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Loncar Cancer Immunotherapy ETF
(CNCR)
Loncar China BioPharma ETF
(CHNA)
Each listed on The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC


PROSPECTUS
December 31, 2021
The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) has not approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the accuracy or adequacy of this Prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.




Loncar Cancer Immunotherapy ETF
Loncar China BioPharma ETF

TABLE OF CONTENTS
FUND SUMMARY – LONCAR CANCER IMMUNOTHERAPY ETF
FUND SUMMARY – LONCAR CHINA BIOPHARMA ETF
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ABOUT THE INDEXES
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ABOUT THE FUNDS
PORTFOLIO HOLDINGS INFORMATION
MANAGEMENT
HOW TO BUY AND SELL SHARES
DIVIDENDS, DISTRIBUTIONS, AND TAXES
DISTRIBUTION
PREMIUM/DISCOUNT INFORMATION
ADDITIONAL NOTICES
FINANCIAL HIGHLIGHTS





FUND SUMMARY – LONCAR CANCER IMMUNOTHERAPY ETF
Investment Objective
The Loncar Cancer Immunotherapy ETF (the “Fund”) seeks to track the total return performance, before fees and expenses, of the Loncar Cancer Immunotherapy Index (the “Index”).
Fees and Expenses of the Fund
The following table describes the fees and expenses you may pay if you buy, hold, and sell shares of the Fund (“Shares”). You may pay other fees, such as brokerage commissions and other fees to financial intermediaries, which are not reflected in the table and Example below.
Annual Fund Operating Expenses
(expenses that you pay each year as a percentage of the value of your investment)
Management Fees 0.79%
Distribution and/or Service (12b-1) Fees 0.00%
Other Expenses 0.00%
Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses 0.79%
Expense Example
This Example is intended to help you compare the cost of investing in the Fund with the cost of investing in other funds. The Example assumes that you invest $10,000 in the Fund for the time periods indicated and then redeem all of your Shares at the end of those periods. The Example also assumes that your investment has a 5% return each year and that the Fund’s operating expenses remain the same. The Example does not take into account brokerage commissions that you may pay on your purchases and sales of Shares. Although your actual costs may be higher or lower, based on these assumptions your costs would be:
1 Year: $81 3 Years: $252 5 Years: $439 10 Years: $978
Portfolio Turnover
The Fund pays transaction costs, such as commissions, when it buys and sells securities (or “turns over” its portfolio). A higher portfolio turnover rate may indicate higher transaction costs and may result in higher taxes when Shares are held in a taxable account. These costs, which are not reflected in annual fund operating expenses or in the Example, affect the Fund’s performance. For the fiscal year ended August 31, 2021, the Fund’s portfolio turnover rate was 58% of the average value of its portfolio.
Principal Investment Strategies
The Fund uses a “passive management” (or indexing) approach to track the performance, before fees and expenses, of the Index.
Loncar Cancer Immunotherapy Index
The Index is composed of the common stock of approximately 30 pharmaceutical or biotechnology companies identified by Loncar Investments, LLC (“Loncar” or the “Index Provider”), the Fund’s index provider, as having a high strategic focus on the development of drugs that harness the body’s own immune system to fight cancer (“immunotherapy”). Loncar identifies companies with a high strategic focus on cancer immunotherapy (“Immunotherapy Companies”) based on whether they meet one or more of the following criteria:
(i)The company has a cancer immunotherapy drug(s) approved by either the U.S. Food and Drug Administration or the European Medicines Agency;
(ii)The company has a cancer immunotherapy drug(s) in the human stage of testing;
(iii)The company has announced intentions to begin human stage testing of a cancer immunotherapy drug(s); or
(iv)The company has announced an immunotherapy collaboration or partnership with a major pharmaceutical company.
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The Index is constructed using an objective, rules-based methodology that begins with an initial universe of all pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies whose equity securities or American Depositary Receipts (“ADRs”) are listed on a U.S. exchange. The initial universe is then narrowed to include only those companies that have been determined by Loncar to be Immunotherapy Companies, that are not known to be under investigation by the SEC or any other government or regulatory entity, that have a minimum market capitalization of $100 million, and that meet certain liquidity thresholds. The Index may include small-, mid-, and large-capitalization companies.
From the remaining companies, the Index Provider then selects (i) five of the largest pharmaceutical Immunotherapy Companies, including the leading pharmaceutical company in each of the three most established and recognized categories of immunotherapy techniques (cell-based therapies, checkpoint inhibitors, and targeted antibodies), plus the two other largest pharmaceutical Immunotherapy Companies, and (ii) the twenty-five largest biotechnology Immunotherapy Companies based on their market capitalization.
The Index is equal-weighted and is rebalanced and reconstituted on the third Tuesday of June and December. The Index was created by Loncar in March 2015 in anticipation of the commencement of operations of the Fund. Additional information about the Index is available on the Index Provider’s website at www.loncarindex.com.
The Fund’s Investment Strategy
The Fund attempts to invest all, or substantially all, of its assets in the component securities and ADRs that make up the Index. Under normal circumstances, at least 80% of the Fund’s total assets (exclusive of any collateral held from securities lending) will be invested in the component securities of the Index. Exchange Traded Concepts, LLC (“ETC” or the “Adviser”), the Fund’s investment adviser, expects that, over time, the correlation between the Fund’s performance and that of the Index, before fees and expenses, will be 95% or better.
The Fund will generally use a “replication” strategy to achieve its investment objective, meaning it generally will invest in all of the component securities of the Index. However, the Fund may use a “representative sampling” strategy, meaning it may invest in a sample of the securities in the Index whose risk, return and other characteristics closely resemble the risk, return and other characteristics of the Index as a whole, when the Fund’s sub-adviser believes it is in the best interests of the Fund (e.g., when replicating the Index involves practical difficulties or substantial costs, an Index constituent becomes temporarily illiquid, unavailable or less liquid, or as a result of legal restrictions or limitations that apply to the Fund but not to the Index).
The Fund generally may invest up to 20% of its total assets (exclusive of any collateral held from securities lending) in securities or other investments not included in the Index, but which the Fund’s sub-adviser believes will help the Fund track the Index. For example, the Fund may invest in securities that are not components of the Index to reflect various corporate actions and other changes to the Index (such as reconstitutions, additions and deletions).
To the extent the Index concentrates (i.e., holds more than 25% of its total assets) in the securities of a particular industry or group of related industries, the Fund will concentrate its investments to approximately the same extent as the Index. The Fund is expected to concentrate in Immunotherapy Companies.
Principal Investment Risks
The principal risks of investing in the Fund are summarized below. The principal risks are presented in alphabetical order to facilitate finding particular risks and comparing them with other funds. Each risk summarized below is considered a “principal risk” of investing in the Fund, regardless of the order in which it appears. As with any investment, there is a risk that you could lose all or a portion of your investment in the Fund. Some or all of these risks may adversely affect the Fund’s net asset value per share (“NAV”), trading price, yield, total return and/or ability to meet its objective. For more information about the risks of investing in the Fund, see the section in the Fund’s Prospectus titled “Additional Information About the Funds—Principal Investment Risks.”
Depositary Receipt Risk. Depositary Receipts involve risks similar to those associated with investments in foreign securities, such as changes in political or economic conditions of other countries and changes in the exchange rates of foreign currencies. Depositary Receipts listed on U.S. exchanges are issued by banks or trust companies and entitle the holder to all dividends and capital gains that are paid out on the underlying foreign shares (“Underlying Shares”). When the Fund invests in Depositary Receipts as a substitute for an investment directly in the Underlying Shares, the Fund is exposed to the risk that the Depositary Receipts may not provide a return that corresponds precisely with that of the Underlying Shares.
Equity Market Risk. The equity securities held in the Fund’s portfolio may experience sudden, unpredictable drops in value or long periods of decline in value. This may occur because of factors that affect securities markets generally or factors affecting specific issuers, industries, or sectors in which the Fund invests. Common stocks are generally exposed to greater risk than other types of securities, such as preferred stock and debt obligations, because common stockholders
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generally have inferior rights to receive payment from issuers. In addition, local, regional or global events such as war, acts of terrorism, spread of infectious diseases or other public health issues, recessions, or other events could have a significant negative impact on the Fund and its investments. For example, the global pandemic caused by COVID-19, a novel coronavirus, and the aggressive responses taken by many governments, including closing borders, restricting international and domestic travel, and the imposition of prolonged quarantines or similar restrictions, has had negative impacts, and in many cases severe impacts, on markets worldwide. The COVID-19 pandemic has caused prolonged disruptions to the normal business operations of companies around the world and the impact of such disruptions is hard to predict. Such events may affect certain geographic regions, countries, sectors and industries more significantly than others. Such events could adversely affect the prices and liquidity of the Fund’s portfolio securities or other instruments and could result in disruptions in the trading markets.
ETF Risks. The Fund is an ETF, and, as a result of an ETF’s structure, it is exposed to the following risks:
Authorized Participants, Market Makers, and Liquidity Providers Concentration Risk. The Fund has a limited number of financial institutions that may act as Authorized Participants (“APs”). In addition, there may be a limited number of market makers and/or liquidity providers in the marketplace. To the extent either of the following events occur, Shares may trade at a material discount to NAV and possibly face delisting: (i) APs exit the business or otherwise become unable to process creation and/or redemption orders and no other APs step forward to perform these services, or (ii) market makers and/or liquidity providers exit the business or significantly reduce their business activities and no other entities step forward to perform their functions.
Costs of Buying or Selling Shares. Due to the costs of buying or selling Shares, including brokerage commissions imposed by brokers and bid-ask spreads, frequent trading of Shares may significantly reduce investment results and an investment in Shares may not be advisable for investors who anticipate regularly making small investments.
Shares May Trade at Prices Other Than NAV. As with all ETFs, Shares may be bought and sold in the secondary market at market prices. Although it is expected that the market price of Shares will approximate the Fund’s NAV, there may be times when the market price of Shares is more than the NAV intra-day (premium) or less than the NAV intra-day (discount) due to supply and demand of Shares or during periods of market volatility. This risk is heightened in times of market volatility or periods of steep market declines. Because the Underlying Shares of certain securities held by the Fund trade on foreign exchanges that are closed when the Fund’s primary listing exchange is open, the Fund is likely to experience premiums and discounts greater than those of domestic ETFs.
Trading. Although Shares are listed for trading on The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC (the “Exchange”) and may be traded on U.S. exchanges other than the Exchange, there can be no assurance that Shares will trade with any volume, or at all, on any stock exchange. In stressed market conditions, the liquidity of Shares may begin to mirror the liquidity of the Fund’s underlying portfolio holdings, which can be significantly less liquid than Shares, and this could lead to differences between the market price of the Shares and the underlying value of those Shares.
Foreign Companies Risk. Investments in ADRs that provide exposure to securities traded in foreign markets involve substantial risk due to limited information; different accounting, auditing and financial reporting standards; or adverse political or economic developments. The Fund may also invest in Variable Interest Entities (“VIEs”). For purposes of raising capital offshore on exchanges outside of China, including on U.S. exchanges, many Chinese-based operating companies are structured as Variable Interest Entities (“VIEs”). In this structure, the Chinese-based operating company is the VIE and establishes a shell company in a foreign jurisdiction, such as the Cayman Islands. The shell company lists on a foreign exchange and enters into contractual arrangements with the VIE. This structure allows Chinese companies in which the government restricts foreign ownership to raise capital from foreign investors. While the shell company has no equity ownership of the VIE, these contractual arrangements permit the shell company to consolidate the VIE’s financial statements with its own for accounting purposes and provide for economic exposure to the performance of the underlying Chinese operating company. Therefore, an investor in the listed shell company, such as the Fund, will have exposure to the Chinese-based operating company only through contractual arrangements and has no ownership in the Chinese-based operating company. Furthermore, because the shell company only has specific rights provided for in these service agreements with the VIE, its abilities to control the activities at the Chinese-based operating company are limited and the operating company may engage in activities that negatively impact investment value.
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Immunotherapy Companies Risk. Immunotherapy Companies are highly dependent on the development, procurement and marketing of drugs and the protection and exploitation of intellectual property rights. A company’s valuation can also be greatly affected if one of its products is proven or alleged to be unsafe, ineffective or unprofitable. The stock prices of Immunotherapy Companies have been and will likely continue to be very volatile.
The costs associated with developing new drugs can be significant, and the results are unpredictable. Newly developed drugs may be susceptible to product obsolescence due to intense competition from new products and less costly generic products. Moreover, the process for obtaining regulatory approval by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration or other governmental regulatory authorities is long and costly and there can be no assurance that the necessary approvals will be obtained or maintained.
Certain companies in which the Fund may invest are non-U.S. issuers whose securities or ADRs are listed on U.S. exchanges. The international operations of many Immunotherapy Companies expose them to risks associated with instability and changes in economic and political conditions, foreign currency fluctuations, changes in foreign regulations and other risks inherent to international business.
Non-Diversification Risk. The Fund is considered to be non-diversified, which means that it may invest more of its assets in the securities of a single issuer or a smaller number of issuers than if it were a diversified fund. As a result, the Fund may be more exposed to the risks associated with and developments affecting an individual issuer or a smaller number of issuers than a fund that invests more widely. This may increase the Fund’s volatility and cause the performance of a relatively smaller number of issuers to have a greater impact on the Fund’s performance.
Passive Investment Risk. The Fund is not actively managed, and its sub-adviser would not sell shares of an equity security due to current or projected underperformance of a security, industry, or sector, unless that security is removed from the Index or the selling of shares of that security is otherwise required upon a reconstitution or rebalancing of the Index in accordance with the Index methodology.
Sector Risk. To the extent the Fund invests more heavily in particular sectors of the economy, its performance will be especially sensitive to developments that significantly affect those sectors. The Fund’s investments will be concentrated in an industry or group of industries to the extent the Index is so concentrated. The Fund may be susceptible to an increased risk of loss, including losses due to adverse occurrences affecting the Fund more than the market as a whole, to the extent that the Fund’s investments are concentrated in the securities of a particular industry, group of industries, or sector. A significant portion of the Fund’s assets will be invested in the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries, which expose the Fund to the risks of the following sector:
Health Care Sector Risk. Companies in the health care sector are subject to extensive government regulation and their profitability can be significantly affected by restrictions on government reimbursement for medical expenses, rising costs of medical products and services, pricing pressure (including price discounting), limited product lines, an increased emphasis on the delivery of healthcare through outpatient services, loss or impairment of intellectual property rights and litigation regarding product or service liability.
Smaller Companies Risk. The Fund may invest in the securities of smaller-capitalization companies. As a result, the Fund may be more volatile than funds that invest in larger, more established companies. The securities of smaller-capitalization companies generally trade in lower volumes and are subject to greater and more unpredictable price changes than larger capitalization stocks or the stock market as a whole. Smaller-capitalization companies may be particularly sensitive to changes in interest rates, government regulation, borrowing costs and earnings.
Tax Risk. To qualify for the favorable tax treatment generally available to a regulated investment company (“RICs”), the Fund must satisfy, among other requirements described in the SAI, certain diversification requirements. In particular, the Fund generally may not acquire a security if, as a result of the acquisition, more than 50% of the value of the Fund’s assets would be invested in (a) issuers in which the Fund has, in each case, invested more than 5% of the Fund’s assets or (b) issuers more than 10% of whose outstanding voting securities are owned by the Fund. While the weighting of the Index is not inconsistent with these rules, given the concentration of the Index in a relatively small number of securities, it may not always be possible for the Fund to fully implement a replication strategy or a representative sampling strategy while satisfying these diversification requirements. The Fund’s efforts to satisfy the diversification requirements may affect the Fund’s execution of its investment strategy and may cause the Fund’s return to deviate from that of the Index, and the Fund’s efforts to replicate or represent the Index may cause it inadvertently to fail to satisfy the diversification requirements. If the Fund were to fail to satisfy the diversification requirements, it could incur penalty taxes and be forced to dispose of certain assets, or it could fail to qualify as a RIC. If the Fund were to fail to qualify as a RIC, it would be taxed in the same manner as an ordinary corporation, and distributions to its shareholders would not be deductible by the Fund in computing its taxable income.
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Tracking Error Risk. As with all index funds, the performance of the Fund and the Index may differ from each other for a variety of reasons. For example, the Fund incurs operating expenses and portfolio transaction costs not incurred by the Index. In addition, the Fund may not be fully invested in the securities of the Index at all times or may hold securities not included in the Index.
Performance
The following performance information indicates some of the risks of investing in the Fund. The bar chart shows the Fund’s performance for calendar years ended December 31. The table illustrates how the Fund’s average annual returns for the 1-year, 5-year, and since inception periods compare with those of a broad measure of market performance and the Index. The Fund’s past performance, before and after taxes, does not necessarily indicate how it will perform in the future. Updated performance information is available on the Fund’s website at www.LoncarFunds.com.
Calendar Year Total Returns
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For the year-to-date period ended September 30, 2021, the Fund’s total return was -4.03%.
During the period of time shown in the bar chart, the Fund’s highest quarterly return was 36.76% for the quarter ended June 30, 2020 and the lowest quarterly return was -23.94% for the quarter ended December 31, 2018.
Average Annual Total Returns
For the Periods Ended December 31, 2020
Loncar Cancer Immunotherapy ETF
1 Year
5 Years
Since Inception
(10/13/2015)
Return Before Taxes
36.22% 2.61% 5.20%
Return After Taxes on Distributions
35.81% 2.44% 5.00%
Return After Taxes on Distributions and Sale of Fund Shares
21.53% 1.94% 3.97%
Loncar Cancer Immunotherapy Index
(reflects no deduction for fees, expenses, or taxes)
37.26% 3.36% 6.03%
S&P 500 Index
(reflects no deduction for fees, expenses, or taxes)
18.40% 15.22% 15.08%
After-tax returns are calculated using the historical highest individual federal marginal income tax rates during the period covered by the table above and do not reflect the impact of state and local taxes. Actual after-tax returns depend on an investor’s tax situation and may differ from those shown. After-tax returns shown are not relevant to investors who hold their Shares through tax-deferred arrangements such as an individual retirement account (“IRA”) or other tax-advantaged accounts.
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Portfolio Management
Adviser: Exchange Traded Concepts, LLC
Sub-Adviser: Vident Investment Advisory, LLC (“VIA” or the “Sub-Adviser”)
Portfolio Managers: Austin Wen, CFA, Portfolio Manager of VIA, has been a portfolio manager of the Fund since December 2018.
Rafael Zayas, CFA, SVP, Head of Portfolio Management and Trading of VIA, has been a portfolio manager of the Fund since June 2020.
Purchase and Sale of Shares
Shares are listed on the Exchange, and individual Shares may only be bought and sold in the secondary market through brokers at market prices, rather than NAV. Because Shares trade at market prices rather than NAV, Shares may trade at a price greater than NAV (premium) or less than NAV (discount).
The Fund issues and redeems Shares at NAV only in large blocks known as “Creation Units,” which only APs (typically, broker-dealers) may purchase or redeem. The Fund generally issues and redeems Creation Units in exchange for a portfolio of securities and/or a designated amount of U.S. cash.
Investors may incur costs attributable to the difference between the highest price a buyer is willing to pay to purchase Shares (bid) and the lowest price a seller is willing to accept for Shares (ask) when buying or selling Shares in the secondary market (the “bid-ask spread”). Recent information about the Fund, including its NAV, market price, premiums and discounts, and bid-ask spreads is available on the Fund’s website at www.LoncarFunds.com.
Tax Information
Fund distributions are generally taxable as ordinary income, qualified dividend income, or capital gains (or a combination), unless your investment is in an IRA or other tax-advantaged account. Distributions on investments made through tax-deferred arrangements may be taxed later upon withdrawal of assets from those accounts.
Financial Intermediary Compensation
If you purchase Shares through a broker-dealer or other financial intermediary (such as a bank) (an “Intermediary”), the Adviser or its affiliates may pay Intermediaries for certain activities related to the Fund, including participation in activities that are designed to make Intermediaries more knowledgeable about exchange traded products, including the Fund, or for other activities, such as marketing, educational training or other initiatives related to the sale or promotion of Shares. These payments may create a conflict of interest by influencing the Intermediary and your salesperson to recommend the Fund over another investment. Any such arrangements do not result in increased Fund expenses. Ask your salesperson or visit the Intermediary’s website for more information.
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FUND SUMMARY – LONCAR CHINA BIOPHARMA ETF
Investment Objective
The Loncar China BioPharma ETF (the “Fund”) seeks to track the performance, before fees and expenses, of the Loncar China BioPharma Index (the “Index”).
Fees and Expenses of the Fund
The following table describes the fees and expenses you may pay if you buy, hold, and sell shares of the Fund (“Shares”). You may pay other fees, such as brokerage commissions and other fees to financial intermediaries, which are not reflected in the table and Example below.
Annual Fund Operating Expenses (expenses that you pay each year as a percentage of the value of your investment)
Management Fees 0.79%
Distribution and/or Service (12b-1) Fees 0.00%
Other Expenses 0.00%
Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses
0.79%
Expense Example
This Example is intended to help you compare the cost of investing in the Fund with the cost of investing in other funds. The Example assumes that you invest $10,000 in the Fund for the time periods indicated and then redeem all of your Shares at the end of those periods. The Example also assumes that your investment has a 5% return each year and that the Fund’s operating expenses remain the same. The Example does not take into account brokerage commissions that you may pay on your purchases and sales of Shares. Although your actual costs may be higher or lower, based on these assumptions your costs would be:
1 Year: $81 3 Years: $252 5 Years: $439 10 Years: $978
Portfolio Turnover
The Fund pays transaction costs, such as commissions, when it buys and sells securities (or “turns over” its portfolio). A higher portfolio turnover rate may indicate higher transaction costs and may result in higher taxes when Shares are held in a taxable account. These costs, which are not reflected in annual fund operating expenses or in the Example, affect the Fund’s performance. For the fiscal year ended August 31, 2021, the Fund’s portfolio turnover rate was 44% of the average value of its portfolio.
Principal Investment Strategy
The Fund uses a “passive management” (or indexing) approach to track the performance, before fees and expenses, of the Index. The Index was developed in 2018 by Loncar Investments LLC, the Fund’s index provider (“Loncar” or the “Index Provider”), and seeks to track the performance of a modified equal-weighted portfolio of companies directly involved in the growth of China’s pharmaceutical and biotech related industries (China’s “biopharma sector”). The Index includes pharmaceutical companies, biotech companies, drug manufacturers, diagnostics companies, wholesalers or distributors of biopharma products, and biopharma service providers (“Biopharma Companies”).
Loncar China BioPharma Index
The Index is constructed from the universe of Nasdaq- or Hong Kong Stock Exchange-listed companies identified by the Index methodology as Biopharma Companies. To maintain a focus on innovation in the Chinese biopharma sector, companies in the Index universe are screened to eliminate those that focus strictly on manufacturing active pharmaceutical ingredients. The remaining companies are then screened according to the Index rules to include only companies (i) whose principal corporate headquarters is in China or (ii) for which at least 51% of the value of their product revenue and pipeline is tied directly to the Chinese market (such remaining companies, “China Biopharma Companies”).
The pool of China Biopharma Companies is then screened for investibility leaving only companies having a market capitalization of at least USD$200 million, meeting a minimum liquidity threshold, and that are not publicly known to currently be under formal investigation by a government or regulatory entity.
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At the time of each reconstitution of the Index on the second Monday of each February and August, each constituent is weighted equally, subject to the following adjustments applied depending on a company’s market capitalization to emphasize the role of larger companies in the Index:
Market Capitalization (USD$) Weight Adjustment Factor
$10 billion or more 140%
Between $1 billion and $10 billion 100%
From $200 million to $1 billion 70%
As of November 15, 2021, the Index contained 66 companies, 10 of which were listed on Nasdaq and 56 of which were listed on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange. As of November 15, 2021 the three largest components of the Index were BeiGene, Ltd. (2.88%), CARsgen Therapeutics Holdings Ltd. (2.87%) and Innovent Biologics, Inc. (2.42%).
The Fund’s Investment Strategy
The Fund attempts to invest all, or substantially all, of its assets in the component securities and depositary receipts that make up the Index. Exchange Traded Concepts, LLC (“ETC” or the “Adviser”), the Fund’s investment adviser, expects that, over time, the correlation between the Fund’s performance and that of the Index, before fees and expenses, will be 95% or better.
The Fund will generally use a “replication” strategy to achieve its investment objective, meaning it generally will invest in all of the component securities of the Index in approximately the same proportion as in the Index. However, the Fund may use a “representative sampling” strategy, meaning it may invest in a sample of the securities in the Index whose risk, return, and other characteristics closely resemble the risk, return, and other characteristics of the Index as a whole, when the Fund’s sub-adviser believes it is in the best interests of the Fund (e.g., when replicating the Index involves practical difficulties or substantial costs, an Index constituent becomes temporarily illiquid, unavailable or less liquid, or as a result of legal restrictions or limitations that apply to the Fund but not to the Index).
The Fund generally may invest in securities or other investments not included in the Index, but which the Fund’s sub-adviser believes will help the Fund track the Index. For example, the Fund may invest in securities that are not components of the Index to reflect various corporate actions and other changes to the Index (such as reconstitutions, additions and deletions).
To the extent the Index concentrates (i.e., holds more than 25% of its total assets) in the securities of a particular industry or group of related industries, the Fund will concentrate its investments to approximately the same extent as the Index. The Adviser expects that the Index, and consequently the Fund, will generally be concentrated in the securities of biotech and pharmaceutical companies.
Principal Investment Risks
The principal risks of investing in the Fund are summarized below. The principal risks are presented in alphabetical order to facilitate finding particular risks and comparing them with other funds. Each risk summarized below is considered a “principal risk” of investing in the Fund, regardless of the order in which it appears. As with any investment, there is a risk that you could lose all or a portion of your investment in the Fund. Some or all of these risks may adversely affect the Fund’s net asset value per share (“NAV”), trading price, yield, total return and/or ability to meet its objective. For more information about the risks of investing in the Fund, see the section in the Fund’s Prospectus titled “Additional Information About the Funds—Principal Investment Risks.”
China Biopharma Risk. The biopharmaceutical industry in China is strictly regulated and changes in such regulations, including banning or limiting certain products, may have a material adverse effect on the operations, revenues, and profitability of Biopharma Companies. The laws and regulations applicable to the process of administrative approval of medicine and its production in China require entities producing biopharma products to comply strictly with certain standards and specifications promulgated by the government. In the event that a product is discovered to be not compliant with the government’s standards and specifications, the health department may revoke its approval of such product, or otherwise limit the use of such product. Additionally, the process of conducting research and various tests on new products before obtaining a new medicine certificate from the National Medical Products Administration (“NMPA”) and subsequent procedures may take several years, and the price of certain biopharma products may be regulated in China. Changes in these laws and regulations, including banning or limiting certain products, could have a material adverse effect on the operations, revenues, and profitability of Biopharma Companies held by the Fund.
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Currency Exchange Rate Risk. The Fund’s assets include investments denominated in non-U.S. currencies or in securities that provide exposure to such currencies. Changes in currency exchange rates and the relative value of non-U.S. currencies will affect the value of the Fund’s investment and the value of your Shares. Currency exchange rates can be very volatile and can change quickly and unpredictably. As a result, the value of an investment in the Fund may change quickly and without warning and you may lose money.
Depositary Receipt Risk. Depositary Receipts involve risks similar to those associated with investments in foreign securities, such as changes in political or economic conditions of other countries and changes in the exchange rates of foreign currencies. Depositary Receipts listed on U.S. exchanges are issued by banks or trust companies and entitle the holder to all dividends and capital gains that are paid out on the underlying foreign shares (“Underlying Shares”). When the Fund invests in Depositary Receipts as a substitute for an investment directly in the Underlying Shares, the Fund is exposed to the risk that the Depositary Receipts may not provide a return that corresponds precisely with that of the Underlying Shares.
Equity Market Risk. The equity securities held in the Fund’s portfolio may experience sudden, unpredictable drops in value or long periods of decline in value. This may occur because of factors that affect securities markets generally or factors affecting specific issuers, industries, or sectors in which the Fund invests. Common stocks are generally exposed to greater risk than other types of securities, such as preferred stock and debt obligations, because common stockholders generally have inferior rights to receive payment from issuers. In addition, local, regional or global events such as war, acts of terrorism, spread of infectious diseases or other public health issues, recessions, or other events could have a significant negative impact on the Fund and its investments. For example, the global pandemic caused by COVID-19, a novel coronavirus, and the aggressive responses taken by many governments, including closing borders, restricting international and domestic travel, and the imposition of prolonged quarantines or similar restrictions, has had negative impacts, and in many cases severe impacts, on markets worldwide. The COVID-19 pandemic has caused prolonged disruptions to the normal business operations of companies around the world and the impact of such disruptions is hard to predict. Such events may affect certain geographic regions, countries, sectors and industries more significantly than others. Such events could adversely affect the prices and liquidity of the Fund’s portfolio securities or other instruments and could result in disruptions in the trading markets.
ETF Risks. The Fund is an ETF, and, as a result of an ETF’s structure, it is exposed to the following risks:
Authorized Participants, Market Makers, and Liquidity Providers Concentration Risk. The Fund has a limited number of financial institutions that may act as Authorized Participants (“APs”). In addition, there may be a limited number of market makers and/or liquidity providers in the marketplace. To the extent either of the following events occur, Shares may trade at a material discount to NAV and possibly face delisting: (i) APs exit the business or otherwise become unable to process creation and/or redemption orders and no other APs step forward to perform these services, or (ii) market makers and/or liquidity providers exit the business or significantly reduce their business activities and no other entities step forward to perform their functions.
Costs of Buying or Selling Shares. Due to the costs of buying or selling Shares, including brokerage commissions imposed by brokers and bid-ask spreads, frequent trading of Shares may significantly reduce investment results and an investment in Shares may not be advisable for investors who anticipate regularly making small investments.
Shares May Trade at Prices Other Than NAV. As with all ETFs, Shares may be bought and sold in the secondary market at market prices. Although it is expected that the market price of Shares will approximate the Fund’s NAV, there may be times when the market price of Shares is more than the NAV intra-day (premium) or less than the NAV intra-day (discount) due to supply and demand of Shares or during periods of market volatility. This risk is heightened in times of market volatility or periods of steep market declines. Because certain securities held by the Fund trade on foreign exchanges that are closed when the Fund’s primary listing exchange is open, the Fund is likely to experience premiums and discounts greater than those of domestic ETFs.
Trading. Although Shares are listed for trading on The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC (the “Exchange”) and may be traded on U.S. exchanges other than the Exchange, there can be no assurance that Shares will trade with any volume, or at all, on any stock exchange. In stressed market conditions, the liquidity of Shares may begin to mirror the liquidity of the Fund’s underlying portfolio holdings, which can be significantly less liquid than Shares, and this could lead to differences between the market price of the Shares and the underlying value of those Shares.
Foreign Securities Risk. Investments in non-U.S. securities involve certain risks that may not be present with investments in U.S. securities. For example, investments in non-U.S. securities may be subject to risk of loss due to foreign currency fluctuations or to political or economic instability. Investments in non-U.S. securities also may be subject to withholding or other taxes and may be subject to additional trading, settlement, custodial, and operational
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risks. These and other factors can make investments in the Fund more volatile and potentially less liquid than other types of investments.
Geographic Investment Risk. Because the Fund invests primarily in the securities of China Biopharma Companies, it is more likely to be impacted by events or conditions affecting China.
Risks of Investing in China. Investments in Chinese issuers subject the Fund to risks specific to China. China may be subject to considerable degrees of economic, political and social instability. China is a developing market and demonstrates significantly higher volatility from time to time in comparison to developed markets. Over the past 25 years, the Chinese government has undertaken reform of economic and market practices and is expanding the sphere of private ownership of property in China. However, Chinese markets generally continue to experience inefficiency, volatility and pricing anomalies resulting from governmental influence, a lack of publicly available information and/or political and social instability. Internal social unrest or confrontations with other neighboring countries, including military conflicts in response to such events, may also disrupt economic development in China and result in a greater risk of currency fluctuations, currency convertibility, interest rate fluctuations and higher rates of inflation. Export growth continues to be a major driver of China’s rapid economic growth. Reduction in spending on Chinese products and services, institution of tariffs or other trade barriers, or a downturn in any of the economies of China’s key trading partners may have an adverse impact on the Chinese economy. China is also vulnerable economically to the impact of a public health crisis, which could depress consumer demand, reduce economic output, and potentially lead to market closures, travel restrictions, and quarantines, all of which would negatively impact China’s economy and could affect the economies of its trading partners.
For purposes of raising capital offshore on exchanges outside of China, including on U.S. exchanges, many Chinese-based operating companies are structured as Variable Interest Entities (“VIEs”). In this structure, the Chinese-based operating company is the VIE and establishes a shell company in a foreign jurisdiction, such as the Cayman Islands. The shell company lists on a foreign exchange and enters into contractual arrangements with the VIE. This structure allows Chinese companies in which the government restricts foreign ownership to raise capital from foreign investors. While the shell company has no equity ownership of the VIE, these contractual arrangements permit the shell company to consolidate the VIE’s financial statements with its own for accounting purposes and provide for economic exposure to the performance of the underlying Chinese operating company. Therefore, an investor in the listed shell company, such as the Fund, will have exposure to the Chinese-based operating company only through contractual arrangements and has no ownership in the Chinese-based operating company. Furthermore, because the shell company only has specific rights provided for in these service agreements with the VIE, its abilities to control the activities at the Chinese-based operating company are limited and the operating company may engage in activities that negatively impact investment value.
Geopolitical Risk. Some countries and regions in which the Fund invests have experienced security concerns, war or threats of war and aggression, terrorism, economic uncertainty, natural and environmental disasters and/or systemic market dislocations that have led, and in the future may lead, to increased short-term market volatility and may have adverse long-term effects on the U.S. and world economies and markets generally, each of which may negatively impact the Fund’s investments.
Market Capitalization Risk
Large-Capitalization Investing. The securities of large-capitalization companies may be relatively mature compared to smaller companies and therefore subject to slower growth during times of economic expansion. Large-capitalization companies may also be unable to respond quickly to new competitive challenges, such as changes in technology and consumer tastes.
Mid-Capitalization Investing. The securities of mid-capitalization companies may be more vulnerable to adverse issuer, market, political, or economic developments than securities of large-capitalization companies. The securities of mid-capitalization companies generally trade in lower volumes and are subject to greater and more unpredictable price changes than large capitalization stocks or the stock market as a whole.
Small-Capitalization Investing. The securities of small-capitalization companies may be more vulnerable to adverse issuer, market, political, or economic developments than securities of large- or mid-capitalization companies. The securities of small-capitalization companies generally trade in lower volumes and are subject to greater and more unpredictable price changes than large- or mid-capitalization stocks or the stock market as a whole. There is typically less publicly available information concerning smaller-capitalization companies than for larger, more established companies.
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Passive Investment Risk. The Fund is not actively managed, and its sub-adviser would not sell shares of an equity security due to current or projected underperformance of a security, industry, or sector, unless that security is removed from the Index or the selling of shares of that security is otherwise required upon a reconstitution or rebalancing of the Index in accordance with the Index methodology.
Sector Risk. To the extent the Fund invests more heavily in particular sectors of the economy, its performance will be especially sensitive to developments that significantly affect those sectors. The Fund’s investments will be concentrated in an industry or group of industries to the extent the Index is so concentrated. The Fund may be susceptible to an increased risk of loss, including losses due to adverse occurrences affecting the Fund more than the market as a whole, to the extent that the Fund’s investments are concentrated in the securities of a particular industry, group of industries, or sector. A significant portion of the Fund’s assets will be invested in the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries, which expose the Fund to the risks of the following sector:
Health Care Sector Risk. Companies in the health care sector are subject to extensive government regulation and their profitability can be significantly affected by restrictions on government reimbursement for medical expenses, rising costs of medical products and services, pricing pressure (including price discounting), limited product lines, an increased emphasis on the delivery of healthcare through outpatient services, loss or impairment of intellectual property rights and litigation regarding product or service liability.
The costs associated with developing new drugs can be significant, and the results are unpredictable. Newly developed drugs may be susceptible to product obsolescence due to intense competition from new products and less costly generic products. Moreover, the process for obtaining regulatory approval by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”), NMPA, or other foreign or domestic governmental regulatory authorities is long and costly and there can be no assurance that the necessary approvals will be obtained or maintained. The values of many companies in the health care sector are also dependent on the development, protection and exploitation of intellectual property rights and other proprietary information, and the profitability of these companies may be significantly affected by such things as the expiration of patents or the loss of, or the inability to enforce, intellectual property rights.
Tax Risk. To qualify for the favorable tax treatment generally available to a regulated investment company (“RICs”), the Fund must satisfy, among other requirements described in the SAI, certain diversification requirements. In particular, the Fund generally may not acquire a security if, as a result of the acquisition, more than 50% of the value of the Fund’s assets would be invested in (a) issuers in which the Fund has, in each case, invested more than 5% of the Fund’s assets or (b) issuers more than 10% of whose outstanding voting securities are owned by the Fund. While the weighting of the Index is not inconsistent with these rules, given the concentration of the Index in a relatively small number of securities, it may not always be possible for the Fund to fully implement a replication strategy or a representative sampling strategy while satisfying these diversification requirements. The Fund’s efforts to satisfy the diversification requirements may affect the Fund’s execution of its investment strategy and may cause the Fund’s return to deviate from that of the Index, and the Fund’s efforts to replicate or represent the Index may cause it inadvertently to fail to satisfy the diversification requirements. If the Fund were to fail to satisfy the diversification requirements, it could incur penalty taxes and be forced to dispose of certain assets, or it could fail to qualify as a RIC. If the Fund were to fail to qualify as a RIC, it would be taxed in the same manner as an ordinary corporation, and distributions to its shareholders would not be deductible by the Fund in computing its taxable income.
Tracking Error Risk. As with all index funds, the performance of the Fund and the Index may differ from each other for a variety of reasons. For example, the Fund incurs operating expenses and portfolio transaction costs not incurred by the Index. In addition, the Fund may not be fully invested in the securities of the Index at all times or may hold securities not included in the Index.
Performance
The following performance information indicates some of the risks of investing in the Fund. The bar chart shows the Fund’s performance for the most recent calendar year ended December 31. The table illustrates how the Fund’s average annual returns for the 1-year and since inception periods compare with those of a broad measure of market performance and the Index. The Fund’s past performance, before and after taxes, does not necessarily indicate how it will perform in the future. Updated performance information is available on the Fund’s website at www.LoncarFunds.com.



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Calendar Year Total Returns
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For the year-to-date period ended September 30, 2021, the Fund’s total return was 13.86%.
During the period of time shown in the bar chart, the Fund’s highest quarterly return was 33.52% for the quarter ended June 30, 2020 and the lowest quarterly return was -6.78% for the quarter ended March 31, 2020.
Average Annual Total Returns
For the Periods Ended December 31, 2020
Loncar China BioPharma ETF
1 Year
Since Inception
(8/14/2018)
Return Before Taxes
34.38% 12.60%
Return After Taxes on Distributions
34.27% 12.54%
Return After Taxes on Distributions and Sale of Fund Shares
20.50% 9.79%
Loncar China BioPharma Index
(reflects no deduction for fees, expenses, or taxes)
35.58% 13.60%
NASDAQ Biotech Index
(reflects no deduction for fees, expenses, or taxes)
25.69% 11.28%
After-tax returns are calculated using the historical highest individual federal marginal income tax rates during the period covered by the table above and do not reflect the impact of state and local taxes. Actual after-tax returns depend on an investor’s tax situation and may differ from those shown. After-tax returns shown are not relevant to investors who hold their Shares through tax-deferred arrangements such as an individual retirement account (“IRA”) or other tax-advantaged accounts.
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Portfolio Management
Adviser: Exchange Traded Concepts, LLC
Sub-Adviser: Vident Investment Advisory, LLC (“VIA” or the “Sub-Adviser”)
Portfolio Managers: Austin Wen, CFA, Portfolio Manager of VIA, has been a portfolio manager of the Fund since June 2020.
Rafael Zayas, CFA, SVP, Head of Portfolio Management and Trading of VIA, has been a portfolio manager of the Fund since June 2020.
Purchase and Sale of Shares
Shares are listed on the Exchange, and individual Shares may only be bought and sold in the secondary market through brokers at market prices, rather than NAV. Because Shares trade at market prices rather than NAV, Shares may trade at a price greater than NAV (premium) or less than NAV (discount).
The Fund issues and redeems Shares at NAV only in large blocks known as “Creation Units,” which only APs (typically, broker-dealers) may purchase or redeem. The Fund generally issues and redeems Creation Units in exchange for a portfolio of securities and/or a designated amount of U.S. cash.
Investors may incur costs attributable to the difference between the highest price a buyer is willing to pay to purchase Shares (bid) and the lowest price a seller is willing to accept for Shares (ask) when buying or selling Shares in the secondary market (the “bid-ask spread”). Recent information about the Fund, including its NAV, market price, premiums and discounts, and bid-ask spreads is available on the Fund’s website at www.LoncarFunds.com.
Tax Information
Fund distributions are generally taxable as ordinary income, qualified dividend income, or capital gains (or a combination), unless your investment is in an IRA or other tax-advantaged account. Distributions on investments made through tax-deferred arrangements may be taxed later upon withdrawal of assets from those accounts.
Financial Intermediary Compensation
If you purchase Shares through a broker-dealer or other financial intermediary (such as a bank) (an “Intermediary”), the Adviser or its affiliates may pay Intermediaries for certain activities related to the Fund, including participation in activities that are designed to make Intermediaries more knowledgeable about exchange traded products, including the Fund, or for other activities, such as marketing, educational training or other initiatives related to the sale or promotion of Shares. These payments may create a conflict of interest by influencing the Intermediary and your salesperson to recommend the Fund over another investment. Any such arrangements do not result in increased Fund expenses. Ask your salesperson or visit the Intermediary’s website for more information.
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ABOUT THE INDEXES
From time to time, each Index may include more or less than the expected number of companies as a result of events such as acquisitions, spin-offs and other corporate actions.
The Index Calculation Agent is Indxx, LLC, which is not affiliated with either Fund, the Adviser, the Sub-Adviser, the Index Provider, or the Funds’ distributor. The Index Calculation Agent provides information to each Fund about the constituents of the applicable Index and does not provide investment advice with respect to the desirability of investing in, purchasing or selling securities.
If shares of a constituent of the Loncar Cancer Immunotherapy Index are tendered or discontinued due to a merger or acquisition, such security will generally be replaced with the next eligible security at the same weighting as the tendered or discontinued security if more than 30 calendar days remain until the next reconstitution date. If there are not more than 30 calendar days remaining until the next reconstitution date, funds received from the tendered or discontinued security will be distributed to the remaining Index constituents pro rata.
If the shares of a constituent of the Loncar China BioPharma Index are tendered or discontinued due to a merger or acquisition, any funds received from the tendered or discontinued security will be distributed to the remaining Index constituents pro rata.
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ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ABOUT THE FUNDS
Investment Objective
Each of the Loncar Cancer Immunotherapy ETF (“Cancer Immunotherapy Fund”) and the Loncar China BioPharma ETF’s (“China BioPharma Fund”) (each, a “Fund” and, collectively, the “Funds”) investment objective has been adopted as a non-fundamental investment policy and may be changed without shareholder approval upon written notice to shareholders.
Principal Investment Strategy of the China BioPharma Fund
The China BioPharma Fund has adopted the following policy to comply with Rule 35d-1 under the Investment Company Act of 1940. Such policy has been adopted as a non-fundamental investment policy and may be changed without shareholder approval upon 60 days’ written notice to shareholders. Under normal circumstances, at least 80% of the China BioPharma Fund’s net assets, plus borrowings for investment purposes, will be invested in companies in the biotechnology or pharmaceutical sectors and economically tied to China (the “35d-1 Policy”). For purposes of the China BioPharma Fund’s 35d-1 Policy, the China BioPharma Fund considers companies that derive a majority of their revenue or profits from products or services, or have a majority of their assets invested in activities, that are predominantly tied to the development, sale, or distribution of regulated biologic or pharmaceutical medicines intended for human therapeutic use to be part of the biotechnology or pharmaceutical sectors. Additionally, for purposes of the China BioPharma Fund’s 35d-1 Policy, the Fund considers the following securities to be economically tied to China: (i) securities of companies that are organized under the laws of China or that maintain their principal place of business in China; (ii) securities that are traded principally in China; and (iii) securities of issuers that derive at least 50% of their revenues or profits from goods produced or sold, investments made, or services performed in China, that have at least 50% of their assets in China, or that have at least 50% of the value of their product pipeline tied directly to the Chinese market.
Principal Investment Risks
This section provides additional information regarding the principal risks described in each Fund Summary. As in each Fund Summary, the principal risks below are presented in alphabetical order to facilitate finding particular risks and comparing them with other funds. Each risk described below is considered a “principal risk” of investing in the applicable Fund, regardless of the order in which it appears. Each of the factors below could have a negative impact on the applicable Fund’s performance and trading prices.
China Biopharma Risk (China BioPharma Fund only). The biopharmaceutical industry in China is strictly regulated and changes in such regulations, including banning or limiting certain products, may have a material adverse effect on the operations, revenues, and profitability of Biopharma Companies. The laws and regulations applicable to the process of administrative approval of medicine and its production in China require entities producing biopharma products to comply strictly with certain standards and specifications promulgated by the government. In the event that a product is discovered to be not compliant with the government’s standards and specifications, the health department may revoke its approval of such product, or otherwise limit the use of such product. Additionally, the process of conducting research and various tests on new products before obtaining a new medicine certificate from the NMPA and subsequent procedures may take several years, and the price of certain biopharma products may be regulated in China. Changes in these laws and regulations, including banning or limiting certain products, could have a material adverse effect on the operations, revenues, and profitability of Biopharma Companies held by the Fund.
Currency Exchange Rate Risk (China BioPharma Fund only). Changes in currency exchange rates and the relative value of non-U.S. currencies will affect the value of the Fund’s investments and the value of your Shares. Because the Fund’s NAV is determined on the basis of U.S. dollars, the U.S. dollar value of your investment in the Fund may go down if the value of the local currency of the non-U.S. markets in which the Fund invests depreciates against the U.S. dollar. This is true even if the local currency value of securities in the Fund’s holdings goes up. Conversely, the dollar value of your investment in the Fund may go up if the value of the local currency appreciates against the U.S. dollar. The value of the U.S. dollar measured against other currencies is influenced by a variety of factors. These factors include: national debt levels and trade deficits, changes in balances of payments and trade, domestic and foreign interest and inflation rates, global or regional political, economic or financial events, monetary policies of governments, actual or potential government intervention, and global energy prices. Political instability, the possibility of government intervention and restrictive or opaque business and investment policies may also reduce the value of a country’s currency. Government monetary policies and the buying or selling of currency by a country’s government may also influence exchange rates. Currency exchange rates can be very volatile and can change quickly and unpredictably. As a result, the value of an investment in the Fund may change quickly and without warning, and you may lose money.
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Depositary Receipt Risk. The China BioPharma Fund may hold the securities of non-U.S. companies in the form of American Depositary Receipts (“ADRs”) and Global Depositary Receipts (“GDRs”), and the Cancer Immunotherapy Fund may hold ADRs. ADRs are negotiable certificates issued by a U.S. financial institution that represent a specified number of shares in a foreign stock and trade on a U.S. national securities exchange, such as the New York Stock Exchange. Sponsored ADRs are issued with the support of the issuer of the foreign stock underlying the ADRs and carry all of the rights of common shares, including voting rights. GDRs are similar to ADRs, but may be issued in bearer form and are typically offered for sale globally and held by a foreign branch of an international bank. The underlying issuers of certain depositary receipts, particularly unsponsored or unregistered depositary receipts, are under no obligation to distribute shareholder communications to the holders of such receipts, or to pass through to them any voting rights with respect to the deposited securities. Issuers of unsponsored depositary receipts are not contractually obligated to disclose material information in the U.S. and, therefore, such information may not correlate to the market value of the unsponsored depositary receipt. The underlying securities of the ADRs and GDRs in the Fund’s portfolio are usually denominated or quoted in currencies other than the U.S. Dollar. As a result, changes in foreign currency exchange rates may affect the value of the Fund’s portfolio. In addition, because the underlying securities of ADRs and GDRs trade on foreign exchanges at times when the U.S. markets are not open for trading, the value of the securities underlying the ADRs and GDRs may change materially at times when the U.S. markets are not open for trading, regardless of whether there is an active U.S. market for Shares.
Equity Market Risk. Common stocks are susceptible to general stock market fluctuations and to volatile increases and decreases in value as market confidence in and perceptions of their issuers change. These investor perceptions are based on various and unpredictable factors including: expectations regarding government, economic, monetary and fiscal policies; inflation and interest rates; economic expansion or contraction; and global or regional political, economic, public health, and banking crises. If you held common stock, or common stock equivalents, of any given issuer, you would generally be exposed to greater risk than if you held preferred stocks and debt obligations of the issuer because common stockholders, or holders of equivalent interests, generally have inferior rights to receive payments from issuers in comparison with the rights of preferred stockholders, bondholders, and other creditors of such issuers.
Beginning in the first quarter of 2020, financial markets in the United States and around the world experienced extreme and, in many cases, unprecedented volatility and severe losses due to the global pandemic caused by COVID-19, a novel coronavirus. The pandemic has resulted in a wide range of social and economic disruptions, including closed borders, voluntary or compelled quarantines of large populations, stressed healthcare systems, reduced or prohibited domestic or international travel, and supply chain disruptions affecting the United States and many other countries. Some sectors of the economy and individual issuers have experienced particularly large losses as a result of these disruptions, and such disruptions may continue for an extended period of time or reoccur in the future to a similar or greater extent. In response, the U.S. government and the Federal Reserve have taken extraordinary actions to support the domestic economy and financial markets, resulting in very low interest rates and in some cases negative yields. It is unknown how long circumstances related to the pandemic will persist, whether they will reoccur in the future, whether efforts to support the economy and financial markets will be successful, and what additional implications may follow from the pandemic. The impact of these events and other epidemics or pandemics in the future could adversely affect Fund performance.
ETF Risks. Each Fund is an ETF, and, as a result of an ETF’s structure, is exposed to the following risks:
APs, Market Makers, and Liquidity Providers Concentration Risk. The Fund has a limited number of financial institutions that may act as APs. In addition, there may be a limited number of market makers and/or liquidity providers in the marketplace. To the extent either of the following events occur, Shares may trade at a material discount to NAV and possibly face delisting: (i) APs exit the business or otherwise become unable to process creation and/or redemption orders and no other APs step forward to perform these services, or (ii) market makers and/or liquidity providers exit the business or significantly reduce their business activities and no other entities step forward to perform their functions.
Costs of Buying or Selling Shares. Investors buying or selling Shares in the secondary market will pay brokerage commissions or other charges imposed by brokers, as determined by that broker. Brokerage commissions are often a fixed amount and may be a significant proportional cost for investors seeking to buy or sell relatively small amounts of Shares. In addition, secondary market investors will also incur the cost of the difference between the price at which an investor is willing to buy Shares (the “bid” price) and the price at which an investor is willing to sell Shares (the “ask” price). This difference in bid and ask prices is often referred to as the “spread” or “bid-ask spread.” The bid-ask spread varies over time for Shares based on trading volume and market liquidity, and the spread is generally lower if Shares have more trading volume and market liquidity and higher if Shares have little trading
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volume and market liquidity. Further, a relatively small investor base in the Fund, asset swings in the Fund, and/or increased market volatility may cause increased bid-ask spreads. Due to the costs of buying or selling Shares, including bid-ask spreads, frequent trading of Shares may significantly reduce investment results and an investment in Shares may not be advisable for investors who anticipate regularly making small investments.
Shares May Trade at Prices Other Than NAV. As with all ETFs, Fund shares may be bought and sold in the secondary market at market prices. Although it is expected that the market price of the shares of the Fund will approximate the Fund’s NAV, there may be times when the market price of the shares is more than the NAV intra-day (premium) or less than the NAV intra-day (discount) due to supply and demand of the Fund’s shares or during periods of market volatility. This risk is heightened in times of market volatility or periods of steep market declines. The market price of Fund shares during the trading day, like the price of any exchange-traded security, includes a “bid/ask” spread charged by the exchange specialist, market makers or other participants that trade the Fund shares. In times of severe market disruption, the bid/ask spread can increase significantly. At those times, Fund shares are most likely to be traded at a discount to NAV, and the discount is likely to be greatest when the price of Fund shares is falling fastest, which may be the time that you most want to sell your Fund shares. The Adviser believes that, under normal market conditions, large market price discounts or premiums to NAV will not be sustained because of arbitrage opportunities. Because the Underlying Shares of securities held by the China BioPharma Fund trade on foreign exchanges that are closed when the China BioPharma Fund’s primary listing exchange is open, there are likely to be deviations between the current price of an underlying security and the security’s last quoted price from the closed foreign market. This may result in premiums and discounts that are greater than those experienced by domestic ETFs.
Trading. Although Shares are listed for trading on the Exchange and may be listed or traded on U.S. and non-U.S. stock exchanges other than the Exchange, there can be no assurance that an active trading market for such Shares will develop or be maintained. Trading in Shares may be halted due to market conditions or for reasons that, in the view of the Exchange, make trading in Shares inadvisable. In addition, trading in Shares on the Exchange is subject to trading halts caused by extraordinary market volatility pursuant to Exchange “circuit breaker” rules, which temporarily halt trading on the Exchange when a decline in the S&P 500® Index during a single day reaches certain thresholds (e.g., 7%, 13%, and 20%). Additional rules applicable to the Exchange may halt trading in Shares when extraordinary volatility causes sudden, significant swings in the market price of Shares. There can be no assurance that Shares will trade with any volume, or at all, on any stock exchange. In stressed market conditions, the liquidity of Shares may begin to mirror the liquidity of the Fund’s underlying portfolio holdings, which can be significantly less liquid than Shares, and this could lead to differences between the market price of the Shares and the underlying value of those Shares.
Foreign Companies Risk (Cancer Immunotherapy Fund only). Investments in ADRs that provide exposure to securities traded in foreign markets involve substantial risk due to limited information; different accounting, auditing and financial reporting standards; or adverse political or economic developments. The securities markets of foreign countries may be substantially smaller, less developed, less liquid and more volatile than the major securities markets in the U.S.
Foreign Securities Risk (China BioPharma Fund only). Investments in non-U.S. securities involve certain risks that may not be present with investments in U.S. securities. For example, investments in non-U.S. securities may be subject to risk of loss due to foreign currency fluctuations or to political or economic instability. There may be less information publicly available about a non-U.S. issuer than a U.S. issuer. Non-U.S. issuers may be subject to different accounting, auditing, financial reporting and investor protection standards than U.S. issuers. Investments in non-U.S. securities may be subject to withholding or other taxes and may be subject to additional trading, settlement, custodial, and operational risks. With respect to certain countries, there is the possibility of government intervention and expropriation or nationalization of assets. Because legal systems differ, there is also the possibility that it will be difficult to obtain or enforce legal judgments in certain countries. Since foreign exchanges may be open on days when the Fund does not price its Shares, the value of the securities in the Fund’s portfolio may change on days when shareholders will not be able to purchase or sell the Shares. Conversely, Shares may trade on days when foreign exchanges are closed. Each of these factors can make investments in the Fund more volatile and potentially less liquid than other types of investments.
Geographic Investment Risk (China BioPharma Fund only). Because the Fund’s Index invests a significant portion of its assets in the securities of companies of a single country, it is more likely to be impacted by events or conditions affecting that country. For example, political and economic conditions and changes in regulatory, tax, or economic policy in a country could significantly affect the market in that country and in surrounding or related countries and have a negative impact on the Fund’s performance. Currency developments or restrictions, political and social instability, and changing economic conditions have resulted in significant market volatility.
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Risks of Investing in China. The Chinese economy is subject to a considerable degree of economic, political and social instability:
Political and Social Risk: The Chinese government is authoritarian and has periodically used force to suppress civil dissent. Disparities of wealth and the pace of economic liberalization may lead to social turmoil, violence and labor unrest. In addition, China continues to experience disagreements related to integration with Hong Kong and religious and nationalist disputes in Tibet and Xinjiang. There is also a greater risk in China than in many other countries of currency fluctuations, currency convertibility, interest rate fluctuations and higher rates of inflation as a result of internal social unrest or conflicts with other countries. Unanticipated political or social developments may result in sudden and significant investment losses. China’s growing income inequality and worsening environmental conditions also are factors that may affect the Chinese economy. China is also vulnerable economically to the impact of a public health crisis, which could depress consumer demand, reduce economic output, and potentially lead to market closures, travel restrictions, and quarantines, all of which would negatively impact China’s economy and could affect the economies of its trading partners.
Government Control and Regulations: The Chinese government has implemented significant economic reforms in order to liberalize trade policy, promote foreign investment in the economy, reduce government control of the economy and develop market mechanisms. There can be no assurance these reforms will continue or that they will be effective. Despite recent reform and privatizations, significant regulation of investment and industry is still pervasive, and the Chinese government may restrict foreign ownership of Chinese corporations and/or repatriate assets. Chinese markets generally continue to experience inefficiency, volatility and pricing anomalies that may be connected to governmental influence, a lack of publicly-available information and/or political and social instability.
Economic Risk: The Chinese economy has grown rapidly during the past several years and there is no assurance that this growth rate will be maintained. In fact, the Chinese economy may experience a significant slowdown as a result of, among other things, a deterioration in global demand for Chinese exports, as well as contraction in spending on domestic goods by Chinese consumers. In addition, China may experience substantial rates of inflation or economic recessions, which would have a negative effect on the economy and securities market. Delays in enterprise restructuring, slow development of well-functioning financial markets and widespread corruption have also hindered performance of the Chinese economy. China continues to receive substantial pressure from trading partners to liberalize official currency exchange rates. Chinese companies are subject to the risk that the U.S. government or other governments may sanction Chinese issuers or otherwise prohibit U.S. persons or funds from investing in certain Chinese issuers and a lack of transparency with respect to economic activity and transactions in China. Recent developments in relations between the United States and China have heightened concerns of increased tariffs and restrictions on trade between the two countries. It is unclear whether further tariffs and sanctions may be imposed or other escalating actions may be taken in the future.
Expropriation Risk: The Chinese government maintains a major role in economic policymaking, and investing in China involves risk of loss due to expropriation, nationalization, confiscation of assets and property, or the imposition of restrictions on foreign investments and on repatriation of capital invested.
Hong Kong Political Risk: Hong Kong reverted to Chinese sovereignty on July 1, 1997 as a Special Administrative Region (SAR) of the PRC under the principle of “one country, two systems.” Although China is obligated to maintain the current capitalist economic and social system of Hong Kong through June 30, 2047, the continuation of economic and social freedoms enjoyed in Hong Kong is dependent on the government of China. Any attempt by China to tighten its control over Hong Kong’s political, economic, legal or social policies may result in an adverse effect on Hong Kong’s markets. In addition, the Hong Kong dollar trades at a fixed exchange rate in relation to (or, is “pegged” to) the U.S. dollar, which has contributed to the growth and stability of the Hong Kong economy. However, it is uncertain how long the currency peg will continue or what effect the establishment of an alternative exchange rate system would have on the Hong Kong economy. Because the Fund’s NAV is denominated in U.S. dollars, the establishment of an alternative exchange rate system could result in a decline in the Fund’s NAV.
Variable Interest Entity Investments: For purposes of raising capital offshore on exchanges outside of China, including on U.S. exchanges, many Chinese-based operating companies are structured as VIEs. In this structure, the Chinese-based operating company is the VIE and establishes a shell company in a foreign jurisdiction, such as the Cayman Islands. The shell company lists on a foreign exchange and enters into contractual arrangements with the VIE. This structure allows Chinese companies in which the government restricts foreign ownership to raise capital from foreign investors. While the shell company has no equity ownership of the VIE, these
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contractual arrangements permit the shell company to consolidate the VIE’s financial statements with its own for accounting purposes and provide for economic exposure to the performance of the underlying Chinese operating company. Therefore, an investor in the listed shell company, such as the Fund, will have exposure to the Chinese-based operating company only through contractual arrangements and has no ownership in the Chinese-based operating company. Furthermore, because the shell company only has specific rights provided for in these service agreements with the VIE, its abilities to control the activities at the Chinese-based operating company are limited and the operating company may engage in activities that negatively impact investment value.
While the VIE structure has been widely adopted, it is not formally recognized under Chinese law and therefore there is a risk that the Chinese government could prohibit the existence of such structures or negatively impact the VIE’s contractual arrangements with the listed shell company by making them invalid. If these contracts were found to be unenforceable under Chinese law, investors in the listed shell company, such as the Fund, may suffer significant losses with little or no recourse available. If the Chinese government determines that the agreements establishing the VIE structures do not comply with Chinese law and regulations, including those related to restrictions on foreign ownership, it could subject a Chinese-based issuer to penalties, revocation of business and operating licenses, or forfeiture of ownership interest. In addition, the listed shell company’s control over a VIE may also be jeopardized if a natural person who holds the equity interest in the VIE breaches the terms of the agreement, is subject to legal proceedings or if any physical instruments for authenticating documentation, such as chops and seals, are used without the Chinese-based issuer’s authorization to enter into contractual arrangements in China. Chops and seals, which are carved stamps used to sign documents, represent a legally binding commitment by the company. Moreover, any future regulatory action may prohibit the ability of the shell company to receive the economic benefits of the Chinese-based operating company, which may cause the value of the Fund’s investment in the listed shell company to suffer a significant loss. For example, in 2021, the Chinese government prohibited use of the VIE structure for investment in after-school tutoring companies. There is no guarantee that the government will not place similar restrictions on other industries.
Geopolitical Risk (China BioPharma Fund only). Some countries and regions in which the Fund invests have experienced security concerns, war or threats of war and aggression, terrorism, economic uncertainty, natural and environmental disasters and/or systemic market dislocations that have led, and in the future may lead, to increased short-term market volatility and may have adverse long-term effects on the U.S. and world economies and markets generally. Such geopolitical and other events may also disrupt securities markets and, during such market disruptions, the Fund’s exposure to the other risks described herein will likely increase. Each of the foregoing may negatively impact the Fund’s investments.
Immunotherapy Companies Risk (Cancer Immunotherapy Fund only). The success of Immunotherapy Companies is highly dependent on the development, procurement and marketing of drugs. The values of such companies are also dependent on the development, protection and exploitation of intellectual property rights and other proprietary information, and profitability may be significantly affected by such things as the expiration of patents or the loss of, or the inability to enforce, intellectual property rights. There can be no assurance that the steps taken by Immunotherapy Companies to protect their proprietary rights will be adequate to prevent misappropriation of their proprietary rights or that competitors will not independently develop products that are substantially equivalent or superior to such companies’ products. Immunotherapy Companies also rely on trade secrets, know-how and technology, which are not protected by patents, to maintain their competitive position. If any trade secret, know-how or other technology not protected by a patent were disclosed to, or independently developed by, a competitor, that company’s business and financial condition could be materially adversely affected.
The research and other costs associated with developing or procuring new drugs and the related intellectual property rights can be significant, and the results of such research and expenditures are unpredictable. There can be no assurance that those efforts or costs will result in the development of a profitable drug. Immunotherapy Companies may be susceptible to product obsolescence and face intense competition from new products and less costly generic products. Moreover, the process for obtaining regulatory approval by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration or other governmental regulatory authorities is long and costly and there can be no assurance that the necessary approvals will be obtained or maintained. Immunotherapy Companies are also subject to laws and regulations governing the protection of the environment and occupational health and safety, including laws regulating air emissions, wastewater discharges, the management and disposal of hazardous materials and wastes, and the health and safety of employees. Failure to comply with applicable domestic and/or foreign requirements can result in civil and criminal fines or other enforcement actions, recall or seizure of products, total or partial suspension of production, withdrawal of existing product approvals or clearances, refusal to approve or clear new applications or notifications, increased quality control costs, criminal
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prosecution, other penalties and, in some instances, exclusion of participation in government sponsored programs such as Medicare, Medicaid and other government sponsored programs.
There can be no assurance that any individual cancer immunotherapy drug will be effective or approved by the applicable regulatory agency. Consequently, there may be companies included in the Index that do not (and may never) generate significant revenue or profit from cancer immunotherapy products. Additionally, because the pharmaceutical companies included in the Index may be dependent on the sales of drugs other than cancer immunotherapy drugs, the performance of such companies may be adversely affected by factors unrelated to the market for cancer immunotherapy drugs.
Immunotherapy Companies are also subject to rapid and significant technological change and competitive forces that may make drugs obsolete or make it difficult to raise prices and, in fact, may result in price discounting. Immunotherapy Companies may also be subject to expenses and losses from extensive litigation based on intellectual property, product liability and similar claims.
Immunotherapy Companies may be adversely affected by government regulation and changes in reimbursement rates. The ability of many such companies to commercialize current and any future products depends in part on the extent to which reimbursement for the cost of such products and related treatments are available from third party payors, such as Medicare, Medicaid and other government sponsored programs, private health insurance plans and health maintenance organizations. Third-party payors are increasingly challenging the price and cost-effectiveness of medical products. Significant uncertainty exists as to the reimbursement status of healthcare products, and there can be no assurance that adequate third-party coverage will be available for companies to obtain satisfactory price levels for their products.
The international operations of many Immunotherapy Companies expose them to risks associated with instability and changes in economic and political conditions, foreign currency fluctuations, changes in foreign regulations and other risks inherent to international business. Additionally, a company’s valuation can often be based largely on the potential or actual performance of a limited number of products. A company’s valuation can also be greatly affected if one of its products proves unsafe, ineffective or unprofitable. Immunotherapy Companies also may be characterized by thin capitalization and limited markets, financial resources or personnel, as well as dependence on wholesale distributors. The stock prices of Immunotherapy Companies have been and will likely continue to be very volatile. Some of the companies in the Index are engaged in other lines of business unrelated to immunotherapy, and they may experience problems with these lines of business which could adversely affect their operating results. The operating results of these companies may fluctuate as a result of these additional risks and events in the other lines of business. In addition, a company’s ability to engage in new activities may expose it to business risks with which it has less experience than it has with the business risks associated with its traditional businesses. Despite a company’s possible success in immunotherapy activities, there can be no assurance that the other lines of business in which these companies are engaged will not have an adverse effect on a company’s business or financial condition.
Certain companies in which the Fund may invest are non-U.S. issuers whose securities or ADRs are listed on U.S. exchanges. These securities involve risks beyond those associated with investments in U.S. securities, including greater market volatility, higher transactional costs, the possibility that the liquidity of such securities could be impaired because of future political and/or economic developments, taxation by foreign governments, political instability, the possibility that foreign governmental restrictions may be adopted which might adversely affect such securities and that the selection of such securities may be more difficult because there may be less publicly available information concerning such non-U.S. issuers or the accounting, auditing and financial reporting standards, practices and requirements applicable to non-U.S. issuers may differ from those applicable to U.S. issuers.
Market Capitalization Risk.
Large-Capitalization Investing. The securities of large-capitalization companies may be relatively mature compared to smaller companies and therefore subject to slower growth during times of economic expansion. Large-capitalization companies may also be unable to respond quickly to new competitive challenges, such as changes in technology and consumer tastes.
Mid-Capitalization Investing. The securities of mid-capitalization companies may be more vulnerable to adverse issuer, market, political, or economic developments than securities of large-capitalization companies, but they may also be subject to slower growth than small-capitalization companies during times of economic expansion. The securities of mid-capitalization companies generally trade in lower volumes and are subject to greater and more unpredictable price changes than large capitalization stocks or the stock market as a whole, but they may also be nimbler and more responsive to new challenges than large-capitalization companies. Some mid-capitalization
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companies have limited product lines, markets, financial resources, and management personnel and tend to concentrate on fewer geographical markets relative to large-capitalization companies.
Small-Capitalization Investing. The securities of small-capitalization companies may be more vulnerable to adverse issuer, market, political, or economic developments than securities of larger-capitalization companies. The securities of small-capitalization companies generally trade in lower volumes and are subject to greater and more unpredictable price changes than larger capitalization stocks or the stock market as a whole. Some small capitalization companies have limited product lines, markets, and financial and managerial resources and tend to concentrate on fewer geographical markets relative to larger capitalization companies. There is typically less publicly available information concerning smaller-capitalization companies than for larger, more established companies. Small-capitalization companies also may be particularly sensitive to changes in interest rates, government regulation, borrowing costs and earnings.
Non-Diversification Risk (Cancer Immunotherapy Fund only). The Fund is considered to be non-diversified, which means that it may invest more of its assets in the securities of a single issuer or a smaller number of issuers than if it were a diversified fund. As a result, the Fund may be more exposed to the risks associated with and developments affecting an individual issuer or a smaller number of issuers than a fund that invests more widely. This may increase the Fund’s volatility and cause the performance of a relatively smaller number of issuers to have a greater impact on the Fund’s performance. However, the Fund intends to satisfy the diversification requirements for qualifying as a regulated investment company (a “RIC”) under Subchapter M of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”).
Passive Investment Risk. The Funds are not actively managed and the Sub-Adviser would not sell shares of an equity security due to current or projected underperformance of a security, industry or sector, unless that security is removed from the a Fund’s Index or the selling of shares of that security is otherwise required upon a reconstitution of a Fund’s Index in accordance with the Index methodology. Each Fund invests in securities included in, or representative of securities included in, their respective Index, regardless of their investment merits. The Funds do not take defensive positions under any market conditions, including conditions that are adverse to the performance of such Fund.
Sector Risk. To the extent the Fund invests more heavily in particular sectors of the economy, its performance will be especially sensitive to developments that significantly affect those sectors. The Fund’s investments will be concentrated in an industry or group of industries to the extent the Index is so concentrated. The Fund may be susceptible to an increased risk of loss, including losses due to adverse occurrences affecting the Fund more than the market as a whole, to the extent that the Fund’s investments are concentrated in the securities of a particular industry, group of industries, or sector. A significant portion of the Fund’s assets will be invested in the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries, which expose the Fund to the risks of the following sector:
Health Care Sector Risk. Companies in the health care sector are subject to extensive government regulation and their profitability can be significantly affected by restrictions on government reimbursement for medical expenses, rising costs of medical products and services, pricing pressure (including price discounting), limited product lines and an increased emphasis on the delivery of healthcare through outpatient services. Companies in the health care sector are heavily dependent on obtaining and defending patents, which may be time consuming and costly, and the expiration of patents may also adversely affect the profitability of these companies. Healthcare companies are also subject to extensive litigation based on product liability and similar claims. In addition, their products can become obsolete due to industry innovation, changes in technologies or other market developments. Many new products in the health care sector require significant research and development and may be subject to regulatory approvals, all of which may be time consuming and costly with no guarantee that any product will come to market.
Health care companies may rely on trade secrets, know-how, and technology that are not protected by patents, to maintain their competitive position. If any trade secret, know-how, or other technology not protected by a patent were disclosed to, or independently developed by, a competitor, that company’s business and financial condition could be materially adversely affected.
The research and other costs associated with developing or procuring new drugs and the related intellectual property rights can be significant, and the results of such research and expenditures are unpredictable. There can be no assurance that those efforts or costs will result in the development of a profitable drug. Moreover, the process for obtaining regulatory approval by the FDA, NMPA, or other foreign or domestic governmental regulatory authorities, as applicable, is long and costly and there can be no assurance that the necessary approvals will be obtained or maintained. Such companies are also subject to laws and regulations governing the protection of the environment and occupational health and safety, including laws regulating air emissions, wastewater discharges, the management and disposal of hazardous materials and wastes, and the health and safety of employees. Failure to comply with
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applicable domestic and/or foreign requirements can result in civil and criminal fines or other enforcement actions, recall or seizure of products, total or partial suspension of production, withdrawal of existing product approvals or clearances, refusal to approve or clear new applications or notifications, increased quality control costs, criminal prosecution, other penalties and, in some instances, exclusion of participation in government sponsored programs such as Medicare, Medicaid and other government sponsored programs.
The international operations of many healthcare companies expose them to risks associated with instability and changes in economic and political conditions, foreign currency fluctuations, changes in foreign regulations and other risks inherent to international business. Additionally, a company’s valuation can often be based largely on the potential or actual performance of a limited number of products. A company’s valuation can also be greatly affected if one of its products proves unsafe, ineffective or unprofitable. The stock prices of biotech and pharmaceutical companies have been and will likely continue to be very volatile.
Tax Risk. To qualify for the favorable tax treatment generally available to RICs, a Fund must satisfy, among other requirements described in the SAI, certain diversification requirements. In particular, at the close of each quarter of a Fund’s taxable year: (A) at least 50% of the value of its total assets must be represented by cash and cash items, U.S. government securities, securities of other RICs and other securities, with such other securities limited, in respect to any one issuer, to an amount not greater than 5% of the value of the Fund’s total assets and that does not represent more than 10% of the outstanding voting securities of such issuer, including the equity securities of a qualified publicly traded partnership, and (B) not more than 25% of the value of its total assets is invested, including through corporations in which the Fund owns a 20% or more voting stock interest, in the securities (other than U.S. government securities or securities of other RICs) of any one issuer or the securities (other than the securities of another RIC) of two or more issuers that the Fund controls and which are engaged in the same or similar trades or businesses or related trades or businesses, or the securities of one or more qualified publicly traded partnerships. While the weighting of an Index is not inconsistent with these rules, given the concentration of an Index in a relatively small number of securities, it may not always be possible for a Fund to fully implement a replication strategy or a representative sampling strategy while satisfying these diversification requirements. Each Fund’s efforts to satisfy the diversification requirements may affect the Fund’s execution of its investment strategy and may cause the Fund’s return to deviate from that of its Index, and the Fund’s efforts to replicate or represent the Index may cause it inadvertently to fail to satisfy the diversification requirements. If a Fund were to fail to satisfy the diversification requirements, it could be eligible for relief provisions if the failure is due to reasonable cause and not willful neglect and if a penalty tax is paid with respect to each failure to satisfy the applicable requirements. Additionally, relief is provided for certain de minimis failures of the diversification requirements where the Fund corrects the failure within a specified period. If a Fund were to fail to qualify as a RIC for a tax year, and the relief provisions are not available, it would be taxed in the same manner as an ordinary corporation, and distributions to its shareholders would not be deductible by the Fund in computing its taxable income. In such case, the Fund’s shareholders would be taxed as if they received ordinary dividends, although corporate shareholders could be eligible for the dividends received deduction (subject to certain limitations) and individuals may be able to benefit from the lower tax rates available to qualified dividend income. In addition, the Fund could be required to recognize unrealized gains, pay substantial taxes and interest, and make substantial distributions before requalifying as a RIC.
Tracking Error Risk. As with all index funds, the performance of each Fund and its respective Index may differ from each other for a variety of reasons. For example, the Funds incur operating expenses and portfolio transaction costs not incurred by an Index. In addition, the Funds may not be fully invested in the securities of their respective Index at all times or may hold securities not included in the Index. A Fund may use a representative sampling strategy to achieve its investment objective, if the Fund’s Sub-Adviser believes it is in the best interest of the Fund, which generally can be expected to produce a greater non-correlation risk.
PORTFOLIO HOLDINGS INFORMATION
Information about the Funds’ daily portfolio holdings is available at www.LoncarFunds.com. A description of the Funds’ policies and procedures with respect to the disclosure of the Funds’ portfolio holdings is available in the Funds’ Statement of Additional Information (“SAI”).
MANAGEMENT
Investment Adviser
Exchange Traded Concepts, LLC, serves as the investment adviser and has overall responsibility for the general management and administration of the Funds. The Adviser also arranges for sub-advisory, transfer agency, custody, fund administration, and all other non-distribution related services necessary for the Funds to operate. The Adviser has provided investment
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advisory services to individual and institutional accounts since 2009. The Adviser is an Oklahoma limited liability company and is located at 10900 Hefner Pointe Drive, Suite 400, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73120.
The Adviser provides oversight of the Sub-Adviser, monitoring of the Sub-Adviser’s buying and selling of securities for the Fund, and review of the Sub-Adviser’s performance. For the services it provides to the Funds, each Fund pays ETC a unified management fee, which is calculated daily and paid monthly, at an annual rate of 0.79% of the Fund’s average daily net assets.
Under the Investment Advisory Agreement, the Adviser has agreed to pay all expenses of the Funds except for the fee paid to the Adviser pursuant to the Investment Advisory Agreement, interest charges on any borrowings, taxes, brokerage commissions and other expenses incurred in placing orders for the purchase and sale of securities and other investment instruments, acquired fund fees and expenses, accrued deferred tax liability, extraordinary expenses, and distribution fees and expenses paid by the Trust under any distribution plan adopted pursuant to Rule 12b-1 under the 1940 Act (collectively, “Excluded Expenses”). The Adviser has entered into a license agreement with Loncar, with respect to each Fund, pursuant to which the Adviser pays a fee to use each Index, which is calculated daily and paid monthly, based on a percentage of the average daily net assets of such Fund. As part of the arrangement between Loncar and the Adviser, Loncar has agreed to assume the obligation of the Adviser to pay all expenses of each Fund (except the Excluded Expenses) and, to the extent applicable, pay the Adviser’s minimum fee under the arrangement.
The Adviser compensates the Sub-Adviser from the management fee it receives.
The basis for the Board of Trustees’ approval of the Investment Advisory Agreement is available in the Funds’ Semi-Annual Report to Shareholders for the period ended February 28, 2021.
Sub-Adviser
The Adviser has retained Vident Investment Advisory, LLC to serve as sub-adviser for the Funds. VIA is responsible for the day-to-day management of the Funds. VIA, a registered investment adviser, is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Vident Financial, LLC. Its principal office is located at 1125 Sanctuary Parkway, Suite 515, Alpharetta, Georgia 30009. VIA was formed in 2014 and provides investment advisory services to ETFs, including the Funds. The Sub-Adviser is responsible for trading portfolio securities for the Funds, including selecting broker-dealers to execute purchase and sale transactions or in connection with any rebalancing or reconstitution of the Indexes, subject to the supervision of the Adviser and the Board. For its services, the Sub-Adviser is paid a fee by the Adviser, which fee is calculated daily at an annual rate based on the average daily net assets of each Fund and subject to a minimum annual fee as follows:
Fund
Minimum Annual Fee Asset-Based Fee
Cancer Immunotherapy Fund $15,000 0.05%
China BioPharma Fund $25,000 0.06%
The basis for the Board of Trustees’ approval of the Sub-Advisory Agreement is available in the Funds’ Annual Report to Shareholders for the period ended August 31, 2021.
Management of the Funds’ Sub-Adviser
The Funds and the Adviser have received an exemptive order from the SEC permitting the Adviser (subject to certain conditions and the Board’s approval) to select or change sub-advisers without obtaining shareholder approval. The order also permits the Adviser to materially amend the terms of agreements with a sub-adviser (including an increase in the fee paid by the Adviser to the sub-adviser (and not paid by a Fund)) or to continue the employment of a sub-adviser after an event that would otherwise cause the automatic termination of services with Board approval, but without shareholder approval. Shareholders will be notified of any sub-adviser changes.
Portfolio Managers
The Funds are managed by VIA’s portfolio management team. The individual members of the team jointly responsible for the day to day management of each Fund’s portfolio are listed below.
Rafael Zayas, CFA, became SVP, Head of Portfolio Management and Trading ETF at VIA in June 2020. From 2017 to 2020, he was Senior Portfolio Manager – International Equity at VIA and has over 15 years of experience that includes managing international equity portfolios, including in emerging and frontier markets. Prior to joining VIA, he was a Portfolio Manager – Direct Investments for seven years at Russell Investments, a global asset manager, where he co-managed more than $4 billion in quantitative strategies across global markets, including the Russell Strategic Call Overwriting Fund, a mutual fund. Mr. Zayas also helped Russell Investments launch its sponsored ETF initiative and advised on index methodologies. Prior to joining Russell Investments, Mr. Zayas was a Portfolio Manager – Equity Indexing at Mellon Capital
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Management, where he managed assets for internationally listed global equity ETFs. Mr. Zayas graduated with a B.S. in Electrical Engineering from Cornell University and obtained a Certificate in Computational Finance and Risk Management from the University of Washington. He also attained the Chartered Financial Analyst designation in 2010.
Austin Wen, CFA, has been a Portfolio Manager of VIA since 2016 and has seven years of investment management experience. His focus at VIA is on portfolio management and trading, risk monitoring and investment analysis. Previously, he was an analyst for Vident Financial beginning in 2014, working on the development and review of investment solutions. He began his career in 2011 as a State Examiner for the Georgia Department of Banking and Finance. Mr. Wen obtained a BA in Finance from the University of Georgia and holds the Chartered Financial Analyst designation.
The Funds’ SAI provides additional information about the Portfolio Managers’ compensation structure, other accounts managed by the Portfolio Managers, and the Portfolio Managers’ ownership of Shares of each Fund.
Index Provider
Loncar Investments, LLC, the Index Provider for each Fund, is not affiliated with ETF Series Solutions (the “Trust”), the Adviser, the Funds’ administrator, custodian, transfer agent or the Distributor (defined below), or any of their respective affiliates. Loncar provides information to each Fund about the constituents of the applicable Index and does not make investment decisions, provide investment advice, or otherwise act in the capacity of an investment adviser to the Funds. The Adviser has entered into a licensing agreement with Loncar pursuant to which the Adviser pays a fee to use each Index. The Adviser is sub-licensing rights to each Index to the applicable Fund at no charge. As part of the arrangement between the Adviser and Loncar, Loncar assists with the development of the Funds and provides marketing support for the Funds, including distributing marketing materials related to the Funds.
HOW TO BUY AND SELL SHARES
Each Fund issues and redeems Shares at NAV only in Creation Units. Only APs may acquire Shares directly from a Fund, and only APs may tender their Shares for redemption directly to a Fund, at NAV. APs must be a member or participant of a clearing agency registered with the SEC and must execute a Participant Agreement that has been agreed to by the Distributor (defined below), and that has been accepted by a Fund’s transfer agent, with respect to purchases and redemptions of Creation Units. Once created, Shares trade in the secondary market in quantities less than a Creation Unit.
Most investors buy and sell Shares in secondary market transactions through brokers. Shares are listed for trading on the secondary market on the Exchange and can be bought and sold throughout the trading day like other publicly traded securities.
When buying or selling Shares through a broker, you will incur customary brokerage commissions and charges, and you may pay some or all of the spread between the bid and the offer price in the secondary market on each leg of a round trip (purchase and sale) transaction. In addition, because secondary market transactions occur at market prices, you may pay more than NAV when you buy Shares and receive less than NAV when you sell those Shares.
Book Entry
Shares are held in book-entry form, which means that no stock certificates are issued. The Depository Trust Company (“DTC”) or its nominee is the record owner of all outstanding Shares.
Investors owning Shares are beneficial owners as shown on the records of DTC or its participants. DTC serves as the securities depository for all Shares. DTC’s participants include securities brokers and dealers, banks, trust companies, clearing corporations and other institutions that directly or indirectly maintain a custodial relationship with DTC. As a beneficial owner of Shares, you are not entitled to receive physical delivery of stock certificates or to have Shares registered in your name, and you are not considered a registered owner of Shares. Therefore, to exercise any right as an owner of Shares, you must rely upon the procedures of DTC and its participants. These procedures are the same as those that apply to any other securities that you hold in book entry or “street name” through your brokerage account.
Frequent Purchases and Redemptions of Shares
The Funds impose no restrictions on the frequency of purchases and redemptions of Shares. In determining not to approve a written, established policy, the Board evaluated the risks of market timing activities by Fund shareholders. Purchases and redemptions by APs, who are the only parties that may purchase or redeem Shares directly with a Fund, are an essential part of the ETF process and help keep Share trading prices in line with NAV. As such, the Funds accommodate frequent purchases and redemptions by APs. However, the Board has also determined that frequent purchases and redemptions for cash may increase tracking error and portfolio transaction costs and may lead to the realization of capital gains. To minimize these potential consequences of frequent purchases and redemptions, the Funds employ fair value pricing and may impose
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transaction fees on purchases and redemptions of Creation Units to cover the custodial and other costs incurred by a Fund in effecting trades. In addition, the Funds and the Adviser reserve the right to reject any purchase order at any time.
Determination of NAV
Each Fund’s NAV is calculated as of the scheduled close of regular trading on the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”), generally 4:00 p.m. Eastern time, each day the NYSE is open for business. Each NAV for a Fund is calculated by dividing the applicable Fund’s net assets by its Shares outstanding.
In calculating its NAV, each Fund generally values its assets on the basis of market quotations, last sale prices, or estimates of value furnished by a pricing service or brokers who make markets in such instruments. If such information is not available for a security held by a Fund or is determined to be unreliable, the security will be valued at fair value estimates under guidelines established by the Board (as described below).
In calculating its NAV, each Fund generally values equity securities (including preferred stock) traded on any recognized U.S. or non-U.S. exchange at the last sale price or official closing price on the exchange or system on which they are principally traded. In addition, each Fund may invest in money market funds that are valued at their NAV per share.
Fair Value Pricing
The Board has adopted procedures and methodologies to fair value Fund securities whose market prices are not “readily available” or are deemed to be unreliable. For example, such circumstances may arise when: (i) a security has been de-listed or has had its trading halted or suspended; (ii) a security’s primary pricing source is unable or unwilling to provide a price; (iii) a security’s primary trading market is closed during regular market hours; or (iv) a security’s value is materially affected by events occurring after the close of the security’s primary trading market. Generally, when fair valuing a security, the Funds will take into account all reasonably available information that may be relevant to a particular valuation including, but not limited to, fundamental analytical data regarding the issuer, information relating to the issuer’s business, recent trades or offers of the security, general and/or specific market conditions and the specific facts giving rise to the need to fair value the security. Fair value determinations are made in good faith and in accordance with the fair value methodologies included in the Board-adopted valuation procedures. Due to the subjective and variable nature of fair value pricing, there can be no assurance that the Adviser or Sub-Adviser will be able to obtain the fair value assigned to the security upon the sale of such security.
Investments by Registered Investment Companies
Section 12(d)(1) of the 1940 Act restricts investments by registered investment companies in the securities of other investment companies, including Shares. Registered investment companies are permitted to invest in a Fund beyond the limits set forth in section 12(d)(1) subject to certain terms and conditions set forth in an SEC exemptive order issued to the Adviser or rule under the 1940 Act, including that such investment companies enter into an agreement with a Fund.
Delivery of Shareholder Documents – Householding
Householding is an option available to certain investors of the Funds. Householding is a method of delivery, based on the preference of the individual investor, in which a single copy of certain shareholder documents can be delivered to investors who share the same address, even if their accounts are registered under different names. Householding for the Funds is available through certain broker-dealers. If you are interested in enrolling in householding and receiving a single copy of prospectuses and other shareholder documents, please contact your broker-dealer. If you are currently enrolled in householding and wish to change your householding status, please contact your broker-dealer.
DIVIDENDS, DISTRIBUTIONS, AND TAXES
Dividends and Distributions
Each Fund intends to pay out dividends, if any, and distribute any net realized capital gains to its shareholders at least annually. Each Fund will declare and pay capital gain distributions, if any, in cash. Distributions in cash may be reinvested automatically in additional whole Shares only if the broker through whom you purchased Shares makes such option available. Your broker is responsible for distributing the income and capital gain distributions to you.
Taxes
The following discussion is a summary of some important U.S. federal income tax considerations generally applicable to investments in a Fund. Your investment in a Fund may have other tax implications. Please consult your tax advisor about the tax consequences of an investment in Shares, including the possible application of foreign, state, and local tax laws.
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The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the “Tax Act”) made significant changes to the U.S. federal income tax rules for taxation of individuals and corporations, generally effective for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017. Many of the changes applicable to individuals are temporary and only apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017 and before January 1, 2026. There are only minor changes with respect to the specific rules applicable to a RIC under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, such as a Fund. The Tax Act, however, made numerous other changes to the tax rules that may affect shareholders and the Funds. You are urged to consult with your own tax advisor regarding how the Tax Act affects your investment in the Funds.
Each Fund has elected or intends to elect and intends to qualify each year for treatment as a RIC. If a Fund meets certain minimum distribution requirements, a RIC is not subject to tax at the fund level on income and gains from investments that are timely distributed to shareholders. However, a Fund’s failure to qualify as a RIC or to meet minimum distribution requirements would result (if certain relief provisions were not available) in fund-level taxation and, consequently, a reduction in income available for distribution to shareholders.
Unless your investment in Shares is made through a tax-exempt entity or tax-advantaged account, such as an IRA plan, you need to be aware of the possible tax consequences when a Fund makes distributions, when you sell your Shares listed on the Exchange, and when you purchase or redeem Creation Units (APs only).
Taxes on Distributions
Each Fund intends to distribute, at least annually, substantially all of its net investment income and net capital gains. For federal income tax purposes, distributions of investment income are generally taxable as ordinary income or qualified dividend income. Taxes on distributions of capital gains (if any) are determined by how long a Fund owned the investments that generated them, rather than how long a shareholder has owned his or her Shares. Sales of assets held by a Fund for more than one year generally result in long-term capital gains and losses, and sales of assets held by a Fund for one year or less generally result in short-term capital gains and losses. Distributions of a Fund’s net capital gain (the excess of net long-term capital gains over net short-term capital losses) that are reported by such Fund as capital gain dividends (“Capital Gain Dividends”) will be taxable as long-term capital gains, which for non-corporate shareholders are subject to tax at reduced rates of up to 20% (lower rates apply to individuals in lower tax brackets). Distributions of short-term capital gain will generally be taxable as ordinary income. Dividends and distributions are generally taxable to you whether you receive them in cash or reinvest them in additional Shares.
Distributions reported by a Fund as “qualified dividend income” are generally taxed to non-corporate shareholders at rates applicable to long-term capital gains, provided holding period and other requirements are met. “Qualified dividend income” generally is income derived from dividends paid by U.S. corporations or certain foreign corporations that are either incorporated in a U.S. possession or eligible for tax benefits under certain U.S. income tax treaties. In addition, dividends that a Fund received in respect of stock of certain foreign corporations may be qualified dividend income if that stock is readily tradable on an established U.S. securities market. Corporate shareholders may be entitled to a dividends-received deduction for the portion of dividends they receive from a Fund that are attributable to dividends received by the Fund from U.S. corporations, subject to certain limitations. Since the China BioPharma Fund invests primarily in securities of non-U.S. issuers, it is not expected that a significant portion of the dividends received from the Fund will qualify for the dividends-received deduction for corporations.
Shortly after the close of each calendar year, you will be informed of the amount and character of any distributions received from a Fund.
U.S. individuals with income exceeding specified thresholds are subject to a 3.8% tax on all or a portion of their “net investment income,” which includes interest, dividends, and certain capital gains (generally including capital gains distributions and capital gains realized on the sale of Shares). This 3.8% tax also applies to all or a portion of the undistributed net investment income of certain shareholders that are estates and trusts.
In general, your distributions are subject to federal income tax for the year in which they are paid. Certain distributions paid in January, however, may be treated as paid on December 31 of the prior year. Distributions are generally taxable even if they are paid from income or gains earned by a Fund before your investment (and thus were included in the Shares’ NAV when you purchased your Shares).
You may wish to avoid investing in a Fund shortly before a dividend or other distribution, because such a distribution will generally be taxable even though it may economically represent a return of a portion of your investment.
If a Fund’s distributions exceed its earnings and profits, all or a portion of the distributions made for a taxable year may be recharacterized as a return of capital to shareholders. A return of capital distribution will generally not be taxable, but will reduce each shareholder’s cost basis in Shares and result in a higher capital gain or lower capital loss when the Shares are
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sold. After a shareholder’s basis in Shares has been reduced to zero, distributions in excess of earnings and profits in respect of those Shares will be treated as gain from the sale of the Shares.
If you are neither a resident nor a citizen of the United States or if you are a foreign entity, distributions (other than Capital Gain Dividends) paid to you by a Fund will generally be subject to a U.S. withholding tax at the rate of 30%, unless a lower treaty rate applies. Gains from the sale or other disposition of your Shares generally are not subject to U.S. taxation, unless you are a nonresident alien individual who is physically present in the U.S. for 183 days or more per year. A Fund may, under certain circumstances, report all or a portion of a dividend as an “interest-related dividend” or a “short-term capital gain dividend,” which would generally be exempt from this 30% U.S. withholding tax, provided certain other requirements are met. Different tax consequences may result if you are a foreign shareholder engaged in a trade or business within the United States or if a tax treaty applies.
Under legislation generally known as “FATCA” (the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act), a Fund is required to withhold 30% of certain ordinary dividends it pays to shareholders that are foreign entities and that fail to meet prescribed information reporting or certification requirements.
Each Fund (or a financial intermediary, such as a broker, through which a shareholder owns Shares) generally is required to withhold and remit to the U.S. Treasury a percentage of the taxable distributions and sale or redemption proceeds paid to any shareholder who fails to properly furnish a correct taxpayer identification number, who has underreported dividend or interest income, or who fails to certify that he, she or it is not subject to such withholding.
Taxes When Shares are Sold on the Exchange
Any capital gain or loss realized upon a sale of Shares generally is treated as a long-term capital gain or loss if Shares have been held for more than one year and as a short-term capital gain or loss if Shares have been held for one year or less. However, any capital loss on a sale of Shares held for six months or less is treated as long-term capital loss to the extent of Capital Gain Dividends paid with respect to such Shares. Any loss realized on a sale will be disallowed to the extent Shares of a Fund are acquired, including through reinvestment of dividends, within a 61-day period beginning 30 days before and ending 30 days after the disposition of Shares. The ability to deduct capital losses may be limited.
The cost basis of Shares of a Fund acquired by purchase will generally be based on the amount paid for the Shares and then may be subsequently adjusted for other applicable transactions as required by the Code. The difference between the selling price and the cost basis of Shares generally determines the amount of the capital gain or loss realized on the sale or exchange of Shares. Contact the broker through whom you purchased your Shares to obtain information with respect to the available cost basis reporting methods and elections for your account.
Taxes on Purchases and Redemptions of Creation Units
An AP having the U.S. dollar as its functional currency for U.S. federal income tax purposes who exchanges securities for Creation Units generally recognizes a gain or a loss. The gain or loss will be equal to the difference between the value of the Creation Units at the time of the exchange and the exchanging AP’s aggregate basis in the securities delivered, plus the amount of any cash paid for the Creation Units. An AP who exchanges Creation Units for securities will generally recognize a gain or loss equal to the difference between the exchanging AP’s basis in the Creation Units and the aggregate U.S. dollar market value of the securities received, plus any cash received for such Creation Units. The Internal Revenue Service may assert, however, that a loss that is realized upon an exchange of securities for Creation Units may not be currently deducted under the rules governing “wash sales” (for an AP who does not mark-to-market their holdings), or on the basis that there has been no significant change in economic position. APs exchanging securities should consult their own tax advisor with respect to whether wash sale rules apply and when a loss might be deductible.
Any gain or loss realized upon a creation or redemption of Creation Units will be treated as capital or ordinary gain or loss, depending on the circumstances. Any capital gain or loss realized upon redemption of Creation Units is generally treated as long-term capital gain or loss if Shares have been held for more than one year and as a short-term capital gain or loss if Shares have been held for one year or less.
A Fund may include a payment of cash in addition to, or in place of, the delivery of a basket of securities upon the redemption of Creation Units. Such Fund may sell portfolio securities to obtain the cash needed to distribute redemption proceeds. This may cause such Fund to recognize investment income and/or capital gains or losses that it might not have recognized if it had completely satisfied the redemption in-kind. As a result, such Fund may be less tax efficient if it includes such a cash payment in the proceeds paid upon the redemption of Creation Units.
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Foreign Investments
Interest and other income received by a Fund with respect to foreign securities may give rise to withholding and other taxes imposed by foreign countries. Tax conventions between certain countries and the United States may reduce or eliminate such taxes. If as of the close of a taxable year more than 50% of the value of a Fund’s assets consists of certain foreign stock or securities, each such Fund will be eligible to elect to “pass through” to investors the amount of foreign income and similar taxes (including withholding taxes) paid by such Fund during that taxable year. This means that investors would be considered to have received as additional income their respective Shares of such foreign taxes, but may be entitled to either a corresponding tax deduction in calculating taxable income, or, subject to certain limitations, a credit in calculating federal income tax. If a Fund does not so elect, each such Fund will be entitled to claim a deduction for certain foreign taxes incurred by such Fund. A Fund (or its administrative agent) will notify you if it makes such an election and provide you with the information necessary to reflect foreign taxes paid on your income tax return.
The foregoing discussion summarizes some of the possible consequences under current federal tax law of an investment in each Fund. It is not a substitute for personal tax advice. You also may be subject to state and local tax on Fund distributions and sales of Shares. Consult your personal tax advisor about the potential tax consequences of an investment in Shares under all applicable tax laws. For more information, please see the section entitled “Federal Income Taxes” in the SAI.
DISTRIBUTION
The Distributor, Quasar Distributors, LLC, is a broker-dealer registered with the SEC. The Distributor distributes Creation Units for the Funds on an agency basis and does not maintain a secondary market in Shares. The Distributor has no role in determining the policies of the Funds or the securities that are purchased or sold by the Funds. The Distributor’s principal address is 111 East Kilbourn Avenue, Suite 2200, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53202.
The Board has adopted a Distribution and Service Plan (the “Plan”) pursuant to Rule 12b-1 under the 1940 Act. In accordance with the Plan, each Fund is authorized to pay an amount up to 0.25% of its average daily net assets each year for certain distribution-related activities and shareholder services.
No Rule 12b-1 fees are currently paid by the Funds, and there are no plans to impose these fees. However, in the event Rule 12b-1 fees are charged in the future, because the fees are paid out of Fund assets, over time these fees will increase the cost of your investment and may cost you more than certain other types of sales charges.
PREMIUM/DISCOUNT INFORMATION
Information regarding how often Shares of each Fund trade on the Exchange at a price above (i.e., at a premium) or below (i.e., at a discount) the NAV of such Fund is available, free of charge, on the Funds’ website at www.LoncarFunds.com.
ADDITIONAL NOTICES
Shares are not sponsored, endorsed, or promoted by the Exchange. The Exchange makes no representation or warranty, express or implied, to the owners of the Shares or any member of the public regarding the ability of the Funds to track the total return performance of their respective Index or the ability of the Indexes identified herein to track the performance of their constituent securities. The Exchange is not responsible for, nor has it participated in, the determination of the compilation or the calculation of the Indexes, nor in the determination of the timing of, prices of, or quantities of the Shares to be issued, nor in the determination or calculation of the equation by which the Shares are redeemable. The Exchange has no obligation or liability to owners of the Shares in connection with the administration, marketing, or trading of the Shares.
The Exchange does not guarantee the accuracy and/or the completeness of the Indexes or the data included therein. The Exchange makes no warranty, express or implied, as to results to be obtained by the Funds, owners of the Shares, or any other person or entity from the use of the Indexes or the data included therein. The Exchange makes no express or implied warranties, and hereby expressly disclaims all warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose with respect to the Indexes or the data included therein. Without limiting any of the foregoing, in no event shall the Exchange have any liability for any lost profits or indirect, punitive, special, or consequential damages even if notified of the possibility thereof.
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The Adviser, the Index Provider, and the Funds make no representation or warranty, express or implied, to the owners of Shares or any member of the public regarding the advisability of investing in securities generally or in the Funds particularly. The Index Provider is a licensor of certain trademarks, service marks and trade names of each Fund. The Index Provider has no obligation to take the needs of the Funds or the owners of Shares into consideration in determining, composing, or calculating the Indexes. The Index Provider is not responsible for, and has not participated in, the determination of the timing of, prices of, or quantities of Shares to be issued or in the determination or calculation of the equation by which Shares are redeemable. Each Fund and the Adviser do not guarantee the accuracy, completeness, or performance of the Indexes or the data included therein and shall have no liability in connection with the Indexes or Index calculations. The Index Calculation Agent maintains and calculates the Indexes used by the Funds. The Index Calculation Agent shall have no liability for any errors or omissions in calculating the Indexes.
FINANCIAL HIGHLIGHTS
The financial highlights tables are intended to help you understand each Fund’s financial performance for each Fund’s five most recent fiscal years (or the life of the Fund, if shorter). Certain information reflects financial results for a single Share. The total returns in the tables represent the rate that an investor would have earned or lost on an investment in a Fund (assuming reinvestment of all dividends and distributions). This information has been audited by Cohen & Company, Ltd., the Funds’ independent registered public accounting firm, whose report, along with the Funds’ financial statements, is included in the Funds’ annual report, which is available upon request.

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Loncar Cancer Immunotherapy ETF

FINANCIAL HIGHLIGHTS
For a capital share outstanding throughout each year
Year Ended Year Ended Year Ended Year Ended Year Ended
August 31, August 31, August 31, August 31, August 31,
2021 2020 2019 2018 2017
Net asset value,
  beginning of year
$ 26.86  $ 19.54  $ 25.73  $ 25.69  $ 24.08 
INCOME (LOSS) FROM
  INVESTMENT OPERATIONS:
Net investment income (loss) (1)
(0.11) (0.07) (0.05) (0.09) (0.06)
Net realized and unrealized
  gain (loss) on investments
4.19  7.39  (6.14) 0.48  1.67 
Total income (loss) from investment operations
4.08  7.32  (6.19) 0.39  1.61 
DISTRIBUTIONS TO SHAREHOLDERS:
Distributions from:
  Net investment income
(0.29) —  —  (0.35) — 
Total distributions
(0.29) —  —  (0.35) — 
Net asset value,
  end of year
$ 30.65  $ 26.86  $ 19.54  $ 25.73  $ 25.69 
Total return 15.11  % 37.47  % -24.05  % 1.63  % 6.65  %
SUPPLEMENTAL DATA:
Net assets at end
  of year (000’s) $ 44,439  $ 40,293  $ 34,195  $ 59,172  $ 41,097 
RATIOS TO AVERAGE NET ASSETS:
Expenses to average
  net assets 0.79  % 0.79  % 0.79  % 0.79  % 0.79  %
Net investment income (loss)
  to average net assets (0.37) % (0.32) % (0.26) % (0.34) % (0.25) %
Portfolio turnover rate (2)
58  % 53  % 58  % 78  % 34  %
(1)Calculated based on average shares outstanding during the period.
(2)Excludes the impact of in-kind transactions.
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Loncar China BioPharma ETF

FINANCIAL HIGHLIGHTS
For a capital share outstanding throughout each year/period
Year Ended Year Ended Year Ended Period Ended
August 31, August 31, August 31, August 31,
2021 2020 2019
2018(1)
Net asset value, beginning of year/period
$ 31.93  $ 22.92  $ 25.00  $ 25.00 
INCOME (LOSS) FROM INVESTMENT OPERATIONS:
Net investment income (loss) (2)
(0.02) 0.10  0.14  (0.01)
Net realized and unrealized gain (loss) on investments and foreign currency
6.46  8.95  (2.23) 0.01 
Total income (loss) from investment operations
6.44  9.05  (2.09) — 
DISTRIBUTIONS TO SHAREHOLDERS:
Distributions from:
  Net investment income
(0.15) (0.04) —  — 
Total distributions
(0.15) (0.04) —  — 
CAPITAL SHARE TRANSACTIONS:
Transaction fees
0.00 
(3)
0.00 
(3)
0.01 — 
Net asset value, end of year/period
$ 38.22  $ 31.93  $ 22.92  $ 25.00 
Total return 20.26  % 39.56  % -8.33  % 0.01  %
(4)
SUPPLEMENTAL DATA:
Net assets at end of year/period (000’s) $ 15,287  $ 11,974  $ 6,875  $ 2,500 
RATIOS TO AVERAGE NET ASSETS:
Expenses to average net assets 0.79  % 0.79  % 0.79  % 0.79  %
(5)
Net investment income (loss) to average net assets (0.05) % 0.40  % 0.64  % (0.78) %
(5)
Portfolio turnover rate (6)
44  % 54  % 35  % %
(4)
(1)Commencement of operations on August 14, 2018.
(2)Calculated based on average shares outstanding during the period.
(3)Less than $0.005.
(4)Not annualized.
(5)Annualized.
(6)Excludes the impact of in-kind transactions
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LONCAR CANCER IMMUNOTHERAPY ETF
LONCAR CHINA BIOPHARMA ETF
Adviser
Exchange Traded Concepts, LLC
10900 Hefner Pointe Drive, Suite 400
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73120
Sub-Adviser
Vident Investment Advisory, LLC
1125 Sanctuary Parkway, Suite 515
Alpharetta, Georgia 30009
Transfer Agent,
Fund Accountant
and Fund
Administrator
U.S. Bancorp Fund Services, LLC
d/b/a U.S. Bank Global Fund Services 
615 East Michigan Street 
Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53202
Index Provider
Loncar Investments, LLC
P.O. Box 15072
Lenexa, Kansas 66285
Custodian
U.S. Bank National Association  
1555 N. Rivercenter Drive, Suite 302 
Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53212
Distributor
Quasar Distributors, LLC  
111 East Kilbourn Avenue, Suite 2200
Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53202 
Independent
Registered Public
Accounting Firm
Cohen & Company, Ltd.
342 North Water Street, Suite 830
Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53202
Legal Counsel
Morgan, Lewis & Bockius LLP
1111 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW
Washington, DC 20004
Investors may find more information about the Funds in the following documents:
Statement of Additional Information: The Funds’ SAI provides additional details about the investments and techniques of the Funds and certain other additional information. A current SAI dated December 31, 2021 is on file with the SEC and is herein incorporated by reference into this Prospectus. It is legally considered a part of this Prospectus.
Annual/Semi-Annual Reports: Additional information about each Fund’s investments is available in the Funds’ annual and semi-annual reports to shareholders. In the annual report you will find a discussion of the market conditions and investment strategies that significantly affected the Funds’ performance.
You can obtain free copies of these documents, request other information or make general inquiries about the Funds by contacting the Funds at:

Loncar ETFs
c/o U.S. Bank Global Fund Services
P.O. Box 701
Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53201-0701
1-800-617-0004

Shareholder reports and other information about the Funds are also available:
Free of charge from the SEC’s EDGAR database on the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov; or
Free of charge from the Funds’ Internet web site at www.LoncarFunds.com; or
For a fee, by e-mail request to publicinfo@sec.gov.

(SEC Investment Company Act File No. 811-22668)
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