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 Filed Pursuant to Rule 424(b)(4)
 Registration No. 333-237760
PROSPECTUS
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11,161,083 Shares
Tradeweb Markets Inc.
Class A Common Stock
Tradeweb Markets Inc. is selling 11,161,083 shares of Class A common stock. Our Class A common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market (“Nasdaq”) under the symbol “TW.” The closing price of our Class A common stock on April 22, 2020 was $51.25 per share.
The underwriters have an option for a period of 30 days from the date of this prospectus to purchase up to a maximum of 1,674,162 additional shares of Class A common stock.
We will use the net proceeds that we receive from this offering to purchase (i) issued and outstanding common membership units, which we refer to as “LLC Interests,” in Tradeweb Markets LLC, which we refer to as “TWM LLC,” from certain of the Bank Stockholders (as defined below) and (ii) issued and outstanding shares of Class A common stock from certain of our executive officers. There is no public market for the LLC Interests. The purchase price payable by us to the holders of these LLC Interests and shares of Class A common stock will be equal to the public offering price of our Class A common stock, less the underwriting discounts and commissions referred to below.
We have four classes of authorized common stock: Class A common stock, Class B common stock, Class C common stock and Class D common stock. Each share of Class A common stock and Class C common stock entitles its holder to one vote on all matters presented to our stockholders generally. Each share of Class B common stock and Class D common stock entitles its holder to ten votes on all matters presented to our stockholders generally. The holders of Class C common stock and Class D common stock do not have any of the economic rights (including the rights to dividends) provided to holders of Class A common stock and Class B common stock.
Immediately following this offering, the holders of our Class A common stock collectively will hold 5.7% of the combined voting power in us and will indirectly hold 36.3% of the economic interest in TWM LLC, the Refinitiv Owners (as defined below), through their ownership of Class B common stock and Class D common stock, collectively will hold 83.0% of the combined voting power in us and will indirectly and directly hold 53.2% of the economic interest in TWM LLC, and the Other LLC Owners (as defined below), through their ownership of Class C common stock and/or Class D common stock, as the case may be, collectively will hold the remaining 11.3% of the combined voting power in us and will directly hold the remaining 10.5% of the economic interest in TWM LLC. We are a holding company, and upon completion of this offering and the application of the net proceeds therefrom, we will hold LLC Interests representing an aggregate 79.3% economic interest in TWM LLC. The remaining 20.7% economic interest in TWM LLC will be owned by the Continuing LLC Owners through their ownership of LLC Interests.
The Refinitiv Owners own a majority of the combined voting power in us. As a result, we are a “controlled company” within the meaning of the corporate governance standards of Nasdaq.
We are an “emerging growth company,” as defined in Section 2(a) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), and are subject to reduced reporting requirements. This prospectus complies with the requirements that apply to an issuer that is an emerging growth company.
Investing in our Class A common stock involves risks. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page 38 to read about factors you should consider before buying shares of our Class A common stock.
Per Share
Total
Price to public
$ 50.25000 $ 560,844,421
Underwriting discounts and commissions(1)
$ 1.45725 $ 16,264,488
Proceeds, before expenses, to Tradeweb Markets Inc.
$ 48.79275 $ 544,579,933
(1)
See “Underwriting (Conflicts of Interest)” for additional information regarding underwriting compensation.
Delivery of the shares of Class A common stock will be made on or about April 27, 2020.
Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any other regulatory body has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
J.P. Morgan
Barclays Citigroup
Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC
Morgan Stanley
BofA Securities
Credit Suisse
Deutsche Bank Securities
Wells Fargo Securities
The date of this prospectus is April 22, 2020.

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Neither we nor the underwriters have authorized anyone to provide you with any information other than that included or incorporated by reference in this prospectus or in any free writing prospectus prepared by or on behalf of us. We do not take any responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any information that others may give you. Offers to sell, and solicitations of offers to buy, shares of our Class A common stock are being made only in jurisdictions where offers and sales are permitted. The information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus is accurate only as of the date of this prospectus, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus or of any sale of our Class A common stock. Our business, financial condition, operating results and prospects may have changed since such date.
No action is being taken in any jurisdiction outside the United States to permit a public offering of Class A common stock. Persons who come into possession of this prospectus in jurisdictions outside the United States are required to inform themselves about and to observe any restriction as to this offering and the distribution of this prospectus applicable to those jurisdictions.
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MARKET AND INDUSTRY DATA
This prospectus includes or incorporates by reference estimates regarding market and industry data. Unless otherwise indicated, information concerning our industry and the markets in which we operate, including our general expectations, market position, market opportunity and market size, are based on our management’s knowledge and experience in the markets in which we operate, together with currently available information obtained from various sources, including publicly available information, industry reports and publications, surveys, our clients, trade and business organizations and other contacts in the markets in which we operate. Certain information is based on management estimates, which have been derived from third-party sources, as well as data from our internal research, and are based on certain assumptions that we believe to be reasonable. In particular, to calculate our market position, market opportunity and market size we derived the size of the applicable market from a combination of management estimates and public industry sources, including FINRA’s Trade Reporting and Compliance Engine (“TRACE”), the Securities Industry and Financial Markets Association (“SIFMA”), the International Swaps and Derivatives Association (“ISDA”), Clarus Financial Technology, Trax, the Chicago Board Options Exchange (“CBOE”) and the Federal Reserve Bank of New York. In calculating the size of certain markets, we omitted products for which there is no publicly available data, and, as a result, the actual markets for certain of our asset classes may be larger than those presented herein.
In presenting this information, we have made certain assumptions that we believe to be reasonable based on such data and other similar sources and on our knowledge of, and our experience to date in, the markets in which we operate. While we believe the estimated market and industry data included or incorporated by reference in this prospectus are generally reliable, such information, which is derived in part from management’s estimates and beliefs, is inherently uncertain and imprecise. Market and industry data are subject to change and may be limited by the availability of raw data, the voluntary nature of the data gathering process and other limitations inherent in any statistical survey of such data. In addition, projections, assumptions and estimates of the future performance of the markets in which we operate and our future performance are necessarily subject to uncertainty and risk due to a variety of factors, including those described in “Risk Factors” and “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.” These and other factors could cause results to differ materially from those expressed in the estimates made by third parties and by us. Accordingly, you are cautioned not to place undue reliance on such market and industry data or any other such estimates. Neither we nor the underwriters can guarantee the accuracy or completeness of this information, and neither we nor the underwriters have independently verified any third-party information and data from our internal research has not been verified by any independent source.
CERTAIN TRADEMARKS, TRADE NAMES AND SERVICE MARKS
This prospectus includes or incorporates by reference trademarks and service marks owned by us. This prospectus also contains or incorporates by reference trademarks, trade names and service marks of other companies, which are the property of their respective owners. Solely for convenience, trademarks, trade names and service marks referred to in this prospectus may appear without the ®,™ or SM symbols, but such references are not intended to indicate, in any way, that we will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, our rights to these trademarks, trade names and service marks. We do not intend our use or display of other parties’ trademarks, trade names or service marks to imply, and such use or display should not be construed to imply, a relationship with, or endorsement or sponsorship of us by, these other parties.
BASIS OF PRESENTATION
The financial statements and other disclosures included or incorporated by reference in this prospectus include those of Tradeweb Markets Inc., which is the issuer of the Class A common stock, and those of its consolidating subsidiaries, including Tradeweb Markets LLC, which became the principal operating subsidiary of Tradeweb Markets Inc. on April 4, 2019 in a series of reorganization transactions (the “Reorganization Transactions”) that were completed in connection with Tradeweb Markets Inc.’s initial public offering (the “IPO”), which closed on April 8, 2019. See “The IPO and Reorganization Transactions.”
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As used in this prospectus, unless the context otherwise requires, references to:

“We,” “us,” “our,” the “Company,” “Tradeweb” and similar references refer: (i) on or prior to the completion of the Reorganization Transactions, to Tradeweb Markets LLC, which we refer to as “TWM LLC,” and, unless otherwise stated or the context otherwise requires, all of its subsidiaries and any predecessor entities, and (ii) following the completion of the Reorganization Transactions, to Tradeweb Markets Inc., and, unless otherwise stated or the context otherwise requires, TWM LLC and all of its subsidiaries and any predecessor entities.

“Bank Stockholders” refer collectively to entities affiliated with the following clients: Barclays Capital Inc., BofA Securities, Inc. (a subsidiary of Bank of America Corporation), Citigroup Global Markets Inc., Credit Suisse Securities (USA) LLC, Deutsche Bank Securities Inc., Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC, J.P. Morgan Securities LLC, Morgan Stanley & Co. LLC, RBS Securities Inc., UBS Securities LLC and Wells Fargo Securities, LLC, which, prior to the completion of the IPO, collectively held a 46% ownership interest in Tradeweb. Following the IPO and the application of the net proceeds therefrom, entities affiliated with BofA Securities, Inc., RBS Securities Inc. and UBS Securities LLC no longer hold LLC Interests and, except as otherwise indicated, are not considered Bank Stockholders for post-IPO periods.

“Continuing LLC Owners” refer collectively to the Other LLC Owners and the Refinitiv LLC Owner.

“Investor Group” refer to certain investment funds affiliated with The Blackstone Group Inc. (f/k/a The Blackstone Group L.P.) (“Blackstone”), an affiliate of Canada Pension Plan Investment Board, an affiliate of GIC Special Investments Pte. Ltd. and certain co-investors, which collectively hold indirectly a 55% ownership interest in Refinitiv (as defined below).

“Net Exercise” refer to the net exercise by certain of our executive officers immediately prior to the pricing of this offering of vested options and the issuance of shares of Class A common stock upon such net exercise, a portion of which shares of Class A common stock will be purchased by us with a portion of the net proceeds of this offering.

“LLC Interests” refer to the single class of common membership interests of TWM LLC issued in connection with the Reorganization Transactions.

“LSEG Transaction” refer to the pending acquisition of the Refinitiv business by the London Stock Exchange Group plc in an all share transaction for a total enterprise value of approximately $27 billion.

“Original LLC Owners” refer to the owners of TWM LLC prior to the Reorganization Transactions (including the Refinitiv Owners, the Bank Stockholders and members of management).

“Other LLC Owners” refer collectively to: (i) those Original LLC Owners (including certain of the Bank Stockholders and members of management and excluding the Refinitiv LLC Owner) that continued to own LLC Interests after the completion of the IPO and Reorganization Transactions, that received shares of our Class C common stock, shares of our Class D common stock or a combination of both, as the case may be, in connection with the completion of the Reorganization Transactions, and that may redeem or exchange their LLC Interests for shares of our Class A common stock or Class B common stock as described in “Certain Relationships and Related Party Transactions — Related Party Transactions Entered Into in Connection With the IPO — TWM LLC Agreement” and (ii) solely with respect to the Tax Receivable Agreement (as defined in “Prospectus Summary — Summary of the IPO and Reorganization Transactions”), also includes those Original LLC Owners, including certain Bank Stockholders, that disposed of all of their LLC Interests for cash in connection with the IPO.

“Refinitiv” refer to Refinitiv Holdings Limited, and unless otherwise stated or the context otherwise requires, all of its subsidiaries, which owns substantially all of the former financial and
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risk business of Thomson Reuters (as defined below), including, prior to and following the completion of the Reorganization Transactions, an indirect majority ownership interest in Tradeweb, and is controlled by the Investor Group.

“Refinitiv Direct Owner” refer (i) prior to June 28, 2019, to a direct subsidiary of Refinitiv that owned interests in an entity that held membership interests of TWM LLC and received shares of our Class B common stock in exchange for the contribution of such entity to Tradeweb Markets Inc., which we refer to as the “Refinitiv Contribution,” in connection with the completion of the Reorganization Transactions and (ii) on and after June 28, 2019, to an indirect subsidiary of Refinitiv that owns shares of our Class B common stock, which shares were contributed by the direct subsidiary of Refinitiv referred to in the foregoing clause (i).

“Refinitiv LLC Owner” refer to an indirect subsidiary of Refinitiv that, prior to the Reorganization Transactions, owned membership interests of TWM LLC and that continues to own LLC Interests after the completion of the IPO and Reorganization Transactions, that received shares of our Class D common stock in connection with the completion of the Reorganization Transactions, and that may redeem or exchange its LLC Interests for shares of our Class A common stock or Class B common stock as described in “Certain Relationships and Related Party Transactions — Related Party Transactions Entered Into in Connection With the IPO — TWM LLC Agreement.”

“Refinitiv Owners” refer collectively to the Refinitiv Direct Owner and the Refinitiv LLC Owner.

“Refinitiv Transaction” refer to the transaction pursuant to which Refinitiv indirectly acquired on October 1, 2018 substantially all of the financial and risk business of Thomson Reuters and Thomson Reuters indirectly acquired a 45% ownership interest in Refinitiv.

“Thomson Reuters” refer to Thomson Reuters Corporation, which indirectly holds a 45% ownership interest in Refinitiv.

“Transactions” refer to the Reorganization Transactions, the IPO, the October 2019 follow-on offering, the Net Exercise, this offering and the other transactions described in “Unaudited Pro Forma Consolidated Financial Information.”
The financial statements and other disclosures included or incorporated by reference in this prospectus relate to periods that ended both prior to and after the completion of the Reorganization Transactions and the IPO. As a result of the Reorganization Transactions completed in connection with the IPO, Tradeweb Markets Inc. became a holding company whose only material assets consist of its equity interest in Tradeweb Markets LLC and related deferred tax assets. As the sole manager of Tradeweb Markets LLC, Tradeweb Markets Inc. operates and controls all of the business and affairs of Tradeweb Markets LLC and, through Tradeweb Markets LLC and its subsidiaries, conducts its business. As a result of this control, and because Tradeweb Markets Inc. has a substantial financial interest in Tradeweb Markets LLC, Tradeweb Markets Inc. consolidates the financial results of Tradeweb Markets LLC and its subsidiaries.
The historical consolidated financial information included or incorporated by reference in this prospectus relating to periods prior to and including March 31, 2019, which we sometimes refer to as the “pre-IPO period,” reflect the results of operations, financial position and cash flows of Tradeweb Markets LLC, the predecessor of Tradeweb Markets Inc. for financial reporting purposes, and its subsidiaries. The historical consolidated financial information included or incorporated by reference in this prospectus relating to periods beginning on April 1, 2019, and through and including December 31, 2019, which we sometimes refer to as the “post-IPO period,” reflect the results of operations, financial position and cash flows of Tradeweb Markets Inc. and its subsidiaries, including the consolidation of its investment in Tradeweb Markets LLC. As a result, for financial reporting purposes, the pre-IPO period excludes, and the post-IPO period includes, our financial results from April 1, 2019 through April 3, 2019, which are not material. The historical consolidated financial information included or incorporated by reference in this prospectus do not reflect what the results of operations, financial position or cash flows of would have been had the Reorganization Transactions and the IPO taken place at the beginning of the periods presented.
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The unaudited pro forma consolidated financial information of Tradeweb Markets Inc. presented in this prospectus has been derived by the application of pro forma adjustments to the historical consolidated financial statements of Tradeweb Markets Inc. and its subsidiaries as of and for the year ended December 31, 2019 incorporated by reference in this prospectus. These pro forma adjustments give effect to the Transactions, including this offering, as well as certain other items described therein, as if all such transactions had occurred on January 1, 2019, in the case of the unaudited pro forma consolidated statement of income, and as of December 31, 2019, in the case of the unaudited pro forma consolidated statement of financial condition. See “Unaudited Pro Forma Consolidated Financial Information” for a complete description of the adjustments and assumptions underlying the pro forma financial information included in this prospectus.
As a result of the Refinitiv Transaction, we revalued our assets and liabilities based on their fair values as of the closing date of the Refinitiv Transaction in accordance with the acquisition method of accounting. Certain financial information presented herein, including the allocation of the total purchase price of the Refinitiv Transaction attributable to the purchase of our assets and liabilities, are based on the fair values of our assets and our liabilities, as of the closing date of the Refinitiv Transaction. The values of our assets and liabilities were determined based on assumptions that reasonable market participants would use in the principal (or most advantageous) market for the asset or liability. In determining the fair value of the assets acquired and liabilities assumed, we considered the report of a third-party valuation expert. Our management is responsible for these internal and third-party valuations and appraisals.
Due to the change in the basis of accounting resulting from the application of pushdown accounting, we are required to present separately the financial information for the periods beginning on October 1, 2018, and through and including December 31, 2019, which we refer to as the “Successor period,” and the financial information for the periods prior to, and including, September 30, 2018, which we refer to as the “Predecessor period.”
The financial information presented in this prospectus and the consolidated financial statements incorporated by reference in this prospectus include a black line division to indicate that the Successor and Predecessor periods have applied different bases of accounting and are not comparable. Please note that our discussion of certain financial information, specifically revenues and certain expenses, represent the combined results of the Successor and Predecessor periods for the full year ended December 31, 2018. The change in basis resulting from the Refinitiv Transaction did not impact such financial information and, although this presentation of financial information on a combined basis does not comply with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States, or “GAAP,” we believe it provides a meaningful method of comparison to the other periods presented in this prospectus. The combined financial information is being presented for informational purposes only and (i) has not been prepared on a pro forma basis as if the Refinitiv Transaction occurred on the first day of the period, (ii) may not reflect the actual results we would have achieved absent the Refinitiv Transaction, (iii) may not be predictive of future results of operations and (iv) should not be viewed as a substitute for the financial results of the Successor and Predecessor periods presented in accordance with GAAP. See “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations  —  Effects of Pushdown Accounting on our Financial Statements” in the 2019 Form 10-K (as defined below), incorporated by reference in this prospectus.
References in this prospectus to (i) “2018 Successor Period” mean the period from October 1, 2018 to December 31, 2018, (ii) “2018 Predecessor Period” mean the period from January 1, 2018 to September 30, 2018, (iii) “combined year ended December 31, 2018” or “2018 (Combined)” represent the sum of the results of the 2018 Successor Period and the 2018 Predecessor Period, and (iv) “2019 Form 10-K” mean our Annual Report on Form 10-K, as amended, for the year ended December 31, 2019.
Numerical figures included or incorporated by reference in this prospectus have been subject to rounding adjustments. Accordingly, numerical figures shown as totals in various tables may not be arithmetic aggregations of the figures that precede them. In addition, we round certain percentages presented in this prospectus to the nearest whole number. As a result, figures expressed as percentages in the text may not total 100% or, when aggregated, may not be the arithmetic aggregation of the percentages that precede them.
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USE OF NON-GAAP FINANCIAL MEASURES
This prospectus contains or incorporates by reference “non-GAAP financial measures,” which are financial measures that are not calculated and presented in accordance with GAAP.
The Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) has adopted rules to regulate the use in filings with the SEC and in other public disclosures of non-GAAP financial measures. These rules govern the manner in which non-GAAP financial measures are publicly presented and require, among other things:

a presentation with equal or greater prominence of the most comparable financial measure or measures calculated and presented in accordance with GAAP; and

a statement disclosing the purposes for which the registrant’s management uses the non-GAAP financial measure.
Specifically, we make use of the non-GAAP financial measures “Free Cash Flow,” “Adjusted EBITDA,” “Adjusted EBITDA margin,” “Adjusted EBIT,” “Adjusted EBIT margin,” “Adjusted Net Income” and “Adjusted Diluted EPS” in evaluating our past results and future prospects. For the definition of Free Cash Flow and a reconciliation to cash flow from operating activities, its most directly comparable financial measure presented in accordance with GAAP, see note 5 to the table under the heading “Prospectus Summary — Summary Historical and Pro Forma Consolidated Financial and Other Data.” For the definitions of Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted EBIT and Adjusted Net Income and reconciliations to net income and net income attributable to Tradeweb Markets Inc., as applicable, their most directly comparable financial measures presented in accordance with GAAP, see note 6 to the table under the heading “Prospectus Summary — Summary Historical and Pro Forma Consolidated Financial and Other Data.” Adjusted EBITDA margin and Adjusted EBIT margin are defined as Adjusted EBITDA and Adjusted EBIT, respectively, divided by gross revenue for the applicable period. Adjusted Diluted EPS is defined as Adjusted Net Income divided by the diluted weighted average number of shares of Class A common stock and Class B common stock outstanding for the applicable period, assuming the full exchange of all outstanding LLC Interests held by non-controlling interests for shares of Class A common stock or Class B common stock, for post-IPO periods, and the diluted weighted average number of shares of TWM LLC outstanding for the applicable period, for pre-IPO periods.
We present Free Cash Flow because we believe it is a useful indicator of liquidity that provides information to management and investors about the amount of cash generated from our core operations after expenditures for capitalized software development costs and furniture, equipment and leasehold improvements.
We present Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted EBITDA margin, Adjusted EBIT and Adjusted EBIT margin because we believe they assist investors and analysts in comparing our operating performance across reporting periods on a consistent basis by excluding items that we do not believe are indicative of our core operating performance. Management and our board of directors use Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted EBITDA margin, Adjusted EBIT and Adjusted EBIT margin to assess our financial performance and believe they are helpful in highlighting trends in our core operating performance, while other measures can differ significantly depending on long-term strategic decisions regarding capital structure, the tax jurisdictions in which we operate and capital investments. Further, our executive incentive compensation is based in part on components of Adjusted EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA margin.
We use Adjusted Net Income and Adjusted Diluted EPS as supplemental metrics to evaluate our business performance in a way that also considers our ability to generate profit without the impact of certain items. Each of the normal recurring adjustments and other adjustments described in the definition of Adjusted Net Income helps to provide management with a measure of our operating performance over time by removing items that are not related to day-to-day operations or are non-cash expenses.
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Free Cash Flow, Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted EBIT, Adjusted Net Income and Adjusted Diluted EPS have limitations as analytical tools, and you should not consider such measures either in isolation or as substitutes for analyzing our results as reported under GAAP. Some of these limitations include the following:

Free Cash Flow, Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted EBIT, Adjusted Net Income and Adjusted Diluted EPS do not reflect every expenditure, future requirements for capital expenditures or contractual commitments;

Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted EBIT, Adjusted Net Income and Adjusted Diluted EPS do not reflect changes in our working capital needs;

Adjusted EBITDA and Adjusted EBIT do not reflect any interest expense, or the amounts necessary to service interest or principal payments on any debt obligations;

Adjusted EBITDA and Adjusted EBIT do not reflect income tax expense, which in post-IPO periods is a necessary element of our costs and ability to operate;

although depreciation and amortization are eliminated in the calculation of Adjusted EBITDA, and the depreciation and amortization related to certain acquisitions and the Refinitiv Transaction are eliminated in the calculation of Adjusted EBIT, the assets being depreciated and amortized will often have to be replaced in the future, and Adjusted EBITDA and Adjusted EBIT do not reflect any costs of such replacements;

in post-IPO periods, Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted EBIT, Adjusted Net Income and Adjusted Diluted EPS do not reflect the noncash component of certain employee compensation expense or payroll taxes associated with certain option exercises;

Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted EBIT, Adjusted Net Income and Adjusted Diluted EPS do not reflect the impact of earnings or charges resulting from matters we consider not to be indicative, on a recurring basis, of our ongoing operations; and

other companies in our industry may calculate Free Cash Flow, Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted EBIT, Adjusted Net Income and Adjusted Diluted EPS or similarly titled measures differently than we do, limiting their usefulness as comparative measures.
We compensate for these limitations by relying primarily on our GAAP results and using Free Cash Flow, Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted EBIT, Adjusted Net Income and Adjusted Diluted EPS only as supplemental information.
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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY
This summary highlights information included or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. Because this is only a summary, it does not contain all of the information that you should consider in making your investment decision. Before investing in our Class A common stock, you should carefully read this entire prospectus, including the information in “Risk Factors” and “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements,” and our consolidated financial statements and related notes thereto and other information incorporated by reference in this prospectus. For a description of certain of the terms we use to describe our business in this prospectus, see “Business” in the 2019 Form 10-K, incorporated by reference in this prospectus.
Overview
We are a leader in building and operating electronic marketplaces for our global network of clients across the financial ecosystem. Our network is comprised of clients across the institutional, wholesale and retail client sectors, including many of the largest global asset managers, hedge funds, insurance companies, central banks, banks and dealers, proprietary trading firms and retail brokerage and financial advisory firms, as well as regional dealers. Our marketplaces facilitate trading across a range of asset classes, including rates, credit, equities and money markets. We are a global company serving clients in over 65 countries with offices in North America, Europe and Asia. We believe our proprietary technology and culture of collaborative innovation allow us to adapt our offerings to enter new markets, create new platforms and solutions and adjust to regulations quickly and efficiently. We support our clients by providing solutions across the trade lifecycle, including pre-trade, execution, post-trade and data. Our marketplaces provide deep pools of liquidity with average daily trading volume for the trailing twelve months ended March 31, 2020 of over $780 billion across more than 40 products.
There are multiple key dimensions to the electronic marketplaces that we build and operate. Foundationally, these begin with our clients and then expand through and across multiple client sectors, geographic regions, asset classes, product groups, trading protocols and trade lifecycle solutions.
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Our markets are large and growing. Electronic trading continues to increase across the markets in which we operate as a result of market demand for greater transparency, higher execution quality, operational efficiency and lower costs, as well as regulatory changes. We believe our deep client relationships, asset class breadth, geographic reach, regulatory knowledge and scalable technology position us to continue to be at the forefront of the evolution of electronic trading. Our platforms provide transparent, efficient, cost-effective and compliant trading solutions across multiple products, regions and regulatory regimes. As market participants seek to trade across multiple asset classes, reduce their costs of trading and increase the effectiveness of their trading, including through the use of data and analytics, we believe the demand for our platforms and electronic trading solutions will continue to grow.
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We have a powerful network of over 2,500 clients across the institutional, wholesale and retail client sectors. Our clients include leading global asset managers, hedge funds, insurance companies, central banks, banks and dealers, proprietary trading firms and retail brokerage and financial advisory firms, as well as regional dealers. As our network continues to grow across client sectors, we will generate additional transactions and data on our platforms, driving a virtuous cycle of greater liquidity and value for our clients.
Our technology supports multiple asset classes, trading protocols and geographies, and as a result, we are able to provide a broad spectrum of solutions and cost savings to our clients. We have built, and continue to invest in, a scalable, flexible and resilient proprietary technology architecture that enables us to remain agile and evolve with market structure. This allows us to partner closely with our clients to develop customized solutions for their trading and workflow needs. Our technology is deeply integrated with our clients’ risk and order management systems, clearinghouses, trade repositories, middleware providers and other important links in the trading value chain. These qualities allow us to be quick to market with new offerings, to constantly enhance our existing platforms and solutions and to collect a robust set of data and analytics to support our marketplaces.
We are focused on balancing revenue growth and margin expansion to create long-term value and we have a track record of growth and financial performance. By expanding the scope of our platforms and solutions, building scale and integration across marketplaces and benefiting from broader network effects, we have been able to grow both our transaction volume and subscription-based revenues. Between 2004 and 2019, we had annual compound average daily trading volume growth of 13.7% and annual compound gross revenue growth of 12.3%. For the year ended December 31, 2019 and the combined year ended December 31, 2018, 43.6% and 48.0% of our gross revenues, respectively, were fixed. For the year ended December 31, 2019, our variable revenues and fixed revenues each increased as compared to the combined prior year period.
For the year ended December 31, 2019 and the combined year ended December 31, 2018, respectively, our gross revenue was $775.6 million and $684.4 million, an increase of 13.3%. For the year ended December 31, 2019, the 2018 Successor Period and the 2018 Predecessor Period, respectively, our net income was $173.0 million, $29.3 million and $130.2 million, our Adjusted EBITDA was $353.2 million, $65.3 million and $214.1 million, with an Adjusted EBITDA margin of 45.5%, 36.6% and 42.3%, and our Adjusted Net Income was $230.9 million, $40.8 million and $137.3 million. For the definitions of Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted EBITDA margin and Adjusted Net Income and reconciliations to their most directly comparable financial measures presented in accordance with GAAP, see note 6 in “— Summary Historical and Pro Forma Consolidated Financial and Other Data.”
Our Evolution
We were founded in 1996 and set out to solve for inefficiencies in the institutional U.S. treasury trading workflows, including limited price transparency, weak connectivity among market participants and error-prone manual processes. Our first electronic marketplace went live in 1998, and over the next two decades we leveraged our technology and expertise to expand into additional rates products and other asset classes, including credit, equities and money markets. Market demand for better trading workflows globally also was increasing and we initiated a strategy of rolling out our existing products to new geographies and adding local products. We expanded to Europe in 2000, initially offering U.S. fixed income products and soon thereafter added a marketplace for European government bonds. We expanded to Asia in 2004, where our first local product was Japanese government bonds. We have since continued to expand our product and client base in Europe and Asia.
We identified an opportunity to expand our offerings to the wholesale and retail client sectors based on our existing relationships with dealers and our strong market position. We developed our wholesale platform through the acquisitions of Hilliard Farber in 2008 and Rafferty Capital Markets in 2011, and developed technology to facilitate the migration of inefficient wholesale voice markets to more efficient and transparent electronic markets. We entered the retail market through our acquisition of LeverTrade in 2006, scaled our market position through our acquisition of BondDesk in 2013, and have continued to leverage our market and technology expertise to enhance our platform serving that client sector.
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Throughout our evolution we have developed many new innovations that have provided greater pre-trade price transparency, better execution quality and seamless post-trade solutions. Such innovations include the introduction of pre-trade composite pricing for multi-dealer-to-customer (“D2C”) trading and the Request-for-Quote (“RFQ”) trading protocol across all of our asset classes. We have also integrated our trading platforms with our proprietary post-trade systems as well as many of our clients’ order management and risk systems for efficient post-trade processing. In addition, because large components of the market remain relationship-driven, we continue to focus on introducing technology solutions to solve inefficiencies in voice markets, such as electronic voice processing, which allows our clients to use Tradeweb technology to process voice trades. We expect to continue to leverage our success to expand into new products, asset classes and geographies, while growing our powerful network of clients.
While our cornerstone products continue to be some of the first products we launched, including U.S. treasuries, European government bonds and To-Be-Announced mortgage-backed securities (“TBA MBS”), we have continued to solve trading inefficiencies by adding new products across our rates, credit, equities and money markets asset classes. As a result of expanding our offerings, we have increased our opportunities in related addressable markets, where estimated average daily trading volumes have grown from approximately $0.6 trillion in 1998 to $6.3 trillion through December 31, 2019, according to industry sources and management estimates.
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Our Market Opportunity
Continued Growth of Global Markets
Based on industry sources and management estimates, the markets in which we participate are actively traded and growing, and we estimate that trading in rates, credit, ETFs and money markets generated average daily trading volumes of approximately $3.7 trillion, $0.1 trillion, $0.1 trillion and $2.3 trillion, respectively, during the year ended December 31, 2019 as compared to $2.1 trillion, $0.1 trillion, $0.1 trillion and $1.6 trillion, respectively, in 2015. As electronic trading in these markets continues to develop, we believe we are well positioned to increase our share of these markets over time. For the year ended December 31, 2019, calculated on the same basis as our calculation of our addressable markets, trading in
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certain of our rates, credit, ETFs and money markets products generated average daily trading volumes of $487 billion, $14 billion, $4 billion and $195 billion, respectively, and our average daily trading volumes for these product groups have increased by 25%, 32%, 12% and 23%, respectively, since 2015. Major market participants include large asset managers, hedge funds, central banks, banks and dealers, insurance companies, corporations, proprietary trading, brokerage and retail advisory firms, governments and retail investors.
Trading volumes are influenced by, among other things, the amount of notional securities outstanding, new issuances, market volatility, regulation and economic factors such as growth and monetary policy. We believe we are well positioned to benefit from secular and cyclical trends impacting many of the markets in which we operate. For example, the U.S. government bond market has experienced substantial growth in notional value outstanding, growing at 12% annually since 2007, according to SIFMA. The U.S. corporate bond and Chinese bond markets have grown annually at 6% and 19%, respectively, since 2007, according to SIFMA and BIS. The U.S. and European ETF markets have each grown annually at nearly 20% since 2007, according to ETFGI. Continuing growth in these markets is expected to be driven by increasing global trading volumes, resulting from increased economic activity, new government and corporate debt issuances and the continued growth of passive investing. Markets have migrated to electronic trading platforms at different adoption rates — some gradually over time (e.g., government bonds and corporate bonds) and others on a more accelerated basis due to regulation (e.g., interest rate swaps).
Advancements in technology, increased connectivity and the evolving business needs of market participants have caused financial markets to become larger and more global. Our platforms operate throughout the 24-hour trading day as market participants have become increasingly global and comprehensive, trading across multiple geographies, asset classes and currencies.
Electronification of Trading
Trading in fixed income and derivative markets historically has been a highly manual process. With traditional methods of trading, buyers lack a centralized source of price discovery and automated post-trade processing solutions, and as a result, are required to telephone multiple dealers to receive price quotes, compare quotes among multiple dealers, confirm orders via telephone and then engage in manual trade settlement via fax. The process is time-consuming and error-prone, leading to poor price transparency and execution quality, limited connectivity among market participants and high levels of operational risk.
Market demand for greater execution efficiency and changing regulations are shifting the paradigm of trading from voice markets to electronic markets across our asset classes. As a result of technological advances, there has been a rising use of electronic trading technologies, referred to as the electronification of markets, which have automated many of the manual processes required by traditional methods of trading, including voice. Electronification has made markets more efficient by improving price transparency and execution, while also reducing operational risk and allowing market participants to create organizational cost efficiencies, by reducing front, middle and back office headcount and eliminating manual errors. However, even as other markets, such as the equity, FX and futures markets, transitioned to the use of electronic trading processes, large components of the fixed income and derivative markets have been slower to migrate to electronic trading because of the diverse and heterogeneous nature of those instruments and because participants in these markets have traditionally operated in a more relationship-driven environment.
Demand for more efficient trading solutions continues to increase, which we believe will further drive the electronification of the markets in which we operate. Over the last 20 years, we have been a leader in the electronification of fixed income and other markets, using proprietary technologies and collaborating hand-in-hand with clients to develop innovative workflow solutions across the trade lifecycle. Our trading platforms and solutions automate and integrate key parts of the trading process, which in turn helps our clients to improve execution quality, manage risk and compliance and account for their trading activities. For example, we have designed our platforms to seamlessly integrate with our clients’ internal and third-party risk and order management systems, as well as with vendor systems, including clearinghouses,
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confirmation systems and other third-party service providers. These integrations, which include over 375 proprietary client integrations and over 30 vendor integrations, help our clients to improve the efficiency of their front, middle and back offices and provide them with the opportunity to adopt end-to-end straight-through processing.
The process of market electronification is ongoing. Many markets — even in products we already offer — are in the early stages of electronification, such as U.S. corporate bonds, or continue to have meaningful volumes traded manually, with liquidity-taking investors calling multiple dealers for quotes and engaging in manual post-trade processing. For example, for U.S. treasuries, voice trading still accounts for approximately 35% to 40% of overall trading volumes, according to industry sources and management estimates. Certain markets in which we operate have experienced higher rates of electronification, such as ETFs and credit default swaps, and we believe we are well positioned to increase our share in these markets as our network continues to grow. Our innovation will continue to be driven by client demand for efficiencies in additional workflows, products and geographies, which, combined with our entrepreneurial culture and domain expertise, are expected to attract additional market participants to Tradeweb.
Regulatory changes have also driven demand for electronification. The policy objectives of a number of post-2008 crisis reforms, such as the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Customer Protection Act (the “Dodd-Frank Act”), Basel III and Markets in Financial Instruments Directive II (“MiFID II”), are to increase transparency and reduce systemic risk. These objectives have generally led to increased adoption of electronic trading on regulated markets where price transparency, counterparty credit checks, reporting tools and clearing are essential components. In the United States, for example, swaps are experiencing increased rates of electronification due to mandates in the Dodd-Frank Act that require certain derivatives to trade on CFTC-regulated swap execution facilities (“SEFs”). Tradeweb launched two SEFs in 2013 and, in 2019, we had the leading market position in SEF trading for U.S. dollar-denominated interest rate swaps, excluding forward rate agreements, according to Clarus Financial Technology. In addition, higher capital requirements have driven dealers to reduce the size of their balance sheets and utilize the distribution and scale provided by electronic trading venues.
Unlocking the Value of Data for our Network
Traders are increasingly using data for pre-trade analytics, automated execution, transaction cost analysis, predictive insights and post-trade solutions. Greater demand for data and analytics has improved the value proposition of electronic trading relative to other mediums. Our real-time pre-trade data and analytics provide additional value-add to platform users, further entrenching our platforms and solutions among our clients. We provide continuous pre-trade pricing updates across our markets to clients increasing transparency in trading. Additionally, regulations are mandating additional audit trail and reporting requirements, which we help solve with our trading platforms and integrated post-trade settlement solutions. These applications are supported by advancements in technology and the increased prevalence of electronic trading, both of which have made it easier to generate, capture, store and analyze data.
Our Competitive Strengths
Our Network of Clients, Products, Geographies and Protocols
Our clients continue to come to our trading venues because of our large network and deep pools of liquidity, which result in better and more efficient trade execution. We expand our relationships through our integrated technology and new offerings made available to our growing network of clients. As an electronic trading marketplace for key asset classes and products, we benefit from a virtuous cycle of liquidity — trading volumes growing together and re-enforcing each other. We expect our existing clients to trade more volume on our trading venues and to attract new users to our already powerful network, as liquidity on our marketplaces grows and we offer more products and value-added solutions. The breadth of our network, products, global presence and embedded scalable technology offers us unique insights and an established platform to swiftly enter additional markets and offer new value-added solutions. This is supported by more than 20 years of successful innovation and long trusted relationships with our clients.
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We are a leader in making trading and the associated workflow more efficient for market participants. Based on industry sources and management estimates, we believe that we are a market leader in electronic trading for the following products: U.S. treasuries, TBA MBS, European government bonds, U.S. dollar- denominated interest rate swaps and euro-denominated interest rate swaps, which are some of our largest products, as well as ETP-traded Yen-denominated interest rate swaps and European ETFs, which are some of our newer products. We cover all major client sectors participating in electronic trading, including the institutional, wholesale and retail client sectors. We are a global business with users accessing our platforms and solutions in over 65 countries. For both the year ended December 31, 2019 and the combined year ended December 31, 2018, we generated approximately 36% of our gross revenue from clients outside of the United States. We have built a business that is diverse across more than 40 products. In addition, we provide the full spectrum of trading protocols from voice to sweeps (session-based trading) through RFQ to CLOB (central limit order book).
We believe the breadth of our offerings, experience and client relationships provides us unique market feedback and enables us to enter new markets with higher probabilities of success and greater speed. Many of our markets are interwoven and we provide participants trading capabilities across multiple products through a single relationship. We cover our global clients through offices in North America, Europe and Asia and a global trading network that is distributed throughout the world.
Culture of Collaborative Innovation
We have developed trusted client relationships through a culture of collaborative innovation where we work alongside our clients to solve their evolving workflow needs. We have a long track record of working with clients to solve both industry-level challenges and client-specific issues. We have had a philosophy of collaboration since our founding, when we worked with certain clients to improve U.S. treasury trading for the institutional client sector.
More recently, we helped make trading in credit markets more efficient by partnering with major dealers to improve liquidity and reduce the cost of net spotting the U.S. treasury in connection with a corporate bond trade. This net spotting functionality allows our credit clients to spot multiple bonds at the same time using our multi-dealer net spotting tool to net their interest rate risk simultaneously using one spot price. We have also worked side-by-side with clients and federal agencies to customize solutions for their particular needs in the TBA MBS market. For example, in direct collaboration with our leading TBA MBS clients we developed a functionality (Round Robin) to help resolve the issue of systemic fails on TBA MBS trades and reduce the operational risk and costs associated with delivery failures that often plague the TBA MBS market. In conjunction with Freddie Mac, we developed a direct-to-Freddie Mac exchange path for institutional clients related to the single security initiative, paving the way for a combined Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae TBA market of Uniform Mortgage-Backed Securities. Through collaborative endeavors like these, we have become deeply integrated into our clients’ workflow and become a partner of choice for new innovations.
Scalable and Flexible Technology
We consistently use our proprietary technology to find new ways for our clients to trade more effectively and efficiently. Our core software solutions span multiple components of the trading lifecycle and include pre-trade data and analytics, trade execution and post-trade data, analytics and reporting, integration, connectivity and straight-through processing. Our systems are built to be scalable, flexible and resilient. Our internet-based, thin client technology is readily accessible and enables us to quickly access the market with easily distributed new solutions. For example, we were the first to offer web-based electronic multi-dealer trading to the institutional U.S. treasury market and have subsequently automated the market structure of additional markets globally. We have also created new trading protocols and developed additional solutions for our clients that are translated and built by our highly experienced technology and business personnel working together to solve a client workflow problem. Going forward, we expect our technology platform, and ongoing investments in technology and new product offerings, to help us stay at the forefront of the evolution of electronic trading.
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Our Global Regulatory Footprint and Domain Expertise
We are regulated (as necessitated by jurisdiction and applicable law) or have necessary legal clearance to offer our platforms and solutions in major markets globally, and our experience provides us credibility when we enter new markets and facilitates our ability to comply with additional regulatory regimes. With extensive experience in addressing existing and pending regulatory changes in our industry, we offer clients a central source of expertise and thought leadership in our markets and assist them through the myriad of regulatory requirements. We then provide our clients with trading platforms that meet regulatory requirements and enable connectivity to pre-and post-trade systems necessary to comply with their regulatory obligations.
Platforms and Solutions Empowered by Data and Analytics
Our data and analytics enhance the value proposition of our trading venues and improve the trading experience of our clients. We support our clients’ core trading functions by offering trusted pre- and post-trade services, value-added analytics and predictive insights informed by our deep understanding of how market participants interact. Our data and analytics help clients make better trading decisions, benefitting our current clients and attracting new market participants to our network. For example, data powers our Automated Intelligent Execution (“AiEX”) functionality which allows traders to automatically execute trades according to pre-programmed rules and automatically sends completed or rejected order details to internal order management systems. By allowing traders to automate and execute their smaller, low touch trades more efficiently, AiEX helps traders focus their attention on larger, more nuanced trades. During the year ended December 31, 2019, the percentage of trades executed by our institutional clients using our AiEX functionality was 23% of total institutional trades, up from 6% in 2015, and we are seeing demand for AiEX continue to grow across some of our key products, including U.S. treasuries, European government bonds, global swaps, U.S. and European corporate bonds and global ETFs.
Our over 20 year operating history has allowed us to build comprehensive and unique datasets across our markets and, as we add new products to our platforms, we will continue to create new datasets that may be monetized in the future. Our marketplaces generate valuable data, processing over 50,000 trades and over 1.0 billion pre-trade price updates daily, that we collect centrally and use as inputs to our pre-trade indicative pricing and analytics. We maintain a full history of inquiries and transactions, which means, for example, we have 20 years of U.S. treasury data. We will seek to further monetize our data over time both through potential expansion of our existing market data license agreement with Refinitiv and through distributing additional datasets and analytics offerings through our own network or through other third-party networks.
We are continuously developing new offerings and solutions to meet the changing needs of our clients and will benefit from helping them comply with new regulations. For example, in January 2018, we launched our Approved Publication Arrangement (“APA”) reporting service in response to demand by our clients to satisfy new off-venue and over-the-counter (“OTC”) reporting requirements under MiFID II. We now operate one of the largest fixed income APA services with over 100 clients, including 20 leading global banks, and expect to expand our APA service in the coming years.
Experienced Management Team
Our focus and decades of experience have enabled us to accumulate the knowledge and capabilities needed to serve complex, dynamic and highly regulated markets. Our founder-led management team is composed of executives with an average of over 25 years of relevant industry experience including an average of 14 years working together at Tradeweb under different ownership structures and through multiple market cycles. Our stable management team has overseen our expansion into new markets and geographies while managing ongoing strategic initiatives including our significant technology investments. Additionally, management has fostered a culture of collaborative innovation with our clients, which combined with management’s focus and experience, has been an important contributor to our success. We have been thought leaders and contributors to the public dialogue on key issues and regulations affecting our markets and industry, including congressional testimony, public roundtables, regulatory committees and industry panels.
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Our Growth Strategies
Throughout our history, we have operated with agility to address the evolving needs of our clients. We have been guided by our core principles, which are to build better marketplaces, to forge new relationships and to create trading solutions that position us as a strategic partner to the clients that we serve. We seek to advance our leadership position by focusing our efforts on the following growth strategies:
Continue to Grow Our Existing Markets
We believe there are significant opportunities to generate additional revenue from secular and cyclical tailwinds in our existing markets:
Growth in Our Underlying Asset Classes
The underlying volumes in our asset classes continue to increase due to expanded government and corporate issuance. In addition, the government bond market is foundational to and correlative to virtually every asset class in the cash and derivatives fixed income markets. Based on industry sources and management estimates, we estimate that the addressable average daily trading volume across the rates, credit, equities and money markets asset classes has grown at a compound annual growth rate of 13% from 2015 through the year ended December 31, 2019. Select products that we believe have a high growth potential due to current market trends include global government bonds, interest rate derivatives, ETFs and credit cash products.
Growth in Our Market Share
Our clients represent most of the largest institutional, wholesale and retail market participants. The global rates, credit, equities and money markets asset classes continue to evolve electronically, and we seek to increase our market share by continuing to innovate to electronify workflows. We intend to continue to increase our market share by growing our client base and increasing the percentage of our clients’ overall trading volume transacted in those asset classes on our platforms, including by leveraging our voice solutions to win more electronic trading business from electronic voice processing clients in our rates and credit asset classes. In particular, across many of our products, we are implementing an integrated approach to grow our market share — serving all three of our client sectors across all trade sizes, from odd-lot to block trades, through a variety of protocols. Many of our asset manager, hedge fund, insurance, central bank/sovereign entity and regional dealer clients actively trade multiple products on our platforms. In addition, our global dealer clients trade in most asset classes across all three client sectors. We also see a growing appetite for multi-asset trading to reduce cost and duration risk. For example, approximately 90% of our U.S. institutional high grade cash credit trades leverage our U.S. treasury marketplace for spotting. During the year ended December 31, 2019, net spotting accounted for over 25% of our overall U.S. high grade credit notional volume and over 13% of our U.S. high grade electronic credit volume.
Electronification of Our Markets
Market demands and regulation are changing the paradigm of trading and driving the migration to electronic markets. Our clients desire transparency, best execution and choice of trading protocols amidst dynamic and evolving markets. Furthermore, innovations in capital markets have enabled increased automation and process efficiency across our markets. The electronification of our marketplaces varies by product. We typically see meaningful electronification of new products within three to five years of their launch, with certain products experiencing significant revenue growth following that period of time, including as a result of market and regulatory developments. For example, our U.S.- and euro-denominated derivative products experienced increased rates of electronification and related revenue growth following the implementation of mandates under the Dodd-Frank Act in 2013 and MiFID II in 2018. We are well positioned to continue to innovate and provide better electronic markets and solutions that satisfy the needs of our clients and that meet changing market demands and evolving regulatory standards.
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We believe that U.S. treasuries, global interest rate swaps, global ETFs, in particular, institutional block ETFs, and U.S. credit products, including corporate high grade and high yield bonds, are key drivers of our potential growth. Our penetration of these markets, and their level of electronification, are at various stages. We are focused on growing our market share for these products by continuing to invest in new technology solutions that will attract new market participants to our platforms and increase the use of our platforms by existing clients.
Expand Our Product Set and Reach
We have grown our business by prudently expanding our offerings to add new products and asset classes, and we expect to continue to invest to add new products and expand into new complementary markets as client demand and market trends evolve. We expanded into China in 2017 and offer our global clients access to the Chinese bond market through our initiative with BondConnect. We continue to focus on that initiative and on other opportunities in China, and on expanding opportunities with clients in the Asia region more broadly. In addition, we have expanded our product set to include wholesale electronic repurchase agreements, as well as U.S. and European bilateral repurchase agreements, European cash equities and U.S. options for our institutional client sector. We also intend to leverage innovation and technology capabilities to develop new solutions that help our clients trade more effectively and efficiently. For example, our swap compression functionality allows clients to reduce their swap positions at the clearinghouse, resulting in significant cost savings. On our institutional U.S. credit platform, our portfolio trading solution allows clients to obtain competitive prices on a full basket of securities and trade on net present value from dealers. In addition, multi-asset package (“MAP”) trading allows clients to simultaneously execute interest rate swaps, inflations swaps and government bonds in a single electronic package enabling clients to achieve more competitive pricing, reduce manual booking errors and increase execution speed. Net spotting, which links our institutional U.S. credit and U.S. Treasury markets allows clients to reduce the operational stress and financial cost of executing offsetting Treasury hedges for corporate bonds that trade at a spread to the U.S. Treasury. Given the breadth of expertise of our sales people and management, we have the ability to focus on new client opportunities and on selling additional solutions to existing clients.
In addition, we believe our business model is well suited to serve market participants in other asset classes and geographies where our guiding principles can continue to transform markets and broaden our reach. We currently have clients in over 65 countries, and we plan to expand our platforms and solutions into additional geographies. Our international strategy involves offering our existing products to new geographies and then adding local products. In addition, we believe we can, and will, continue to develop trading models in one product or asset class and deliver those models to other products or asset classes, irrespective of geography. For example, we have leveraged our session-based trading technology in European corporate bonds for session-based trading in U.S. corporate bonds and Off-the-Run U.S. treasuries, and we are focused on growing this newer trading protocol. We have significant scale and breadth across our platforms, which position us well to take advantage of favorable market dynamics when introducing new products or solutions or entering into new markets.
Enhance Underlying Data and Analytics Capabilities to Develop Innovative Solutions
As the demand for data and analytics solutions grows across markets and geographies, we plan to continue to expand the scope of our underlying data, improve our tools and technology and enhance our analytics and trade decision support capabilities to provide innovative solutions that address this demand. As the needs of market participants evolve, we expect to continue to help them meet their challenges, which our continuous investments in data, technology and analytics enable us to do more quickly and efficiently. For example, we enhance our solutions by linking indicative pre-trade data to our clients’ specific trades to create predictive insights from client trading behavior. Our technology architecture reduces the time to market for new data solutions, which allows us to react quickly to client needs.
In November 2018, we extended our long-term agreement with Refinitiv, pursuant to which Refinitiv licenses certain data from us, which provides us with a predictable and growing revenue stream. In addition, we will continue to selectively pursue new strategic partnerships to expand our data and analytics offering over time.
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We have also launched a roster of closing prices partnering with FTSE for UK Gilts and ICE for U.S. treasuries in response to the growing demand for trusted reference price data that enables firms to manage investment portfolios, evaluate the fair value of securities, perform compliance monitoring and satisfy general accounting standards.
Pursue Strategic Acquisitions and Alliances
We intend to continue to selectively consider opportunities to grow through strategic acquisitions and alliances. These opportunities should enhance our existing capabilities, accelerate our ability to enter new markets or provide new solutions. For example, in addition to our acquisitions in the wholesale and retail client sectors, we made an acquisition (CodeStreet) in 2016, which bolstered our predictive analytics capabilities. Our focus will be on opportunities that we believe can enhance or benefit from our technology platform and client network, provide significant market share and profitability and are consistent with our corporate culture.
Recent Developments
COVID-19
Since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, we have been focused on keeping our employees safe, helping our clients stay connected, and ensuring our markets operate efficiently through this period of unprecedented market volatility. We have implemented a series of measures to protect the health and safety of our employees, and by mid-March 2020, nearly all of our employees around the world were working remotely.
In light of the unprecedented market volatility and significant economic disruption that has arisen in the wake of the pandemic, we have worked closely with our clients to provide flexible and secure access to our platforms, and to ensure that we would be a stable and resilient partner across multiple asset classes — so they can reliably manage their core cash and derivatives needs in the diverse markets we serve, even as their own businesses may face disruptions. Our employees and clients together have adapted to working remotely and we have helped our clients navigate the market volatility through multi-asset class and multi-protocol electronic offerings. We believe the strong volumes we experienced on our platforms in March 2020 are reflective of these factors.
The global spread of the COVID-19 pandemic is complex and rapidly-evolving, with authorities around the world implementing numerous measures to try to contain the coronavirus, such as travel bans and restrictions, social distancing, quarantines, shelter in place, stay at home or lockdown orders and business limitations and shutdowns. While our expectation is to return to our offices when it is safe to do so, we remain confident that we can continue to maintain business continuity, serve our clients and provide efficient execution in a virtual environment as necessary. In addition, we believe that we have sufficient liquidity and flexibility to operate during any future disruptions caused by COVID-19.
We currently expect any future disruptive impact of COVID-19 on our business to be temporary and are determined to continue to minimize such impact. Although we have implemented risk management and contingency plans and taken preventive measures and other precautions, our efforts to mitigate the effects of any disruptions may prove to be inadequate. Due to the uncertainty of the duration and severity of COVID-19, the speed with which this pandemic is developing, the uncertainty as to what governmental measures may yet be taken in response to the pandemic and the unpredictable effect on our business, our employees and our clients, we are not able to reasonably estimate the extent of any potential impact of COVID-19 on our financial condition or results of operations at this time, but the impact could potentially be material. Even after the COVID-19 outbreak has subsided, we may continue to experience impacts to our business as a result of the coronavirus’ global economic impact and any recession that has occurred or may occur in the future. Further, as the COVID-19 situation is unprecedented and continuously evolving, COVID-19 may also affect our operating and financial results in a manner that is not presently known to us or in a manner that we currently do not consider to present significant risks to our operations.
As the COVID-19 pandemic continues, it may also have the effect of heightening many of the risks described in “Risk Factors” in this prospectus, including, but not limited to, those relating to changes in economic, political, social and market conditions and the impact of these changes on trading volumes;
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consolidation and concentration in the financial services industry; our dependence on dealer clients; systems failures, interruptions, delays in services, cybersecurity incidents, unforeseen or catastrophic events and any resulting interruptions; our international operations; and our dependence on our senior management team and other qualified personnel. See “Risk Factors.”
IDC Matter
As disclosed most recently in our 2019 Form 10-K, incorporated by reference in this prospectus, IDC Financial Publishing, Inc. (“IDC”) filed a lawsuit in the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Wisconsin captioned IDC Financial Publishing Inc. v. BondDesk Group LLC, et al. Claims were asserted against Tradeweb and against Fidelity Global Brokerage Group, Inc., Fidelity Brokerage Services, LLC, and National Financial Services, LLC (collectively, “Fidelity”) relating to the distribution of IDC’s financial strength ratings over Tradeweb’s trading platform to Fidelity, its registered investment advisors and Fidelity’s correspondent banks. Following extensive pre-trial proceedings that resulted in certain of IDC’s claims being dismissed by the court, the parties entered into a settlement agreement in which all remaining claims and counterclaims in the lawsuit were settled without any material impact to our financial condition or results of operations, and the matter has been dismissed with prejudice.
Preliminary Results for Three Months Ended March 31, 2020
Our preliminary estimated unaudited financial results for the three months ended March 31, 2020 are set forth below. Our estimates of results are based solely on information available to us as of the date of this prospectus and are inherently uncertain and subject to change due to a variety of business, economic and competitive risks and uncertainties, many of which are not within our control, and we undertake no obligation to update this information. Actual results remain subject to the completion of management’s final reviews and our other financial closing procedures, as well as the completion of our auditor’s review of our unaudited consolidated financial statements, as described below. Our actual unaudited consolidated financial statements and related notes as of and for the three months ended March 31, 2020 are not expected to be filed with the SEC until after this offering is completed. During the course of the preparation of our actual unaudited consolidated financial statements and related notes, additional items that would require material adjustments to the preliminary estimated unaudited financial results presented below may be identified. See “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations — Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates — Use of Estimates” in the 2019 Form 10-K, incorporated by reference in this prospectus, and “Risk Factors — Risks Relating to Our Business and Our Industry” and “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” included elsewhere in this prospectus.
The preliminary financial data included in this prospectus have been prepared by and are the responsibility of our management. Our auditor, Deloitte & Touche LLP, has not audited, reviewed, compiled or performed any procedures with respect to the preliminary financial data. Accordingly, Deloitte & Touche LLP does not express an opinion or any other form of assurance with respect thereto. These estimates are not a comprehensive statement of our financial results as of and for the three months ended March 31, 2020, and should not be viewed as a substitute for full financial statements prepared in accordance with GAAP. In addition, these preliminary estimates for the three months ended March 31, 2020 are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be achieved for a full fiscal year or any future periods.
The table set forth below presents estimates for our expected gross revenue, total expenses, net income, net income attributable to Tradeweb Markets Inc., diluted earnings per share, Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted EBITDA margin, Adjusted EBIT, Adjusted EBIT margin, Adjusted Net Income and Adjusted Diluted EPS for the three months ended March 31, 2020. As noted above, each of the line items presented below represents our preliminary estimated unaudited financial results which remain subject to the completion of management’s final reviews and our other financial closing procedures, as well as the completion of our auditor’s review of our unaudited consolidated financial statements for the three months ended March 31, 2020.
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Three Months
Ended
March 31, 2020
Three Months
Ended
March 31, 2019
$ Change
% Change
(dollars in thousands, except per share data)
Revenue
Rates
$ 126,039 $ 104,090 $ 21,949 21.1%
Credit
53,978 39,435 14,543 36.9
Equities
19,434 11,798 7,636 64.7
Money Markets
11,208 9,562 1,646 17.2
Market Data
18,562 16,903 1,659 9.8
Other
5,385 5,004 381 7.6
Gross Revenue
234,606 186,792 47,814 25.6
Total Expenses
156,991 140,515 16,476 11.7
Net income
62,485 42,352 20,133 47.5
Net income attributable to Tradeweb Markets
Inc.
$ 43,928 $ $
Diluted earnings per share(1)
$ 0.25(a) $ 0.19(b) $ 0.06 31.6%
Non-GAAP Financial Measures
Adjusted EBITDA(2)
$ 119,650 $ 80,347 $ 39,303 48.9%
Adjusted EBITDA margin(2)
51.0% 43.0% +799bps
Adjusted EBIT(2)
$ 108,747 $ 70,053 $ 38,694 55.2%
Adjusted EBIT margin(2)
46.4% 37.5% +885bps
Adjusted Net Income(2)
$ 85,368 $ 52,190 $ 33,178 63.6%
Adjusted Diluted EPS(1)(2)(3)
$ 0.37(a) $ 0.23(b) $ 0.14 60.9%
(1)
As a result of the Reorganization Transactions and the IPO completed in April 2019, certain earnings information is being presented separately for Tradeweb Markets LLC and Tradeweb Markets Inc.
(a)
Presents information for Tradeweb Markets Inc. (post-IPO period).
(b)
Presents information for Tradeweb Markets LLC (pre-IPO period).
See “Basis of Presentation” elsewhere herein and “Note 18 — Earnings Per Share” to the audited consolidated financial statements of Tradeweb Markets Inc. appearing in the 2019 Form 10-K, incorporated by reference in this prospectus.
(2)
For the definitions of Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted EBITDA margin, Adjusted EBIT, Adjusted EBIT margin, Adjusted Net Income and Adjusted Diluted EPS, see note 6 in “— Summary Historical and Pro Forma Consolidated Financial and Other Data.” For reconciliations to their most directly comparable financial measures presented in accordance with GAAP, see the tables below.
(3)
Adjusted Diluted EPS includes certain tax related adjustments to reflect an assumed effective tax rate for all periods presented and, for the three months ended March 31, 2020, assumes all LLC Interests are exchanged for shares of Class A or Class B common stock. As a result, we believe that Adjusted Diluted EPS for Tradeweb Markets Inc. and Tradeweb Markets LLC are comparable.
During the three months ended March 31, 2020 as compared to the three months ended March 31, 2019, our estimated results benefited from higher revenues related to increases in rates, credit, equities and money markets trading. Our expenses increased primarily due to higher employee compensation and benefits expense, including non-cash stock-based compensation expense related to options and payroll taxes associated with the exercise of stock options. Net income for the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019 was $62.5 million and $42.4 million, respectively, primarily due to the impact of higher gross revenue
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of $47.8 million, partially offset by higher employee compensation and benefits expense, including a $3.5 million increase in non-cash stock-based compensation expense related to options and associated payroll taxes. Net income attributable to Tradeweb Markets Inc. for the three months ended March 31, 2020 was $43.9 million.
Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted EBITDA margin, Adjusted EBIT, Adjusted EBIT margin, Adjusted Net Income and Adjusted Diluted EPS increased for the three months ended March 31, 2020 as compared to the prior period, primarily due to gross revenue growth of 25.6%.
A significant percentage of our revenues are tied directly to overall trading volumes in the rates, credit, equities and money markets asset classes. The average daily volumes and total volumes on our trading platforms by asset class for the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019 were as follows:
Three Months Ended
March 31, 2020
March 31, 2019
ADV
% Change
ADV
Volume
ADV
Volume
(dollars in millions)
Rates
$ 590,773 $ 36,867,838 $ 429,226 $ 26,357,344 37.6%
Credit
$ 32,997 $ 2,070,811 $ 16,386 $ 1,010,037 101.4%
Equities
$ 17,793 $ 1,111,272 $ 7,771 $ 479,937 129.0%
Money Markets
$ 256,193 $ 15,948,560 $ 192,264 $ 11,771,636 33.3%
Total
$ 897,756 $ 55,998,481 $ 645,647 $ 39,618,954 39.0%
We believe the increases in average daily volumes for our rates, credit, equities and money markets asset classes in the three months ended March 31, 2020 can be attributed to various factors, including further electronification of trading activities across our asset classes, increase in market share, new products, new clients and increased volatility. Rates ADV increased mainly due to higher trading activity in long and short-tenor interest rate swaps and swaptions, mortgages and U.S. treasuries. Credit ADV increased mainly due to higher trading activity in credit derivatives, U.S. high-grade and high-yield credit and European Credit. Equities ADV increased mainly due to higher trading activity in U.S. and European ETFs and derivatives. Money Markets ADV increased due to the continued growth of bilateral electronic trading in repurchase agreements.
The average variable fees per million dollars of volume traded on our trading platforms by asset class for the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019 are summarized below. There are three potential drivers of quarterly fluctuations in our average variable fees per million: (1) volume discounts, (2) the mix of cash and derivatives products traded, and (3) the mix of protocols underpinning cash and derivatives products. Average variable fees per million should be reviewed in conjunction with our trading volumes and gross revenue by asset class. Since variable fees are sometimes subject to fee plans with tiered pricing based on product mix and volume, average variable fees per million for a specific asset class may not correlate with volumes or revenue growth. For example, average variable fees per million dollars of volume for our Credit asset class decreased 31.0% for the three months ended March 31, 2020 while gross revenue for our Credit asset class increased 36.9% over the same period.
Three Months
Ended
March 31, 2020
Three Months
Ended
March 31, 2019
$ Change
% Change
Rates
$ 2.05 $ 2.04 $ 0.01 0.5%
Rates — excluding short-tenor swaps (less than 1 year)
$ 2.39 $ 2.09 $ 0.30 14.4%
Credit
$ 23.46 $ 34.02 $ (10.56) (31.0)%
Equities
$ 15.39 $ 21.15 $ (5.76) (27.2)%
Money Markets
$ 0.45 $ 0.49 $ (0.04) (8.2)%
Total Fees per Million
$ 2.65 $ 2.62 $ 0.03 1.1%
Total Fees per Million — excluding short-tenor swaps
(less than 1 year)
$ 2.93 $ 2.67 $ 0.26 9.7%
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The table set forth below presents a reconciliation of net income to Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted EBITDA margin, Adjusted EBIT and Adjusted EBIT margin for the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019:
Three Months Ended
March 31, 2020
Three Months Ended
March 31, 2019
(dollars in thousands)
Net income
$ 62,485 $ 42,352
Net interest income
(699) (858)
Depreciation and amortization
37,176 33,503
Stock-based compensation expense(1)
3,497
Provision for income taxes
15,829 4,783
Unrealized foreign exchange (gains) / losses
1,164 (293)
Loss from revaluation of foreign denominated cash(2)
198 860
Adjusted EBITDA
$ 119,650 $ 80,347
Less: Depreciation and amortization
(37,176) (33,503)
Add: Acquisition and Refinitiv Transaction related D&A(3)
26,273 23,209
Adjusted EBIT
$ 108,747 $ 70,053
Adjusted EBITDA margin(4)
51.0% 43.0%
Adjusted EBIT margin(4)
46.4% 37.5%
(1)
Represents non-cash stock-based compensation expense associated with the Special Option Award discussed under “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations — Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates — Stock-Based Compensation” in the 2019 Form 10-K, incorporated by reference in this prospectus, and post-IPO options awarded in 2019 and payroll taxes associated with exercises of such options during the applicable period.
(2)
Represents foreign exchange gain or loss from the revaluation of cash denominated in a different currency than the entity’s functional currency.
(3)
Represents acquisition-related intangibles amortization and increased tangible asset and capitalized software depreciation and amortization resulting from the Refinitiv Transaction and the application of pushdown accounting (where all assets were marked to fair value as of the closing date of the Refinitiv Transaction).
(4)
For the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019, Adjusted EBITDA margin increased compared to the prior year period by 799 basis points, or 678 basis points on a constant currency basis. For the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019, Adjusted EBIT margin increased compared to the prior year period by 885 basis points, or 767 basis points on a constant currency basis. The changes in Adjusted EBITDA margin and Adjusted EBIT margin on a constant currency basis, which are non-GAAP financial measures, are defined as the changes in Adjusted EBITDA margin and Adjusted EBIT margin excluding the effects of foreign currency fluctuations. Adjusted EBITDA margin and Adjusted EBIT margin excluding the effects of foreign currency fluctuations are calculated by translating the current period and prior period’s results using the average exchange rates for the prior period. We use the changes in Adjusted EBITDA margin and Adjusted EBIT margin on a constant currency basis as supplemental metrics to evaluate our underlying margin performance between periods by removing the impact of foreign currency fluctuations. We believe that providing changes in Adjusted EBITDA margin and Adjusted EBIT margin on a constant currency basis provide useful comparisons of our Adjusted EBITDA margin and Adjusted EBIT margin and trends between periods.
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The table set forth below presents a reconciliation of net income attributable to Tradeweb Markets Inc. and net income, as applicable, to Adjusted Net Income and Adjusted Diluted EPS for the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019:
Three Months
Ended
March 31, 2020
Three Months
Ended
March 31, 2019
(dollars in thousands, except per share data)
Earnings per diluted share(1)
$ 0.25(a) $ 0.19(b)
Pre-IPO net income attributable to Tradeweb Markets LLC(1)
$ $ 42,352
Net income attributable to Tradeweb Markets Inc.(1)
43,928
Net income attributable to non-controlling interests(1)(2)
18,557
Net income
62,485 42,352
Provision for income taxes
15,829 4,783
Acquisition and Refinitiv Transaction related D&A(3)
26,273 23,209
Stock-based compensation expense(4)
3,497
Unrealized foreign exchange (gains) / losses
1,164 (293)
Loss from revaluation of foreign denominated cash(5)
198 860
Adjusted Net Income before income taxes
109,446 70,911
Adjusted income taxes(6)
(24,078) (18,721)
Adjusted Net Income
$ 85,368 $ 52,190
Adjusted Diluted EPS(1)(7)
$ 0.37(a) $ 0.23(b)
(1)
As a result of the Reorganization Transactions and the IPO completed in April 2019, certain earnings information is being presented separately for Tradeweb Markets LLC and Tradeweb Markets Inc.
(a)
Presents information for Tradeweb Markets Inc. (post-IPO period).
(b)
Presents information for Tradeweb Markets LLC (pre-IPO period).
See “Basis of Presentation” elsewhere herein and “Note 18 — Earnings Per Share” to the audited consolidated financial statements of Tradeweb Markets Inc. appearing in the 2019 Form 10-K, incorporated by reference in this prospectus.
(2)
For post-IPO periods, represents the reallocation of net income attributable to non-controlling interests from the assumed exchange of all outstanding LLC Interests held by non-controlling interests for shares of Class A or Class B common stock.
(3)
Represents acquisition-related intangibles amortization and increased tangible asset and capitalized software depreciation and amortization resulting from the Refinitiv Transaction and the application of pushdown accounting (where all assets were marked to fair value as of the closing date of the Refinitiv Transaction).
(4)
Represents non-cash stock-based compensation expense associated with the Special Option Award discussed under “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations — Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates — Stock-Based Compensation” in the 2019 Form 10-K, incorporated by reference in this prospectus, and post-IPO options awarded in 2019 and payroll taxes associated with exercises of such options during the applicable period.
(5)
Represents foreign exchange gain or loss from the revaluation of cash denominated in a different currency than the entity’s functional currency.
(6)
Represents corporate income taxes at an assumed effective tax rate of 22.0% and 26.4% applied to Adjusted Net Income before income taxes for the three months ended March 31, 2020 and March 31, 2019, respectively.
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(7)
Due to the Reorganization Transactions and the IPO completed in April 2019, shares outstanding during the three months ended March 31, 2019 represent shares of TWM LLC (pre-IPO period) and shares outstanding during the three months ended March 31, 2020 represent shares of Class A and Class B common stock of Tradeweb Markets, Inc. (post-IPO period). For a summary of the calculation of Adjusted Diluted EPS, see “Reconciliation of Diluted Weighted Average Shares Outstanding to Adjusted Diluted Weighted Average Shares Outstanding” below.
The following table summarizes the calculation of Adjusted Diluted EPS for the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019:
Post-IPO
Period
Pre-IPO
Period
Reconciliation of Diluted Weighted Average Shares Outstanding to Adjusted Diluted Weighted
Average Shares Outstanding
Three Months
Ended
March 31, 2020
Three Months
Ended
March 31, 2019
Diluted weighted average TWM LLC shares outstanding
223,320,457
Diluted weighted average shares of Class A and Class B common stock outstanding
174,517,244
Assumed exchange of LLC interests for shares of Class A or Class B common stock(1)
57,644,547
Adjusted diluted weighted average shares outstanding
232,161,791 223,320,457
Adjusted Net Income (in thousands)
$ 85,368 $ 52,190
Adjusted Diluted EPS
$ 0.37 $ 0.23
(1)
Assumes the full exchange of all outstanding LLC Interests held by non-controlling interests for shares of Class A or Class B common stock, resulting in the elimination of the non-controlling interests and recognition of the net income attributable to non-controlling interests.
Dividend
On February 11, 2020, the board of directors of Tradeweb Markets Inc. declared a cash dividend of $0.08 per share of Class A common stock and Class B common stock for the first quarter of 2020. This dividend was paid on March 16, 2020 in an aggregate amount of $13.4 million. See “Dividend Policy.”
Summary of Our Organizational Structure and Related Matters
On April 8, 2019, we completed our IPO of 46,000,000 shares of Class A common stock at a public offering price of $27.00 per share, which included 6,000,000 shares of Class A common stock issued pursuant to the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares of Class A common stock. We received $1,161.3 million in net proceeds, after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions, but before deducting offering expenses of $15.9 million, which we used to purchase 46,000,000 LLC Interests from certain of the Bank Stockholders (and the corresponding shares of common stock held by such Bank Stockholders were cancelled), at a purchase price per interest equal to the public offering price of $27.00, less the underwriting discounts and commissions payable thereon.
Prior to the completion of the IPO and Reorganization Transactions described below, the Original LLC Owners were the only members of TWM LLC. Tradeweb Markets Inc. was incorporated as a Delaware corporation on November 7, 2018 to serve as the issuer of the Class A common stock offered in the IPO. Prior to the closing of the IPO, we consummated the Reorganization Transactions. In connection with the Reorganization Transactions, the following steps occurred:

we amended and restated the limited liability company agreement of TWM LLC (as so amended, the “TWM LLC Agreement”) to, among other things, (i) provide for LLC Interests that are the single class of common membership interests in TWM LLC, (ii) exchange all of the existing membership interests in TWM LLC for LLC Interests and (iii) appoint us as the sole manager of TWM LLC;
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we amended and restated our certificate of incorporation to, among other things, provide for Class A common stock, Class B common stock, Class C common stock and Class D common stock. Each share of Class A common stock and Class C common stock entitles its holder to one vote on all matters presented to our stockholders generally. Each share of Class B common stock and Class D common stock entitles its holder to ten votes on all matters presented to our stockholders generally. The holders of Class C common stock and Class D common stock have no economic interests in Tradeweb (where “economic interests” means the right to receive any dividends or distributions, whether cash or stock, in connection with common stock). These attributes are summarized in the following table:
Class of Common Stock
Votes
Economic
Rights
Class A common stock
1 Yes
Class B common stock
10 Yes
Class C common stock
1 No
Class D common stock
10 No
Holders of any outstanding shares of our Class A common stock, Class B common stock, Class C common stock and Class D common stock will vote together as a single class on all matters presented to our stockholders for their vote or approval, except as otherwise required by applicable law;

we assumed sponsorship of the Option Plan (as defined herein) and the PRSU Plan (as defined herein) that were previously sponsored by TWM LLC. Accordingly, all options and PRSUs granted under such plans were converted into economically equivalent awards of Tradeweb;

we issued 20,000,000 shares of Class C common stock and 105,289,005 shares of Class D common stock to the Original LLC Owners that received LLC Interests on a one-to-one basis with the number of LLC Interests they owned immediately following the amendment and restatement of the TWM LLC Agreement, for nominal consideration (we subsequently canceled 9,993,731 shares of such Class C common stock and 36,006,269 shares of such Class D common stock in connection with our purchase of LLC Interests from certain of the Bank Stockholders using the net proceeds of the IPO);

as a result of the Refinitiv Contribution, the Refinitiv Direct Owner received 96,933,192 shares of Class B common stock and we received 96,933,192 LLC Interests. The Refinitiv Direct Owner and other future holders of Class B common stock may from time to time exchange all or a portion of their shares of our Class B common stock for newly issued shares of Class A common stock on a one-for-one basis (in which case their shares of Class B common stock will be cancelled on a one-for-one basis upon any such issuance);

the LLC Interests held by the Continuing LLC Owners are redeemable in accordance with the terms of the TWM LLC Agreement, at the election of such holders, for newly issued shares of Class A common stock or Class B common stock, as the case may be, on a one-for-one basis (and such holders’ shares of Class C common stock or Class D common stock, as the case may be, will be cancelled on a one-for-one basis upon any such issuance). The Continuing LLC Owners that hold shares of Class D common stock may also from time to time exchange all or a portion of their shares of our Class D common stock for newly issued shares of Class C common stock on a one-for-one basis (in which case their shares of Class D common stock will be cancelled on a one-for-one basis upon such issuance). In addition, with respect to each Bank Stockholder that holds shares of Class D common stock, immediately prior to the occurrence of any event that would cause the combined voting power held by such Bank Stockholder to exceed 4.9%, the minimum number of shares of Class D common stock of such Bank Stockholder that would need to convert into shares of Class C common stock such that the combined voting power held by such Bank Stockholder would not exceed 4.9% will automatically convert into shares of Class C common stock;

in the event of such election by a Continuing LLC Owner, we may, at our option, effect a direct
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exchange of Class A common stock or Class B common stock, as the case may be, for such LLC Interests of such Continuing LLC Owner in lieu of such redemption. In addition, Tradeweb’s board of directors, which includes directors who hold LLC Interests or are affiliated with holders of LLC Interests and may include such directors in the future, may, at its option, instead of the foregoing redemptions or exchanges of LLC Interests, cause the Company to make a cash payment equal to a volume weighted average market price of one share of Class A common stock for each LLC Interest redeemed or exchanged (subject to customary adjustments, including for stock splits, stock dividends and reclassifications) in accordance with the terms of the TWM LLC Agreement;

each share of our Class B common stock will automatically convert into one share of Class A common stock and each share of our Class D common stock will automatically convert into one share of our Class C common stock (i) immediately prior to any sale or other transfer of such share by a holder or its permitted transferees to a non-permitted transferee, or (ii) once the Refinitiv Owners and their affiliates together no longer beneficially own a number of shares of our common stock and LLC Interests that together entitle them to at least 10% of TWM LLC’s economic interest. Holders of LLC Interests that receive shares of Class C common stock upon any such conversion may continue to elect to have their LLC Interests redeemed for newly issued shares of Class A common stock as described above (in which case their shares of Class C common stock will be cancelled on a one-for-one basis upon such issuance). See “Description of Capital Stock;” and

Tradeweb entered into (i) a tax receivable agreement (the “Tax Receivable Agreement”) with TWM LLC and the Continuing LLC Owners, (ii) a stockholders agreement (the “Stockholders Agreement”) with the Refinitiv Owners and (iii) a registration rights agreement (the “Registration Rights Agreement”) with the Refinitiv Owners and the Bank Stockholders.
In October 2019, we completed a follow-on offering of 19,881,059 shares of Class A common stock at a public offering price of $42.00 per share, which included 2,593,181 shares of Class A common stock issued pursuant to the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares of Class A common stock. We received $810.0 million in net proceeds, after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions but before deducting offering expenses, which were used to purchase LLC Interests from certain Bank Stockholders and executive officers (and the corresponding shares of common stock were cancelled) and shares of Class A common stock from certain executive officers (and such shares of Class A common stock were cancelled), at a purchase price per interest and share equal to the public offering price of $42.00 per share, less the underwriting discounts and commissions payable thereon.
In addition to the IPO and the October 2019 follow-on offering transactions described above, during the year ended December 31, 2019, certain Continuing LLC Owners exercised their redemption rights under the TWM LLC Agreement, pursuant to which 271,184 LLC Interests were exchanged for 271,184 newly-issued shares of Class A common stock. Simultaneously, and in connection with these exchanges, 271,184 shares of Class D common stock were surrendered by these Continuing LLC Owners and cancelled. Additionally, in connection with these exchanges, Tradeweb Markets Inc. received 271,184 LLC Interests, increasing its total ownership interest in TWM LLC.
We will issue 11,161,083 shares of Class A common stock (or 12,835,245 shares of Class A common stock, if the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase additional shares of Class A common stock) to the purchasers in this offering in exchange for approximately $544.6 million of net proceeds (or approximately $626.3 million, if the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase additional shares of Class A common stock), after deducting underwriting discounts, but before deducting estimated offering expenses. We estimate that the offering expenses (other than the underwriting discounts and commissions) will be approximately $3.1 million. All of such offering expenses will be paid for or otherwise borne by TWM LLC.
After the completion of this offering, in order to facilitate the disposition of equity interests held by certain of our equityholders, we intend to use the net proceeds from this offering to purchase (i) 10,642,463 issued and outstanding LLC Interests (or 12,238,827 LLC Interests, if the underwriters
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exercise in full their option to purchase additional shares of Class A common stock) from certain of the Bank Stockholders (collectively, the “Selling LLC Owners”) (and cancel the corresponding shares of common stock held by such Selling LLC Owners) and (ii) 518,620 issued and outstanding shares of Class A common stock (or 596,418 shares of Class A common stock, if the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase additional shares of Class A common stock) from certain executive officers following the Net Exercise, as applicable (and cancel such shares of Class A common stock), at a purchase price per interest and share equal to the public offering price per share of Class A common stock, less the underwriting discounts and commissions payable thereon. The LLC Interests and shares of Class A common stock we intend to purchase collectively represent a 5.0% economic interest in TWM LLC (or 5.7%, if the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase additional shares of Class A common stock). See “Use of Proceeds.”
For more information regarding the Reorganization Transactions and our organizational structure, see “The IPO and Reorganization Transactions.” For more information regarding this offering and the application of the net proceeds therefrom, see “Use of Proceeds.”
Tradeweb is a holding company whose principal assets consist of its equity interest in TWM LLC it primarily acquired from certain of the Bank Stockholders using the net proceeds from the IPO and the October 2019 follow-on offering as described above and the LLC Interests it received as a result of the Refinitiv Contribution, and related deferred tax assets. As the sole manager of TWM LLC, we operate and control all of the business and affairs of TWM LLC and, through TWM LLC and its subsidiaries, conduct our business. As a result of this control, and because we have a substantial financial interest in TWM LLC, we consolidate TWM LLC in our consolidated financial statements and report a non-controlling interest related to the LLC Interests held by the Continuing LLC Owners on our consolidated financial statements for post-IPO periods.
See “Description of Capital Stock” for more information about our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and the terms of the Class A common stock, Class B common stock, Class C common stock and Class D common stock. See “Certain Relationships and Related Party Transactions” for more information about the TWM LLC Agreement, including the terms of the LLC Interests and the redemption rights of the Continuing LLC Owners; the Tax Receivable Agreement; the Stockholders Agreement; and the Registration Rights Agreement.
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The following diagram shows our simplified organizational structure as of March 31, 2020, after giving effect to the Net Exercise and this offering and the application of the net proceeds therefrom as described in “Use of Proceeds,” assuming no exercise by the underwriters of their option to purchase additional shares of Class A common stock:
[MISSING IMAGE: tm2016457d1-org_owner.jpg]
*
Represents economic interest in Tradeweb Markets Inc. and not Tradeweb Markets LLC.
(1)
After giving effect to this offering, the Refinitiv Owners will collectively hold 83.0% of the combined voting power in Tradeweb Markets Inc. The Refinitiv Owners will, directly and indirectly, hold 54.2% of the economic interest in Tradeweb Markets Inc. and 53.2% of the economic interest in Tradeweb Markets LLC (including through their ownership of Tradeweb Markets Inc.).
(2)
Includes shares of Class A common stock held by certain of our executive officers, representing less than 1% of the combined voting power and economic interest in Tradeweb Markets Inc.
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LSEG Transaction
On August 1, 2019, London Stock Exchange Group plc announced that it has agreed to definitive terms with a consortium including certain investment funds affiliated with Blackstone as well as Thomson Reuters to acquire the Refinitiv business in an all share transaction for a total enterprise value of approximately $27 billion (the “LSEG Transaction”).
If the LSEG Transaction is consummated, any change of control of Refinitiv could in turn affect us, because Refinitiv is our controlling shareholder. However, following the consummation of the LSEG Transaction, Tradeweb is expected to remain a standalone, publicly-traded company, and we do not expect the LSEG Transaction to result in any changes to our stockholder voting rights in the near-term, and we do not foresee any material impact on our strategy, day-to-day operations or Tradeweb management as a result of the LSEG Transaction. Our existing market data license agreement with Refinitiv is also expected to remain unchanged immediately following the consummation of the LSEG Transaction, however the non-compete period applicable to Refinitiv in their restrictive covenant agreement with us is expected to terminate immediately following the consummation of the LSEG Transaction. For descriptions of the market data license agreement and restrictive covenant agreement, see “Certain Relationships and Related Party Transactions — Transactions With Refinitiv/Thomson Reuters.”
The LSEG Transaction is subject to customary regulatory approvals and closing conditions, and is expected to close during the second half of 2020. There can be no assurance that the LSEG Transaction will be consummated on the expected timing or at all.
During the fourth quarter of 2019, we entered into an amendment to the credit agreement governing the Revolving Credit Facility to permit the LSEG Transaction.
Risks Associated with Our Business
Our business is subject to numerous risks described in “Risk Factors” immediately following this prospectus summary and elsewhere in this prospectus. These risks represent challenges to the successful implementation of our strategy and to the growth and future profitability of our business. Some of the more significant risks we face include:

changes in economic, political, social and market conditions and the impact of these changes on trading volumes;

our failure to compete successfully;

our failure to adapt our business effectively to keep pace with industry changes;

consolidation and concentration in the financial services industry;

our dependence on dealer clients, including those that are also current or former stockholders;

systems failures, interruptions, delays in services, cybersecurity incidents, catastrophic events and any resulting interruptions;

extensive regulation of our industry; and

Refinitiv’s control of us and our status as a controlled company.
See “Risk Factors” immediately following this prospectus summary for a more thorough discussion of these and other risks and uncertainties we face.
Implications of Being an Emerging Growth Company
As a company with less than $1.07 billion in revenue during our last fiscal year, we qualify as an “emerging growth company” as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012 (the “JOBS Act”). An emerging growth company may take advantage of specified reduced reporting and other requirements that are otherwise applicable generally to public companies. These provisions include:

we are not required to engage an auditor to report on our internal control over financial reporting pursuant to Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (the “Sarbanes-Oxley Act”);
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we are not required to comply with any requirement that may be adopted by the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (the “PCAOB”) regarding mandatory audit firm rotation or a supplement to the auditor’s report providing additional information about the audit and the financial statements (i.e., an auditor discussion and analysis);

we are not required to submit certain executive compensation matters to stockholder advisory votes, such as “say-on-pay,” “say-on-frequency” and “say-on-golden parachutes”; and

we are not required to disclose certain executive compensation related items such as the correlation between executive compensation and performance and comparisons of the chief executive officer’s compensation to median employee compensation.
We may take advantage of these provisions until the last day of our fiscal year following the fifth anniversary of the completion of the IPO or such earlier time that we are no longer an emerging growth company. We would cease to be an emerging growth company upon the earliest of: (i) the last day of the first fiscal year in which our annual gross revenues are $1.07 billion or more; (ii) the date on which we have, during the previous three-year period, issued more than $1.0 billion in non-convertible debt securities; or (iii) the date on which we are deemed to be a “large accelerated filer,” which will occur as of the end of any fiscal year in which we (x) have an aggregate market value of our common stock held by non-affiliates of $700 million or more as of the last business day of our most recently completed second fiscal quarter, (y) have been required to file annual and quarterly reports under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), for a period of at least 12 months and (z) have filed at least one annual report pursuant to the Exchange Act.
We have elected to take advantage of some of the reduced disclosure obligations listed above in this prospectus, and may elect to take advantage of other reduced reporting requirements in future filings. In particular, we have elected to adopt the reduced disclosure with respect to our executive compensation disclosure. As a result of this election, the information that we provide stockholders may be different than you might get from other public companies.
The JOBS Act permits an emerging growth company like us to take advantage of an extended transition period to comply with new or revised accounting standards applicable to public companies. We have elected to “opt out” of this provision and, as a result, we will comply with new or revised accounting standards on the relevant dates on which adoption of such standards is required for public companies that are not emerging growth companies. This decision to opt out of the extended transition period under the JOBS Act is irrevocable.
Corporate Information
Tradeweb Markets Inc. was incorporated as a Delaware corporation on November 7, 2018. Our corporate headquarters are located at 1177 Avenue of the Americas, New York, New York 10036. Our telephone number is (646) 430-6000. Our principal website address is www.tradeweb.com. The information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website is deemed not to be incorporated in this prospectus or to be part of this prospectus.
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The Offering
Issuer
Tradeweb Markets Inc., a Delaware corporation.
Class A common stock offered by us
11,161,083 shares.
Option to purchase additional shares of Class A common stock
The underwriters have an option to purchase up to an aggregate of 1,674,162 additional shares of Class A common stock from us at the public offering price, less underwriting discounts and commissions. The underwriters can exercise this option at any time within 30 days from the date of this prospectus.
Class A common stock to be outstanding after this offering
81,903,336 shares (or 83,499,700 shares, if the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase additional shares of Class A common stock).
Class B common stock to be outstanding after this offering
96,933,192 shares, all of which are owned by the Refinitiv Direct Owner.
Class C common stock to be outstanding after this offering
7,989,983 shares, all of which are owned by certain Bank Stockholders (or 8,079,983 shares, if the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase additional shares of Class A common stock).
Class D common stock to be outstanding after this offering
38,628,768 shares, all of which are owned by Continuing LLC Owners (or 36,942,404 shares, if the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase additional shares of Class A common stock).
LLC Interests to be held by us after this offering
178,836,528 LLC Interests, representing a 79.3% economic interest in TWM LLC (or 180,432,892 LLC Interests, representing a 80.0% economic interest in TWM LLC, if the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase additional shares of Class A common stock).
Total LLC Interests to be outstanding after this offering
225,455,279 LLC Interests.
Voting rights
Each share of Class A common stock entitles its holder to one vote on all matters presented to our stockholders generally, representing an aggregate of 5.7% of the combined voting power of our issued and outstanding common stock upon completion of this offering (or 5.8%, if the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase additional shares of Class A common stock).
Each share of Class B common stock entitles its holder to ten votes on all matters presented to our stockholders generally, representing an aggregate of 67.1% of the combined voting power of our issued and outstanding common stock upon completion of this offering (or 67.8%, if the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase additional shares of Class A common stock). The Refinitiv Direct Owner owns all of our outstanding Class B common stock.
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Each share of Class C common stock entitles its holder to one vote on all matters presented to our stockholders generally representing an aggregate of 0.5% of the combined voting power of our issued and outstanding common stock upon completion of this offering (or 0.6%, if the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase additional shares of Class A common stock). Certain Bank Stockholders own all of our outstanding Class C common stock.
Each share of Class D common stock entitles its holder to ten votes on all matters presented to our stockholders generally, representing an aggregate of 26.7% of the combined voting power of our issued and outstanding common stock upon consummation of this offering (or 25.8%, if the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase additional shares of Class A common stock). Continuing LLC Owners own all of our outstanding Class D common stock.
Holders of all outstanding shares of our Class A common stock, Class B common stock, Class C common stock and Class D common stock will vote together as a single class on all matters presented to our stockholders for their vote or approval, except as otherwise required by applicable law. See “Description of Capital Stock.”
Combined voting power held by the Refinitiv Owners
83.0% (or 83.8%, if the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase additional shares of Class A common stock).
Combined voting power held by the Bank Stockholders
11.3% (or 10.2%, if the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase additional shares of Class A common stock).
Combined voting power held by management
0.1% (or 0.1%, if the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase additional shares of Class A common stock).
Controlled company
The Refinitiv Owners own a majority of the combined voting power in us. As a result, we are a “controlled company” within the meaning of the corporate governance standards of Nasdaq. See “Management — Director Independence and Controlled Company Exception.”
Dividend policy
Subject to legally available funds, we intend to continue to pay quarterly cash dividends on our Class A common stock and Class B common stock equal to $0.08 per share.
Because we are a holding company and all of our business is conducted through our subsidiaries, we expect to pay dividends, if any, from funds we receive from our subsidiaries. As the sole manager of TWM LLC, we intend to cause, and will rely on, TWM LLC to make distributions in respect of LLC Interests to fund our dividends. When TWM LLC makes such distributions, the Continuing LLC Owners will be entitled to receive equivalent distributions pro rata based on their economic interests in TWM LLC. If TWM LLC is unable to cause these subsidiaries to make distributions, it may have inadequate funds to distribute to us and we may be unable to fund our dividends.
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The declaration, amount and payment of any dividends will be at the discretion of our board of directors and subject to certain considerations. See “Dividend Policy.”
Ratio of shares of common stock to LLC Interests
The TWM LLC Agreement requires that TWM LLC at all times maintain (i) a one-to-one ratio between the number of shares of Class A common stock and Class B common stock issued by us and the number of LLC Interests owned by us and (ii) a one-to-one ratio between the number of shares of Class C common stock and Class D common stock issued by us and the number of LLC Interests owned by the holders of such Class C common stock and Class D common stock.
Redemption rights of holders of LLC Interests/exchange rights of holders of Class B common stock and Class D common stock
The Continuing LLC Owners, from time to time, may require TWM LLC to redeem all or a portion of their LLC Interests for newly issued shares of Class A common stock or Class B common stock on a one-for-one basis in accordance with the terms of the TWM LLC Agreement (and such holders’ shares of Class C common stock or Class D common stock, as the case may be, will be cancelled on a one-for-one basis upon any such issuance).
In the event of such election by a Continuing LLC Owner, we may, at our option, effect a direct exchange of Class A common stock or Class B common stock, as the case may be, for such LLC Interests of such Continuing LLC Owner in lieu of such redemption. In addition, Tradeweb’s board of directors, which includes directors who hold LLC Interests or are affiliated with holders of LLC Interests and may include such directors in the future, may, at its option, instead of the foregoing redemptions of LLC Interests, cause the Company to make a cash payment equal to the volume weighted average market price of one share of our Class A common stock for each LLC Interest redeemed or exchanged (subject to customary adjustments, including for stock splits, stock dividends and reclassifications) in accordance with the terms of the TWM LLC Agreement. See “Certain Relationships and Related Party Transactions — Related Party Transactions Entered Into in Connection With the IPO — TWM LLC Agreement.”
The Refinitiv Direct Owner and other future holders of Class B common stock may from time to time exchange all or a portion of their shares of our Class B common stock for newly issued shares of Class A common stock on a one-for-one basis (in which case their shares of Class B common stock will be cancelled on a one-for-one basis upon any such issuance). Furthermore, the Continuing LLC Owners that hold shares of Class D common stock may from time to time exchange all or a portion of their shares of our Class D common stock for newly issued shares of Class C common stock on a one-for-one basis (in which case their shares of Class D common stock will be cancelled on a one-for-one basis upon such issuance).
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Conversion
Each share of our Class B common stock will automatically convert into one share of Class A common stock and each share of our Class D common stock will automatically convert into one share of our Class C common stock (i) immediately prior to any sale or other transfer of such share by a holder or its permitted transferees to a non-permitted transferee, or (ii) once the Refinitiv Owners and their affiliates together no longer beneficially own a number of shares of our common stock and LLC Interests that together entitle them to at least 10% of TWM LLC’s economic interests. In addition, with respect to each Bank Stockholder that holds shares of Class D common stock, immediately prior to the occurrence of any event that would cause the combined voting power held by such Bank Stockholder to exceed 4.9%, the minimum number of shares of Class D common stock of such Bank Stockholder that would need to convert into shares of Class C common stock such that the combined voting power held by such Bank Stockholder would not exceed 4.9% will automatically convert into shares of Class C common stock. Holders of LLC Interests that receive shares of Class C common stock upon any such conversion may continue to elect to have their LLC Interests redeemed for newly issued shares of Class A common stock as described above (in which case their shares of Class C common stock will be cancelled on a one-for-one basis upon such issuance). See “Description of Capital Stock.”
Tax Receivable Agreement
We entered into the Tax Receivable Agreement with TWM LLC and the Continuing LLC Owners that provides for the payment by Tradeweb to a Continuing LLC Owner of 50% of the amount of U.S. federal, state and local income or franchise tax savings, if any, that Tradeweb actually realizes (or in some circumstances is deemed to realize) as a result of (i) increases in the tax basis of TWM LLC’s assets resulting from (a) the purchase of LLC Interests from such Continuing LLC Owner, including with the net proceeds from the IPO, the October 2019 follow-on offering and this offering or (b) redemptions or exchanges by such Continuing LLC Owner of LLC Interests for shares of our Class A common stock or Class B common stock or for cash, as applicable, as described above under “— Redemption rights of holders of LLC Interests/exchange rights of holders of Class B common stock and Class D common stock” and (ii) certain other tax benefits related to our making payments under the Tax Receivable Agreement. See “Certain Relationships and Related Party Transactions — Related Party Transactions Entered Into in Connection With the IPO — Tax Receivable Agreement.”
Registration Rights Agreement
Pursuant to the Registration Rights Agreement, we granted the Refinitiv Owners, the Bank Stockholders, their affiliates and certain of their transferees the right, under certain circumstances and subject to certain restrictions, to require us to register under the Securities Act shares of Class A common stock. See “Certain Relationships and Related Party Transactions — Related Party Transactions Entered Into in Connection With the IPO —  Registration Rights Agreement.”
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Use of proceeds
We estimate that the net proceeds to us from this offering, after deducting underwriting discounts, but before deducting estimated offering expenses, will be approximately $544.6 million (or approximately $626.3 million, if the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase additional shares of Class A common stock).
We intend to use the net proceeds that we receive from this offering to purchase (i) 10,642,463 issued and outstanding LLC Interests (or 12,238,827 LLC Interests, if the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase additional shares of Class A common stock) from the Selling LLC Owners (and cancel the corresponding shares of common stock held by such Selling LLC Owners) and (ii) 518,620 issued and outstanding shares of Class A common stock (or 596,418 shares of Class A common stock, if the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase additional shares of Class A common stock) from certain of our executive officers following the Net Exercise, as applicable (and cancel such shares of Class A common stock), at a purchase price per interest and share equal to the public offering price per share of our Class A common stock, less the underwriting discounts and commissions payable thereon. See “Use of Proceeds” and “Certain Relationships and Related Party Transactions — Transactions With Certain Original LLC Owners” for additional information.
Conflicts of interest
Because affiliates of Barclays Capital Inc., Citigroup Global Markets Inc., Deutsche Bank Securities Inc., Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC, Morgan Stanley & Co. LLC and Wells Fargo Securities, LLC will each receive more than 5.0% of the net proceeds from this offering, Barclays Capital Inc., Citigroup Global Markets Inc., Deutsche Bank Securities Inc., Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC, Morgan Stanley & Co. LLC and Wells Fargo Securities, LLC are deemed to have a “conflict of interest” pursuant to FINRA Rule 5121(f)(5)(C)(ii). See “Use of Proceeds.” Accordingly, this offering will be made in compliance with the applicable provisions of Rule 5121. As such, any underwriter that has a conflict of interest pursuant to Rule 5121 will not confirm sales to accounts in which it exercises discretionary authority without the prior written consent of the customer.
Nasdaq symbol
“TW.”
Risk factors
Investing in our Class A common stock involves a high degree of risk. See “Risk Factors” in this prospectus for a discussion of factors you should carefully consider before investing in our Class A common stock.
The number of shares of our common stock to be issued and outstanding after this offering and related ownership information (i) is based on 224,864,846 shares of common stock outstanding as of March 31, 2020, (ii) gives effect to the Net Exercise and (iii) excludes approximately:

13,477,415 shares of Class A common stock issuable upon the exercise of outstanding options under our Amended and Restated Tradeweb Markets Inc. 2018 Stock Option Plan (the “Option Plan”) as of April 16, 2020 at a weighted-average exercise price of $21.94 per share, which options may be exercised on a cashless or net settlement basis;
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105,365 shares of Class A common stock issued as of April 16, 2020 following the net exercise of vested options pursuant to the Option Plan, which do not include shares of Class A common stock issued in the Net Exercise;

3,511,088 shares of Class A common stock underlying performance based restricted share units issued under our Amended & Restated Tradeweb Markets Inc. PRSU Plan (the “PRSU Plan”);

8,461,212 shares of Class A common stock reserved for future issuance under our Option Plan and our 2019 Omnibus Equity Incentive Plan (the “2019 Equity Incentive Plan”);

with respect to the Refinitiv Direct Owner, 96,933,192 shares of Class A common stock reserved for future issuance upon (i) exchange of Class B common stock by the Refinitiv Direct Owner or (ii) conversion of the Class B common stock; and

with respect to the Continuing LLC Owners, (i) 46,618,751 shares of Class A common stock and 38,628,768 shares of Class B common stock reserved for future issuance upon the redemption or exchange of LLC Interests by Continuing LLC Owners and (ii) 38,628,768 shares of Class C common stock reserved for future issuance upon (x) exchange of Class D common stock by Continuing LLC Owners or (y) conversion of the Class D common stock. See “— Redemption rights of holders of LLC Interests/exchange rights of holders of Class B common stock and Class D common stock.”
Unless otherwise stated or the context otherwise requires, all information contained in this prospectus:

assumes no exercise of outstanding options (other than the Net Exercise);

assumes the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares of Class A common stock has not been exercised; and

gives effect to the application of the net proceeds from this offering as described under “Use of Proceeds.”
Unless otherwise stated or the context otherwise requires, references in this prospectus to the exercise of the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares of Class A common stock give effect to the use of the net proceeds therefrom.
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Summary Historical and Pro Forma Consolidated Financial and Other Data
The following tables present the summary historical and pro forma consolidated financial and other data for Tradeweb Markets Inc. and its subsidiaries and Tradeweb Markets LLC and its subsidiaries for the periods indicated below. TWM LLC is the predecessor of the issuer, Tradeweb Markets Inc., for financial reporting purposes. Prior to the consummation of the Reorganization Transactions, Tradeweb Markets Inc. did not conduct any activities other than those incident to its formation and the IPO. As a result of the Reorganization Transactions completed in connection with the IPO, Tradeweb Markets Inc. became the sole manager of Tradeweb Markets LLC whose only material assets consist of its equity interest in Tradeweb Markets LLC and related deferred tax assets. As a result, Tradeweb Markets Inc. consolidates the financial results of Tradeweb Markets LLC and its subsidiaries. Accordingly, the historical consolidated financial data presented below relating to periods prior to and including March 31, 2019 reflect the results of operations, financial position and cash flows of Tradeweb Markets LLC and its subsidiaries. The historical consolidated financial data presented below relating to periods beginning on April 1, 2019, and through and including December 31, 2019 reflect the results of operations, financial position and cash flows of Tradeweb Markets Inc. and its subsidiaries, including the consolidation of its investment in Tradeweb Markets LLC. See “Basis of Presentation.”
The summary consolidated statement of income data for the year ended December 31, 2019, the 2018 Successor Period, the 2018 Predecessor Period and the year ended December 31, 2017 and the summary consolidated statement of financial condition data as of December 31, 2019 and 2018 are derived from the audited consolidated financial statements of Tradeweb Markets Inc. incorporated by reference in this prospectus. The summary consolidated statement of financial condition as of December 31, 2017 is derived from the consolidated financial statements of Tradeweb Markets LLC not included or incorporated by reference in this prospectus.
As discussed elsewhere in this prospectus, as a result of the Refinitiv Transaction, we revalued our assets and liabilities based on their fair values as of the closing date of the Refinitiv Transaction in accordance with the acquisition method of accounting. Due to the change in the basis of accounting resulting from the application of pushdown accounting, we are required to present separately the financial information for the period beginning on October 1, 2018, and through and including December 31, 2019, which we refer to as the “Successor period,” and the financial information for the periods prior to, and including, September 30, 2018, which we refer to as the “Predecessor period.” Certain financial information of the Successor period is not comparable to that of the Predecessor period. For a discussion of our Successor and Predecessor periods, see “Basis of Presentation” elsewhere herein and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations  —  Effects of Pushdown Accounting on our Financial Statements” in the 2019 Form 10-K, incorporated by reference in this prospectus.
The results of operations for the periods presented below are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected for any future period. The information set forth below should be read together with “Basis of Presentation” elsewhere herein and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations ” and our consolidated financial statements and related notes thereto appearing in the 2019 Form 10-K, incorporated by reference in this prospectus.
The summary unaudited pro forma consolidated financial data of Tradeweb Markets Inc. presented below have been derived from our unaudited pro forma consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. The summary unaudited pro forma consolidated financial data as of and for the year ended December 31, 2019 give effect to the Transactions, including this offering, as if all such transactions had occurred on January 1, 2019, in the case of the summary unaudited pro forma consolidated statement of income data, and as of December 31, 2019, in the case of the summary unaudited pro forma consolidated statement of financial condition data. The unaudited pro forma consolidated financial data includes various estimates which are subject to material change and may not be indicative of what our operations or financial position would have been had the Transactions, including this offering, taken place on the dates indicated, or that may be expected to occur in the future. See “Unaudited Pro Forma Consolidated Financial Information” for a complete description of the adjustments and assumptions underlying the summary unaudited pro forma consolidated financial data.
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Historical
Pro Forma(1)
Successor
Predecessor
Year Ended
December 31,
2019
Year Ended
December 31,
2019
October 1,
2018 to
December 31,
2018
January 1,
2018 to
September 30,
2018
Year Ended
December 31,
2017
(in thousands)
Statement of Income:
Revenues
Transaction fees
$ 423,583 $ 423,583 $ 97,130 $ 273,751 $ 267,020
Subscription fees(2)
194,366 194,366 46,519 143,981 194,534
Commissions
149,365 149,365 32,840 79,830 96,745
Other
8,252 8,252 2,148 8,209 4,669
Gross revenue
775,566 775,566 178,637 505,771 562,968
Contingent consideration(3)
(26,830) (58,520)
Net revenue
775,566 775,566 178,637 478,941 504,448
Expenses
Employee compensation and
benefits
329,457 329,457 80,436 209,053 248,963
Depreciation and amortization
139,330 139,330 33,020 48,808 68,615
Technology and communications
39,285 39,285 9,907 26,598 30,013
General and administrative
34,960 34,960 11,837 23,056 33,973
Professional fees
28,029 28,029 8,194 20,360 19,351
Occupancy
14,686 14,686 3,308 10,732 14,441
Total expenses
585,747 585,747 146,702 338,607 415,356
Operating income
189,819 189,819 31,935 140,334 89,092
Tax receivable agreement liability adjustment
33,134 33,134
Net interest income
2,373 2,373 787 1,726 685
Income before taxes
225,326 225,326 32,722 142,060 89,777
Provision for income taxes
(60,838) (52,302) (3,415) (11,900) (6,129)
Net income
$ 164,488 $ 173,024 $ 29,307 $ 130,160 $ 83,648
Net income attributable to
non-controlling interests
$ 40,063 $ 46,903 $ $ $
Net income attributable to Tradeweb
Markets Inc.
$ 124,425 $ 83,769 $ $ $
Historical
Pro Forma(1)
Successor
Predecessor
Year Ended
December 31,
2019
As of
December 31,
2019
As of
December 31,
2018
As of
December 31,
2017
(in thousands)
Statement of Financial Condition Data:
Cash and cash equivalents(4)
$ 457,658 $ 460,711 $ 410,104 $ 352,598
Total assets(4)
5,218,420 5,095,334 4,997,139 1,316,887
Total liabilities
568,803 502,589 410,626 317,118
Non-controlling interests
994,396 1,214,157
Total equity/members’ capital(4)
4,649,617 4,592,745 4,572,334 986,468
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Successor
Predecessor
Year Ended
December 31,
2019
October 1,
2018 to
December 31,
2018
January 1,
2018 to
September 30,
2018
Year Ended
December 31,
2017
(dollars in thousands)
Other Financial Data:
Cash flow from operating activities
$ 311,003 $ 112,556 $ 164,828 $ 224,580
Free Cash Flow(5)
$ 266,541 $ 96,310 $ 138,978 $ 183,962
Adjusted EBITDA(6)
$ 353,162 $ 65,308 $ 214,091 $ 215,185
Adjusted EBITDA margin(6)
45.5% 36.6% 42.3% 38.2%
Adjusted Net Income(6)
$ 230,935 $ 40,839 $ 137,327 $ 131,369
Year Ended
December 31,
2019
Year Ended
December 31,
2018
Year Ended
December 31,
2017
(in millions)
Operating Data:
Average Daily Volumes:
Rates
$ 489,547 $ 353,990 $ 253,307
Credit
14,795 12,664 7,552
Equities
7,809 7,796 4,814
Money markets
214,351 174,085 132,134
Total
$ 726,501 $ 548,535 $ 397,807
(1)
Pro forma figures give effect to the Transactions, including this offering. See “Unaudited Pro Forma Consolidated Financial Information” for a detailed presentation of the unaudited pro forma information, including a description of the transactions and assumptions underlying the pro forma adjustments.
(2)
Subscription fees for the pro forma year ended December 31, 2019, the year ended December 31, 2019, the 2018 Successor Period, the 2018 Predecessor Period and the year ended December 31, 2017 include $55.6 million, $55.6 million, $13.5 million, $36.9 million and $50.1 million, respectively, of Refinitiv (formerly Thomson Reuters) market data fees.
(3)
In 2014, we issued equity to certain of the Bank Stockholders and management as a result of a capital contribution to facilitate our expansion into new credit products. The equity vested on July 31, 2018 upon the achievement of specific revenue earnout milestones related to the new credit products. Prior to the July 31, 2018 vesting, we recognized contingent consideration as a contra-revenue adjustment, which partially offset gross revenue for the periods presented.
(4)
Historical and pro forma cash and cash equivalents, total assets and total equity do not reflect the cash dividend of $0.08 per share paid to holders of Class A common stock and Class B common stock on March 16, 2020. See “Dividend Policy.”
(5)
In addition to cash flow from operating activities presented in accordance with GAAP, we use Free Cash Flow to measure liquidity. Free Cash Flow is defined as cash flow from operating activities less expenditures for capitalized software development costs and furniture, equipment and leasehold improvements.
We present Free Cash Flow because we believe it is a useful indicator of liquidity that provides information to management and investors about the amount of cash generated from our core operations after expenditures for capitalized software development costs and furniture, equipment and leasehold improvements.
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Free Cash Flow has limitations as an analytical tool, and you should not consider Free Cash Flow in isolation or as an alternative to cash flow from operating activities or any other liquidity measure determined in accordance with GAAP. For a discussion of these limitations, see “Use of Non-GAAP Financial Measures.” You are encouraged to evaluate each adjustment. In addition, in evaluating Free Cash Flow, you should be aware that in the future, we may incur expenditures similar to the adjustments in the presentation of Free Cash Flow. In addition, Free Cash Flow may not be comparable to similarly titled measures used by other companies in our industry or across different industries.
The table set forth below presents a reconciliation of our cash flow from operating activities to Free Cash Flow for the year ended December 31, 2019, the 2018 Successor Period, the 2018 Predecessor Period and the year ended December 31, 2017:
Successor
Predecessor
Year Ended
December 31,
2019
October 1,
2018 to
December 31,
2018
January 1,
2018 to
September 30,
2018
Year Ended
December 31,
2017
(in thousands)
Cash flow from operating activities
$ 311,003 $ 112,556 $ 164,828 $ 224,580
Less: Capitalization of software development costs
(28,681) (7,156) (19,523) (27,157)
Less: Purchases of furniture, equipment and leasehold improvements
(15,781) (9,090) (6,327) (13,461)
Free Cash Flow
$ 266,541 $ 96,310 $ 138,978 $ 183,962
(6)
In addition to net income and net income attributable to Tradeweb Markets Inc., each presented in accordance with GAAP, we present Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted EBITDA margin, Adjusted EBIT and Adjusted EBIT margin as measures of our operating performance and Adjusted Net Income and Adjusted Diluted EPS as measures of our profitability.
Adjusted EBITDA is defined as net income before contingent consideration, net interest income, provision for income taxes and depreciation and amortization, adjusted for the impact of certain other items, including certain stock-based compensation expense and payroll taxes associated with certain option exercises, tax receivable agreement liability adjustments and gains and losses from outstanding foreign exchange forward contracts and the revaluation of foreign denominated cash. Adjusted EBIT is defined as net income before contingent consideration, net interest income and provision for income taxes, adjusted for the impact of certain other items, including certain stock-based compensation expense and payroll taxes associated with certain option exercises, tax receivable agreement liability adjustments, acquisition and Refinitiv Transaction-related depreciation and amortization and gains and losses from outstanding foreign exchange forward contracts and the revaluation of foreign denominated cash. Adjusted EBITDA margin and Adjusted EBIT margin are defined as Adjusted EBITDA and Adjusted EBIT, respectively, divided by gross revenue for the applicable period. We present Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted EBITDA margin, Adjusted EBIT and Adjusted EBIT margin because we believe they assist investors and analysts in comparing our operating performance across reporting periods on a consistent basis by excluding items that we do not believe are indicative of our core operating performance. For example, we exclude contingent consideration because it is equity settled and its balance is based on our value at a certain time and may not reflect our actual operating performance. We also exclude non-cash stock-based compensation expense associated with options awarded to management and other employees prior to the IPO (the “Special Option Award”) and options awarded to management and other employees following the IPO during 2019, as well as payroll taxes associated with exercises of such options during the applicable period. We believe it is useful to exclude this stock-based compensation expense and associated payroll taxes because the amount of expense associated with the Special Option Award and the post-IPO option awards in 2019 may not
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directly correlate to the underlying performance of our business and will vary across periods. We do not expect to exclude any non-cash stock-based compensation expense associated with options that may be awarded to management and other employees during 2020. In addition, we exclude the tax receivable agreement liability adjustments, because we believe it is useful to exclude the recognition of income during a period due to changes in the tax receivable agreement liability recorded in our consolidated statement of financial condition as a result of changes in the mix of earnings, tax legislation and tax rates in various jurisdictions, or other factors that may impact our tax savings, which may not directly correlate to the underlying performance of our business and will vary across periods. With respect to Adjusted EBIT and Adjusted EBIT margin, we believe it is useful to exclude the depreciation and amortization of acquisition related tangible and intangible assets resulting from certain acquisitions, the Refinitiv Transaction and the application of pushdown accounting in order to facilitate a period-over-period comparison of our financial performance.
Management and our board of directors use Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted EBITDA margin, Adjusted EBIT and Adjusted EBIT margin to assess our financial performance and believe it is helpful in highlighting trends in our core operating performance, while other measures can differ significantly depending on long-term strategic decisions regarding capital structure, the tax jurisdictions in which we operate and capital investments. Further, our executive incentive compensation is based in part on components of Adjusted EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA margin.
We present Adjusted Net Income and Adjusted Diluted EPS for Tradeweb Markets Inc. for post-IPO periods and Tradeweb Markets LLC for pre-IPO periods. As discussed below, because Adjusted Net Income and Adjusted Diluted EPS give effect to certain tax related adjustments to reflect an assumed effective tax rate for all periods presented and, for post-IPO periods, assumes all LLC Interests held by non-controlling interests are exchanged for shares of Class A or Class B common stock, we believe that Adjusted Net Income and Adjusted Diluted EPS for Tradeweb Markets Inc. and Tradeweb Markets LLC are comparable.
Adjusted Net Income is defined as net income attributable to Tradeweb Markets Inc. assuming the full exchange of all outstanding LLC Interests held by non-controlling interests for shares of Class A common stock or Class B common stock of Tradeweb Markets Inc., for post-IPO periods, and net income, for pre-IPO periods, in each case adjusted for contingent consideration, certain stock-based compensation expense and payroll taxes associated with certain option exercises, tax receivable liability adjustments, acquisition and Refinitiv Transaction-related depreciation and amortization and gains and losses from outstanding foreign exchange forward contracts and the revaluation of foreign denominated cash. Adjusted Net Income also gives effect to certain tax related adjustments to reflect an assumed effective tax rate and, for pre-IPO periods, assumes TWM LLC was subject to a corporate tax rate for the periods presented. Adjusted Diluted EPS is defined as Adjusted Net Income divided by the diluted weighted average number of shares of Class A common stock and Class B common stock outstanding for the applicable period, assuming the full exchange of all outstanding LLC Interests held by non-controlling interests for shares of Class A common stock or Class B common stock, for post-IPO periods, and the diluted weighted average number of shares of TWM LLC outstanding for the applicable period, for pre-IPO periods. The diluted weighted average number of shares outstanding for the pre-IPO periods and post-IPO periods give effect to potentially dilutive securities using the treasury stock method.
We use Adjusted Net Income and Adjusted Diluted EPS as supplemental metrics to evaluate our business performance in a way that also considers our ability to generate profit without the impact of certain items. We exclude contingent consideration, stock-based compensation expense associated with the Special Option Award and the post-IPO option awards in 2019 and payroll taxes associated with exercises of such options, tax receivable liability adjustments and acquisition and Refinitiv Transaction-related depreciation and amortization for the reasons described above. Each of the normal recurring adjustments and other adjustments described in the definition of Adjusted Net Income helps to provide management with a measure of our operating performance over time by removing items that are not related to day-to-day operations or are non-cash expenses. In addition to excluding items that are non-recurring or may not be indicative of our ongoing operating performance, by assuming
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the full exchange of all outstanding LLC Interests held by non-controlling interests, we believe that Adjusted Net Income and Adjusted Diluted EPS for Tradeweb Markets Inc. facilitate comparisons with other companies that have different organizational and tax structures, as well as comparisons period over period, because it eliminates the effect of any changes in net income attributable to Tradeweb Markets Inc. driven by increases in our ownership of TWM LLC, which are unrelated to our operating performance.
Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted EBITDA margin, Adjusted EBIT, Adjusted EBIT margin, Adjusted Net Income and Adjusted Diluted EPS have limitations as analytical tools, and you should not consider these non-GAAP financial measures in isolation or as alternatives to net income attributable to Tradeweb Markets Inc., net income, operating income, gross margin, earnings per share or any other financial measure derived in accordance with GAAP. For a discussion of these limitations, see “Use of Non-GAAP Financial Measures.” You are encouraged to evaluate each adjustment and, as applicable, the reasons we consider it appropriate for supplemental analysis. In addition, in evaluating Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted EBITDA margin, Adjusted EBIT, Adjusted EBIT margin, Adjusted Net Income and Adjusted Diluted EPS you should be aware that in the future, we may incur expenses similar to the adjustments in the presentation of these non-GAAP financial measures. Our presentation of Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted EBITDA margin, Adjusted EBIT, Adjusted EBIT margin, Adjusted Net Income and Adjusted Diluted EPS should not be construed as an inference that our future results will be unaffected by unusual or non-recurring items. In addition, Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted EBITDA margin, Adjusted EBIT, Adjusted EBIT margin, Adjusted Net Income and Adjusted Diluted EPS may not be comparable to similarly titled measures used by other companies in our industry or across different industries.
The table set forth below presents a reconciliation of net income to Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted EBIT, Adjusted EBITDA margin and Adjusted EBIT margin for the year ended December 31, 2019, the 2018 Successor Period, the 2018 Predecessor Period and the year ended December 31, 2017:
Successor
Predecessor
Year Ended
December 31,
2019
October 1,
2018 to
December 31,
2018
January 1,
2018 to
September 30,
2018
Year Ended
December 31,
2017
(in thousands)
Net income
$ 173,024 $ 29,307 $ 130,160 $ 83,648
Contingent consideration
26,830 58,520
Net interest income
(2,373) (787) (1,726) (685)
Depreciation and amortization
139,330 33,020 48,808 68,615
Stock-based compensation expense(a)
25,098
Provision for income taxes
52,302 3,415 11,900 6,129
Unrealized foreign exchange (gains)/losses
(2,310) 263 (960) (364)
(Gain)/loss from revaluation of foreign denominated cash(b)
1,225 90 (921) (678)
Tax receivable agreement liability adjustment(c)
(33,134)
Adjusted EBITDA
$ 353,162 $ 65,308 $ 214,091 $ 215,185
Less: Depreciation and amortization
(139,330) (33,020) (48,808) (68,615)
Add: Acquisition and Refinitiv Transaction related D&A(d)
97,565 22,413 19,576 31,236
Adjusted EBIT
311,397 54,701 184,859 177,806
Adjusted EBITDA margin(e)
45.5% 36.6% 42.3% 38.2%
Adjusted EBIT margin(e)
40.2% 30.6% 36.5% 31.6%
(a)
Represents non-cash stock-based compensation expense associated with the Special Option Award and post-IPO options awarded in 2019 and payroll taxes associated with exercises of such options during the applicable period.
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(b)
Represents foreign exchange gain or loss from the revaluation of cash denominated in a different currency than the entity’s functional currency.
(c)
Represents income recognized during the applicable period due to changes in the tax receivable agreement liability recorded in the statement of financial condition as a result of changes in the mix of earnings, tax legislation and tax rates in various jurisdictions which impacted our tax savings.
(d)
Represents acquisition-related intangibles amortization and increased tangible asset and capitalized software depreciation and amortization resulting from the Refinitiv Transaction and the application of pushdown accounting (where all assets were marked to fair value as of the closing date of the Refinitiv Transaction).
(e)
Adjusted EBITDA margin and Adjusted EBIT margin are defined as Adjusted EBITDA and Adjusted EBIT, respectively, divided by gross revenue for the applicable period.
The table set forth below provides a reconciliation of net income attributable to Tradeweb Markets Inc. and net income, as applicable, to Adjusted Net Income and Adjusted Diluted EPS for the year ended December 31, 2019, the 2018 Successor Period, the 2018 Predecessor Period and the year ended December 31, 2017:
Successor
Predecessor
Year Ended
December 31,
2019
October 1,
2018 to
December 31,
2018
January 1,
2018 to
September 30,
2018
Year Ended
December 31,
2017
(in thousands except share and per share amounts)
Earnings per diluted share(a)
$ 0.19(1)/ $ 0.13(1) $ 0.60(1) $ 0.39(1)
0.54(2)
Pre-IPO net income attributable to Tradeweb Markets LLC(a)
42,352(1) 29,307(1) 130,160(1) 83,648(1)
Add: Net income attributable to Tradeweb Markets Inc.(a)
83,769(2)
Add: Net income attributable to non-controlling interests(a)(b)
46,903(2)
Net income
173,024(1)(2) 29,307(1) 130,160(1) 83,648(1)
Provision for income taxes
52,302 3,415 11,900 6,129
Contingent consideration
26,830 58,520
Acquisition and Refinitiv Transaction
related D&A(c)
97,565 22,413 19,576 31,236
Stock-based compensation expense(d)
25,098
Unrealized foreign exchange (gains)/losses 
(2,310) 263 (960) (364)
(Gain)/loss from revaluation of foreign denominated cash(e)
1,225 90 (921) (678)
Tax receivable agreement liability
adjustment(f)
(33,134)
Adjusted Net Income before income taxes
313,770 55,488 186,585 178,491
Adjusted income taxes(g)
(82,835) (14,649) (49,258) (47,122)
Adjusted Net Income
$ 230,935 $ 40,839 $ 137,327 $ 131,369
Adjusted Diluted EPS(a)(h)
$ 0.23(1)/ $ 0.18(1) $ 0.64(1) $ 0.62(1)
0.77(2)
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(a)
In April 2019, we completed the Reorganization Transactions and the IPO. As a result, certain earnings information is being presented separately for Tradeweb Markets LLC and Tradeweb Markets Inc.
(1)
Presents information for Tradeweb Markets LLC (pre-IPO period).
(2)
Presents information for Tradeweb Markets Inc. (post-IPO period).
See “Basis of Presentation” elsewhere herein and “Note 18 — Earnings Per Share” to the audited consolidated financial statements of Tradeweb Markets Inc. appearing in the 2019 Form 10-K, incorporated by reference in this prospectus.
(b)
For post-IPO periods, represents the reallocation of net income attributable to non-controlling interests from the assumed exchange of all outstanding LLC Interests held by non-controlling interests for shares of Class A or Class B common stock.
(c)
Represents acquisition-related intangibles amortization and increased tangible asset and capitalized software depreciation and amortization resulting from the Refinitiv Transaction and the application of pushdown accounting (where all assets were marked to fair value as of the closing date of the Refinitiv Transaction).
(d)
Represents non-cash stock-based compensation expense associated with the Special Option Award and post-IPO options awarded in 2019 and payroll taxes associated with exercises of such options during the applicable period.
(e)
Represents foreign exchange gain or loss from the revaluation of cash denominated in a different currency than the entity’s functional currency.
(f)
Represents income recognized during the applicable period due to changes in the tax receivable agreement liability recorded in the statement of financial condition as a result of changes in the mix of earnings, tax legislation and tax rates in various jurisdictions which impacted our tax savings.
(g)
Represents corporate income taxes at an assumed effective tax rate of 26.4% for all periods presented applied to Adjusted Net Income before income taxes. For pre-IPO periods, this adjustment assumes Tradeweb Markets LLC was subject to a corporate tax rate for the periods presented.
(h)
Due to the Reorganization Transactions and the IPO completed in April 2019, shares outstanding during the year ended December 31, 2019 represent shares of TWM LLC (pre-IPO period) and shares of Class A and Class B common stock of Tradeweb Markets Inc. (post-IPO period).
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The following table summarizes the calculation of Adjusted Diluted EPS for all periods presented:
Successor
Predecessor
Pre-IPO
Period
Post-IPO
Period
Three Months
Ended
March 31,
2019
Nine Months
Ended
December 31,
2019
October 1,
2018 to
December 31,
2018
January 1,
2018 to
September 30,
2018
Year Ended
December 31,
2017
Diluted weighted average TWM LLC shares outstanding
223,320,457 222,243,851 215,365,920 212,568,635
Diluted weighted average shares of Class A
and Class B common stock outstanding
156,540,246
Assumed exchange of LLC interests for shares of Class A or Class B common stock(1)
74,279,741
Adjusted diluted weighted average shares outstanding
223,320,457 230,819,987 222,243,851 215,365,920 212,568,635
Adjusted Net Income (in thousands)
$ 52,190 $ 178,745 $ 40,839 $ 137,327 $ 131,369
Adjusted Diluted EPS
$ 0.23 $ 0.77 $ 0.18 $ 0.64 $ 0.62
(1)
Assumes the full exchange of all outstanding LLC Interests held by non-controlling interests for shares of Class A or Class B common stock, resulting in the elimination of the non-controlling interests and recognition of the net income attributable to non-controlling interests.
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RISK FACTORS
Investing in our Class A common stock involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the following risks, together with all of the other information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, including the information set forth in “Prospectus Summary — Recent Developments — COVID-19,” before deciding to invest in our Class A common stock. Our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected by any of these risks or uncertainties. In that case, the trading price of our Class A common stock could decline, and you may lose all or part of your investment.
Risks Relating to Our Business and Industry
Economic, political and market conditions may reduce trading volumes, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The electronic financial services industry is, by its nature, risky and volatile. Our business performance is impacted by a number of global and regional factors that are generally beyond our control. The occurrence of, or uncertainty related to, any one of the following factors may cause a substantial decline in the U.S. and/or global financial markets, which could result in reduced trading volumes and profitability for our business:

economic, political and social conditions in the United States, the United Kingdom, the European Union and/or its member states, China or other major economies around the world, including, among other things, the strength and direction of the U.S. and/or global economy, the exit by the United Kingdom from the European Union (“Brexit”), the prolonged shutdown of the U.S. government and the upcoming 2020 U.S. presidential election;

the effect of Federal Reserve Board and other central banks’ monetary policy, increased capital requirements for banks and other financial institutions and other regulatory requirements;

adverse market conditions, including unforeseen market closures or other disruptions in trading;

broad trends in business and finance, including the amount of new issuances and changes in investment patterns and priorities;

the level and volatility of interest rates;

consolidation or contraction in the number, and changes in the financial strength, of market participants;

concerns over a potential recession (in the United States or globally), inflation and weakening consumer and investor confidence levels;

the availability of capital for borrowings and investments by our clients;

liquidity concerns, including concerns over credit default or bankruptcy of one or more sovereign nations or corporate entities;

legislative, regulatory or government policy changes, including changes to financial industry regulations and tax laws that could limit the ability of market participants to engage in a wider array of trading activities;

actual or threatened trade war, including between the United States and China, or other governmental action related to tariffs, international trade agreements or trade policies; and

catastrophic events, such as natural disasters, extreme weather events, actual or threatened acts of war, terrorism or other armed hostilities or outbreaks of pandemic or contagious diseases, such as Ebola, Zika, avian flu, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), H1N1 (swine flu), the novel coronavirus (COVID-19), and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS).
These factors also affect the degree of volatility (the magnitude and frequency of fluctuations) in the U.S. and/or global financial markets, including in the prices and trading volumes of the products traded on our platforms. Volatility increases the need to hedge price risk and creates opportunities for investment and speculative or arbitrage trading, and thus increases trading volumes. Although we generally experience
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increased trading volumes across our marketplaces during periods of volatility, use of our platforms and demand for our solutions may decline during periods of significant volatility as market participants in rapidly moving markets may seek to negotiate trades and access information directly over the telephone instead of electronically.
In the event of stagnant or deteriorating economic conditions or periods of instability or prolonged stability or decreased activity in the U.S. and/or global financial markets, we could experience lower trading volumes. A general decline in trading volumes across our marketplaces would lower revenues and could materially adversely affect our results of operations if we are unable to offset falling volumes through changes in our fee structure. If trading volumes decline substantially or for a sustained period, the critical mass of transaction volume necessary to support viable markets and generate valuable data could be jeopardized, which, in turn, could further discourage clients to use our platforms and solutions and further accelerate the decline in trading volumes. Additionally, if our total market share decreases relative to our competitors, our trading venues may be viewed as less attractive sources of liquidity. If our marketplaces are perceived to be less liquid, we could lose further trading volumes and our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected.
There have been significant declines in trading volumes in the financial markets generally in the past and there may be similar declines in trading volumes generally or across our marketplaces in particular in the future. During periods of lower trading volumes or during an economic downturn, our clients may become more price sensitive and exert pricing pressure on us, and we may be forced to reduce our fees or to maintain our fees during periods of increased costs. Because our cost structure is largely fixed, if use of our platforms and demand for our solutions decline for any reason or if we are forced to reduce fees, we may not be able to adjust our cost structure to counteract the associated decline in revenues, which would materially harm our profitability.
Failure to compete successfully could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We face intense competition in both the financial services industry generally and the markets that we serve in particular, and we expect competition with a broad range of competitors to continue to intensify in the future. Within the electronic financial services industry in which we operate, we compete based on our ability to provide a broad range of solutions, trading venues with a broad network of market participants and deep liquidity, a competitive fee structure and comprehensive pre-trade, trade and post-trade functionality, as well as the reliability, security and ease of use of our platforms and solutions.
We primarily compete with other electronic trading platforms and trading business conducted directly between dealers and their institutional, wholesale and retail client counterparties over telephone, email or instant messaging. We also compete with securities and futures exchanges, other inter-dealer brokers and single bank systems. For example, our trading platforms face existing and potential competition from large exchanges, which have in recent years developed electronic capabilities in-house or through acquisitions. We also face competition from individual banks that offer their own electronic platforms to their institutional clients. In addition, we may face competition from companies with strong market share in specific markets or organizations and businesses that have not traditionally competed with us but that could adapt their products and services or utilize significant financial and information resources, recognized brands, or technological expertise to begin competing with us. We expect that we may compete in the future with a variety of companies with respect to our platforms and solutions. If we are not able to compete successfully in the future, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected.
Certain of our current and prospective competitors are substantially larger than we are and have substantially greater market presence than we do, as well as greater financial, technological, marketing and other resources. These competitors may be better able to withstand reductions in fees or other adverse economic or market conditions than we can. Some competitors may be able to adopt new or emerging technologies, or incorporate customized features or functions into existing technologies, to address changing market conditions or client preferences at a relatively low cost and/or more quickly than we can. In addition, because we operate in a rapidly evolving industry, start-up companies can enter the market with new and emerging technologies more easily and quickly than they would in more traditional industries.
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If we are unable or unwilling to reduce our fees or make additional investments in the future, we may lose clients and our competitive position may be adversely affected. In addition, our competitive position may be adversely affected by changes in regulations that have a disproportionately negative affect on us or the products or trading protocols we offer our clients.
Competition in the markets in which we operate has intensified due to consolidation, which has resulted in increasingly large and sophisticated competitors. In recent years, our competitors have made acquisitions and/or entered into joint ventures and consortia to improve the competitiveness of their electronic trading offerings. For example, Intercontinental Exchange (“ICE”) acquired BondPoint, TMC Bonds and IDC, in an effort to expand its portfolio of fixed income products and services. In addition, in 2018, CME Group completed its acquisition of NEX Group, which expands CME Group’s offerings to include NEX Group’s OTC foreign exchange and rates products and market data. If, as a result of industry consolidation, our competitors are able to offer lower cost (including fixed cost fees compared to our variable fees for certain offerings) and/or a wider range of trading venues and solutions, obtain more favorable terms from third-party providers or otherwise take actions that could increase their market share, our competitive position and therefore our business, financial condition and results of operations may be materially adversely affected.
Our operations also include the sale of pre- and post-trade services, analytics and market data (including through a distribution agreement with Refinitiv). There is a high degree of competition among market data and information vendors in solutions for pre- and post-trade data, analytics and reporting, and such businesses may become more competitive in the future as new competitors emerge. Some of these companies are already in or may enter the electronic trading business. Accordingly, some of our competitors may be able to combine use of their electronic trading platforms with complementary access to market data and analytical tools and/or leverage relationships with existing clients to obtain additional business from such clients, which could preempt use of our platforms or solutions. For example, Bloomberg and ICE have trading platforms that compete with ours and also have a data and analytics relationships with the vast majority of institutional, wholesale and retail market participants. If we are not able to compete successfully in this area in the future, our revenues could be adversely impacted and, as a result, our business, financial condition and results of operations would be materially adversely affected.
The industry in which we operate is rapidly evolving. If we are unable to adapt our business effectively to keep pace with industry changes, we may not be able to compete effectively, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The electronic financial services industry is characterized by rapidly changing and increasingly complex technologies and systems, changing and increasingly sophisticated client demands (including access to new technologies and markets), frequent technology and service introductions, evolving industry standards, changing regulatory requirements and new business models. If we are not able to keep pace with changing market conditions or client demands and if our competitors release new technology before we do, our existing platforms, solutions and technologies may become obsolete or our competitive position may be materially harmed, each of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Operating in a rapidly evolving industry involves a high degree of risk and our future success will depend in part on our ability to:

enhance and improve the responsiveness, functionality, accessibility and reliability of our existing platforms and solutions;

develop and/or license new platforms, solutions and technologies that address the increasingly sophisticated and varied needs of our existing and prospective clients, and that allow us to grow within our existing markets and to expand into new markets, asset classes and products;

achieve and maintain market acceptance for our platforms and solutions;

adapt our existing platforms and solutions for new markets, asset classes and products;

respond to competitive pressures, technological advances, including new or disruptive technology, emerging industry standards and practices and regulatory requirements and changes on a cost-effective and timely basis;
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attract highly-skilled technology, regulatory, sales and marketing personnel;

operate, support, expand, adapt and develop our operations, systems, networks and infrastructure;

manage cybersecurity threats;

take advantage of acquisitions, strategic alliances and other opportunities; and

obtain any applicable regulatory approval for our platforms and solutions.
Further, the development of new internet, networking, telecommunications or blockchain technologies may require us to devote substantial resources to modify and adapt our marketplaces. In particular, because our platforms and solutions are designed to operate on a variety of electronic systems, we will need to continuously modify and enhance our marketplaces to keep pace with changes in internet-related hardware and other software, communication and browser technologies. We cannot assure you that we will be able to successfully adapt our existing technologies and systems to incorporate new, or changes to existing, technologies.
The success of new platforms or solutions, or new features and versions of existing platforms and solutions, depends on several factors, including the timely and cost-effective completion, introduction and market acceptance of such new or enhanced platform or solution. Development efforts entail significant technical and business risks. We may use new technologies ineffectively, fail to adequately address regulatory requirements, experience design defects or errors or fail to accurately determine market demand for new platforms, solutions and enhancements. Furthermore, development efforts may require substantial expenditures and take considerable time, and we may experience cost overrun, delays in delivery or performance problems and not be successful in realizing a return on these development efforts in a timely manner or at all.
We cannot assure you that we will be able to anticipate or respond in a timely manner to changing market conditions, and new platforms, technologies or solutions, or enhancements to existing platforms, technologies or solutions, may not meet regulatory requirements, address client needs or achieve market acceptance. If we are not able to successfully develop and implement, or face material delays in introducing, new platforms, solutions and enhancements, our clients may forego the use of our platforms and solutions and instead use those of our competitors. Any failure to remain abreast of changing market conditions and to be responsive to market preferences could cause our market share to decline and materially adversely impact our revenues.
Consolidation and concentration in the financial services industry could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
There has been significant consolidation in the financial services industry over the past several years. Further consolidation in the financial services industry could result in a smaller client base and heightened competition, which may lower our trading volumes. If our clients merge with or are acquired by other companies that are not our clients, or companies that use less of our offerings, such clients may discontinue or reduce their use of our platforms and solutions. Any such developments could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The substantial consolidation of market share among companies in the financial services industry has resulted in concentration in markets by some of our largest dealer clients. Because our trading platforms depend on these clients, any event that impacts one or more of these clients or the financial services industry in general could negatively impact our trading volumes and revenues. For example, current financial regulations impose certain capital requirements on, and restrict certain trading activities by, our dealer clients, which could adversely affect such clients’ ability to make markets across a variety of asset classes and products. If our existing dealer clients reduce their trading activity and that activity is not replaced by other market participants, the level of liquidity and pricing available on our trading platforms would be negatively impacted, which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, some of our dealer clients have announced plans to reduce their sales and trading businesses in the markets in which we operate. This is in addition to the significant reductions in these businesses already completed by certain of our dealer clients.
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The consolidation and concentration of market share, the limitation on the ability of large clients to engage in a wider array of trading activities and the reduction by large clients of certain businesses may lead to increased revenue concentration among our dealer clients, which may further increase our dependency on such clients and reduce our ability to negotiate pricing and other matters with such clients. Additionally, the sales and trading global market share has become increasingly concentrated over the past several years among the top investment banks, which will increase competition for client trades and place additional pricing pressure on us. If we are not able to compete successfully, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected.
We are dependent on our dealer clients, some of which are also stockholders, to support our marketplaces by transacting with our other institutional, wholesale and retail clients.
We rely on our dealer clients to provide liquidity on our trading platforms by posting prices on our platforms and responding to client inquiries, and some of our dealer clients may account for a significant portion of our total trading volume. In addition, our dealer clients also provide us with data via feeds and through the transactions they execute on our trading platforms, which is an important input for our data and analytics offerings. We have historically earned a substantial portion of our revenues from dealer clients that are also stockholders. For the year ended December 31, 2019, the combined year ended December 31, 2018 and the year ended December 31, 2017, 44.8%, 42.2% and 41.3%, respectively, of our revenues were generated by the pre-IPO Bank Stockholders and their affiliates. Market knowledge and feedback from these stockholders have been important factors in the development of many of our offerings and solutions.
There are inherent risks whenever a significant percentage of our trading volume and revenues are concentrated with a limited number of clients, and these risks are especially heightened for us due to the potential effects of increased industry consolidation and financial regulation on our business. The contractual obligations of our clients to us are non-exclusive and subject to termination rights by such clients. Any failure by us to meet a key dealer client’s or other key client’s expectations could result in cancellation or non-renewal of the contract. In addition, our reliance on any individual dealer client for a significant portion of our trading volume may also give that client a degree of leverage against us when negotiating contracts and terms of services with us.
Our dealer clients also buy and sell through traditional methods, including by telephone, e-mail and instant messaging, and through other trading platforms. Some of our dealer clients have developed electronic trading networks that compete with us or have announced their intention to explore the development of such electronic trading networks, and many of our dealer clients are involved in other ventures, including other trading platforms or other distribution channels, as trading participants and/or as investors. In particular, certain of the pre-IPO Bank Stockholders or their affiliates, as is typical for a large number of major banks, have their own single bank or other competing trading platform and frequently invest in such businesses and may acquire ownership interests in similar businesses, and such businesses may also compete with us. These competing trading platforms may offer some features that we do not currently offer or that we are unable to offer, including customized features or functions. Accordingly, there can be no assurance that such dealer clients’ primary commitments will not be to one of our competitors or that they will not continue to rely on their own trading platforms or traditional methods instead of using our trading platforms.
Although we have established and maintain significant long-term relationships with our key dealer clients, we cannot assure you that all of these relationships will continue or will not diminish. In addition, it is possible that the pre-IPO Bank Stockholders and their affiliates may reduce their use of our trading platforms or their engagement with us in the future due to reductions in the level of their equity ownership following the completion of this or any completed or future offering. Any reduction in the use of our trading platforms by our key dealer clients, including certain of the pre-IPO Bank Stockholders and their affiliates, for any reason, and any associated decrease in the pool of capital and liquidity accessible across our marketplaces, could reduce the volume of trading on our platforms, which could, in turn, reduce the use of our platforms by their counterparty clients. In addition, any decrease in the number of dealer clients competing for trades on our trading platforms, could cause our dealer clients to forego use of our platforms and instead use platforms that provide access to more competitive trading environments and prices. The occurrence of any of the foregoing may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
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We do not have long-term contractual arrangements with most of our liquidity taking clients, and our trading volumes and revenues could be reduced if these clients stop using our platforms and solutions.
Our business largely depends on certain of our liquidity taking clients to initiate inquiries on our trading platforms. A limited number of such clients can account for a significant portion of our trading volumes, which in turn, results in a significant portion of our transaction fees. Most of our liquidity taking clients do not have long-term contractual arrangements with us and utilize our platforms and solutions on a transaction-by-transaction basis and may choose not to use our platforms at any time. These clients buy and sell a variety of products within various asset classes using traditional methods, including by telephone, e-mail and instant messaging, and through other trading platforms. Any significant loss of these clients or a significant reduction in their use of our platforms and solutions could have a material negative impact on our trading volumes and revenues, and materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our business could be harmed if we are unable to maintain and grow the capacity of our trading platforms, systems and infrastructure.
Our success depends on our clients’ confidence in our ability to provide reliable, secure, real-time access to our trading platforms. If our trading platforms cannot cope, or expand to cope, with demand, or otherwise fail to perform, we could experience disruptions in service, slow delivery times and insufficient capacity. These consequences could result in our clients deciding to stop using or to reduce their use of our trading platforms, either of which would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We will need to continually improve and upgrade our trading platforms, systems and infrastructure to accommodate increases in trading volumes, trading practices of new and existing clients, irregular or heavy use of our trading platforms, especially during peak trading times or at times of increased market volatility, regulatory changes and the development of new and enhanced trading platform features, functionalities and ancillary solutions. The maintenance and expansion of our trading platforms, systems and infrastructure has required, and will continue to require, substantial financial, operational and technical resources. As our operations grow in both size and scope, these resources will typically need to be committed well in advance of any potential increase in trading volumes. We cannot assure you that our estimates of future trading volumes will be accurate or that our systems will always be able to accommodate actual trading volumes without failure or degradation of performance, especially during periods of abnormally high volumes. If we do not successfully adapt our existing trading platforms, systems and infrastructure to the requirements of our clients or to emerging industry standards, or if our trading platforms otherwise fail to accommodate trading volumes, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected.
If we experience design defects, errors, failures or delays with our platforms or solutions, our business could suffer serious harm.
Despite testing, our platforms and solutions may contain design defects and errors or fail when first introduced or when major new updates or enhancements are released. In our development of new platforms, platform features and solutions or updates and enhancements to our existing platforms and solutions, we may make a design error that causes the platform or solution to fail or operate incorrectly or less effectively. Many of our solutions also rely on data and services provided by third-party providers over which we have no or limited control and may be provided to us with defects, errors or failures. Our clients may also use our platforms and solutions together with their own software, data or products from other companies. As a result, when problems occur, it might be difficult to identify the source of the problem. In addition, we could experience delays while developing and introducing new or enhanced platforms, platform features and solutions, primarily due to difficulties in technology development, obtaining any applicable regulatory approval, licensing data inputs or adapting to new operating environments.
If design defects, errors or failures are discovered in our current or future platforms or solutions, we may not be able to correct or work around them in a cost-effective or timely manner or at all. The existence of design defects, errors, failures or delays that are significant, or are perceived to be significant, could also
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result in rejection or delay in market acceptance of our platforms or solutions, damage to our reputation, loss of clients and related revenues, diversion of resources, product liability claims, regulatory actions or increases in costs, any of which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Systems failures, interruptions, delays in service, catastrophic events and resulting interruptions in the availability of our platforms or solutions could materially harm our business and reputation.
Our business depends on the efficient and uninterrupted operation of our systems, networks and infrastructure, in particular those that power our platforms and solutions. From time to time, we have experienced, and we cannot assure you that we, or our third-party providers, will not experience, systems failures, delays in service or business interruptions. Our systems, networks, infrastructure and other operations, in particular our platforms and solutions, are vulnerable to impact or interruption from a wide variety of causes, including: irregular or heavy use of our trading platforms and related solutions during peak trading times or at times of increased market volatility; power, internet or telecommunications failures; hardware failures or software errors; human error, acts of vandalism or sabotage; catastrophic events, such as natural disasters, extreme weather events or acts of war, terrorism or other armed hostilities; malicious cyberattacks or cyber incidents, such as unauthorized access, ransomware, loss or destruction of data, computer viruses or other malicious code; and the loss or failure of systems over which we have no control, such as loss of support services from critical third-party providers. In addition, we may also face significant increases in our use of power and data storage and may experience a shortage of capacity and/or increased costs associated with such usage.
Any failure of, or significant interruption, delay or disruption to, or security breaches affecting, our systems, networks or infrastructure could result in: disruption to our operations, including disruptions in service to our clients; slower response times; distribution of untimely or inaccurate market data to clients who rely on this data for their trades; delays in trade execution; incomplete or inaccurate accounting, recording or processing of trades; significant expense to repair, replace or remediate systems, networks or infrastructure; financial losses and liabilities to clients; loss of clients; or legal or regulatory claims, proceedings, penalties or fines. Any system failure or significant interruption, delay or disruption in our operations, or decreases in the responsiveness of our platforms and solutions, could materially harm our reputation and business and lead our clients to decrease or cease their use of our platforms and solutions, particularly our trading platforms.
We internally support and maintain many of our systems and networks, including those underlying our trading platforms; however, we may not have sufficient personnel to properly respond to all systems, networks or infrastructure problems. Our failure to monitor or maintain our systems, networks and infrastructure, including those maintained or supported by our third-party providers, or to find a replacement for defective or obsolete components within our systems, networks and infrastructure in a timely and cost-effective manner when necessary, would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. While we generally have disaster recovery and business continuity plans that utilize industry standards and best practices for much of our business, including redundant systems, networks, computer software and hardware and data centers to address interruption to our normal course of business, our systems, networks and infrastructure may not always be fully redundant and our disaster recovery and business continuity plans may not always be sufficient or effective. Similarly, although some contracts with our third-party providers, such as our hosting facility providers, require adequate disaster recovery or business continuity capabilities, we cannot be certain that these will be adequate or implemented properly. Our disaster recovery and business continuity plans are heavily reliant on the availability of the internet and mobile phone technology, so any disruption of those systems would likely affect our ability to recover promptly from a crisis situation. In addition, the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic could potentially disrupt the supply chain of hardware needed to recover from a crisis situation. If we are unable to execute our disaster recovery and business continuity plans, or if our plans prove insufficient for a particular situation or take longer than expected to implement in a crisis situation, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations, and our business interruption insurance may not adequately compensate us for losses that may occur.
In addition, high-profile system failures in the electronic financial services industry, whether or not involving us directly, could negatively impact our business. In recent years, U.S. and foreign regulators have
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imposed new requirements on operations such as ours that have been costly for us to implement and that could result in a decrease in the use of our platforms and demand for some of our solutions or result in regulatory investigations, fines and penalties. For example, the SEC’s Regulation Systems Compliance and Integrity and the system safeguards regulations of the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (“CFTC”) subject portions of our trading platforms and other technological systems related to our SEFs to more extensive regulation and oversight. Ensuring our compliance with these regulations requires significant ongoing costs and there can be no assurance that government regulators will not impose additional costly obligations on us in the future. If system failures in the industry continue to occur, it is possible that confidence in the electronic financial services industry could diminish, leading to materially decreased trading volumes and revenues.
Actual or perceived security vulnerabilities in our systems, networks and infrastructure, breaches of security controls, unauthorized access to confidential information or cyber-attacks could harm our business, reputation and results of operations.
Our business relies on technology and automation to perform significant functions within our firm. Because of our reliance on technology, we are susceptible to various cyber-threats to our systems, networks and infrastructure, in particular those that power our platforms and solutions. Similar to other financial services companies that provide services online, we have experienced, and likely will continue to experience, cyber-threats, cyber-attacks and attempted security breaches. Cyber-threats and cyber-attacks vary in technique and sources, are persistent, frequently change and increasingly are more sophisticated, targeted and difficult to detect and prevent against. These threats and attacks may come from external sources such as governments, crime organizations, hackers and other third parties or may originate internally from an employee or a third-party provider, and can include unauthorized attempts to access, disable, improperly modify or degrade our information, systems, networks and infrastructure or the introduction of computer viruses and other malicious codes and fraudulent “phishing” emails that seek to misappropriate data and information or install malware onto users’ computers. We carry what we believe are sufficient levels of cyber insurance. However, if one or more cyber-attacks occur, it could jeopardize the confidential, proprietary and other information processed and stored in, and transmitted through, our systems and networks, or cause interruptions, significant delays, failures or malfunctions in our systems, networks, infrastructure and other operations, in particular our platforms and solutions, which could result in reputational damage, financial losses, client dissatisfaction and/or regulatory fines and penalties, which may not in all cases be covered by insurance.
While we have dedicated personnel who are responsible for maintaining our cybersecurity program and training our employees on cybersecurity, and while we utilize third-party technology product and services to help identify, protect and remediate our systems, networks and infrastructure, our defensive measures and security controls may not be adequate or effective to prevent, identify or mitigate cyber-attacks or security breaches. We are also dependent on security measures, if any, that our third-party providers and clients take to protect their own systems, networks and infrastructures. Because techniques used to obtain unauthorized access to, or to sabotage, systems, networks and infrastructures change frequently and generally are not recognized until launched against a target, we may be unable to anticipate these techniques or to implement adequate defensive measures or security controls. Additionally, we may be required in the future to incur significant costs to continue to minimize, mitigate against or alleviate the effects of cyber-attacks, security breaches or other security vulnerabilities and to protect against damage caused by cyber-attacks, security breaches or other disruptions that may occur.
We have a Risk Steering Committee that includes the heads of Risk Management, Information/Cyber Security, Regulatory Compliance and Human Resources. Our information/cyber security program is overseen internally by our Risk Steering Committee (and specifically, our Chief Risk Officer and Chief Information Security Officer), which in turn, is overseen by our board of directors and audit committee. Senior members of the Risk Steering Committee provide regular updates to our audit committee and the board of directors.
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There have been an increasing number of cyber-attacks in recent years in various industries, including ours, and cybersecurity risk management has been the subject of increasing focus by U.S. and foreign regulators. As a result, we may be required to devote significant additional financial, operational and technical resources to modify and enhance our defensive measures and security controls and to identify and remediate any security vulnerabilities. In addition, any adverse regulatory actions that may result from a cybersecurity incident or a finding that we have inadequate defensive measures and security controls, could result in reputational harm.
Although we have not been a victim of a cyber-attack or other cybersecurity incident that has had a material impact on our operations or financial condition, we have from time to time experienced cybersecurity incidents, including attempted distributed denial of service attacks, malware infections, phishing and other information technology incidents that are typical for an electronic financial services company of our size. If an actual, threatened or perceived cyber-attack or breach of our security occurs, our clients could lose confidence in our platforms and solutions, security measures and reliability, which would materially harm our ability to retain existing clients and gain new clients. As a result of any such attack or breach, we may be required to expend significant resources to repair system, network or infrastructure damage and to protect against the threat of future cyber-attacks or security breaches. We could also face litigation or other claims from impacted individuals as well as substantial regulatory sanctions or fines.
We rely on third parties to perform certain key functions, and their failure to perform those functions could result in the interruption of our operations and systems and could result in significant costs and reputational damage to us.
We rely on a number of third parties to supply, support and maintain critical elements of our operations, including our trading, information, technology and other systems. In addition, we depend on third parties, such as telephone companies, online service providers, hosting services and software and hardware vendors, for various computer and communications systems, such as our data centers, telecommunications access lines and certain computer software and hardware. Our clients also depend on third-party middleware and clearinghouses for clearing and settlement of certain trades on our trading platforms, which could impact our trading platforms.
We cannot assure you that any of these third-party providers will be able or willing to continue to provide these products and services in an efficient, cost-effective or timely manner, or at all, or that they will be able to adequately expand their services to meet our needs. In particular, like us, third-party providers are vulnerable to operational and technological disruptions, and we may have limited remedies against these third parties in the event of product or service disruptions. In addition, we have little control over third-party providers, which increases our vulnerability to errors, failures, interruptions or disruptions or problems with their products or services. Further, the priorities and objectives of third-party providers may differ from ours, which may make us vulnerable to terminations of, or adverse changes to, our arrangements with such providers, and there can be no assurance that we will be able to maintain good relationships or the same terms with such providers. If an existing third-party provider is unable or unwilling to provide a critical product or service, and we are unable to make alternative arrangements for the supply of such product or service on commercially reasonable terms or a timely basis, or at all, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected.
Further, we also face risks that providers may perform work that deviates from our standards. Moreover, our existing third-party arrangements may bind us for a period of time to terms that become uncompetitive or technology and systems that become obsolete. If we do not obtain the expected benefits from our relationships with third-party providers, we may be less competitive, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. In the future, if we choose to transition a function previously managed by us to a third party, we may spend significant financial and operational resources and experience delays in completing such transition, and may never realize any of the anticipated benefits of such transition.
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We are dependent on third parties for our pre- and post-trade data, analytics and reporting solutions.
The success of our trading platforms depends in part on our pre- and post-trade data, analytics and reporting solutions. We depend upon data and information services from external sources, including data received from certain competitors, clients, self-regulatory organizations and other third-party data providers for information used on our platforms and by our solutions, including our data, analytical tools and other pre- and post-trade services. In particular, we depend on Refinitiv to source certain reference data for products that trade on our platforms. Our data sources and information providers could increase the price for or withdraw their data or information services for a variety of reasons. For example, our clients, the majority of which are not subject to long-term contractual arrangements or purchase commitments, may stop using or reduce their use of our trading platforms at any time, which would decrease our volume of trade data and may diminish the competitiveness of our market data offerings. In addition, data sources or information providers may enter into exclusive contracts with other third parties, including our competitors, which could preclude us from receiving certain data or information services from these providers or restrict our use of such data or information services, which may give our competitors an advantage. Further, our competitors could revise the current terms on which they provide us with data or information services or could cease providing us with data or information services altogether for a variety of reasons, including competition.
If a substantial number of our key data sources and information providers withdraw or are unable to provide us with their data or information services, or if a substantial number of clients no longer trade on our platforms or use our solutions, and we are unable to suitably replace such data sources or information services, or if the collection of data or information becomes uneconomical, our ability to offer our pre- and post-trade data, analytics tools and reporting solutions could be adversely impacted. If any of these factors negatively impact our ability to provide these data-based solutions to our clients, our competitive position could be materially harmed, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
In addition, pursuant to a market data license agreement, Refinitiv currently distributes a significant portion of our market data. The cancellation of, or any adverse change to, our arrangement with Refinitiv or the inability of Refinitiv to effectively distribute our data may materially harm our business and competitive position.
We are dependent upon trading counterparties and clearinghouses to perform their obligations.
Our business consists of providing consistent two-sided liquidity to market participants across numerous geographies, asset classes and products. In addition, in the normal course of our business we, as an agent, execute transactions with, and on behalf of, other brokers and dealers. See “Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk — Credit Risk” in the 2019 Form 10-K, incorporated by reference in this prospectus. In the event of a systemic market event resulting from large price movements or otherwise, certain market participants may not be able to meet their obligations to their trading counterparties, who, in turn, may not be able to meet their obligations to their other trading counterparties, which could lead to major defaults by one or more market participants. Many trades in the securities markets, and an increasing number of trades in the over-the-counter derivatives markets, are cleared through central counterparties. These central counterparties assume and specialize in managing counterparty performance risk relating to such trades. However, even when trades are cleared in this manner, there can be no assurance that a clearinghouse’s risk management methodology will be adequate to manage one or more defaults. Given the counterparty performance risk that is concentrated in central clearing parties, any failure by a clearinghouse to properly manage a default could lead to a systemic market failure. If trading counterparties do not meet their obligations, including to us, or if any central clearing parties fail to properly manage defaults by market participants, we could suffer a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
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Our ability to conduct our business may be materially adversely impacted by unforeseen or catastrophic events. In addition, our U.S. and European operations are heavily concentrated in particular areas and may be adversely affected by events in those areas.
We may incur losses as a result of unforeseen or catastrophic events, including fire, natural disasters, extreme weather events, global health issues (including the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic), power loss, telecommunications failure, software or hardware malfunctions, theft, cyber-attacks, acts of war, terrorist attacks or other armed hostilities. In addition, employee misconduct or error could expose us to significant liability, losses, regulatory sanctions and reputational harm. Misconduct or error by employees could include improperly using confidential information or engaging in improper or unauthorized activities or transactions. These unforeseen or catastrophic events could adversely affect our clients’ levels of business activity and precipitate sudden significant changes in regional and global economic conditions and cycles. Certain of these events also pose significant risks to our employees and our physical facilities and operations around the world, whether the facilities are ours or those of our third-party providers or clients. If our systems, networks or infrastructure were to fail or be negatively impacted as a result of an unforeseen or catastrophic event, our business functions could be interrupted, our ability to make our platforms and solutions available to our clients could be impaired and we could lose critical data. If we are unable to develop adequate plans to ensure that our business functions continue to operate during and after an unforeseen or catastrophic event, and successfully execute on those plans should such an event occur, our business, financial condition, results of operations and reputation could be materially harmed.
In addition, our U.S. operations are heavily concentrated in the New York metro area and our European operations are heavily concentrated in London. Any event that affects either of those geographic areas could affect our ability to operate our business. For example, as discussed below, Brexit is expected to have a material impact on our European operations.
If we fail to maintain our current level of business or execute our growth plan, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be materially harmed.
We have experienced significant growth in our operations over the years, including, in part, as a result of favorable industry and market trends, such as the increased electronification of markets, growing global markets and evolving regulatory requirements. However, we cannot assure you that our operations will continue to grow at a similar rate, if at all, or that we will continue to benefit from such favorable industry and market trends. In particular, we cannot assure you that the growth of electronic means of trading will continue at the levels expected or at all. Our future financial performance depends in large part on our ability to successfully execute our growth plan. To effectively manage the expected growth of our operations, we will need to continue to improve our operational, financial and management processes and systems.
The success of our growth plan depends, in part, on our ability to implement our business strategies. In particular, our growth depends on our ability to maintain and expand our network by attracting new clients, increasing the use of our platforms and solutions by existing clients and by integrating them across geographies and a wide range of asset classes, products, trade types and trade sizes within our marketplaces. Our growth also depends on, among other things, our ability to increase our market share, add new products, enhance our existing platforms and solutions, develop new offerings that address client demand and market trends and stay abreast of changing market conditions and regulatory requirements. Our growth may also be dependent on our ability to further diversify our revenue base. We currently derive approximately 56% of our gross revenue from our Rates asset class. Our long-term growth plan includes expanding our asset classes, including the number of products we offer across those asset classes, by investing in our development efforts and increasing our revenues by growing our market share in our existing markets and entering into new markets. Although our long-term growth plan includes entering into new asset classes, we may not enter into new asset classes in the near term. We cannot assure you that we will be able to successfully execute our growth plan or implement our business strategies within our expected timing or at all or be able to maintain or improve our current level of business, and we may decide to alter or discontinue certain aspects of our growth plan at any time.
Execution of our growth plan entails significant risks and may be impacted by factors outside of our control, including competition, general economic, political and market conditions and industry, legal and regulatory changes. Failure to manage our growth effectively could result in our costs increasing at a faster
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rate than our revenues and distracting management from our core business and operations. For example, we may incur substantial development, sales and marketing expenses and expend significant management effort to create a new platform, platform feature or solution, and the period before such platform, platform feature or solution is successfully developed, introduced and/or adopted may extend over many months or years, if ever. Even after incurring these costs, such platform, platform feature or solution may not achieve market acceptance.
It is possible that our entry into new markets will not be successful, and potential new markets may not develop quickly or at all.
Our long-term growth plan includes expanding our operations by entering into new markets, including new asset classes, products and geographies, including markets where we have little or no operating experience. We may have difficulties identifying and entering into new markets due to established competitors, lack of recognition of our brand and lack of acceptance of our platforms and solutions, as has occurred with certain of our initiatives in the past.
Expansion, particularly in new geographic markets, may require substantial expenditures and take considerable time. In particular, we may need to make additional investments in management and new personnel, infrastructure and compliance systems. Furthermore, our expansion efforts may divert management’s attention or inefficiently utilize our resources. If we are not able to manage our expansion effectively, our expansion costs could increase at a faster rate than our revenues from these new markets. If we cannot successfully implement the necessary processes to support and manage our expansion, our business, financial condition and results of operations may suffer.
We cannot assure you that we will be able to successfully adapt our platforms, solutions and technologies for use in any new markets. Even if we do adapt our products, services and technologies, we cannot assure you that we will be able to attract clients to our platforms and solutions and compete successfully in any such new markets.
These and other factors have led us to scale back our expansion efforts into new markets in the past, and there can be no assurance that we will not experience similar difficulties in the future. For example, following the 2008 financial crisis, we did not continue to actively invest in our operations in Asia, following our entry into that market in 2004. There can be no assurance that we will be able to successfully maintain or grow our operations abroad.
It is possible that our entry into new markets will not be successful, and potential new markets may not develop quickly or at all. If these efforts are not successful, we may realize less than expected earnings, which in turn could result in a material decrease in the market value of our Class A common stock.
Our business, financial condition and results of operations may be materially adversely affected by risks associated with our international operations.
We have operations in the United States, China, Japan, Hong Kong, Singapore and the United Kingdom, and recently expanded our international operations to the Netherlands, where we obtained necessary regulatory approvals. We may further expand our international operations in the future. We have invested significant resources in our international operations and expect to continue to do so in the future. However, there are certain risks inherent in doing business in international markets, particularly in the financial services industry, which is heavily regulated in many jurisdictions. These risks include:

local economic, political and social conditions, including the possibility of economic slowdowns, hyperinflationary conditions, political instability, social unrest or outbreaks of pandemic or contagious diseases, such as Ebola, Zika, avian flu, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), H1N1 (swine flu), the novel coronavirus (COVID-19), and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS);

differing legal and regulatory requirements, and the possibility that any required approvals may impose restrictions on the operation of our business;

changes in laws, government policies and regulations, or in how provisions are interpreted or administered and how we are supervised;
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the inability to manage and coordinate the various legal and regulatory requirements of multiple jurisdictions that are constantly evolving and subject to change;

varying tax regimes, including with respect to imposition or increase of taxes on financial transactions or withholding and other taxes on remittances and other payments by subsidiaries;

actual or threatened trade war, including between the United States and China, or other governmental action related to tariffs, international trade agreements or trade policies;

currency exchange rate fluctuations, changes in currency policies or practices and restrictions on currency conversion;

limitations or restrictions on the repatriation or other transfer of funds;

potential difficulties in protecting intellectual property;

the inability to enforce agreements, collect payments or seek recourse under or comply with differing commercial laws;

managing the potential conflicts between locally accepted business practices and our obligations to comply with laws and regulations, including anti-corruption and anti-money laundering laws and regulations;

compliance with economic sanctions laws and regulations;

difficulties in staffing and managing foreign operations;

increased costs and difficulties in developing and managing our global operations and our technological infrastructure; and

seasonal reductions in business activity.
Our overall success depends, in part, on our ability to anticipate and effectively manage these risks and there can be no assurance that we will be able to do so without incurring unexpected or increased costs. If we are not able to manage the risks related to our international operations, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be materially adversely affected. In certain regions, the degree of these risks may be higher due to more volatile economic, political or social conditions, less developed and predictable legal and regulatory regimes and increased potential for various types of adverse governmental action.
The United Kingdom’s exit from the European Union could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
In March 2017, the United Kingdom government invoked article 50 of the Lisbon Treaty and officially notified the European Union of its decision to withdraw from the European Union. This formally initiated the process of negotiations with the European Union regarding the terms of the United Kingdom’s withdrawal, and the framework of the future relationship between the United Kingdom and the European Union (the “Withdrawal Agreement”). The United Kingdom withdrew from the European Union on January 31, 2020 (the “exit date”). As part of the negotiations with the European Union, a transitional period has been agreed which extends to the United Kingdom the application of European Union law, and provides for continuing access to the European Union market, until the end of 2020. The future relationship between the United Kingdom and the European Union will be negotiated between both parties during 2020 and if an agreement is reached — which may or may not include terms of access to each other’s financial markets — it is anticipated under the Withdrawal Agreement that the terms of any such agreement would apply upon expiry of the transitional period. The transitional period is due to expire on December 31, 2020, unless extended by the UK/EU Joint Committee established under the Withdrawal Agreement. The maximum possible extension under the Withdrawal Agreement is two years and Prime Minister Johnson of the United Kingdom has indicated that he does not intend to seek, nor agree to, such an extension.
The United Kingdom’s departure from the European Union and the terms of the future relationship between the United Kingdom and the European Union could significantly impact the business environment in which we and our clients operate, increase the costs of conducting business in both the European Union
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and the United Kingdom, impair or prohibit access to European Union clients, affect market liquidity and introduce significant new uncertainties with respect to the legal and regulatory requirements to which we and our clients are subject. In particular, Brexit is expected to significantly affect the fiscal, monetary and regulatory landscape in both the United Kingdom and the European Union, and may have a material impact on their respective economies, which could have a materially adverse impact on us despite our international client-base. Until the terms of the future relationship are known, volatility in exchange rates may continue and it will remain unclear how Brexit may ultimately affect liquidity in our marketplaces.
Significantly, the effects of Brexit on our business will depend on any agreements the United Kingdom makes to retain access to the European Union single market and vice versa. Negotiations between the United Kingdom and the European Union on their future relationship will continue during 2020, will be complex and will be politically uncertain. Until such an agreement is reached the post-transitional period conditions of UK and EU market access are not known. With a loss of “passporting” rights, which allow financial services firms to operate throughout the European Union, and with no equivalent agreement in place between the United Kingdom and the European Union, our UK authorized subsidiary will no longer be able to provide services to EU clients other than in limited circumstances. As a result of the uncertainty related to Brexit, we have established a new regulated subsidiary in the Netherlands that has started to serve clients in the European Union, and for which we have incurred, and expect to continue to incur, increased regulatory and operational costs. These costs result from having established a new regulated subsidiary in the European Union and the management of a client and employee base that is less centralized in London.
With Brexit, the United Kingdom has ended the supremacy of EU law in the United Kingdom by repealing the European Communities Act 1972, and by “on-shoring” EU law as it stands at exit into domestic law. With the exception that the United Kingdom has made secondary legislation to enable correction to be made to EU laws as they are on-shored — and where they would otherwise have no longer operated appropriately following Brexit — the UK and EU laws are substantively the same. Over time however, EU and UK laws may diverge, the pace and extent of which will be political and uncertain. The cost and complexity of operating across increasingly divergent regulatory regimes could increase following Brexit, and this could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates may adversely affect our financial results.
Since we operate in several different countries outside the United States, most notably the UK, Japan and Hong Kong, significant portions of our revenues, expenses, assets and liabilities are denominated in non-U.S. dollar currencies, most notably the pound sterling, euros, Japanese Yen and Hong Kong dollars. Because our consolidated financial statements are presented in U.S. dollars, we must translate non-U.S. dollar denominated revenues, income and expenses, as well as assets and liabilities, into U.S. dollars at exchange rates in effect during or at the end of each reporting period. Accordingly, increases or decreases in the value of the U.S. dollar against other currencies may affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. In recent years, external events, such as Brexit, the 2016 U.S. presidential election, uncertainty regarding actual and potential shifts in U.S. and foreign trade, economic and other policies, the passage of U.S. tax reform legislation and concerns over the interest rate environment (particularly with respect to short-term rates), have caused, and may continue to cause, significant volatility in currency exchange rates, especially among the U.S. dollar, the pound sterling and the euro.
While we engage in hedging activity to attempt to mitigate currency exchange rate risk, these hedging activities may not fully mitigate the risk. Accordingly, if there are adverse movements in exchange rates, we may suffer significant losses, which would materially adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.
We may undertake acquisitions or divestitures, which may not be successful, and which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
From time to time, we consider acquisitions, which may not be completed or, if completed, may not be ultimately beneficial to us. We have made several acquisitions in the past, including the purchase of the Hilliard Farber & Co. business in 2008, the Rafferty Capital Markets business in 2011, BondDesk in 2013 and CodeStreet in 2016. We also may consider potential divestitures of businesses from time to time. We
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routinely evaluate potential acquisition and divestiture candidates and engage in discussions and negotiations regarding potential acquisitions and divestitures on an ongoing basis; however, even if we execute a definitive agreement, there can be no assurance that we will consummate the transaction within the anticipated closing timeframe, or at all. Moreover, there is significant competition for acquisition and expansion opportunities in the electronic financial services industry.
Acquisitions involve numerous risks, including (i) failing to properly identify appropriate acquisition targets and to negotiate acceptable terms; (ii) incurring the time and expense associated with identifying and evaluating potential acquisition targets and negotiating potential transactions; (iii) diverting management’s attention from the operation of our existing business; (iv) using inaccurate estimates and judgments to evaluate credit, operations, funding, liquidity, business, management and market risks with respect to the acquisition target or assets; (v) litigation relating to an acquisition, particularly in the context of a publicly held acquisition target, that could require us to incur significant expenses, result in or delay or enjoin the transaction; (vi) failing to properly identify an acquisition target’s significant problems, liabilities or risks; (vii) not receiving required regulatory approvals on the terms expected or such approvals being delayed or restrictively conditional; and (viii) failing to obtain financing on favorable terms, or at all. In addition, in connection with any acquisitions, we must comply with various antitrust requirements, and it is possible that perceived or actual violations of these requirements could give rise to litigation or regulatory enforcement action or result in us not receiving the necessary approvals to complete a desired acquisition.
Furthermore, even if we complete an acquisition, the anticipated benefits from such acquisition may not be achieved unless the operations of the acquired business, platform or technology are integrated in an efficient, cost-effective and timely manner. The integration of any acquisition includes numerous risks, including an acquired business not performing to our expectations, our not integrating it appropriately and failing to realize anticipated synergies and cost savings as a result, and difficulties, inefficiencies or cost overruns in integrating and assimilating the organizational cultures, operations, technologies, data, products and services of the acquired business with ours. The integration of any acquisition will require substantial attention from management and operating personnel to ensure that the acquisition does not disrupt any existing operations, or affect our reputation or our clients’ opinions and perceptions of our platforms and solutions. We may spend time and resources on acquisitions that do not ultimately increase our profitability or that cause loss of, or harm to, relationships with key employees, clients, third-party providers or other business partners.
Divestitures also involve numerous risks, including: (i) failing to properly identify appropriate assets or businesses for divestiture and buyers; (ii) inability to negotiate favorable terms for the divestiture of such assets or businesses; (iii) incurring the time and expense associated with identifying and evaluating potential divestitures and negotiating potential transactions; (iv) management’s attention being diverted from the operation of our existing business, including to provide on-going services to the divested business; (v) encountering difficulties in the separation of operations, platforms, solutions or personnel; (vi) retaining future liabilities as a result of contractual indemnity obligations; and (vii) loss of, or damage to our relationships with, any of our key employees, clients, third-party providers or other business partners.
We cannot readily predict the timing or size of any future acquisition or divestiture, and there can be no assurance that we will realize any anticipated benefits from any such acquisition or divestiture. If we do not realize any such anticipated benefits, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected.
If we enter into strategic alliances, partnerships or joint ventures, we may not realize the anticipated strategic goals for any such transactions.
From time to time, we may enter into strategic alliances, partnerships or joint ventures as a means to accelerate our entry into new markets, provide new solutions or enhance our existing capabilities. Entering into strategic alliances, partnerships and joint ventures entails risks, including: (i) difficulties in developing or expanding the business of newly formed alliances, partnerships and joint ventures; (ii) exercising influence over the activities of joint ventures in which we do not have a controlling interest; (iii) potential conflicts with or among our partners; (iv) the possibility that our partners could take action without our approval or prevent us from taking action; and (v) the possibility that our partners become bankrupt or otherwise lack the financial resources to meet their obligations.
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In addition, there may be a long negotiation period before we enter into a strategic alliance, partnership or joint venture or a long preparation period before we commence providing trading venues and solutions and/or begin earning revenues pursuant to such arrangement. We typically incur significant business development expenses, and management’s attention may be diverted from the operation of our existing business, during the discussion and negotiation period with no guarantee of consummation of the proposed transaction. Even if we succeed in developing a strategic alliance, partnership or joint venture with a new partner, we may not be successful in maintaining the relationship, which may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
We cannot assure you that we will be able to enter into strategic alliances, partnerships or joint ventures on terms that are favorable to us, or at all, or that any strategic alliance, partnership or joint venture we have entered into or may enter into will be successful. In particular, these arrangements may not generate the expected number of new clients or increased trading volumes or revenues or other benefits we seek. Unsuccessful strategic alliances, partnerships or joint ventures could harm our reputation and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our quarterly results may fluctuate significantly and may not fully reflect the underlying performance of our business.
Our quarterly operating results may vary significantly in the future, and period-to-period comparisons of our operating results may not be meaningful. Accordingly, the results of any one quarter should not be relied upon as an indication of future performance. Our quarterly financial results may fluctuate as a result of a variety of factors and, as a result, may not fully reflect the underlying performance of our business. Fluctuations in quarterly results may negatively impact the price at which our Class A common stock trades. Factors that may cause fluctuations in our quarterly financial results include, but are not limited to:

fluctuations in overall trading volumes or our market share for our key products;

the addition or loss of clients;

the unpredictability of the financial services industry;

our ability to drive an increase in the use of our trading platforms by new and existing clients;

the mix of products and volumes traded, changes in fee plans and average variable fees per million;

the amount and timing of expenses, including those related to the maintenance and expansion of our business, operations and infrastructure;

network or service outages, internet disruptions, the availability of our platforms, security breaches or perceived security breaches;

general economic, political, social, industry and market conditions;

changes in our business strategies and pricing policies (or those of our competitors);

the timing and success of our entry into new markets or introductions of new or enhanced platforms or solutions by us or our competitors, including disruptive technology, or any other change in the competitive dynamics of our industry, including consolidation or new entrants among competitors, market participants or strategic alliances;

the timing and success of any acquisitions, divestitures or strategic alliances;

the timing of expenses related to the development or acquisition of platforms, solutions, technologies or businesses and potential future charges for impairment of goodwill from acquired companies;

new, or changes to existing, regulations that limit or affect our platforms, solutions and technologies or which increase our regulatory compliance costs; and

the timing and magnitude of any adjustments in our consolidated financial statements driven by changes in the liability under the Tax Receivable Agreement.
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Failure to retain our existing senior management team or the inability to attract and retain qualified personnel could materially adversely impact our ability to operate or grow our business.
The success of our business depends upon the skills, experience and efforts of our executive officers, particularly Lee Olesky, our Chief Executive Officer, and Billy Hult, our President. The terms of Messrs. Olesky’s and Hult’s employment agreements with us do not require them to continue to work for us and allow them to terminate their employment at any time, subject to certain notice requirements and forfeiture of non-vested equity awards. Although we have invested in succession planning, the loss of key members of our senior management team could nevertheless have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Should we lose the services of any member of our senior management team, we would have to conduct a search for a qualified replacement. This search may be prolonged, and we may not be able to locate and hire a qualified replacement.
Our business also depends on our ability to continue to attract, motivate and retain a large number of highly qualified personnel in order to support our clients and achieve business results. There is a limited pool of employees who have the requisite skills, training and education. Identifying, recruiting, training, integrating and retaining qualified personnel requires significant time, expense and attention, and the market for qualified personnel, particularly those with experience in technology, clearing and settlement, product management and regulatory compliance, has become increasingly competitive as an increasing number of companies seek to enhance their positions in the markets we serve. In particular, we compete for technology personnel with highly innovative technology companies and large companies focused on technology development. Many of these companies have significant financial resources and recognized brands and are able to offer more attractive employment opportunities and more lucrative compensation packages. Our inability to attract, retain and motivate personnel with the requisite skills could impair our ability to develop new platforms, platform features or solutions, enhance our existing platforms and solutions, grow our client base, enter into new markets, operate under various regulatory frameworks or manage our business effectively.
Damage to our reputation or brand could negatively impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our reputation and the quality of our brand are critical to our business, and we must protect and grow the value of our brand in order for us to continue to be successful. Any incident that erodes client loyalty for our brand could significantly reduce its value and damage our business. We may be adversely affected by any negative publicity, regardless of its accuracy, including with respect to, among other things, the quality and reliability of our platforms and solutions, the accuracy of our market data, our ability to maintain the security of our data and systems, networks and infrastructure and any impropriety, misconduct or fraudulent activity by any person formerly or currently associated with us.
Also, there has been a marked increase in the use of blogs, social media platforms and other forms of Internet-based communications that provide individuals with access to a broad audience of interested persons. The opportunity for dissemination of information, including inaccurate information, is seemingly limitless and readily available. Information may be posted on such sites and platforms at any time. Information posted may be adverse to our interests or may be inaccurate, each of which may harm our business and reputation. The harm may be immediate without affording us an opportunity for redress or correction.
Ultimately, the risks associated with any negative publicity or actual, alleged or perceived issues regarding our business or any person formerly or currently associated with us cannot be completely eliminated or mitigated and may materially harm our reputation, business, financial condition and results of operations.
We may not be able to adequately protect our intellectual property, which, in turn, could materially adversely affect our brand and our business.
Our success depends in part on our proprietary technology, processes, methodologies and information and on our ability to further build brand recognition using our tradenames and logos. We rely primarily on a combination of U.S. and foreign patent, copyright, trademark, service mark and trade secret laws and
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nondisclosure, license, assignment and confidentiality arrangements to establish, maintain and protect our proprietary rights as well as the intellectual property rights of third parties whose content, data, information and other materials we license. We can give no assurances that any such patents, copyrights, trademarks, service marks and other intellectual property rights will protect our business from competition or that any intellectual property rights applied for in the future will be issued. In addition, the steps we take to protect our intellectual property may not adequately protect our rights or prevent third parties from infringing or misappropriating our rights, and third parties may successfully challenge the validity and/or enforceability of our intellectual property rights. Furthermore, we cannot assure you that these protections will be adequate to prevent our competitors from independently developing logos, platforms, solutions or technologies that are substantially equivalent or superior to our logos, platforms, solutions or technologies.
The protection of our intellectual property may require the expenditure of financial and managerial resources. Litigation brought to protect and enforce our intellectual property rights could be costly, time-consuming and distracting to management and may result in the impairment or loss of portions of our intellectual property. In addition, the laws of some countries in which we now or in the future provide our platforms and solutions may not protect intellectual property rights to the same extent as the laws of the United States. If our efforts to secure, protect and enforce our intellectual property rights are inadequate, or if any third party misappropriates, dilutes or infringes on our intellectual property, the value of our brand may be harmed, which could have a material adverse effect on our business.
Third parties may claim that we are infringing or misappropriating their intellectual property rights, which could cause us to suffer competitive injury, expend significant resources defending against such claims or be prevented from offering our platforms and solutions.
Our competitors, as well as other companies and individuals, may have obtained, and may be expected to obtain in the future, intellectual property rights related to the types of platforms and solutions we currently provide or plan to provide. In particular, as the number of trading platforms increases and the functionality of these platforms and related solutions further overlaps, the possibility of intellectual property rights claims against us grows. We cannot assure you that we are or will be aware of all third-party intellectual property rights that may pose a risk of infringement or misappropriation to our platforms, solutions, technologies or the manner in which we operate our business.
We have in the past been, are currently, and may from time to time in the future become subject to legal proceedings and claims relating to the intellectual property rights of others. The costs of supporting legal and dispute resolution proceedings are considerable, and there can be no assurance that a favorable outcome will be obtained. We may need to settle litigation and disputes on terms that are unfavorable to us, or we may be subject to an unfavorable judgment. The terms of any settlement or judgment may require us to cease some or all of our operations, pay substantial amounts to the other party and/or seek a license to continue practices found to be in violation of third-party intellectual property rights, which may not be available on reasonable terms and may significantly increase our operating expenses. A license may not be available to us at all, and we may be required to develop alternative non-infringing platforms, solutions, technologies or practices or discontinue use of such platforms, solutions, technologies or practices. Any development efforts could require significant effort and expense and, as result, our business, results of operations and financial condition could be materially adversely affected.
Extensive regulation of our industry results in ongoing exposure to significant costs and penalties, enhanced oversight and restrictions and limitations on our ability to conduct and grow our business.
The financial services industry, including our business, is subject to extensive regulation by governmental and self-regulatory organizations in the jurisdictions in which we operate. These regulators have broad powers to promulgate and interpret laws, rules and regulations that often serve to restrict or limit our business. The requirements imposed by these regulators are designed to safeguard the integrity of the financial markets and to protect public investors generally rather than the interests of our stockholders, and we could become subject to increased governmental and public scrutiny in the future in response to global conditions and events. The SEC, the CFTC, the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (“FINRA”), the National Futures Association (“NFA”) and other authorities extensively regulate the U.S. financial services industry, including most of our operations in the United States. Much of our
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international operations are subject to similar regulations in their respective jurisdictions, including regulations overseen by the Financial Conduct Authority (“FCA”) in the United Kingdom, De Nederlandsche Bank (“DNB”), the Netherlands Authority for the Financial Markets (“AFM”), the Monetary Authority of Singapore, the Hong Kong Securities and Futures Commission, the Investment Industry Regulatory Organization of Canada and provincial regulators in Canada, the Japanese Financial Services Agency, the Japan Securities Dealers Association and the Australian Securities and Investment Commission.
Most aspects of our business, and in particular our broker-dealer, SEF and introducing broker subsidiaries, are subject to laws, rules and regulations that cover all aspects of our business, including manner of operation, system integrity, anti-money laundering and financial crimes, handling of material non-public information, safeguarding data, capital requirements, reporting, record retention, market access, licensing of employees and the conduct of officers, employees and other associated persons. See “Business — Regulation” in the 2019 Form 10-K, incorporated by reference in this prospectus, for a further description of the laws, rules and regulations that materially impact our business. There can be no assurance that we and/or our directors, officers and employees will be able to fully comply with these laws, rules and regulations. Any failure to comply with such legal and regulatory requirements could subject us to increased costs, fines, penalties or other sanctions, including suspensions of, or prohibitions on, certain of our activities, revocations of certain of our licenses or registrations, such as our membership in FINRA or our registration as a broker-dealer, or suspension of personnel.
Certain of our subsidiaries are subject to net capital and similar financial resource requirements. For example, our SEF subsidiaries are required to maintain sufficient financial resources to cover operating costs for at least one year. These net capital and related requirements may restrict our ability to withdraw capital from our regulated subsidiaries in certain circumstances, including through the payment of dividends, the redemption of stock or the making of unsecured advances or loans.
Some of our subsidiaries are subject to regulations, including under FINRA, the FCA and the DNB, regarding changes in control of their ownership or organizational structure as defined by the applicable regulatory body. These regulations generally provide that prior regulatory approval must be obtained in connection with any transaction resulting in a change in control or organizational structure of the subsidiary, such as changes in direct and indirect ownership or changes in the composition of the board of directors or similar body or the appointment of new officers, and may include similar changes that occur at Tradeweb Markets Inc. or any of its stockholders that may be deemed to hold a controlling interest as defined by the applicable regulatory body. As a result of these regulations, our future efforts to sell shares or raise additional capital, or to make changes to our organizational structure, may be delayed or prohibited in circumstances in which such a transaction would give rise to a change in control or organizational structure as defined by the applicable regulatory body.
Our ability to operate our trading platforms or offer our solutions in a particular jurisdiction is dependent on continued registration or authorization in that jurisdiction (or the maintenance of a valid exemption from such registration or authorization). In addition, regulatory approval may be required to expand certain of our operations and activities, and we may not be able to obtain the necessary regulatory approvals on a timely or cost-effective basis, or at all. Even if regulatory approvals are obtained, they may limit or impose restrictions on our operations and activities, and we may not be able to continue to comply with the terms of such approvals.
We incur significant costs, and will continue to devote significant financial and operational resources, to develop, implement and maintain policies, systems and processes to comply with our evolving legal and regulatory requirements. Future laws, rules and regulations, or adverse changes to, or more stringent enforcement of, existing laws, rules and regulations, could increase these costs and expose us to significant liabilities.
Our regulators generally require strict compliance with their laws, rules and regulations, and may investigate and enforce compliance and punish non-compliance. Many of our regulators, as well as other governmental authorities, are empowered to bring enforcement actions and to conduct administrative proceedings, examinations, inspections and investigations, which may result in increased compliance costs,
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penalties, fines, enhanced oversight, increased financial and capital requirements, additional restrictions or limitations, censure, suspension or other sanction, such as disgorgement, restitution or the revocation of regulatory approvals. The risks associated with such actions are difficult to assess or quantify.
In the normal course of our business, we have been, and continue to be from time to time, a party to various legal and regulatory proceedings related to compliance with applicable laws, rules and regulations, including audits, examinations and investigations of our operations and activities. Legal and regulatory actions, from subpoenas and other requests for information to potential criminal investigations, may divert management’s attention, cause us to incur significant expenses, including fees for legal representation and costs for remediation efforts, and result in fines, penalties or other sanctions. We may also be required to change or cease aspects of our operations or activities if a legal or regulatory authority determines that we have failed to comply with any laws, rules or regulations applicable to our business and/or otherwise determines to prohibit any of our operations or activities or revoke any of our approvals. In addition, regardless of the outcome, such actions may result in substantial costs and negative publicity, which may damage our reputation and impair our ability to attract and retain clients.
Firms in the financial services industry have experienced increased scrutiny in recent years, and penalties, fines and other sanctions sought by governmental and regulatory authorities, including the SEC, the CFTC, the Department of Justice, state securities administrators and state attorneys general in the United States, the FCA in the United Kingdom and other foreign regulators, have increased accordingly. This trend toward a heightened regulatory oversight and enforcement environment is expected to continue for the foreseeable future, and may create uncertainty and may increase our exposure to scrutiny of our operations and activities, significant penalties and liability and negative publicity.
Our business, and the businesses of many of our clients, could be materially adversely affected by new laws, rules or regulations or changes in existing laws, rules or regulations, including the interpretation and enforcement thereof.
Our business, and the business of many of our clients, is subject to extensive regulation. Governmental and regulatory authorities periodically review legislative and regulatory policies and initiatives, and may promulgate new or revised, or adopt changes in the interpretation and enforcement of existing, laws, rules and regulations at any time. Any such changes in laws, rules or regulations or in governmental policies could create additional regulatory exposure for our business, cause us to incur significant additional costs, require us to change or cease aspects of our business or restrict or limit our ability to grow our business, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations. There have been in the past, and could be in the future, significant technological, operational and compliance costs associated with the obligations that derive from compliance with evolving laws, rules and regulations.
Changes in legislation and in the rules and regulations promulgated by domestic and foreign regulators, and how they are applied, often directly affect the method of operation and profitability of dealers and other financial services intermediaries, including our dealer clients, and could result in restrictions in the way we and our clients conduct business. For example, various rules promulgated since the financial crisis, including under the Dodd-Frank Act, could adversely affect our dealer clients’ ability to make markets in a variety of products, thereby negatively impacting the level of liquidity and pricing available on our trading platforms. Our business and that of our clients could also be affected by the monetary policies adopted by the Federal Reserve and foreign central banking authorities, which may affect the credit quality of our clients or increase the cost for our clients to trade certain instruments on our trading platforms. In addition, such changes in monetary policy may directly impact our cost of funds for financing and investment activities and may impact the value of any financial instruments we hold.
Furthermore, many of the underlying markets in which we facilitate trading, and in which our clients trade, are subject to regulation. For example, trading in interest rate swaps has been subject to extensive regulation in the past, and any future regulation could lead to a decline in trading in these markets, which could have a negative impact on our trading volumes and, as a result, our revenues.
In addition, regulatory bodies in Europe have recently developed new rules and regulations targeted at the financial services industry, including MiFID II and the Markets in Financial Instruments Regulation (“MiFIR”), which were implemented in January 2018 and which introduced significant changes to the EU
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financial markets designed to facilitate more efficient markets and greater transparency for participants. MiFID II and MiFIR may have an adverse effect on our operations and our ability to offer our trading platforms and related solutions in a manner that can successfully compete against other methods of trading and related solutions. Additionally, most of the world’s major economies have introduced and continue to introduce regulations implementing Basel III, a global regulatory standard on bank capital adequacy, stress testing and market liquidity risk. The continued implementation of these and other bank capital standards could restrict the ability of our large bank and dealer customers to raise additional capital or use existing capital for trading purposes, which might cause them to trade less on our trading platforms and diminish transaction velocity. In addition, as regulations are introduced which affect our prudential obligations, the regulatory capital requirements imposed on certain of our subsidiaries may change.
We believe that it remains premature to know conclusively how specific aspects of the regulatory developments described above may directly affect our business. We cannot predict whether additional changes to the laws, rules and regulations that govern our business and operations, including changes to their interpretation, implementation or enforcement, will occur in the future or the extent to which any such changes will impact our business and operations. In addition, we cannot predict how current proposals that have not yet been finalized and/or that remain subject to ongoing debate will be implemented or in what form. We believe that uncertainty and potential delays around the final form of such new laws, rules and regulations may negatively impact our clients and trading volumes in certain markets in which we transact. Additionally, unintended consequences of such new laws, rules and regulations may adversely affect our industry, our clients and us in ways yet to be determined. Any such legal and regulatory changes could affect us in substantial and unpredictable ways, and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our actual or perceived failure to comply with privacy, data protection and information security laws, rules, regulations and obligations could harm our business.
Certain types of information we collect, compile, store, use, transfer and/or publish are subject to numerous federal, state, local and foreign laws and regulations regarding privacy, data protection and information security These laws, rules and regulations govern the storing, sharing, use, processing, transfer, disclosure and protection of personal information and other content. The scope of these laws, rules and regulations are changing, subject to differing interpretations, may be inconsistent among countries or conflict with other law, rules or regulations. We are also subject to the terms of our privacy policies and obligations to third parties related to applicable privacy, data protection and information security.
The regulatory framework for privacy, data protection and information security worldwide is uncertain, and is likely to remain uncertain for the foreseeable future, and we expect that there will continue to be new laws, rules regulations and industry standards concerning privacy, data protection and information security proposed and enacted in the various jurisdictions in which we operate. For example, European legislators adopted the General Data Protection Regulations (“GDPR”) that became effective in May 2018. The GDPR imposes more stringent EU data protection requirements and provides for greater penalties for noncompliance. Further, Brexit has created uncertainty with regard to the regulation of data protection in the United Kingdom. In particular, it is unclear whether the United Kingdom will enact data protection laws or regulations designed to be consistent with the GDPR and how data transfers to and from the United Kingdom will be regulated.
Our efforts to comply with privacy, data protection and information security laws, rules and regulations could entail substantial expenses, may divert resources from other initiatives and could impact our ability to provide certain solutions. Additionally, if our third-party providers violate any of these laws or regulations, such violations may also put our operations at risk. Any failure or perceived failure by us to comply with any of our obligations relating to privacy, data protection or information security may result in governmental investigations or enforcement actions, litigation, claims or negative publicity and could result in significant liability, increased costs or cause our clients to lose trust in us, which could have an adverse effect on our reputation and business.
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New U.S. tax legislation may materially adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
At any time, the U.S. federal income tax laws or the administrative interpretations of those laws may be amended. We cannot predict when or if any new U.S. federal income tax law, regulation or administrative interpretation, or any amendment to any existing U.S. federal income tax law, regulation, or administrative interpretation, will be adopted, promulgated or become effective. Any such law, regulation or interpretation could take effect retroactively, and could adversely affect our business and financial condition, and the impact of any such law, regulation or interpretation on holders of our Class A common stock could be adverse.
Our compliance and risk management programs might not be effective and may result in outcomes that could adversely affect our reputation, business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our ability to comply with all applicable laws, rules and regulations is largely dependent on our establishment and maintenance of compliance and risk management programs, including audit and reporting systems, that can quickly adapt and respond, as well as our ability to attract and retain qualified compliance, audit, legal, cybersecurity and other compliance and risk management personnel. While we have policies and procedures to identify, monitor and manage our risks and regulatory obligations, we cannot assure you that our policies and procedures will always be effective or that we will always be successful in monitoring or evaluating the risks to which we are or may be exposed. Our risk-management programs may prove to be ineffective because of their design, their implementation and maintenance or the lack of adequate, accurate or timely information. If our risk-management programs and efforts are ineffective, we could suffer losses that could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
As part of our compliance and risk management programs, we must rely upon our analysis of laws, rules, regulations and information regarding our industry, markets, personnel, clients and other matters that are publicly available or otherwise accessible to us. That information may not in all cases be accurate, complete, up-to-date or properly analyzed. Furthermore, we rely on a combination of technical and human controls and supervision that are subject to error and potential failure, the challenges of which are exacerbated by the 24-hour-a-day, global nature of our business, which is subject to various legal and regulatory requirements of multiple jurisdictions that are constantly evolving and subject to change.
In case of non-compliance or alleged non-compliance with applicable laws, rules or regulations by us or third parties on which we may rely, we could be subject to regulatory investigations and proceedings that may be very expensive to defend against and may result in substantial fines and penalties or civil lawsuits, including by clients, for damages which can be significant. Any of these outcomes would adversely affect our reputation, financial condition and results of operations. Further, the implementation of new legislation or regulations, or changes in or unfavorable interpretations of existing legislation or regulations by courts or regulators, could require us to incur significant compliance costs and impede our ability to operate, expand and enhance our platforms and solutions as necessary to remain competitive and grow our business, which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. </