43.6%
42.6%
40.8%
38.4%
35.3%
31.6%
27.4%
22.7%
17.6%
12.1%
6.4%
0.5%
-5.6%
-11.8%
25%
50%
56.3%
55.9%
54.7%
52.8%
50.1%
46.8%
42.8%
38.2%
33.1%
27.6%
21.7%
15.5%
9.0%
2.4%
-4.3%
30%
60%
69.0%
68.6%
67.3%
65.2%
62.4%
58.8%
54.5%
49.5%
44.0%
38.0%
31.6%
24.9%
17.9%
10.8%
3.5%
35%
70%
82.3%
81.8%
80.4%
78.2%
75.1%
71.2%
66.6%
61.2%
55.3%
48.8%
41.9%
34.7%
27.2%
19.4%
11.7%
40%
80%
96.0%
95.5%
94.0%
91.6%
88.3%
84.1%
79.1%
73.4%
67.0%
60.1%
52.6%
44.8%
36.7%
28.5%
20.1%
45%
90%
110.3%
109.7%
108.2%
105.6%
102.0%
97.5%
92.2%
86.0%
79.2%
71.7%
63.7%
55.4%
46.7%
37.8%
28.8%
50%
100%
125.0%
124.4%
122.8%
120.0%
116.2%
111.4%
105.6%
99.1%
91.7%
83.8%
75.2%
66.3%
57.0%
47.5%
37.8%
55%
110%
140.3%
139.7%
137.9%
134.9%
130.8%
125.7%
119.6%
112.6%
104.7%
96.2%
87.1%
77.5%
67.6%
57.5%
47.2%
60%
120%
156.0%
155.4%
153.5%
150.3%
146.0%
140.5%
134.0%
126.5%
118.1%
109.1%
99.4%
89.2%
78.6%
67.8%
56.8%
-20

HYPOTHETICAL PERFORMANCE RESULTS HAVE MANY INHERENT LIMITATIONS. NO REPRESENTATION IS BEING MADE THAT ANY BENCHMARK OR FUND WILL OR IS LIKELY TO ACHIEVE GAINS OR LOSSES SIMILAR TO THOSE SHOWN OR WILL EXPERIENCE VOLATILITY SIMILAR TO THAT SHOWN. THE INFORMATION PROVIDED IN THE CHART BELOW IS FOR ILLUSTRATIVE PURPOSES ONLY.
Estimated Fund Return Over One Year When the Fund’s Objective is to Seek Daily Investment Results, Before Fees and Expenses, that Correspond to the Inverse (-1x) of the Performance of a Benchmark for a Single Day.
One Year
Benchmark
Performance
Inverse (-1x) of
One Year
Benchmark
Performance
Benchmark Volatility
0%
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
30%
35%
40%
45%
50%
55%
60%
65%
70%
-60%
60%
150.0%
149.4%
147.5%
144.4%
140.2%
134.9%
128.5%
121.2%
113.0%
104.2%
94.7%
84.7%
74.4%
63.9%
53.2%
-55%
55%
122.2%
121.7%
120.0%
117.3%
113.5%
108.8%
103.1%
96.6%
89.4%
81.5%
73.1%
64.2%
55.0%
45.6%
36.1%
-50%
50%
100.0%
99.5%
98.0%
95.6%
92.2%
87.9%
82.8%
76.9%
70.4%
63.3%
55.8%
47.8%
39.5%
31.1%
22.5%
-45%
45%
81.8%
81.4%
80.0%
77.8%
74.7%
70.8%
66.2%
60.9%
54.9%
48.5%
41.6%
34.4%
26.9%
19.2%
11.4%
-40%
40%
66.7%
66.3%
65.0%
63.0%
60.1%
56.6%
52.3%
47.5%
42.0%
36.1%
29.8%
23.2%
16.3%
9.2%
2.1%
-35%
35%
53.8%
53.5%
52.3%
50.4%
47.8%
44.5%
40.6%
36.1%
31.1%
25.6%
19.8%
13.7%
7.3%
0.8%
-5.7%
-30%
30%
42.9%
42.5%
41.4%
39.7%
37.3%
34.2%
30.6%
26.4%
21.7%
16.7%
11.3%
5.6%
-0.3%
-6.4%
-12.5%
-25%
25%
33.3%
33.0%
32.0%
30.4%
28.1%
25.3%
21.9%
18.0%
13.6%
8.9%
3.8%
-1.5%
-7.0%
-12.6%
-18.3%
-20%
20%
25.0%
24.7%
23.8%
22.2%
20.1%
17.4%
14.2%
10.6%
6.5%
2.1%
-2.6%
-7.6%
-12.8%
-18.1%
-23.4%
-15%
15%
17.6%
17.4%
16.5%
15.0%
13.0%
10.5%
7.5%
4.1%
0.3%
-3.9%
-8.4%
-13.1%
-17.9%
-22.9%
-27.9%
-10%
10%
11.1%
10.8%
10.0%
8.6%
6.8%
4.4%
1.5%
-1.7%
-5.3%
-9.3%
-13.5%
-17.9%
-22.5%
-27.2%
-31.9%
-5%
5%
5.3%
5.0%
4.2%
2.9%
1.1%
-1.1%
-3.8%
-6.9%
-10.3%
-14.0%
-18.0%
-22.2%
-26.6%
-31.0%
-35.5%
0%
0%
0.0%
-0.2%
-1.0%
-2.2%
-3.9%
-6.1%
-8.6%
-11.5%
-14.8%
-18.3%
-22.1%
-26.1%
-30.2%
-34.5%
-38.7%
5%
-5%
-4.8%
-5.0%
-5.7%
-6.9%
-8.5%
-10.5%
-13.0%
-15.7%
-18.8%
-22.2%
-25.8%
-29.6%
-33.6%
-37.6%
-41.7%
10%
-10%
-9.1%
-9.3%
-10.0%
-11.1%
-12.7%
-14.6%
-16.9%
-19.6%
-22.5%
-25.8%
-29.2%
-32.8%
-36.6%
-40.4%
-44.3%
15%
-15%
-13.0%
-13.3%
-13.9%
-15.0%
-16.5%
-18.3%
-20.5%
-23.1%
-25.9%
-29.0%
-32.3%
-35.7%
-39.3%
-43.0%
-46.7%
20%
-20%
-16.7%
-16.9%
-17.5%
-18.5%
-19.9%
-21.7%
-23.8%
-26.3%
-29.0%
-31.9%
-35.1%
-38.4%
-41.9%
-45.4%
-48.9%
25%
-25%
-20.0%
-20.2%
-20.8%
-21.8%
-23.1%
-24.8%
-26.9%
-29.2%
-31.8%
-34.7%
-37.7%
-40.9%
-44.2%
-47.6%
-51.0%
30%
-30%
-23.1%
-23.3%
-23.8%
-24.8%
-26.1%
-27.7%
-29.7%
-31.9%
-34.5%
-37.2%
-40.1%
-43.2%
-46.3%
-49.6%
-52.9%
35%
-35%
-25.9%
-26.1%
-26.7%
-27.6%
-28.8%
-30.4%
-32.3%
-34.5%
-36.9%
-39.5%
-42.3%
-45.3%
-48.3%
-51.5%
-54.6%
40%
-40%
-28.6%
-28.7%
-29.3%
-30.2%
-31.4%
-32.9%
-34.7%
-36.8%
-39.1%
-41.7%
-44.4%
-47.2%
-50.2%
-53.2%
-56.2%
45%
-45%
-31.0%
-31.2%
-31.7%
-32.6%
-33.7%
-35.2%
-37.0%
-39.0%
-41.2%
-43.7%
-46.3%
-49.0%
-51.9%
-54.8%
-57.7%
50%
-50%
-33.3%
-33.5%
-34.0%
-34.8%
-35.9%
-37.4%
-39.1%
-41.0%
-43.2%
-45.6%
-48.1%
-50.7%
-53.5%
-56.3%
-59.2%
55%
-55%
-35.5%
-35.6%
-36.1%
-36.9%
-38.0%
-39.4%
-41.0%
-42.9%
-45.0%
-47.3%
-49.8%
-52.3%
-55.0%
-57.7%
-60.5%
60%
-60%
-37.5%
-37.7%
-38.1%
-38.9%
-40.0%
-41.3%
-42.9%
-44.7%
-46.7%
-49.0%
-51.3%
-53.8%
-56.4%
-59.0%
-61.7%
HYPOTHETICAL PERFORMANCE RESULTS HAVE MANY INHERENT LIMITATIONS. NO REPRESENTATION IS BEING MADE THAT ANY BENCHMARK OR FUND WILL OR IS LIKELY TO ACHIEVE GAINS OR LOSSES SIMILAR TO THOSE SHOWN OR WILL EXPERIENCE VOLATILITY SIMILAR TO THAT SHOWN. THE INFORMATION PROVIDED IN THE CHART BELOW IS FOR ILLUSTRATIVE PURPOSES ONLY.
-21

Estimated Fund Return Over One Year When the Fund’s Objective is to Seek Daily Investment Results, Before Fees and Expenses, that Correspond to Two Times the Inverse (-2x) of the Performance of a Benchmark for a Single Day.
One Year
Benchmark
Performance
Two Times
Inverse (-2x) of
One Year
Benchmark
Performance
Benchmark Volatility
0%
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
30%
35%
40%
45%
50%
55%
60%
65%
70%
-60%
120%
525.0%
520.3%
506.5%
484.2%
454.3%
418.1%
377.1%
332.8%
286.7%
240.4%
195.2%
152.2%
112.2%
76.0%
43.7%
-55%
110%
393.8%
390.1%
379.2%
361.6%
338.0%
309.4%
277.0%
242.0%
205.6%
169.0%
133.3%
99.3%
67.7%
39.0%
13.5%
-50%
100%
300.0%
297.0%
288.2%
273.9%
254.8%
231.6%
205.4%
177.0%
147.5%
117.9%
88.9%
61.4%
35.8%
12.6%
-8.0%
-45%
90%
230.6%
228.1%
220.8%
209.0%
193.2%
174.1%
152.4%
128.9%
104.6%
80.1%
56.2%
33.4%
12.3%
-6.9%
-24.0%
-40%
80%
177.8%
175.7%
169.6%
159.6%
146.4%
130.3%
112.0%
92.4%
71.9%
51.3%
31.2%
12.1%
-5.7%
-21.8%
-36.1%
-35%
70%
136.7%
134.9%
129.7%
121.2%
109.9%
96.2%
80.7%
63.9%
46.5%
28.9%
11.8%
-4.5%
-19.6%
-33.4%
-45.6%
-30%
60%
104.1%
102.6%
98.1%
90.8%
81.0%
69.2%
55.8%
41.3%
26.3%
11.2%
-3.6%
-17.6%
-30.7%
-42.5%
-53.1%
-25%
50%
77.8%
76.4%
72.5%
66.2%
57.7%
47.4%
35.7%
23.1%
10.0%
-3.2%
-16.0%
-28.3%
-39.6%
-49.9%
-59.1%
-20%
40%
56.3%
55.1%
51.6%
46.1%
38.6%
29.5%
19.3%
8.2%
-3.3%
-14.9%
-26.2%
-36.9%
-46.9%
-56.0%
-64.1%
-15%
30%
38.4%
37.4%
34.3%
29.4%
22.8%
14.7%
5.7%
-4.2%
-14.4%
-24.6%
-34.6%
-44.1%
-53.0%
-61.0%
-68.2%
-10%
20%
23.5%
22.5%
19.8%
15.4%
9.5%
2.3%
-5.8%
-14.5%
-23.6%
-32.8%
-41.7%
-50.2%
-58.1%
-65.2%
-71.6%
-5%
10%
10.8%
10.0%
7.5%
3.6%
-1.7%
-8.1%
-15.4%
-23.3%
-31.4%
-39.6%
-47.7%
-55.3%
-62.4%
-68.8%
-74.5%
0%
0%
0.0%
-0.7%
-3.0%
-6.5%
-11.3%
-17.1%
-23.7%
-30.8%
-38.1%
-45.5%
-52.8%
-59.6%
-66.0%
-71.8%
-77.0%
5%
-10%
-9.3%
-10.0%
-12.0%
-15.2%
-19.6%
-24.8%
-30.8%
-37.2%
-43.9%
-50.6%
-57.2%
-63.4%
-69.2%
-74.5%
-79.1%
10%
-20%
-17.4%
-18.0%
-19.8%
-22.7%
-26.7%
-31.5%
-36.9%
-42.8%
-48.9%
-55.0%
-61.0%
-66.7%
-71.9%
-76.7%
-81.0%
15%
-30%
-24.4%
-25.0%
-26.6%
-29.3%
-32.9%
-37.3%
-42.3%
-47.6%
-53.2%
-58.8%
-64.3%
-69.5%
-74.3%
-78.7%
-82.6%
20%
-40%
-30.6%
-31.1%
-32.6%
-35.1%
-38.4%
-42.4%
-47.0%
-51.9%
-57.0%
-62.2%
-67.2%
-72.0%
-76.4%
-80.4%
-84.0%
25%
-50%
-36.0%
-36.5%
-37.9%
-40.2%
-43.2%
-46.9%
-51.1%
-55.7%
-60.4%
-65.1%
-69.8%
-74.2%
-78.3%
-82.0%
-85.3%
30%
-60%
-40.8%
-41.3%
-42.6%
-44.7%
-47.5%
-50.9%
-54.8%
-59.0%
-63.4%
-67.8%
-72.0%
-76.1%
-79.9%
-83.3%
-86.4%
35%
-70%
-45.1%
-45.5%
-46.8%
-48.7%
-51.3%
-54.5%
-58.1%
-62.0%
-66.0%
-70.1%
-74.1%
-77.9%
-81.4%
-84.6%
-87.4%
40%
-80%
-49.0%
-49.4%
-50.5%
-52.3%
-54.7%
-57.7%
-61.1%
-64.7%
-68.4%
-72.2%
-75.9%
-79.4%
-82.7%
-85.6%
-88.3%
45%
-90%
-52.4%
-52.8%
-53.8%
-55.5%
-57.8%
-60.6%
-63.7%
-67.1%
-70.6%
-74.1%
-77.5%
-80.8%
-83.8%
-86.6%
-89.1%
50%
-100%
-55.6%
-55.9%
-56.9%
-58.5%
-60.6%
-63.2%
-66.1%
-69.2%
-72.5%
-75.8%
-79.0%
-82.1%
-84.9%
-87.5%
-89.8%
55%
-110%
-58.4%
-58.7%
-59.6%
-61.1%
-63.1%
-65.5%
-68.2%
-71.2%
-74.2%
-77.3%
-80.3%
-83.2%
-85.9%
-88.3%
-90.4%
60%
-120%
-60.9%
-61.2%
-62.1%
-63.5%
-65.4%
-67.6%
-70.2%
-73.0%
-75.8%
-78.7%
-81.5%
-84.2%
-86.7%
-89.0%
-91.0%
The foregoing tables are intended to isolate the effect of benchmark volatility and benchmark performance on the return of leveraged, inverse or inverse leveraged funds. The Funds’ actual returns may be greater or less than the returns shown above.
Correlation and Performance Risks Specific to the Geared Funds.
While the Geared Funds seek to meet their investment objectives, there is no guarantee they will do so. Factors that may affect a Geared Fund’s ability to meet its investment objective include: (1) the Sponsor’s ability to purchase and sell Financial Instruments in a manner that correlates to a Fund’s objective, including the Sponsor’s ability to enter into new positions and contracts to replace exposure that has been reduced or terminated by a counterparty or otherwise; (2) an imperfect correlation between the performance of the Financial Instruments held by a Fund and the performance of the applicable benchmark; (3) bid-ask spreads on such Financial Instruments; (4) fees, expenses, transaction costs, financing costs and margin requirements associated with the use of Financial Instruments and commission costs; (5) holding or trading Financial Instruments in a market that has become illiquid or disrupted; (6) a Fund’s Share prices being rounded to the nearest cent and/or valuation methodologies; (7) changes to a benchmark that are not disseminated in advance; (8) the need to conform a Fund’s portfolio holdings to comply with investment restrictions or policies, position limits and accountability levels, and regulatory or tax law requirements; (9) early or unanticipated closings of the markets on which the holdings of a Fund trade, limiting or preventing the Fund from executing intended portfolio transactions; (10) accounting standards; (11) differences caused by a Fund obtaining exposure to only a representative sample of the components of a benchmark, overweighting or underweighting certain components of a benchmark or obtaining exposure to assets that are not included in a benchmark; (12) large movements of assets into and/or out of a Fund, particularly late in the day; (13) significant and/or rapid increases in the size of the Fund as a result of an increase in creation activity that cause the Fund to approach or reach Share registration limits, position or accountability limits or other portfolio limits; and (14) events such as natural disasters (including disease, epidemics and pandemics) that can be highly disruptive to economies, markets and companies including, but not limited to, the Sponsor and third party service providers.
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In order to achieve a high degree of correlation with their applicable underlying benchmarks, the Geared Funds seek to rebalance their portfolios daily to keep exposure consistent with their respective investment objectives. A Geared Fund’s ability to achieve or maintain such exposure may be limited by a number of factors. For example, being materially under- or overexposed to the benchmarks may prevent a Geared Fund from achieving a high degree of correlation with their applicable underlying benchmarks. Market disruptions or closures, large movements of assets into or out of the Geared Funds, regulatory restrictions, market volatility, illiquidity, margin requirements, accountability levels, position limits, and daily price fluctuation limits set forth by the exchanges and other factors will adversely affect such Geared Funds’ ability to adjust exposure to requisite levels. The target amount of a Fund’s portfolio exposure may be impacted by changes to the value of its benchmark each day. Other things being equal, more significant movement in the value of its benchmark up or down will require more significant adjustments to a Fund’s portfolio. Because of this, it is unlikely that the Geared Funds will be perfectly exposed (i.e., 2x, -1x, -2x, as applicable) at the end of each day, and the likelihood of being materially under- or overexposed is higher on days when the benchmark levels are volatile at or near the close of the trading day.
The time and manner in which a Geared Fund rebalances its portfolio may vary from day to day at the discretion of the Sponsor, depending upon market conditions and other circumstances. Unlike other funds that do not rebalance their portfolios as frequently, each Geared Fund may be subject to increased trading costs associated with daily portfolio rebalancings. The effects of these trading costs have been estimated and included in the Breakeven Table. See “Charges–Breakeven Table” below.
Changes to a Benchmark and Daily Rebalancing of the Geared Funds May Impact Trading in the Underlying Futures Contracts.
Changes to a benchmark and daily rebalancing may cause the Geared Funds to adjust their portfolio positions. This trading activity will contribute to the trading volume of the underlying futures contracts and may adversely affect the market price of such underlying futures contracts.
Intraday Price/Performance of Geared Fund Shares Will Likely Differ from the Fund’s Stated Daily Multiple Times the Performance of its Benchmark for Such Day.
The intraday performance of Shares of a Geared Fund traded in the secondary market generally will be different from the performance of the Fund when measured from one NAV calculation-time to the next. When Shares are bought intraday, the performance of such Shares relative to its benchmark until the Geared Fund’s next NAV calculation likely will be greater than or less than the Fund’s stated daily multiple times the performance of its benchmark. These differences can be significant.
The amount of the discount or premium in the trading price of the Shares relative to their NAV may be influenced by non-concurrent trading hours between the Exchange (the exchange on which the Shares trade) and the exchanges on which futures contracts trade. While the Shares are expected to trade on the Exchange until 4:00 p.m. (Eastern time), liquidity in the markets for the futures contracts in which the Funds seek to invest is expected to be reduced whenever the principal markets for those contracts are closed. As a result, trading spreads, and the resulting premium or discount on Shares, may widen during these gaps in market trading hours and the value of the Fund’s holdings may vary, perhaps significantly. Whether Shares will trade above, below or at a price equal to the value of the Fund’s holdings cannot be predicted.
If an investor purchases Shares when a Fund’s secondary market price is higher than the Fund’s NAV, or sells Shares when a Fund’s secondary market price is lower than the Fund’s NAV, such investment may not be as profitable as the investment would have been if the secondary market price was equal to the Fund’s NAV.
Natural Disasters and Public Health Disruptions, such as the COVID-19 Virus, May Have a Significant Negative Impact on the Performance of Each Fund.
Natural or environmental disasters, such as earthquakes, fires, floods, hurricanes, tsunamis and other severe weather-related phenomena generally, and widespread disease, including public health disruptions, pandemics and epidemics (for example, the novel coronavirus COVID-19), have been and may continue to be highly disruptive to economies and markets. These conditions have recently led, and may continue to lead, to increased or extreme market volatility, illiquidity and significant market losses. Such natural disaster and health crises could exacerbate political, social, and economic risks, and result in significant breakdowns, delays, shutdowns, social isolation, civil unrest, periods of high unemployment, shortages in and disruptions to the medical care and consumer goods and services industries, and other disruptions to important global, local and regional supply chains affected, with potential corresponding results on the operating performance of the Funds and
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their investments. For example, the U.S. federal government, along with state and local governments, have adopted various laws and regulations in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, the effects and results of which are uncertain. A climate of uncertainty and panic, including the contagion of infectious viruses or diseases, may adversely affect global, regional, and local economies and reduce the availability of potential investment opportunities and accuracy of economic projections. Further, such events can be highly disruptive to economies and markets, significantly disrupt the operations of individual companies (including, but not limited to, the Funds, the Funds’ Sponsor and third party service providers), sectors, industries, markets, securities and commodity exchanges, currencies, interest and inflation rates, credit ratings, investor sentiment, and other factors affecting the value of the Funds’ investments. These factors can cause extreme market volatility, illiquidity, exchange trading suspensions and market closures. A widespread crisis, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, may also affect the global economy in ways that cannot necessarily be foreseen at the current time. How long such events will last and whether they will continue or recur cannot be predicted. Impacts from these events could have significant impact on a Fund’s performance, and the value of an investment in the Fund may decline significantly.
The COVID-19 pandemic has already had, and may continue to have, a significant negative and unpredictable impact on the U.S. and global economy. For example, equity and other markets have experienced extreme declines and volatility. During much of 2020 and the first quarter of 2021, the unemployment rate in the U.S. has been extremely high by historical standards. Further, the global slowdown in the economy contributed to a significant oversupply in the crude oil market, resulting in historic shocks to, and extreme volatility in, the price of oil and related derivatives contracts. The global slowdown in the economy and other factors could further shocks to the crude oil market, as well as the markets for other commodities, such as natural gas, and related derivative contracts. It is not possible to predict when unemployment and market conditions will return to more normal levels.
Market downturns, disruptions or illiquidity as a result of, or related to, the COVID-19 pandemic can have a significant negative impact on the value of Fund portfolio investments, the operations of each Fund, the markets in which the Funds invest and the trading of Fund Shares in the secondary market. For example, market factors may adversely affect the price and liquidity of the Funds’ investments and potentially increase margin and collateral requirements in ways that have a significant negative impact on Fund performance or make it difficult, or impossible, for a Fund to achieve its investment objective. Under these circumstances, a Fund could have difficulty finding counterparties to transactions, entering or exiting positions at favorable prices and could incur significant losses. Further, Fund counterparties may close out positions with the Funds without notice, at unfavorable times or unfavorable prices, or may choose to transact on a more limited basis (or not at all). In such cases, it may be difficult or impossible for a Fund to achieve the desired investment exposure consistent with its investment objective. These conditions also can impact the ability of the Funds to complete creation and redemption transactions and disrupt Fund trading in the secondary market.
This outbreak of COVID-19 (including any variants), or any future epidemic or pandemic similar to COVID-19, SARS, H1N1, or MERS, could have a significant adverse impact on the Funds and their investments, could adversely affect the Funds’ ability to fulfill its investment objectives, and could result in significant losses to the Funds. The extent of the impact of any outbreak on the performance of the Funds and their investments depend on many factors, including the duration and scope of such outbreak, the development and distribution of treatments and vaccines for viruses such as COVID-19, the extent of any such outbreak’s disruption to important global, regional and local supply chains and economic markets, and the impact of such outbreak on overall supply and demand, investor liquidity, consumer confidence and levels of economic activity, all of which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted.
Risk that Current Assumptions and Expectations Could Become Outdated As a Result of Global Economic Shocks.
The onset of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) has caused significant shocks to global financial markets and economies, with many governments taking extreme actions in an attempt to slow and contain the spread of COVID-19. These actions have had, and likely will continue to have, a severe economic impact on global economies as economic activity in some instances has essentially ceased. Financial markets across the globe are experiencing severe distress at least equal to what was experienced during the global financial crisis in 2008. U.S. equity markets entered a bear market in the fastest such move in the history of U.S. financial markets in March 2020. Contemporaneous with the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic in the U.S., crude oil markets experienced shocks to the supply of and demand for crude oil. This led to an oversupply of crude oil, which impacted the price of crude oil and futures contracts on crude oil and caused historic volatility in the market for crude oil and crude oil futures contracts. In April 2020, the market for crude oil futures contracts experienced a period of “extraordinary contango” that resulted in a negative price in the May 2020 WTI crude oil futures contract. The futures contracts held by the Funds may experience a period of extraordinary contango in the future. The effects of rolling futures contracts under extraordinary contango market conditions generally are more exaggerated than rolling futures contracts under contango market conditions and can result in significant losses. These and other global
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economic shocks as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic may cause the underlying assumptions and expectations concerning the investments, operations and performance of the Funds and secondary market trading of Fund Shares to become inaccurate or outdated quickly, resulting in significant and unexpected losses.
Each Fund seeks to achieve its investment objective even during periods when the performance of the Fund’s benchmark is flat or when the benchmark is moving in a manner that may cause the value of the Fund to decline.
The Funds are not actively managed by traditional methods (e.g., by effecting changes in the composition of a portfolio on the basis of judgments relating to economic, financial and market considerations with a view toward obtaining positive results under all market conditions). Each Fund seeks to remain fully invested at all times in Financial Instruments and money market instruments that, in combination, provide exposure to its benchmark consistent with its investment objective. This is the case even during periods in which the benchmark is flat or moving in a manner which causes the value of a Fund to decline. A Fund can lose money regardless of the performance of an underlying benchmark, due to the effects of daily rebalancing, volatility, compounding and other risk factors.
Risks Specific to the VIX Futures Fund
In addition to the risks described elsewhere in this “Risk Factors” section, the following risks could apply to the VIX Futures Fund.
VIX futures contracts can be highly volatile and the Funds may experience sudden and large losses when buying, selling or holding such instruments; you can lose all or a portion of your investment within a single day.
Investments linked to equity market volatility, including VIX futures contracts, can be highly volatile and may experience sudden, large and unexpected losses. For example, in 2018 the S&P 500 VIX Mid-Term Futures Index (the “VIX Mid-Term Futures Index” or “Index”), which is comprised of VIX futures contracts, had its largest one-day move ever of approximately 96%. In the future, the Index could have even larger single-day or intraday moves, up or down, that could cause investors to lose all or a substantial portion of their investment in a short period of time. VIX futures contracts are unlike traditional futures contracts and are not based on a tradable reference asset. The VIX is not directly investable, and the settlement price of a VIX futures contract is based on the calculation that determines the level of the VIX. As a result, the behavior of a VIX futures contract may be different from a traditional futures contract whose settlement price is based on a specific tradable asset and may differ from an investor’s expectations. The market for VIX futures contracts may fluctuate widely based on a variety of factors including changes in overall market movements, political and economic events and policies, wars, acts of terrorism, natural disasters (including disease, epidemics and pandemics), changes in interest rates or inflation rates. High volatility may have an adverse impact on the performance of the Funds. The UltraFund’s leverage factor (1.5x) increases the potential for loss on an investment in this Fund. An investor in any of the Funds could potentially lose the full principal of his or her investment within a single day.
Generally, a VIX of over 20 indicates a high degree of volatility. During February and March 2020, market volatility elevated to historic highs as measured by the VIX, which may be attributed to the COVID-19 pandemic. Although the VIX started the year at a level of 12.47 on January 2, 2020, it spiked to 82.69 on March 16, 2020. However, there is no certainty that such levels will persist even if the scope and duration of the disruption caused by the COVID-19 pandemic is prolonged or if other economic or political developments contribute to volatility and investor uncertainty. Such performance is not typical and may not continue for a sustained period of time.
The VIX Futures Fund is benchmarked to the VIX Mid-Term Futures Index. It is not benchmarked to the VIX or actual realized volatility of the S&P 500. As a result, the Index and the VIX Futures Fund should be expected to perform very differently from the VIX over all periods of time.
The performance of the VIX Mid-Term Futures Index is based on the value of the VIX mid-term futures contracts that comprise the Index. While there is a relationship between the performance of the Index and future levels of the VIX, the performance of the Index is not directly linked to the performance of the VIX, to the realized volatility of the S&P 500® or to the options that underlie the calculation of the VIX. As a result, the Index and the VIX Futures Fund should be expected to perform very differently from the VIX over all periods of time. In many cases, the Index (and thus the VIX Futures Fund) will underperform the VIX. Further, the performance of the Index and the VIX Futures Fund should not be expected to represent the realized volatility of the S&P 500®.
The VIX seeks to measure the market’s current expectation of 30-day volatility of the S&P 500® Index, as reflected by the prices of S&P 500® options. The market’s current expectation of the possible rate and magnitude of movements in an index is commonly referred to as the
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“implied volatility” of the index. Because S&P 500® options derive value from the possibility that the S&P 500® may experience movement before such options expire, the prices of S&P 500® options are used to calculate the implied volatility of the S&P 500®.
Unlike many indexes, the VIX is not an investable index. It is not practical to invest in the VIX as it is comprised of a constantly changing portfolio of options on the S&P 500®. Rather, the VIX is designed to serve as a market volatility forecast. The VIX Futures Fund is not benchmarked to the performance of the VIX or the realized volatility of the S&P 500® and, in fact, can be expected to perform very differently from the VIX and the realized volatility of the S&P 500