penalties, fines, enhanced oversight, increased financial and capital requirements, additional restrictions or limitations, censure, suspension or other sanction, such as disgorgement, restitution or the revocation of regulatory approvals. The risks associated with such actions are difficult to assess or quantify.
In the normal course of our business, we have been, and continue to be from time to time, a party to various legal and regulatory proceedings related to compliance with applicable laws, rules and regulations, including audits, examinations and investigations of our operations and activities. Legal and regulatory actions, from subpoenas and other requests for information to potential criminal investigations, may divert management’s attention, cause us to incur significant expenses, including fees for legal representation and costs for remediation efforts, and result in fines, penalties or other sanctions. We may also be required to change or cease aspects of our operations or activities if a legal or regulatory authority determines that we have failed to comply with any laws, rules or regulations applicable to our business and/or otherwise determines to prohibit any of our operations or activities or revoke any of our approvals. In addition, regardless of the outcome, such actions may result in substantial costs and negative publicity, which may damage our reputation and impair our ability to attract and retain clients.
Firms in the financial services industry have experienced increased scrutiny in recent years, and penalties, fines and other sanctions sought by governmental and regulatory authorities, including the SEC, the CFTC, the Department of Justice, state securities administrators and state attorneys general in the United States, the FCA in the United Kingdom and other foreign regulators, have increased accordingly. This trend toward a heightened regulatory oversight and enforcement environment is expected to continue for the foreseeable future, and may create uncertainty and may increase our exposure to scrutiny of our operations and activities, significant penalties and liability and negative publicity.
Our business, and the businesses of many of our clients, could be materially adversely affected by new laws, rules or regulations or changes in existing laws, rules or regulations, including the interpretation and enforcement thereof.
Our business, and the business of many of our clients, is subject to extensive regulation. Governmental and regulatory authorities periodically review legislative and regulatory policies and initiatives, and may promulgate new or revised, or adopt changes in the interpretation and enforcement of existing, laws, rules and regulations at any time. Any such changes in laws, rules or regulations or in governmental policies could create additional regulatory exposure for our business, cause us to incur significant additional costs, require us to change or cease aspects of our business or restrict or limit our ability to grow our business, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations. There have been in the past, and could be in the future, significant technological, operational and compliance costs associated with the obligations that derive from compliance with evolving laws, rules and regulations.
Changes in legislation and in the rules and regulations promulgated by domestic and foreign regulators, and how they are applied, often directly affect the method of operation and profitability of dealers and other financial services intermediaries, including our dealer clients, and could result in restrictions in the way we and our clients conduct business. For example, various rules promulgated since the financial crisis, including under the Dodd-Frank Act, could adversely affect our dealer clients’ ability to make markets in a variety of products, thereby negatively impacting the level of liquidity and pricing available on our trading platforms. Our business and that of our clients could also be affected by the monetary policies adopted by the Federal Reserve and foreign central banking authorities, which may affect the credit quality of our clients or increase the cost for our clients to trade certain instruments on our trading platforms. In addition, such changes in monetary policy may directly impact our cost of funds for financing and investment activities and may impact the value of any financial instruments we hold.
Furthermore, many of the underlying markets in which we facilitate trading, and in which our clients trade, are subject to regulation. For example, trading in interest rate swaps has been subject to extensive regulation in the past, and any future regulation could lead to a decline in trading in these markets, which could have a negative impact on our trading volumes and, as a result, our revenues.
In addition, regulatory bodies in Europe have recently developed new rules and regulations targeted at the financial services industry, including MiFID II and the Markets in Financial Instruments Regulation (“MiFIR”), which were implemented in January 2018 and which introduced significant changes to the EU