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Vanguard International Stock Index Funds
Prospectus
February 26, 2021
Institutional Shares & Institutional Plus Shares
Vanguard European Stock Index Fund Institutional Shares (VESIX)
Vanguard European Stock Index Fund Institutional Plus Shares (VEUPX)
Vanguard Pacific Stock Index Fund Institutional Shares (VPKIX)
Vanguard Emerging Markets Stock Index Fund Institutional Shares (VEMIX)
Vanguard Emerging Markets Stock Index Fund Institutional Plus Shares (VEMRX)
 See the inside front cover for important information about access to your fund’s annual and semiannual shareholder reports.
 This prospectus contains financial data for the Funds through the fiscal year ended October 31, 2020.
The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) has not approved or disapproved these securities or passed upon the adequacy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is
a criminal offense.

Important information about access to shareholder reports
Beginning on January 1, 2021, as permitted by regulations adopted by the SEC, paper copies of your fund’s annual and semiannual shareholder reports will no longer be sent to you by mail, unless you specifically request them. Instead, you will be notified by mail each time a report is posted on the website and will be provided with a link to access the report.
If you have already elected to receive shareholder reports electronically, you will not be affected by this change and do not need to take any action. You may elect to receive shareholder reports and other communications from the fund electronically by contacting your financial intermediary (such as a broker-dealer or bank) or, if you invest directly with the fund, by calling Vanguard at one of the phone numbers on the back cover of this prospectus or by logging on to vanguard.com.
You may elect to receive paper copies of all future shareholder reports free of charge. If you invest through a financial intermediary, you can contact the intermediary to request that you continue to receive paper copies. If you invest directly with the fund, you can call Vanguard at one of the phone numbers on the back cover of this prospectus or log on to vanguard.com. Your election to receive paper copies will apply to all the funds you hold through an intermediary or directly with Vanguard.
Contents

Vanguard European Stock Index Fund
Investment Objective
The Fund seeks to track the performance of a benchmark index that measures the investment return of stocks issued by companies located in the major markets of Europe.
Fees and Expenses
The following table describes the fees and expenses you may pay if you buy, hold, and sell Institutional Shares or Institutional Plus Shares of the Fund. You may pay other fees, such as brokerage commissions and other fees to financial intermediaries, which are not reflected in the table and example below.
Shareholder Fees
(Fees paid directly from your investment)
 
Institutional Shares
Institutional Plus Shares
Sales Charge (Load) Imposed on Purchases
None
None
Purchase Fee
None
None
Sales Charge (Load) Imposed on Reinvested
Dividends
None
None
Redemption Fee
None
None
Annual Fund Operating Expenses
(Expenses that you pay each year as a percentage of the value of your investment)
 
Institutional Shares
Institutional Plus Shares
Management Fees
0.07%
0.06%
12b-1 Distribution Fee
None
None
Other Expenses
0.01%
0.01%
Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses
0.08%
0.07%
1

Examples
The following examples are intended to help you compare the cost of investing in the Fund’s Institutional Shares or Institutional Plus Shares with the cost of investing in other mutual funds. They illustrate the hypothetical expenses that you would incur over various periods if you were to invest $10,000 in the Fund's shares. These examples assume that the shares provide a return of 5% each year and that total annual fund operating expenses remain as stated in the preceding table. You would incur these hypothetical expenses whether or not you were to redeem your investment at the end of the given period. Although your actual costs may be higher or lower, based on these assumptions your costs would be:
 
1 Year
3 Years
5 Years
10 Years
Institutional Shares
$8
$26
$45
$103
Institutional Plus Shares
$7
$23
$40
$90
Portfolio Turnover
The Fund pays transaction costs, such as commissions, when it buys and sells securities (or “turns over” its portfolio). A higher portfolio turnover rate may indicate higher transaction costs and may result in more taxes when Fund shares are held in a taxable account. These costs, which are not reflected in annual fund operating expenses or in the previous expense examples, reduce the Fund's performance. During the most recent fiscal year, the Fund's portfolio turnover rate was 3% of the average value of its portfolio.
Principal Investment Strategies
The Fund employs an indexing investment approach by investing all, or substantially all, of its assets in the common stocks included in the FTSE Developed Europe All Cap Index. The FTSE Developed Europe All Cap Index is a market-capitalization-weighted index that is made up of approximately 1,267 common stocks of large-, mid-, and small-cap companies located in 16 European countries—mostly companies in the United Kingdom, France, Switzerland, and Germany. Other countries represented in the Index include Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Spain, and Sweden.
2

Principal Risks
An investment in the Fund could lose money over short or long periods of time. You should expect the Fund's share price and total return to fluctuate within a wide range. The Fund is subject to the following risks, which could affect the Fund's performance:
•  Stock market risk , which is the chance that stock prices overall will decline. Stock markets tend to move in cycles, with periods of rising prices and periods of falling prices. The Fund’s investments in foreign stocks can be riskier than U.S. stock investments. Foreign stocks may be more volatile and less liquid than U.S. stocks. The prices of foreign stocks and the prices of U.S. stocks may move in opposite directions. In addition, the Fund’s target index may, at times, become focused in stocks of a particular market sector, which would subject the Fund to proportionately higher exposure to the risks of that sector.
•  Country/regional risk , which is the chance that world events—such as political upheaval, financial troubles, or natural disasters—will adversely affect the value of securities issued by companies in foreign countries or regions. The Index’s, and therefore the Fund’s, heavy exposure to four countries (the United Kingdom, France, Germany, and Switzerland) subjects the Fund to a higher degree of country risk than that of more geographically diversified international funds.
•  Currency risk , which is the chance that the value of a foreign investment, measured in U.S. dollars, will decrease because of unfavorable changes in currency exchange rates.
An investment in the Fund is not a deposit of a bank and is not insured or guaranteed by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation or any other government agency.
Annual Total Returns
The following bar chart and table are intended to help you understand the risks of investing in the Fund. The bar chart shows how the performance of the Fund‘s Institutional Shares has varied from one calendar year to another over the periods shown. The table shows how the average annual total returns of the share classes presented compare with those of the Fund‘s target index and other comparative indexes, which have investment characteristics similar to those of the Fund. The Spliced European Stock Index reflects the performance of the MSCI Europe Index through March 26, 2013; the FTSE Developed Europe Index through September 30, 2015; and the FTSE Developed Europe All Cap Index thereafter. Returns for the FTSE Indexes shown are adjusted for withholding taxes applicable to U.S.-based mutual funds organized as Delaware statutory trusts. Keep in mind that the Fund's past performance (before and after
3

taxes) does not indicate how the Fund will perform in the future. Updated performance information is available on our website at vanguard.com/performance or by calling Vanguard toll-free at 800-662-7447.
Annual Total Returns — Vanguard European Stock Index Fund Institutional Shares
During the periods shown in the bar chart, the highest and lowest returns for a calendar quarter were:
 
Total Return
Quarter
Highest
17.48%
June 30, 2020
Lowest
-25.67%
March 31, 2020
Average Annual Total Returns for Periods Ended December 31, 2020
 
1 Year
5 Years
10 Years
Vanguard European Stock Index Fund
Institutional Shares
 
 
 
Return Before Taxes
6.46%
7.33%
5.75%
Return After Taxes on Distributions
5.88
6.56
4.99
Return After Taxes on Distributions and Sale of Fund Shares
4.18
5.67
4.51
Comparative Indexes
(reflect no deduction for fees or expenses)
 
 
 
FTSE Developed Europe All Cap Index
6.54%
7.29%
5.90%
FTSE Developed Europe Index
6.31
7.22
5.69
Spliced European Stock Index
6.54
7.29
5.72
FTSE Developed Europe All Cap Fair Market Value Index
6.49
7.34
FTSE Global All Cap ex US Index
11.24
9.07
5.22
4

 
1 Year
5 Years
Since
Inception
(Dec. 5,
2014)
Vanguard European Stock Index Fund Institutional
Plus Shares
 
 
 
Return Before Taxes
6.47%
7.35%
4.91%
Comparative Indexes
(reflect no deduction for fees or expenses)
 
 
 
FTSE Developed Europe All Cap Index
6.54%
7.29%
5.09%
FTSE Developed Europe Index
6.31
7.22
4.82
Spliced European Stock Index
6.54
7.29
4.91
FTSE Developed Europe All Cap Fair Market Value Index
6.49
7.34
FTSE Global All Cap ex US Index
11.24
9.07
6.19
Actual after-tax returns depend on your tax situation and may differ from those shown in the preceding table. When after-tax returns are calculated, it is assumed that the shareholder was in the highest individual federal marginal income tax bracket at the time of each distribution of income or capital gains or upon redemption. State and local income taxes are not reflected in the calculations. Please note that after-tax returns are shown only for the Institutional Shares and may differ for each share class. After-tax returns are not relevant for a shareholder who holds fund shares in a tax-deferred account, such as an individual retirement account or a 401(k) plan. Also, figures captioned Return After Taxes on Distributions and Sale of Fund Shares may be higher than other figures for the same period if a capital loss occurs upon redemption and results in an assumed tax deduction for the shareholder.
Investment Advisor
The Vanguard Group, Inc. (Vanguard)
Portfolio Managers
Christine D. Franquin, Principal of Vanguard. She has co-managed the Fund since 2016.
Justin E. Hales, CFA, CFP, Portfolio Manager at Vanguard. He has co-managed the Fund since 2016.
Purchase and Sale of Fund Shares
You may purchase or redeem shares online through our website (vanguard.com), by mail (The Vanguard Group, P.O. Box 1110, Valley Forge, PA 19482-1110), or by telephone (800-662-2739). The minimum investment amount required to open
5

and maintain a Fund account for Institutional Shares or Institutional Plus Shares is $5 million or $100 million, respectively. The minimum investment amount required to add to an existing Fund account is generally $1. If you are investing through an employer-sponsored retirement or savings plan, your plan administrator or your benefits office can provide you with detailed information on how you can invest through your plan.
Tax Information
The Fund’s distributions may be taxable as ordinary income or capital gain. If you are investing through a tax-advantaged account, such as an IRA or an employer-sponsored retirement or savings plan, special tax rules apply.
Payments to Financial Intermediaries
The Fund and its investment advisor do not pay financial intermediaries for sales of Fund shares.
6

Vanguard Pacific Stock Index Fund
Investment Objective
The Fund seeks to track the performance of a benchmark index that measures the investment return of stocks issued by companies located in the major markets of the Pacific region.
Fees and Expenses
The following table describes the fees and expenses you may pay if you buy, hold, and sell Institutional Shares of the Fund. You may pay other fees, such as brokerage commissions and other fees to financial intermediaries, which are not reflected in the table and example below.
Shareholder Fees
(Fees paid directly from your investment)
 
Sales Charge (Load) Imposed on Purchases
None
Purchase Fee
None
Sales Charge (Load) Imposed on Reinvested Dividends
None
Redemption Fee
None
Annual Fund Operating Expenses
(Expenses that you pay each year as a percentage of the value of your investment)
 
Management Fees
0.06%
12b-1 Distribution Fee
None
Other Expenses
0.02%
Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses
0.08%
7

Example
The following example is intended to help you compare the cost of investing in the Fund’s Institutional Shares with the cost of investing in other mutual funds. It illustrates the hypothetical expenses that you would incur over various periods if you were to invest $10,000 in the Fund's shares. This example assumes that the shares provide a return of 5% each year and that total annual fund operating expenses remain as stated in the preceding table. You would incur these hypothetical expenses whether or not you were to redeem your investment at the end of the given period. Although your actual costs may be higher or lower, based on these assumptions your costs would be:
1 Year
3 Years
5 Years
10 Years
$8
$26
$45
$103
Portfolio Turnover
The Fund pays transaction costs, such as commissions, when it buys and sells securities (or “turns over” its portfolio). A higher portfolio turnover rate may indicate higher transaction costs and may result in more taxes when Fund shares are held in a taxable account. These costs, which are not reflected in annual fund operating expenses or in the previous expense example, reduce the Fund's performance. During the most recent fiscal year, the Fund's portfolio turnover rate was 4% of the average value of its portfolio.
Principal Investment Strategies
The Fund employs an indexing investment approach by investing all, or substantially all, of its assets in the common stocks included in the FTSE Developed Asia Pacific All Cap Index. The FTSE Developed Asia Pacific All Cap Index is a market-capitalization weighted index that is made up of approximately 2,373 common stocks of large-, mid-, and small-cap companies located in Japan, Korea, Australia, Hong Kong, Singapore, and New Zealand.
Principal Risks
An investment in the Fund could lose money over short or long periods of time. You should expect the Fund's share price and total return to fluctuate within a wide range. The Fund is subject to the following risks, which could affect the Fund's performance:
•  Stock market risk , which is the chance that stock prices overall will decline. Stock markets tend to move in cycles, with periods of rising prices and periods of falling prices. The Fund’s investments in foreign stocks can be riskier than U.S. stock investments. Foreign stocks may be more volatile and less liquid than U.S. stocks. The prices of foreign stocks and the prices of U.S. stocks may move in
8

opposite directions. In addition, the Fund’s target index may, at times, become focused in stocks of a particular market sector, which would subject the Fund to proportionately higher exposure to the risks of that sector.
•  Country/regional risk , which is the chance that world events—such as political upheaval, financial troubles, or natural disasters—will adversely affect the value of securities issued by companies in foreign countries or regions. The Index’s, and therefore the Fund’s, heavy exposure to Japan, Australia, and Korea subjects the Fund to a higher degree of country risk than that of more geographically diversified international funds.
•  Currency risk , which is the chance that the value of a foreign investment, measured in U.S. dollars, will decrease because of unfavorable changes in currency exchange rates.
An investment in the Fund is not a deposit of a bank and is not insured or guaranteed by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation or any other government agency.
Annual Total Returns
The following bar chart and table are intended to help you understand the risks of investing in the Fund. The bar chart shows how the performance of the Fund‘s Institutional Shares has varied from one calendar year to another over the periods shown. The table shows how the average annual total returns of the Institutional Shares compare with those of the Fund's target index and other comparative indexes, which have investment characteristics similar to those of the Fund. The Spliced Pacific Stock Index reflects the performance of the MSCI Pacific Index through March 26, 2013; the FTSE Developed Asia Pacific Index through September 30, 2015; and the FTSE Developed Asia Pacific All Cap Index thereafter. Returns for the FTSE Indexes shown are adjusted for withholding taxes applicable to U.S.-based mutual funds organized as Delaware statutory trusts. Keep in mind that the Fund's past performance (before and after taxes) does not indicate how the Fund will perform in the future. Updated performance information is available on our website at vanguard.com/performance or by calling Vanguard toll-free at 800-662-7447.
9

Annual Total Returns — Vanguard Pacific Stock Index Fund Institutional Shares
During the periods shown in the bar chart, the highest and lowest returns for a calendar quarter were:
 
Total Return
Quarter
Highest
18.09%
December 31, 2020
Lowest
-20.88%
March 31, 2020
Average Annual Total Returns for Periods Ended December 31, 2020
 
1 Year
5 Years
10 Years
Vanguard Pacific Stock Index Fund Institutional Shares
 
 
 
Return Before Taxes
16.55%
9.84%
6.25%
Return After Taxes on Distributions
16.08
9.15
5.57
Return After Taxes on Distributions and Sale of Fund Shares
10.19
7.67
4.85
Comparative Indexes
(reflect no deduction for fees or expenses)
 
 
 
FTSE Developed Asia Pacific All Cap Index
15.93%
9.62%
6.15%
FTSE Developed Asia Pacific Index
16.19
9.83
6.32
Spliced Pacific Stock Index
15.93
9.62
6.24
FTSE Developed Asia Pacific All Cap Fair Market Value Index
16.66
9.86
FTSE Global All Cap ex US Index
11.24
9.07
5.22
Actual after-tax returns depend on your tax situation and may differ from those shown in the preceding table. When after-tax returns are calculated, it is assumed that the shareholder was in the highest individual federal marginal income tax bracket at the time of each distribution of income or capital gains or upon redemption. State and local income taxes are not reflected in the calculations. Please note that after-tax returns are not relevant for a shareholder who holds fund shares in a tax-deferred account, such as an individual retirement account or a 401(k) plan. Also, figures captioned Return After Taxes on Distributions and Sale of Fund Shares may be higher than other figures for the same period if a capital loss occurs upon redemption and results in an assumed tax deduction for the shareholder.
10

Investment Advisor
The Vanguard Group, Inc. (Vanguard)
Portfolio Managers
Michael Perre, Principal of Vanguard. He has co-managed the Fund since 2016.
Jeffrey D. Miller, Portfolio Manager at Vanguard. He has co-managed the Fund since 2016.
Purchase and Sale of Fund Shares
You may purchase or redeem shares online through our website (vanguard.com), by mail (The Vanguard Group, P.O. Box 1110, Valley Forge, PA 19482-1110), or by telephone (800-662-2739). The minimum investment amount required to open and maintain a Fund account for Institutional Shares is $5 million. The minimum investment amount required to add to an existing Fund account is generally $1. If you are investing through an employer-sponsored retirement or savings plan, your plan administrator or your benefits office can provide you with detailed information on how you can invest through your plan.
Tax Information
The Fund’s distributions may be taxable as ordinary income or capital gain. If you are investing through a tax-advantaged account, such as an IRA or an employer-sponsored retirement or savings plan, special tax rules apply.
Payments to Financial Intermediaries
The Fund and its investment advisor do not pay financial intermediaries for sales of Fund shares.
11

Vanguard Emerging Markets Stock Index Fund
Investment Objective
The Fund seeks to track the performance of a benchmark index that measures the investment return of stocks issued by companies located in emerging market countries.
Fees and Expenses
The following table describes the fees and expenses you may pay if you buy, hold, and sell Institutional Shares or Institutional Plus Shares of the Fund. You may pay other fees, such as brokerage commissions and other fees to financial intermediaries, which are not reflected in the table and example below.
Shareholder Fees
(Fees paid directly from your investment)
 
Institutional Shares
Institutional Plus Shares
Sales Charge (Load) Imposed on Purchases
None
None
Purchase Fee
None
None
Sales Charge (Load) Imposed on Reinvested
Dividends
None
None
Redemption Fee
None
None
Annual Fund Operating Expenses
(Expenses that you pay each year as a percentage of the value of your investment)
 
Institutional Shares
Institutional Plus Shares
Management Fees
0.08%
0.06%
12b-1 Distribution Fee
None
None
Other Expenses
0.02%
0.02%
Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses
0.10%
0.08%
12

Examples
The following examples are intended to help you compare the cost of investing in the Fund’s Institutional Shares or Institutional Plus Shares with the cost of investing in other mutual funds. They illustrate the hypothetical expenses that you would incur over various periods if you were to invest $10,000 in the Fund's shares. These examples assume that the shares provide a return of 5% each year and that total annual fund operating expenses remain as stated in the preceding table. You would incur these hypothetical expenses whether or not you were to redeem your investment at the end of the given period. Although your actual costs may be higher or lower, based on these assumptions your costs would be:
 
1 Year
3 Years
5 Years
10 Years
Institutional Shares
$10
$32
$56
$128
Institutional Plus Shares
$8
$26
$45
$103
Portfolio Turnover
The Fund pays transaction costs, such as commissions, when it buys and sells securities (or “turns over” its portfolio). A higher portfolio turnover rate may indicate higher transaction costs and may result in more taxes when Fund shares are held in a taxable account. These costs, which are not reflected in annual fund operating expenses or in the previous expense examples, reduce the Fund's performance. During the most recent fiscal year, the Fund's portfolio turnover rate was 10% of the average value of its portfolio.
Principal Investment Strategies
The Fund employs an indexing investment approach designed to track the performance of the FTSE Emerging Markets All Cap China A Inclusion Index, a market-capitalization-weighted index that is made up of approximately 4,125 common stocks of large-, mid-, and small-cap companies located in emerging markets around the world. The Fund invests by sampling the Index, meaning that it holds a broadly diversified collection of securities that, in the aggregate, approximates the Index in terms of key characteristics. These key characteristics include industry weightings and market capitalization, as well as certain financial measures, such as price/earnings ratio and dividend yield.
13

Principal Risks
An investment in the Fund could lose money over short or long periods of time. You should expect the Fund's share price and total return to fluctuate within a wide range. The Fund is subject to the following risks, which could affect the Fund's performance:
•  Stock market risk , which is the chance that stock prices overall will decline. Stock markets tend to move in cycles, with periods of rising prices and periods of falling prices. The Fund’s investments in foreign stocks can be riskier than U.S. stock investments. Foreign stocks may be more volatile and less liquid than U.S. stocks. The prices of foreign stocks and the prices of U.S. stocks may move in opposite directions. In addition, the Fund’s target index may, at times, become focused in stocks of a particular market sector, which would subject the Fund to proportionately higher exposure to the risks of that sector.
•  Emerging markets risk , which is the chance that the stocks of companies located in emerging markets will be substantially more volatile, and substantially less liquid, than the stocks located in more developed foreign markets because, among other factors, emerging markets can have greater custodial and operational risks; less developed legal, tax, regulatory, and accounting systems; and greater political, social, and economic instability than developed markets.
•  Country/regional risk , which is the chance that world events—such as political upheaval, financial troubles, or natural disasters—will adversely affect the value of securities issued by companies in foreign countries or regions. Because the Fund may invest a large portion of its assets in securities of companies located in any one country or region, the Fund’s performance may be hurt disproportionately by the poor performance of its investments in that area.
•  Currency risk , which is the chance that the value of a foreign investment, measured in U.S. dollars, will decrease because of unfavorable changes in currency exchange rates. Currency risk is especially high in emerging markets.
•  China A-shares risk , which is the chance that the Fund may not be able to access a sufficient amount of China A-shares to track its target index. China A-shares are currently only available to foreign investors through the QFII/RQFFI license or the China Stock Connect program.
•  Index sampling risk , which is the chance that the securities selected for the Fund, in the aggregate, will not provide investment performance matching that of the Fund's target index.
An investment in the Fund is not a deposit of a bank and is not insured or guaranteed by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation or any other government agency.
14

Annual Total Returns
The following bar chart and table are intended to help you understand the risks of investing in the Fund. The bar chart shows how the performance of the Fund‘s Institutional Shares has varied from one calendar year to another over the periods shown. The table shows how the average annual total returns of the share classes presented compare with those of the Fund's target index and other comparative indexes, which have investment characteristics similar to those of the Fund. The Spliced Emerging Markets Index reflects the performance of the MSCI Emerging Markets Index through January 9, 2013; the FTSE Emerging Transition Index through June 27, 2013; the FTSE Emerging Index through November 1, 2015; the FTSE Emerging Markets All Cap China A Transition Index through September 18, 2016; and the FTSE Emerging Markets All Cap China A Inclusion Index thereafter. Returns for the FTSE Indexes shown are adjusted for withholding taxes applicable to U.S.-based mutual funds organized as Delaware statutory trusts. Keep in mind that the Fund's past performance (before and after taxes) does not indicate how the Fund will perform in the future. Updated performance information is available on our website at vanguard.com/performance or by calling Vanguard toll-free at 800-662-7447.
Annual Total Returns — Vanguard Emerging Markets Stock Index Fund Institutional Shares
During the periods shown in the bar chart, the highest and lowest returns for a calendar quarter were:
 
Total Return
Quarter
Highest
19.89%
June 30, 2020
Lowest
-24.56%
March 31, 2020
15

Average Annual Total Returns for Periods Ended December 31, 2020
 
1 Year
5 Years
10 Years
Vanguard Emerging Markets Stock Index Fund
Institutional Shares
 
 
 
Return Before Taxes
15.26%
11.74%
3.16%
Return After Taxes on Distributions
14.61
10.93
2.46
Return After Taxes on Distributions and Sale of Fund Shares
9.30
9.13
2.28
Vanguard Emerging Markets Stock Index Fund
Institutional Plus Shares
 
 
 
Return Before Taxes
15.29%
11.76%
3.18%
Comparative Indexes
(reflect no deduction for fees or expenses)
 
 
 
FTSE Emerging Markets All Cap China A Inclusion Index
15.51%
11.38%
3.36%
FTSE Emerging Index
15.17
12.40
3.45
Spliced Emerging Markets Index
15.51
11.67
3.22
FTSE Emerging Markets All Cap China A Inclusion Fair
Market Value Index
15.43
11.45
3.36
FTSE Global All Cap ex US Index
11.24
9.07
5.22
Actual after-tax returns depend on your tax situation and may differ from those shown in the preceding table. When after-tax returns are calculated, it is assumed that the shareholder was in the highest individual federal marginal income tax bracket at the time of each distribution of income or capital gains or upon redemption. State and local income taxes are not reflected in the calculations. Please note that after-tax returns are shown only for the Institutional Shares and may differ for each share class. After-tax returns are not relevant for a shareholder who holds fund shares in a tax-deferred account, such as an individual retirement account or a 401(k) plan. Also, figures captioned Return After Taxes on Distributions and Sale of Fund Shares may be higher than other figures for the same period if a capital loss occurs upon redemption and results in an assumed tax deduction for the shareholder.
Investment Advisor
The Vanguard Group, Inc. (Vanguard)
Portfolio Managers
Michael Perre, Principal of Vanguard. He has managed the Fund since 2008 (co-managed since 2016).
Jeffrey D. Miller, Portfolio Manager at Vanguard. He has co-managed the Fund since 2016.
16

Purchase and Sale of Fund Shares
You may purchase or redeem shares online through our website (vanguard.com), by mail (The Vanguard Group, P.O. Box 1110, Valley Forge, PA 19482-1110), or by telephone (800-662-2739). The minimum investment amount required to open and maintain a Fund account for Institutional Shares or Institutional Plus Shares is $5 million or $100 million, respectively. The minimum investment amount required to add to an existing Fund account is generally $1. If you are investing through an employer-sponsored retirement or savings plan, your plan administrator or your benefits office can provide you with detailed information on how you can invest through your plan.
Tax Information
The Fund’s distributions may be taxable as ordinary income or capital gain. If you are investing through a tax-advantaged account, such as an IRA or an employer-sponsored retirement or savings plan, special tax rules apply.
Payments to Financial Intermediaries
The Fund and its investment advisor do not pay financial intermediaries for sales of Fund shares.
17

Investing in Index Funds
What Is Indexing?
Indexing is an investment strategy for tracking the performance of a specified market benchmark, or “index.” An index is a group of securities whose overall performance is used as a standard to measure the investment performance of a particular market. There are many types of indexes. Some represent entire markets—such as the U.S. stock market or the U.S. bond market. Other indexes cover market segments—such as small-capitalization stocks or short-term bonds. One cannot invest directly in an index.
The index sponsor determines the securities to include in the index and the weighting of each security in the index. Under normal circumstances, the index sponsor will rebalance an index on a regular schedule. An index sponsor may carry out additional ad hoc index rebalances or delay or cancel a scheduled rebalance. Generally, the index sponsor does not provide any warranty, or accept any liability, with respect to the quality, accuracy, or completeness of either the target index or its related data. Errors made by the index sponsor may occur from time to time and may not be identified by the index sponsor for a period of time or at all. Vanguard does not provide any warranty or guarantee against such errors. Therefore, the gains, losses, or costs associated with the index sponsor’s errors will generally be borne by the index fund and its shareholders.
An index fund seeks to hold all, or a representative sample, of the securities that make up its target index. Index funds attempt to mirror the performance of the target index, for better or worse. However, an index fund generally does not perform exactly like its target index. For example, index funds have operating expenses and transaction costs. Market indexes do not, and therefore they will usually have a slight performance advantage over funds that track them. The ability of an index fund to match its performance to that of its target index can also be impacted by, among other things, the timing and size of cash flows and the size of the fund. Market disruptions and regulatory restrictions could also have an adverse effect on a fund’s ability to adjust its exposure to the required levels in order to track the index.
Index funds typically have the following characteristics:
•  Variety of investments . Depending on a fund’s benchmark index, the fund may invest in the securities of a variety of companies, industries, and/or governments or government agencies.
•  Relative performance consistency . Because they seek to track market benchmarks, index funds usually do not perform dramatically better or worse than their benchmarks.
•  Low cost . Index funds are generally inexpensive to run compared with actively managed funds. They have low or no research costs and typically keep trading activity—and thus brokerage commissions and other transaction costs—to a minimum compared with actively managed funds.
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More on the Funds
This prospectus describes the principal risks you would face as a Fund shareholder. It is important to keep in mind one of the main principles of investing: generally, the higher the risk of losing money, the higher the potential reward. The reverse, also, is generally true: the lower the risk, the lower the potential reward. As you consider an investment in any mutual fund, you should take into account your personal tolerance for fluctuations in the securities markets. Look for this   symbol throughout the prospectus. It is used to mark detailed information about the more significant risks that you would confront as a Fund shareholder. To highlight terms and concepts important to mutual fund investors, we have provided Plain Talk® explanations along the way. Reading the prospectus will help you decide whether a Fund is the right investment for you. We suggest that you keep this prospectus for future reference.
Share Class Overview
This prospectus offers the Funds‘ Institutional Shares and Institutional Plus Shares for the European Stock Index Fund and the Emerging Markets Stock Index Fund, which are generally for investors who invest a minimum of $5 million and $100 million, respectively. A separate prospectus offers the Funds' AdmiralTM Shares, which generally have an investment minimum of $3,000, and Investor Shares, which are generally available only to Vanguard funds that operate as funds of funds and to certain retirement plan clients that receive recordkeeping services from Vanguard. In addition, each Fund issues ETF Shares (an exchange-traded class of shares), which are also offered through a separate prospectus.
All share classes offered by a Fund have the same investment objective, strategies, and policies. However, different share classes have different expenses; as a result, their investment returns will differ.
Plain Talk About Costs of Investing
Costs are an important consideration in choosing a mutual fund. That is
because you, as a shareholder, pay a proportionate share of the costs of
operating a fund and any transaction costs incurred when the fund buys or
sells securities. These costs can erode a substantial portion of the gross
income or the capital appreciation a fund achieves. Even seemingly small
differences in expenses can, over time, have a dramatic effect on a
fund’s performance.
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The following sections explain the principal investment strategies and policies that each Fund uses in pursuit of its investment objective. The Funds' board of trustees, which oversees each Fund's management, may change investment strategies or policies in the interest of shareholders without a shareholder vote, unless those strategies or policies are designated as fundamental. Note that each Fund’s investment objective is not fundamental and may be changed without a shareholder vote. Under normal circumstances, each Fund will invest at least 80% of its assets in the types of stocks indicated by its name. A Fund may change its 80% policy or indexing strategy only upon 60 days‘ notice to shareholders.
Market Exposure
To track their target indexes as closely as possible, the Funds attempt to remain fully invested in the foreign stocks included in their particular indexes.
Plain Talk About International Investing
U.S. investors who invest in foreign securities will encounter risks not
typically associated with U.S. companies because foreign stock and bond
markets operate differently from the U.S. markets. For instance, foreign
companies and governments may not be subject to the same or similar
accounting, auditing, legal, tax, and financial reporting standards and
practices as U.S. companies and the U.S. government, and their stocks and
bonds may not be as liquid as those of similar U.S. entities. In addition,
foreign stock exchanges, brokers, companies, bond markets, and dealers
may be subject to less government supervision and regulation than their
counterparts in the United States. These factors, among others, could
negatively affect the returns U.S. investors receive from foreign investments.
Each Fund is subject to stock market risk, which is the chance that stock prices overall will decline. Stock markets tend to move in cycles, with periods of rising prices and periods of falling prices. The Fund’s investments in foreign stocks can be riskier than U.S. stock investments. Foreign stocks may be more volatile and less liquid than U.S. stocks. The prices of foreign stocks and the prices of U.S. stocks may move in opposite directions. In addition, the Fund’s target index may, at times, become focused in stocks of a particular market sector, which would subject the Fund to proportionately higher exposure to the risks of that sector.
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Stocks of publicly traded companies are often classified according to market capitalization, which is the market value of a company’s outstanding shares. These classifications typically include small-cap, mid-cap, and large-cap. It is important to understand that there are no “official” definitions of small-, mid-, and large-cap, even among Vanguard fund advisors, and that market capitalization ranges can change over time.
Each Fund is subject to country/regional risk and currency risk. Country/regional risk is the chance that world events—such as political upheaval, financial troubles, or natural disasters—will adversely affect the value of securities issued by companies in foreign countries or regions. Because each Fund may invest a large portion of its assets in securities of companies located in any one country or region, the Fund‘s performance may be hurt disproportionately by the poor performance of its investments in that area. Currency risk is the chance that the value of a foreign investment, measured in U.S. dollars, will decrease because of unfavorable changes in currency exchange rates. Country/regional risk and currency risk are especially high in emerging markets.
The Emerging Markets Stock Index Fund is subject to emerging markets risk, which is the chance that the stocks of companies located in emerging markets will be substantially more volatile, and substantially less liquid, than the stocks of companies located in more developed foreign markets because, among other factors, emerging markets can have greater custodial and operational risks; less developed legal, tax, regulatory, and accounting systems; and greater political, social, and economic instability than developed markets.
The Emerging Markets Stock Index Fund is subject to China A-shares risk, which is the chance that the Fund may not be able to access a sufficient amount of China A-shares to track its target index. China A-shares are currently only available to foreign investors through the QFII/RQFFI license or through the China Stock Connect program.
China A-shares (A-shares) are shares of mainland Chinese companies that are traded locally on the Shanghai and Shenzhen stock exchanges. In order for foreign investors to purchase A-shares, a Qualified Foreign Institutional Investor (QFII) or Renminbi QFII (RQFII) license is required. A-shares are also available to foreign investors through the China Stock Connect program (Stock Connect), subject to daily quota limitations. It is possible that the A-shares available to the Fund as a foreign investor may not be sufficient to meet the Fund’s investment needs. In this situation, the Fund may underweight A-shares relative to its target index or seek an alternative method of economic exposure, such as by purchasing other classes of securities or depositary receipts or by utilizing derivatives. These options could increase the Fund’s index sampling risk or
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investment cost. Additionally, investing in A-shares generally increases emerging markets risk due in part to government and issuer market controls and the developing settlement and legal systems.
Plain Talk About Regional Versus Broad International Investing
Regional funds are international funds that invest in a particular geographical
region, such as Europe or the Pacific Basin. Because they concentrate their
holdings in a single region, these funds typically have higher share price
volatility than broadly diversified international stock funds (which, by
investing in many different foreign markets, may offset losses from one
country with gains from another at any given time).
Market disruptions can adversely affect local and global markets as well as normal market conditions and operations. Any such disruptions could have an adverse impact on the value of a Fund's investments and Fund performance.
Security Selection
Each Fund attempts to track the investment performance of a benchmark index that measures the return of a particular market segment. Vanguard European Stock Index Fund and Vanguard Pacific Stock Index Fund use the replication method of indexing, meaning that each Fund generally holds the same stocks as its target index and in approximately the same proportions. Vanguard Emerging Markets Stock Index Fund uses the sampling method of indexing, meaning that the Fund’s advisor, using computer programs, selects from the target index a representative sample of securities that will resemble the target index in terms of key risk factors and other characteristics. These include industry weightings, market capitalization, and other financial characteristics of stocks.
European Stock Index Fund. The Fund invests in the common stocks included in the FTSE Developed Europe All Cap Index, which is made up of approximately 1,267 common stocks of large-, mid-, and small-cap companies located in 16 European countries. Four countries—the United Kingdom, France, Switzerland, and Germany— represent a large portion of the Index. The other countries represented in the Index are much less significant to the Index and, consequently, to the Fund. The Fund’s heavy exposure to four countries subjects the Fund to a higher degree of country risk than that of more geographically diversified international funds.
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Pacific Stock Index Fund. The Fund invests in the common stocks included in the FTSE Developed Asia Pacific All Cap Index, which is made up of approximately 2,373 common stocks of large-, mid-, and small-cap Pacific Basin companies. The Japanese, Australian, and Korean stock markets represent a large portion of the Index. The other markets represented in the Index are Hong Kong, Singapore, and New Zealand. The Fund’s large investments in the Japanese, Australian, and Korean stock markets subjects the Fund to a higher degree of country risk than that of more geographically diversified international funds.
Emerging Markets Stock Index Fund. The Fund invests in the common stocks included in the FTSE Emerging Markets All Cap China A Inclusion Index, which is made up of approximately 4,125 common stocks of large-, mid-, and small-cap companies located in emerging markets around the world and is part of the FTSE China A Inclusion indexes, which contain FTSE China A All Cap Index securities adjusted for the aggregate approved QFII and RQFII quotas available to foreign investors. The Fund invests by sampling the Index, meaning that it holds a broadly diversified collection of securities that, in the aggregate, approximates the Index in terms of key characteristics. These key characteristics include industry weightings and market capitalization, as well as certain financial measures, such as price/earnings ratio and dividend yield.
Emerging markets can be substantially more volatile, and substantially less liquid, than both U.S. markets and more developed foreign markets. Therefore, the Fund may expose investors to a higher degree of volatility and illiquidity than funds that invest in more developed markets.
Depositary receipts. Each Fund, in most cases, will obtain economic exposure to stocks of its target index (component securities) by investing directly in the component securities. However, each Fund reserves the right to obtain economic exposure to component securities indirectly by purchasing depositary receipts (also sold as participatory notes) of the component securities. Depositary receipts are securities that are listed on exchanges or quoted in over-the-counter markets in one country but represent shares of issuers domiciled in another country. Generally, a Fund will hold depositary receipts only when the advisor believes that the Fund would benefit from holding the depositary receipt, rather than the underlying component security. For example, a Fund might opt to hold depositary receipts if the foreign market in which a stock trades does not provide adequate protection to the rights of foreign investors or if government regulators place restrictions on the free flow of capital or currency. Each Fund treats depositary receipts that represent interests in component securities as component securities for purposes of any requirements related to the percentage of component securities held in the Fund’s portfolio.
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Other Investment Policies and Risks
Each Fund reserves the right to substitute a different index for the index it currently tracks if the current index is discontinued, if the Fund's agreement with the sponsor of its target index is terminated, or for any other reason determined in good faith by the Fund’s board of trustees. In any such instance, the substitute index would represent the same market segment as the current index.
Each Fund may invest, to a limited extent, in equity futures and options contracts, warrants, convertible securities, and swap agreements, all of which are types of derivatives. Generally speaking, a derivative is a financial contract whose value is based on the value of a financial asset (such as a stock, a bond, or a currency), a physical asset (such as gold, oil, or wheat), a market index, or a reference rate. Investments in derivatives may subject the Fund to risks different from, and possibly greater than, those of investments directly in the underlying securities or assets. The Fund will not use derivatives for speculation or for the purpose of leveraging (magnifying) investment returns. The Emerging Markets Stock Index Fund may use derivatives as an alternative method of economic exposure to China A-shares.
The Funds may enter into foreign currency exchange forward contracts, which are a type of derivative, in order to maintain the same currency exposure as its respective index. A foreign currency exchange forward contract is an agreement to buy or sell a currency at a specific price on a specific date, usually 30, 60, or 90 days in the future. In other words, the contract guarantees an exchange rate on a given date. These contracts, however, would not prevent the Fund’s securities from falling in value as a result of risks other than unfavorable currency exchange movements. The Funds may use these contracts to gain currency exposure when investing in equity futures and to settle trades in a foreign currency.
Each Fund’s target index is maintained by FTSE Group (FTSE), a widely known global index provider.
Cash Management
Each Fund's daily cash balance may be invested in Vanguard Market Liquidity Fund and/or Vanguard Municipal Cash Management Fund (each, a CMT Fund), which are low-cost money market funds. When investing in a CMT Fund, each Fund bears its proportionate share of the expenses of the CMT Fund in which it invests. Vanguard receives no additional revenue from Fund assets invested in a CMT Fund.
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Methods Used to Meet Redemption Requests
Under normal circumstances, each Fund typically expects to meet redemptions with positive cash flows. When this is not an option, each Fund seeks to maintain its risk exposure by selling a cross section of the Fund’s holdings to meet redemptions, while also factoring in transaction costs. Additionally, a Fund may work with larger clients to implement their redemptions in a manner that is least disruptive to the portfolio; see “Potentially disruptive redemptions” under Redeeming Shares in the Investing With Vanguard section.
Under certain circumstances, including under stressed market conditions, there are additional tools that each Fund may use in order to meet redemptions, including advancing the settlement of market trades with counterparties to match investor redemption payments or delaying settlement of an investor’s transaction to match trade settlement within regulatory requirements. A Fund may also suspend payment of redemption proceeds for up to seven days; see “Emergency circumstances” under Redeeming Shares in the Investing With Vanguard section. Additionally under these unusual circumstances, a Fund may borrow money (subject to certain regulatory conditions and if available under board-approved procedures) through an interfund lending facility; through a bank line-of-credit, including a joint committed credit facility; or through an uncommitted line-of-credit from Vanguard in order to meet redemption requests.
Temporary Investment Measures
Each Fund may temporarily depart from its normal investment policies and strategies when the advisor believes that doing so is in the Fund's best interest, so long as the strategy or policy employed is consistent with the Fund's investment objective. For instance, the Fund may invest beyond its normal limits in derivatives or exchange-traded funds that are consistent with the Fund's investment objective when those instruments are more favorably priced or provide needed liquidity, as might be the case when the Fund receives large cash flows that it cannot prudently invest immediately.
Frequent Trading or Market-Timing
Background. Some investors try to profit from strategies involving frequent trading of mutual fund shares, such as market-timing. For funds holding foreign securities, investors may try to take advantage of an anticipated difference between the price of the fund’s shares and price movements in overseas markets, a practice also known as time-zone arbitrage. Investors also may try to engage in frequent trading of funds holding investments such as small-cap stocks and high-yield bonds. As money is shifted into and out of a fund by a shareholder engaging in frequent trading, the fund incurs costs for buying and selling securities, resulting in increased brokerage and administrative costs.
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These costs are borne by all fund shareholders, including the long-term investors who do not generate the costs. In addition, frequent trading may interfere with an advisor’s ability to efficiently manage the fund.
Policies to address frequent trading. The Vanguard funds (other than money market funds and short-term bond funds, but including Vanguard Short-Term Inflation-Protected Securities Index Fund) do not knowingly accommodate frequent trading. The board of trustees of each Vanguard fund (other than money market funds and short-term bond funds, but including Vanguard Short-Term Inflation-Protected Securities Index Fund) has adopted policies and procedures reasonably designed to detect and discourage frequent trading and, in some cases, to compensate the fund for the costs associated with it. These policies and procedures do not apply to ETF Shares because frequent trading in ETF Shares generally does not disrupt portfolio management or otherwise harm fund shareholders. Although there is no assurance that Vanguard will be able to detect or prevent frequent trading or market-timing in all circumstances, the following policies have been adopted to address these issues:
• Each Vanguard fund reserves the right to reject any purchase request—including exchanges from other Vanguard funds—without notice and regardless of size. For example, a purchase request could be rejected because the investor has a history of frequent trading or if Vanguard determines that such purchase may negatively affect a fund’s operation or performance.
• Each Vanguard fund (other than money market funds and short-term bond funds, but including Vanguard Short-Term Inflation-Protected Securities Index Fund) generally prohibits, except as otherwise noted in the Investing With Vanguard section, an investor’s purchases or exchanges into a fund account for 30 calendar days after the investor has redeemed or exchanged out of that fund account.
• Certain Vanguard funds charge shareholders purchase and/or redemption fees on transactions.
See the Investing With Vanguard section of this prospectus for further details on Vanguard’s transaction policies.
Each Vanguard fund (other than retail and government money market funds), in determining its net asset value, will use fair-value pricing when appropriate, as described in the Share Price section. Fair-value pricing may reduce or eliminate the profitability of certain frequent-trading strategies.
Do not invest with Vanguard if you are a market-timer.
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Turnover Rate
Although each Fund generally seeks to invest for the long term, each Fund may sell securities regardless of how long they have been held. Generally, an index fund sells securities in response to redemption requests from shareholders of conventional (not exchange-traded) shares or to changes in the composition of its target index. The Financial Highlights section of this prospectus shows historical turnover rates for the Funds. A turnover rate of 100%, for example, would mean that a Fund had sold and replaced securities valued at 100% of its net assets within a one-year period. In general, the greater the turnover rate, the greater the impact transaction costs will have on a fund’s return. Also, funds with high turnover rates may be more likely to generate capital gains, including short-term capital gains, that must be distributed to shareholders and will be taxable to shareholders investing through a taxable account.
The Funds and Vanguard
Each Fund is a member of The Vanguard Group, a family of over 200 funds. All of the funds that are members of The Vanguard Group (other than funds of funds) share in the expenses associated with administrative services and business operations, such as personnel, office space, and equipment.
Vanguard Marketing Corporation provides marketing services to the funds. Although fund shareholders do not pay sales commissions or 12b-1 distribution fees, each fund (other than a fund of funds) or each share class of a fund (in the case of a fund with multiple share classes) pays its allocated share of the Vanguard funds’ marketing costs.
Plain Talk About Vanguard’s Unique Corporate Structure
The Vanguard Group is owned jointly by the funds it oversees and thus
indirectly by the shareholders in those funds. Most other mutual funds are
operated by management companies that are owned by third parties—either
public or private stockholders—and not by the funds they serve.
Investment Advisor
The Vanguard Group, Inc., P.O. Box 2600, Valley Forge, PA 19482, which began operations in 1975, serves as advisor to the Funds through its Equity Index Group. As of October 31, 2020, Vanguard served as advisor for approximately
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$5.2 trillion in assets. Vanguard provides investment advisory services to the Funds pursuant to the Funds’ Service Agreement and subject to the supervision and oversight of the trustees and officers of the Funds.
For the fiscal year ended October 31, 2020, the advisory expenses represented an effective annual rate of 0.01% of each Fund’s average net assets.
Under the terms of an SEC exemption, the Funds' board of trustees may, without prior approval from shareholders, change the terms of an advisory agreement with a third-party investment advisor or hire a new third-party investment advisor—either as a replacement for an existing advisor or as an additional advisor. Any significant change in a Fund's advisory arrangements will be communicated to shareholders in writing. As the Funds' sponsor and overall manager, Vanguard may provide investment advisory services to a Fund at any time. Vanguard may also recommend to the board of trustees that an advisor be hired, terminated, or replaced or that the terms of an existing advisory agreement be revised. The Funds have filed an application seeking a similar SEC exemption with respect to investment advisors that are wholly owned subsidiaries of Vanguard. If the exemption is granted, the Funds may rely on the new SEC relief.
For a discussion of why the board of trustees approved each Fund's investment advisory arrangement, see the most recent semiannual reports to shareholders covering the fiscal period ended April 30.
The managers primarily responsible for the day-to-day management of the Funds are:
Christine D. Franquin, Principal of Vanguard. She has managed investment portfolios since joining Vanguard in 2000 and has co-managed the European Stock Index Fund since 2016. Education: B.A., Universitaire Faculteiten Sint-Ignatius Antwerpen, Belgium; J.D., University of Liege, Belgium; M.S., Clark University.
Justin E. Hales, CFA, CFP, Portfolio Manager at Vanguard. He has been with Vanguard since 2004, has worked in investment management since 2006, has managed investment portfolios since 2014, and has co-managed the European Stock Index Fund since 2016. Education: B.A., University of Maryland.
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Jeffrey D. Miller, Portfolio Manager at Vanguard. He has been with Vanguard since 1999, has co-managed the Pacific Stock Index Fund and the Emerging Markets Stock Index Fund since 2016. Education: B.A., The Pennsylvania State University; M.B.A., Drexel University.
Michael Perre, Principal of Vanguard. He has been with Vanguard since 1990, has managed investment portfolios since 1999, has managed the Emerging Markets Stock Index Fund since 2008 (co-managed since 2016), and has co-managed the Pacific Stock Index Fund since 2016. Education: B.A., Saint Joseph’s University; M.B.A., Villanova University.
The Funds' Statement of Additional Information provides information about each portfolio manager’s compensation, other accounts under management, and ownership of shares of the Funds.
Dividends, Capital Gains, and Taxes
Fund Distributions
Each Fund distributes to shareholders virtually all of its net income (interest and dividends, less expenses) as well as any net short-term or long-term capital gains realized from the sale of its holdings. From time to time, each Fund may also make distributions that are treated as a return of capital. Income dividends generally are distributed quarterly in March, June, September, and December; capital gains distributions, if any, generally occur annually in December. In addition, each Fund may occasionally make a supplemental distribution at some other time during the year.
You can receive distributions of income or capital gains in cash, or you can have them automatically reinvested in more shares of the Fund. However, if you are investing through an employer-sponsored retirement or savings plan, your distributions will be automatically reinvested in additional Fund shares.
From time to time, a Fund may pay out higher-than-expected distributions. As an index fund, the Fund must adjust its holdings to reflect changes in its target index. In some cases, such changes may force an index fund to sell securities that have appreciated in value, thereby realizing a capital gain that must be distributed to shareholders. A security may move out of an index for a number of reasons, including a merger or acquisition, a substantial change in the market capitalization of the issuer, or the movement of a country from emerging market to developed market status.
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Plain Talk About Distributions
As a shareholder, you are entitled to your portion of a fund’s income from
interest and dividends as well as capital gains from the fund’s sale of
investments. Income consists of both the dividends that the fund earns from
any stock holdings and the interest it receives from any money market and
bond investments. Capital gains are realized whenever the fund sells
securities for higher prices than it paid for them. These capital gains are
either short-term or long-term, depending on whether the fund held the
securities for one year or less or for more than one year.
Basic Tax Points
Investors in taxable accounts should be aware of the following basic federal income tax points:
• Distributions are taxable to you whether or not you reinvest these amounts in additional Fund shares.
• Distributions declared in December—if paid to you by the end of January—are taxable as if received in December.
• Any dividend distribution or short-term capital gains distribution that you receive is taxable to you as ordinary income. If you are an individual and meet certain holding-period requirements with respect to your Fund shares, you may be eligible for reduced tax rates on “qualified dividend income,” if any, or a special tax deduction on “qualified REIT dividends,” if any, distributed by the Fund.
• Any distribution of net long-term capital gains is taxable to you as long-term capital gains, no matter how long you have owned shares in the Fund.
• Capital gains distributions may vary considerably from year to year as a result of the Funds' normal investment activities and cash flows.
• Your cost basis in the Fund will be decreased by the amount of any return of capital that you receive. This, in turn, will affect the amount of any capital gain or loss that you realize when selling or exchanging your Fund shares.
• Return of capital distributions generally are not taxable to you until your cost basis has been reduced to zero. If your cost basis is at zero, return of capital distributions will be treated as capital gains.
• A sale or exchange of Fund shares is a taxable event. This means that you may have a capital gain to report as income, or a capital loss to report as a deduction, when you complete your tax return.
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• Any conversion between classes of shares of the same fund is a nontaxable event. By contrast, an exchange between classes of shares of different funds is a taxable event.
• Vanguard (or your intermediary) will send you a statement each year showing the tax status of all of your distributions.
Individuals, trusts, and estates whose income exceeds certain threshold amounts are subject to a 3.8% Medicare contribution tax on “net investment income.” Net investment income takes into account distributions paid by the Fund and capital gains from any sale or exchange of Fund shares.
Dividend distributions and capital gains distributions that you receive, as well as your gains or losses from any sale or exchange of Fund shares, may be subject to state and local income taxes.
Each Fund may be subject to foreign taxes or foreign tax withholding on dividends, interest, and some capital gains that it receives on foreign securities. If at the end of the taxable year more than 50% of the value of a Fund’s assets consists of securities of foreign corporations, and the Fund makes a special election, you will generally be required to include in your income, for U.S. federal income tax purposes, your share of the qualifying foreign income taxes paid by the Fund in respect of its foreign portfolio securities. There is no assurance that a Fund will make this election for a taxable year, even if it is eligible to do so. You may qualify for an offsetting credit or deduction under U.S. tax laws for any amount designated as your portion of a Fund’s foreign tax obligations, provided that you meet certain requirements. See your tax advisor or IRS publications for more information.
This prospectus provides general tax information only. If you are investing through a tax-advantaged account, such as an IRA or an employer-sponsored retirement or savings plan, special tax rules apply. Please consult your tax advisor for detailed information about any tax consequences for you.
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Plain Talk About Buying a Dividend
Unless you are a tax-exempt investor or investing through a tax-advantaged
account (such as an IRA or an employer-sponsored retirement or savings
plan), you should consider avoiding a purchase of fund shares shortly before
the fund makes a distribution, because doing so can cost you money in
taxes. This is known as “buying a dividend.” For example: On December 15,
you invest $5,000, buying 250 shares for $20 each. If the fund pays a
distribution of $1 per share on December 16, its share price will drop to $19
(not counting market change). You still have only $5,000 (250 shares x $19 =
$4,750 in share value, plus 250 shares x $1 = $250 in distributions), but you
owe tax on the $250 distribution you received—even if you reinvest it in
more shares. To avoid buying a dividend, check a fund’s distribution schedule
before you invest.
General Information
Backup withholding. By law, Vanguard must withhold 24% of any taxable distributions or redemptions from your account if you do not:
• Provide your correct taxpayer identification number.
• Certify that the taxpayer identification number is correct.
• Confirm that you are not subject to backup withholding.
Similarly, Vanguard (or your intermediary) must withhold taxes from your account if the IRS instructs us to do so.
Foreign investors. Vanguard funds offered for sale in the United States (Vanguard U.S. funds), including the Funds offered in this prospectus, are not widely available outside the United States. Non-U.S. investors should be aware that U.S. withholding and estate taxes and certain U.S. tax reporting requirements may apply to any investments in Vanguard U.S. funds. Foreign investors should visit the non-U.S. investors page on our website at vanguard.com for information on Vanguard’s non-U.S. products.
Invalid addresses. If a dividend distribution or capital gains distribution check mailed to your address of record is returned as undeliverable, Vanguard will automatically reinvest the distribution and all future distributions until you provide us with a valid mailing address. Reinvestments will receive the net asset value calculated on the date of the reinvestment.
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Share Price
Share price, also known as net asset value (NAV), is calculated as of the close of regular trading on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), generally 4 p.m., Eastern time, on each day that the NYSE is open for business (a business day). In the rare event the NYSE experiences unanticipated disruptions and is unavailable at the close of the trading day, NAVs will be calculated as of the close of regular trading on the Nasdaq (or another alternate exchange if the Nasdaq is unavailable, as determined at Vanguard’s discretion), generally 4 p.m., Eastern time. Each share class has its own NAV, which is computed by dividing the total assets, minus liabilities, allocated to the share class by the number of Fund shares outstanding for that class. On U.S. holidays or other days when the NYSE is closed, the NAV is not calculated, and the Funds do not sell or redeem shares. However, on those days the value of a Fund’s assets may be affected to the extent that the Fund holds securities that change in value on those days (such as foreign securities that trade on foreign markets that are open).
Stocks held by a Vanguard fund are valued at their market value when reliable market quotations are readily available from the principal exchange or market on which they are traded. Such securities are generally valued at their official closing price, the last reported sales price, or if there were no sales that day, the mean between the closing bid and asking prices. When a fund determines that market quotations either are not readily available or do not accurately reflect the value of a security, the security is priced at its fair value (the amount that the owner might reasonably expect to receive upon the current sale of the security).
The values of any foreign securities held by a fund are converted into U.S. dollars using an exchange rate obtained from an independent third party as of the close of regular trading on the NYSE. The values of any mutual fund shares, including institutional money market fund shares, held by a fund are based on the NAVs of the shares. The values of any ETF shares or closed-end fund shares held by a fund are based on the market value of the shares.
A fund also will use fair-value pricing if the value of a security it holds has been materially affected by events occurring before the fund's pricing time but after the close of the principal exchange or market on which the security is traded. This most commonly occurs with foreign securities, which may trade on foreign exchanges that close many hours before the fund's pricing time. Intervening events might be company-specific (e.g., earnings report, merger announcement) or country-specific or regional/global (e.g., natural disaster, economic or political news, act of terrorism, interest rate change). Intervening events include price movements in U.S. markets that exceed a specified threshold or that are otherwise deemed to affect the value of foreign securities.
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Fair-value pricing may be used for domestic securities—for example, if (1) trading in a security is halted and does not resume before the fund's pricing time or a security does not trade in the course of a day and (2) the fund holds enough of the security that its price could affect the NAV.
Fair-value prices are determined by Vanguard according to procedures adopted by the board of trustees. When fair-value pricing is employed, the prices of securities used by a fund to calculate the NAV may differ from quoted or published prices for the same securities.
Vanguard fund share prices are published daily on our website at vanguard.com/prices.
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Financial Highlights
Financial highlights information is intended to help you understand a fund’s performance for the past five years (or, if shorter, its period of operations). Certain information reflects financial results for a single fund share. Total return represents the rate that an investor would have earned or lost each period on an investment in a fund or share class (assuming reinvestment of all distributions). This information has been obtained from the financial statements audited by PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, whose report, along with fund financial statements, is included in a fund’s most recent annual report to shareholders. You may obtain a free copy of a fund’s latest annual or semiannual report, which is available upon request.
Vanguard European Stock Index Fund Institutional Shares
 
Year Ended October 31,
For a Share Outstanding Throughout Each Period
2020
2019
2018
2017
2016
Net Asset Value, Beginning of Period
$29.63
$27.65
$31.23
$25.10
$27.79
Investment Operations
 
 
 
 
 
Net Investment Income
0.6671
0.9931
1.0141
0.8731
0.921
Net Realized and Unrealized Gain (Loss) on
Investments
(3.203)
1.998
(3.564)
6.068
(2.719)
Total from Investment Operations
(2.536)
2.991
(2.550)
6.941
(1.798)
Distributions
 
 
 
 
 
Dividends from Net Investment Income
(0.654)
(1.011)
(1.030)
(0.811)
(0.892)
Distributions from Realized Capital Gains
Total Distributions
(0.654)
(1.011)
(1.030)
(0.811)
(0.892)
Net Asset Value, End of Period
$26.44
$29.63
$27.65
$31.23
$25.10
Total Return
–8.54%
11.09%
–8.42%
28.00%
–6.46%
Ratios/Supplemental Data
 
 
 
 
 
Net Assets, End of Period (Millions)
$710
$870
$760
$756
$574
Ratio of Total Expenses to Average Net Assets
0.08%
0.08%
0.08%
0.08%
0.08%
Ratio of Net Investment Income to Average Net
Assets
2.39%
3.51%
3.29%
2.99%
3.53%
Portfolio Turnover Rate2
3%
3%
6%
4%
6%
1
Calculated based on average shares outstanding.
2
Excludes the value of portfolio securities received or delivered as a result of in-kind purchases or redemptions of the fund's capital shares, including ETF Creation Units.
35

Vanguard European Stock Index Fund Institutional Plus Shares
 
Year Ended October 31,
For a Share Outstanding Throughout Each Period
2020
2019
2018
2017
2016
Net Asset Value, Beginning of Period
$132.38
$123.55
$139.48
$112.09
$124.09
Investment Operations
 
 
 
 
 
Net Investment Income
2.9891
4.1971
4.7111
3.9101
4.121
Net Realized and Unrealized Gain (Loss) on
Investments
(14.294)
9.160
(16.018)
27.110
(12.133)
Total from Investment Operations
(11.305)
13.357
(11.307)
31.020
(8.012)
Distributions
 
 
 
 
 
Dividends from Net Investment Income
(2.935)
(4.527)
(4.623)
(3.630)
(3.988)
Distributions from Realized Capital Gains
Total Distributions
(2.935)
(4.527)
(4.623)
(3.630)
(3.988)
Net Asset Value, End of Period
$118.14
$132.38
$123.55
$139.48
$112.09
Total Return
–8.52%
11.08%
–8.36%
28.03%
–6.45%
Ratios/Supplemental Data
 
 
 
 
 
Net Assets, End of Period (Millions)
$70
$106
$170
$122
$99
Ratio of Total Expenses to Average Net Assets
0.07%
0.07%
0.07%
0.07%
0.07%
Ratio of Net Investment Income to Average Net
Assets
2.40%
3.34%
3.30%
3.00%
3.54%
Portfolio Turnover Rate2
3%
3%
6%
4%
6%
1
Calculated based on average shares outstanding.
2
Excludes the value of portfolio securities received or delivered as a result of in-kind purchases or redemptions of the fund's capital shares, including ETF Creation Units.
36

Vanguard Pacific Stock Index Fund Institutional Shares
 
Year Ended October 31,
For a Share Outstanding Throughout Each Period
2020
2019
2018
2017
2016
Net Asset Value, Beginning of Period
$12.91
$12.15
$13.46
$11.34
$10.91
Investment Operations
 
 
 
 
 
Net Investment Income
0.2961
0.3461
0.3641
0.3201
0.275
Net Realized and Unrealized Gain (Loss) on Investments
(0.199)
0.770
(1.323)
2.118
0.424
Total from Investment Operations
0.097
1.116
(0.959)
2.438
0.699
Distributions
 
 
 
 
 
Dividends from Net Investment Income
(0.307)
(0.356)
(0.351)
(0.318)
(0.269)
Distributions from Realized Capital Gains
Total Distributions
(0.307)
(0.356)
(0.351)
(0.318)
(0.269)
Net Asset Value, End of Period
$12.70
$12.91
$12.15
$13.46
$11.34
Total Return
0.72%
9.51%
–7.37%
21.91%
6.61%
Ratios/Supplemental Data
 
 
 
 
 
Net Assets, End of Period (Millions)
$400
$508
$443
$408
$291
Ratio of Total Expenses to Average Net Assets
0.08%
0.08%
0.08%
0.08%
0.08%
Ratio of Net Investment Income to Average Net Assets
2.40%
2.81%
2.66%
2.62%
2.57%
Portfolio Turnover Rate2
4%
4%
4%
3%
4%
1
Calculated based on average shares outstanding.
2
Excludes the value of portfolio securities received or delivered as a result of in-kind purchases or redemptions of the fund's capital shares, including ETF Creation Units.
37

Vanguard Emerging Markets Stock Index Fund Institutional Shares
 
Year Ended October 31,
For a Share Outstanding Throughout Each Period
2020
2019
2018
2017
2016
Net Asset Value, Beginning of Period
$26.55
$23.98
$28.13
$23.82
$22.13
Investment Operations
 
 
 
 
 
Net Investment Income
0.6111
.8881,2
0.7211
0.6591
0.577
Net Realized and Unrealized Gain (Loss) on
Investments
1.415
2.401
(4.198)
4.301
1.683
Total from Investment Operations
2.026
3.289
(3.477)
4.960
2.260
Distributions
 
 
 
 
 
Dividends from Net Investment Income
(0.766)
(0.719)
(0.673)
(0.650)
(0.570)
Distributions from Realized Capital Gains
Total Distributions
(0.766)
(0.719)
(0.673)
(0.650)
(0.570)
Net Asset Value, End of Period
$27.81
$26.55
$23.98
$28.13
$23.82
Total Return
7.76%
13.88%
–12.60%
21.06%
10.42%
Ratios/Supplemental Data
 
 
 
 
 
Net Assets, End of Period (Millions)
$6,592
$6,309
$5,142
$5,647
$4,191
Ratio of Total Expenses to Average Net Assets
0.10%
0.10%
0.10%
0.11%
0.11%
Ratio of Net Investment Income to Average Net
Assets
2.34%
3.43%2
2.55%
2.59%
2.71%
Portfolio Turnover Rate3
10%
9%
11%
6%
13%
1
Calculated based on average shares outstanding.
2
Net investment income per share and the ratio of net investment income to average net assets include $.171 and 0.66%, respectively, resulting from a special dividend from Naspers Ltd. in September 2019.
3
Excludes the value of portfolio securities received or delivered as a result of in-kind purchases or redemptions of the fund’s capital shares, including ETF Creation Units.
38

Vanguard Emerging Markets Stock Index Fund Institutional Plus Shares
 
Year Ended October 31,
For a Share Outstanding Throughout Each Period
2020
2019
2018
2017
2016
Net Asset Value, Beginning of Period
$88.32
$79.77
$93.57
$79.26
$73.61
Investment Operations
 
 
 
 
 
Net Investment Income
2.1231
3.1021,2
2.1821
2.2211
1.928
Net Realized and Unrealized Gain (Loss) on
Investments
4.635
7.869
(13.725)
14.266
5.630
Total from Investment Operations
6.758
10.971
(11.543)
16.487
7.558
Distributions
 
 
 
 
 
Dividends from Net Investment Income
(2.568)
(2.421)
(2.257)
(2.177)
(1.908)
Distributions from Realized Capital Gains
Total Distributions
(2.568)
(2.421)
(2.257)
(2.177)
(1.908)
Net Asset Value, End of Period
$92.51
$88.32
$79.77
$93.57
$79.26
Total Return
7.78%
13.93%
–12.58%
21.04%
10.48%
Ratios/Supplemental Data
 
 
 
 
 
Net Assets, End of Period (Millions)
$4,645
$2,784
$1,973
$3,991
$3,026
Ratio of Total Expenses to Average Net Assets
0.08%
0.08%
0.08%
0.09%
0.09%
Ratio of Net Investment Income to Average Net
Assets
2.45%
3.59%2
2.57%
2.61%
2.73%
Portfolio Turnover Rate3
10%
9%
11%
6%
13%
1
Calculated based on average shares outstanding.
2
Net investment income per share and the ratio of net investment income to average net assets include $.571 and 0.66%, respectively, resulting from a special dividend from Naspers Ltd. in September 2019.
3
Excludes the value of portfolio securities received or delivered as a result of in-kind purchases or redemptions of the fund’s capital shares, including ETF Creation Units.
39

Investing With Vanguard
This section of the prospectus explains the basics of doing business with Vanguard. Vanguard fund shares can be held directly with Vanguard or indirectly through an intermediary, such as a bank, a broker, or an investment advisor. If you hold Vanguard fund shares directly with Vanguard, you should carefully read each topic within this section that pertains to your relationship with Vanguard. If you hold Vanguard fund shares indirectly through an intermediary (including shares held in a brokerage account through Vanguard Brokerage Services®), please see Investing With Vanguard Through Other Firms, and also refer to your account agreement with the intermediary for information about transacting in that account. If you hold Vanguard fund shares through an employer-sponsored retirement or savings plan, please see Employer-Sponsored Plans. Vanguard reserves the right to change the following policies without notice. Please call or check online for current information. See Contacting Vanguard.
For Vanguard fund shares held directly with Vanguard, each fund you hold in an account is a separate “fund account.” For example, if you hold three funds in a nonretirement account titled in your own name, two funds in a nonretirement account titled jointly with your spouse, and one fund in an individual retirement account, you have six fund accounts—and this is true even if you hold the same fund in multiple accounts. Note that each reference to “you” in this prospectus applies to any one or more registered account owners or persons authorized to transact on your account.
Purchasing Shares
Vanguard reserves the right, without notice, to increase or decrease the minimum amount required to open, convert shares to, or maintain a fund account or to add to an existing fund account.
Investment minimums may differ for certain categories of investors.
Account Minimums for Institutional Shares and Institutional Plus Shares
To open and maintain an account. Institutional Shares—$5 million; Institutional Plus Shares—$100 million. If you request Institutional Shares or Institutional Plus Shares when you open a new account but the investment amount does not meet the account minimum for the requested share class, your investment will be placed in another share class of the Fund, as appropriate.
Certain Vanguard institutional clients may meet the minimum investment amount by aggregating separate accounts within the same fund. This aggregation policy does not apply to financial intermediaries.
40

Vanguard may charge additional recordkeeping fees for institutional clients whose accounts are recordkept by Vanguard. Please contact your Vanguard representative to determine whether additional recordkeeping fees apply to your account.
To add to an existing account. Generally $1.
How to Initiate a Purchase Request
Be sure to check Exchanging Shares, Frequent-Trading Limitations, and Other Rules You Should Know before placing your purchase request.
Online. You may open certain types of accounts, request a purchase of shares, and request an exchange through our website or our mobile application if your account is eligible and you are registered for online access.
By telephone. You may call Vanguard to begin the account registration process or request that the account-opening forms be sent to you. You may also call Vanguard to request a purchase of shares in your account or to request an exchange. See Contacting Vanguard.
By mail. You may send Vanguard your account registration form and check to open a new fund account. To add to an existing fund account, you may send your check with an Invest-by-Mail form (from a transaction confirmation or your account statement) or with a deposit slip (available online).
How to Pay for a Purchase
By electronic bank transfer. You may purchase shares of a Vanguard fund through an electronic transfer of money from a bank account. To establish the electronic bank transfer service on an account, you must designate the bank account online, complete a form, or fill out the appropriate section of your account registration form. After the service is set up on your account, you can purchase shares by electronic bank transfer on a regular schedule (Automatic Investment Plan), if eligible, or upon request. Your purchase request can be initiated online (if you are registered for online access), by telephone, or by mail.
By wire. Wiring instructions vary for different types of purchases. Please call Vanguard for instructions and policies on purchasing shares by wire. See Contacting Vanguard.
By check. You may make initial or additional purchases to your fund account by sending a check with a deposit slip or by utilizing our mobile application if your account is eligible and you are registered for online access. Also see How to
41

Initiate a Purchase Request. Make your check payable to Vanguard and include the appropriate fund number (e.g., Vanguard—xx). For a list of Fund numbers (for Funds and share classes in this prospectus), see Additional Information.
By exchange. You may purchase shares of a Vanguard fund using the proceeds from the simultaneous redemption of shares of another Vanguard fund. You may initiate an exchange online (if you are registered for online access), by telephone, or by mail with an exchange form. See Exchanging Shares.
Trade Date
The trade date for any purchase request received in good order will depend on the day and time Vanguard receives your request, the manner in which you are paying, and the type of fund you are purchasing. Your purchase will be executed using the NAV as calculated on the trade date. NAVs are calculated only on days that the NYSE is open for trading (a business day). In the rare event the NYSE experiences unanticipated disruptions and is unavailable at the close of the trading day, NAVs will be calculated as of the close of regular trading on the Nasdaq (or another alternate exchange if the Nasdaq is unavailable, as determined at Vanguard’s discretion), generally 4 p.m., Eastern time. The time selected for NAV calculation in this rare event shall also serve as the conclusion of the trading day. See Share Price.
For purchases by check into all funds other than money market funds and for purchases by exchange, wire, or electronic bank transfer into all funds: If the purchase request is received by Vanguard on a business day before the close of regular trading on the NYSE (generally 4 p.m., Eastern time), the trade date for the purchase will be the same day. If the purchase request is received on a business day after the close of regular trading on the NYSE, or on a nonbusiness day, the trade date for the purchase will be the next business day.
For purchases by check into money market funds: If the purchase request is received by Vanguard on a business day before the close of regular trading on the NYSE (generally 4 p.m., Eastern time), the trade date for the purchase will be the next business day. If the purchase request is received on a business day after the close of regular trading on the NYSE, or on a nonbusiness day, the trade date for the purchase will be the second business day following the day Vanguard receives the purchase request. Because money market instruments must be purchased with federal funds and it takes a money market mutual fund one business day to convert check proceeds into federal funds, the trade date for the purchase will be one business day later than for other funds.
If your purchase request is not accurate and complete, it may be rejected. See Other Rules You Should Know—Good Order.
42

For further information about purchase transactions, consult our website at vanguard.com or see Contacting Vanguard.
Other Purchase Rules You Should Know
Check purchases. All purchase checks must be written in U.S. dollars, be drawn on a U.S. bank, and be accompanied by good order instructions. Vanguard does not accept cash, traveler’s checks, starter checks, or money orders. In addition, Vanguard may refuse checks that are not made payable to Vanguard.
New accounts. We are required by law to obtain from you certain personal information that we will use to verify your identity. If you do not provide the information, we may not be able to open your account. If we are unable to verify your identity, Vanguard reserves the right, without notice, to close your account or take such other steps as we deem reasonable. Certain types of accounts may require additional documentation.
Refused or rejected purchase requests. Vanguard reserves the right to stop selling fund shares or to reject any purchase request at any time and without notice, including, but not limited to, purchases requested by exchange from another Vanguard fund. This also includes the right to reject any purchase request because the investor has a history of frequent trading or because the purchase may negatively affect a fund’s operation or performance.
Large purchases. Call Vanguard before attempting to invest a large dollar amount.
No cancellations. Vanguard will not accept your request to cancel any purchase request once processing has begun. Please be careful when placing a purchase request.
Converting Shares
When a conversion occurs, you receive shares of one class in place of shares of another class of the same fund. At the time of conversion, the dollar value of the “new” shares you receive equals the dollar value of the “old” shares that were converted. In other words, the conversion has no effect on the value of your investment in the fund at the time of the conversion. However, the number of shares you own after the conversion may be greater than or less than the number of shares you owned before the conversion, depending on the NAVs of the two share classes.
43

Vanguard will not accept your request to cancel any self-directed conversion request once processing has begun. Please be careful when placing a conversion request.
A conversion between share classes of the same fund is a nontaxable event.
Trade Date
The trade date for any conversion request received in good order will depend on the day and time Vanguard receives your request. Your conversion will be executed using the NAVs of the different share classes on the trade date. NAVs are calculated only on days that the NYSE is open for trading (a business day). In the rare event the NYSE experiences unanticipated disruptions and is unavailable at the close of the trading day, NAVs will be calculated as of the close of regular trading on the Nasdaq (or another alternate exchange if the Nasdaq is unavailable, as determined at Vanguard’s discretion), generally 4 p.m., Eastern time. The time selected for NAV calculation in this rare event shall also serve as the conclusion of the trading day. See Share Price.
For a conversion request (other than a request to convert to ETF Shares) received by Vanguard on a business day before the close of regular trading on the NYSE (generally 4 p.m., Eastern time), the trade date will be the same day. For a conversion request received on a business day after the close of regular trading on the NYSE, or on a nonbusiness day, the trade date will be the next business day. See Other Rules You Should Know.
Conversions to Institutional Shares or Institutional Plus Shares
You are eligible for a self-directed conversion from another share class to Institutional Shares or Institutional Plus Shares of the same Fund, provided that your account meets all eligibility requirements. You may request a conversion through our website (if you are registered for online access), or you may contact Vanguard by telephone or by mail to request this transaction. Accounts that qualify for Institutional Shares or Institutional Plus Shares will not be automatically converted.
Conversions to ETF Shares
Owners of conventional shares (i.e., not exchange-traded shares) issued by a Fund may convert those shares to ETF Shares of equivalent value of the same fund. Please note that investors who own conventional shares through a 401(k) plan or other employer-sponsored retirement or benefit plan generally may not convert those shares to ETF Shares and should check with their plan sponsor or recordkeeper. ETF Shares, whether acquired through a conversion or
44

purchased on the secondary market, cannot be converted to conventional shares by a shareholder. Also, ETF Shares of one fund cannot be exchanged for ETF Shares of another fund.
ETF Shares must be held in a brokerage account. Thus, before converting conventional shares to ETF Shares, you must have an existing, or open a new, brokerage account. This account may be with Vanguard Brokerage Services or with any other brokerage firm.
Vanguard Brokerage Services does not impose a fee on conversions from conventional shares to Vanguard ETF Shares. However, other brokerage firms may charge a fee to process a conversion. Vanguard reserves the right, in the future, to impose a transaction fee on conversions or to limit, temporarily suspend, or terminate the conversion privilege. For additional information on converting conventional shares to ETF Shares, please contact Vanguard to obtain a prospectus for ETF Shares. See Contacting Vanguard.
Mandatory Conversions to Another Share Class
If an account no longer meets the balance requirements for a share class, Vanguard may automatically convert the shares in the account to another share class, as appropriate. A decline in the account balance because of market movement may result in such a conversion. Vanguard will notify the investor in writing before any mandatory conversion occurs.
Redeeming Shares
How to Initiate a Redemption Request
Be sure to check Exchanging Shares, Frequent-Trading Limitations, and Other Rules You Should Know before placing your redemption request.
Online. You may request a redemption of shares or request an exchange through our website or our mobile application if your account is eligible and you are registered for online access.
By telephone. You may call Vanguard to request a redemption of shares or an exchange. See Contacting Vanguard.
By mail. You may send a form (available online) to Vanguard to redeem from a fund account or to make an exchange.
45

How to Receive Redemption Proceeds
By electronic bank transfer. You may have the proceeds of a fund redemption sent directly to a designated bank account. To establish the electronic bank transfer service on an account, you must designate a bank account online, complete a form, or fill out the appropriate section of your account registration form. After the service is set up on your account, you can redeem shares by electronic bank transfer on a regular schedule (Automatic Withdrawal Plan), if eligible, or upon request. Your redemption request can be initiated online (if you are registered for online access), by telephone, or by mail.
By wire. To receive your proceeds by wire, you may instruct Vanguard to wire your redemption proceeds ($100 minimum) to a previously designated bank account. To establish the wire redemption service, you generally must designate a bank account online, complete a form, or fill out the appropriate section of your account registration form.
Please note that Vanguard charges a $10 wire fee for outgoing wire redemptions. The fee is assessed in addition to, rather than being withheld from, redemption proceeds and is paid directly to the fund in which you invest. For example, if you redeem $100 via a wire, you will receive the full $100, and the $10 fee will be assessed to your fund account through an additional redemption of fund shares. If you redeem your entire fund account, your redemption proceeds will be reduced by the amount of the fee. The wire fee does not apply to accounts held by Flagship and Flagship Select clients; accounts held through intermediaries, including Vanguard Brokerage Services; or accounts held by institutional clients.
By exchange. You may have the proceeds of a Vanguard fund redemption invested directly in shares of another Vanguard fund. You may initiate an exchange online (if you are registered for online access), by telephone, or by mail. See Exchanging Shares.
By check. If you have not chosen another redemption method, Vanguard will mail you a redemption check, generally payable to all registered account owners, normally within two business days of your trade date, and generally to the address of record.
Trade Date
The trade date for any redemption request received in good order will depend on the day and time Vanguard receives your request and the manner in which you are redeeming. Your redemption will be executed using the NAV as calculated on the trade date. NAVs are calculated only on days that the NYSE is open for trading (a business day). In the rare event the NYSE experiences unanticipated
46

disruptions and is unavailable at the close of the trading day, NAVs will be calculated as of the close of regular trading on the Nasdaq (or another alternate exchange if the Nasdaq is unavailable, as determined at Vanguard’s discretion), generally 4 p.m., Eastern time. The time selected for NAV calculation in this rare event shall also serve as the conclusion of the trading day. See Share Price.
For redemptions by check, exchange, or wire: If the redemption request is received by Vanguard on a business day before the close of regular trading on the NYSE (generally 4 p.m., Eastern time), the trade date will be the same day. If the redemption request is received on a business day after the close of regular trading on the NYSE, or on a nonbusiness day, the trade date will be the next business day.
• Note on timing of wire redemptions from money market funds: For telephone requests received by Vanguard on a business day before 10:45 a.m., Eastern time (2 p.m., Eastern time, for Vanguard Cash Reserves Federal Money Market Fund; 12:30 p.m., Eastern time, for Vanguard Federal Money Market Fund), the redemption proceeds generally will leave Vanguard by the close of business the same day. For telephone requests received by Vanguard on a business day after those cut-off times, or on a nonbusiness day, and for all requests other than by telephone, the redemption proceeds generally will leave Vanguard by the close of business on the next business day.
• Note on timing of wire redemptions from all other funds: For requests received by Vanguard on a business day before the close of regular trading on the NYSE (generally 4 p.m., Eastern time), the redemption proceeds generally will leave Vanguard by the close of business on the next business day. For requests received by Vanguard on a business day after the close of regular trading on the NYSE, or on a nonbusiness day, the redemption proceeds generally will leave Vanguard by the close of business on the second business day after Vanguard receives the request.
For redemptions by electronic bank transfer: If the redemption request is received by Vanguard on a business day before the close of regular trading on the NYSE (generally 4 p.m., Eastern time), the trade date will be the same day. If the redemption request is received on a business day after the close of regular trading on the NYSE, or on a nonbusiness day, the trade date will be the next business day.
If your redemption request is not accurate and complete, it may be rejected. If we are unable to send your redemption proceeds by wire or electronic bank transfer because the receiving institution rejects the transfer, Vanguard will make additional efforts to complete your transaction. If Vanguard is still unable to
47

complete the transaction, we may send the proceeds of the redemption to you by check, generally payable to all registered account owners, or use your proceeds to purchase new shares of the fund from which you sold shares for the purpose of the wire or electronic bank transfer transaction. See Other Rules You Should Know—Good Order.
If your redemption request is received in good order, we typically expect that redemption proceeds will be paid by a Fund within one business day of the trade date; however, in certain circumstances, investors may experience a longer settlement period at the time of the transaction. For further information, see “Potentially disruptive redemptions” and “Emergency circumstances.”
For further information about redemption transactions, consult our website at vanguard.com or see Contacting Vanguard.
Other Redemption Rules You Should Know
Documentation for certain accounts. Special documentation may be required to redeem from certain types of accounts, such as trust, corporate, nonprofit, or retirement accounts. Please call us before attempting to redeem from these types of accounts.
Potentially disruptive redemptions. Vanguard reserves the right to pay all or part of a redemption in kind—that is, in the form of securities—if we reasonably believe that a cash redemption would negatively affect the fund’s operation or performance or that the shareholder may be engaged in market-timing or frequent trading. Under these circumstances, Vanguard also reserves the right to delay payment of the redemption proceeds for up to seven calendar days. By calling us before you attempt to redeem a large dollar amount, you may avoid in-kind or delayed payment of your redemption. Please see Frequent-Trading Limitations for information about Vanguard’s policies to limit frequent trading.
Recently purchased shares. Although you can redeem shares at any time, proceeds may not be made available to you until the fund collects payment for your purchase. This may take up to seven calendar days for shares purchased by check or by electronic bank transfer. If you have written a check on a fund in an account with checkwriting privileges, that check may be rejected if your fund account does not have a sufficient available balance.
Share certificates. Share certificates are no longer issued for Vanguard funds. Shares currently held in certificates cannot be redeemed, exchanged, converted, or transferred (reregistered) until you return the certificates (unsigned) to Vanguard by registered mail.
48

Address change. If you change your address online or by telephone, there may be up to a 14-day restriction (starting on the business day after your address is changed) on your ability to request check redemptions online and by telephone. You can request a redemption in writing (using a form available online) at any time. Confirmations of address changes are sent to both the old and new addresses.
Payment to a different person or address. At your request, we can make your redemption check payable, or wire your redemption proceeds, to a different person or send it to a different address. However, this generally requires the written consent of all registered account owners and may require additional documentation, such as a signature guarantee or a notarized signature. You may obtain a signature guarantee from some commercial or savings banks, credit unions, trust companies, or member firms of a U.S. stock exchange.
No cancellations. Vanguard will not accept your request to cancel any redemption request once processing has begun. Please be careful when placing a redemption request.
Emergency circumstances. Vanguard funds can postpone payment of redemption proceeds for up to seven calendar days. In addition, Vanguard funds can suspend redemptions and/or postpone payments of redemption proceeds beyond seven calendar days at times when the NYSE is closed or during emergency circumstances, as determined by the SEC.
Exchanging Shares
An exchange occurs when you use the proceeds from the redemption of shares of one Vanguard fund to simultaneously purchase shares of a different Vanguard fund. You can make exchange requests online (if you are registered for online access), by telephone, or by mail. See Purchasing Shares and Redeeming Shares.
If the NYSE is open for regular trading (generally until 4 p.m., Eastern time, on a business day) at the time an exchange request is received in good order, the trade date generally will be the same day. See Other Rules You Should Know—Good Order for additional information on all transaction requests.
Vanguard will not accept your request to cancel any exchange request once processing has begun. Please be careful when placing an exchange request.
Call Vanguard before attempting to exchange a large dollar amount. By calling us before you attempt to exchange a large dollar amount, you may avoid delayed or rejected transactions.
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Please note that Vanguard reserves the right, without notice, to revise or terminate the exchange privilege, limit the amount of any exchange, or reject an exchange, at any time, for any reason. See Frequent-Trading Limitations for additional restrictions on exchanges.
Frequent-Trading Limitations
Because excessive transactions can disrupt management of a fund and increase the fund’s costs for all shareholders, the board of trustees of each Vanguard fund places certain limits on frequent trading in the funds. Each Vanguard fund (other than money market funds and short-term bond funds, but including Vanguard Short-Term Inflation-Protected Securities Index Fund) limits an investor’s purchases or exchanges into a fund account for 30 calendar days after the investor has redeemed or exchanged out of that fund account. ETF Shares are not subject to these frequent-trading limits.
For Vanguard Retirement Investment Program pooled plans, the limitations apply to exchanges made online or by telephone.
These frequent-trading limitations do not apply to the following:
• Purchases of shares with reinvested dividend or capital gains distributions.
• Transactions through Vanguard’s Automatic Investment Plan, Automatic Exchange Service, Direct Deposit Service, Automatic Withdrawal Plan, Required Minimum Distribution Service, and Vanguard Small Business Online®.
• Discretionary transactions through Vanguard Personal Advisor Services®, Vanguard Institutional Advisory Services®, and Vanguard Digital Advisor™.
• Redemptions of shares to pay fund or account fees.
• Redemptions of shares to remove excess shareholder contributions to certain types of retirement accounts (including, but not limited to, IRAs and Vanguard Individual 401(k) Plans).
• Transfers and reregistrations of shares within the same fund.
• Purchases of shares by asset transfer or direct rollover.
• Conversions of shares from one share class to another in the same fund.
• Checkwriting redemptions.
• Section 529 college savings plans.
• Certain approved institutional portfolios and asset allocation programs, as well as trades made by funds or trusts managed by Vanguard or its affiliates that invest in other Vanguard funds. (Please note that shareholders of Vanguard’s funds of funds are subject to the limitations.)
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For participants in employer-sponsored defined contribution plans,* the frequent-trading limitations do not apply to:
• Purchases of shares with participant payroll or employer contributions or loan repayments.
• Purchases of shares with reinvested dividend or capital gains distributions.
• Distributions, loans, and in-service withdrawals from a plan.
• Redemptions of shares as part of a plan termination or at the direction of the plan.
• Transactions executed through the Vanguard Managed Account Program.
• Redemptions of shares to pay fund or account fees.
• Share or asset transfers or rollovers.
• Reregistrations of shares.
• Conversions of shares from one share class to another in the same fund.
• Exchange requests submitted by written request to Vanguard. (Exchange requests submitted by fax, if otherwise permitted, are subject to the limitations.)
* The following Vanguard fund accounts are subject to the frequent-trading limitations: SEP-IRAs, SIMPLE IRAs, certain Individual 403(b)(7) Custodial Accounts, and Vanguard Individual 401(k) Plans.
Accounts Held by Institutions (Other Than Defined Contribution Plans)
Vanguard will systematically monitor for frequent trading in institutional clients’ accounts. If we detect suspicious trading activity, we will investigate and take appropriate action, which may include applying to a client’s accounts the 30-day policy previously described, prohibiting a client’s purchases of fund shares, and/or revoking the client’s exchange privilege.
Accounts Held by Intermediaries
When intermediaries establish accounts in Vanguard funds for the benefit of their clients, we cannot always monitor the trading activity of the individual clients. However, we review trading activity at the intermediary (omnibus) level, and if we detect suspicious activity, we will investigate and take appropriate action. If necessary, Vanguard may prohibit additional purchases of fund shares by an intermediary, including for the benefit of certain of the intermediary’s clients. Intermediaries also may monitor their clients’ trading activities with respect to Vanguard funds.
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For those Vanguard funds that charge purchase and/or redemption fees, intermediaries will be asked to assess these fees on client accounts and remit these fees to the funds. The application of purchase and redemption fees and frequent-trading limitations may vary among intermediaries. There are no assurances that Vanguard will successfully identify all intermediaries or that intermediaries will properly assess purchase and redemption fees or administer frequent-trading limitations. If you invest with Vanguard through an intermediary, please read that firm’s materials carefully to learn of any other rules or fees that may apply.
Other Rules You Should Know
Prospectus and Shareholder Report Mailings
When two or more shareholders have the same last name and address, just one summary prospectus (or prospectus) and/or shareholder report may be sent in an attempt to eliminate the unnecessary expense of duplicate mailings. You may request individual prospectuses and reports by contacting our Client Services Department in writing, by telephone, or online. See Contacting Vanguard.
Vanguard.com
Registration. If you are a registered user of vanguard.com, you can review your account holdings; buy, sell, or exchange shares of most Vanguard funds; and perform most other transactions through our website. You must register for this service online.
Electronic delivery. Vanguard can deliver your account statements, transaction confirmations, prospectuses, certain tax forms, and shareholder reports electronically. If you are a registered user of vanguard.com, you can consent to the electronic delivery of these documents by logging on and changing your mailing preferences under “Account Maintenance.” You can revoke your electronic consent at any time through our website, and we will begin to send paper copies of these documents within 30 days of receiving your revocation.
Telephone Transactions
Automatic. When we set up your account, we will automatically enable you to do business with us by telephone, unless you instruct us otherwise in writing.
Tele-Account®. To obtain fund and account information through Vanguard’s automated telephone service, you must first establish a Personal Identification Number (PIN) by calling Tele-Account at 800-662-6273.
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Proof of a caller’s authority. We reserve the right to refuse a telephone request if the caller is unable to provide the requested information or if we reasonably believe that the caller is not an individual authorized to act on the account. Before we allow a caller to act on an account, we may request the following information:
• Authorization to act on the account (as the account owner or by legal documentation or other means).
• Account registration and address.
• Fund name and account number, if applicable.
• Other information relating to the caller, the account owner, or the account.
Good Order
We reserve the right to reject any transaction instructions that are not in “good order.” Good order generally means that your instructions:
• Are provided by the person(s) authorized in accordance with Vanguard’s policies and procedures to access the account and request transactions.
• Include the fund name and account number.
• Include the amount of the transaction (stated in dollars, shares, or percentage).
Written instructions also must generally be provided on a Vanguard form and include:
• Signature(s) and date from the authorized person(s).
• Signature guarantees or notarized signatures, if required for the type of transaction. (Call Vanguard for specific requirements.)
• Any supporting documentation that may be required.
Good order requirements may vary among types of accounts and transactions. For more information, consult our website at vanguard.com or see Contacting Vanguard.
Vanguard reserves the right, without notice, to revise the requirements for good order.
Future Trade-Date Requests
Vanguard does not accept requests to hold a purchase, conversion, redemption, or exchange transaction for a future date. All such requests will receive trade dates as previously described in Purchasing Shares, Converting Shares, Redeeming Shares, and Exchanging Shares. Vanguard reserves the right to return future-dated purchase checks.
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Accounts With More Than One Owner
If an account has more than one owner or authorized person, Vanguard generally will accept instructions from any one owner or authorized person.
Responsibility for Fraud
You should take precautions to protect yourself from fraud. Keep your account-related information private, and review any account confirmations, statements, or other information that we provide to you as soon as you receive them. Let us know immediately if you discover unauthorized activity or see something on your account that you do not understand or that looks unusual.
Vanguard will not be responsible for losses that result from transactions by a person who we reasonably believe is authorized to act on your account.
Uncashed Checks
Please cash your distribution or redemption checks promptly. Vanguard will not pay interest on uncashed checks. Vanguard may be required to transfer assets related to uncashed checks to a state under the state’s abandoned property law.
Dormant Accounts
If your account has no activity in it for a period of time, Vanguard may be required to transfer it to a state under the state’s abandoned property law, subject to potential federal or state withholding taxes.
Unusual Circumstances
If you experience difficulty contacting Vanguard online or by telephone, you can send us your transaction request on a Vanguard form by regular or express mail.
Investing With Vanguard Through Other Firms
You may purchase or sell shares of most Vanguard funds through a financial intermediary, such as a bank, a broker, or an investment advisor. Please consult your financial intermediary to determine which, if any, shares are available through that firm and to learn about other rules that may apply. Your financial intermediary can provide you with account information and any required tax forms. You may be required to pay a commission on purchases of mutual fund shares made through a financial intermediary.
Please see Frequent-Trading Limitations—Accounts Held by Intermediaries for information about the assessment of any purchase or redemption fees and the monitoring of frequent trading for accounts held by intermediaries.
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Low-Balance Accounts
Each Fund reserves the right to liquidate a fund account whose balance falls below the account minimum for any reason, including market fluctuation. This liquidation policy applies to nonretirement fund accounts and accounts that are held through intermediaries. Any such liquidation will be preceded by written notice to the investor.
Right to Change Policies
In addition to the rights expressly stated elsewhere in this prospectus, Vanguard reserves the right, without notice, to (1) alter, add, or discontinue any conditions of purchase (including eligibility requirements), redemption, exchange, conversion, service, or privilege at any time and (2) alter, impose, discontinue, or waive any purchase fee, redemption fee, account service fee, or other fee charged to a shareholder or a group of shareholders. Changes may affect any or all investors. These actions will be taken when, at the sole discretion of Vanguard management, Vanguard believes they are in the best interest of a fund.
Account Restrictions
Vanguard reserves the right to: (1) redeem all or a portion of a fund/account to meet a legal obligation, including tax withholding, tax lien, garnishment order, or other obligation imposed on your account by a court or government agency; (2) redeem shares, close an account, or suspend account privileges, features, or options in the case of threatening conduct or activity; (3) redeem shares, close an account, or suspend account privileges, features, or options if Vanguard believes or suspects that not doing so could result in a suspicious, fraudulent, or illegal transaction; (4) place restrictions on the ability to redeem any or all shares in an account if it is required to do so by a court or government agency; (5) place restrictions on the ability to redeem any or all shares in an account if Vanguard believes that doing so will prevent fraud, financial exploitation or abuse, or to protect vulnerable investors; (6) freeze any account and/or suspend account services if Vanguard has received reasonable notice of a dispute regarding the assets in an account, including notice of a dispute between the registered or beneficial account owners; and (7) freeze any account and/or suspend account services upon initial notification to Vanguard of the death of an account owner.
Share Classes
Vanguard reserves the right, without notice, to change the eligibility requirements of its share classes, including the types of clients who are eligible to purchase each share class.
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Fund and Account Updates
Confirmation Statements
We will send (or provide through our website, whichever you prefer) a confirmation of your trade date and the amount of your transaction when you buy, sell, exchange, or convert shares. However, we will not send confirmations reflecting only checkwriting redemptions or the reinvestment of dividend or capital gains distributions. For any month in which you had a checkwriting redemption, a Checkwriting Activity Statement will be sent to you itemizing the checkwriting redemptions for that month. Promptly review each confirmation statement that we provide to you. It is important that you contact Vanguard immediately with any questions you may have about any transaction reflected on a confirmation statement, or Vanguard will consider the transaction properly processed.
Portfolio Summaries
We will send (or provide through our website, whichever you prefer) quarterly portfolio summaries to help you keep track of your accounts throughout the year. Each summary shows the market value of your account at the close of the statement period, as well as all distributions, purchases, redemptions, exchanges, transfers, and conversions for the current calendar quarter (or month). Promptly review each summary that we provide to you. It is important that you contact Vanguard immediately with any questions you may have about any transaction reflected on the summary, or Vanguard will consider the transaction properly processed.
Tax Information Statements
For most accounts, Vanguard (or your intermediary) is required to provide annual tax forms to assist you in preparing your income tax returns. These forms are generally available for each calendar year early in the following year. Registered users of vanguard.com can also view certain forms through our website. Vanguard (or your intermediary) may also provide you with additional tax-related documentation. For more information, consult our website at vanguard.com or see Contacting Vanguard.
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Annual and Semiannual Reports
We will send (or provide through our website, whichever you prefer) reports about Vanguard International Stock Index Funds twice a year, in June and December. These reports include overviews of the financial markets and provide the following specific Fund information:
• Performance assessments and comparisons with industry benchmarks.
• Financial statements with listings of Fund holdings.
Portfolio Holdings
Please consult the Funds' Statement of Additional Information or our website for a description of the policies and procedures that govern disclosure of a Fund’s portfolio holdings.
Employer-Sponsored Plans
Your plan administrator or your employee benefits office can provide you with detailed information on how to participate in your plan and how to elect a Fund as an investment option.
• If you have any questions about a Fund or Vanguard, including those about a Fund’s investment objective, strategies, or risks, contact Vanguard Participant Services toll-free at 800-523-1188 or visit our website at vanguard.com.
• If you have questions about your account, contact your plan administrator or the organization that provides recordkeeping services for your plan.
• Be sure to carefully read each topic that pertains to your transactions with Vanguard.
Vanguard reserves the right to change its policies without notice to shareholders.
Transactions
Processing times for your transaction requests may differ among recordkeepers or among transaction and funding types. Your plan’s recordkeeper (which may also be Vanguard) will determine the necessary processing time frames for your transaction requests prior to submission to a Fund. Consult your recordkeeper or plan administrator for more information.
If Vanguard is serving as your plan recordkeeper and if your transaction involves one or more investments with an early cut-off time for processing or another trading restriction, your entire transaction will be subject to the restriction when the trade date for your transaction is determined.
57

Contacting Vanguard
Web
 
Vanguard.com
For the most complete source of Vanguard news
For fund, account, and service information
For most account transactions
For literature requests
24 hours a day, 7 days a week
Phone
Vanguard Tele-Account®
800-662-6273
For automated fund and account information
Toll-free, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week
Investor Information 800-662-7447
(Text telephone for people with
hearing impairment at 800-749-7273)
For fund and service information
For literature requests
Client Services 800-662-2739
(Text telephone for people with
hearing impairment at 800-749-7273)
For account information
For most account transactions
Participant Services 800-523-1188
(Text telephone for people with
hearing impairment at 800-749-7273)
For information and services for participants in
employer-sponsored plans
Institutional Division
888-809-8102
For information and services for large institutional
investors
Financial Advisor and Intermediary
Sales Support 800-997-2798
For information and services for financial intermediaries
including financial advisors, broker-dealers, trust
institutions, and insurance companies
Financial Advisory and Intermediary
Trading Support 800-669-0498
For account information and trading support for
financial intermediaries including financial advisors,
broker-dealers, trust institutions, and insurance
companies
58

Additional Information
 
Inception
Date
Newspaper
Abbreviation
Vanguard
Fund
Number
CUSIP
Number
European Stock Index Fund
 
 
 
 
Institutional Shares
5/15/2000
EuroInst
235
922042502
Institutional Plus Shares
12/5/2014
EuroInstPl
1863
922042627
Pacific Stock Index Fund
 
 
 
 
Institutional Shares
05/15/2000
PacInst
237
922042403
Emerging Markets Stock Index
Fund
 
 
 
 
Institutional Shares
6/22/2000
EmergInst
239
922042601
Institutional Plus Shares
12/15/2010
EmerMktInstPl
1865
922042650

CGS identifiers have been provided by CUSIP Global Services, managed on behalf of the American Bankers Association by Standard & Poor’s Financial Services, LLC, and are not for use or dissemination in a manner that would serve as a substitute for any CUSIP service. The CUSIP Database, ©2021 American Bankers Association. “CUSIP” is a registered trademark of the American Bankers Association.
CFA® is a registered trademark owned by CFA Institute.
London Stock Exchange Group companies include FTSE International Limited (“FTSE”), Frank Russell Company (“Russell”), MTS Next Limited (“MTS”), and FTSE TMX Global Debt Capital Markets Inc. (“FTSE TMX”). All rights reserved. “FTSE®”, “Russell®”, “MTS®“, “FTSE TMX®” and “FTSE Russell” and other service marks and trademarks related to the FTSE or Russell indexes are trademarks of the London Stock Exchange Group companies and are used by FTSE, MTS, FTSE TMX and Russell under license. All information is provided for information purposes only. Every effort is made to ensure that all information given in this publication is accurate, but no responsibility or liability can be accepted by the London Stock Exchange Group companies nor its licensors for any errors or for any loss from use of this publication. Neither the London Stock Exchange Group companies nor any of their licensors make any claim, prediction, warranty or representation whatsoever, expressly or impliedly, either as to the results to be obtained from the use of the Indices or the fitness or suitability of the Indices for any particular purpose to which they might be put. The London Stock Exchange Group companies do not provide investment advice and nothing in this document should be taken as constituting financial or investment advice. The London Stock Exchange Group companies make no representation regarding the advisability of investing in any asset. A decision to invest in any such asset should not be made in reliance on any information herein. Indexes cannot be invested in directly. Inclusion of an asset in an index is not a recommendation to buy, sell or hold that asset. The general information contained in this publication should not be acted upon without obtaining specific legal, tax, and investment advice from a licensed professional. No part of this information may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior written permission of the London Stock Exchange Group companies. Distribution of the London Stock Exchange Group companies’ index values and the use of their indexes to create financial products require a license with FTSE, FTSE TMX, MTS and/or Russell and/or its licensors.
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Glossary of Investment Terms
Capital Gains Distributions. Payments to mutual fund shareholders of gains realized on securities that a fund has sold at a profit, minus any realized losses.
Common Stock. A security representing ownership rights in a corporation.
Dividend Distributions. Payments to mutual fund shareholders of income from interest or dividends generated by a fund's investments.
Expense Ratio. A fund's total annual operating expenses expressed as a percentage of the fund's average net assets. The expense ratio includes management and administrative expenses, but it does not include the transaction costs of buying and selling portfolio securities.
FTSE Developed Asia Pacific All Cap Fair Market Value Index. An index that measures returns of the FTSE Developed Asia Pacific All Cap Index, adjusted to reflect price changes for index securities in markets that have closed prior to the close of the U.S. stock market. Fair value prices and foreign exchange rates as of 4 p.m., Eastern time, are used in the calculation. The FTSE Developed Asia Pacific All Cap Fair Market Value Index uses tax rates based on the withholding tax rates applicable to dividends received by a regulated investment company (mutual fund) domiciled in the United States.
FTSE Developed Asia Pacific Index. An index that consists of approximately 886 common stocks of companies located in Japan, Korea, Australia, Hong Kong, Singapore, and New Zealand.
FTSE Developed Europe All Cap Fair Market Value Index. An index that measures returns of the FTSE Developed Europe All Cap Index, adjusted to reflect price changes for index securities in markets that have closed prior to the close of the U.S. stock market. Fair value prices and foreign exchange rates as of 4 p.m., Eastern time, are used in the calculation. The FTSE Developed Europe All Cap Fair Market Value Index uses tax rates based on the withholding tax rates applicable to dividends received by a regulated investment company (mutual fund) domiciled in the United States.
FTSE Developed Europe Index. An index that is made up of approximately 583 common stocks of companies located in 16 European countries—mostly companies in the United Kingdom, France, and Switzerland. Other countries represented in the Index include Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Spain, and Sweden.
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FTSE Emerging Index. A market-capitalization-weighted index representing large- and mid-cap stocks of companies located in emerging markets around the world.
FTSE Emerging Markets All Cap China A Inclusion Fair Market Value Index. An index that measures returns of the FTSE Emerging Markets All Cap China A Inclusion Index, adjusted to reflect price changes for index securities in markets that have closed prior to the close of the U.S. stock market. Fair value prices and foreign exchange rates as of 4 p.m., Eastern time, are used in the calculation. The FTSE Emerging Markets All Cap China A Inclusion Fair Market Value Index uses tax rates based on the withholding tax rates applicable to dividends received by a regulated investment company (mutual fund) domiciled in the United States.
Inception Date. The date on which the assets of a fund (or one of its share classes) are first invested in accordance with the fund's investment objective. For funds with a subscription period, the inception date is the day after that period ends. Investment performance is generally measured from the inception date.
FTSE Global All Cap ex US Index. An index consisting of large-, mid-, and small-cap stocks globally, excluding the U.S. The index is derived from the FTSE Global Equity Index Series (GEIS), which covers approximately 98% of the world’s investable market capitalization.
Indexing. A low-cost investment strategy in which a mutual fund attempts to track—rather than outperform—a specified market benchmark, or “index.”
Joint Committed Credit Facility. Each Fund participates, along with other funds managed by Vanguard, in a committed credit facility provided by a syndicate of lenders pursuant to a credit agreement that may be renewed annually; each Vanguard fund is individually liable for its borrowings, if any, under the credit facility. The amount and terms of the committed credit facility are subject to approval by the Funds' board of trustees and renegotiation with the lender syndicate on an annual basis.
Median Market Capitalization. An indicator of the size of companies in which a fund invests; the midpoint of market capitalization (market price x shares outstanding) of a fund's stocks, weighted by the proportion of the fund's assets invested in each stock. Stocks representing half of the fund's assets have market capitalizations above the median, and the rest are below it.
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Mutual Fund. An investment company that pools the money of many people and invests it in a variety of securities in an effort to achieve a specific objective over time.
New York Stock Exchange (NYSE). A stock exchange based in New York City that is open for regular trading on business days, Monday through Friday, from 9:30 a.m. to 4 p.m., Eastern time.
Price/Earnings (P/E) Ratio. The current share price of a stock, divided by its per-share earnings (profits). A stock selling for $20, with earnings of $2 per share, has a price/earnings ratio of 10.
Return of Capital. A return of capital occurs when a fund’s distributions exceed its earnings in a fiscal year. A return of capital is a return of all or part of your original investment or amounts paid in excess of your original investment in a fund. In general, a return of capital reduces your cost basis in a fund’s shares and is not taxable to you until your cost basis has been reduced to zero.
Securities. Stocks, bonds, money market instruments, and other investments.
Total Return. A percentage change, over a specified time period, in a mutual fund's net asset value, assuming the reinvestment of all distributions of dividends and capital gains.
Volatility. The fluctuations in value of a mutual fund or other security. The greater a fund's volatility, the wider the fluctuations in its returns.
Yield. Income (interest or dividends) earned by an investment, expressed as a percentage of the investment’s price.
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Connect with Vanguard® > vanguard.com
For More Information
If you would like more information about Vanguard International Stock Index Funds, the following documents are available free upon request:
Annual/Semiannual Reports to Shareholders
Additional information about the Funds' investments is available in the Funds' annual and semiannual reports to shareholders. In the annual reports, you will find a discussion of the market conditions and investment strategies that significantly affected the Funds' performance during their last fiscal year.
Statement of Additional Information (SAI)
The SAI provides more detailed information about the Funds and is incorporated by reference into (and thus legally a part of) this prospectus.
To receive a free copy of the latest annual or semiannual reports or the SAI, or to request additional information about the Funds or other Vanguard funds, please visit vanguard.com or contact us as follows:
If you are an individual investor:
Telephone: 800-662-7447; Text telephone for people with hearing impairment: 800-749-7273
If you are a client of Vanguard’s Institutional Division:
Telephone: 888-809-8102; Text telephone for people with hearing impairment: 800-749-7273
If you are a current Vanguard shareholder and would like information about your account, account transactions, and/or account statements, please call:
Client Services Department
Telephone: 800-662-2739; Text telephone for people with hearing impairment: 800-749-7273
Information Provided by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)
Reports and other information about the Funds are available in the EDGAR database on the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov, or you can receive copies of this information, for a fee, by electronic request at the following email address: publicinfo@sec.gov.
Funds' Investment Company Act file number: 811-05972
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