Arrow Dow Jones Global Yield ETF
a series of Arrow ETF Trust
Listed and traded on:
NYSE Arca, Inc.
STATEMENT OF ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
June 1, 2021, as amended October 1, 2021
This Statement of Additional Information ("SAI") is not a prospectus and should be read in conjunction with the prospectus of the Arrow Dow Jones Global Yield ETF (the “Fund”) dated June 1, 2021. The Fund’s Prospectus is hereby incorporated by reference, which means it is legally part of this document. You can obtain copies of the Fund’s Prospectus, annual, or semi-annual reports without charge by contacting the Fund’s Transfer Agent, Brown Brothers Harriman and Co., located at 50 Post Office Square, Boston, MA 02110 or by calling toll free 1-877-277-6933. You may also obtain a Prospectus, and the annual report, or semi-annual report by visiting our website at www.ArrowFunds.com.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
|TYPES OF INVESTMENTS||1|
|POLICIES AND PROCEDURES FOR DISCLOSURE OF PORTFOLIO HOLDINGS||13|
|CONTROL PERSONS AND PRINCIPAL HOLDERS||17|
|DISTRIBUTION OF SHARES||20|
|ALLOCATION OF PORTFOLIO BROKERAGE||21|
|OTHER SERVICE PROVIDERS||22|
|DESCRIPTION OF SHARES||23|
|BOOK ENTRY ONLY SYSTEM||24|
|ANTI-MONEY LAUNDERING PROGRAM||24|
|PURCHASE, REDEMPTION AND PRICING OF SHARES||25|
|INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM||35|
The Arrow Dow Jones Global Yield ETF is a diversified series of Arrow ETF Trust, a Delaware statutory trust organized on August 29, 2011 (the “Trust”). The Trust is registered as an open-end management investment company. The Trust is governed by its Board of Trustees (the "Board" or "Trustees").
Under the Trust's Trust Instrument, each Trustee will continue in office until the termination of the Trust or his/her earlier death, incapacity, resignation or removal. Shareholders can remove a Trustee to the extent provided by the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the "1940 Act") and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder. Vacancies may be filled by a majority of the remaining Trustees, except insofar as the 1940 Act may require the election by shareholders. As a result, normally no annual or regular meetings of shareholders will be held unless matters arise requiring a vote of shareholders under the Trust Instrument or the 1940 Act.
The Fund’s investment objective is to seek investment results that generally correspond, before fees and expenses, to the price and yield performance of the Dow Jones Global Composite Yield Index (the “Underlying Index”). The Fund's restrictions and policies are more fully described here and in the Prospectus. The Board may start other series and offer shares of a new fund under the Trust at any time. The Fund is managed by Arrow Investment Advisors, LLC (the "Advisor").
The Fund issues and redeems shares (“Shares”) at net asset value ("NAV") only in aggregations of 75,000 Shares (each a "Creation Unit"). The Fund issues and redeems Creation Units principally in exchange for an in-kind deposit of a basket of designated securities (the "Deposit Securities"), together with the deposit of a specified cash payment (the "Cash Component"), plus a transaction fee. The Fund is listed on NYSE Arca, Inc. (the "Exchange"). Shares trade on the Exchange at market prices that may be below, at, or above NAV. In the event of the liquidation of the Fund, a share split, reverse split or similar event, the Trust may revise the number of Shares in a Creation Unit.
The Fund reserves the right to offer creations and redemptions of Shares for cash. In addition, Shares may be issued in advance of receipt of Deposit Securities subject to various conditions, including a requirement to maintain on deposit with the Trust cash equal to up to 115% of the market value of the missing Deposit Securities. In each instance of such cash creations or redemptions, transaction fees may be imposed and may be higher than the transaction fees associated with in-kind creations or redemptions. See PURCHASE AND REDEMPTION OF CREATION UNITS below.
Exchange Listing and Trading
Shares are listed for trading on the Exchange and trade throughout the day on the Exchange.
In order to provide additional information regarding the indicative value of Shares of the Fund, a market data vendor or other information provider will disseminate every 15 seconds through a data service or other widely disseminated means an updated "Indicative Optimized Portfolio Value" ("IOPV") for the Fund as calculated by an information provider or market data vendor. The Trust is not involved in or responsible for any aspect of the calculation or dissemination of the IOPV and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the IOPV.
The information provider or market data vendor calculates the IOPV during hours of trading on the Exchange by dividing the “Estimated Fund Value” as of the time of the calculation by the total number of outstanding Shares. “Estimated Fund Value” is the sum of the estimated amount of cash held in the Fund’s portfolio, the estimated amount of accrued interest owing to the Fund and the estimated value of the securities held in the Fund’s portfolio, minus the estimated amount of liabilities. The IOPV is calculated based on the same portfolio holdings disclosed on the Fund’s website. In determining the estimated value for each of the component securities, the IOPV uses last sale, market prices or other methods that would be considered appropriate for pricing equity securities held by registered investment companies.
The Exchange may, but are not required to, remove the Shares of the Fund from listing if: (i) following the initial 12-month period beginning at the commencement of trading of the Fund, there are fewer than 50 beneficial owners of Shares (for each Cboe-listed Fund, there must be fewer than 50 beneficial owners for at least 30 consecutive trading days); (ii) the Fund is no longer eligible to operate in reliance on Rule 6c-11 under the 1940 Act; (iii) the Fund fails to meet certain continued listing standards of an Exchange; or (iv) such other event shall occur or condition shall exist that, in the opinion of the Exchange, makes further dealings on the Exchange inadvisable. The Exchange will remove the Shares of the Fund from listing and trading upon termination of the Fund.
TYPES OF INVESTMENTS
The investment objective of the Fund and a description of its principal investment strategies are set forth under "Risk/Return Summary" in the Prospectus. The Fund's investment objective is not fundamental and may be changed without the approval of a majority of the Fund's outstanding voting securities.
The following pages contain more detailed information about the types of instruments in which the Fund may invest, strategies the Advisor may employ in pursuit of the Fund's investment objective and a summary of related risks.
Rated Securities. The Fund’s investments in certain equity securities, such as preferred securities and convertible securities, and in debt securities are subject to the credit risk relating to the financial condition of the issuers of the securities that the Fund holds. The Fund may invest in convertible and other debt securities that are investment or non-investment grade. Investment grade means rated in the top four long-term rating categories, or unrated and determined by the Advisor to be of comparable quality. The Fund may also purchase unrated securities if, at the time of purchase, the Advisor believes that they are of comparable quality to rated securities that the Fund may purchase. Standard & Poor’s Ratings Services (“S & P”), Moody’s Investors Service, Inc. (“Moody’s”) and other organizations provide ratings of the credit quality of debt obligations, including convertible securities. A description of the range of ratings assigned to various types of bonds and other securities is included in Appendix B to this SAI. The Fund may use these ratings to determine whether to purchase, sell or hold a security. Because a ratings downgrade often results in a reduction in the market price of the security, sale of a downgraded security may result in a loss. To the extent that a rating changes as a result of changes in an organization or its rating systems, the Advisor may attempt to substitute comparable ratings or to use such information to determine whether the Fund should continue to hold the obligation. Credit ratings attempt to evaluate the safety of principal and interest payments and do not evaluate the risks of fluctuations in market value. Ratings are general and are not absolute standards of quality. The rating of an issuer is a view of potential developments related to the issuer and may not necessarily reflect actual outcomes. An issuer’s current financial condition may be better or worse than a rating indicates.
Unrated Securities. The Fund may also invest in unrated debt and similar securities. Unrated debt, while not necessarily lower in quality than rated securities, may not be as actively traded as rated securities. Because of the size and perceived demand for the issue, among other factors, certain issuers may decide not to pay the cost of getting a rating for their bonds. The creditworthiness of the issuer, as well as any financial institution or other party responsible for payments on the security, will be analyzed to determine whether to purchase unrated bonds.
Equity securities in which the Fund invests include common stocks, preferred stocks and securities convertible into common stocks, such as convertible bonds, warrants, rights and options. The value of equity securities varies in response to many factors, including the activities and financial condition of individual companies, the business market in which individual companies compete and general market and economic conditions. Equity securities fluctuate in value, often based on factors unrelated to the value of the issuer of the securities, and such fluctuations can be significant.
Common stock represents an equity (ownership) interest in a company, and usually possesses voting rights and earns dividends. Dividends on common stock are not fixed but are declared at the discretion of the issuer. Common stock generally represents the riskiest investment in a company. In addition, common stock generally has the greatest appreciation and depreciation potential because increases and decreases in earnings are usually reflected in a company's stock price.
The Fund may invest in preferred stock with a minimum credit rating of investment grade. Preferred stock is a class of stock having a preference over common stock as to the payment of dividends and the recovery of investment should a company be liquidated, although preferred stock is usually junior to the debt securities of the issuer. Preferred stock typically does not possess voting rights and its market value may change based on changes in interest rates.
The Fund may also purchase trust preferred securities, also known as “trust preferreds,” which are preferred stocks issued by a special purpose trust subsidiary backed by subordinated debt of the corporate parent. An issuer creates trust preferred securities by creating a trust and issuing debt to the trust. The trust in turn issues trust preferred securities. Trust preferred securities are hybrid securities with characteristics of both subordinated debt and preferred stock. Such characteristics include long maturities (typically 30 years or more), early redemption by the issuer, periodic fixed or variable interest payments, and maturities at face value. In addition, trust preferred securities issued by bank holding company may allow deferral of interest payments for up to 5 years. Holders of trust preferred securities have limited voting rights to control the activities of the trust, and no voting rights with respect to the parent company.
The fundamental risk of investing in common and preferred stock is the risk that the value of the stock might decrease. Stock values fluctuate in response to the activities of an individual company or in response to general market and/or economic conditions. Historically, common stocks have provided greater long-term returns and have entailed greater short-term risks than preferred stocks, fixed-income securities and money market investments. The market value of all securities, including common and preferred stocks, is based upon the market's perception of value and not necessarily the book value of an issuer or other objective measures of a company's worth.
The Fund may invest in convertible securities with a minimum credit rating of investment grade. Convertible securities include fixed income securities that may be exchanged or converted into a predetermined number of shares of the issuer's underlying common stock at the option of the holder during a specified period. Convertible securities may take the form of convertible preferred stock, convertible bonds or debentures, units consisting of "usable" bonds and warrants or a combination of the features of several of these securities. Convertible securities are senior to common stocks in an issuer's capital structure, but are usually subordinated to similar non-convertible securities.
While providing a fixed-income stream (generally higher in yield than the income derivable from common stock but lower than that afforded by a similar nonconvertible security), a convertible security also gives an investor the opportunity, through its conversion feature, to participate in the capital appreciation of the issuing company depending upon a market price advance in the convertible security's underlying common stock.
The Fund may invest in warrants. Warrants are options to purchase common stock at a specific price (usually at a premium above the market value of the optioned common stock at issuance) valid for a specific period of time. Warrants may have a life ranging from less than one year to twenty years, or they may be perpetual. However, most warrants have expiration dates after which they are worthless. In addition, a warrant is worthless if the market price of the common stock does not exceed the warrant's exercise price during the life of the warrant. Warrants have no voting rights, pay no dividends, and have no rights with respect to the assets of the corporation issuing them. The percentage increase or decrease in the market price of the warrant may tend to be greater than the percentage increase or decrease in the market price of the optioned common stock.
General. The Fund may invest in foreign securities directly or through exchange traded funds ("ETFs") and other investment companies that hold a portfolio of foreign securities. Investing in securities of foreign companies and countries involves certain considerations and risks that are not typically associated with investing in U.S. government securities and securities of domestic companies. There may be less publicly available information about a foreign issuer than a domestic one, and foreign companies are not generally subject to uniform accounting, auditing and financial standards and requirements comparable to those applicable to U.S. companies. There may also be less government supervision and regulation of foreign securities exchanges, brokers and listed companies than exists in the United States. Interest and dividends paid by foreign issuers may be subject to withholding and other foreign taxes, which may decrease the net return on such investments as compared to dividends and interest paid to the Fund by domestic companies or the U.S. government. There may be the possibility of expropriations, seizure or nationalization of foreign deposits, confiscatory taxation, political, economic or social instability or diplomatic developments that could affect assets of the Fund held in foreign countries. Finally, the establishment of exchange controls or other foreign governmental laws or restrictions could adversely affect the payment of obligations.
To the extent the Fund's currency exchange transactions do not fully protect the Fund against adverse changes in currency exchange rates, decreases in the value of currencies of the foreign countries in which the Fund will invest relative to the U.S. dollar will result in a corresponding decrease in the U.S. dollar value of the Fund's assets denominated in those currencies (and possibly a corresponding increase in the amount of securities required to be liquidated to meet distribution requirements). Conversely, increases in the value of currencies of the foreign countries in which the Fund invests relative to the U.S. dollar will result in a corresponding increase in the U.S. dollar value of the Fund's assets (and possibly a corresponding decrease in the amount of securities to be liquidated).Foreign Economy Risk
The economies of certain foreign markets often do not compare favorably with that of the U.S. with respect to such issues as growth of gross domestic product, reinvestment of capital, resources, and balance of payments positions. Certain foreign economies may rely heavily on particular industries or foreign capital and are more vulnerable to diplomatic developments, the imposition of economic sanctions against a particular country or countries, changes in international trading patterns, trade barriers, and other protectionist or retaliatory measures. Investments in foreign markets may also be adversely affected by governmental actions such as the imposition of capital controls, nationalization of companies or industries, expropriation of assets, or the imposition of punitive taxes. In addition, the governments of certain countries may prohibit or impose substantial restrictions on foreign investing in their capital markets or in certain industries. Any of these actions could severely affect security prices, impair the Fund’s ability to purchase or sell foreign securities, or transfer the Fund’s assets back into the U.S., or otherwise adversely affect the Fund’s operations. Other foreign market risks include foreign exchange controls, difficulties in pricing securities, defaults on foreign government securities, difficulties in enforcing favorable legal judgments in foreign courts, and political and social instability. Legal remedies available to investors in certain foreign countries may be less extensive than those available to investors in the U.S. or other foreign countries. Foreign corporate governance may not be as robust as in the U.S. As a result, protections for minority investors may not be strong, which could affect security prices.
Currency Risk and Exchange Risk
Securities in which the Fund invests may be denominated or quoted in currencies other than the U.S. dollar. Changes in foreign currency exchange rates will affect the value of these securities. Generally, when the U.S. dollar rises in value against a foreign currency, an investment in a security denominated in that currency loses value because the currency is worth fewer U.S. dollars.
Similarly, when the U.S. dollar decreases in value against a foreign currency, an investment in a security denominated in that currency gains value because the currency is worth more U.S. dollars. This risk is generally known as “currency risk” which is the possibility that a stronger U.S. dollar will reduce returns for U.S. investors investing overseas. Foreign currencies also involve the risk that they will be devalued or replaced, adversely affecting the Fund’s investments.
Governmental Supervision and Regulation/Accounting Standards. Many foreign governments supervise and regulate stock exchanges, brokers and the sale of securities to a lesser extent than the U.S. government. Some countries may not have laws to protect investors the way that the U.S. securities laws do. Accounting standards in other countries are not necessarily the same as in the U.S. If the accounting standards in another country do not require as much disclosure or detail as U.S. accounting standards, it may be harder to assess a company’s financial condition.
Certain Risks of Holding Fund Assets Outside the U.S. Foreign securities in which the Fund invests are generally held outside the U.S. in foreign banks and securities depositories. The custodian is the Fund’s “foreign custody manager” as provided in Rule 17f-5 under the 1940 Act. The “foreign custody manager” is responsible for determining that the Fund’s directly-held foreign assets will be subject to reasonable care, based on standards applicable to custodians in relevant foreign markets. However, certain foreign banks and securities depositories may be recently organized or new to the foreign custody business. They may also have operations subject to limited or no regulatory oversight.
Also, the laws of certain countries may put limits on the Fund’s ability to recover its assets if a foreign bank or depository or issuer of a security or an agent of any of the foregoing goes bankrupt. In addition, it likely will be more expensive for the Fund to buy, sell and hold securities in certain foreign markets than it is in the U.S. market due to higher brokerage, transaction, custody and/or other costs. The increased expense of investing in foreign markets reduces the amount the Fund can earn on its investments. Settlement and clearance procedures in certain foreign markets differ significantly from those in the U.S.
Foreign settlement and clearance procedures and trade regulations also may involve certain risks (such as delays in payment for or delivery of securities) not typically involved with the settlement of U.S. investments. Communications between the U.S. and emerging market countries may be unreliable, increasing the risk of delayed settlements or losses of security certificates. Settlements in certain foreign countries at times have not kept pace with the number of securities transactions. The problems may make it difficult for the Fund to carry out transactions. If the Fund cannot settle or is delayed in settling a purchase of securities, the Fund may miss investment opportunities and certain of its assets may be uninvested with no return earned thereon for some period. If the Fund cannot settle or is delayed in settling a sale of securities, directly or indirectly, it may lose money if the value of the security then declines or, if it has contracted to sell the security to another party, the Fund could be liable to that party for any losses incurred.
In addition, dividends payable on foreign securities may be subject to foreign withholding taxes, thereby reducing the income available for distribution to shareholders. Some foreign brokerage commissions and custody fees are higher than those in the United States.
If the Fund invests in emerging markets, markets that can have more risk than investing in developed foreign markets, an investment in the Fund may have the following additional risks:
|·||Information about the companies in these countries is not always readily available;|
|·||Stocks of companies traded in these countries may be less liquid and the prices of these stocks may be more volatile than the prices of the stocks in more established markets;|
|·||Greater political and economic uncertainties exist in emerging markets than in developed foreign markets;|
|·||The securities markets and legal systems in emerging markets may not be well developed and may not provide the protections and advantages of the markets and systems available in more developed countries;|
|·||Very high inflation rates may exist in emerging markets and could negatively impact a country’s economy and securities markets;|
|·||Emerging markets may impose restrictions on the Fund’s ability to repatriate investment income or capital and thus, may adversely affect the operations of the Fund;|
|·||Certain emerging markets impose constraints on currency exchange and some currencies in emerging may have been devalued significantly against the U.S. dollar;|
|·||Governments of some emerging markets exercise substantial influence over the private sector and may own or control many companies. As such, governmental actions could have a significant effect on economic conditions in emerging markets, which, in turn, could affect the value of the Fund’s investments; and|
|·||Emerging markets may be subject to less government supervision and regulation of business and industry practices, stock exchanges, brokers and listed companies.|
For these and other reasons, the prices of securities in emerging markets can fluctuate more significantly than the prices of securities of companies in developed countries. The less developed the country, the greater effect these risks may have on an investment in the Fund. As a result, an investment in the Fund may exhibit a higher degree of volatility than either the general domestic securities market or the securities markets of developed foreign countries.
To the extent the Fund invests in stocks of foreign corporations, the Fund’s investment in such stocks may also be in the form of Depositary Receipts or other securities convertible into securities of foreign issuers. Depositary Receipts may not necessarily be denominated in the same currency as the underlying securities into which they may be converted. American Depositary Receipts (“ADRs”) are receipts typically issued by an American bank or trust company that evidence ownership of underlying securities issued by a foreign corporation. European Depositary Receipts (“EDRs”) are receipts issued in Europe that evidence a similar ownership arrangement. Global Depositary Receipts (“GDRs”) are receipts issued throughout the world that evidence a similar arrangement. Generally, ADRs, in registered form, are designed for use in the U.S. securities markets, and EDRs, in bearer form, are designed for use in European securities markets. GDRs are tradable both in the United States and in Europe and are designed for use throughout the world. Depositary Receipts will not necessarily be denominated in the same currency as their underlying securities.
The Fund will not invest in any unlisted Depositary Receipts or any Depositary Receipt that the Advisor deems to be illiquid or for which pricing information is not readily available. In addition, the Fund will generally invest in sponsored Depositary Receipts, but may invest in unsponsored Depositary Receipts from time to time. The issuers of unsponsored Depositary Receipts are not obligated to disclose material information in the United States, and, therefore, there may be less information available regarding such issuers and there may not be a correlation between such information and the market value of the Depositary Receipts. The use of Depositary Receipts may increase tracking error relative to the Underlying Index.
Real Estate Investment Trusts (“REITs”)
The Fund may purchase interests in REITs. A REIT is a company that pools investor funds to invest primarily in income producing real estate or real estate related loans or interests. A REIT is not taxed on income distributed to its shareholders if, among other things, it distributes substantially all of its taxable income (other than net capital gain) for each taxable year.
Investment in REITs may be the most practical available means for the Fund to invest in the real estate industry. As a shareholder in a REIT, the Fund would bear its ratable share of the REIT’s expenses, including its advisory and administration fees. At the same time, the Fund would continue to pay its own investment advisory fees and other expenses, as a result of which the Fund and its shareholders in effect would be absorbing duplicate levels of fees with respect to investments in REITs. A REIT may focus on particular projects, such as apartment complexes, or geographic regions, such as the southeastern United States, or both.
REITs generally can be classified as equity REITs, mortgage REITs and hybrid REITs. Equity REITs generally invest a majority of their assets in income-producing real estate properties to generate cash flow from rental income and gradual asset appreciation. The income-producing real estate properties in which equity REITs invest typically include properties such as office, retail, industrial, hotel and apartment buildings, self-storage, specialty and diversified and healthcare facilities. Equity REITs can realize capital gains by selling properties that have appreciated in value. Mortgage REITs invest the majority of their assets in real estate mortgages and derive their income primarily from interest payments on the mortgages. Hybrid REITs combine the characteristics of both equity REITs and mortgage REITs.
Because REITs have ongoing fees and expenses, which may include management, operating and administration expenses, REIT shareholders, including the Fund, will indirectly bear a proportionate share of those expenses in addition to the expenses of the Fund. However, such expenses are not considered to be Acquired Fund Fees and Expenses and, therefore, are not reflected as such in the Fund's fee table.
REITs can be listed and traded on national securities exchanges or can be traded privately between individual owners. The Fund will generally invest only in publicly traded REITs.
The Fund conceivably could own real estate directly as a result of a default on the securities it owns. Therefore, the Fund may be subject to certain risks associated with the direct ownership of real estate, including difficulties in valuing and trading real estate, declines in the values of real estate, risks related to general and local economic conditions, adverse changes in the climate for real estate, environmental liability risks, increases in property taxes and operated expenses, changes in zoning laws, casualty or condemnation losses, limitations on rents, changes in neighborhood values, the appeal of properties to tenants and increases in interest rates.
In addition to the risks described above, equity REITs may be affected by any changes in the value of the underlying property owned by the trusts, while mortgage REITs may be affected by the quality of any credit extended. Equity and mortgage REITs depend upon management skill, are not diversified and therefore are subject to the risk of financing single or a limited number of projects. Changes in interest rates also may affect the value of debt securities held by the Fund. By investing in REITs indirectly through the Fund, a shareholder will bear not only his/her proportionate share of the expenses of the Fund, but also, indirectly, similar expenses of the REITs. The Fund also may be subject to certain risks associated with the direct investments of the REITs. REITs may be affected by changes in their underlying properties and by defaults by borrowers or tenants. Mortgage REITs may be affected by the quality of the credit extended. Some REITs may have limited diversification and may be subject to risks inherent in financing a limited number of properties. REITs depend generally on their ability to generate cash flow to make distributions to shareholders or unitholders, and may be subject to defaults by borrowers and to self-liquidations. In addition, the performance of a REIT may be affected by its failure to qualify for tax-free pass-through of income under the Internal Revenue Code or its failure to maintain exemption from registration under the 1940 Act.
A royalty trust is an entity that typically owns oil or natural gas wells or the mineral rights of wells and of property, such as mines. Royalty trusts in which the Fund may invest primarily will be organized in Canada. Royalty trusts commonly hold debt or equity securities in, or are entitled to receive royalties from, an underlying active business. The royalty trust structure is typically adopted by businesses that require a limited amount of capital in maintenance and that generate stable cash flows. The value of a royalty trust can rise or fall for the same reasons that affect equity securities or because of changes in interest rates.
An investment in units of a royalty trust is not the equivalent of owning shares in a corporation, as unitholders do not have the statutory rights normally associated with owning shares in a corporation. Investments in royalty trusts will have varying degrees of risk depending on the sector and the underlying assets. They will also be subject to general risks associated with business cycles, commodity prices, interest rates, and other economic factors.
Typically, royalty trusts are more volatile than fixed-income securities and preferred shares. The value of royalty trust units may decline significantly if they are unable to meet distribution targets. To the extent that claims against a royalty trust are not satisfied by the trust, investors in the trust (including the Fund if it is an investor in the Trust) could be held responsible for those claims. Certain, but not all, jurisdictions have enacted legislation to protect investors from some of this liability.
Royalty trusts may be subject to certain risks associated with a decline in demand for crude oil, natural gas and refined petroleum products, which, in turn, could adversely affect income and royalty trust revenues and cash flows. Factors that could lead to a decrease in market demand include a recession or other adverse economic conditions, an increase in the market price of the underlying commodity, higher taxes or other regulatory actions that increase costs, or a shift in consumer demand for such products. A rising interest rate environment could adversely impact the performance of royalty trusts. Rising interest rates could limit the capital appreciation of royalty trusts because of the increased availability of alternative investments at more competitive yields.
Because royalty trusts have ongoing fees and expenses, which may include management, operating and administration expenses, royalty trust shareholders, including the Fund, will indirectly bear a proportionate share of those expenses in addition to the expenses of the Fund. However, such expenses are not considered to be Acquired Fund Fees and Expenses and, therefore, are not reflected as such in the Fund's fee table.
Master Limited Partnerships (“MLPs”)
MLPs are limited partnerships (or similar entities) in which the ownership units (e.g., limited partnership interests) are publicly traded. MLP units are registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) and are freely traded on a securities exchange or in the over-the-counter (“OTC”) market. Many MLPs operate in the oil and gas related businesses, including energy processing and distribution. Many MLPs are pass-through entities that generally are taxed at the unitholder level and are not subject to federal or state income tax at the entity level; annual income, gains, losses, and deductions of such an MLP pass through directly to its unitholders. Distributions from an MLP may consist in part of a return of capital. Generally, an MLP is operated under the supervision of one or more general partners, and limited partners are not involved in the day-to-day management of the MLP.
Investing in MLPs involves certain risks related to investing in the underlying assets of the MLPs and risks associated with pooled investment vehicles. MLPs holding credit-related investments are subject to interest rate risk and the risk of default on payment obligations by debt issuers. MLPs that concentrate in a particular industry or a particular geographic region are subject to risks associated with that industry or region. Investments held by MLPs may be relatively illiquid, limiting their ability to vary their portfolios promptly in response to changes in economic or other conditions. MLPs may have limited financial resources, their securities may trade infrequently and in limited volume, and they may be subject to more abrupt or erratic price movements than securities of larger or more broadly based companies.
The risks of investing in an MLP are generally those inherent in investing in a partnership as opposed to a corporation. For example, state law governing partnerships is often less restrictive than state law governing corporations. Accordingly, there may be fewer protections afforded investors in an MLP than investors in a corporation. Although unitholders of an MLP are generally limited in their liability, similar to a corporation’s shareholders, creditors typically have the right to seek the return of distributions made to unitholders if the liability in question arose before the distributions were paid. This liability may stay attached to the unitholder even after the units are sold. There are certain risks associated with the Fund’s investments in MLPs, which are detailed below in “TAXES.”
Investment Companies and Other Pooled Vehicles
The Fund may invest in the securities of other investment companies (including money market funds). Under the 1940 Act, the Fund's investment in investment companies is limited to, subject to certain exceptions, (i) 3% of the total outstanding voting stock of any one investment company, (ii) 5% of the Fund's total assets with respect to any one investment company and (iii) 10% of the Fund's total assets of investment companies in the aggregate. The Fund may invest in shares of open-end and closed-end investment companies, including other exchange-traded funds (“ETFs”) and money market funds (including pending investment of cash balances). ETFs are investment companies whose shares are bought and sold on a securities exchange. An ETF typically holds a portfolio of securities designed to track a particular market segment or index. Some examples of ETFs are SPDRs®, NASDAQ 100 Index Tracking StockSM (“QQQs SM”) iShares® and VIPERs®. The Fund could purchase an ETF to gain exposure to a portion of the U.S. or foreign market.
The Fund may invest in exchange traded notes (“ETNs”), which are similar to ETFs in that they may be designed to provide returns that track an index; ETNs are different from ETFs, however, in one important respect. They are not secured by an underlying pool of assets, but rather are notes (or debt securities) secured only by the ability of the issuer to pay. As such, their shares are subject to the same risks described for “Corporate Debt Securities” below.
The Fund may invest also in other exchange traded products (“ETPs”) that, like an ETF, invest in a pool of assets and are traded on an exchange. ETPs, however, are generally organized as commodity pools registered under the Commodity Exchange Act or as grantor trusts and are not registered as investment companies under the 1940 Act. This is due to the fact that they invest in, for example, commodities or currencies rather than securities. The Fund, as a shareholder of another investment company, ETF, ETN or ETP, will bear its pro rata portion of the entity’s fees and expenses, in addition to its own fees and expenses. In addition, it will be exposed to the investment risks associated with the entity, which generally reflect the risks of the entity’s underlying investments.
As a shareholder of an investment company, ETF, ETN or ETP, the Fund must rely on the entity to achieve its investment objective. If it fails to achieve its investment objective, the Fund may likewise fail to achieve its investment objective or otherwise be adversely affected.
Investments in ETFs, ETNs and ETPs are also subject to brokerage and other trading costs, which could result in greater expenses to the Fund and lack of liquidity in an entity could result in its market price being more volatile than the underlying portfolio of securities. In addition, because such entities are listed on national stock exchanges and are traded like stocks listed on an exchange, their shares potentially may trade at a discount or a premium to their NAV. Finally, because the value of ETF shares depends on the demand in the market, the Advisor may not be able to liquidate the Fund's holdings at the most optimal time, adversely affecting the Fund's performance.
Fixed Income Securities.
The market value of the fixed income investments in which the Fund may invest will change in response to interest rate changes and other factors. During periods of falling interest rates, the values of outstanding fixed income securities generally rise. Conversely, during periods of rising interest rates, the values of such securities generally decline. Moreover, while securities with longer maturities tend to produce higher yields, the prices of longer maturity securities are also subject to greater market fluctuations as a result of changes in interest rates. Changes by recognized agencies in the rating of any fixed income security and in the ability of an issuer to make payments of interest and principal also affect the value of these investments. Changes in the value of these securities will not necessarily affect cash income derived from these securities but will affect the Fund’s NAV. Additional information regarding fixed income securities is described below:
Duration. Duration is a measure of the expected change in value of a fixed income security for a given change in interest rates. For example, if interest rates changed by one percent, the value of a security having an effective duration of two years generally would vary by two percent. Duration takes the length of the time intervals between the present time and time that the interest and principal payments are scheduled, or in the case of a callable bond, expected to be received, and weighs them by the present values of the cash to be received at each future point in time.
Variable and Floating Rate Securities
Variable and floating rate instruments involve certain obligations that may carry variable or floating rates of interest, and may involve a conditional or unconditional demand feature. Such instruments bear interest at rates which are not fixed, but which vary with changes in specified market rates or indices. The interest rates on these securities may be reset daily, weekly, quarterly, or some other reset period, and may have a set floor or ceiling on interest rate changes. There is a risk that the current interest rate on such obligations may not accurately reflect existing market interest rates. A demand instrument with a demand notice exceeding seven days may be considered illiquid if there is no secondary market for such security.
Corporate Debt Securities
The Fund may seek investment in corporate debt securities representative of one or more high yield bond or credit derivative indices, which may change from time to time. Selection will generally be dependent on independent credit analysis or fundamental analysis performed by the Advisor. The Fund may invest in all grades of corporate securities including below investment grade as discussed below. The Fund also may invest in unrated securities.
Corporate debt securities are typically fixed-income securities issued by businesses to finance their operations. Notes, bonds, debentures and commercial paper are the most common types of corporate debt securities. The primary differences between the different types of corporate debt securities are their maturities and secured or un-secured status. Commercial paper has the shortest term and is usually unsecured. The broad category of corporate debt securities includes debt issued by domestic or foreign companies of all kinds, including those with small-, mid- and large-capitalizations. Corporate debt may be rated investment-grade or below investment-grade and may carry variable or floating rates of interest.
Because of the wide range of types, and maturities, of corporate debt securities, as well as the range of creditworthiness of its issuers, corporate debt securities have widely varying potentials for return and risk profiles. For example, commercial paper issued by a large established domestic corporation that is rated investment-grade may have a modest return on principal, but carries relatively limited risk. On the other hand, a long-term corporate note issued by a small foreign corporation from an emerging market country that has not been rated may have the potential for relatively large returns on principal, but carries a relatively high degree of risk.
Corporate debt securities carry both credit risk and interest rate risk. Credit risk is the risk that the Fund could lose money if the issuer of a corporate debt security is unable to pay interest or repay principal when it is due. Some corporate debt securities that are rated below investment-grade are generally considered speculative because they present a greater risk of loss, including default, than higher quality debt securities. The credit risk of a particular issuer’s debt security may vary based on its priority for repayment. For example, higher ranking (senior) debt securities have a higher priority than lower ranking (subordinated) securities. This means that the issuer might not make payments on subordinated securities while continuing to make payments on senior securities. In addition, in the event of bankruptcy, holders of higher-ranking senior securities may receive amounts otherwise payable to the holders of more junior securities. Interest rate risk is the risk that the value of certain corporate debt securities will tend to fall when interest rates rise. In general, corporate debt securities with longer terms tend to fall more in value when interest rates rise than corporate debt securities with shorter terms.
Non-Investment-Grade Debt Securities
The Fund may invest in non-investment-grade securities. Non-investment-grade securities, also referred to as “high yield securities” or “junk bonds,” are debt securities that are rated lower than the four highest rating categories by a Nationally Recognized Statistical Rating Organization (for example, lower than Baa3 by Moody’s Investors Service, Inc. or lower than BBB- by Standard & Poor’s) or are determined to be of comparable quality by the Fund’s Advisor. These securities are generally considered to be, on balance, highly speculative with respect to capacity to pay interest and repay principal in accordance with the terms of the obligation and will generally involve more credit risk than securities in the investment-grade categories. Investment in these securities generally provides greater income and increased opportunity for capital appreciation than investments in higher quality securities, but they also typically entail greater price volatility and principal and income risk.
Some high yield securities are issued by smaller, less-seasoned companies, while others are issued as part of a corporate restructuring, such as an acquisition, merger, or leveraged buyout. Companies that issue high yield securities are often highly leveraged and may not have available to them more traditional methods of financing. Therefore, the risk associated with acquiring the securities of such issuers generally is greater than is the case with investment-grade securities. Some high yield securities were once rated as investment-grade but have been downgraded to junk bond status because of financial difficulties experienced by their issuers.
The market values of high yield securities tend to reflect individual issuer developments to a greater extent than do investment-grade securities, which in general react to fluctuations in the general level of interest rates. High yield securities also tend to be more sensitive to economic conditions than are investment-grade securities. A projection of an economic downturn or of a period of rising interest rates, for example, could cause a decline in junk bond prices because the advent of a recession could lessen the ability of a highly leveraged company to make principal and interest payments on its debt securities. If an issuer of high yield securities held by the Fund defaults, in addition to risking payment of all or a portion of interest and principal, the Fund may incur additional expenses to seek recovery.
The secondary market on which high yield securities are traded may be less liquid than the market for investment-grade securities. Less liquidity in the secondary trading market could adversely affect the ability of the Fund to sell a high yield security or the price at which the Fund could sell a high yield security, and could adversely affect the daily NAV of Shares. When secondary markets for high yield securities are less liquid than the market for investment-grade securities, it may be more difficult to value the securities because such valuation may require more research, and elements of judgment may play a greater role in the valuation because there is less reliable, objective data available.
The Fund will not necessarily dispose of a security if a credit-rating agency downgrades the rating of the security below its rating at the time of purchase.
Sovereign Debt Obligations
Sovereign debt obligations are issued or guaranteed by a foreign government or one of its agencies, authorities, instrumentalities or political subdivisions. Investments in sovereign debt obligations involve special risks not present in corporate debt obligations. The issuer of the sovereign debt or the governmental authorities that control the repayment of the debt may be unable or unwilling to repay principal or interest when due, and the Fund may have limited recourse in the event of a default. During periods of economic uncertainty, the market prices of sovereign debt, and the Fund's NAV, may be more volatile than prices of U.S. debt obligations. In the past, certain non-U.S. markets have encountered difficulties in servicing their debt obligations, withheld payments of principal and interest and declared moratoria on the payment of principal and interest on their sovereign debts.
A sovereign debtor's willingness or ability to repay principal and pay interest in a timely manner may be affected by, among other factors, its cash flow situation, the extent of its foreign currency reserves, the availability of sufficient foreign exchange, the relative size of the debt service burden, the sovereign debtor's policy toward principal international lenders and local political constraints. Sovereign debtors may also be dependent on expected disbursements from foreign governments, multilateral agencies and other entities to reduce principal and interest arrearages on their debt. The failure of a sovereign debtor to implement economic reforms, achieve specified levels of economic performance or repay principal or interest when due may result in the cancellation of third-party commitments to lend funds to the sovereign debtor, which may further impair such debtor's ability or willingness to service its debts.
Lending Portfolio Securities
For the purpose of achieving income, the Fund may lend its portfolio securities, provided (1) the loan is secured continuously by collateral consisting of U.S. Government securities or cash or cash equivalents (cash, U.S. Government securities, negotiable certificates of deposit, bankers' acceptances or letters of credit) maintained on a daily mark-to-market basis in an amount at least equal to the current market value of the securities loaned, (2) the Fund may at any time call the loan and obtain the return of securities loaned, (3) the Fund will receive any interest or dividends received on the loaned securities, and (4) the aggregate value of the securities loaned will not at any time exceed one-third of the total assets of the Fund. The Fund did not engage in securities lending activities in the most recently completed fiscal year ended January 31, 2021.
The Fund may enter into repurchase agreements, which are agreements pursuant to which the Fund acquires securities from a third party with the understanding that the seller will repurchase them at a fixed price on an agreed date.
These agreements may be made with respect to any of the portfolio securities in which the Fund is authorized to invest. Repurchase agreements may be characterized as loans secured by the underlying securities. The Fund may enter into repurchase agreements with (i) member banks of the Federal Reserve System having total assets in excess of $500 million and (ii) securities dealers (“Qualified Institutions”). The Advisor will monitor the continued creditworthiness of Qualified Institutions.
The use of repurchase agreements involves certain risks. For example, if the seller of securities under a repurchase agreement defaults on its obligation to repurchase the underlying securities, as a result of its bankruptcy or otherwise, the Fund will seek to dispose of such securities, which could involve costs or delays. If the seller becomes insolvent and subject to liquidation or reorganization under applicable bankruptcy or other laws, the Fund’s ability to dispose of the underlying securities may be restricted. Finally, the Fund may not be able to substantiate its interest in the underlying securities. To minimize this risk, the custodian will hold the securities underlying the repurchase agreement at all times in an amount at least equal to the repurchase price, including accrued interest. If the seller fails to repurchase the securities, the Fund may suffer a loss to the extent proceeds from the sale of the underlying securities are less than the repurchase price.
The resale price reflects the purchase price plus an agreed upon market rate of interest. The collateral is marked-to-market daily.
Reverse Repurchase Agreements
The Fund may enter into reverse repurchase agreements, which involve the sale of securities with an agreement to repurchase the securities at an agreed-upon price, date and interest payment and have the characteristics of borrowing. The securities purchased with the funds obtained from the agreement and securities collateralizing the agreement will have maturity dates no later than the repayment date.
Generally, the effect of such transactions is that the Fund can recover all or most of the cash invested in the portfolio securities involved during the term of the reverse repurchase agreement, while in many cases the Fund is able to keep some of the interest income associated with those securities. Such transactions are only advantageous if the Fund has an opportunity to earn a greater rate of return on the cash derived from these transactions than the interest cost of obtaining the same amount of cash. Opportunities to realize earnings from the use of the proceeds equal to or greater than the interest required to be paid may not always be available and the Fund intends to use the reverse repurchase technique only when the Advisor believes it will be advantageous to the Fund. The use of reverse repurchase agreements may exaggerate any interim increase or decrease in the value of the Fund’s assets. The custodian bank will maintain a separate account for the Fund with securities having a value equal to or greater than such commitments. Under the 1940 Act, reverse repurchase agreements are considered borrowings.
Illiquid and Restricted Securities
The Fund may invest up to 15% of its net assets in illiquid securities. Illiquid securities include securities subject to contractual or legal restrictions on resale (e.g., because they have not been registered under the Securities Act) and securities that are otherwise not readily marketable (e.g., because trading in the security is suspended or because market makers do not exist or will not entertain bids or offers). Securities that have not been registered under the Securities Act are referred to as private placements or restricted securities and are purchased directly from the issuer or in the secondary market. Foreign securities that are freely tradable in their principal markets are not considered to be illiquid.
Restricted and other illiquid securities may be subject to the potential for delays on resale and uncertainty in valuation. The Fund might be unable to dispose of illiquid securities promptly or at reasonable prices and might thereby experience difficulty in satisfying redemption requests from shareholders. The Fund might have to register restricted securities in order to dispose of them, resulting in additional expense and delay. Adverse market conditions could impede such a public offering of securities.
A large institutional market exists for certain securities that are not registered under the Securities Act, including foreign securities. The fact that there are contractual or legal restrictions on resale to the general public or to certain institutions may not be indicative of the liquidity of such investments. Rule 144A under the Securities Act allows such a broader institutional trading market for securities otherwise subject to restrictions on resale to the general public.
Rule 144A establishes a "safe harbor" from the registration requirements of the Securities Act for resale of certain securities to qualified institutional buyers. Rule 144A has produced enhanced liquidity for many restricted securities, and market liquidity for such securities may continue to expand as a result of this regulation and the consequent existence of the PORTAL system, which is an automated system for the trading, clearance and settlement of unregistered securities of domestic and foreign issuers sponsored by the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.
Under guidelines adopted by the Board, the Advisor may determine that particular Rule 144A securities, and commercial paper issued in reliance on the private placement exemption from registration afforded by Section 4(2) of the Securities Act, are liquid even though they are not registered. A determination of whether such a security is liquid or not is a question of fact. In making this determination, the Advisor will consider, as it deems appropriate under the circumstances and among other factors: (1) the frequency of trades and quotes for the security; (2) the number of dealers willing to purchase or sell the security; (3) the number of other potential purchasers of the security; (4) dealer undertakings to make a market in the security; (5) the nature of the security (e.g., debt or equity, date of maturity, terms of dividend or interest payments, and other material terms) and the nature of the marketplace trades (e.g., the time needed to dispose of the security, the method of soliciting offers, and the mechanics of transfer); and (6) the rating of the security and the financial condition and prospects of the issuer. In the case of commercial paper, the Advisor will also determine that the paper (1) is not traded flat or in default as to principal and interest, and (2) is rated in one of the two highest rating categories by at least two Nationally Recognized Statistical Rating Organizations ("NRSROs") or, if only one NRSRO rates the security, by that NRSRO, or, if the security is unrated, the Advisor determines that it is of equivalent quality.
Rule 144A securities and Section 4(2) commercial paper that have been deemed liquid as described above will continue to be monitored by the Advisor to determine if the security is no longer liquid as the result of changed conditions. Investing in Rule 144A securities or Section 4(2) commercial paper could have the effect of increasing the amount of the Fund's assets invested in illiquid securities if institutional buyers are unwilling to purchase such securities.
The Fund may borrow money from a bank or another person to the extent permitted under the Investment Restrictions. Such borrowings may be utilized (i) for temporary or emergency purposes; (ii) in anticipation of or in response to adverse market conditions; or, (iii) for cash management purposes. Borrowed money will cost the Fund interest expense and/or other fees. The costs of borrowing may reduce the Fund's return. To the extent that the Fund has outstanding borrowings, it will be leveraged. Leveraging generally exaggerates the effect on NAV of any increase or decrease in the market value of the Fund's portfolio securities. All borrowings are limited to an amount not exceeding 33 1/3% of the Fund's total assets (including the amount borrowed) less liabilities (other than borrowings). Any borrowings that exceed this amount will be reduced within three days (excluding Sundays and holidays) to the extent necessary to comply with the 33 1/3% limitation even if it is not advantageous to sell securities at that time.
If there are unusually heavy redemptions, the Fund may have to sell a portion of its investment portfolio at a time when it may not be advantageous to do so. Selling Fund securities under these circumstances may result in a lower net asset value per share. The Advisor believes that, in the event of abnormally heavy redemption requests, the Fund's borrowing ability would help to mitigate any such effects and could make the forced sale of its portfolio securities less likely.
The Fund may enter into options contracts. These options contracts will be used to simulate full investment in the Underlying Index to facilitate trading or to reduce transaction costs. The Fund will not use options for speculative purposes.
A call option gives a holder the right to purchase a specific security or an index at a specified price (“exercise price”) within a specified period of time. A put option gives a holder the right to sell a specific security or an index at a specified price within a specified period of time. The initial purchaser of a call option pays the “writer,” i.e., the party selling the option, a premium which is paid at the time of purchase and is retained by the writer whether or not such option is exercised. The Fund may purchase put options to hedge its portfolio against the risk of a decline in the market value of securities held and may purchase call options to hedge against an increase in the price of securities it is committed to purchase. The Fund may write put and call options along with a long position in options to increase its ability to hedge against a change in the market value of the securities it holds or is committed to purchase.
The Fund may purchase and sell derivative instruments only to the extent that such activities are consistent with the requirements of the Commodity Exchange Act (“CEA”) and the rules adopted by the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (“CFTC”) thereunder. Under CFTC rules, a registered investment company that conducts more than a minimal amount of trading in futures, commodity options, swaps and other commodity interests is a commodity pool and its adviser must register as a commodity pool operator (“CPO”). The Fund is a “commodity pool” under the CEA and the Advisor is a “commodity pool operator” registered with the CFTC, and is a member of the National Futures Association (“NFA”). As a registered commodity pool operator with respect to the Fund, the Advisor must comply with various regulatory requirements under the CEA, and the rules and regulations of the CFTC and the NFA, including investor protection requirements, antifraud prohibitions, disclosure requirements, and reporting and recordkeeping requirements. The Advisor is also subject to periodic inspections and audits by the CFTC and NFA.
The Fund may enter into interest rate, index and currency exchange rate swap agreements in an attempt to obtain a particular desired return at a lower cost to the Fund than if the Fund has invested directly in an instrument that yielded that desired return. Swap agreements are two-party contracts entered into primarily by institutional investors for periods ranging from a few weeks to more than one year. In a standard "swap" transaction, two parties agree to exchange the returns (or differentials in rates of returns) earned or realized on particular predetermined investments or instruments. The gross returns to be exchanged or "swapped" between the parties are calculated with respect to a "notional amount," i.e., the return on or increase in value of a particular dollar amount invested at a particular interest rate, in a particular foreign currency, or in a "basket" of securities representing a particular index. The "notional amount" of the swap agreement is only a fictive basis on which to calculate the obligations the parties to a swap agreement have agreed to exchange. The Fund's obligations (or rights) under a swap agreement will generally be equal only to the amount to be paid or received under the agreement based on the relative values of the positions held by each party to the agreement (the "net amount"). The Fund's obligations under a swap agreement will be accrued daily (offset against any amounts owing to the Fund) and any accrued but unpaid net amounts owed to a swap counterparty will be covered by the maintenance of a segregated account consisting of cash, U.S. government securities, or other liquid securities, to avoid leveraging of the Fund's portfolio. The Fund will not enter into a swap agreement with any single party if the net amount owed or to be received under existing contracts with that party would exceed 5% of the Fund's assets.
Whether the Fund's use of swap agreements enhance the Fund's total return will depend on the Advisor's ability correctly to predict whether certain types of investments are likely to produce greater returns than other investments. Because they are two-party contracts and may have terms of greater than seven days, swap agreements may be considered to be illiquid. Moreover, the Fund bears the risk of loss of the amount expected to be received under a swap agreement in the event of the default or bankruptcy of a swap agreement counterparty. The Advisor will cause the Fund to enter into swap agreements only with counterparties that would be eligible for consideration as repurchase agreement counterparties under the Fund’s repurchase agreement guidelines. The swap market is a relatively new market and is largely unregulated. It is possible that developments in the swaps market, including potential government regulation, could adversely affect the Fund's ability to terminate existing swap agreements or to realize amounts to be received under such agreements.
Certain swap agreements are exempt from most provisions of the CEA and, therefore, are not regulated as futures or commodity option transactions under the CEA, pursuant to regulations of the CFTC. To qualify for this exemption, a swap agreement must be entered into by "eligible participants," which include the following, provided the participants' total assets exceed established levels: a bank or trust company, savings association or credit union, insurance company, investment company subject to regulation under the 1940 Act, commodity pool, corporation, partnership, proprietorship, organization, trust or other entity, employee benefit plan, governmental entity, broker-dealer, futures commission merchant, natural person, or regulated foreign person. To be eligible, natural persons and most other entities must have total assets exceeding $10 million; commodity pools and employees benefit plans must have assets exceeding $5 million. In addition, an eligible swap transaction must meet three conditions. First, the swap agreement may not be part of a fungible class of agreements that are standardized as to their material economic terms. Second, the creditworthiness of parties with actual or potential obligations under the swap agreement must be a material consideration in entering into or determining the terms of the swap agreement, including pricing, cost or credit enhancement terms. Third, swap agreements may not be entered into and traded on or through a multilateral transaction execution facility.
The Fund may enter into foreign currency forward contracts to facilitate local securities settlements or to protect against currency exposure in connection with distributions to shareholders. The Fund does not expect to engage in currency transactions for the purpose of hedging against declines in the value of the Fund’s assets that are denominated in one or more foreign currencies. The Fund may invest in various types of currency contracts to hedge against changes in the value of the U.S. dollar against specified non-U.S. currencies.
Forward Foreign Currency Contracts
A forward foreign currency exchange contract (“forward contract”) involves an obligation to purchase or sell a specific currency at a future date, which may be any fixed number of days from the date of the contract agreed upon by the parties, at a price set at the time of the contract. These contracts are principally traded in the interbank market conducted directly between currency traders (usually large commercial banks) and their customers. A forward contract generally has no margin deposit requirement, and no commissions are charged at any stage for trades.
A non-deliverable forward contract is a forward contract where there is no physical settlement of two currencies at maturity. Non-deliverable forward contracts are contracts between parties in which one party agrees to make a payment to the other party (the “Counterparty”) based on the change in market value or level of a specified currency. In return, the Counterparty agrees to make payment to the first party based on the return of a different specified currency. Non-deliverable forward contracts will usually be done on a net basis, with the Fund receiving or paying only the net amount of the two payments. The net amount of the excess, if any, of the Fund’s obligations over its entitlements with respect to each non-deliverable forward contract is accrued on a daily basis and an amount of cash or highly liquid securities having an aggregate value at least equal to the accrued excess is maintained in an account at the Trust’s custodian bank. The risk of loss with respect to non-deliverable forward contracts generally is limited to the net amount of payments that the Fund is contractually obligated to make or receive.
A short sale is a transaction in which the Fund sells a security it does not own. To complete such a transaction, the Fund must borrow the security to make delivery to the buyer. The Fund is then obligated to replace the security borrowed by borrowing the same security from another lender, purchasing it at the market price at the time of replacement or paying the lender an amount equal to the cost of purchasing the security. The price at such time may be more or less than the price at which the security was sold by the Fund. Until the security is replaced, the Fund is required to repay the lender any dividends it receives, or interest which accrues, during the period of the loan. To borrow the security, the Fund also may be required to pay a premium, which would increase the cost of the security sold. The net proceeds of the short sale will be retained by the broker, to the extent necessary to meet margin requirements, until the short position is closed out. The Fund also will incur transaction costs in effecting short sales.
The Fund may make short sales “against the box,” i.e., when a security identical to or convertible or exchangeable into one owned by the Fund is borrowed and sold short. Whenever the Fund engages in short sales, it earmarks or segregates liquid securities or cash in an amount that, when combined with the amount of collateral deposited with the broker in connection with the short sale (other than the proceeds of the short sale), equals the current market value of the security sold short. The earmarked or segregated assets are marked-to-market daily.
The Fund will incur a loss as a result of a short sale if the price of the security increases between the date of the short sale and the date on which the Fund replaces the borrowed security. The Fund will realize a gain if the price of the security declines in price between those dates.
The amount of any gain will be decreased, and the amount of any loss increased, by the amount of the premium, dividends or interest the Fund may be required to pay, if any, in connection with a short sale. Short sales may be subject to unlimited losses as the price of a security can rise infinitely.
The Fund may not be able to borrow stocks that are short positions in the Underlying Index as their supply may be insufficient or the cost to borrow may be prohibitively expensive due to market or stock specific conditions. Under such circumstances, the Fund may not achieve its investment objective.
Financial Services Sector. Financial services companies are subject to extensive governmental regulation which may limit both the amounts and types of loans and other financial commitments they can make, the interest rates and fees they can charge, the scope of their activities, the prices they can charge and the amount of capital they must maintain. Profitability is largely dependent on the availability and cost of capital funds and can fluctuate significantly when interest rates change or due to increased competition. In addition, deterioration of the credit markets generally may cause an adverse impact in a broad range of markets, including U.S. and international credit and interbank money markets, thereby affecting a wide range of financial institutions and markets. Certain events in the financial sector may cause an unusually high degree of volatility in the financial markets, both domestic and foreign, and cause certain financial services companies to incur large losses. Securities of financial services companies may experience a dramatic decline in value when such companies experience substantial declines in the valuations of their assets, take action to raise capital (such as the issuance of debt or equity securities), or cease operations. Credit losses resulting from financial difficulties of borrowers and financial losses associated with investment activities can negatively impact the sector. Insurance companies may be subject to severe price competition.
Adverse economic, business or political developments could adversely affect financial institutions engaged in mortgage finance or other lending or investing activities directly or indirectly connected to the value of real estate.
Oils/Energy Sector. The profitability of companies in the oils/energy sector is related to worldwide energy prices, exploration, and production spending. These companies also are subject to risks of changes in exchange rates, government regulation, world events, depletion of resources and economic conditions, as well as market, economic and political risks of the countries where energy companies are located or do business. Oil and gas exploration and production can be significantly affected by natural disasters. Oil exploration and production companies may be adversely affected by changes in exchange rates, interest rates, government regulation, world events, and economic conditions. Oil exploration and production companies may be at risk for environmental damage claims.
Correlation and Tracking Error
Correlation measures the degree of association between the returns of the Fund and the Underlying Index ; a figure of 1.00 would indicate perfect correlation.
Correlation is calculated at the Fund's fiscal year-end by comparing the Fund's average monthly total returns, before fees and expenses, to the Underlying Index's average monthly total returns over the prior one-year period or since inception if the Fund has been in existence for less than one year. Another means of evaluating the degree of correlation between the returns of the Fund and the Underlying Index is to assess the "tracking error" between the two. Tracking error means the variation between the Fund's annual return and the return of the Underlying Index, expressed in terms of standard deviation. The Fund seeks to have a tracking error of less than 5%, measured on a monthly basis over a one-year period by taking the standard deviation of the difference in the Fund's returns versus the Underlying Index's returns.
The Fund has adopted certain investment restrictions as fundamental policies which cannot be changed without the approval of the holders of a “majority” of the outstanding voting securities of the Fund, as that term is defined in the 1940 Act. As defined in the 1940 Act, the vote of a “majority” of the outstanding voting securities means the lesser of: (i) 67% or more of the voting securities of the series present at a duly called meeting of shareholders, if the holders of more than 50% of the outstanding voting securities of the Fund are present or represented by proxy; or (ii) more than 50% of the outstanding voting securities of the series. (All policies of the Fund not specifically identified in this SAI or the Prospectus as fundamental may be changed without a vote of the shareholders of the Fund, upon approval of a majority of the Trustees.) For purposes of the following limitations, all percentage limitations apply immediately after a purchase or initial investment.
|1.||The Fund may not borrow money, except to the extent permitted by the 1940 Act, the rules and regulations thereunder and any applicable exemptive relief.|
|2.||The Fund may not issue senior securities, except to the extent permitted by the 1940 Act, the rules and regulations thereunder and any applicable exemptive relief.|
|3.||The Fund may not engage in the business of underwriting securities except to the extent that the Fund may be considered an underwriter within the meaning of the Securities Act in the acquisition, disposition or resale of its portfolio securities or in connection with investments in other investment companies, or to the extent otherwise permitted under the 1940 Act, the rules and regulations thereunder and any applicable exemptive relief.|
|4.||The Fund may not purchase or sell real estate, except to the extent permitted under the 1940 Act, the rules and regulations thereunder and any applicable exemptive relief. This policy shall not prevent the Fund from purchasing real estate related investments, including real estate investment trusts.|
|5.||The Fund may not purchase or sell commodities, contracts relating to commodities or options on contracts relating to commodities except to the extent permitted under the 1940 Act, the rules and regulations thereunder and any applicable exemptive relief. This policy shall not prevent the Fund from purchasing or selling foreign currency or purchasing, selling or entering into futures contracts, options, forward contracts, swaps, caps, floors, collars and other financial instruments as currently exist or may in the future be developed.|
|6.||The Fund may not make loans, except to the extent permitted under the 1940 Act, the rules and regulations thereunder and any applicable exemptive relief.|
|7.||The Fund will not concentrate (i.e., hold more than 25% of its assets in the stocks of a single industry or group of industries) its investments in issuers of one or more particular industries, except that the Fund will concentrate to approximately the same extent that its Underlying Index concentrates in the stocks of such particular industry or industries.|
If a restriction on the Fund's investments is adhered to at the time an investment is made, a subsequent change in the percentage of Fund assets invested in certain securities or other instruments, or change in average duration of the Fund's investment portfolio, resulting from changes in the value of the Fund's total assets, will not be considered a violation of the restriction; provided, however, that the asset coverage requirement applicable to borrowings shall be maintained in the manner contemplated by applicable law.
The Fund is “diversified” as defined in the 1940 Act. This means that at least 75% of the value of the Fund’s total assets is represented by cash and cash items (including receivables), government securities, securities of other investment companies, and securities of other issuers, which for purposes of this calculation, are limited in respect of any one issuer to an amount not greater in value than 5% of the Fund’s total assets and to not more than 10% of the outstanding voting securities of such issuer. The Fund may not change from “diversified” to “non-diversified” without the approval of the holders of a “majority” of the outstanding voting securities of the Fund (as defined above).
For purposes of the limitation on industry concentration, securities of the U.S. government (including its agencies and instrumentalities) and tax-free securities of state or municipal governments and their political subdivisions (and repurchase agreements collateralized by government securities) are not considered to be issued by members of any industry. The Fund uses proprietary Dow Jones classifications to measure concentration.
POLICIES AND PROCEDURES FOR DISCLOSURE OF PORTFOLIO HOLDINGS
The Trust has adopted a policy regarding the disclosure of information about the Fund's portfolio holdings. The Fund and its service providers may not receive compensation or any other consideration (which includes any agreement to maintain assets in the Fund or in other investment companies or accounts managed by the Advisor or any affiliated person of the Advisor) in connection with the disclosure of portfolio holdings information of the Fund. The Trust’s policy is implemented and overseen by the Chief Compliance Officer of the Trust, subject to the oversight of the Board. Periodic reports regarding these procedures will be provided to the Board. The Trust, the Advisor and Northern Lights Distributors, LLC (the “Distributor”) will not disseminate non-public information concerning the Trust. The Board must approve all material amendments to this policy.
Each business day, the Fund’s portfolio holdings information will generally be provided for dissemination through the facilities of the National Securities Clearing Corporation ("NSCC") and/or other fee-based subscription services to NSCC members and/or subscribers to those other fee-based subscription services, including Authorized Participants (as defined below), and to entities that publish and/or analyze such information in connection with the process of purchasing or redeeming Creation Units or trading shares of the Fund in the secondary market. This information typically reflects the Fund’s anticipated holdings as of the next Business Day (as defined below).
Access to information concerning the Fund's portfolio holdings may be permitted to personnel of third party service providers, including the custodian, transfer agent, auditors and counsel, as may be necessary to conduct business in the ordinary course in a manner consistent with such service providers' agreements with the Trust on behalf of the Fund.
The Fund discloses on the Advisor’s website at www.ArrowFunds.com at the start of each Business Day the identities and quantities of the securities and other assets held by the Fund that will form the basis of the Fund’s calculation of its NAV on that Business Day. The portfolio holdings so disclosed will be based on information as of the close of business on the prior Business Day and/or trades that have been completed prior to the opening of business on that Business Day and that are expected to settle on that Business Day. The Fund may also concurrently disclose this portfolio holdings information directly to ratings agencies on a daily basis.
Quarterly Portfolio Schedule. The Trust is required to disclose, after its first and third fiscal quarters, the complete schedule of the Fund's monthly portfolio holdings with the SEC on Form N-PORT. The Trust will also disclose a complete schedule of the Fund's portfolio holdings with the SEC on Form N-CSR after its second and fourth quarters.
Form N-PORT and Form N-CSR for the Fund will be available on the SEC's website at www.sec.gov. The Fund's Form N-PORT and Form N-CSR will be available without charge, upon request, by calling 1-877-277-6933 or by writing to: Arrow Dow Jones Global Yield ETF, c/o Gemini Fund Services, LLC, 4221 North 203rd Street, Suite 100, Elkhorn, Nebraska 68022-3474.
The business of the Trust is managed by the Advisor under the direction of the Board in accordance with the Trust Instrument and the Trust’s By-laws (the “Governing Documents”), which have been filed with the SEC and are available upon request. The Board consists of four (4) individuals, three (3) of whom are not “interested persons” (as defined under the 1940 Act) of the Trust or the Advisor (“Independent Trustees”). Pursuant to the Governing Documents, the Trustees shall elect officers including, but not limited to, a President, a Treasurer, a Secretary, and a Chief Compliance Officer.
The Board retains the power to conduct, operate and carry on the business of the Trust and has the power to incur and pay any expenses, which, in the judgment of the Board, are necessary or incidental to carry out any of the Trust’s purposes. The Trustees, officers and agents of the Trust, when acting in such capacities, shall not be subject to any personal liability except for his or her own willful misfeasance, bad faith, gross negligence or reckless disregard of his or her duties.
Board Leadership Structure
Board members who are Independent Trustees currently constitute three-quarters of the Board. Joseph Barrato is considered an interested Trustee, and serves as Chairman of the Board. The Chairman’s responsibilities include: setting an agenda for each meeting of the Board; presiding at all meetings of the Board; and serving as a liaison between the other Trustees, Trust officers, management personnel and counsel.
The Board believes that having an interested Chairman, who is familiar with the Advisor and its operations, while also having three-quarters of the Board composed of Independent Trustees, strikes an appropriate balance that allows the Board to benefit from the insights and perspective of a representative of management while empowering the Independent Trustees with the ultimate decision-making authority. The Board does not believe that an independent Chairman would enhance the Board’s effectiveness, as the relatively small size of the Board allows for diverse viewpoints to be shared and for effective communications between and among Independent Trustees and management so that meetings proceed efficiently. Independent Trustees have effective control over the Board’s agenda because they form a majority of the Board and can request presentations and agenda topics at Board meetings. For these reasons, the Board also determined not to appoint a lead Independent Trustee.
The Trustees discharge their responsibilities collectively as a Board, as well as through Board committees, each of which operates pursuant to a charter or procedures approved by the Board that delineates the specific responsibilities of that committee. The Board has established one standing committee: the Audit Committee. The members and responsibilities of the Audit Committee are summarized below.
The Board holds four regularly scheduled in-person or telephonic meetings each year. The Board may hold special meetings, as needed, either in person or by telephone, to address matters arising between regular meetings. The Independent Trustees also hold at least one in-person meeting each year during a portion of which management is not present and may hold special meetings, as needed, either in person or by telephone.
Board Risk Oversight
The Board is responsible for overseeing risk management and the full Board regularly engages in discussions of risk management and receives compliance reports that inform its oversight of risk management from its Chief Compliance Officer at quarterly meetings and on an ad hoc basis, when and if necessary.
The Audit Committee considers financial and reporting risk within its area of responsibilities.
Generally, the Board believes that its oversight of material risks is adequately maintained through the compliance-reporting chain where the Chief Compliance Officer is the primary recipient and communicator of such risk-related information.
Generally, the Trust believes that each Trustee is competent to serve because of their individual overall merits including: (i) experience, (ii) qualifications, (iii) attributes and (iv) skills.
Mr. Barrato is a founding member of Arrow Investment Advisors, LLC, the advisor to the Fund. He has over 25 years of experience in the investment management industry, including six years with Rydex Investments, where he was responsible for the firm's research and developed momentum models with the Rydex sector funds. Prior to Rydex, Mr. Barrato spent 12 years at the Federal Reserve Board of Governors, as an analyst and senior financial examiner. He holds a bachelor's degree in business administration from The George Washington University, where he majored in finance and minored in accounting. Mr. Barrato's experience in the investment management industry gives him a strong understanding of the operational issues facing mutual funds and the regulatory framework under which investment companies must operate.
Robert Andrialis has more than 50 years of experience in the financial services and business management. He served as a president and senior executive of various organizations in the financial services industry and founded Berwick Capital. Mr. Andrialis’ experience in the financial services industry, coupled with his extensive leadership experience, gives him a strong understanding of the operational and management issues facing mutual funds and makes him well qualified to serve as a Trustee to the Trust.
Paul Montgomery is the principal owner and managing member of Theta Investment Research, LLC, an independent research firm focused on the management of alternative investments. He has nearly ten years of experience in the investment management industry. Mr. Montgomery holds a bachelor of art degree in psychology from The King's College.
Mr. Montgomery's experience in the investment management industry gives him a strong understanding of the operational issues facing mutual funds and the regulatory framework under which investment companies must operate.
Thomas Sarkany is qualified to serve as a Trustee based on his experience in various business and consulting positions, and through his experience from service as a board member of the Trust and other investment companies. His ability to perform his duties effectively also has been enhanced by his educational background and professional training. In addition to his service as a Trustee of the Trust, Mr. Sarkany serves as a trustee of other registered mutual fund trusts and has previously served as a director of certain public companies.
The Trust does not believe any one factor is determinative in assessing a Trustee's qualifications, but that the collective experience of each Trustee makes them each highly qualified. Unless otherwise noted, the address of each Trustee and Officer is 6100 Chevy Chase Drive, Suite 100, Laurel, MD 20707. The following individuals serve as Trustees and officers of the Trust:
|Name, Address, and Year of Birth||
Position(s)/Term of Office*
|Principal Occupation(s) During the Past 5 Years||Number of Portfolios in Fund Complex Overseen by Trustee (1)||Other Directorships Held by Trustee|
Born in 1944
|Trustee since 2014||Independent Consultant (2016–present); Advisor, INDXX, LLC (2014–2016).||9||Arrow Investments Trust|
Born in 1953
Trustee since 2011
|Director of Research, Scotia Partners, LLC (2012–present).||9||Arrow Investments Trust|
Born in 1946
|Trustee since 2014||
Founder and President, TTS Consultants, LLC (2010–present).
|9||Arrow Investments Trust; Northern Lights Fund Trust II; Northern Lights Fund Trust IV; Aquila Distributors, LLC|
* The term of office for each Trustee will continue indefinitely until the individual resigns or is removed.
(1) The "Fund Complex" includes Arrow Investments Trust, a registered management investment company, in addition to the Trust.
Interested Trustee and Officers:
|Name, Address, and Year of Birth||
Position(s)/Term of Office*
|Principal Occupation(s) During the Past 5 Years||Number of Funds in the Fund Complex Overseen by Trustee (1)||Other Directorships Held by Trustee|
Joseph Barrato (2)
Born in 1965
|Chairman of the Board, Trustee, President, and Principal Executive Officer since 2011||Founder and Chief Executive Officer, Arrow Investment Advisors, LLC (2006–present).||9||Arrow Investments Trust|
Born in 1970
|Chief Compliance Officer since 2021; Previously from 2016–2018||Chief Compliance Officer of Fund Complex(1) (2016–2018; 2021–present); Chief Compliance Officer, Arrow Investment Advisors, LLC (2017–2018; 2021–present); Founder, The Law Offices of Christopher H. Lewis (2019–present); General Counsel, Finitive LLC (2018)||N/A||N/A|
4221 North 203rd Street, Suite 100, Elkhorn, Nebraska 68022-3474
Born in 1986
|Assistant Vice President, Gemini Fund Services, LLC (2019 – present); Senior Program Compliance Manager, CJ Affiliate (2016-2019).||N/A||N/A|
4221 North 203rd Street, Suite 100, Elkhorn, Nebraska 68022-3474
Born in 1976
|Principal Financial Officer and Treasurer since 2013||Vice President (2015–present), Gemini Fund Services, LLC.||N/A||N/A|
* The term of office for each Trustee will continue indefinitely until the individual resigns or is removed. Officers of the Trust are elected annually.
(1) The "Fund Complex" includes Arrow Investments Trust, a registered management investment company, in addition to the Trust.
|(2)||Joseph Barrato is considered to be an “interested person” of the Trust, as that term is defined in the 1940 Act, because he is a controlling interest holder of the investment advisor to the Fund, Arrow Investment Advisors, LLC.|
The Board has an Audit Committee that consists of all the Trustees who are not “interested persons” of the Trust within the meaning of the 1940 Act. The Audit Committee’s responsibilities include: (i) recommending to the Board the selection, retention or termination of the Trust’s independent auditors; (ii) reviewing with the independent auditors the scope, performance and anticipated cost of their audit; (iii) discussing with the independent auditors certain matters relating to the Trust’s financial statements, including any adjustment to such financial statements recommended by such independent auditors, or any other results of any audit; (iv) reviewing on a periodic basis a formal written statement from the independent auditors with respect to their independence, discussing with the independent auditors any relationships or services disclosed in the statement that may impact the objectivity and independence of the Trust’s independent auditors and recommending that the Board take appropriate action in response thereto to satisfy itself of the auditor’s independence; and (v) considering the comments of the independent auditors and management’s responses thereto with respect to the quality and adequacy of the Trust’s accounting and financial reporting policies and practices and internal controls. The Audit Committee operates pursuant to an Audit Committee Charter. During the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021, the Audit Committee held three meetings.
Each Trustee who is not an interested person of the Trust or Advisor receives a quarterly fee of $4,166 from the Fund Complex (defined below) for his service as a Trustee of the Board of Trustees, as well as reimbursement for any reasonable expenses incurred attending the meetings of the Board of Trustees. The “interested persons” who serve as Trustees of the Trust receive no compensation for their services as Trustees. None of the executive officers receive compensation from the Trust.
The table below details the amount of compensation the Trustees received from the Trust during the fiscal year ended January 31,
2021. The Trust does not have a bonus, profit sharing, pension or retirement plan.
|Name||Aggregate Compensation from the Fund(1)||Pension or Retirement Benefits Accrued as Part of Funds Expenses||Estimated Annual Benefits Upon Retirement||Total Compensation from Fund and Fund Complex(2) Paid to Trustees|
|Robert S. Andrialis||$5,589||$0||$0||$16,664|
|Thomas T. Sarkany||$5,589||$0||$0||$16,664|
|*||Joseph Barrato is considered to be an "interested person" of the Trust, as that term is defined in the 1940 Act, because he is a controlling interest holder of the investment advisor to the Fund, Arrow Investment Advisors, LLC.|
|(1)||If there are additional series of the Fund Complex, Trustees’ fees will be allocated pro rata among the series in the Fund Complex.|
|(2)||The term “Fund Complex” refers to the Trust and Arrow Investments Trust.|
The following table indicates the dollar range of equity securities that each Trustee beneficially owned in the Fund as of December 31, 2020.
|Name of Trustee||Dollar Range of Equity Securities in the Fund||Aggregate Dollar Range of Equity Securities in All Registered Investment Companies Overseen by Trustee in Family of Investment Companies**|
|Joseph Barrato*||$10,001–$50,000||Over $100,000|
|Robert S. Andrialis||None||None|
|Thomas T. Sarkany||None||None|
|*||Joseph Barrato is considered to be an "interested person" of the Trust, as that term is defined in the 1940 Act, because he is a controlling interest holder of the investment Advisor to the Fund, Arrow Investment Advisors, LLC.|
|**||The term “Family of Investment Companies” refers to the Trust and Arrow ETF Trust.|
As of May 10, 2021, the Trustees and officers, as a group, owned less than 1% of the Fund’s outstanding shares.
CONTROL PERSONS AND PRINCIPAL HOLDERS
A principal shareholder is any person who owns (either of record or beneficially) 5% or more of the outstanding shares of a fund. A control person is one who owns, either directly or indirectly more than 25% of the voting securities of a company or acknowledges the existence of control. A shareholder owning of record or beneficially more than 25% of a Fund's outstanding shares may be considered a controlling person. That shareholder's vote could have more significant effect on matters presented at a shareholder's meeting than votes of other shareholders.
Although the Trust does not have information concerning the beneficial ownership of shares held in the names of Authorized Participants, as of May 10, 2021, the following shareholders of record owned 5% or more of the outstanding shares of the Fund
|Name and Address of Beneficial Owner||Percentage of Outstanding Shares to Fund Owned|
Charles Schwab Corporation
Morgan Stanley Smith Barney
National Financial Services LLC
Jersey City, NJ
Jersey City, NJ
St. Louis, MO
Investment Advisor and Investment Advisory Agreement
The Advisor for the Fund is Arrow Investment Advisors, LLC, located at 6100 Chevy Chase Drive, Suite 100, Laurel, MD 20707. Mr. Jacob Griffith and Mr. Joseph Barrato are the controlling shareholders of the Advisor.
Pursuant to the investment advisory agreement (the “Advisory Agreement”) with the Trust, on behalf of the Fund, the Advisor, subject to the supervision of the Board, and in conformity with the stated policies of the Fund, manages the operations of the Fund.
Under the Advisory Agreement, the Advisor, under the supervision of the Board, agrees to invest the assets of the Fund in accordance with applicable law and the investment objective, policies and restrictions set forth in the Fund’s current Prospectus and SAI, and subject to such further limitations as the Trust may from time to time impose by written notice to the Advisor. The Advisor shall act as the investment advisor to the Fund and, as such shall (i) obtain and evaluate such information relating to the economy, industries, business, securities markets and securities as it may deem necessary or useful in discharging its responsibilities here under, (ii) formulate a continuing program for the investment of the assets of the Fund in a manner consistent with its investment objective, policies and restrictions, and (iii) determine from time to time securities to be purchased, sold, retained or lent by the Fund, and implement those decisions, including the selection of entities with or through which such purchases, sales or loans are to be effected; provided, that the Advisor will place orders pursuant to its investment determinations either directly with the issuer or with a broker or dealer, and if with a broker or dealer, (a) will attempt to obtain the best price and execution of its orders, and (b) may nevertheless in its discretion purchase and sell portfolio securities from and to brokers who provide the Advisor with research, analysis, advice and similar services and pay such brokers in return a higher commission or spread than may be charged by other brokers. The Advisor also provides the Fund with all necessary office facilities and personnel for servicing the Fund’s investments, compensates all officers, Trustees and employees of the Trust who are officers, directors or employees of the Advisor, and all personnel of the Fund or the Advisor performing services relating to research, statistical and investment activities.
A summary of the Board of Trustees deliberations in approving the Advisory Agreement is included in the Fund’s annual report to shareholders for the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021.
Pursuant to the Advisory Agreement, the Advisor is entitled to receive, on a monthly basis, 0.75% of the Fund’s average daily net assets. Under the Advisory Agreement, the Adviser pays all of the expenses of the Fund out of its unitary fee, except for the fee payment under the Advisory Agreement, acquired fund fees and expenses, payments under the Fund’s 12b-1 plan, brokerage expenses, taxes, interest (including borrowing costs and dividend expenses on securities sold short), litigation expense and other extraordinary expenses (including litigation to which the Trust or the Fund may be a party and indemnification of the Trustees and officers with respect thereto).
The Advisory Agreement continued in effect for two (2) years initially and thereafter continues from year to year provided such continuance is approved at least annually by (a) a vote of the majority of the Independent Trustees, cast in person at a meeting specifically called for the purpose of voting on such approval and by (b) the majority vote of either all of the Trustees or the vote of a majority of the outstanding shares of the Fund. The Advisory Agreement may be terminated without penalty on 60 days’ written notice by a vote of a majority of the Trustees or by the Advisor, or by holders of a majority of that Trust’s outstanding shares. The Advisory Agreement shall terminate automatically in the event of its assignment.
The following table provides information about the advisory fees paid by the Fund to the Advisor during the last three fiscal years:
|Fiscal Year Ended||Management Fee||Fees Earned by the Adviser|
|January 31, 2019||0.75%||$533,176|
|January 31, 2020||0.75%||$430,122|
|January 31, 2021||0.75%||$281,193|
Codes of Ethics
The Trust, the Advisor, and the Distributor each have adopted codes of ethics under Rule 17j-1 under the 1940 Act that governs the personal securities transactions of their respective board members, officers, and employees who may have access to current trading information of the Trust. Under the code of ethics adopted by the Trust the Trustees are permitted to invest in securities that may also be purchased by the Fund.
In addition, the Trust has adopted a code of ethics that applies to the Trust’s principal executive and senior officers (the “Code”) to ensure that these officers promote professional conduct in the practice of corporate governance and management. The purpose behind these guidelines is to promote i) honest and ethical conduct, including the ethical handling of actual or apparent conflicts of interest between personal and professional relationships; ii) full, fair, accurate, timely, and understandable disclosure in reports and documents that a registrant files with, or submits to, the SEC and in other public communications made by the Fund; iii) compliance with applicable governmental laws, rule and regulations; iv) the prompt internal reporting of violations of this Code to an appropriate person or persons identified in the Code; and v) accountability for adherence to the Code.
Proxy Voting Policies
The Board has adopted Proxy Voting Policies and Procedures ("Policies") on behalf of the Trust, which delegate the responsibility for voting proxies of securities held by the Fund to the Advisor or its designee, subject to the Board's continuing oversight. The Policies require that the Advisor or its designee vote proxies received in a manner consistent with the best interests of the Fund and its shareholders. The Policies also require the Advisor or its designee to present to the Board, at least annually, the Advisor's or its designee’s Proxy Policies and a record of each proxy voted by the Advisor or its designee on behalf of the Fund, including a report on the resolution of all proxies identified by the Advisor or its designee as involving a conflict of interest. A copy of the Advisor's Proxy Voting Policies is attached hereto as Appendix A.
More information. Information regarding how the Fund voted proxies relating to portfolio securities held by the Fund during the most recent 12-month period ending June 30 will be available (1) without charge, upon request, by calling the Fund at 1-877-277-6933; and (2) on the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov. In addition, a copy of the Fund's proxy voting policies and procedures are also available by calling 1-877-277-6933 and will be sent within three business days of receipt of a request.
Security selections for the Fund are made by a team that consists of the portfolio managers and analysts. The members of the team who are jointly and primarily responsible for the day-to-day management of the Fund are Joseph Barrato, Jonathan S. Guyer, and Amit Gutt. As of January 31, 2021, each was responsible for the management of the following types of accounts. None of the accounts are subject to performance based fees.
|Account Type||Number of Accounts by Account Type||Total Assets by Account Type||Number of Accounts by Type Subject to a Performance Fee||Total Assets by Account Type Subject to a Performance Fee|
|Registered Investment Companies||8||$51,054,452||0||$0|
|Other Pooled Investment Vehicles||0||$0||0||$0|
|Account Type||Number of Accounts by Account Type||Total Assets by Account Type||Number of Accounts by Type Subject to a Performance Fee||Total Assets by Account Type Subject to a Performance Fee|
|Registered Investment Companies||8||$51,054,452||0||$0|
|Other Pooled Investment Vehicles||0||$0||0||$0|
|Account Type||Number of Accounts by Account Type||Total Assets by Account Type||Number of Accounts by Type Subject to a Performance Fee||Total Assets by Account Type Subject to a Performance Fee|
|Registered Investment Companies||8||$51,054,452||0||$0|
|Other Pooled Investment Vehicles||0||$0||0||$0|
Conflicts of Interest
As the portfolio managers for multiple registered investment company accounts, the portfolio managers make investment decisions for each account based on the investment objectives and policies and other relevant investment considerations applicable to that portfolio. When a portfolio manager has responsibility for managing more than one account, potential conflicts of interest may arise. Those conflicts could include preferential treatment of one account over others in terms of allocation of resources or of investment opportunities. For instance, the Advisor may receive fees from certain accounts that are higher than the fee it receives from the Fund, or it may receive a performance-based fee on certain accounts. In those instances, the portfolio managers may have an incentive to favor the higher fee accounts over the Fund.
When allocating investments among client accounts, the portfolio managers have the fiduciary obligation to treat each client equally, regardless of account size or fees paid. All clients at the same custodian (or trading desk) receive the same average price for each transaction. When multiple trading desks or custodians are used to execute transactions, the portfolio managers execute the trades in such a fashion as to ensure no client grouping consistently receives preferential treatment. When trades in the same security must be executed over multiple days, the portfolio managers execute the trades in a random order to ensure no client grouping consistently receives preferential treatment.
"Cross trades" in which a portfolio manager sells a particular security held by the Fund to another account managed by the Advisor (potentially saving transaction costs for both accounts), could involve a potential conflict of interest if, for example, a portfolio manager is permitted to sell a security from one account to another account at a higher price than the independent third party would pay. The Advisor and the Fund have adopted compliance procedures that provide that any transactions between the Fund and another account managed by the Advisor are to be made at an independent current market price, consistent with applicable laws and regulation.
As the Chief Executive Officer and Portfolio Manager, Mr. Barrato receives a fixed base salary and discretionary bonus. Mr. Guyer and Mr. Gutt both receive a fixed base salary and discretionary bonus from the Advisor.
The following table shows the dollar range of equity securities beneficially owned by the portfolio managers in the Fund as of January 31, 2021.
|Name of Portfolio Manager||Dollar Range of Equity Securities in the Fund|
|Jonathan S. Guyer||None|
DISTRIBUTION OF SHARES
Northern Lights Distributors, LLC, located at 4221 North 203rd Street, Suite 100, Elkhorn, Nebraska 68022-3474 serves as the distributor for the Fund pursuant to an ETF Distribution Agreement with the Fund (the “Distribution Agreement”). Archer Distributors, LLC, an affiliate of the Fund’s Investment Advisor (“Archer”) is also a party to the Distribution Agreement and provides marketing services to the Fund, including responsibility for all the Fund’s marketing and advertising materials. The Distributor and Archer are each registered as a broker-dealer under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and each state’s securities laws and are members of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. ("FINRA"). The offering of the Fund’s Shares is continuous, and the Distributor acts as an agent for the Fund. The Distributor will deliver a Prospectus to persons purchasing Shares in Creation Units and will maintain records of both orders placed with it and confirmations of acceptance furnished by it. The Distributor has no role in determining the investments or investment policies of the Fund.
The Distribution Agreement provides that, unless sooner terminated, it continues in effect for two years initially from the date of the agreement and thereafter shall continue from year to year, subject to annual approval by (a) the Board or a vote of a majority of the outstanding shares, and (b) by a majority of the Trustees who are not parties to the Distribution Agreement or the Trust’s distribution plan or interested persons of the Trust or of the Distributor by vote cast in person at a meeting called for the purpose of voting on such approval.
The Distribution Agreement may at any time be terminated, without penalty by the Trust, by vote of a majority of the Independent Trustees or by vote of a majority of the outstanding shares of the Trust on 60 days' written notice to the other party. The Distribution Agreement will automatically terminate in the event of its assignment. The Fund does not pay the Distributor any fees under the Distribution Agreement. However, the Advisor pays an annual fee to the Distributor plus reasonable out-of-pocket expenses incurred by Distributor in connection with activities performed for the Fund, including, without limitation, printing and distribution of prospectuses and shareholder reports, out of its own resources
The following table provides information about the fees the Advisor paid to the Distributor during the last three fiscal years:
|Fiscal Year Ended||Fees Earned by the Distributor|
|January 31, 2019||$17,128|
|January 31, 2020||$15,738|
|January 31, 2021||$ 13,754|
Rule 12b-1 Plan
The Board has adopted a Distribution and Service Plan pursuant to Rule 12b-1 under the 1940 Act (“Plan”). In accordance with its Plan, the Fund is authorized to pay an amount up to 0.25% of its average daily net assets each year for certain distribution-related activities. In addition, if the payment of management fees by the Fund is deemed to be indirect financing by the Fund of the distribution of its Shares, such payment is authorized by the Plan. The Plan specifically recognizes that the Advisor and other persons may use management fee revenue, as well as past profits or other resources, to pay for expenses incurred in connection with providing services intended to result in the sale of Shares. The Advisor and such other persons, as well as their affiliates, may pay amounts to third parties for distribution or marketing services on behalf of the Fund. The making of the types of payments described in this paragraph could create a conflict of interest for the party receiving such payments. The Plan was adopted in order to permit the implementation of the Fund’s method of distribution. No fees are currently paid by the Fund under the Plan, and there are no current plans to impose such fees. In the event such fees were to be charged, over time they would increase the cost of an investment in the Fund.
Under the Plan, the Trustees would receive and review at the end of each quarter a written report provided by the Distributor of the amounts expended under the Plan, if made, and the purpose for which such expenditures were made. The Plan will remain in effect for a period of one year and is renewable from year to year with respect to the Fund, so long as its continuance is approved at least annually (1) by the vote of a majority of the Trustees and (2) by a vote of the majority of those Independent Trustees who have no direct or indirect financial interest in the Plan (“Rule 12b-1 Trustees”), cast in person at a meeting called for the purpose of voting on such approval. The Plan may not be amended to increase materially the amount of fees paid by the Fund unless such amendment is approved by a 1940 Act majority vote of the outstanding Shares and by the Fund Trustees in the manner described above. The Plan is terminable with respect to the Fund at any time by a vote of a majority of the Rule 12b-1 Trustees or by a 1940 Act majority vote of the outstanding shares. For the fiscal years ended January 31, 2021, 2020, and 2019, the Fund did not pay 12b-1 fees pursuant to the Plan.
ALLOCATION OF PORTFOLIO BROKERAGE
Portfolio changes will generally be implemented through in-kind transactions for Creation Units, however the Advisor may execute brokerage transactions for the Fund and the Fund may incur brokerage commissions. Also, the Fund may accept cash as part or all of an in-kind creation or redemption of a Creation Unit, in which case the Advisor may need to execute brokerage transactions for the Fund. The policy of the Advisor regarding purchases and sales of securities is that primary consideration will be given to obtaining the most favorable prices and efficient executions of transactions under the circumstances.
Consistent with this policy, when securities transactions are effected on a stock exchange, the Advisor's policy is to pay commissions that are considered fair and reasonable without necessarily determining that the lowest possible commissions are paid in all circumstances. In seeking to determine the reasonableness of brokerage commissions paid in any transaction, the Advisor relies upon its experience and knowledge regarding commissions generally charged by various brokers. The sale of Shares by a broker-dealer is not a factor in the selection of broker-dealers.
In seeking to implement its policies, the Advisor effects transactions with those brokers and dealers that the Advisor believes provide the most favorable prices and are capable of providing efficient executions. The Advisor and its affiliates do not currently participate in soft dollar arrangements
The Advisor assumes general supervision over placing orders on behalf of the Fund for the purchase or sale of portfolio securities. If purchases or sales of portfolio securities by the Fund and one or more other investment companies or clients supervised by the Advisor are considered at or about the same time, transactions in such securities are allocated among the Fund, the several investment companies and clients in a manner deemed equitable to all by the Advisor. In some cases, this procedure could have a detrimental effect on the price or volume of the security as far as the Fund is concerned. However, in other cases, it is possible that the ability to participate in volume transactions and to negotiate lower brokerage commissions will be beneficial to the Fund. The primary consideration is prompt execution of orders at the most favorable net price under the circumstances.
Purchases and sales of fixed-income securities for the Fund usually are principal transactions and ordinarily are purchased directly from the issuer or from an underwriter or broker-dealer. The Fund does not usually pay brokerage commissions in connection with such purchases and sales, although purchases of new issues from underwriters of securities typically include a commission or concession paid by the issuer to the underwriter, and purchases from dealers serving as market-makers typically include a dealer's mark-up (i.e., a spread between the bid and the ask prices).
The following table provides information about the brokerage commissions paid with respect to the Fund during the last three fiscal years:
|Fiscal Year Ended||Commission Paid|
|January 31, 2019||$48,988|
|January 31, 2020||$30,361|
|January 31, 2021||$77,627|
The Fund’s portfolio turnover rate is calculated by dividing the lesser of purchases or sales of portfolio securities for the fiscal year by the monthly average of the value of the portfolio securities owned by the Fund during the fiscal year. The calculation excludes from both the numerator and the denominator securities with at the time of acquisition of one year or less. High portfolio turnover involves correspondingly greater brokerage commissions and other transaction costs, which will be borne directly by the Fund. A 100% turnover rate would occur if all of the Fund's portfolio securities were replaced once within a one-year period. The Portfolio may engage in active trading to achieve its investment objectives and may experience episodes of substantial portfolio turnover. For the fiscal year ended January 31, 2020, the portfolio turnover rate was 72%. For the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021, the portfolio turnover rate was 80%.
OTHER SERVICE PROVIDERS
Fund Administration and Fund Accounting
The Administrator for the Fund is Gemini Fund Services, LLC (the “Administrator”), which has its principal office at 4221 North 203rd Street, Suite 100, Elkhorn, Nebraska 68022-3474, and is primarily in the business of providing administrative, fund accounting and transfer agent services to retail and institutional mutual funds. The Administrator is an affiliate of the Distributor.
Pursuant to a Fund Services Agreement with the Trust, on behalf of the Fund, the Administrator provides administrative services to the Fund, subject to the supervision of the Board. The Administrator may provide persons to serve as officers of the Trust. Such officers may be directors, officers, or employees of Administrator or its affiliates.
The Fund Services Agreement is dated June 11, 2015. The Fund Services Agreement remained in effect for two years from the date of its initial approval and will remain in effect subject to annual approval of the Board for one-year periods thereafter. The Fund Services Agreement is terminable by the Board or the Administrator on 90 days’ written notice and may be assigned provided the non-assigning party provides prior written consent. The Fund Services Agreement provides that in the absence of willful misfeasance, bad faith, or gross negligence on the part of the Administrator or reckless disregard of its obligations thereunder, the Administrator shall not be liable for any action or failure to act in accordance with its duties thereunder.
Under the Fund Services Agreement, the Administrator provides facilitating administrative services, including: (i) providing services of persons competent to perform such administrative and clerical functions as are necessary to provide effective administration of the Fund; (ii) facilitating the performance of administrative and professional services to the Fund by others, including the custodian; (iii) preparing, but not paying for, the periodic updating of the Fund's Registration Statement, Prospectus and Statement of Additional Information in conjunction with Trust counsel, including the printing of such documents for the purpose of filings with the SEC and state securities administrators, and preparing reports to the Fund's shareholders and the SEC;(iv) preparing in conjunction with Trust counsel, but not paying for, all filings under the securities or “Blue Sky” laws of such states or countries as are designated by the Distributor, if any; (v) in consultation with Trust counsel, the Advisor, officers of the Trust and other relevant parties, preparing notices and agendas for meetings of the Board and minutes of such meetings in all matters required by the 1940 Act to be acted upon by the Board; and (vi) monitoring daily and periodic compliance with respect to all requirements and restrictions of the 1940 Act, the Internal Revenue Code and the Prospectus.
The Administrator also provides the Fund with accounting services, including: (i) daily computation of net asset value; (ii) maintenance of security ledgers and books and records as required by the 1940 Act; (iii) production of the Fund's listing of portfolio securities and general ledger reports; (iv) reconciliation of accounting records; (v) calculation of yield and total return for the Fund; (vi) maintenance of certain books and records described in Rule 31a-1 under the 1940 Act, and reconciliation of account information and balances among the custodian and Advisor; and (vii) monitoring and evaluation daily income and expense accruals, and sales and redemptions of shares of the Fund.
For the services rendered to the Fund under the Fund Services Agreement, the Administrator receives the greater of an annual minimum fee or an asset based fee, which scales downward based upon net assets for fund administration and fund accounting. The Fund also reimburses the Administrator for any out-of-pocket expenses.
Transfer Agent and Custodian
Brown Brothers Harriman & Co. (“BBH”), which has a principal office at 50 Post Office Square, Boston, MA 02110, acts as transfer, dividend disbursing, and shareholder servicing agent for the Fund and also serves as the custodian of the Fund’s assets pursuant to a Custodian and Transfer Agent Agreement by and between BBH and the Trust on behalf of the Fund. Under the Custodian and Transfer Agent Agreement, BBH, acting as the Fund’s transfer agent, is responsible for administering and performing transfer agent functions, dividend distribution, and maintaining necessary records in accordance with applicable rules and regulations. Additionally, acting as the Fund’s custodian, BBH’s responsibilities include safeguarding and controlling the Fund's cash and securities, handling the receipt and delivery of securities, collecting interest and dividends on the Fund's investments, maintaining original entry documents and books of record and general ledgers; postings cash receipts and disbursements; and maintaining records of purchases and sales based upon communications from the Advisor. The Fund may employ foreign sub-custodians that are approved by the Board to hold foreign assets. As compensation for these services, the Transfer Agent receives certain out-of-pocket costs, transaction fees and asset-based fees, which are accrued daily and paid monthly by the Advisor from its management fee.
The Underlying Index is calculated and maintained by CME Group Index Services LLC (d/b/a Dow Jones) ("Dow Jones®" or the "Index Provider"). The Index Provider is not affiliated with the Trust, the Advisor or the Distributor. The Advisor has entered into a license agreement with the Index Provider. The Fund is entitled to use the Underlying Index pursuant to a sub-licensing agreement with the Advisor.
No entity that creates, compiles, sponsors or maintains the Underlying Index is or will be an affiliated person, as defined in Section 2(a)(3) of the 1940 Act, or an affiliated person of an affiliated person, of the Trust, the Advisor, the Distributor or a promoter of the Fund.
Neither the Advisor nor any affiliate of the Advisor has any right to influence the selection of the securities in the Underlying Index.
The Fund is based upon the Dow Jones Global Composite Yield Index. Additional information about the Fund's Underlying Index methodology is set forth in the Prospectus.
The “The Dow Jones Global Composite Yield Index” (the “Index”) is a product of S&P Dow Jones Indices LLC (“SPDJI”), and has been licensed for use by Arrow Investment Advisors, LLC (“Licensee”). Standard & Poor’s® and S&P® are registered trademarks of Standard & Poor’s Financial Services LLC (“S&P”); Dow Jones® is a registered trademark of Dow Jones Trademark Holdings LLC (“Dow Jones”); and these trademarks have been licensed for use by SPDJI and sublicensed for certain purposes by Licensee. The Fund is not sponsored, endorsed, sold or promoted by SPDJI, Dow Jones, S&P, any of their respective affiliates (collectively, “S&P Dow Jones Indices”). S&P Dow Jones Indices makes no representation or warranty, express or implied, to the owners of the Fund or any member of the public regarding the advisability of investing in securities generally or in the Fund particularly or the ability of the Index to track general market performance. S&P Dow Jones Indices’ only relationship to Licensee with respect to the Index is the licensing of the Index and certain trademarks, service marks and/or trade names of S&P Dow Jones Indices and/or its licensors. The Index is determined, composed and calculated by S&P Dow Jones Indices without regard to Licensee or the Fund. S&P Dow Jones Indices have no obligation to take the needs of Licensee or the owners of the Fund into consideration in determining, composing or calculating the Index. S&P Dow Jones Indices are not responsible for and have not participated in the determination of the prices, and amount of the Shares or the timing of the issuance or sale of the Shares or in the determination or calculation of the equation by which the Fund is to be converted into cash, surrendered or redeemed, as the case may be. S&P Dow Jones Indices have no obligation or liability in connection with the administration, marketing or trading of the Fund. There is no assurance that investment products based on the Index will accurately track index performance or provide positive investment returns. S&P Dow Jones Indices LLC is not an investment advisor. Inclusion of a security within an index is not a recommendation by S&P Dow Jones Indices to buy, sell, or hold such security, nor is it considered to be investment advice.
S&P DOW JONES INDICES DOES NOT GUARANTEE THE ADEQUACY, ACCURACY, TIMELINESS AND/OR THE COMPLETENESS OF THE INDEX OR ANY DATA RELATED THERETO OR ANY COMMUNICATION, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO, ORAL OR WRITTEN COMMUNICATION (INCLUDING ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATIONS) WITH RESPECT THERETO. S&P DOW JONES INDICES SHALL NOT BE SUBJECT TO ANY DAMAGES OR LIABILITY FOR ANY ERRORS, OMISSIONS, OR DELAYS THEREIN. S&P DOW JONES INDICES MAKE NO EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, AND EXPRESSLY DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE OR USE OR AS TO RESULTS TO BE OBTAINED BY LICENSEE, OWNERS OF THE FUND, OR ANY OTHER PERSON OR ENTITY FROM THE USE OF THE INDEX OR WITH RESPECT TO ANY DATA RELATED THERETO. WITHOUT LIMITING ANY OF THE FOREGOING, IN NO EVENT WHATSOEVER SHALL S&P DOW JONES INDICES BE LIABLE FOR ANY INDIRECT, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, PUNITIVE, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO, LOSS OF PROFITS, TRADING LOSSES, LOST TIME OR GOODWILL, EVEN IF THEY HAVE BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, TORT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR OTHERWISE. THERE ARE NO THIRD PARTY BENEFICIARIES OF ANY AGREEMENTS OR ARRANGEMENTS BETWEEN S&P DOW JONES INDICES AND LICENSEE, OTHER THAN THE LICENSORS OF S&P DOW JONES INDICES.
DESCRIPTION OF SHARES
Each share of beneficial interest of the Trust has one vote in the election of Trustees. Cumulative voting is not authorized for the Trust. This means that the holders of more than 50% of the shares voting for the election of Trustees can elect 100% of the Trustees if they choose to do so, and, in that event, the holders of the remaining shares will be unable to elect any Trustees.
Shareholders of the Trust and any other future series of the Trust will vote in the aggregate and not by series except as otherwise required by law or when the Board determines that the matter to be voted upon affects only the interest of the shareholders of a particular series or classes. Matters such as election of Trustees are not subject to separate voting requirements and may be acted upon by shareholders of the Trust voting without regard to series. Each class of shares of the Fund may vote separately on matters related to its Rule 12b-1 Plan.
The Trust is authorized to issue an unlimited number of shares of beneficial interest. Each share has equal dividend, distribution and liquidation rights. There are no conversion or preemptive rights applicable to any shares of the Fund. All shares issued are fully paid and non-assessable.
BOOK ENTRY ONLY SYSTEM
The following information supplements and should be read in conjunction with the section in the Prospectus entitled "Book Entry."
DTC Acts as Securities Depository for Shares. Shares of the Fund are represented by securities registered in the name of DTC or its nominee and deposited with, or on behalf of, DTC.
DTC, a limited purpose trust company, was created to hold securities of its participants (the "DTC Participants") and to facilitate the clearance and settlement of securities transactions among the DTC Participants in such securities through electronic book entry changes in accounts of the DTC Participants, thereby eliminating the need for physical movement of securities certificates. DTC Participants include securities brokers and dealers, banks, trust companies, clearing corporations and certain other organizations, some of whom (and/or their representatives) own DTC. More specifically, DTC is owned by a number of its DTC Participants and by New York Stock Exchange, Inc. ("NYSE") and FINRA. Access to the DTC system is also available to others such as banks, brokers, dealers and trust companies that clear through or maintain a custodial relationship with a DTC Participant, either directly or indirectly (the "Indirect Participants").
Beneficial ownership of Shares is limited to DTC Participants, Indirect Participants and persons holding interests through DTC Participants and Indirect Participants. Ownership of beneficial interests in Shares (owners of such beneficial interests are referred to herein as "Beneficial Owners") is shown on, and the transfer of ownership is effected only through, records maintained by DTC (with respect to DTC Participants) and on the records of DTC Participants (with respect to Indirect Participants and Beneficial Owners that are not DTC Participants). Beneficial Owners will receive from or through the DTC Participant a written confirmation relating to their purchase and sale of Shares.
Conveyance of all notices, statements and other communications to Beneficial Owners is effected as follows. Pursuant to the Depositary Agreement between the Trust and DTC, DTC is required to make available to the Trust upon request and for a fee to be charged to the Trust a listing of the Shares of the Fund held by each DTC Participant. The Trust shall inquire of each such DTC Participant as to the number of Beneficial Owners holding Shares, directly or indirectly, through such DTC Participant. The Trust shall provide each such DTC Participant with copies of such notice, statement or other communication, in such form, number and at such place as such DTC Participant may reasonably request, in order that such notice, statement or communication may be transmitted by such DTC Participant, directly or indirectly, to such Beneficial Owners. In addition, the Trust shall pay to each such DTC Participant a fair and reasonable amount as reimbursement for the expenses attendant to such transmittal, all subject to applicable statutory and regulatory requirements.
Fund distributions shall be made to DTC or its nominee, Cede & Co., as the registered holder of all Shares. DTC or its nominee, upon receipt of any such distributions, shall immediately credit DTC Participants' accounts with payments in amounts proportionate to their respective beneficial interests in Shares of the Fund as shown on the records of DTC or its nominee. Payments by DTC Participants to Indirect Participants and Beneficial Owners of Shares held through such DTC Participants will be governed by standing instructions and customary practices, and will be the responsibility of such DTC Participants.
The Trust has no responsibility or liability for any aspect of the records relating to or notices to Beneficial Owners, or payments made on account of beneficial ownership interests in such Shares, or for maintaining, supervising or reviewing any records relating to such beneficial ownership interests, or for any other aspect of the relationship between DTC and the DTC Participants or the relationship between such DTC Participants and the Indirect Participants and Beneficial Owners owning through such DTC Participants.
DTC may decide to discontinue providing its service with respect to Shares at any time by giving reasonable notice to the Trust and discharging its responsibilities with respect thereto under applicable law. Under such circumstances, the Trust shall take action to find a replacement for DTC to perform its functions at a comparable cost.
ANTI-MONEY LAUNDERING PROGRAM
The Trust has established an Anti-Money Laundering Compliance Program (the "Program") as required by Section 352 the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001 ("USA PATRIOT Act"). To ensure compliance with this law, the Trust's Program is written and has been approved by the Board of Trustees. The Program provides for the development of policies, procedures and internal controls reasonably designed to prevent laundering, the designation of an anti-money laundering compliance officer who is responsible for implementing and monitoring the Program, ongoing anti-money laundering training for appropriate persons and an independent audit function to determine the effectiveness of the Program.
Procedures to implement the Program include, but are not limited to, determining that the Fund's Distributor and Transfer Agent have established reasonable anti-money laundering procedures, have reported suspicious and/or fraudulent activity and have completed thorough reviews of all new opening account applications. The Trust will not transact business with any person or entity whose identity cannot be adequately verified under the provisions of the USA PATRIOT Act.
Broker-dealers and other financial intermediaries operate pursuant to their own Anti-Money Laundering programs, and as a result of
such program, a broker or financial intermediary may be required to "freeze" the account of a shareholder if the shareholder appears to be involved in suspicious activity or if certain account information matches information on government lists of known terrorists or other suspicious persons.
PURCHASE, REDEMPTION AND PRICING OF SHARES
Calculation of Share Price
As indicated in the Prospectus under the heading "Net Asset Value," net asset value of the Fund's shares is determined by dividing the total value of the Fund's portfolio investments and other assets, less any liabilities, by the total number of shares outstanding of the Fund.
Generally, the Fund’s domestic securities (including underlying ETFs which hold portfolio securities primarily listed on foreign (non-U.S.) exchanges) are valued each day at the last quoted sales price on each security’s primary exchange. Securities traded or dealt in upon one or more securities exchanges for which market quotations are readily available and not subject to restrictions against resale shall be valued at the last quoted sales price on the primary exchange or, in the absence of a sale on the primary exchange, at the current bid price on such exchange.
If market quotations are not readily available, securities will be valued at their fair market value as determined in good faith by the Fund’s fair value committee in accordance with procedures approved by the Board and as further described below. Securities that are not traded or dealt in any securities exchange (whether domestic or foreign) and for which over-the-counter market quotations are readily available generally shall be valued at the last sale price or, in the absence of a sale, at the mean between the current bid price on such over-the- counter market.
Certain securities or investments for which daily market quotes are not readily available may be valued, pursuant to guidelines established by the Board, with reference to other securities or indices. Debt securities not traded on an exchange may be valued at prices supplied by a pricing agent(s) based on broker or dealer supplied valuations or matrix pricing, a method of valuing securities by reference to the value of other securities with similar characteristics, such as rating, interest rate and maturity. Short-term investments having a maturity of 60 days or less may be generally valued at amortized cost when it approximated fair value.
Exchange traded options are valued at the last quoted sales price or, in the absence of a sale, at the mean between the current bid and ask prices on the exchange on which such options are traded. If an acceptable quotation is unavailable for a particular contract, that contract will be priced at the mean of the valuations of the two most widely accepted and well documented methods for deriving prices for option contracts, the Black-Scholes model and the binomial model, as of the stock market close. Other securities for which market quotes are not readily available are valued at fair value as determined in good faith by the Board or persons acting at their direction. Swap agreements and other derivatives are generally valued daily based upon quotations from market makers or by a pricing service in accordance with the valuation procedures approved by the Board.
Securities traded on a foreign exchange which has not closed by the close of regular trading on the Exchange (normally 4:00 p.m., Eastern time) (the "Exchange Close")or for which the official closing prices are not available at the time the NAV is determined may use alternative market prices provided by a pricing service. The Fund may use an independent pricing service to calculate the fair market value of foreign equity securities on a daily basis by applying valuation factors to the last sale price or the mean price as noted above. The fair market values supplied by the independent pricing service will generally reflect market trading that occurs after the close of the applicable foreign markets of comparable securities or the value of other instruments that have a strong correlation to the fair-valued securities. The independent pricing service will also take into account the current relevant currency exchange rate. A security that is fair valued may be valued at a price higher or lower than actual market quotations or the value determined by other funds using their own fair valuation procedures. Because foreign securities may trade on days when Fund shares are not priced, the value of securities held by the Fund can change on days when Fund shares cannot be redeemed or purchased.
In the event that a foreign security’s market quotations are not readily available or are deemed unreliable (for reasons other than because the foreign exchange on which it trades closed before the Fund’s calculation of NAV), the security will be valued at its fair market value as determined in good faith by the Fund’s fair value committee in accordance with procedures approved by the Board as discussed below. Without fair valuation, it is possible that short-term traders could take advantage of the arbitrage opportunity and dilute the NAV of long-term investors. Fair valuation of the Fund’s portfolio securities can serve to reduce arbitrage opportunities available to short-term traders, but there is no assurance that it will prevent dilution of the Fund’s NAV by short-term traders. In addition, because the Fund may invest in underlying ETFs which hold portfolio securities primarily listed on foreign (non-U.S.) exchanges, and these exchanges may trade on weekends or other days when the underlying ETFs do not price their shares, the value of these portfolio securities may change on days when you may not be able to buy or sell Fund shares.
Investments initially valued in currencies other than the U.S. dollar are converted to U.S. dollars using exchange rates obtained from pricing services. As a result, the NAV of the Fund's shares may be affected by changes in the value of currencies in relation to the U.S. dollar. The value of securities traded in markets outside the United States or denominated in currencies other than the U.S. dollar may be affected significantly on a day that the New York Stock Exchange is closed and an investor is not able to purchase, redeem or exchange shares.
Fund shares are valued at the Exchange Close on each day that the Exchange is open. For purposes of calculating the NAV, the Fund normally use pricing data for domestic equity securities received shortly after the Exchange Close and does not normally take into account trading, clearances or settlements that take place after the Exchange Close. Domestic fixed income and foreign securities are normally priced using data reflecting the earlier closing of the principal markets for those securities. Information that becomes known to the Fund or its agents after the NAV has been calculated on a particular day will not generally be used to retroactively adjust the price of the security or the NAV determined earlier that day.
When market quotations are insufficient or not readily available, the Fund may value securities at fair value or estimate their value as determined in good faith by the Board or its designees, pursuant to procedures approved by the Board. Fair valuation may also be used by the Board if extraordinary events occur after the close of the relevant market but prior to the NYSE Close.
The Fund sells and redeems Shares in Creation Units on a continuous basis through the Distributor, without a sales load, at the NAV next determined after receipt of an order in proper form on any Business Day. A “Business Day” is any day on which the NYSE is open for business. As of the date of this SAI, the NYSE observes the following holidays: New Year’s Day, Martin Luther King, Jr. Day, Presidents’ Day, Good Friday, Memorial Day, Independence Day, Labor Day, Thanksgiving Day and Christmas Day.
A Creation Unit is an aggregation of 75,000 Shares. The Board may declare a split or a consolidation in the number of Shares outstanding of the Fund or Trust, and make a corresponding change in the number of Shares in a Creation Unit.
To purchase or redeem any Creation Units, you must be, or transact through, an Authorized Participant. In order to be an Authorized Participant, you must be either a broker-dealer or other participant (“Participating Party”) in the Continuous Net Settlement System (“Clearing Process”) of the NSCC or a participant in DTC with access to the DTC system (“DTC Participant”), and you must execute an agreement (“Participant Agreement”) with the Distributor that governs transactions in the Fund’s Creation Units.
Investors who are not Authorized Participants but want to transact in Creation Units may contact the Distributor for the names of Authorized Participants. An Authorized Participant may require investors to enter into a separate agreement to transact through it for Creation Units and may require orders for purchases of shares placed with it to be in a particular form. Investors transacting through a broker that is not itself an Authorized Participant and therefore must still transact through an Authorized Participant may incur additional charges. There are expected to be a limited number of Authorized Participants at any one time.
Orders must be transmitted by an Authorized Participant by telephone or other transmission method acceptable to the Distributor. Market disruptions and telephone or other communication failures may impede the transmission of orders.
A fixed fee payable to the Custodian is imposed on each creation and redemption transaction regardless of the number of Creation Units involved in the transaction (“Fixed Fee”). Purchases and redemptions of Creation Units for cash or involving cash-in-lieu (as defined below) are required to pay an additional variable charge to compensate the Fund and its ongoing shareholders for brokerage and market impact expenses relating to Creation Unit transactions (“Variable Charge,” and together with the Fixed Fee, the “Transaction Fees”). With the approval of the Board, the Advisor may waive or adjust the Transaction Fees, including the Fixed Fee and/or Variable Charge (shown in the table below), from time to time. In such cases, the Authorized Participant will reimburse the Fund for, among other things, any difference between the market value at which the securities and/or financial instruments were purchased by the Fund and the cash-in-lieu amount, applicable registration fees, brokerage commissions and certain taxes. In addition, purchasers of Creation Units are responsible for the costs of transferring the Deposit Securities to the account of the Fund.
Investors who use the services of a broker, or other such intermediary may be charged a fee for such services. The Transaction Fees for the Fund are listed in the table below.
|Fixed Fee||Maximum Additional Variable Charge for Cash Purchases*|
* As a percentage of the amount invested.
The Clearing Process
Transactions by an Authorized Participant that is a Participating Party using the NSCC system are referred to as transactions “through the Clearing Process.” Transactions by an Authorized Participant that is a DTC Participant using the DTC system are referred to as transactions “outside the Clearing Process.” The Clearing Process is an enhanced clearing process that is available only for certain securities and only to DTC participants that are also participants in the Continuous Net Settlement System of the NSCC. In-kind (portions of) purchase orders not subject to the Clearing Process will go through a manual clearing process run by DTC. Portfolio Deposits that include government securities must be delivered through the Federal Reserve Bank wire transfer system (“Federal Reserve System”). Fund Deposits that include cash may be delivered through the Clearing Process or the Federal Reserve System. In-kind deposits of securities for orders outside the Clearing Process must be delivered through the Federal Reserve System (for government securities) or through DTC (for corporate securities).
Because the portfolio securities of the Fund may trade on days that the Exchange is closed or are otherwise not Business Days for the Fund, shareholders may not be able to redeem their shares of the Fund, or to purchase or sell shares of the Fund on the Exchange, on days when the NAV of the Fund could be significantly affected by events in the relevant foreign markets.
Purchasing Creation Units
Portfolio Deposit. The consideration for a Creation Unit generally consists of the Deposit Securities and a Cash Component. Together, the Deposit Securities and the Cash Component constitute the “Portfolio Deposit.” The Cash Component serves the function of compensating for any differences between the net asset value per Creation Unit and the Deposit Securities. Thus, the Cash Component is equal to the difference between (x) the net asset value per Creation Unit of the Fund and (y) the market value of the Deposit Securities. If (x) is more than (y), the Authorized Participant will pay the Cash Component to the Fund. If (x) is less than (y), the Authorized Participant will receive the Cash Component from the Fund.
On each Business Day, prior to the opening of business on the Exchange (currently 9:30 a.m., Eastern Time), the Advisor through the Custodian makes available through NSCC the name and amount of each Deposit Security in the current Portfolio Deposit (based on information at the end of the previous Business Day) for the Fund and the (estimated) Cash Component, effective through and including the previous Business Day, per Creation Unit. The Deposit Securities announced are applicable, subject to any adjustments as described below, to purchases of Creation Units until the next announcement of Deposit Securities.
Payment of any stamp duty or the like shall be the sole responsibility of the Authorized Participant purchasing a Creation Unit. The Authorized Participant must ensure that all Deposit Securities properly denote change in beneficial ownership.
Custom Orders and Cash-in-Lieu. The Fund may, in its sole discretion, permit or require the substitution of an amount of cash (“cash-in-lieu”) to be added to the Cash Component to replace any Deposit Security. The Fund may permit or require cash-in-lieu when, for example, a Deposit Security may not be available in sufficient quantity for delivery or may not be eligible for transfer through the systems of DTC or the Clearing Process. Similarly, the Fund may permit or require cash-in-lieu of Deposit Securities when, for example, the Authorized Participant or its underlying investor is restricted under U.S. or local securities laws or policies from transacting in one or more Deposit Securities. The Fund will comply with the federal securities laws in accepting Deposit Securities including that the Deposit Securities are sold in transactions that would be exempt from registration under the Securities Act. All orders involving cash-in-lieu are considered to be “Custom Orders.”
Purchase Orders. To order a Creation Unit, an Authorized Participant must submit an irrevocable purchase order to the Distributor.
Timing of Submission of Purchase Orders
An Authorized Participant must submit an irrevocable purchase order no later than the earlier of (i) 4:00 p.m. Eastern Time or (ii) the closing time of the bond markets and/or the trading session on the Exchange, on any Business Day in order to receive that Business Day’s NAV (“Cut-off Time”). The Cut-off Time for Custom Orders is generally two hours earlier. The Business Day the order is deemed received by the Distributor is referred to as the “Transmittal Date.” An order to create Creation Units is deemed received on a Business Day if (i) such order is received by the Distributor by the Cut-off Time on such day and (ii) all other procedures set forth in the Participant Agreement are properly followed. Persons placing or effectuating custom orders and/or orders involving cash should be mindful of time deadlines imposed by intermediaries, such as DTC and/or the Federal Reserve Bank wire system, which may impact the successful processing of such orders to ensure that cash and securities are transferred by the “Settlement Date,” which is generally the Business Day immediately following the Transmittal Date (“T+1”) for cash and the second Business Day following the Transmittal Date for securities (“T+2”).
Orders Using the Clearing Process
If available, (portions of) orders may be settled through the Clearing Process. In connection with such orders, the Distributor transmits, on behalf of the Authorized Participant, such trade instructions as are necessary to effect the creation order. Pursuant to such trade instructions, the Authorized Participant agrees to deliver the requisite Portfolio Deposit to the Fund, together with such additional information as may be required by the Distributor. Cash Components will be delivered using either the Clearing Process or the Federal Reserve System.
Orders Outside the Clearing Process
If the Clearing Process is not available for (portions of) an order, Portfolio Deposits will be made outside the Clearing Process. Orders outside the Clearing Process must state that the DTC Participant is not using the Clearing Process and that the creation of Creation Units will be effected through DTC. The Portfolio Deposit transfer must be ordered by the DTC Participant on the Transmittal Date in a timely fashion so as to ensure the delivery of Deposit Securities (whether standard or custom) through DTC to the Fund account by 11:00 a.m., Eastern time, on T+1. The Cash Component, along with any cash-in-lieu and Transaction Fee, must be transferred directly to the Custodian through the Federal Reserve System in a timely manner so as to be received by the Custodian no later than 12:00 p.m., Eastern Time, on T+1. If the Custodian does not receive both the Deposit Securities and the cash by the appointed time, the order may be canceled. A canceled order may be resubmitted the following Business Day but must conform to that Business Day’s Portfolio Deposit. Authorized Participants that submit a canceled order will be liable to the Fund for any losses incurred by the Fund in connection therewith.
Orders involving foreign Deposit Securities are expected to be settled outside the Clearing Process. Thus, upon receipt of an irrevocable purchase order, the Distributor will notify the Advisor and the Custodian of such order. The Custodian, who will have caused the appropriate local sub-custodian(s) of the Fund to maintain an account into which an Authorized Participant may deliver Deposit Securities (or cash-in-lieu), with adjustments determined by the Fund, will then provide information of the order to such local sub-custodian(s). The ordering Authorized Participant will then deliver the Deposit Securities (and any cash-in-lieu) to the Fund’s n account at the applicable local sub-custodian. The Authorized Participant must also make available on or before the contractual settlement date, by means satisfactory to the Fund, immediately available or same day funds in U.S. dollars estimated by the Fund to be sufficient to pay the Cash Component and Transaction Fee. When a relevant local market is closed due to local market holidays, the local market settlement process will not commence until the end of the local holiday period. Settlement must occur by 2:00 p.m., Eastern Time, on the contractual settlement date.
Acceptance of Purchase Order
All questions as to the number of shares of each security in the Deposit Securities and the validity, form, eligibility and acceptance for deposit of any securities to be delivered shall be determined by the Fund. The Fund’s determination shall be final and binding.
The Fund reserves the absolute right to reject or revoke acceptance of a purchase order transmitted to it by the Distributor if (a) the order is not in proper form; (b) the investor(s), upon obtaining the shares ordered, would own 80% or more of the currently outstanding shares of the Fund; (c) the Deposit Securities delivered do not conform to the Deposit Securities for the applicable date; (d) acceptance of the Deposit Securities would have certain adverse tax consequences to the Fund; (e) the acceptance of the Portfolio Deposit would, in the opinion of counsel, be unlawful; (f) the acceptance of the Portfolio Deposit would otherwise, in the discretion of the Trust, Fund or the Advisor, have an adverse effect on the Trust, Fund or the rights of beneficial owners; or (g) in the event that circumstances outside the control of the Trust, the Distributor and the Advisor make it for all practical purposes impossible to process purchase orders. Examples of such circumstances include acts of God; public service or utility problems resulting in telephone, telecopy or computer failures; fires, floods or extreme weather conditions; market conditions or activities causing trading halts; systems failures involving computer or other informational systems affecting the Trust, the Distributor, DTC, NSCC, the Advisor, the Custodian, a sub-custodian or any other participant in the creation process; and similar extraordinary events. The Distributor shall notify an Authorized Participant of its rejection of the order. The Fund, the Custodian, any sub-custodian and the Distributor are under no duty, however, to give notification of any defects or irregularities in the delivery of Portfolio Deposits, and they shall not incur any liability for the failure to give any such notification.
Issuance of a Creation Unit.
Once the Fund has accepted an order, upon next determination of the Fund’s NAV, the Fund will confirm the issuance of a Creation Unit, against receipt of payment, at such NAV. The Distributor will transmit a confirmation of acceptance to the Authorized Participant that placed the order.
Except as provided below, a Creation Unit will not be issued until the Fund obtains good title to the Deposit Securities and the Cash Component, along with any cash-in-lieu and Transaction Fee. Except as provided below under “Delivery of Redemption Basket”, the delivery of Creation Units will generally occur no later than T+2. In certain cases, Authorized Participants will create and redeem Creation Units on the same trade date. In these instances, the Trust reserves the right to settle these transactions on a net basis.
With respect to orders involving foreign Deposit Securities, when the applicable local sub-custodian(s) have confirmed to the Custodian that the Deposit Securities (or cash-in-lieu) have been delivered to the Fund’s account at the applicable local sub-custodian(s), the Distributor and the Advisor shall be notified of such delivery, and the Fund will issue and cause the delivery of the Creation Unit.
While, as stated above, Creation Units are generally delivered on T+2 , as discussed below under “Delivery of Redemption Basket” the Fund may settle Creation Unit transactions on a basis other than T+2 in order to accommodate foreign market holiday schedules, to account for different treatment among foreign and U.S. markets of dividend record dates and ex-dividend dates (that is the last day the holder of a security can sell the security and still receive dividends payable on the security), and in certain other circumstances.
The Fund may issue a Creation Unit prior to receiving good title to the Deposit Securities, under the following circumstances. Pursuant to the applicable Participant Agreement, the Fund may issue a Creation Unit notwithstanding that (certain) Deposit Securities have not been delivered, in reliance on an undertaking by the relevant Authorized Participant to deliver the missing Deposit Securities as soon as possible, which undertaking is secured by such Authorized Participant’s delivery to and maintenance with the Custodian of collateral having a value equal to at least 105% of the value of the missing Deposit Securities (“Collateral”), as adjusted by time to time by the Advisor. Such Collateral will have a value greater than the NAV of the Creation Unit on the date the order is placed. Such collateral must be delivered no later than 2:00 p.m., Eastern Time, on T+1. The only Collateral that is acceptable to the Fund is cash in U.S. Dollars.
While (certain) Deposit Securities remain undelivered, the Collateral shall at all times have a value equal to at least 105% (as adjusted by the Advisor) of the daily marked-to-market value of the missing Deposit Securities. At any time, the Fund may use the Collateral to purchase the missing securities, and the Authorized Participant will be liable to the Fund for any costs incurred thereby or losses resulting therefrom, whether or not they exceed the amount of the Collateral, including any Transaction Fee, any amount by which the purchase price of the missing Deposit Securities exceeds the market value of such securities on the Transmittal Date, brokerage and other transaction costs. The Trust will return any unused Collateral once all of the missing securities have been received by the Fund. More information regarding the Fund’s current procedures for collateralization is available from the Distributor.
Cash Purchase Method
When cash purchases of Creation Units are available or specified for the Fund, they will be effected in essentially the same manner as in-kind purchases. In the case of a cash purchase, the investor must pay the cash equivalent of the Portfolio Deposit. In addition, cash purchases will be subject to Transaction Fees, as described above.
Notice to Texas Shareholders
Under section 72.1021(a) of the Texas Property Code, initial investors in a Fund who are Texas residents may designate a representative to receive notices of abandoned property in connection with Shares. Texas shareholders who wish to appoint a representative should notify the Trust by writing to the address below to obtain a form for providing written notice to the Trust:
Arrow Dow Jones Global Yield ETF
c/o Gemini Fund Services, LLC
4221 North 203rd Street, Suite 100
Elkhorn, Nebraska 68022-3474
Redeeming a Creation Unit
Redemption Basket. The consideration received in connection with the redemption of a Creation Unit generally consists of an in-kind basket of designated securities (“Redemption Securities”) and an amount of cash in U.S. dollars (“Cash Component”). Together, the Redemption Securities and the Cash Component constitute the “Redemption Basket.”
There can be no assurance that there will be sufficient liquidity in Shares in the secondary market to permit assembly of a Creation Unit. In addition, investors may incur brokerage and other costs in connection with assembling a Creation Unit.
The Cash Component serves the function of compensating for any differences between the net asset value per Creation Unit and the Redemption Securities. Thus, the Cash Component is equal to the difference between (x) the net asset value per Creation Unit of the Fund and (y) the market value of the Redemption Securities. If (x) is more than (y), the Authorized Participant will receive the Cash Component from the Fund. If (x) is less than (y), the Authorized Participant will pay the Cash Component to the Fund.
If the Redemption Securities on a Business Day are different from the Deposit Securities, prior to the opening of business on the Exchange (currently 9:30 a.m., Eastern Time), the Advisor through the Custodian makes available through NSCC the name and amount of each Redemption Security in the current Redemption Basket (based on information at the end of the previous Business Day) for the Fund and the (estimated) Cash Component, effective through and including the previous Business Day, per Creation Unit. If the Redemption Securities on a Business Day are different from the Deposit Securities, all redemption requests that day will be processed outside the Clearing Process.
The right of redemption may be suspended or the date of payment postponed: (i) for any period during which the NYSE is closed (other than customary weekend and holiday closings); (ii) for any period during which trading on the NYSE is suspended or restricted; (iii) for any period during which an emergency exists as a result of which disposal of the Shares or determination of the Fund’s NAV is not reasonably practicable; or (iv) in such other circumstances as permitted by the SEC, including as described below.
Custom Redemptions and Cash-in-Lieu. The Fund may, in its sole discretion, permit or require the substitution of an amount of cash (“cash-in-lieu”) to be added to the Cash Component to replace any Redemption Security. The Fund may permit or require cash-in-lieu when, for example, a Redemption Security may not be available in sufficient quantity for delivery or may not be eligible for transfer through the systems of DTC or the Clearing Process. Similarly, the Fund may permit or require cash-in-lieu of Redemption Securities when, for example, the Authorized Participant or its underlying investor is restricted under U.S. or local securities law or policies from transacting in one or more Redemption Securities. The Fund will comply with the federal securities laws in satisfying redemptions with Redemption Securities, including that the Redemption Securities are sold in transactions that would be exempt from registration under the Securities Act. All redemption requests involving cash-in-lieu are considered to be “Custom Redemptions.”
Redemption Requests. To redeem a Creation Unit, an Authorized Participant must submit an irrevocable redemption request to the Distributor.
An Authorized Participant submitting a redemption request is deemed to represent to the Fund that it or, if applicable, the investor on whose behalf it is acting, (i) owns outright or has full legal authority and legal beneficial right to tender for redemption the Creation Unit to be redeemed and can receive the entire proceeds of the redemption, and (ii) all of the Shares there are in the Creation Unit to be redeemed have not been borrowed, loaned or pledged to another party nor are they the subject of a repurchase agreement, securities lending agreement or such other arrangement which would preclude the delivery of such Shares to the Fund. The Fund reserves the absolute right, in its sole discretion, to verify these representations, but will typically require verification in connection with higher levels of redemption activity and/or short interest in the Fund. If the Authorized Participant, upon receipt of a verification request, does not provide sufficient verification of the requested representations, the redemption request will not be considered to be in proper form and may be rejected by the Fund.
Timing of Submission of Redemption Requests. An Authorized Participant must submit an irrevocable redemption order no later than the earlier of (i) 4:00 p.m., Eastern Time or (ii) the closing time of the bond markets and/or the trading session on the Exchange, on any Business Day in order to receive that Business Day’s NAV. (“Cut-off Time”). The Cut-off Time for Custom Orders is generally two hours earlier. The Business Day the order is deemed received by the Distributor is referred to as the “Transmittal Date.” A redemption request is deemed received if (i) such order is received by the Distributor by the Cut-off Time on such day and (ii) all other procedures set forth in the Participant Agreement are properly followed. Persons placing or effectuating Custom Redemptions and/or orders involving cash should be mindful of time deadlines imposed by intermediaries, such as DTC and/or the Federal Reserve System, which may impact the successful processing of such orders to ensure that cash and securities are transferred by the Settlement Date, as defined above.
Requests Using the Clearing Process. If available, (portions of) redemption requests may be settled through the Clearing Process. In connection with such orders, the Distributor transmits on behalf of the Authorized Participant, such trade instructions as are necessary to effect the redemption. Pursuant to such trade instructions, the Authorized Participant agrees to deliver the requisite Creation Unit(s) to the Fund, together with such additional information as may be required by the Distributor. Cash Components will be delivered using either the Clearing Process or the Federal Reserve System, as described above.
Requests Outside the Clearing Process. If the Clearing Process is not available for (portions of) an order, Redemption Baskets will be delivered outside the Clearing Process. Orders outside the Clearing Process must state that the DTC Participant is not using the Clearing Process and that the redemption will be effected through DTC.
The Authorized Participant must transfer or cause to be transferred the Creation Unit(s) of shares being redeemed through the book-entry system of DTC so as to be delivered through DTC to the Custodian by 10:00 a.m., Eastern Time, on received T+1. In addition, the Cash Component must be received by the Custodian by 12:00 p.m., Eastern Time, on T+1. If the Custodian does not receive the Creation Unit(s) and Cash Component by the appointed times on T+1, the redemption will be rejected, except in the circumstances described below. A rejected redemption request may be resubmitted the following Business Day.
Orders involving foreign Redemption Securities are expected to be settled outside the Clearing Process. Thus, upon receipt of an irrevocable redemption request, the Distributor will notify the Advisor and the Custodian. The Custodian will then provide information of the redemption to the Fund’s local sub-custodian(s). The redeeming Authorized Participant, or the investor on whose behalf is acting, will have established appropriate arrangements with a broker-dealer, bank or other custody provider in each jurisdiction in which the Redemption Securities are customarily traded and to which such Redemption Securities (and any cash-in-lieu) can be delivered from the Fund’s accounts at the applicable local sub-custodian(s).
Acceptance of Redemption Requests. All questions as to the number of shares of each security in the Deposit Securities and the validity, form, eligibility and acceptance for deposit of any securities to be delivered shall be determined by the Trust. The Trust’s determination shall be final and binding.
Delivery of Redemption Basket. Once the Fund has accepted a redemption request, upon next determination of the Fund’s NAV, the Fund will confirm the issuance of a Redemption Basket, against receipt of the Creation Unit(s) at such NAV, any cash-in-lieu and Transaction Fee. A Creation Unit tendered for redemption and the payment of the Cash Component, any cash-in-lieu and Transaction Fee will be effected through DTC. The Authorized Participant, or the investor on whose behalf it is acting, will be recorded on the book-entry system of DTC.
The Redemption Basket will generally be delivered to the redeeming Authorized Participant within T+2. Except under the circumstances described below, however, a Redemption Basket generally will not be issued until the Creation Unit(s) are delivered to the Fund, along with the Cash Component, any cash-in-lieu and Transaction Fee.
In certain cases, Authorized Participants will create and redeem Creation Units on the same trade date. In these instances, the Trust reserves the right to settle these transactions on a net basis.
With respect to orders involving foreign Redemption Securities, the Fund may settle Creation Unit transactions on a basis other than T+2 in order to accommodate foreign market holiday schedules, to account for different treatment among foreign and U.S. markets of dividend record dates and ex-dividend dates (that is the last day the holder of a security can sell the security and still receive dividends payable on the security), and in certain other circumstances. When a relevant local market is closed due to local market holidays, the local market settlement process will not commence until the end of the local holiday period.
Cash Redemption Method
When cash redemptions of Creation Units are available or specified for the Fund, they will be effected in essentially the same manner as in-kind redemptions. In the case of a cash redemption, the investor will receive the cash equivalent of the Redemption Basket minus any Transaction Fees, as described above.
The following discussion is general in nature and should not be regarded as an exhaustive presentation of all possible tax ramifications. All shareholders should consult a qualified tax advisor regarding their investment in the Fund.
The Fund is treated as a separate corporation for federal tax purposes. The Fund, therefore, is considered to be a separate entity in determining its treatment under the rules for RICs described below and in the Prospectus. Losses realized by the Fund will not offset gains realized by any other series of the Trust, and the requirements (other than certain organizational requirements) for qualifying for RIC status are determined at the Fund level rather than the Trust level.
As of January 31, 2021, the components of accumulated earnings/(deficit) on a tax basis were as follows:
|Undistributed Ordinary Income||Undistributed Long-Term Gains||Post October Loss and Late Year Loss||Capital Loss Carry Forwards||Other Book/ Tax Differences||Unrealized Appreciation/ (Depreciation)||Total Accumulated Earnings/ (Deficit)|
The Fund has qualified and intends to continue to qualify and has elected to be treated as a regulated investment company under Subchapter M of Chapter 1 of Subtitle A of the Internal Revenue Code (a "RIC"). If the Fund qualifies for that treatment, the Fund will not be subject to federal income tax on the portion of its investment company taxable income (which includes dividends, interest, the excess of net short-term capital gain over net long-term capital loss (“net short-term capital gain”) and net gains and losses from certain foreign currency transactions, if any) and net capital gain (i.e., the excess of net long-term capital gain over net short-term capital loss) that it distributes to its shareholders. To qualify for that treatment, the Fund must annually distribute at least 90% of its investment company taxable income (“Distribution Requirement”) and must meet requirements relating to the source and nature of its income (“Income Requirement”) and the diversification of its assets, among other things.
If the Fund fails to qualify for any taxable year for treatment as a RIC, all of its taxable income would be subject to tax at regular corporate income tax rates without any deduction for distributions to shareholders, and such distributions (including distributions of net capital gain) generally would be taxable to shareholders as ordinary dividends to the extent of the Fund's current and accumulated earnings and profits (except that, (1) for individual shareholders, the part thereof that is “qualified dividend income,” as described in the Prospectus, would be subject to federal income tax at the rate for long -term capital gain -- a maximum of 20%, and (2) a part of those distributions would be eligible for the dividends-received deduction available to corporations under certain circumstances). Furthermore, the Fund could be required to recognize unrealized gains, pay substantial taxes and interest and make substantial distributions before requalifying for RIC treatment.
The Fund will be subject to a nondeductible 4% federal excise tax (“Excise Tax”) to the extent it does not distribute to its shareholders in any calendar year at least 98% of its ordinary income for the year plus 98.2% of its capital gain net income for the twelve months ended October 31 of such year. The Fund intends to declare and distribute dividends and other distributions in the amounts and at the times necessary to avoid the application of the Excise Tax.
The Trust, on behalf of the Fund, has the right to reject an order to purchase Shares if (1) the purchaser (or group of purchasers) would, upon obtaining the ordered Shares, own 80% or more of the outstanding Shares and (2) pursuant to Section 351 of the Internal Revenue Code, the Fund would have a basis in the Deposit Securities exchanged therefor different from the market value of such securities on the date of deposit. The Trust also has the right to require information necessary to determine beneficial Share ownership for purposes of making the 80% determination.
Taxation of the Fund’s Investments and Activities. The Fund’s use of hedging strategies, such as entering into forward contracts, involves complex rules that will determine for income tax purposes the amount, character and timing of recognition of the gains and losses the Fund realizes in connection therewith. Gains from the disposition of foreign currencies (except certain gains therefrom that may be excluded by future regulations), and gains from options, forward contracts the Fund derives with respect to its business of investing in securities or foreign currencies, will be treated as qualifying income under the Income Requirement. The Fund will monitor its transactions, make appropriate tax elections and make appropriate entries in its books and records when it acquires any foreign currency, forward contract or hedged investment to mitigate the effect of these rules, prevent its disqualification as a RIC and minimize the imposition of federal income and excise taxes.
Certain foreign currency contracts and options (i.e., certain listed options, such as those on a “broad-based” securities index) in which the Fund invests may be subject to Internal Revenue Code section 1256 (collectively, “section 1256 contracts”). Any section 1256 contracts the Fund holds at the end of its taxable year (and generally for purposes of the Excise Tax, on October 31 of each year) generally must be “marked to market” (that is, treated as having been sold at that time for their fair market value) for federal income tax purposes, with the result that unrealized gains or losses will be treated as though they were realized. Sixty percent of any net gain or loss recognized on these deemed sales, and 60% of any net realized gain or loss from any actual sales of section 1256 contracts, will be treated as long-term capital gain or loss, and the balance will be treated as short-term capital gain or loss; however, certain foreign currency gains or losses arising from section 1256 contracts will be treated as ordinary income or loss. These rules may operate to increase the amount that the Fund must distribute to satisfy the Distribution Requirement (i.e., with respect to the portion treated as short-term capital gain, which will be includible in investment company taxable income and thus taxable to its shareholders as ordinary income when distributed to them), and to increase the net capital gain the Fund recognizes, even though the Fund may not have closed the transactions and received cash to pay the distributions. Section 1256 contracts also are marked to market for purposes of the Excise Tax.
Section 988 of the Internal Revenue Code also may apply to forward contracts on foreign currencies. Under that section, each foreign currency gain or loss generally is computed separately and treated as ordinary income or loss. In the case of overlap between sections 1256 and 988, special provisions determine the character and timing of any income, gain or loss. If the Fund’s section 988 losses exceed other investment company taxable income for a taxable year, it would not be able to distribute any dividends, and any distributions made during that year before the losses were realized would be re-characterized as a return of capital to shareholders, rather than as a dividend, thereby reducing each shareholder’s basis in his or her Shares.
The premium the Fund receives for writing (selling) a put or call option is not included in income at the time of receipt. When a covered call option written by the Fund expires, however, it will realize a short-term capital gain equal to the amount of the premium it received for writing the option. When the Fund terminates its obligations under such an option by entering into a closing transaction, it will realize a short-term capital gain (or loss), depending on whether the cost of the closing transaction is less (or more) than the premium it received when it wrote the option.
When a covered call option written by the Fund is exercised, it will be treated as having sold the underlying security, producing long-term or short-term capital gain or loss, depending on the holding period of the underlying security and whether the sum of the option price it receives on the exercise plus the premium it received when it wrote the option is more or less than the underlying security’s basis.
If the Fund has an “appreciated financial position”—generally, an interest (including an interest through a forward contract or short sale) with respect to any stock, debt instrument (other than “straight debt”) or partnership interest the fair market value of which exceeds its adjusted basis—and enters into a “constructive sale” of the position, the Fund will be treated as having made an actual sale thereof, with the result that it will recognize gain at that time. A constructive sale generally consists of a short sale, an offsetting notional principal contract or a forward contract the Fund or a related person enters into with respect to the same or substantially identical property. In addition, if the appreciated financial position is itself a short sale or such a contract, acquisition of the underlying property or substantially identical property will be deemed a constructive sale. The foregoing will not apply, however, to any Fund transaction during any taxable year that otherwise would be treated as a constructive sale if the transaction is closed within 30 days after the end of that year and the Fund holds the appreciated financial position unhedged for 60 days after that closing (i.e., at no time during that 60-day period is the Fund’s risk of loss regarding that position reduced by reason of certain specified transactions with respect to substantially identical or related property, such as having an option to sell, being contractually obligated to sell, making a short sale of or granting an option to buy substantially identical stock or securities).
Any market discount recognized by the Fund on a bond is taxable as ordinary income. A market discount bond is a bond acquired in the secondary market at a price below its principal amount or adjusted issue price if issued with original issue discount. Absent an election by the Fund to include the market discount in income as it accrues, gain on the Fund’s disposition of such an obligation will be treated as ordinary income rather than capital gain to the extent of the accrued market discount.
Dividends and interest the Fund receives, and gains it realizes, on foreign securities may be subject to income, withholding or other taxes foreign countries and U.S. possessions impose that would reduce the yield and/or total return on its investments. Tax conventions between certain countries and the United States may reduce or eliminate those taxes, however, and many foreign countries do not impose taxes on capital gains in respect of investments by foreign investors.
The Fund may invest in the stock of passive foreign investment companies (“PFICs”). A PFIC is any foreign corporation (with certain exceptions) that, in general, meets either of the following tests: (1) at least 75% of its gross income for the taxable year is passive or (2) an average of at least 50% of its assets produce, or are held for the production of, passive income. The determination whether a foreign corporation is a PFIC is a fact-intensive determination that is based on various facts and circumstances and thus is subject to change, and the principles and methodology used in determining whether a foreign corporation is a PFIC are subject to interpretation. Investors should be aware that the Fund may not be able, at the time it acquires a foreign corporation’s shares, to ascertain whether the corporation is a PFIC and that a foreign corporation may become a PFIC after the Fund acquires shares therein.
Under certain circumstances, the Fund will be subject to federal income tax on a portion of any “excess distribution” it receives on the stock of a PFIC or of any gain on its disposition of that stock (collectively, “PFIC income”), plus interest thereon, even if the Fund distributes the PFIC income as a dividend to its shareholders. The balance of the PFIC income will be included in the Fund’s investment company taxable income and, accordingly, will not be taxable to it to the extent it distributes that income to its shareholders. Fund distributions thereof will not be eligible for the 20% maximum federal income tax rate on individuals’ “qualified dividend income.”
If the Fund invests in a PFIC and elects to treat the PFIC as a qualified electing fund (“QEF”), then in lieu of the foregoing tax and interest obligation, the Fund would be required to include in income each taxable year its pro rata share of the QEF’s annual ordinary earnings and net capital gain - which the Fund likely would have to distribute to satisfy the Distribution Requirement and avoid imposition of the Excise Tax - even if the QEF did not distribute those earnings and gain to the Fund. In most instances it will be very difficult, if not impossible, to make this election because of certain requirements thereof.
The Fund may elect to “mark to market” any stock in a PFIC it owns at the end of its taxable year. “Marking-to-market,” in this context, means including in gross income each taxable year (and treating as ordinary income) the excess, if any, of the fair market value of the stock over the Fund’s adjusted basis therein (including mark-to-market gain for each prior year for which an election was in effect) as of the end of that year. Pursuant to the election, the Fund also may deduct (as an ordinary, not a capital, loss) the excess, if any, of its adjusted basis in PFIC stock over the fair market value thereof as of the taxable year-end, but only to the extent of any net mark-to-market gains with respect to that stock the Fund included in income for prior taxable years under the election; any such deduction would reduce the Fund’s adjusted basis in the PFIC stock.
Pursuant to recently enacted legislation U.S. shareholders of a PFIC must file an annual report containing information the Internal Revenue Service (“Service”) requires. The Service has announced that it is developing guidance regarding those reporting obligations and, in the meantime, persons that were required to file Form 8621 before the new section’s enactment must continue to file that form as provided in the instructions thereto (e.g., on disposition of PFIC stock or with respect to a QEF). The Fund may invest in units of Canadian royalty trusts. The tax consequences to the Fund of an investment in such a trust depend on the trust’s classification for federal tax purposes, which generally is a corporation or a partnership.
|(1)||If a Canadian royalty trust is classified as a corporation, it would be a PFIC (with the income tax consequences to the Fund described above) if it primarily held equity or debt securities of an underlying operating entity but would not be a PFIC if it was actively engaged in a business, such as oil and gas exploration (as a large proportion of Canadian royalty trusts are), and did not hold substantial investment-type assets. In the latter event, distributions from the royalty trust to the Fund would be treated as dividends that likely would be eligible for the 20% maximum federal income tax rate on “qualified dividend income.”|
|(2)||If a Canadian royalty trust is classified for federal tax purposes as a partnership (by making a certain election or otherwise), it likely would be a “qualified publicly traded partnership” (i.e., a publicly traded partnership -- generally, a partnership the interests in which are “traded on an established securities market” or are “readily tradable on a secondary market (or the substantial equivalent thereof)” -- other than a partnership at least 90% of the gross income of which consists of income that satisfies the Income Requirement) (“QPTP”), in which event all its net income, regardless of source, would be qualifying income to the Fund under that requirement. But if such a royalty trust is not a QPTP (because, for example, it satisfies the Income Requirement, i.e., at least 90% of its gross income is qualifying income), then (a) it would be a publicly traded partnership that likely would be treated for federal tax purposes as a corporation, with the income tax consequences mentioned in (1) above, or (b) if not, (i) the Fund would treat its share of the trust’s income as qualifying income under the Income Requirement only to the extent it would be qualifying income if realized directly by the Fund in the same manner as realized by the trust and (ii) any non-qualifying income of the trust would pass through to the Fund.|
The Fund may invest in ownership units (i.e., limited partnership interests) in MLPs, which generally are classified as partnerships for federal tax purposes. Most MLPs in which the Fund may invest are expected to be QPTPs, all the net income from which (regardless of source) would be qualifying income to the Fund under the Income Requirement, but the Fund’s investments therein generally may not exceed 25% of the value of its total assets. If the Fund invests in an MLP that is not a QPTP, the net income the Fund earns therefrom would be treated as qualifying income under the Income Requirement only to the extent it would be qualifying income if realized directly by the Fund in the same manner as realized by the MLP.
Taxation of the Fund’s Shareholders. Dividends and other distributions declared by the Fund in October, November or December and paid to shareholders of record in such a month during the following January will be treated as having been received by such shareholders on December 31 of the year in which the distributions were declared.
If a shareholder sells Shares at a loss and acquires other Shares (whether through purchase, the automatic reinvestment of distributions, if available, or otherwise) within 30 days before or after the sale, all or part of that loss will not be deductible and instead will increase the basis in the newly purchased shares. Any loss on the sale or exchange of Shares held for six months or less will be treated as long-term capital loss to the extent of any capital gain distributions received on those Shares.
Investors should be aware that the price of Shares at any time may reflect the amount of a forthcoming dividend or other distribution, so if they purchase Shares shortly before the record date for a distribution, they will pay full price for the shares and receive some portion of the price back as a taxable distribution even though it represents a partial return of invested capital.
A Fund shareholder who wants to use the average basis method for determining basis in Fund shares he or she acquires after December 31, 2011 (“Covered Shares”), must elect to do so in writing (which may be electronic). If a Fund shareholder fails to affirmatively elect the average basis method, then basis determination will be made in accordance with the Fund’s default method, which might be a method other than average basis. If, however, the Fund’s default method is average basis and a Fund shareholder wishes to use a different acceptable method for basis determination (e.g., a specific identification method), the shareholder may elect to do so. The basis determination method a Fund shareholder elects may not be changed with respect to a redemption of Covered Shares after the settlement date of the redemption.
In addition to the current requirement to report the gross proceeds from the redemption of shares, the Fund (or its administrative agent) must report to the Service and furnish to its shareholders the basis information for Covered Shares and indicate whether they had a short-term or long-term holding period. Fund shareholders should consult with their tax advisors to determine the best Service-accepted basis determination method for their tax situation and to obtain more information about how the basis reporting law will apply to them.
The Health Care Reform and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 requires an individual to pay a 3.8% tax on the lesser of (1) the individual’s “net investment income,” which generally includes dividends, interest and net gains from the disposition of investment property (including certain dividends and capital gain distributions paid by the Fund), or (2) the excess of the individual’s “modified adjusted gross income” over a threshold amount ($250,000 for married persons filing jointly and $200,000 for single taxpayers), for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2012. This tax is in addition to any other taxes due on that income. A similar tax will apply for those years to estates and trusts. Shareholders should consult their own tax advisers regarding the effect, if any, this provision may have on their investment in Shares.
Distributions of ordinary income and net capital gains may also be subject to state and local income taxes. Income dividends the Fund pays to a nonresident alien individual, foreign corporation or partnership, or foreign trust or estate (each, a “Non-U.S. Shareholder”), other than (1) dividends paid to a Non-U.S. Shareholder whose ownership of Shares is effectively connected with a trade or business within the United States the shareholder conducts (“effectively connected”) and (2) capital gain distributions paid to a nonresident alien individual who is physically present in the United States for no more than 182 days during the taxable year, generally will be subject to a federal withholding tax of 30% (or lower treaty rate).
A Non-U.S. Shareholder will generally not be subject to federal withholding or income tax on gains, if any, realized on the sale of Shares unless (1) the gain is effectively connected or (2) in the case of an individual shareholder, he or she is present in the United States for no more than 182 days during the taxable year of the sale and certain other conditions are met. Gains on the sale of Shares and income dividends that are effectively connected will generally be subject to federal income tax at regular income tax rates. Non-U.S. Shareholders are urged to consult their own tax advisors concerning the applicability of federal income tax or withholding tax to their investment in the Fund.
The foregoing discussion is a summary only and is not intended as a substitute for careful tax planning. Purchasers of Shares should consult their own tax advisors as to the tax consequences of investing in Shares, including under federal, state, local and foreign tax laws. Finally, the foregoing discussion is based on applicable provisions of the Internal Revenue Code and regulations, judicial authority and administrative interpretations in effect on the date hereof; changes in any applicable authority, which often occur, could materially affect the conclusions discussed above.
Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act. Payments to a shareholder that is either a foreign financial institution (“FFI”) or a non-financial foreign entity (“NFFE”) within the meaning of the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (“FATCA”) may be subject to a generally nonrefundable 30% withholding tax on: (a) income dividends paid by the Fund after June 30, 2014 and (b) certain capital gain distributions and the proceeds arising from the sale of Fund shares paid by the Fund after December 31, 2016. FATCA withholding tax generally can be avoided: (a) by an FFI, subject to any applicable intergovernmental agreement or other exemption, if it enters into a valid agreement with the IRS to, among other requirements, report required information about certain direct and indirect ownership of foreign financial accounts held by U.S. persons with the FFI and (b) by an NFFE, if it: (i) certifies that it has no substantial U.S. persons as owners or (ii) if it does have such owners, reports information relating to them. The Fund may disclose the information that it receives from its shareholders to the IRS, non-U.S. taxing authorities or other parties as necessary to comply with FATCA. Withholding also may be required if a foreign entity that is a shareholder of the Fund fails to provide the Fund with appropriate certifications or other documentation concerning its status under FATCA.
Dividends and Other Distributions
The following information supplements and should be read in conjunction with the section in the Prospectus entitled "Dividends, Other Distributions and Taxes."
General Policies. Ordinarily, dividends from net investment income, if any, are declared and paid monthly. Distributions of net realized securities gains, if any, generally are declared and paid once a year, but the Trust may make distributions on a more frequent basis. The Trust reserves the right to declare special distributions if, in its reasonable discretion, such action is necessary or advisable to preserve the status of the Fund as a RIC or to avoid imposition of income or excise taxes on undistributed income.
Dividends and other distributions on Shares are distributed, as described below, on a pro rata basis to Beneficial Owners of the Shares. Dividend payments are made through DTC Participants and Indirect Participants to Beneficial Owners then of record with proceeds received from the Fund.
Dividend Reinvestment Service. No reinvestment service is provided by the Trust. Broker-dealers may make available the DTC book entry Dividend Reinvestment Service for use by Beneficial Owners of the Fund for reinvestment of their dividend distributions. Beneficial Owners should contact their broker to determine the availability and costs of the service and the details of participation therein. Brokers may require Beneficial Owners to adhere to specific procedures and timetables.
INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM
BBD, LLP, located at 1835 Market Street, 3rd Floor, Philadelphia, PA 19103 serves as the Fund's independent registered public accounting firm providing services including (1) audit of annual financial statements, and (2) assistance and consultation in connection with SEC filings.
Thompson Hine LLP, located at 41 South High Street, Suite 1700, Columbus, OH 43215, serves as the Trust’s legal counsel.
The financial statements of the Fund included in the Fund’s most recent annual report to shareholders for the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021, including the notes thereto, and the report of the independent registered public accounting firm thereon are incorporated by reference into this SAI. These financial statements include the Fund’s schedule of investments, statements of assets and liabilities, statements of operations, statements of changes in net assets, financial highlights, and notes. You may obtain a copy of the Fund’s annual report or semi-annual report without charge by calling 1-877-277-6933, or by visiting the Fund’s website at www.ArrowFunds.com.
PROXY VOTING POLICIES AND PROCEDURES
OF ARROW INVESTMENT ADVISORS, LLC
Arrow Investment Advisors, LLC ("Arrow") votes (or refrains from voting) proxies for a client in a manner that Arrow, in the exercise of its independent business judgment, concludes are in the best economic interests of such client. In some cases, Arrow may determine that it is in the best economic interests of a client to refrain from exercising the fund's proxy voting rights (such as, for example, proxies on certain non-U.S. securities that might impose costly or time-consuming in-person voting requirements). With regard to the relationship between securities lending and proxy voting, Arrow's approach is also driven by our clients' economic interests. The evaluation of the economic desirability of recalling loans involves balancing the revenue producing value of loans against the likely economic value of casting votes. Based on our evaluation of this relationship, we believe that the likely economic value of casting a vote generally is less than the securities lending income, either because the votes will not have significant economic consequences or because the outcome of the vote would not be affected by Arrow recalling loaned securities in order to ensure they are voted. Periodically, Arrow analyzes the process and benefits of voting proxies for securities on loan, and will consider whether any modification of its proxy voting policies or procedures are necessary in light of any regulatory changes. Arrow will normally vote on specific proxy issues in accordance with its proxy voting guidelines. Arrow's proxy voting guidelines provide detailed guidance as to how to vote proxies on certain important or commonly raised issues. Arrow may, in the exercise of its business judgment, conclude that the proxy voting guidelines do not cover the specific matter upon which a proxy vote is requested, or that an exception to the proxy voting guidelines would be in the best economic interests of a client. Arrow votes (or refrains from voting) proxies without regard to the relationship of the issuer of the proxy (or any shareholder of such issuer) to the client, the client's affiliates (if any), Arrow or Arrow's affiliates. When voting proxies, Arrow attempts to encourage companies to follow practices that enhance shareholder value and increase transparency and allow the market to place a proper value on their assets. With respect to certain specific issues:
· Arrow generally supports the board's nominees in the election of directors and generally supports proposals that strengthen the independence of boards of directors;
· Arrow generally does not support proposals on social issues that lack a demonstrable economic benefit to the issuer and a Fund investing in such issuer; and
· Arrow generally votes against anti-takeover proposals and proposals that would create additional barriers or costs to corporate transactions that are likely to deliver a premium to shareholders.
When Arrow exercises voting rights, by proxy or otherwise, with respect to investment companies owned by the funds, Arrow will vote the shares held by the client in the same proportion as the votes of all other holders of such security.
Arrow may conclude that the best interest of the firm's client requires that a proxy be voted in a manner that differs from the predetermined proxy voting policy. In this situation, Arrow may vote the proxy other than according to such policy.
Information with respect to how Arrow voted Fund proxies relating to portfolio securities during the most recent 12-month period is available: (i) without charge, upon request, by calling 1-877-277-6933 or through the Fund's website at www.ArrowFunds.com and (ii) on the SEC's website at www.sec.gov.
The Nationally Recognized Statistical Rating Organizations (individually, an “NRSROs”) that may be utilized by the Advisor with regard to portfolio investments for the Fund include Moody’s Investors Service, Inc. (“Moody’s”), Standard & Poor’s Ratings Services (“S&P”), and Fitch Investors Service, Inc. (“Fitch”). Set forth below is a description of the relevant ratings of each such NRSRO. The NRSROs that may be utilized by the Advisor and the description of each NRSRO’s ratings is as of the date of this SAI, and may subsequently change.
Moody’s Investors Service — Long-Term Corporate Obligation Ratings
Moody’s long-term obligation ratings are opinions of the relative credit risk of fixed-income obligations with an original maturity of one year or more. They address the possibility that a financial obligation will not be honored as promised. Such ratings use Moody’s Global Scale and reflect both the likelihood of default and any financial loss suffered in the event of default.
|Aaa||Obligations rated Aaa are judged to be of the highest quality, with minimal credit risk.|
|Aa||Obligations rated Aa are judged to be of high quality and are subject to very low credit risk.|
|A||Obligations rated A are considered upper-medium grade and are subject to low credit risk.|
|Baa||Obligations rated Baa are subject to moderate credit risk. They are considered medium grade and as such may possess certain speculative characteristics.|
|Ba||Obligations rated Ba are judged to have speculative elements and are subject to substantial credit risk.|
|B||Obligations rated B are considered speculative and are subject to high credit risk.|
|Caa||Obligations rated Caa are judged to be of poor standing and are subject to very high credit risk.|
|Ca||Obligations rated Ca are highly speculative and are likely in, or very near, default, with some prospect of recovery of principal and interest.|
|C||Obligations rated C are the lowest rated class of bonds and are typically in default, with little prospect for recovery of principal or interest.|
|Note||Moody’s appends numerical modifiers 1, 2, and 3 to each generic rating classification from Aa through Caa. The modifier 1 indicates that the obligation ranks in the higher end of its generic rating category; the modifier 2 indicates a mid-range ranking; and the modifier 3 indicates a ranking in the lower end of that generic rating category.|
|2.||Standard and Poor’s — Long-Term Issue Credit Ratings (including Preferred Stock)|
|Issue credit ratings are based, in varying degrees, on the following considerations:|
|||Likelihood of payment—capacity and willingness of the obligor to meet its financial commitment on an obligation in accordance with the terms of the obligation;|
|||Nature of and provisions of the obligation;|
|||Protection afforded by, and relative position of, the obligation in the event of bankruptcy, reorganization, or other arrangement under the laws of bankruptcy and other laws|
|affecting creditors’ rights.|
|Issue ratings are an assessment of default risk, but may incorporate an assessment of relative seniority or ultimate recovery in the event of default. Junior obligations are typically rated lower than senior obligations, to reflect the lower priority in bankruptcy, as noted above. (Such differentiation may apply when an entity has both senior and subordinated obligations, secured and unsecured obligations, or operating company and holding company obligations.)|
|AAA||An obligation rated ‘AAA’ has the highest rating assigned by Standard & Poor’s. The obligor’s capacity to meet its financial commitment on the obligation is extremely strong.|
|AA||An obligation rated ‘AA’ differs from the highest-rated obligations only to a small degree. The obligor’s capacity to meet its financial commitment on the obligation is very strong.|
|A||An obligation rated ‘A’ is somewhat more susceptible to the adverse effects of changes in circumstances and economic conditions than obligations in higher-rated categories. However, the obligor’s capacity to meet its financial commitment on the obligation is still strong.|
|BBB||An obligation rated ‘BBB’ exhibits adequate protection parameters. However, adverse economic conditions or changing circumstances are more likely to lead to a weakened capacity of the obligor to meet its financial commitment on the obligation.|
|Note||Obligations rated ‘BB’, ‘B’, ‘CCC’, ‘CC’, and ‘C’ are regarded as having significant speculative characteristics. ‘BB’ indicates the least degree of speculation and ‘C’ the highest. While such obligations will likely have some quality and protective characteristics, these may be outweighed by large uncertainties or major exposures to adverse conditions.|
|BB||An obligation rated ‘BB’ is less vulnerable to nonpayment than other speculative issues. However, it faces major ongoing uncertainties or exposure to adverse business, financial, or economic conditions which could lead to the obligor’s inadequate capacity to meet its financial commitment on the obligation.|
|B||An obligation rated ‘B’ is more vulnerable to nonpayment than obligations rated ‘BB’, but the obligor currently has the capacity to meet its financial commitment on the obligation. Adverse business, financial, or economic conditions will likely impair the obligor’s capacity or willingness to meet its financial commitment on the obligation.|
|CCC||An obligation rated ‘CCC’ is currently vulnerable to nonpayment, and is dependent upon favorable business, financial, and economic conditions for the obligor to meet its financial commitment on the obligation. In the event of adverse business, financial, or economic conditions, the obligor is not likely to have the capacity to meet its financial commitment on the obligation.|
|CC||An obligation rated ‘CC’ is currently highly vulnerable to nonpayment.|
|C||A ‘C’ rating is assigned to obligations that are currently highly vulnerable to nonpayment, obligations that have payment arrearages allowed by the terms of the documents, or obligations of an issuer that is the subject of a bankruptcy petition or similar action which have not experienced a payment default. Among others, the ‘C’ rating may be assigned to subordinated debt, preferred stock or other obligations on which cash payments have been suspended in accordance with the instrument’s terms.|
|D||An obligation rated ‘D’ is in payment default. The ‘D’ rating category is used when payments on an obligation are not made on the date due even if the applicable grace period has not expired, unless Standard & Poor’s believes that such payments will be made during such grace period. The ‘D’ rating also will be used upon the filing of a bankruptcy petition or the taking of a similar action if payments on an obligation are jeopardized.|
|Note||Plus (+) or minus (-). The ratings from ‘AA’ to ‘CCC’ may be modified by the addition of a plus (+) or minus (-) sign to show relative standing within the major rating categories.|
|NR||This indicates that no rating has been requested, that there is insufficient information on which to base a rating, or that Standard & Poor’s does not rate a particular obligation as a matter of policy.|
Fitch — International Long-Term Credit Ratings
International Long-Term Credit Ratings (LTCR) may also be referred to as Long-Term Ratings. When assigned to most issuers, it is used as a benchmark measure of probability of default and is formally described as an Issuer Default Rating (IDR). The major exception is within Public Finance, where IDRs will not be assigned as market convention has always focused on timeliness and does not draw analytical distinctions between issuers and their underlying obligations. When applied to issues or securities, the LTCR may be higher or lower than the issuer rating (IDR) to reflect relative differences in recovery expectations.
The following rating scale applies to foreign currency and local currency ratings:
|AAA||Highest credit quality. ‘AAA’ ratings denote the lowest expectation of credit risk. They are assigned only in case of exceptionally strong capacity for payment of financial commitments. This capacity is highly unlikely to be adversely affected by foreseeable events.|
|AA||Very high credit quality. ‘AA’ ratings denote expectations of very low credit risk. They indicate very strong capacity for payment of financial commitments. This capacity is not significantly vulnerable to foreseeable events.|
|A||High credit quality. ‘A’ ratings denote expectations of low credit risk. The capacity for payment of financial commitments is considered strong. This capacity may, nevertheless, be more vulnerable to changes in circumstances or in economic conditions than is the case for higher ratings.|
|BBB||Good credit quality. ‘BBB’ ratings indicate that there are currently expectations of low credit risk. The capacity for payment of financial commitments is considered adequate but adverse changes in circumstances and economic conditions are more likely to impair this capacity. This is the lowest investment grade category.|
|BB||Speculative. ‘BB’ ratings indicate that there is a possibility of credit risk developing, particularly as the result of adverse economic change over time; however, business or financial alternatives may be available to allow financial commitments to be met. Securities rated in this category are not investment grade.|
|B||Highly speculative. ‘B’ ratings indicate that significant credit risk is present, but a limited margin of safety remains. Financial commitments are currently being met; however, capacity for continued payment is contingent upon a sustained, favorable business and economic environment.|
|CCC||Default is a real possibility. Capacity for meeting financial commitments is solely reliant upon sustained, favorable business or economic conditions.|
|CC||Default of some kind appears probable.|
|C||Default is imminent.|
|RD||Indicates an entity that has failed to make due payments (within the applicable grace period) on some but not all material financial obligations, but continues to honor other classes of obligations.|