Prospectus - Investment Objective
Fund
Ticker
Fidelity® Series Emerging Markets Fund
FHKFX
Fidelity® Series Emerging Markets Opportunities Fund
FEMSX
Fidelity® Series International Growth Fund
FIGSX
Fidelity® Series International Small Cap Fund
FSTSX
Fidelity® Series International Value Fund
FINVX
Funds of Fidelity Investment Trust
STATEMENT OF ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
December 30, 2022
This Statement of Additional Information (SAI) is not a prospectus. Portions of each fund's annual report are incorporated herein. The annual report(s) are supplied with this SAI.
To obtain a free additional copy of a prospectus or SAI, dated December 30, 2022, or an annual report, please call Fidelity at 1-800-544-8544 or visit Fidelity's web site at www.fidelity.com. 
For more information on any Fidelity ® fund, including charges and expenses, call Fidelity at the number indicated above for a free prospectus. Read it carefully before investing or sending money.
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TABLE OF CONTENTS

INVESTMENT POLICIES AND LIMITATIONS
SPECIAL GEOGRAPHIC CONSIDERATIONS
PORTFOLIO TRANSACTIONS
VALUATION
BUYING AND SELLING INFORMATION
DISTRIBUTIONS AND TAXES
TRUSTEES AND OFFICERS
CONTROL OF INVESTMENT ADVISERS
MANAGEMENT CONTRACTS
PROXY VOTING GUIDELINES
DISTRIBUTION SERVICES
TRANSFER AND SERVICE AGENT AGREEMENTS
SECURITIES LENDING
DESCRIPTION OF THE TRUST
FUND HOLDINGS INFORMATION
FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
APPENDIX
INVESTMENT POLICIES AND LIMITATIONS 
The following policies and limitations supplement those set forth in the prospectus. Unless otherwise noted, whenever an investment policy or limitation states a maximum percentage of a fund's assets that may be invested in any security or other asset, or sets forth a policy regarding quality standards, such standard or percentage limitation will be determined immediately after and as a result of the fund's acquisition of such security or other asset. Accordingly, any subsequent change in values, net assets, or other circumstances will not be considered when determining whether the investment complies with the fund's investment policies and limitations.
A fund's fundamental investment policies and limitations cannot be changed without approval by a "majority of the outstanding voting securities" (as defined in the Investment Company Act of 1940 (1940 Act)) of the fund. However, except for the fundamental investment limitations listed below, the investment policies and limitations described in this Statement of Additional Information (SAI) are not fundamental and may be changed without shareholder approval.
The following are each fund's fundamental investment limitations set forth in their entirety.
Diversification
For each fund:
The fund may not with respect to 75% of the fund's total assets, purchase the securities of any issuer (other than securities issued or guaranteed by the U.S. Government or any of its agencies or instrumentalities, or securities of other investment companies) if, as a result, (a) more than 5% of the fund's total assets would be invested in the securities of that issuer, or (b) the fund would hold more than 10% of the outstanding voting securities of that issuer.
Senior Securities
For each fund:
The fund may not issue senior securities, except in connection with the insurance program established by the fund pursuant to an exemptive order issued by the Securities and Exchange Commission or as otherwise permitted under the Investment Company Act of 1940.
Borrowing
For each fund:
The fund may not borrow money, except that the fund may borrow money for temporary or emergency purposes (not for leveraging or investment) in an amount not exceeding 33 1/3% of its total assets (including the amount borrowed) less liabilities (other than borrowings). Any borrowings that come to exceed this amount will be reduced within three days (not including Sundays and holidays) to the extent necessary to comply with the 33 1/3% limitation.
Underwriting
For each fund:
The fund may not underwrite securities issued by others, except to the extent that the fund may be considered an underwriter within the meaning of the Securities Act of 1933 in the disposition of restricted securities or in connection with investments in other investment companies.
Concentration
For each fund (other than Fidelity® Series Emerging Markets Opportunities Fund):
The fund may not purchase the securities of any issuer (other than securities issued or guaranteed by the U.S. Government or any of its agencies or instrumentalities) if, as a result, more than 25% of the fund's total assets would be invested in the securities of companies whose principal business activities are in the same industry.
For purposes of each of Fidelity ® Series Emerging Markets Fund's, Fidelity ® Series International Growth Fund's, Fidelity ® Series International Small Cap Fund's, and Fidelity ® Series International Value Fund's concentration limitation discussed above, with respect to any investment in repurchase agreements collateralized by U.S. Government securities, Fidelity Management & Research Company LLC (FMR) looks through to the U.S. Government securities.
For purposes of each of Fidelity ® Series Emerging Markets Fund's, Fidelity ® Series International Growth Fund's, Fidelity ® Series International Small Cap Fund's, and Fidelity ® Series International Value Fund's concentration limitation discussed above, with respect to any investment in Fidelity ® Money Market Central Fund and/or any non-money market Central fund, FMR looks through to the holdings of the Central fund.
For purposes of each of Fidelity ® Series Emerging Markets Fund's, Fidelity ® Series International Growth Fund's, Fidelity ® Series International Small Cap Fund's, and Fidelity ® Series International Value Fund's concentration limitation discussed above,  FMR may analyze the characteristics of a particular issuer and security and assign an industry or sector classification consistent with those characteristics in the event that the third-party classification provider used by FMR does not assign a classification.
For Fidelity ® Series Emerging Markets Opportunities Fund:
The fund may not purchase the securities of any issuer (other than securities issued or guaranteed by the U.S. Government or any of its agencies or instrumentalities) if, as a result, more than 25% of the fund's total assets would be invested in companies whose principal business activities are in the same industry.
For purposes of the fund's concentration limitation discussed above, with respect to any investment in repurchase agreements collateralized by U.S. Government securities, FMR looks through to the U.S. Government securities.
For purposes of the fund's concentration limitation discussed above, with respect to any investment in Fidelity® Money Market Central Fund and/or any non-money market Central fund, FMR looks through to the holdings of the Central fund.
For purposes of the fund's concentration limitation discussed above, FMR may analyze the characteristics of a particular issuer and security and assign an industry or sector classification consistent with those characteristics in the event that the third-party classification provider used by FMR does not assign a classification.
Real Estate
For each fund:
The fund may not purchase or sell real estate unless acquired as a result of ownership of securities or other instruments (but this shall not prevent the fund from investing in securities or other instruments backed by real estate or securities of companies engaged in the real estate business).
Commodities
For each fund:
The fund may not purchase or sell physical commodities unless acquired as a result of ownership of securities or other instruments (but this shall not prevent the fund from purchasing or selling options and futures contracts or from investing in securities or other instruments backed by physical commodities).
Loans
For each fund:
The fund may not lend any security or make any other loan if, as a result, more than 33 1/3% of its total assets would be lent to other parties, but this limitation does not apply to purchases of debt securities or to repurchase agreements, or to acquisitions of loans, loan participations or other forms of debt instruments.
The following investment limitations are not fundamental and may be changed without shareholder approval.
Short Sales
For each fund:
The fund does not currently intend to sell securities short, unless it owns or has the right to obtain securities equivalent in kind and amount to the securities sold short, and provided that transactions in futures contracts and options are not deemed to constitute selling securities short.
Margin Purchases
For each fund:
The fund does not currently intend to purchase securities on margin, except that the fund may obtain such short-term credits as are necessary for the clearance of transactions, and provided that margin payments in connection with futures contracts and options on futures contracts shall not constitute purchasing securities on margin.
Borrowing
For each fund:
The fund may borrow money only (a) from a bank or from a registered investment company or portfolio for which FMR or an affiliate serves as investment adviser or (b) by engaging in reverse repurchase agreements with any party (reverse repurchase agreements are treated as borrowings for purposes of the fundamental borrowing investment limitation).
Illiquid Securities
For each fund:
The fund does not currently intend to purchase any security if, as a result, more than 15% of its net assets would be invested in securities that are deemed to be illiquid because they are subject to legal or contractual restrictions on resale or because they cannot be sold or disposed of in the ordinary course of business at approximately the prices at which they are valued.
For purposes of each fund's illiquid securities limitation discussed above, if through a change in values, net assets, or other circumstances, the fund were in a position where more than 15% of its net assets were invested in illiquid securities, it would consider appropriate steps to protect liquidity.
Loans
For each fund:
The fund does not currently intend to lend assets other than securities to other parties, except by (a) lending money (up to 15% of the fund's net assets) to a registered investment company or portfolio for which FMR or an affiliate serves as investment adviser or (b) assuming any unfunded commitments in connection with the acquisition of loans, loan participations, or other forms of debt instruments. (This limitation does not apply to purchases of debt securities, to repurchase agreements, or to acquisitions of loans, loan participations or other forms of debt instruments.)
In addition to each fund's fundamental and non-fundamental investment limitations discussed above:
In order to qualify as a "regulated investment company" under Subchapter M of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, each fund currently intends to comply with certain diversification limits imposed by Subchapter M.
For a fund's policies and limitations on futures and options transactions, as applicable, see "Investment Policies and Limitations - Futures, Options, and Swaps."
For purposes of a fund's 80% investment policy that defines a particular market capitalization by reference to the capitalization range of one or more indexes (as described in the prospectus), the capitalization range of the index(es) generally will be measured no less frequently than once per month.
The following pages contain more detailed information about types of instruments in which a fund may invest, techniques a fund's adviser (or a sub-adviser) may employ in pursuit of the fund's investment objective, and a summary of related risks. A fund's adviser (or a sub-adviser) may not buy all of these instruments or use all of these techniques unless it believes that doing so will help the fund achieve its goal. However, a fund's adviser (or a sub-adviser) is not required to buy any particular instrument or use any particular technique even if to do so might benefit the fund.
On the following pages in this section titled "Investment Policies and Limitations," and except as otherwise indicated, references to "an adviser" or "the adviser" may relate to a fund's adviser or a sub-adviser, as applicable.
Affiliated Bank Transactions. A Fidelity ® fund may engage in transactions with financial institutions that are, or may be considered to be, "affiliated persons" of the fund under the 1940 Act. These transactions may involve repurchase agreements with custodian banks; short-term obligations of, and repurchase agreements with, the 50 largest U.S. banks (measured by deposits); municipal securities; U.S. Government securities with affiliated financial institutions that are primary dealers in these securities; short-term currency transactions; and short-term borrowings. In accordance with exemptive orders issued by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), the Board of Trustees has established and periodically reviews procedures applicable to transactions involving affiliated financial institutions.
Borrowing. If a fund borrows money, its share price may be subject to greater fluctuation until the borrowing is paid off. If a fund makes additional investments while borrowings are outstanding, this may be considered a form of leverage.
Cash Management. A fund may hold uninvested cash or may invest it in cash equivalents such as money market securities, repurchase agreements, or shares of short-term bond or money market funds, including (for Fidelity ® funds and other advisory clients only) shares of Fidelity ® Central funds. Generally, these securities offer less potential for gains than other types of securities.
Central Funds are special types of investment vehicles created by Fidelity for use by the Fidelity ® funds and other advisory clients. Central funds are used to invest in particular security types or investment disciplines, or for cash management. Central funds incur certain costs related to their investment activity (such as custodial fees and expenses), but do not pay additional management fees. The investment results of the portions of a Fidelity ® fund's assets invested in the Central funds will be based upon the investment results of those funds.
Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) Notice of Exclusion. The Adviser, on behalf of the Fidelity® funds to which this SAI relates, has filed with the National Futures Association a notice claiming an exclusion from the definition of the term "commodity pool operator" (CPO) under the Commodity Exchange Act, as amended, and the rules of the CFTC promulgated thereunder, with respect to each fund's operation. Accordingly, neither a fund nor its adviser is subject to registration or regulation as a commodity pool or a CPO. As of the date of this SAI, the adviser does not expect to register as a CPO of the funds. However, there is no certainty that a fund or its adviser will be able to rely on an exclusion in the future as the fund's investments change over time. A fund may determine not to use investment strategies that trigger additional CFTC regulation or may determine to operate subject to CFTC regulation, if applicable. If a fund or its adviser operates subject to CFTC regulation, it may incur additional expenses.
Common Stock represents an equity or ownership interest in an issuer. In the event an issuer is liquidated or declares bankruptcy, the claims of owners of bonds and preferred stock take precedence over the claims of those who own common stock, although related proceedings can take time to resolve and results can be unpredictable. For purposes of a Fidelity ® fund's policies related to investment in common stock Fidelity considers depositary receipts evidencing ownership of common stock to be common stock.
Convertible Securities are bonds, debentures, notes, or other securities that may be converted or exchanged (by the holder or by the issuer) into shares of the underlying common stock (or cash or securities of equivalent value) at a stated exchange ratio. A convertible security may also be called for redemption or conversion by the issuer after a particular date and under certain circumstances (including a specified price) established upon issue. If a convertible security held by a fund is called for redemption or conversion, the fund could be required to tender it for redemption, convert it into the underlying common stock, or sell it to a third party.
Convertible securities generally have less potential for gain or loss than common stocks. Convertible securities generally provide yields higher than the underlying common stocks, but generally lower than comparable non-convertible securities. Because of this higher yield, convertible securities generally sell at prices above their "conversion value," which is the current market value of the stock to be received upon conversion. The difference between this conversion value and the price of convertible securities will vary over time depending on changes in the value of the underlying common stocks and interest rates. When the underlying common stocks decline in value, convertible securities will tend not to decline to the same extent because of the interest or dividend payments and the repayment of principal at maturity for certain types of convertible securities. However, securities that are convertible other than at the option of the holder generally do not limit the potential for loss to the same extent as securities convertible at the option of the holder. When the underlying common stocks rise in value, the value of convertible securities may also be expected to increase. At the same time, however, the difference between the market value of convertible securities and their conversion value will narrow, which means that the value of convertible securities will generally not increase to the same extent as the value of the underlying common stocks. Because convertible securities may also be interest-rate sensitive, their value may increase as interest rates fall and decrease as interest rates rise. Convertible securities are also subject to credit risk, and are often lower-quality securities.
Countries and Markets Considered Emerging. For purposes of a Fidelity ® fund's 80% investment policy relating to emerging markets, emerging markets include countries that have an emerging stock market as defined by MSCI, countries or markets with low- to middle-income economies as classified by the World Bank, and other countries or markets with similar emerging characteristics.
For example, as of October 31, 2022, countries in the MSCI Emerging Markets Index (for Fidelity ®  Series Emerging Markets Fund and Fidelity ®  Series Emerging Markets Opportunities Fund), Greece, Hong Kong, Israel, and Singapore are considered to be emerging.
Country or Geographic Region. Various factors may be considered in determining whether an investment is tied economically to a particular country or region, including: whether the investment is issued or guaranteed by a particular government or any of its agencies, political subdivisions, or instrumentalities; whether the investment has its primary trading market in a particular country or region; whether the issuer is organized under the laws of, derives at least 50% of its revenues from, or has at least 50% of its assets in a particular country or region; whether the investment is included in an index representative of a particular country or region; and whether the investment is exposed to the economic fortunes and risks of a particular country or region.
Debt Securities are used by issuers to borrow money. The issuer usually pays a fixed, variable, or floating rate of interest, and must repay the amount borrowed, usually at the maturity of the security. Some debt securities, such as zero coupon bonds, do not pay interest but are sold at a deep discount from their face values. Debt securities include corporate bonds, government securities, repurchase agreements, and mortgage and other asset-backed securities.
Disruption to Financial Markets and Related Government Intervention. Economic downturns can trigger various economic, legal, budgetary, tax, and regulatory reforms across the globe. Instability in the financial markets in the wake of events such as the 2008 economic downturn led the U.S. Government and other governments to take a number of then-unprecedented actions designed to support certain financial institutions and segments of the financial markets that experienced extreme volatility, and in some cases, a lack of liquidity. Federal, state, local, foreign, and other governments, their regulatory agencies, or self-regulatory organizations may take actions that affect the regulation of the instruments in which a fund invests, or the issuers of such instruments, in ways that are unforeseeable. Reforms may also change the way in which a fund is regulated and could limit or preclude a fund's ability to achieve its investment objective or engage in certain strategies. Also, while reforms generally are intended to strengthen markets, systems, and public finances, they could affect fund expenses and the value of fund investments in unpredictable ways.
Similarly, widespread disease including pandemics and epidemics, and natural or environmental disasters, such as earthquakes, droughts, fires, floods, hurricanes, tsunamis and climate-related phenomena generally, have been and can be highly disruptive to economies and markets, adversely impacting individual companies, sectors, industries, markets, currencies, interest and inflation rates, credit ratings, investor sentiment, and other factors affecting the value of a fund's investments. Economies and financial markets throughout the world have become increasingly interconnected, which increases the likelihood that events or conditions in one region or country will adversely affect markets or issuers in other regions or countries, including the United States. Additionally, market disruptions may result in increased market volatility; regulatory trading halts; closure of domestic or foreign exchanges, markets, or governments; or market participants operating pursuant to business continuity plans for indeterminate periods of time. Further, market disruptions can (i) prevent a fund from executing advantageous investment decisions in a timely manner, (ii) negatively impact a fund's ability to achieve its investment objective, and (iii) may exacerbate the risks discussed elsewhere in a fund's registration statement, including political, social, and economic risks.
The value of a fund's portfolio is also generally subject to the risk of future local, national, or global economic or natural disturbances based on unknown weaknesses in the markets in which a fund invests. In the event of such a disturbance, the issuers of securities held by a fund may experience significant declines in the value of their assets and even cease operations, or may receive government assistance accompanied by increased restrictions on their business operations or other government intervention. In addition, it remains uncertain that the U.S. Government or foreign governments will intervene in response to current or future market disturbances and the effect of any such future intervention cannot be predicted.
Exchange Traded Funds (ETFs) are shares of other investment companies, commodity pools, or other entities that are traded on an exchange. Typically, assets underlying the ETF shares are stocks, though they may also be commodities or other instruments. An ETF may seek to replicate the performance of a specific index or may be actively managed.
Typically, shares of an ETF that tracks an index are expected to increase in value as the value of the underlying benchmark increases. However, in the case of inverse ETFs (also called "short ETFs" or "bear ETFs"), ETF shares are expected to increase in value as the value of the underlying benchmark decreases. Inverse ETFs seek to deliver the opposite of the performance of the benchmark they track and are often marketed as a way for investors to profit from, or at least hedge their exposure to, downward moving markets. Investments in inverse ETFs are similar to holding short positions in the underlying benchmark.
ETF shares are redeemable only in large blocks of shares often called "creation units" by persons other than a fund, and are redeemed principally in-kind at each day's next calculated net asset value per share (NAV). ETFs typically incur fees that are separate from those fees incurred directly by a fund. A fund's purchase of ETFs results in the layering of expenses, such that the fund would indirectly bear a proportionate share of any ETF's operating expenses. Further, while traditional investment companies are continuously offered at NAV, ETFs are traded in the secondary market (e.g., on a stock exchange) on an intra-day basis at prices that may be above or below the value of their underlying portfolios.
Some of the risks of investing in an ETF that tracks an index are similar to those of investing in an indexed mutual fund, including tracking error risk (the risk of errors in matching the ETF's underlying assets to the index or other benchmark); and the risk that because an ETF that tracks an index is not actively managed, it cannot sell stocks or other assets as long as they are represented in the index or other benchmark. Other ETF risks include the risk that ETFs may trade in the secondary market at a discount from their NAV and the risk that the ETFs may not be liquid. ETFs also may be leveraged. Leveraged ETFs seek to deliver multiples of the performance of the index or other benchmark they track and use derivatives in an effort to amplify the returns (or decline, in the case of inverse ETFs) of the underlying index or benchmark. While leveraged ETFs may offer the potential for greater return, the potential for loss and the speed at which losses can be realized also are greater. Most leveraged and inverse ETFs "reset" daily, meaning they are designed to achieve their stated objectives on a daily basis. Leveraged and inverse ETFs can deviate substantially from the performance of their underlying benchmark over longer periods of time, particularly in volatile periods.
Exchange Traded Notes (ETNs) are a type of senior, unsecured, unsubordinated debt security issued by financial institutions that combines aspects of both bonds and ETFs. An ETN's returns are based on the performance of a market index or other reference asset minus fees and expenses. Similar to ETFs, ETNs are listed on an exchange and traded in the secondary market. However, unlike an ETF, an ETN can be held until the ETN's maturity, at which time the issuer will pay a return linked to the performance of the market index or other reference asset to which the ETN is linked minus certain fees. Unlike regular bonds, ETNs typically do not make periodic interest payments and principal typically is not protected.
ETNs also incur certain expenses not incurred by their applicable index. The market value of an ETN is determined by supply and demand, the current performance of the index or other reference asset, and the credit rating of the ETN issuer. The market value of ETN shares may differ from their intraday indicative value. The value of an ETN may also change due to a change in the issuer's credit rating. As a result, there may be times when an ETN's share trades at a premium or discount to its NAV. Some ETNs that use leverage in an effort to amplify the returns of an underlying index or other reference asset can, at times, be relatively illiquid and, thus, they may be difficult to purchase or sell at a fair price. Leveraged ETNs may offer the potential for greater return, but the potential for loss and speed at which losses can be realized also are greater.
Exposure to Foreign and Emerging Markets. Foreign securities, foreign currencies, and securities issued by U.S. entities with substantial foreign operations may involve significant risks in addition to the risks inherent in U.S. investments.
Foreign investments involve risks relating to local political, economic, regulatory, or social instability, military action or unrest, or adverse diplomatic developments, and may be affected by actions of foreign governments adverse to the interests of U.S. investors. Such actions may include expropriation or nationalization of assets, confiscatory taxation, restrictions on U.S. investment or on the ability to repatriate assets or convert currency into U.S. dollars, or other government intervention. From time to time, a fund's adviser and/or its affiliates may determine that, as a result of regulatory requirements that may apply to the adviser and/or its affiliates due to investments in a particular country, investments in the securities of issuers domiciled or listed on trading markets in that country above certain thresholds (which may apply at the account level or in the aggregate across all accounts managed by the adviser and its affiliates) may be impractical or undesirable. In such instances, the adviser may limit or exclude investment in a particular issuer, and investment flexibility may be restricted. Additionally, governmental issuers of foreign debt securities may be unwilling to pay interest and repay principal when due and may require that the conditions for payment be renegotiated. There is no assurance that a fund's adviser will be able to anticipate these potential events or counter their effects. In addition, the value of securities denominated in foreign currencies and of dividends and interest paid with respect to such securities will fluctuate based on the relative strength of the U.S. dollar.
From time to time, a fund may invest a large portion of its assets in the securities of issuers located in a single country or a limited number of countries. If a fund invests in this manner, there is a higher risk that social, political, economic, tax (such as a tax on foreign investments), or regulatory developments in those countries may have a significant impact on the fund's investment performance.
It is anticipated that in most cases the best available market for foreign securities will be on an exchange or in over-the-counter (OTC) markets located outside of the United States. Foreign stock markets, while growing in volume and sophistication, are generally not as developed as those in the United States, and securities of some foreign issuers may be less liquid and more volatile than securities of comparable U.S. issuers. Foreign security trading, settlement and custodial practices (including those involving securities settlement where fund assets may be released prior to receipt of payment) are often less developed than those in U.S. markets, and may result in increased investment or valuation risk or substantial delays in the event of a failed trade or the insolvency of, or breach of duty by, a foreign broker-dealer, securities depository, or foreign subcustodian. In addition, the costs associated with foreign investments, including withholding taxes, brokerage commissions, and custodial costs, are generally higher than with U.S. investments.
Foreign markets may offer less protection to investors than U.S. markets. Foreign issuers are generally not bound by uniform accounting, auditing, and financial reporting requirements and standards of practice comparable to those applicable to U.S. issuers. Adequate public information on foreign issuers may not be available, and it may be difficult to secure dividends and information regarding corporate actions on a timely basis. In general, there is less overall governmental supervision and regulation of securities exchanges, brokers, and listed companies than in the United States. OTC markets tend to be less regulated than stock exchange markets and, in certain countries, may be totally unregulated. Regulatory enforcement may be influenced by economic or political concerns, and investors may have difficulty enforcing their legal rights in foreign countries.
Some foreign securities impose restrictions on transfer within the United States or to U.S. persons. Although securities subject to such transfer restrictions may be marketable abroad, they may be less liquid than foreign securities of the same class that are not subject to such restrictions.
American Depositary Receipts (ADRs) as well as other "hybrid" forms of ADRs, including European Depositary Receipts (EDRs) and Global Depositary Receipts (GDRs), are certificates evidencing ownership of shares of a foreign issuer. These certificates are issued by depository banks and generally trade on an established market in the United States or elsewhere. The underlying shares are held in trust by a custodian bank or similar financial institution in the issuer's home country. The depository bank may not have physical custody of the underlying securities at all times and may charge fees for various services, including forwarding dividends and interest and corporate actions. ADRs are alternatives to directly purchasing the underlying foreign securities in their national markets and currencies. However, ADRs continue to be subject to many of the risks associated with investing directly in foreign securities. These risks include foreign exchange risk as well as the political and economic risks of the underlying issuer's country.
The risks of foreign investing may be magnified for investments in emerging markets. Security prices in emerging markets can be significantly more volatile than those in more developed markets, reflecting the greater uncertainties of investing in less established markets and economies. In particular, countries with emerging markets may have relatively unstable governments, may present the risks of nationalization of businesses, restrictions on foreign ownership and prohibitions on the repatriation of assets, and may have less protection of property rights than more developed countries. The economies of countries with emerging markets may be based on only a few industries, may be highly vulnerable to changes in local or global trade conditions, and may suffer from extreme and volatile debt burdens or inflation rates. Local securities markets may trade a small number of securities and may be unable to respond effectively to increases in trading volume, potentially making prompt liquidation of holdings difficult or impossible at times.
Foreign Currency Transactions. A fund may conduct foreign currency transactions on a spot (i.e., cash) or forward basis (i.e., by entering into forward contracts to purchase or sell foreign currencies). Although foreign exchange dealers generally do not charge a fee for such conversions, they do realize a profit based on the difference between the prices at which they are buying and selling various currencies. Thus, a dealer may offer to sell a foreign currency at one rate, while offering a lesser rate of exchange should the counterparty desire to resell that currency to the dealer. Forward contracts are customized transactions that require a specific amount of a currency to be delivered at a specific exchange rate on a specific date or range of dates in the future. Forward contracts are generally traded in an interbank market directly between currency traders (usually large commercial banks) and their customers. The parties to a forward contract may agree to offset or terminate the contract before its maturity, or may hold the contract to maturity and complete the contemplated currency exchange.
The following discussion summarizes the principal currency management strategies involving forward contracts that could be used by a fund. A fund may also use swap agreements, indexed securities, and options and futures contracts relating to foreign currencies for the same purposes. Forward contracts not calling for physical delivery of the underlying instrument will be settled through cash payments rather than through delivery of the underlying currency. All of these instruments and transactions are subject to the risk that the counterparty will default.
A "settlement hedge" or "transaction hedge" is designed to protect a fund against an adverse change in foreign currency values between the date a security denominated in a foreign currency is purchased or sold and the date on which payment is made or received. Entering into a forward contract for the purchase or sale of the amount of foreign currency involved in an underlying security transaction for a fixed amount of U.S. dollars "locks in" the U.S. dollar price of the security. Forward contracts to purchase or sell a foreign currency may also be used to protect a fund in anticipation of future purchases or sales of securities denominated in foreign currency, even if the specific investments have not yet been selected.
A fund may also use forward contracts to hedge against a decline in the value of existing investments denominated in a foreign currency. For example, if a fund owned securities denominated in pounds sterling, it could enter into a forward contract to sell pounds sterling in return for U.S. dollars to hedge against possible declines in the pound's value. Such a hedge, sometimes referred to as a "position hedge," would tend to offset both positive and negative currency fluctuations, but would not offset changes in security values caused by other factors. A fund could also attempt to hedge the position by selling another currency expected to perform similarly to the pound sterling. This type of hedge, sometimes referred to as a "proxy hedge," could offer advantages in terms of cost, yield, or efficiency, but generally would not hedge currency exposure as effectively as a direct hedge into U.S. dollars. Proxy hedges may result in losses if the currency used to hedge does not perform similarly to the currency in which the hedged securities are denominated.
A fund may enter into forward contracts to shift its investment exposure from one currency into another. This may include shifting exposure from U.S. dollars to a foreign currency, or from one foreign currency to another foreign currency. This type of strategy, sometimes known as a "cross-hedge," will tend to reduce or eliminate exposure to the currency that is sold, and increase exposure to the currency that is purchased, much as if a fund had sold a security denominated in one currency and purchased an equivalent security denominated in another. A fund may cross-hedge its U.S. dollar exposure in order to achieve a representative weighted mix of the major currencies in its benchmark index and/or to cover an underweight country or region exposure in its portfolio. Cross-hedges protect against losses resulting from a decline in the hedged currency, but will cause a fund to assume the risk of fluctuations in the value of the currency it purchases.
Successful use of currency management strategies will depend on an adviser's skill in analyzing currency values. Currency management strategies may substantially change a fund's investment exposure to changes in currency exchange rates and could result in losses to a fund if currencies do not perform as an adviser anticipates. For example, if a currency's value rose at a time when a fund had hedged its position by selling that currency in exchange for dollars, the fund would not participate in the currency's appreciation. If a fund hedges currency exposure through proxy hedges, the fund could realize currency losses from both the hedge and the security position if the two currencies do not move in tandem. Similarly, if a fund increases its exposure to a foreign currency and that currency's value declines, the fund will realize a loss. Foreign currency transactions involve the risk that anticipated currency movements will not be accurately predicted and that a fund's hedging strategies will be ineffective. Moreover, it is impossible to precisely forecast the market value of portfolio securities at the expiration of a foreign currency forward contract. Accordingly, a fund may be required to buy or sell additional currency on the spot market (and bear the expenses of such transaction), if an adviser's predictions regarding the movement of foreign currency or securities markets prove inaccurate.
A fund may be required to limit its hedging transactions in foreign currency forwards, futures, and options in order to maintain its classification as a "regulated investment company" under the Internal Revenue Code (Code). Hedging transactions could result in the application of the mark-to-market provisions of the Code, which may cause an increase (or decrease) in the amount of taxable dividends paid by a fund and could affect whether dividends paid by a fund are classified as capital gains or ordinary income. There is no assurance that an adviser's use of currency management strategies will be advantageous to a fund or that it will employ currency management strategies at appropriate times.
Options and Futures Relating to Foreign Currencies. Currency futures contracts are similar to forward currency exchange contracts, except that they are traded on exchanges (and have margin requirements) and are standardized as to contract size and delivery date. Most currency futures contracts call for payment or delivery in U.S. dollars. The underlying instrument of a currency option may be a foreign currency, which generally is purchased or delivered in exchange for U.S. dollars, or may be a futures contract. The purchaser of a currency call obtains the right to purchase the underlying currency, and the purchaser of a currency put obtains the right to sell the underlying currency.
The uses and risks of currency options and futures are similar to options and futures relating to securities or indexes, as discussed below. A fund may purchase and sell currency futures and may purchase and write currency options to increase or decrease its exposure to different foreign currencies. Currency options may also be purchased or written in conjunction with each other or with currency futures or forward contracts. Currency futures and options values can be expected to correlate with exchange rates, but may not reflect other factors that affect the value of a fund's investments. A currency hedge, for example, should protect a Yen-denominated security from a decline in the Yen, but will not protect a fund against a price decline resulting from deterioration in the issuer's creditworthiness. Because the value of a fund's foreign-denominated investments changes in response to many factors other than exchange rates, it may not be possible to match the amount of currency options and futures to the value of the fund's investments exactly over time.
Currency options traded on U.S. or other exchanges may be subject to position limits which may limit the ability of the fund to reduce foreign currency risk using such options.
Foreign Repurchase Agreements. Foreign repurchase agreements involve an agreement to purchase a foreign security and to sell that security back to the original seller at an agreed-upon price in either U.S. dollars or foreign currency. Unlike typical U.S. repurchase agreements, foreign repurchase agreements may not be fully collateralized at all times. The value of a security purchased by a fund may be more or less than the price at which the counterparty has agreed to repurchase the security. In the event of default by the counterparty, a fund may suffer a loss if the value of the security purchased is less than the agreed-upon repurchase price, or if the fund is unable to successfully assert a claim to the collateral under foreign laws. As a result, foreign repurchase agreements may involve higher credit risks than repurchase agreements in U.S. markets, as well as risks associated with currency fluctuations. In addition, as with other emerging markets investments, repurchase agreements with counterparties located in emerging markets or relating to emerging markets may involve issuers or counterparties with lower credit ratings than typical U.S. repurchase agreements.
Funds' Rights as Investors. Fidelity ® funds do not intend to direct or administer the day-to-day operations of any company. A fund may, however, exercise its rights as a shareholder or lender and may communicate its views on important matters of policy to a company's management, board of directors, and shareholders, and holders of a company's other securities when such matters could have a significant effect on the value of the fund's investment in the company. The activities in which a fund may engage, either individually or in conjunction with others, may include, among others, supporting or opposing proposed changes in a company's corporate structure or business activities; seeking changes in a company's directors or management; seeking changes in a company's direction or policies; seeking the sale or reorganization of the company or a portion of its assets; supporting or opposing third-party takeover efforts; supporting the filing of a bankruptcy petition; or foreclosing on collateral securing a security. This area of corporate activity is increasingly prone to litigation and it is possible that a fund could be involved in lawsuits related to such activities. Such activities will be monitored with a view to mitigating, to the extent possible, the risk of litigation against a fund and the risk of actual liability if a fund is involved in litigation. No guarantee can be made, however, that litigation against a fund will not be undertaken or liabilities incurred. A fund's proxy voting guidelines are included in its SAI.
Futures, Options, and Swaps. The success of any strategy involving futures, options, and swaps depends on an adviser's analysis of many economic and mathematical factors and a fund's return may be higher if it never invested in such instruments. Additionally, some of the contracts discussed below are new instruments without a trading history and there can be no assurance that a market for the instruments will continue to exist. Government legislation or regulation could affect the use of such instruments and could limit a fund's ability to pursue its investment strategies. If a fund invests a significant portion of its assets in derivatives, its investment exposure could far exceed the value of its portfolio securities and its investment performance could be primarily dependent upon securities it does not own.
Each of Fidelity® Series Emerging Markets Fund, Fidelity® Series Emerging Markets Opportunities Fund, Fidelity® Series International Growth Fund, Fidelity® Series International Small Cap Fund, and Fidelity® Series International Value Fund will not: (a) sell futures contracts, purchase put options, or write call options if, as a result, more than 25% of the fund's total assets would be hedged with futures and options under normal conditions; (b) purchase futures contracts or write put options if, as a result, the fund's total obligations upon settlement or exercise of purchased futures contracts and written put options would exceed 25% of its total assets under normal conditions; or (c) purchase call options if, as a result, the current value of option premiums for call options purchased by the fund would exceed 5% of the fund's total assets. These limitations do not apply to options attached to or acquired or traded together with their underlying securities, and do not apply to structured notes.
The policies and limitations regarding the funds' investments in futures contracts, options, and swaps may be changed as regulatory agencies permit.
The requirements for qualification as a regulated investment company may limit the extent to which a fund may enter into futures, options on futures, and forward contracts.
Futures Contracts. In purchasing a futures contract, the buyer agrees to purchase a specified underlying instrument at a specified future date. In selling a futures contract, the seller agrees to sell a specified underlying instrument at a specified date. Futures contracts are standardized, exchange-traded contracts and the price at which the purchase and sale will take place is fixed when the buyer and seller enter into the contract. Some currently available futures contracts are based on specific securities or baskets of securities, some are based on commodities or commodities indexes (for funds that seek commodities exposure), and some are based on indexes of securities prices (including foreign indexes for funds that seek foreign exposure). Futures on indexes and futures not calling for physical delivery of the underlying instrument will be settled through cash payments rather than through delivery of the underlying instrument. Futures can be held until their delivery dates, or can be closed out by offsetting purchases or sales of futures contracts before then if a liquid market is available. A fund may realize a gain or loss by closing out its futures contracts.
The value of a futures contract tends to increase and decrease in tandem with the value of its underlying instrument. Therefore, purchasing futures contracts will tend to increase a fund's exposure to positive and negative price fluctuations in the underlying instrument, much as if it had purchased the underlying instrument directly. When a fund sells a futures contract, by contrast, the value of its futures position will tend to move in a direction contrary to the market for the underlying instrument. Selling futures contracts, therefore, will tend to offset both positive and negative market price changes, much as if the underlying instrument had been sold.
The purchaser or seller of a futures contract or an option for a futures contract is not required to deliver or pay for the underlying instrument or the final cash settlement price, as applicable, unless the contract is held until the delivery date. However, both the purchaser and seller are required to deposit "initial margin" with a futures broker, known as a futures commission merchant, when the contract is entered into. If the value of either party's position declines, that party will be required to make additional "variation margin" payments to settle the change in value on a daily basis. This process of "marking to market" will be reflected in the daily calculation of open positions computed in a fund's NAV. The party that has a gain is entitled to receive all or a portion of this amount. Initial and variation margin payments do not constitute purchasing securities on margin for purposes of a fund's investment limitations. Variation margin does not represent a borrowing or loan by a fund, but is instead a settlement between a fund and the futures commission merchant of the amount one would owe the other if the fund's contract expired. In the event of the bankruptcy or insolvency of a futures commission merchant that holds margin on behalf of a fund, the fund may be entitled to return of margin owed to it only in proportion to the amount received by the futures commission merchant's other customers, potentially resulting in losses to the fund.
Although futures exchanges generally operate similarly in the United States and abroad, foreign futures exchanges may follow trading, settlement, and margin procedures that are different from those for U.S. exchanges. Futures contracts traded outside the United States may not involve a clearing mechanism or related guarantees and may involve greater risk of loss than U.S.-traded contracts, including potentially greater risk of losses due to insolvency of a futures broker, exchange member, or other party that may owe initial or variation margin to a fund. Because initial and variation margin payments may be measured in foreign currency, a futures contract traded outside the United States may also involve the risk of foreign currency fluctuation.
There is no assurance a liquid market will exist for any particular futures contract at any particular time. Exchanges may establish daily price fluctuation limits for futures contracts, and may halt trading if a contract's price moves upward or downward more than the limit in a given day. On volatile trading days when the price fluctuation limit is reached or a trading halt is imposed, it may be impossible to enter into new positions or close out existing positions. The daily limit governs only price movements during a particular trading day and therefore does not limit potential losses because the limit may work to prevent the liquidation of unfavorable positions. For example, futures prices have occasionally moved to the daily limit for several consecutive trading days with little or no trading, thereby preventing prompt liquidation of positions and subjecting some holders of futures contracts to substantial losses.
If the market for a contract is not liquid because of price fluctuation limits or other market conditions, it could prevent prompt liquidation of unfavorable positions, and potentially could require a fund to continue to hold a position until delivery or expiration regardless of changes in its value. These risks may be heightened for commodity futures contracts, which have historically been subject to greater price volatility than exists for instruments such as stocks and bonds.
Because there are a limited number of types of exchange-traded futures contracts, it is likely that the standardized contracts available will not match a fund's current or anticipated investments exactly. A fund may invest in futures contracts based on securities with different issuers, maturities, or other characteristics from the securities in which the fund typically invests, which involves a risk that the futures position will not track the performance of the fund's other investments.
Futures prices can also diverge from the prices of their underlying instruments, even if the underlying instruments match a fund's investments well. Futures prices are affected by such factors as current and anticipated short-term interest rates, changes in volatility of the underlying instrument, and the time remaining until expiration of the contract, which may not affect security prices the same way. Imperfect correlation may also result from differing levels of demand in the futures markets and the securities markets, from structural differences in how futures and securities are traded, or from imposition of daily price fluctuation limits or trading halts. A fund may purchase or sell futures contracts with a greater or lesser value than the securities it wishes to hedge or intends to purchase in order to attempt to compensate for differences in volatility between the contract and the securities, although this may not be successful in all cases. If price changes in a fund's futures positions are poorly correlated with its other investments, the positions may fail to produce anticipated gains or result in losses that are not offset by gains in other investments. In addition, the price of a commodity futures contract can reflect the storage costs associated with the purchase of the physical commodity.
Futures contracts on U.S. Government securities historically have reacted to an increase or decrease in interest rates in a manner similar to the manner in which the underlying U.S. Government securities reacted. To the extent, however, that a fund enters into such futures contracts, the value of these futures contracts will not vary in direct proportion to the value of the fund's holdings of U.S. Government securities. Thus, the anticipated spread between the price of the futures contract and the hedged security may be distorted due to differences in the nature of the markets. The spread also may be distorted by differences in initial and variation margin requirements, the liquidity of such markets and the participation of speculators in such markets.
Options. By purchasing a put option, the purchaser obtains the right (but not the obligation) to sell the option's underlying instrument at a fixed strike price. In return for this right, the purchaser pays the current market price for the option (known as the option premium). Options have various types of underlying instruments, including specific assets or securities, baskets of assets or securities, indexes of securities or commodities prices, and futures contracts (including commodity futures contracts). Options may be traded on an exchange or OTC. The purchaser may terminate its position in a put option by allowing it to expire or by exercising the option. If the option is allowed to expire, the purchaser will lose the entire premium. If the option is exercised, the purchaser completes the sale of the underlying instrument at the strike price. Depending on the terms of the contract, upon exercise, an option may require physical delivery of the underlying instrument or may be settled through cash payments. A purchaser may also terminate a put option position by closing it out in the secondary market at its current price, if a liquid secondary market exists.
The buyer of a typical put option can expect to realize a gain if the underlying instrument's price falls substantially. However, if the underlying instrument's price does not fall enough to offset the cost of purchasing the option, a put buyer can expect to suffer a loss (limited to the amount of the premium, plus related transaction costs).
The features of call options are essentially the same as those of put options, except that the purchaser of a call option obtains the right (but not the obligation) to purchase, rather than sell, the underlying instrument at the option's strike price. A call buyer typically attempts to participate in potential price increases of the underlying instrument with risk limited to the cost of the option if the underlying instrument's price falls. At the same time, the buyer can expect to suffer a loss if the underlying instrument's price does not rise sufficiently to offset the cost of the option.
The writer of a put or call option takes the opposite side of the transaction from the option's purchaser. In return for receipt of the premium, the writer assumes the obligation to pay or receive the strike price for the option's underlying instrument if the other party to the option chooses to exercise it. The writer may seek to terminate a position in a put option before exercise by closing out the option in the secondary market at its current price. If the secondary market is not liquid for a put option, however, the writer must continue to be prepared to pay the strike price while the option is outstanding, regardless of price changes. When writing an option on a futures contract, a fund will be required to make margin payments to a futures commission merchant as described above for futures contracts.
If the underlying instrument's price rises, a put writer would generally expect to profit, although its gain would be limited to the amount of the premium it received. If the underlying instrument's price remains the same over time, it is likely that the writer will also profit, because it should be able to close out the option at a lower price. If the underlying instrument's price falls, the put writer would expect to suffer a loss. This loss should be less than the loss from purchasing the underlying instrument directly, however, because the premium received for writing the option should mitigate the effects of the decline.
Writing a call option obligates the writer to sell or deliver the option's underlying instrument or make a net cash settlement payment, as applicable, in return for the strike price, upon exercise of the option. The characteristics of writing call options are similar to those of writing put options, except that writing calls generally is a profitable strategy if prices remain the same or fall. Through receipt of the option premium, a call writer should mitigate the effects of a price increase. At the same time, because a call writer must be prepared to deliver the underlying instrument or make a net cash settlement payment, as applicable, in return for the strike price, even if its current value is greater, a call writer gives up some ability to participate in price increases and, if a call writer does not hold the underlying instrument, a call writer's loss is theoretically unlimited.
Where a put or call option on a particular security is purchased to hedge against price movements in a related security, the price to close out the put or call option on the secondary market may move more or less than the price of the related security.
There is no assurance a liquid market will exist for any particular options contract at any particular time. Options may have relatively low trading volume and liquidity if their strike prices are not close to the underlying instrument's current price. In addition, exchanges may establish daily price fluctuation limits for exchange-traded options contracts, and may halt trading if a contract's price moves upward or downward more than the limit in a given day. On volatile trading days when the price fluctuation limit is reached or a trading halt is imposed, it may be impossible to enter into new positions or close out existing positions. If the market for a contract is not liquid because of price fluctuation limits or otherwise, it could prevent prompt liquidation of unfavorable positions, and potentially could require a fund to continue to hold a position until delivery or expiration regardless of changes in its value.
Unlike exchange-traded options, which are standardized with respect to the underlying instrument, expiration date, contract size, and strike price, the terms of OTC options (options not traded on exchanges) generally are established through negotiation with the other party to the option contract. While this type of arrangement allows the purchaser or writer greater flexibility to tailor an option to its needs, OTC options generally are less liquid and involve greater credit risk than exchange-traded options, which are backed by the clearing organization of the exchanges where they are traded.
Combined positions involve purchasing and writing options in combination with each other, or in combination with futures or forward contracts, to adjust the risk and return characteristics of the overall position. For example, purchasing a put option and writing a call option on the same underlying instrument would construct a combined position whose risk and return characteristics are similar to selling a futures contract. Another possible combined position would involve writing a call option at one strike price and buying a call option at a lower price, to reduce the risk of the written call option in the event of a substantial price increase. Because combined options positions involve multiple trades, they result in higher transaction costs and may be more difficult to open and close out.
A fund may also buy and sell options on swaps (swaptions), which are generally options on interest rate swaps. An option on a swap gives a party the right (but not the obligation) to enter into a new swap agreement or to extend, shorten, cancel or modify an existing contract at a specific date in the future in exchange for a premium. Depending on the terms of the particular option agreement, a fund will generally incur a greater degree of risk when it writes (sells) an option on a swap than it will incur when it purchases an option on a swap. When a fund purchases an option on a swap, it risks losing only the amount of the premium it has paid should it decide to let the option expire unexercised. However, when a fund writes an option on a swap, upon exercise of the option the fund will become obligated according to the terms of the underlying agreement. A fund that writes an option on a swap receives the premium and bears the risk of unfavorable changes in the preset rate on the underlying interest rate swap. Whether a fund's use of options on swaps will be successful in furthering its investment objective will depend on the adviser's ability to predict correctly whether certain types of investments are likely to produce greater returns than other investments. Options on swaps may involve risks similar to those discussed below in "Swap Agreements."
Because there are a limited number of types of exchange-traded options contracts, it is likely that the standardized contracts available will not match a fund's current or anticipated investments exactly. A fund may invest in options contracts based on securities with different issuers, maturities, or other characteristics from the securities in which the fund typically invests, which involves a risk that the options position will not track the performance of the fund's other investments.
Options prices can also diverge from the prices of their underlying instruments, even if the underlying instruments match a fund's investments well. Options prices are affected by such factors as current and anticipated short-term interest rates, changes in volatility of the underlying instrument, and the time remaining until expiration of the contract, which may not affect security prices the same way. Imperfect correlation may also result from differing levels of demand in the options and futures markets and the securities markets, from structural differences in how options and futures and securities are traded, or from imposition of daily price fluctuation limits or trading halts. A fund may purchase or sell options contracts with a greater or lesser value than the securities it wishes to hedge or intends to purchase in order to attempt to compensate for differences in volatility between the contract and the securities, although this may not be successful in all cases. If price changes in a fund's options positions are poorly correlated with its other investments, the positions may fail to produce anticipated gains or result in losses that are not offset by gains in other investments.
Swap Agreements. Swap agreements are two-party contracts entered into primarily by institutional investors. Cleared swaps are transacted through futures commission merchants that are members of central clearinghouses with the clearinghouse serving as a central counterparty similar to transactions in futures contracts. In a standard "swap" transaction, two parties agree to exchange one or more payments based, for example, on the returns (or differentials in rates of return) earned or realized on particular predetermined investments or instruments (such as securities, commodities, indexes, or other financial or economic interests). The gross payments to be exchanged between the parties are calculated with respect to a notional amount, which is the predetermined dollar principal of the trade representing the hypothetical underlying quantity upon which payment obligations are computed.
Swap agreements can take many different forms and are known by a variety of names. Depending on how they are used, swap agreements may increase or decrease the overall volatility of a fund's investments and its share price and, if applicable, its yield. Swap agreements are subject to liquidity risk, meaning that a fund may be unable to sell a swap contract to a third party at a favorable price. Certain standardized swap transactions are currently subject to mandatory central clearing or may be eligible for voluntary central clearing. Central clearing is expected to decrease counterparty risk and increase liquidity compared to uncleared swaps because central clearing interposes the central clearinghouse as the counterpart to each participant's swap. However, central clearing does not eliminate counterparty risk or illiquidity risk entirely. In addition depending on the size of a fund and other factors, the margin required under the rules of a clearinghouse and by a clearing member futures commission merchant may be in excess of the collateral required to be posted by a fund to support its obligations under a similar uncleared swap. However, regulators have adopted rules imposing certain margin requirements, including minimums, on certain uncleared swaps which could reduce the distinction.
A total return swap is a contract whereby one party agrees to make a series of payments to another party based on the change in the market value of the assets underlying such contract (which can include a security or other instrument, commodity, index or baskets thereof) during the specified period. In exchange, the other party to the contract agrees to make a series of payments calculated by reference to an interest rate and/or some other agreed-upon amount (including the change in market value of other underlying assets). A fund may use total return swaps to gain exposure to an asset without owning it or taking physical custody of it. For example, a fund investing in total return commodity swaps will receive the price appreciation of a commodity, commodity index or portion thereof in exchange for payment of an agreed-upon fee.
In a credit default swap, the credit default protection buyer makes periodic payments, known as premiums, to the credit default protection seller. In return the credit default protection seller will make a payment to the credit default protection buyer upon the occurrence of a specified credit event. A credit default swap can refer to a single issuer or asset, a basket of issuers or assets or index of assets, each known as the reference entity or underlying asset. A fund may act as either the buyer or the seller of a credit default swap. A fund may buy or sell credit default protection on a basket of issuers or assets, even if a number of the underlying assets referenced in the basket are lower-quality debt securities. In an unhedged credit default swap, a fund buys credit default protection on a single issuer or asset, a basket of issuers or assets or index of assets without owning the underlying asset or debt issued by the reference entity. Credit default swaps involve greater and different risks than investing directly in the referenced asset, because, in addition to market risk, credit default swaps include liquidity, counterparty and operational risk.
Credit default swaps allow a fund to acquire or reduce credit exposure to a particular issuer, asset or basket of assets. If a swap agreement calls for payments by a fund, the fund must be prepared to make such payments when due. If a fund is the credit default protection seller, the fund will experience a loss if a credit event occurs and the credit of the reference entity or underlying asset has deteriorated. If a fund is the credit default protection buyer, the fund will be required to pay premiums to the credit default protection seller.
If the creditworthiness of a fund's swap counterparty declines, the risk that the counterparty may not perform could increase, potentially resulting in a loss to the fund. To limit the counterparty risk involved in swap agreements, a Fidelity ® fund will enter into swap agreements only with counterparties that meet certain standards of creditworthiness. This risk for cleared swaps is generally lower than for uncleared swaps since the counterparty is a clearinghouse, but there can be no assurance that a clearinghouse or its members will satisfy its obligations.
A fund bears the risk of loss of the amount expected to be received under a swap agreement in the event of the default or bankruptcy of a swap agreement counterparty. A fund would generally be required to provide margin or collateral for the benefit of that counterparty. If a counterparty to a swap transaction becomes insolvent, the fund may be limited temporarily or permanently in exercising its right to the return of related fund assets designated as margin or collateral in an action against the counterparty.
Swap agreements are subject to the risk that the market value of the instrument will change in a way detrimental to a fund's interest. A fund bears the risk that an adviser will not accurately forecast market trends or the values of assets, reference rates, indexes, or other economic factors in establishing swap positions for a fund. If an adviser attempts to use a swap as a hedge against, or as a substitute for, a portfolio investment, a fund may be exposed to the risk that the swap will have or will develop imperfect or no correlation with the portfolio investment, which could cause substantial losses for a fund. While hedging strategies involving swap instruments can reduce the risk of loss, they can also reduce the opportunity for gain or even result in losses by offsetting favorable price movements in other fund investments. Swaps are complex and often valued subjectively.
Hybrid and Preferred Securities. A hybrid security may be a debt security, warrant, convertible security, certificate of deposit or other evidence of indebtedness on which the value of the interest on or principal of which is determined by reference to changes in the value of a reference instrument or financial strength of a reference entity (e.g., a security or other financial instrument, asset, currency, interest rate, commodity, index, or business entity such as a financial institution). Another example is contingent convertible securities, which are fixed income securities that, under certain circumstances, either convert into common stock of the issuer or undergo a principal write-down by a predetermined percentage if the issuer's capital ratio falls below a predetermined trigger level. The liquidation value of such a security may be reduced upon a regulatory action and without the need for a bankruptcy proceeding. Preferred securities may take the form of preferred stock and represent an equity or ownership interest in an issuer that pays dividends at a specified rate and that has precedence over common stock in the payment of dividends. In the event an issuer is liquidated or declares bankruptcy, the claims of owners of bonds generally take precedence over the claims of those who own preferred and common stock.
The risks of investing in hybrid and preferred securities reflect a combination of the risks of investing in securities, options, futures and currencies. An investment in a hybrid or preferred security may entail significant risks that are not associated with a similar investment in a traditional debt or equity security. The risks of a particular hybrid or preferred security will depend upon the terms of the instrument, but may include the possibility of significant changes in the value of any applicable reference instrument. Such risks may depend upon factors unrelated to the operations or credit quality of the issuer of the hybrid or preferred security. Hybrid and preferred securities are potentially more volatile and carry greater market and liquidity risks than traditional debt or equity securities. Also, the price of the hybrid or preferred security and any applicable reference instrument may not move in the same direction or at the same time. In addition, because hybrid and preferred securities may be traded over-the-counter or in bilateral transactions with the issuer of the security, hybrid and preferred securities may be subject to the creditworthiness of the counterparty of the security and their values may decline substantially if the counterparty's creditworthiness deteriorates. In addition, uncertainty regarding the tax and regulatory treatment of hybrid and preferred securities may reduce demand for such securities and tax and regulatory considerations may limit the extent of a fund's investments in certain hybrid and preferred securities.
Illiquid Investments means any investment that cannot be sold or disposed of in current market conditions in seven calendar days or less without the sale or disposition significantly changing the market value of the investment. Difficulty in selling or disposing of illiquid investments may result in a loss or may be costly to a fund. Illiquid securities may include (1) repurchase agreements maturing in more than seven days without demand/redemption features, (2) OTC options and certain other derivatives, (3) private placements, (4) securities traded on markets and exchanges with structural constraints, and (5) loan participations.
Under the supervision of the Board of Trustees, a Fidelity ® fund's adviser classifies the liquidity of the fund's investments and monitors the extent of funds' illiquid investments.
Various market, trading and investment-specific factors may be considered in determining the liquidity of a fund's investments including, but not limited to (1) the existence of an active trading market, (2) the nature of the security and the market in which it trades, (3) the number, diversity, and quality of dealers and prospective purchasers in the marketplace, (4) the frequency, volume, and volatility of trade and price quotations, (5) bid-ask spreads, (6) dates of issuance and maturity, (7) demand, put or tender features, and (8) restrictions on trading or transferring the investment.
Fidelity classifies certain investments as illiquid based upon these criteria. Fidelity also monitors for certain market, trading and investment-specific events that may cause Fidelity to re-evaluate an investment's liquidity status and may lead to an investment being classified as illiquid. In addition, Fidelity uses a third-party to assist with the liquidity classifications of the fund's investments, which includes calculating the time to sell and settle a specified size position in a particular investment without the sale significantly changing the market value of the investment.
Increasing Government Debt. The total public debt of the United States and other countries around the globe as a percent of gross domestic product has grown rapidly since the beginning of the 2008 financial downturn. Although high debt levels do not necessarily indicate or cause economic problems, they may create certain systemic risks if sound debt management practices are not implemented.
A high national debt level may increase market pressures to meet government funding needs, which may drive debt cost higher and cause a country to sell additional debt, thereby increasing refinancing risk. A high national debt also raises concerns that a government will not be able to make principal or interest payments when they are due. In the worst case, unsustainable debt levels can decline the valuation of currencies, and can prevent a government from implementing effective counter-cyclical fiscal policy in economic downturns.
On August 5, 2011, Standard & Poor's Ratings Services lowered its long-term sovereign credit rating on the United States one level to "AA+" from "AAA." While Standard & Poor's Ratings Services affirmed the United States' short-term sovereign credit rating as "A-1+," there is no guarantee that Standard & Poor's Ratings Services will not decide to lower this rating in the future. Standard & Poor's Ratings Services stated that its decision was prompted by its view on the rising public debt burden and its perception of greater policymaking uncertainty. The market prices and yields of securities supported by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Government may be adversely affected by Standard & Poor's Ratings Services decisions to downgrade the long-term sovereign credit rating of the United States.
Indexed Securities are instruments whose prices are indexed to the prices of other securities, securities indexes, or other financial indicators. Indexed securities typically, but not always, are debt securities or deposits whose values at maturity or coupon rates are determined by reference to a specific instrument, statistic, or measure.
Indexed securities also include commercial paper, certificates of deposit, and other fixed-income securities whose values at maturity or coupon interest rates are determined by reference to the returns of particular stock indexes. Indexed securities can be affected by stock prices as well as changes in interest rates and the creditworthiness of their issuers and may not track the indexes as accurately as direct investments in the indexes.
Currency-indexed securities typically are short-term to intermediate-term debt securities whose maturity values or interest rates are determined by reference to the values of one or more specified foreign currencies, and may offer higher yields than U.S. dollar-denominated securities. Currency-indexed securities may be positively or negatively indexed; that is, their maturity value may increase when the specified currency value increases, resulting in a security that performs similarly to a foreign-denominated instrument, or their maturity value may decline when foreign currencies increase, resulting in a security whose price characteristics are similar to a put on the underlying currency. Currency-indexed securities may also have prices that depend on the values of a number of different foreign currencies relative to each other.
The performance of indexed securities depends to a great extent on the performance of the instrument or measure to which they are indexed, and may also be influenced by interest rate changes in the United States and abroad. Indexed securities may be more volatile than the underlying instruments or measures. Indexed securities are also subject to the credit risks associated with the issuer of the security, and their values may decline substantially if the issuer's creditworthiness deteriorates. Recent issuers of indexed securities have included banks, corporations, and certain U.S. Government agencies.
Insolvency of Issuers, Counterparties, and Intermediaries. Issuers of fund portfolio securities or counterparties to fund transactions that become insolvent or declare bankruptcy can pose special investment risks. In each circumstance, risk of loss, valuation uncertainty, increased illiquidity, and other unpredictable occurrences may negatively impact an investment. Each of these risks may be amplified in foreign markets, where security trading, settlement, and custodial practices can be less developed than those in the U.S. markets, and bankruptcy laws differ from those of the U.S.
As a general matter, if the issuer of a fund portfolio security is liquidated or declares bankruptcy, the claims of owners of bonds and preferred stock have priority over the claims of common stock owners. These events can negatively impact the value of the issuer's securities and the results of related proceedings can be unpredictable.
If a counterparty to a fund transaction, such as a swap transaction, a short sale, a borrowing, or other complex transaction becomes insolvent, the fund may be limited in its ability to exercise rights to obtain the return of related fund assets or in exercising other rights against the counterparty. Uncertainty may also arise upon the insolvency of a securities or commodities intermediary such as a broker-dealer or futures commission merchant with which a fund has pending transactions. In addition, insolvency and liquidation proceedings take time to resolve, which can limit or preclude a fund's ability to terminate a transaction or obtain related assets or collateral in a timely fashion. If an intermediary becomes insolvent, while securities positions and other holdings may be protected by U.S. or foreign laws, it is sometimes difficult to determine whether these protections are available to specific trades based on the circumstances. Receiving the benefit of these protections can also take time to resolve, which may result in illiquid positions.
Interfund Borrowing and Lending Program. Pursuant to an exemptive order issued by the SEC, a Fidelity ® fund may lend money to, and borrow money from, other funds advised by FMR or its affiliates. A Fidelity ® fund will borrow through the program only when the costs are equal to or lower than the costs of bank loans. A Fidelity ® fund will lend through the program only when the returns are higher than those available from an investment in repurchase agreements. Interfund loans and borrowings normally extend overnight, but can have a maximum duration of seven days. Loans may be called on one day's notice. A Fidelity ® fund may have to borrow from a bank at a higher interest rate if an interfund loan is called or not renewed. Any delay in repayment to a lending fund could result in a lost investment opportunity or additional borrowing costs.
Investment-Grade Debt Securities. Investment-grade debt securities include all types of debt instruments that are of medium and high-quality. Investment-grade debt securities include repurchase agreements collateralized by U.S. Government securities as well as repurchase agreements collateralized by equity securities, non-investment-grade debt, and all other instruments in which a fund can perfect a security interest, provided the repurchase agreement counterparty has an investment-grade rating. Some investment-grade debt securities may possess speculative characteristics and may be more sensitive to economic changes and to changes in the financial conditions of issuers. An investment-grade rating means the security or issuer is rated investment-grade by a credit rating agency registered as a nationally recognized statistical rating organization (NRSRO) with the SEC (for example, Moody's Investors Service, Inc.), or is unrated but considered to be of equivalent quality by a fund's adviser. For purposes of determining the maximum maturity of an investment-grade debt security, an adviser may take into account normal settlement periods.
Loans and Other Direct Debt Instruments. Direct debt instruments are interests in amounts owed by a corporate, governmental, or other borrower to lenders or lending syndicates (loans and loan participations), to suppliers of goods or services (trade claims or other receivables), or to other parties. Direct debt instruments involve a risk of loss in case of default or insolvency of the borrower and may offer less legal protection to the purchaser in the event of fraud or misrepresentation, or there may be a requirement that a fund supply additional cash to a borrower on demand. A fund may acquire loans by buying an assignment of all or a portion of the loan from a lender or by purchasing a loan participation from a lender or other purchaser of a participation.
Lenders and purchasers of loans and other forms of direct indebtedness depend primarily upon the creditworthiness of the borrower and/or any collateral for payment of interest and repayment of principal. If scheduled interest or principal payments are not made, the value of the instrument may be adversely affected. Loans that are fully secured provide more protections than an unsecured loan in the event of failure to make scheduled interest or principal payments. However, there is no assurance that the liquidation of collateral from a secured loan would satisfy the borrower's obligation, or that the collateral could be liquidated. Indebtedness of borrowers whose creditworthiness is poor involves substantially greater risks and may be highly speculative. Different types of assets may be used as collateral for a fund's loans and there can be no assurance that a fund will correctly evaluate the value of the assets collateralizing the fund's loans. Borrowers that are in bankruptcy or restructuring may never pay off their indebtedness, or may pay only a small fraction of the amount owed. In any restructuring or bankruptcy proceedings relating to a borrower funded by a fund, a fund may be required to accept collateral with less value than the amount of the loan made by the fund to the borrower. Direct indebtedness of foreign countries also involves a risk that the governmental entities responsible for the repayment of the debt may be unable, or unwilling, to pay interest and repay principal when due.
Loans and other types of direct indebtedness (which a fund may originate, acquire or otherwise gain exposure to) may not be readily marketable and may be subject to restrictions on resale. Some indebtedness may be difficult to dispose of readily at what the Adviser believes to be a fair price. In addition, valuation of illiquid indebtedness involves a greater degree of judgment in determining a fund's net asset value than if that value were based on readily available market quotations, and could result in significant variations in a fund's daily share price. Some loan interests are traded among certain financial institutions and accordingly may be deemed liquid. As the market for different types of indebtedness develops, the liquidity of these instruments is expected to improve.
Direct lending and investments in loans through direct assignment of a financial institution's interests with respect to a loan may involve additional risks. For example, if a loan is foreclosed, the lender/purchaser could become part owner of any collateral, and would bear the costs and liabilities associated with owning and disposing of the collateral. In the event of a default by the borrower, a fund may have difficulty disposing of the assets used as collateral for a loan. In addition, a purchaser could be held liable as a co-lender. Direct debt instruments may also involve a risk of insolvency of the lending bank or other intermediary.
A loan is often administered by a bank or other financial institution that acts as agent for all holders. The agent administers the terms of the loan, as specified in the loan agreement. Unless, under the terms of the loan or other indebtedness, the purchaser has direct recourse against the borrower, the purchaser may have to rely on the agent to apply appropriate credit remedies against a borrower. If assets held by the agent for the benefit of a purchaser were determined to be subject to the claims of the agent's general creditors, the purchaser might incur certain costs and delays in realizing payment on the loan or loan participation and could suffer a loss of principal or interest. Direct loans are typically not administered by an underwriter or agent bank. The terms of direct loans are negotiated with borrowers in private transactions. Direct loans are not publicly traded and may not have a secondary market.
A fund may seek to dispose of loans in certain cases, to the extent possible, through selling participations in the loan. In that case, a fund would remain subject to certain obligations, which may result in expenses for a fund and certain additional risks.
Direct indebtedness may include letters of credit, revolving credit facilities, or other standby financing commitments that obligate lenders/purchasers, including a fund, to make additional cash payments on demand. These commitments may have the effect of requiring a lender/purchaser to increase its investment in a borrower at a time when it would not otherwise have done so, even if the borrower's condition makes it unlikely that the amount will ever be repaid.
In the process of originating, buying, selling and holding loans, a fund may receive and/or pay certain fees. These fees are in addition to the interest payments received and may include facility, closing or upfront fees, commitment fees and commissions. A fund may receive or pay a facility, closing or upfront fee when it buys or sells a loan. A fund may receive a commitment fee throughout the life of the loan or as long as the fund remains invested in the loan (in addition to interest payments) for any unused portion of a committed line of credit. Other fees received by the fund may include prepayment fees, covenant waiver fees, ticking fees and/or modification fees. Legal fees related to the originating, buying, selling and holding loans may also be borne by the fund (including legal fees to assess conformity of a loan investment with 1940 Act provisions).
When engaging in direct lending, if permitted by its investment policies, a fund's performance may depend, in part, on the ability of the fund to originate loans on advantageous terms. A fund may compete with other lenders in originating and purchasing loans. Increased competition for, or a diminished available supply of, qualifying loans could result in lower yields on and/or less advantageous terms for such loans, which could reduce fund performance.
For a Fidelity ® fund that limits the amount of total assets that it will invest in any one issuer or in issuers within the same industry, the fund generally will treat the borrower as the "issuer" of indebtedness held by the fund. In the case of loan participations where a bank or other lending institution serves as financial intermediary between a fund and the borrower, if the participation does not shift to the fund the direct debtor-creditor relationship with the borrower, SEC interpretations require a fund, in appropriate circumstances, to treat both the lending bank or other lending institution and the borrower as "issuers" for these purposes. Treating a financial intermediary as an issuer of indebtedness may restrict a fund's ability to invest in indebtedness related to a single financial intermediary, or a group of intermediaries engaged in the same industry, even if the underlying borrowers represent many different companies and industries.
A fund may choose, at its expense or in conjunction with others, to pursue litigation or otherwise to exercise its rights as a security holder to seek to protect the interests of security holders if it determines this to be in the best interest of the fund's shareholders.
If permitted by its investment policies, a fund may also obtain exposure to the lending activities described above indirectly through its investments in underlying Fidelity funds or other vehicles that may engage in such activities directly.
Lower-Quality Debt Securities. Lower-quality debt securities include all types of debt instruments that have poor protection with respect to the payment of interest and repayment of principal, or may be in default. These securities are often considered to be speculative and involve greater risk of loss or price changes due to changes in the issuer's capacity to pay. The market prices of lower-quality debt securities may fluctuate more than those of higher-quality debt securities and may decline significantly in periods of general economic difficulty, which may follow periods of rising interest rates.
The market for lower-quality debt securities may be thinner and less active than that for higher-quality debt securities, which can adversely affect the prices at which the former are sold. Adverse publicity and changing investor perceptions may affect the liquidity of lower-quality debt securities and the ability of outside pricing services to value lower-quality debt securities.
Because the risk of default is higher for lower-quality debt securities, research and credit analysis are an especially important part of managing securities of this type. Such analysis may focus on relative values based on factors such as interest or dividend coverage, asset coverage, earnings prospects, and the experience and managerial strength of the issuer, in an attempt to identify those issuers of high-yielding securities whose financial condition is adequate to meet future obligations, has improved, or is expected to improve in the future.
A fund may choose, at its expense or in conjunction with others, to pursue litigation or otherwise to exercise its rights as a security holder to seek to protect the interests of security holders if it determines this to be in the best interest of the fund's shareholders.
Repurchase Agreements involve an agreement to purchase a security and to sell that security back to the original seller at an agreed-upon price. The resale price reflects the purchase price plus an agreed-upon incremental amount which is unrelated to the coupon rate or maturity of the purchased security. As protection against the risk that the original seller will not fulfill its obligation, the securities are held in a separate account at a bank, marked-to-market daily, and maintained at a value at least equal to the sale price plus the accrued incremental amount. The value of the security purchased may be more or less than the price at which the counterparty has agreed to purchase the security. In addition, delays or losses could result if the other party to the agreement defaults or becomes insolvent. A fund may be limited in its ability to exercise its right to liquidate assets related to a repurchase agreement with an insolvent counterparty. A Fidelity ® fund may engage in repurchase agreement transactions with parties whose creditworthiness has been reviewed and found satisfactory by the fund's adviser.
Restricted Securities (including Private Placements) are subject to legal restrictions on their sale. Difficulty in selling securities may result in a loss or be costly to a fund. Restricted securities, including private placements of private and public companies, generally can be sold in privately negotiated transactions, pursuant to an exemption from registration under the Securities Act of 1933 (1933 Act), or in a registered public offering. Where registration is required, the holder of a registered security may be obligated to pay all or part of the registration expense and a considerable period may elapse between the time it decides to seek registration and the time it may be permitted to sell a security under an effective registration statement. If, during such a period, adverse market conditions were to develop, the holder might obtain a less favorable price than prevailed when it decided to seek registration of the security.
Reverse Repurchase Agreements. In a reverse repurchase agreement, a fund sells a security to another party, such as a bank or broker-dealer, in return for cash and agrees to repurchase that security at an agreed-upon price and time. A Fidelity ® fund may enter into reverse repurchase agreements with parties whose creditworthiness has been reviewed and found satisfactory by the fund's adviser. Such transactions may increase fluctuations in the market value of a fund's assets and, if applicable, a fund's yield, and may be viewed as a form of leverage. Under SEC requirements, a fund needs to aggregate the amount of indebtedness associated with its reverse repurchase agreements and similar financing transactions with the aggregate amount of any other senior securities representing indebtedness (e.g., borrowings, if applicable) when calculating the fund's asset coverage ratio or treat all such transactions as derivatives transactions.
SEC Rule 18f-4.   In October 2020, the SEC adopted a final rule related to the use of derivatives, short sales, reverse repurchase agreements and certain other transactions by registered investment companies (the "rule"). Subject to certain exceptions, the rule requires the funds to trade derivatives and certain other transactions that create future payment or delivery obligations subject to a value-at-risk (VaR) leverage limit and to certain derivatives risk management program, reporting and board oversight requirements. Generally, these requirements apply to any fund engaging in derivatives transactions unless a fund satisfies a "limited derivatives users" exception, which requires the fund to limit its gross notional derivatives exposure (with certain exceptions) to 10% of its net assets and to adopt derivatives risk management procedures. Under the rule, when a fund trades reverse repurchase agreements or similar financing transactions, it needs to aggregate the amount of indebtedness associated with the reverse repurchase agreements or similar financing transactions with the aggregate amount of any other senior securities representing indebtedness (e.g., borrowings, if applicable) when calculating the fund's asset coverage ratio or treat all such transactions as derivatives transactions. The SEC also provided guidance in connection with the final rule regarding the use of securities lending collateral that may limit securities lending activities. In addition, under the rule, a fund may invest in a security on a when-issued or forward-settling basis, or with a non-standard settlement cycle, and the transaction will be deemed not to involve a senior security (as defined under Section 18(g) of the 1940 Act), provided that (i) the fund intends to physically settle the transaction and (ii) the transaction will settle within 35 days of its trade date (the "Delayed-Settlement Securities Provision"). A fund may otherwise engage in when-issued, forward-settling and non-standard settlement cycle securities transactions that do not meet the conditions of the Delayed-Settlement Securities Provision so long as the fund treats any such transaction as a derivatives transaction for purposes of compliance with the rule. Furthermore, under the rule, a fund will be permitted to enter into an unfunded commitment agreement, and such unfunded commitment agreement will not be subject to the asset coverage requirements under the 1940 Act, if the fund reasonably believes, at the time it enters into such agreement, that it will have sufficient cash and cash equivalents to meet its obligations with respect to all such agreements as they come due. These requirements may limit the ability of the funds to use derivatives, short sales, reverse repurchase agreements and similar financing transactions, and the other relevant transactions as part of its investment strategies. These requirements also may increase the cost of the fund's investments and cost of doing business, which could adversely affect investors.
Securities Lending. A Fidelity ® fund may lend securities to parties such as broker-dealers or other institutions, including an affiliate, National Financial Services LLC (NFS). Securities lending allows a fund to retain ownership of the securities loaned and, at the same time, earn additional income. The borrower provides the fund with collateral in an amount at least equal to the value of the securities loaned. The fund seeks to maintain the ability to obtain the right to vote or consent on proxy proposals involving material events affecting securities loaned. If the borrower defaults on its obligation to return the securities loaned because of insolvency or other reasons, a fund could experience delays and costs in recovering the securities loaned or in gaining access to the collateral. These delays and costs could be greater for foreign securities. If a fund is not able to recover the securities loaned, the fund may sell the collateral and purchase a replacement investment in the market. The value of the collateral could decrease below the value of the replacement investment by the time the replacement investment is purchased. For a Fidelity ® fund, loans will be made only to parties deemed by the fund's adviser to be in good standing and when, in the adviser's judgment, the income earned would justify the risks.
The Fidelity ® funds have retained agents, including NFS, an affiliate of the funds, to act as securities lending agent. If NFS acts as securities lending agent for a fund, it is subject to the overall supervision of the fund's adviser, and NFS will administer the lending program in accordance with guidelines approved by the fund's Trustees.
Cash received as collateral through loan transactions may be invested in other eligible securities, including shares of a money market fund. Investing this cash subjects that investment, as well as the securities loaned, to market appreciation or depreciation.
Securities of Other Investment Companies , including shares of closed-end investment companies (which include business development companies (BDCs)), unit investment trusts, and open-end investment companies, represent interests in professionally managed portfolios that may invest in any type of instrument. Investing in other investment companies involves substantially the same risks as investing directly in the underlying instruments, but may involve additional expenses at the underlying investment company-level, such as portfolio management fees and operating expenses. Fees and expenses incurred indirectly by a fund as a result of its investment in shares of one or more other investment companies generally are referred to as "acquired fund fees and expenses" and may appear as a separate line item in a fund's prospectus fee table. For certain investment companies, such as BDCs, these expenses may be significant. Certain types of investment companies, such as closed-end investment companies, issue a fixed number of shares that trade on a stock exchange or over-the-counter at a premium or a discount to their NAV. Others are continuously offered at NAV, but may also be traded in the secondary market.
The securities of closed-end funds may be leveraged. As a result, a fund may be indirectly exposed to leverage through an investment in such securities. An investment in securities of closed-end funds that use leverage may expose a fund to higher volatility in the market value of such securities and the possibility that the fund's long-term returns on such securities will be diminished.
A fund's ability to invest in securities of other investment companies may be limited by federal securities laws. To the extent a fund acquires securities issued by unaffiliated investment companies, the Adviser's access to information regarding such underlying fund's portfolio may be limited and subject to such fund's policies regarding disclosure of fund holdings.
Short Sales "Against the Box" are short sales of securities that a fund owns or has the right to obtain (equivalent in kind or amount to the securities sold short). If a fund enters into a short sale against the box, it will be required to set aside securities equivalent in kind and amount to the securities sold short (or securities convertible or exchangeable into such securities) and will be required to hold such securities while the short sale is outstanding. A fund will incur transaction costs, including interest expenses, in connection with opening, maintaining, and closing short sales against the box.
Short Sales. Stocks underlying a fund's convertible security holdings can be sold short. For example, if a fund's adviser anticipates a decline in the price of the stock underlying a convertible security held by the fund, it may sell the stock short. If the stock price subsequently declines, the proceeds of the short sale could be expected to offset all or a portion of the effect of the stock's decline on the value of the convertible security. Fidelity ® funds that employ this strategy generally intend to hedge no more than 15% of total assets with short sales on equity securities underlying convertible security holdings under normal circumstances. A fund will incur transaction costs, including interest expenses, in connection with opening, maintaining, and closing short sales.
Sovereign Debt Obligations are issued or guaranteed by foreign governments or their agencies, including debt of Latin American nations or other developing countries. Sovereign debt may be in the form of conventional securities or other types of debt instruments such as loans or loan participations. Sovereign debt of developing countries may involve a high degree of risk, and may be in default or present the risk of default. Governmental entities responsible for repayment of the debt may be unable or unwilling to repay principal and pay interest when due, and may require renegotiation or rescheduling of debt payments. In addition, prospects for repayment of principal and payment of interest may depend on political as well as economic factors. Although some sovereign debt, such as Brady Bonds, is collateralized by U.S. Government securities, repayment of principal and payment of interest is not guaranteed by the U.S. Government.
Special Purpose Acquisition Companies ("SPACs"). A fund may invest in stock, warrants, and other securities of SPACs or similar special purpose entities that pool money to seek potential acquisition opportunities. SPACs are collective investment structures formed to raise money in an initial public offering for the purpose of merging with or acquiring one or more operating companies (the "de-SPAC Transaction"). Until an acquisition is completed, a SPAC generally invests its assets in US government securities, money market securities and cash. In connection with a de-SPAC Transaction, the SPAC may complete a PIPE (private investment in public equity) offering with certain investors. A fund may enter into a contingent commitment with a SPAC to purchase PIPE shares if and when the SPAC completes its de-SPAC Transaction.
Because SPACs do not have an operating history or ongoing business other than seeking acquisitions, the value of their securities is particularly dependent on the ability of the SPAC's management to identify and complete a profitable acquisition. Some SPACs may pursue acquisitions only within certain industries or regions, which may increase the volatility of their prices. An investment in a SPAC is subject to a variety of risks, including that (i) an attractive acquisition or merger target may not be identified at all and the SPAC will be required to return any remaining monies to shareholders; (ii) an acquisition or merger once effected may prove unsuccessful and an investment in the SPAC may lose value; (iii) the values of investments in SPACs may be highly volatile and may depreciate significantly over time; (iv) no or only a thinly traded market for shares of or interests in a SPAC may develop, leaving a fund unable to sell its interest in a SPAC or to sell its interest only at a price below what the fund believes is the SPAC interest's intrinsic value; (v) any proposed merger or acquisition may be unable to obtain the requisite approval, if any, of shareholders; (vi) an investment in a SPAC may be diluted by additional later offerings of interests in the SPAC or by other investors exercising existing rights to purchase shares of the SPAC; (vii) the warrants or other rights with respect to the SPAC held by a fund may expire worthless or may be repurchased or retired by the SPAC at an unfavorable price; (viii) a fund may be delayed in receiving any redemption or liquidation proceeds from a SPAC to which it is entitled; and (ix) a significant portion of the monies raised by the SPAC for the purpose of identifying and effecting an acquisition or merger may be expended during the search for a target transaction.
Purchased PIPE shares will be restricted from trading until the registration statement for the shares is declared effective. Upon registration, the shares can be freely sold, but only pursuant to an effective registration statement or other exemption from registration. The securities issued by a SPAC, which are typically traded either in the over-the-counter market or on an exchange, may be considered illiquid, more difficult to value, and/or be subject to restrictions on resale.
Structured Securities (also called "structured notes") are derivative debt securities, the interest rate on or principal of which is determined by an unrelated indicator. The value of the interest rate on and/or the principal of structured securities is determined by reference to changes in the value of a reference instrument (e.g., a security or other financial instrument, asset, currency, interest rate, commodity, or index) or the relative change in two or more reference instruments. A structured security may be positively, negatively, or both positively and negatively indexed; that is, its value or interest rate may increase or decrease if the value of the reference instrument increases. Similarly, its value or interest rate may increase or decrease if the value of the reference instrument decreases. Further, the change in the principal amount payable with respect to, or the interest rate of, a structured security may be calculated as a multiple of the percentage change (positive or negative) in the value of the underlying reference instrument(s); therefore, the value of such structured security may be very volatile. Structured securities may entail a greater degree of market risk than other types of debt securities because the investor bears the risk of the reference instrument. Structured securities may also be more volatile, less liquid, and more difficult to accurately price than less complex securities or more traditional debt securities. In addition, because structured securities generally are traded over-the-counter, structured securities are subject to the creditworthiness of the counterparty of the structured security, and their values may decline substantially if the counterparty's creditworthiness deteriorates.
Temporary Defensive Policies. Each of Fidelity® Series Emerging Markets Fund, Fidelity® Series Emerging Markets Opportunities Fund, Fidelity® Series International Growth Fund, Fidelity® Series International Small Cap Fund, and Fidelity® Series International Value Fund reserves the right to invest without limitation in preferred stocks and investment-grade debt instruments for temporary, defensive purposes.
Transfer Agent Bank Accounts. Proceeds from shareholder purchases of a Fidelity ® fund may pass through a series of demand deposit bank accounts before being held at the fund's custodian. Redemption proceeds may pass from the custodian to the shareholder through a similar series of bank accounts.
If a bank account is registered to the transfer agent or an affiliate, who acts as an agent for the funds when opening, closing, and conducting business in the bank account, the transfer agent or an affiliate may invest overnight balances in the account in repurchase agreements. Any balances that are not invested in repurchase agreements remain in the bank account overnight. Any risks associated with such an account are investment risks of the funds. A fund faces the risk of loss of these balances if the bank becomes insolvent.
Warrants. Warrants are instruments which entitle the holder to buy an equity security at a specific price for a specific period of time. Changes in the value of a warrant do not necessarily correspond to changes in the value of its underlying security. The price of a warrant may be more volatile than the price of its underlying security, and a warrant may offer greater potential for capital appreciation as well as capital loss.
Warrants do not entitle a holder to dividends or voting rights with respect to the underlying security and do not represent any rights in the assets of the issuing company. A warrant ceases to have value if it is not exercised prior to its expiration date. These factors can make warrants more speculative than other types of investments.
Zero Coupon Bonds do not make interest payments; instead, they are sold at a discount from their face value and are redeemed at face value when they mature. Because zero coupon bonds do not pay current income, their prices can be more volatile than other types of fixed-income securities when interest rates change. In calculating a fund's dividend, a portion of the difference between a zero coupon bond's purchase price and its face value is considered income.
In addition to the investment policies and limitations discussed above, a fund is subject to the additional operational risk discussed below.
Considerations Regarding Cybersecurity. With the increased use of technologies such as the Internet to conduct business, a fund's service providers are susceptible to operational, information security and related risks. In general, cyber incidents can result from deliberate attacks or unintentional events and may arise from external or internal sources. Cyber attacks include, but are not limited to, gaining unauthorized access to digital systems (e.g., through "hacking" or malicious software coding) for purposes of misappropriating assets or sensitive information; corrupting data, equipment or systems; or causing operational disruption. Cyber attacks may also be carried out in a manner that does not require gaining unauthorized access, such as causing denial-of-service attacks on websites (i.e., efforts to make network services unavailable to intended users). Cyber incidents affecting a fund's manager, any sub-adviser and other service providers (including, but not limited to, fund accountants, custodians, transfer agents and financial intermediaries) have the ability to cause disruptions and impact business operations, potentially resulting in financial losses, interference with a fund's ability to calculate its NAV, impediments to trading, the inability of fund shareholders to transact business, destruction to equipment and systems, violations of applicable privacy and other laws, regulatory fines, penalties, reputational damage, reimbursement or other compensation costs, or additional compliance costs. Similar adverse consequences could result from cyber incidents affecting issuers of securities in which a fund invests, counterparties with which a fund engages in transactions, governmental and other regulatory authorities, exchange and other financial market operators, banks, brokers, dealers, insurance companies and other financial institutions (including financial intermediaries and service providers for fund shareholders) and other parties. In addition, substantial costs may be incurred in order to prevent any cyber incidents in the future.
While a fund's service providers have established business continuity plans in the event of, and risk management systems to prevent, such cyber incidents, there are inherent limitations in such plans and systems including the possibility that certain risks have not been identified. Furthermore, a fund cannot control the cyber security plans and systems put in place by its service providers or any other third parties whose operations may affect a fund or its shareholders. A fund and its shareholders could be negatively impacted as a result.
SPECIAL GEOGRAPHIC CONSIDERATIONS
Emerging Markets. Emerging markets include countries that have an emerging stock market as defined by MSCI, countries or markets with low- to middle-income economies as classified by the World Bank, and other countries or markets that the Adviser identifies as having similar emerging markets characteristics. Emerging markets tend to have relatively low gross national product per capita compared to the world's major economies and may have the potential for rapid economic growth.
Investments in companies domiciled in emerging market countries may be subject to potentially higher risks than investments in developed countries. These risks include less social, political, and economic stability and greater illiquidity and price volatility due to smaller or limited local capital markets for such securities, or low or non-existent trading volumes. Foreign exchanges and broker-dealers may be subject to less oversight and regulation by local authorities. Local governments may decide to seize or confiscate securities held by foreign investors, restrict an investor's ability to sell or redeem securities, suspend or limit an issuer's ability to make dividend or interest payments, and/or limit or entirely restrict repatriation of invested capital, profits, and dividends. Capital gains may be subject to local taxation, including on a retroactive basis. Issuers facing restrictions on dollar or euro payments imposed by local governments may attempt to make dividend or interest payments to foreign investors in the local currency. Investors may experience difficulty in enforcing legal claims related to the securities and shareholder claims common in the United States may not exist in emerging markets. Additionally, local judges may favor the interests of the issuer over those of foreign investors. U.S. authorities may be unable to investigate, bring, or enforce actions against non-U.S. companies and non-U.S. persons. Bankruptcy judgments may only be permitted to be paid in the local currency. Infrequent financial reporting, substandard disclosure, and differences in financial reporting, audit and accounting requirements and standards may make it difficult to ascertain the financial health of an issuer. Moreover, limited public information regarding an issuer may result in greater difficulty in determining market valuations of the securities.
In addition, unlike developed countries, many emerging countries' economic growth highly depends on exports and inflows of external capital, making them more vulnerable to the downturns of the world economy. The enduring low growth in the global economy has weakened the global demand for emerging market exports and tightened international credit supplies, highlighting the sensitivity of emerging economies to the performance of their trading partners. Developing countries may also face disproportionately large exposure to the negative effects of climate change, due to both geography and a lack of access to technology to adapt to its effects, which could include increased frequency and severity of natural disasters as well as extreme weather events such as droughts, rising sea levels, decreased crop yields, and increased spread of disease, all of which could harm performance of affected economies. Given the particular vulnerability of emerging market countries to the effects of climate change, disruptions in international efforts to address climate-related issues may have a disproportionate impact on developing countries.
Many emerging market countries suffer from uncertainty and corruption in their legal frameworks. Legislation may be difficult to interpret or laws may be too new to provide any precedential value. Laws regarding foreign investment and private property may be weak, not enforced consistently, or non-existent. Sudden changes in governments or the transition of regimes may result in policies that are less favorable to investors such as the imposition of price controls or policies designed to expropriate or nationalize "sovereign" assets. Certain emerging market countries in the past have expropriated large amounts of private property, in many cases with little or no compensation, and there can be no assurance that such expropriation will not occur in the future.
The United States, other nations, or other governmental entities (including supranational entities) could impose sanctions on a country that limits or restricts foreign investment, the movement of assets or other economic activity. In addition, an imposition of sanctions upon certain issuers in a country could have a materially adverse effect on the value of such companies' securities, delay a fund's ability to exercise certain rights as security holder, and/or impair a fund's ability to meet its investment objectives. A fund may be prohibited from investing in securities issued by companies subject to such sanctions and may be required to freeze its existing investments in those companies, prohibiting the fund from selling or otherwise transacting in these investments. Such sanctions, or other intergovernmental actions that may be taken in the future, may result in the devaluation of the country's currency, a downgrade in the country's credit rating, and/or a decline in the value and liquidity of impacted company stocks.
Many emerging market countries in which a fund may invest lack the social, political, and economic stability characteristic exhibited by developed countries. Political instability among emerging market countries can be common and may be caused by an uneven distribution of wealth, governmental corruption, social unrest, labor strikes, civil wars, and religious oppression. Economic instability in emerging market countries may take the form of: (i) high interest rates; (ii) high levels of inflation, including hyperinflation; (iii) high levels of unemployment or underemployment; (iv) changes in government economic and tax policies, including confiscatory taxation (or taxes on foreign investments); and (v) imposition of trade barriers.
Currencies of emerging market countries are subject to significantly greater risks than currencies of developed countries. Some emerging market currencies may not be internationally traded or may be subject to strict controls by local governments, resulting in undervalued or overvalued currencies. Some emerging market countries have experienced balance of payment deficits and shortages in foreign exchange reserves, which has resulted in some governments restricting currency conversions. Future restrictive exchange controls could prevent or restrict a company's ability to make dividend or interest payments in the original currency of the obligation (usually U.S. dollars). In addition, even though the currencies of some emerging market countries may be convertible into U.S. dollars, the conversion rates may be artificial relative to their actual market values.
Governments of many emerging market countries have become overly reliant on the international capital markets and other forms of foreign credit to finance large public spending programs that cause huge budget deficits. Often, interest payments have become too overwhelming for these governments to meet, as these payments may represent a large percentage of a country's total GDP. Accordingly, these foreign obligations have become the subject of political debate within emerging market countries, which has resulted in internal pressure for such governments to not make payments to foreign creditors, but instead to use these funds for social programs. As a result of either an inability to pay or submission to political pressure, the governments have sought to restructure their loan and/or bond obligations, have declared a temporary suspension of interest payments, or have defaulted (in part or full) on their outstanding debt obligations. These events have adversely affected the values of securities issued by the governments and corporations domiciled in these emerging market countries and have negatively affected not only their cost of borrowing but also their ability to borrow in the future. Emerging markets have also benefited from continued monetary policies adopted by the central banks of developed countries. Recently, however, the U.S. Federal Reserve and other countries' central banks have increased interest rates numerous times in response to global inflation. It is unclear whether interest rates will continue to rise in the future. These increases may have a disproportionately adverse effect on emerging market economies. 
In addition to their continued reliance on international capital markets, many emerging economies are also highly dependent on international trade and exports, including exports of oil and other commodities. As a result, these economies are particularly vulnerable to downturns of the world economy. In recent years, emerging market economies have been subject to tightened international credit supplies and weakened global demand for their exports and, as a result, certain of these economies faced significant difficulties and some economies face recessionary concerns. Over the last decade, emerging market countries, and companies domiciled in such countries, have acquired significant debt levels. Any additional increases in U.S. interest rates may further restrict the access to credit supplies and jeopardize the ability of emerging market countries to pay their respective debt service obligations. Although certain emerging market economies have shown signs of growth and recovery, continued growth is dependent on the uncertain economic outlook of China, Japan, the European Union, and the United States. The reduced demand for exports and lack of available capital for investment resulting from the European debt crisis, a slowdown in China, the continued effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, and persistent low growth in the global economy may inhibit growth for emerging market countries.
The COVID-19 pandemic has presented significant challenges to the economies of emerging markets, including, among others, rising inflation, food insecurity, subdued employment growth, and economic setback caused by supply chain disruption and the reduction in exports. Limited supplies of effective vaccination and medical resources have undermined the productive activities in emerging markets. The continually evolving variants of the COVID-19 virus have constantly challenged the existing containment strategy, causing significant human capital loss and social disturbances. The future direction of the pandemic is difficult to predict, and emerging markets are more likely to suffer more heavily from new developments in the virus due to their lack of sufficient access to medical resources.
All these economic setbacks have been exacerbated by the ongoing conflict in Ukraine stemming from Russia's invasion into the country in early 2022, which is causing higher global inflation and the significant rise in energy and food prices. These problems may worsen if the war escalates or spreads into neighboring countries or other regions.
Canada.  Canada is generally politically stable; its banking system is relatively robust and its financial market relatively transparent. Meanwhile, Canada is sensitive to commodity price changes. It is a major producer of commodities such as forest products, metals, agricultural products, and energy related products like oil, gas, and hydroelectricity. Accordingly, events affecting the supply and demand of base commodity resources and industrial and precious metals and materials, both domestically and internationally, can have a significant effect on Canadian market performance.
The United States is Canada's largest trading partner and developments in economic policy and U.S. market conditions have a significant impact on the Canadian economy. The economic and financial integration of the United States, Canada, and Mexico through the United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA) may make the Canadian economy and securities market more sensitive to North American trade patterns. Any disruption in the continued operation of USMCA may have a significant and adverse impact on Canada's economic outlook and the value of a fund's investments in Canada. 
Growth has continued to slow in recent years for certain sectors of the Canadian economy, particularly energy extraction and manufacturing. Forecasts on growth remain modest. Oil prices have fluctuated greatly over time and the enduring volatility in the strength of the Canadian dollar may also negatively impact Canada's ability to export, which could limit Canada's economic growth. The global pandemic and the conflict in Ukraine continue to negatively impact the world economy including the Canadian market. 
Europe. The European Union (EU) is an intergovernmental and supranational union of European countries spanning the continent, each known as a member state. One of the key activities of the EU is the establishment and administration of a common single market consisting of, among other things, a common trade policy. In order to further the integration of the economies of member states, member states established, among other things, the European Economic and Monetary Union (EMU), a collection of policies that set out different stages and commitments that member states need to follow to achieve greater economic policy coordination and monetary cooperation, including the adoption of a single currency, the euro. While all EU member states participate in the economic union, only certain EU member states have adopted the euro as their currency. When a member state adopts the euro as its currency, the member state no longer controls its own monetary policies. Instead, the authority to direct monetary policy is exercised by the European Central Bank (ECB). 
While economic and monetary convergence in the EU may offer opportunities for those investing in the region, investors should be aware that the success of the EU is not wholly assured. European countries can be significantly affected by the tight fiscal and monetary controls that the EU governing institutions may impose on its members or with which candidates for EMU membership are required to comply. Europe must grapple with a number of challenges, any one of which could threaten the sustained economic growth, regulatory efficiency, or political survival of the political and economic union. Countries adopting the euro must adjust to a unified monetary system which has resulted in the loss of exchange rate flexibility and, to some degree, the loss of economic sovereignty. Europe's economies are diverse, governance is decentralized, and its cultures differ widely. Unemployment in some European countries has historically been higher than in the United States, and a number of countries continue to face abnormally high unemployment levels, particularly for younger workers, which could pose a political risk. Many EU nations are susceptible to the economic risks associated with high levels of debt. The EU continues to face major issues involving its membership, structure, procedures and policies, including the successful political, economic and social integration of new member states, the EU's resettlement and distribution of refugees, and the resolution of the EU's problematic fiscal and democratic accountability. Efforts of the member states to continue to unify their economic and monetary policies may increase the potential for similarities in the movements of European markets and reduce the benefit of diversification within the region. 
Political. From the 2000s through the early 2010s, the EU extended its membership to Eastern European countries. It has accepted several Eastern European countries as new members and has engaged with several other countries regarding future enlargement. Membership for these states is intended to, among other things, cement economic and political stability across the region. For these countries, membership serves as a strong political impetus to engage in regulatory and political reforms and to employ tight fiscal and monetary policies. Nevertheless, certain new member states, particularly former satellites of the former Soviet Union, remain burdened to various extents by certain infrastructural, bureaucratic, and business inefficiencies inherited from their history of economic central planning. Further expansion of the EU has long-term economic benefits for both member states and potential expansion candidates. However, certain European countries are not viewed as currently suitable for membership, especially countries further east with less developed economies. The current and future status of the EU therefore continues to be the subject of political controversy, with widely differing views both within and between member states. The growth of nationalist and populist parties in both national legislatures and the European Parliament may further threaten enlargement as well as impede both national and supranational governance. 
An increasingly assertive Russia poses its own set of risks for the EU, as evidenced by the Russian invasion of Ukraine in February 2022 and the ongoing Russia-Ukraine conflict. Opposition to EU expansion to members of the former Soviet bloc may prompt more intervention by Russia in the affairs of its neighbors. This interventionist stance may carry various negative consequences, including direct effects, such as export restrictions on Russia's natural resources, Russian support for separatist groups or pro-Russian parties located in EU countries, Russian interference in the internal political affairs of current or potential EU members or of the EU itself, externalities of ongoing conflict, such as an influx of refugees from Ukraine and Syria, or collateral damage to foreign assets in conflict zones, all of which could negatively impact EU economic activity.
It is possible that, as wealth and income inequality grow both within and between individual member states, socioeconomic and political tensions may be exacerbated. The potential direct and indirect consequences of this growing gap may be substantial. 
The transition to a more unified economic system also brings uncertainty. Significant political decisions will be made that may affect market regulation, subsidization, and privatization across all industries, from agricultural products to telecommunications, that may have unpredictable effects on member states and companies within those states. 
The influx of migrants and refugees seeking resettlement in the EU as a result of ongoing conflicts around the world also poses certain risks to the EU. Additionally, the conflict in Ukraine has caused significant humanitarian and economic concerns for Europe. A protracted conflict would increase the number of refugees coming into Europe, cause increase in commodity prices and supply-chain disruptions, add pressure to inflation, and deepen output losses. Furthermore, there is the risk that the conflict in Ukraine may spread to other areas of Europe. All of these would adversely impact a fund's investment in Europe.
 The COVID-19 pandemic has served to exacerbate need in unstable regions, leading to increased numbers of refugees. Resettlement itself may be costly for individual member states, particularly those border countries on the periphery of the EU where migrants first enter. In addition, pressing questions over accepting, processing and distributing migrants have been a significant source of intergovernmental disagreements and could pose significant dangers to the integrity of the EU.
Economic. As economic conditions across member states may vary widely, there is continued concern about national-level support for the euro and the accompanying coordination of fiscal and wage policy among EMU member states. Member states must maintain tight control over inflation, public debt, and budget deficits in order to qualify for participation in the euro. These requirements severely limit EMU member states' ability to implement fiscal policy to address regional economic conditions. Moreover, member states that use the euro cannot devalue their currencies in the face of economic downturn, precluding them from stoking inflation to reduce their real debt burden and potentially rendering their exports less competitive. 
The United Kingdom (UK) left the European Union (EU) on January 31, 2020 under the terms of a negotiated departure deal. A transition period, which kept most pre-departure arrangements in place, ended on December 31, 2020, and the UK entered into a new trading relationship with the EU under the terms of the EU-UK Trade and Cooperation Agreement (TCA) which reflected the long-term, post-transition landscape. Further discussions are to be held between the UK and the EU in relation to matters not covered by the trade agreement, such as financial services. Notwithstanding the TCA, significant uncertainty remains in the market regarding the ramifications of the United Kingdom's withdrawal from the European Union. Significant economic and regulatory uncertainty caused by the UK's exit from the EU has resulted in volatile markets for the UK and broader international financial markets. While the long-term effects of Brexit remain unclear, in the short term, financial markets may experience, among other things, greater volatility and/or illiquidity, currency fluctuations, and a decline in cross-border investment between the UK and the EU. The effects of Brexit are also being shaped by new trade deals that the UK is negotiating with several other countries, including the United States. Brexit could lead to legal and tax uncertainty and potentially divergent national laws and regulations as the UK determines which EU laws to replicate or replace. The impact of Brexit, and these new trade agreements, on the UK and in global markets as well as any associated adverse consequences remains unclear, and the uncertainty may have a significant negative effect on the value of a fund's investments. In addition to managing the effects of Brexit, the United Kingdom is currently grappling with financial crises. Uncertainty regarding the UK government's economic and financial policies may have a negative effect on investors and the impact of these crises may have a significant adverse effect on the value of a fund's investments. 
The global financial crisis of 2008-2009 brought several small countries in Europe to the brink of sovereign default. Many other economies fell into recession, decreasing tax receipts and widening budget deficits. In response, many countries of Europe have implemented fiscal austerity, decreasing discretionary spending in an attempt to decrease their budget deficits. However, many European governments continue to face high levels of public debt and substantial budget deficits, some with shrinking government expenditures, which hinder economic growth in the region and may still threaten the continued viability of the EMU. Due to these large public deficits, some European issuers may continue to have difficulty accessing capital and may be dependent on emergency assistance from European governments and institutions to avoid defaulting on their outstanding debt obligations. The availability of such assistance, however, may be contingent on an issuer's implementation of certain reforms or reaching a required level of performance, which may increase the possibility of default. Such prospects could inject significant volatility into European markets, which may reduce the liquidity or value of a fund's investments in the region. Likewise, the high levels of public debt raise the possibility that certain European issuers may be forced to restructure their debt obligations, which could cause a fund to lose the value of its investments in any such issuer. 
The legacy of the global financial crisis of 2008-2009, the European sovereign debt crisis, and the ongoing recession in parts of Europe have left the banking and financial sectors of many European countries weakened and, in some cases, fragile. Many institutions remain saddled with high default rates on loans, still hold assets of indeterminate value, and have been forced to maintain higher capital reserves under new regulations. This has led to decreased returns from finance and banking directly and has constricted the sector's ability to lend, thus potentially reducing future returns and constricting economic growth. The ECB has sought to spur economic growth and ward off deflation by engaging in quantitative easing, lowering the ECB's benchmark rate into negative territory, and opening a liquidity channel to encourage bank lending. Most recently, in September 2019, the ECB announced a new bond-buying program and changed its targeted long-term refinancing rate to provide more favorable bank lending conditions. In response to the economic consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic, the ECB significantly increased bond purchases, and only began slowing their purchasing strategy in September 2021.  
Ongoing regulatory uncertainty could have a negative effect on the value of a fund's investments in the region. Governments across the EMU are facing increasing opposition to certain measures taken in response to the recent economic crises. In light of such uncertainty, the risk that certain member states will abandon the euro persists and any such occurrence would likely have wide-ranging effects on global markets that are difficult to predict. These effects, however, would likely have a negative impact on a fund's investments in the region. 
Although some European economies have begun to show more sustained economic growth, the ongoing debt crisis, political and regulatory responses to the financial crisis, the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, and uncertainty over the future of the EMU and the EU itself may continue to limit short-term growth and economic recovery in the region. Some countries have experienced prolonged stagnation or returns to recession, raising the possibility that other European economies could follow suit. Economic challenges facing the region include high levels of public debt, significant rates of unemployment, aging populations, heavy regulation of non-financial businesses, persistent trade deficits, rigid labor markets, and inability to access credit. Although certain of these challenges may weigh more heavily on some European economies than others, the economic integration of the region increases the likelihood that an economic downturn in one country may spread to others. Should Europe fall into another recession, the value of a fund's investments in the region may be affected. 
Currency. Investing in euro-denominated securities (or securities denominated in other European currencies) entails risk of being exposed to a currency that may not fully reflect the strengths and weaknesses of the disparate European economies. In addition, many European countries rely heavily upon export-dependent businesses and significant change in the exchange rate between the euro and the U.S. dollar can have either a positive or a negative effect upon corporate profits and the performance of EU investments. If one or more countries abandon the use of the euro as a currency, the value of investments tied to those countries or to the euro could decline significantly. In addition, foreign exchange markets have recently experienced sustained periods of high volatility, subjecting a fund's foreign investments to additional risks.
Nordic Countries. The Nordic countries - Iceland, Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden - relate to European integration in different ways. Norway and Iceland are outside the EU, although they are members of the European Economic Area. Denmark, Finland, and Sweden are EU members, but only Finland has adopted the euro as its currency, whereas Denmark has pegged its currency to the euro. Generally, Nordic countries have strong business environments, highly educated workforces, and relatively stable financial markets and political systems. Faced with stronger global competition in recent years, however, some Nordic countries have had to scale down their historically generous welfare programs, resulting in drops in domestic demand and increased unemployment. Economic growth in many Nordic countries continues to be constrained by tight labor markets and adverse European and global economic conditions, particularly the volatility in global commodity demand. The Nordic countries' manufacturing sector has experienced continued contraction due to outsourcing and flagging demand, spurring increasing unemployment. Furthermore, the protracted recovery due to the ongoing European debt crisis and persistent low growth in the global economy may limit the growth prospects of the Nordic economies. The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and the conflict in Ukraine continue to pose economic risks to Nordic countries.
Eastern Europe. Investing in the securities of Eastern European issuers may be highly speculative and involves risks not usually associated with investing in the more developed markets of Western Europe. Eastern European countries have different levels of political and economic stability. Some countries have more integrated economies and relatively robust banking and financial sectors while other countries continue to be burdened by regional, political, and military conflicts. In many countries in Eastern Europe, political and economic reforms are too recent to establish a definite trend away from centrally planned economies and state-owned industries. Investments in Eastern European countries may involve risks of nationalization, expropriation, and confiscatory taxation. The ongoing conflict in Ukraine poses great risk to Eastern European countries' economic stability and the continued effects of the COVID-19 pandemic have an adverse impact on the overall region.
Eastern European countries continue to move towards market economies at different paces with varying characteristics. Many Eastern European markets suffer from thin trading activity, dubious investor protections, and often a lack of reliable corporate information. Information and transaction costs, differential taxes, and sometimes political, regulatory, or transfer risk may give a comparative advantage to the domestic investor rather than the foreign investor. In addition, these markets are particularly sensitive to social, political, economic, and currency events in Western Europe and Russia and may suffer heavy losses as a result of their trading and investment links to these economies and their currencies. In particular, the disruption to the Russian economy as a result of sanctions imposed by the United States and EU in connection with Russia's invasion of Ukraine may hurt Eastern European economies with close trade links to Russia. Russia may also attempt to directly assert its influence in the region through coercive use of its economic, military, and natural resources. 
In some of the countries of Eastern Europe, there is no stock exchange or formal market for securities. Such countries may also have government exchange controls, currencies with no recognizable market value relative to the established currencies of Western market economies, little or no experience in trading in securities, weak or nonexistent accounting or financial reporting standards, a lack of banking and securities infrastructure to handle such trading and a legal tradition without strongly defined property rights. Due to the value of trade and investment between Western Europe and Eastern Europe, credit and debt issues and other economic difficulties affecting Western Europe and its financial institutions can negatively affect Eastern European countries.
Eastern European economies may also be particularly susceptible to the volatility of the international credit market due to their reliance on bank related inflows of foreign capital. Although many Eastern European economies have experienced modest growth for several periods due, in part, to external demand, tighter labor markets, and the attraction of foreign investment, major challenges persist as a result of their continued dependence on Western European countries for credit and trade. Accordingly, the European crisis may present serious risks for Eastern European economies, which may have a negative effect on a fund's investments in the region. 
Several Eastern European countries on the periphery of the EU have recently been the destination for a surge of refugees and migrants fleeing global conflict zones, particularly the civil wars in Syria and Afghanistan, the economic hardship across Africa and the developing world, and the Russia-Ukraine conflict. While these countries have borne many of the direct costs of managing the flow of refugees and migrants seeking resettlement in Europe, they have also faced significant international criticism over their treatment of migrants and refugees which may affect foreign investor confidence in the attractiveness of such markets. 
Japan. Japan continues to recover from recurring recessionary forces that have negatively impacted Japan's economic growth over the last decade. Japan's economic strengths-low public external debt, relatively consistent currency, and highly innovative industries-have helped combat these recurring recessionary forces. Despite signs of economic growth in recent years, Japan is still vulnerable to persistent underlying systemic risks, including massive government debt, an aging and shrinking of the population, an uncertain financial sector, low domestic consumption, and certain corporate structural weaknesses. Furthermore, Japan's economic growth rate could be impacted by the Bank of Japan's monetary policies, rising interest rates and global inflation, tax increases, budget deficits, and volatility in the Japanese yen.
Overseas trade is important to Japan's economy and its economic growth is significantly driven by its exports. Meanwhile, Japan's aging and shrinking population increases the cost of the country's pension and public welfare system and lowers domestic demand, making Japan more dependent on exports to sustain its economy. Therefore, any developments that negatively affect Japan's exports could present risks to a fund's investments in Japan. For example, domestic or foreign trade sanctions or other protectionist measures could harm Japan's economy. In addition, currency fluctuations may also significantly affect Japan's economy, as a stronger yen would negatively impact Japan's ability to export. Likewise, any escalation of tensions in the region, including disruptions caused by political tensions with North Korea or territorial disputes with Japan's major trading partners, may adversely impact Japan's economic outlook. In particular, Japan is heavily dependent on oil imports, and higher commodity prices could have a negative impact on its economy. Japan is also particularly susceptible to the effects of declining growth rates in China, Japan's largest export market. Given that China is a large importer of Japanese goods and is a significant source of global economic growth, a continued Chinese slowdown may negatively impact Japanese economic growth both directly and indirectly. Moreover, the animosity between Japan and other Asian countries, such as China and Korea, may affect the trading relations between these countries. China's territorial ambition over Taiwan may negatively impact Japan's relationship with China given Japan's historical and economic interests in Taiwan. Similarly, the European debt crisis, the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, and persistent low growth in the global economy could present additional risks to a fund's investments in Japan. 
Japan's economic recovery has been affected by stress resulting from a number of natural disasters, including disasters that caused damage to nuclear power plants in the region, which have introduced volatility into Japan's financial markets. In response to these events, the government has injected capital into the economy and reconstruction efforts in disaster-affected areas in order to stimulate economic growth. The risks of natural disasters of varying degrees, such as earthquakes and tsunamis, continue to persist. The full extent of the impact of recurring natural disasters on Japan's economy and foreign investment in Japan is difficult to estimate. 
Although Japanese banks are stable, maintaining large capital bases, they continue to face difficulties generating profits. In recent years, Japan has employed a program of monetary loosening, fiscal stimulus, and growth-oriented structural reform, which has generated limited success in raising growth rates. Although Japan's central bank has continued its quantitative easing program, there is no guarantee such efforts will be sufficient or that additional stimulus policies will not be necessary in the future. Furthermore, the long-term potential of this strategy remains uncertain, as the first of two planned increases in Japan's consumption tax resulted in a decline in consumption and the effect of the second increase remains to be seen. While Japan has historically kept inflation in the country relatively low, global economic challenges such as rising inflation and commodity shortages, worsened by the ongoing effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and the conflict in Ukraine, may have a negative impact on Japan's economy.
Asia Pacific Region (ex Japan). While the Asia Pacific region has substantial potential for economic growth, many countries in the region have historically faced political uncertainty, corruption, military intervention, and social unrest. Examples include military threats on the Korean peninsula and along the Taiwan Strait, the ethnic, sectarian, extremist, and/or separatist violence found in Indonesia and the Philippines, and the nuclear arms threats between India and Pakistan. To the extent that such events continue in the future, they can be expected to have a negative effect on economic and securities market conditions in the region. In addition to the regional military threats and conflicts, the effects of the conflict in Ukraine may adversely impact the economies of countries in the region. The recent global supply chain disruptions and rising inflation have stressed the economies of countries in the region that rely substantially on international trade. In addition, the Asia Pacific geographic region has historically been prone to natural disasters. The occurrence of a natural disaster in the region could negatively impact any country's economy in the region. Natural disasters may become more frequent and severe as a result of global climate change. Given the particular vulnerability of the region to the effects of climate change, disruptions in international efforts to address climate-related issues may have a disproportionate impact on a fund's investments in the region. 
Economic. The economies of many countries in the region are heavily dependent on international trade and are accordingly affected by protective trade barriers and the economic conditions of their trading partners, principally, the United States, Japan, China, and the European Union. The countries in this region are also heavily dependent on exports and are thus particularly vulnerable to any weakening in global demand for these products. Many countries in the region are economically reliant on a wide range of commodity exports. Consequently, countries in this region have been adversely affected by the persistent volatility in global commodity prices and are particularly susceptible to declines in growth rates in China. The Australian and New Zealand economies are also heavily dependent on the economies of China and other Asian countries. Countries in this region have experienced high debt levels, an issue that is being compounded by weakened local currencies. Although the economies of many countries in the region have exhibited signs of growth, such improvements, if sustained, may be gradual. Significantly, the Australian economy has declined in recent years and, in 2019, the Reserve Bank of Australia cut interest rates to an all-time low in response to a reduction in consumption brought on, in part, by a downturn in the property market and rising levels in unemployment. The Reserve Bank of Australia cut rates further in response to the economic effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. However, rising global inflation in 2022 forced the Reserve Bank to raise interest rates to combat the effects of the tightening of monetary policies in most countries, Russia's invasion of Ukraine, and the COVID-19 containment measures and other policy challenges in China. Furthermore, any future growth experienced in the region may be limited or hindered by the reduced demand for exports due to a continued economic slowdown in China, which could significantly lower demand for the natural resources many Asia Pacific economies export. Since China has been such a major source of demand for raw materials and a supplier of foreign direct investment to exporting economies, the slowdown of the Chinese economy could significantly affect regional growth. In addition, the trading relationship between China and several Asia Pacific countries has been strained by the geopolitical conflict created by competing territorial claims in the South China Sea, which has created diplomatic tension in the region that may adversely impact the economies of the affected countries. Regional growth may also be limited by the lack of available capital for investment resulting from the European debt crisis and by persistent low growth in the global economy, as well as increases in interest rates and the tapering of other monetary policies adopted by the central banks of developed countries. 
The Republic of Korea (South Korea) . Investing in South Korea involves risks not typically associated with investing in the U.S. securities markets. Investments in South Korea are, in part, dependent on the maintenance of peaceful relations with North Korea, on both a bilateral and global basis. Relations between the two countries remain tense, as exemplified in periodic acts of hostility, and the possibility of serious military engagement still exists. Any escalation in hostility, initiation of military conflict, or collateral consequences of internal instability within North Korea would likely cause a substantial disruption in South Korea's economy, as well as in the region overall. 
South Korea has one of the more advanced economies and established democratic political systems in the Asia-Pacific region with a relatively sound financial sector and solid external position. South Korea's economic reliance on international trade, however, makes it highly sensitive to fluctuations in international commodity prices, currency exchange rates and government regulation, and makes it vulnerable to downturns of the world economy. South Korea has experienced modest economic growth in recent years. Such continued growth may slow, in part, due to a continued economic slowdown in China. South Korea is particularly sensitive to the economic volatility of its four largest export markets (the European Union, Japan, United States, and China), which all face varying degrees of economic uncertainty, including persistent low growth rates. The economic weakness of South Korea's most important trading partners could stifle demand for South Korean exports and damage its own economic growth outlook. Notably, given that China is both a large importer of South Korean goods and a significant source of global demand, a continued Chinese slowdown may, directly or indirectly, negatively impact South Korean economic growth. The South Korean economy's long-term challenges include a rapidly aging population, inflexible labor market, dominance of large conglomerates, and overdependence on exports to drive economic growth. 
China Region. The China Region encompasses the People's Republic of China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong. The region is highly interconnected and interdependent, with relationships and tensions built on trade, finance, culture, and politics. The economic success of China will continue to have an outsized influence on the growth and prosperity of both Taiwan and Hong Kong. 
Although the People's Republic of China has experienced three decades of unprecedented growth, it now faces a slowing economy that is due, in part, to China's effort to shift away from an export-driven economy. Other contributing factors to the slowdown include lower-than-expected industrial output growth, reductions in consumer spending, a decline in the real estate market, which many observers believed to be inflated, and most recently, the COVID-19 pandemic and China's containment strategy. Further, local governments, which had borrowed heavily to bolster growth, face high debt burdens and limited revenue sources. Demand for Chinese exports by Western countries, including the United States and Europe, may diminish because of weakened economic growth in those countries, resulting from the European debt crisis and persistent low growth in the global economy. Additionally, Chinese land reclamation projects, actions to lay claim to disputed islands, and China's attempt to assert territorial claims in the South China Sea have caused strains in China's relationship with various regional trading partners and could cause further disruption to regional trade. In the long term, China's ability to develop and sustain a credible legal, regulatory, monetary, and socioeconomic system could influence the course of foreign investment in China. 
Hong Kong is closely tied to China, economically and politically, following the United Kingdom's 1997 handover of the former colony to China to be governed as a Special Administrative Region. Changes to Hong Kong's legal, financial, and monetary system could negatively impact its economic prospects. Hong Kong's evolving relationship with the central government in Beijing has been a source of political unrest and may result in economic disruption. 
Although many Taiwanese companies heavily invest in China, a state of hostility continues to exist between China and Taiwan. Taiwan's political stability and ability to sustain its economic growth could be significantly affected by its political and economic relationship with China. Although economic and political relations have both improved, Taiwan remains vulnerable to both Chinese territorial ambitions and economic downturns. 
In addition to the risks inherent in investing in the emerging markets, the risks of investing in China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan merit special consideration. 
People's Republic of China. China's economy has transitioned from a rigidly central-planned state-run economy to one that has been only partially reformed by more market-oriented policies. Although the Chinese government has implemented economic reform measures, reduced state ownership of companies and established better corporate governance practices, a substantial portion of productive assets in China are still owned or controlled by the Chinese government. The government continues to exercise significant control over the regulation of industrial development and, ultimately, over China's economic growth, both through direct involvement in the market through state owned enterprises, and indirectly by allocating resources, controlling access to credit, controlling payment of foreign currency-denominated obligations, setting monetary policy and providing preferential treatment to particular industries or companies. China's continued hold on its economy, coupled with a legal system less consistent and less comprehensive than developed markets, poses a risk to foreign investors.
After many years of steady growth, the growth rate of China's economy has declined relative to prior years. Although this slowdown may have been influenced by the government's desire to stop certain sectors from overheating, and to shift the economy from one based on low-cost export manufacturing to a model driven more by domestic consumption, it holds significant economic, social and political risks. For one, the real estate market, once rapidly growing in major cities, has slowed down and may prompt government intervention to prevent collapse. Additionally, local government debt is still very high, and local governments have few viable means to raise revenue, especially with continued declines in demand for housing. Moreover, although China has tried to restructure its economy towards consumption, it remains heavily dependent on exports and is, therefore, susceptible to downturns abroad which may weaken demand for its exports and reduce foreign investments in the country. The reduction in spending on Chinese products and services, the institution of tariffs or other trade barriers, or a downturn in any of the economies of China's key trading partners may have an adverse impact on the securities of Chinese issuers. In particular, the economy faces the prospect of prolonged weakness in demand for Chinese exports as its major trading partners, such as the United States, Japan, and Europe, continue to experience economic uncertainty stemming from the European debt crisis, the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, and persistent low growth in the global economy, among other things. After a period of intensified concerns about trade tariffs and the continued escalation of the trade war between China and the United States, the two countries reached a trade agreement in January 2020. If the countries reinstitute tariffs, it may trigger a significant reduction in international trade, the oversupply of certain manufactured goods, substantial price reductions of goods and possible failure of individual companies and/or large segments of China's export industry with a potentially negative impact to a fund. These kinds of events and their consequences are difficult to foresee, and it is unclear whether future tariffs may be imposed or other escalating actions may be taken in the future. Over the long term, China's aging infrastructure, worsening environmental conditions, rapid and inequitable urbanization, and quickly widening urban and rural income gap, which all carry political and economic implications, are among the country's major challenges. China also faces problems of domestic unrest and provincial separatism. Additionally, the Chinese economy may be adversely affected by diplomatic developments, the imposition of economic sanctions, changes in international trading patterns, trade barriers, and other protectionist or retaliatory measures. 
Chinese territorial claims are another source of tension and present risks to diplomatic and trade relations with certain of China's regional trade partners. Actions by the Chinese government, such as its land reclamation projects, assertion of territorial claims in the South China Sea, and the establishment of an Air Defense Identification Zone over disputed islands, raise the fear of both accidental military conflict and that Chinese territorial claims may result in international reprisal. Such a reprisal may reduce international demand for Chinese goods and services or cause a decline in foreign direct investment, both of which could have a negative effect on a fund's investments in the securities of Chinese issuers. 
As with all transition economies, China's ability to develop and sustain a credible legal, regulatory, monetary, and socioeconomic system could influence the course of outside investment. The Chinese legal system, in particular, constitutes a significant risk factor for investors. Since the late 1970s, Chinese legislative bodies have promulgated laws and regulations dealing with various economic matters such as foreign investment, corporate organization and governance, commerce, taxation, and trade. Despite the expanding body of law in China, however, legal precedent and published court decisions based on these laws are limited and non-binding. The interpretation and enforcement of these laws and regulations are uncertain, and investments in China may not be subject to the same degree of legal protection as in other developed countries. 
China continues to limit direct foreign investments generally in industries deemed important to national interests. Foreign investment in domestic securities is also subject to substantial restrictions, although Chinese regulators have begun to introduce new programs through which foreign investors can gain direct access to certain Chinese securities markets. For instance, Chinese regulators have implemented a program that will permit direct foreign investment in permissible products (which include cash bonds) traded on the China inter-bank bond market (CIBM) in compliance with the relevant rules established by applicable Chinese regulators. While CIBM is relatively large and trading volumes are generally high, the market remains subject to similar risks as fixed income securities markets in other developing countries. As foreign investment access to CIBM is relatively new and its rules may be materially amended as the program continues to develop, it is uncertain how this program will impact economic growth within China. 
Securities listed on China's two main stock exchanges are divided into two classes. One of the two classes is limited to domestic investors (and a small group of qualified international investors), while the other is available to both international and domestic investors (A-shares). Although the Chinese government has announced plans to merge the two markets, it is uncertain whether, and to what extent, such a merger will take place. The existing bifurcated system raises liquidity and stability concerns. 
Investments in securities listed and traded through the Shanghai-Hong Kong Stock Connect and Shenzhen-Hong Kong Stock Connect programs (Stock Connect Programs) involve unique risks. The Stock Connect Programs are relatively new and there is no guarantee that they will continue. Trading through Stock Connect Programs is subject to daily quotas limiting the maximum daily net purchases as well as daily limits on permitted price fluctuations. Trading suspensions are more likely in these markets than in many other global equity markets. There can be no assurance that a liquid market on an exchange will exist. In addition, investments made through Stock Connect Programs are subject to comparatively untested trading, clearance and settlement procedures. Stock Connect Programs are available only on days when markets in both China and Hong Kong are open. A fund's ownership interest in securities traded through the Stock Connect Programs will not be reflected directly, and thus a fund may have to rely on the ability or willingness of a third party to enforce its rights. Investments in Stock Connect Program A-shares are generally subject to Chinese securities regulations and listing rules, among other restrictions. Hong Kong investor compensation funds, which protect against trade defaults, are unavailable when investing through Stock Connect Programs. Uncertainties in Chinese tax rules could also result in unexpected tax liabilities for the fund. 
Currency fluctuations could significantly affect China and its trading partners. China continues to exercise control over the value of its currency, rather than allowing the value of the currency to be determined by market forces. This type of currency regime may experience sudden and significant currency adjustments, which may adversely impact investment returns. One such currency adjustment occurred in 2015, in which China purposefully devalued the yuan in an effort to bolster economic growth. More recently, however, the government has taken steps to internationalize its currency. This policy change is driven, in part, by the government's desire for the yuan's continued inclusion in the basket of currencies that comprise the International Monetary Fund's (IMF) Special Drawing Rights. 
Chinese companies, particularly those located in China, may be smaller and less seasoned. China may lack, or have different, accounting and financial reporting standards, which may result in the unavailability of material information about Chinese issuers. Moreover, the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (PCAOB) has warned that it lacks the ability to inspect audit work and practices of PCAOB-registered auditing firms within China. The Chinese government has taken positions that prevent PCAOB from inspecting the audit work and practices of accounting firms in mainland China and Hong Kong for compliance with U.S. law and professional standards. As such, under amendments to the Sarbanes-Oxley Act enacted in December 2020, which requires that the PCAOB be permitted to inspect the accounting firm of a U.S.-listed Chinese issuer, Chinese companies with securities listed on U.S. exchanges may be delisted if the PCAOB is unable to inspect the accounting firm. PCAOB's limited ability to oversee the operations of auditing firms within China may result in inaccurate or incomplete financial records of an issuer's operations within China, which may negatively impact a fund's investments in such companies.  
Additionally, China's stock market has experienced tumult and high volatility, which has prompted the Chinese government to implement several policies and restrictions with regards to the securities market. While China may take actions aimed at maintaining growth and stability in the stock market, investors in Chinese securities may be negatively affected by, among other things, disruptions in the ability to sell securities to comply with investment objectives or when most advantageous given market conditions. It is not clear what the long-term effect of such policies would be on the securities market in China or whether additional actions by the government will occur in the future. 
A fund may obtain exposure to companies based or operated in China by investing through legal structures known as variable interest entities (VIEs). As a result of Chinese governmental restrictions on non-Chinese ownership of companies in certain industries in China, some Chinese companies have used VIEs to facilitate foreign investment without distributing direct ownership of companies based or operated in China. In such cases, the Chinese operating company establishes an offshore company and the offshore company enters into contractual arrangements with the Chinese company. These contractual arrangements are intended to give the offshore company the ability to exercise power over and obtain economic rights from the Chinese company. Shares of the offshore company, in turn, are listed and traded on exchanges outside of China and are available to non-Chinese investors, such as a fund. This arrangement allows non-Chinese investors in the offshore company to obtain economic exposure to the Chinese company without direct equity ownership in the Chinese company.
Although VIEs are a longstanding industry practice and well known to officials and regulators in China, VIEs are not formally recognized under Chinese law. There is a risk that China may cease to tolerate VIEs at any time or impose new restrictions on the structure, in each case either generally or with respect to specific industries, sectors or companies. Investments involving a VIE may also pose additional risks because such investments are made through a company whose interests in the underlying Chinese company are established through contract rather than through equity ownership. For example, in the event of a dispute, the offshore company's contractual claims with respect to the Chinese company may be deemed unenforceable in China, thus limiting (or eliminating) the remedies and rights available to the offshore company and its investors. Such legal uncertainty may also be exploited against the interests of the offshore company and its investors. Further, the interests of the equity owners of the Chinese company may conflict with the interests of the investors of the offshore company. Similarly, the fiduciary duties of the officers and directors of the Chinese company may differ from, or conflict with, the fiduciary duties of the officers and directors of the offshore company. The VIE structure generally restricts a fund's ability to influence the Chinese company through proxy voting and other means and may restrict the ability of an issuer to pay dividends to shareholders from the Chinese company's earnings. VIE structures also could face delisting or other ramifications for failure to meet the requirements of the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (PCAOB) or other United States regulators. If these risks materialize, the value of investments in VIEs could be adversely affected and a fund could incur significant losses with no recourse available.
Hong Kong. In 1997, the United Kingdom handed over control of Hong Kong to the People's Republic of China. Since that time, Hong Kong has been governed by a quasi-constitution known as the Basic Law, while defense and foreign affairs are the responsibility of the central government in Beijing. The chief executive of Hong Kong is appointed by the Chinese government. Hong Kong, however, is able to participate in international organizations and agreements and continues to function as an international financial center, with no exchange controls, free convertibility of the Hong Kong dollar and free inward and outward movement of capital. The Basic Law also guarantees existing freedoms, including the freedom of speech, assembly, press, and religion, as well as the right to strike and travel. Business ownership, private property, the right of inheritance and foreign investment are also protected by law.
By treaty, China has committed to preserve Hong Kong's high degree of autonomy in certain matters until 2047. Despite this treaty, political uncertainty continues to exist within Hong Kong, as demonstrated by Hong Kong protests in recent years over political, economic, and legal freedoms, and the Chinese government's response to them. For example, in June 2020, China adopted the Law of the PRC on Safeguarding National Security, which severely limits freedom of speech in Hong Kong and expands police powers to seize electronic devices and intercept communications of suspects. Widespread protests were held in Hong Kong in response to the new law, and the United States imposed sanctions on 11 Hong Kong officials for cracking down on pro-democracy protests. Pro-democracy protests, which have become increasingly violent over time, continued into 2021, although the Hong Kong government's crackdown and the COVID-19 pandemic have contributed to the reduction of large-scale protests. There is no guarantee, however, that additional protests will not arise in the future, and it is uncertain whether the United States will respond to such protests with additional sanctions.
Hong Kong has experienced strong economic growth in recent years in part due to its close ties with China and a strong service sector, but Hong Kong still faces concerns over overheating in certain sectors of its economy, such as its real estate market, which could limit Hong Kong's future growth. In addition, due to Hong Kong's heavy reliance on international trade and global financial markets, Hong Kong remains exposed to significant risks as a result of the European debt crisis and persistent low growth in the global economy. Likewise, due to Hong Kong's close political and economic ties with China, a continued economic slowdown on the mainland could continue to have a negative impact on Hong Kong's economy. 
Taiwan. For decades, a state of hostility has existed between Taiwan and the People's Republic of China. China has long deemed Taiwan a part of the "one China" and has made a nationalist cause of reuniting Taiwan with mainland China. In the past, China has staged frequent military provocations off the coast of Taiwan and made threats of full-scale military action. Tensions have lowered, however, exemplified by improved relations, including the first official contacts between the governments' leaders of China and Taiwan in 2015. Despite closer relations in recent years, the relationship with China remains a divisive political issue within Taiwan. Foreign trade has been the engine of rapid growth in Taiwan and has transformed the island into one of Asia's great exporting nations. As an export-oriented economy, Taiwan depends on a free-trade trade regime and remains vulnerable to downturns in the world economy. Taiwanese companies continue to compete mostly on price, producing generic products or branded merchandise on behalf of multinational companies. Accordingly, these businesses can be particularly vulnerable to currency volatility and increasing competition from neighboring lower-cost countries. Moreover, many Taiwanese companies are heavily invested in mainland China and other countries throughout Southeast Asia, making them susceptible to political events and economic crises in the region. Significantly, Taiwan and China have entered into agreements covering banking, securities, and insurance. Closer economic links with mainland China may bring greater opportunities for the Taiwanese economy but such arrangements also pose new challenges. For example, foreign direct investment in China has resulted in Chinese import substitution away from Taiwan's exports and a constriction of potential job creation in Taiwan. Likewise, the Taiwanese economy has experienced slow economic growth as demand for Taiwan's exports has weakened due, in part, to declines in growth rates in China. Taiwan has sought to diversify its export markets and reduce its dependence on the Chinese market by increasing exports to the United States, Japan, Europe, and other Asian countries by, in part, entering into free-trade agreements. In addition, the lasting effects of the European debt crisis and persistent low growth in the global economy may reduce global demand for Taiwan's exports. The Taiwanese economy's long-term challenges include a rapidly aging population, low birth rate, and the lingering effects of Taiwan's diplomatic isolation. 
India. The value of a fund's investments in Indian securities may be affected by, among other things, political developments, rapid changes in government regulation, state intervention in private enterprise, nationalization or expropriation of foreign assets, legal uncertainty, high rates of inflation or interest rates, currency volatility, potential new, disruptive COVID-19 variants, uncertain global economic conditions, possible additional increases in commodity prices, and civil unrest. Moreover, the Indian economy remains vulnerable to natural disasters, such as droughts and monsoons. Natural disasters may become more frequent and severe as a result of global climate change. Given the particular vulnerability of India to the effects of climate change, disruptions in international efforts to address climate-related issues may have a disproportionate impact on a fund's investments in the country. In addition, any escalation of tensions with Pakistan may have a negative impact on India's economy and foreign investments in India. Likewise, political, social and economic disruptions caused by domestic sectarian violence or terrorist attacks may also present risks to a fund's investments in India. 
The Indian economy is heavily dependent on exports and services provided to U.S. and European companies and is vulnerable to any weakening in global demand for these products and services. In recent years, rising wages have chipped away at India's competitive advantage in certain service sectors. A large fiscal deficit and persistent inflation have contributed to modest economic growth in India in recent years. Increases in global oil and commodity prices due to the COVID-19 pandemic and the conflict in Ukraine have further contributed to India's rising inflation and a widening of the current account deficit. While the economic growth rate has risen more recently, the Indian economy continues to be susceptible to a slowdown in the manufacturing sector, and it is uncertain whether higher growth rates are sustainable without more fundamental governance reforms. 
India's market has less developed clearance and settlement procedures and there have been times when settlements have not kept pace with the volume of securities and have been significantly delayed. The Indian stock exchanges have, in the past, been subject to closure, broker defaults and broker strikes, and there can be no certainty that these will not recur. In addition, significant delays are common in registering transfers of securities and a fund may be unable to sell securities until the registration process is completed and may experience delays in the receipt of dividends and other entitlements. Furthermore, restrictions or controls applicable to foreign investment in the securities of issuers in India may also adversely affect a fund's investments within the country. The availability of financial instruments with exposure to Indian financial markets may be substantially limited by restrictions on foreign investors and subject to regulatory authorizations. Foreign investors are required to observe certain investment restrictions, including limits on shareholdings, which may impede a fund's ability to invest in certain issuers or to fully pursue its investment objective. These restrictions may also have the effect of reducing demand for, or limiting the liquidity of, such investments. There can be no assurance that the Indian government will not impose restrictions on foreign capital remittances abroad or otherwise modify the exchange control regime applicable to foreign investors in such a way that may adversely affect the ability of a fund to repatriate their income and capital. 
Shares of many Indian issuers are held by a limited number of persons and financial institutions, which may limit the number of shares available for investment. Sales of securities by such issuer's major shareholders may also significantly and adversely affect other shareholders. Moreover, a limited number of issuers represent a disproportionately large percentage of market capitalization and trading value in India. As a result, major shareholders' actions may cause significant fluctuations in the prices of securities. Additionally, insider trading may undermine both the market price accuracy of securities and investors' confidence in the market. The illiquidity in the market may make it difficult for a fund to dispose of securities at certain times.
Furthermore, securities laws or other areas of laws may not be fully developed in India and accounting and audit standards may not be as rigorous as those in the U.S. market. Additionally, information about issuers may be less transparent, all of which increases risk to foreign investors and makes it potentially difficult to obtain and enforce court orders. The legal system may also favor domestic investors over foreign investors.
The Indian government has sought to implement numerous reforms to the economy, including efforts to bolster the Indian manufacturing sector and entice foreign direct investment. Such reformation efforts, however, have proven difficult and there is no guarantee that such reforms will be implemented or that they will be fully implemented in a manner that benefits investors. 
Indonesia. Over the last decade, Indonesia has applied prudent macroeconomic efforts and policy reforms that have led to modest growth in recent years, however many economic development problems remain, including poverty and unemployment, corruption, inadequate infrastructure, a complex regulatory environment, and unequal resource distribution among regions. Although Indonesia's government has taken steps in recent years to improve the country's infrastructure and investment climate, these problems may limit the country's ability to maintain such economic growth as Indonesia has begun to experience slowing growth rates in recent years. Indonesia is prone to natural disasters such as typhoons, tsunamis, earthquakes and flooding, which may also present risks to a fund's investments in Indonesia. Natural disasters may become more frequent and severe as a result of global climate change. Given the particular vulnerability of Indonesia to the effects of climate change, disruptions in international efforts to address climate-related issues may have a disproportionate impact on a fund's investments in the country. In addition, Indonesia continues to be at risk of ethnic, sectarian, and separatist violence. 
In recent periods, Indonesia has employed a program of monetary loosening through reductions in interest rates and implemented a number of reforms to encourage investment. Although Indonesia's central bank has continued to utilize monetary policies to promote growth, there can be no guarantee such efforts will be sufficient or that additional stimulus policies will not be necessary in the future. Despite these efforts, Indonesia's relatively weak legal system poses a risk to foreign investors. Indonesia's tax administration can be inefficient, and a persistent informal market exists. Moreover, global inflation and the shortage of certain commodities caused by the COVID-19 pandemic and the conflict in Ukraine may continue to adversely affect Indonesia's economic recovery.
Indonesia's dependence on resource extraction and exports leaves it vulnerable to a slowdown of the economies of its trading partners and a decline in commodity prices more generally. Commodity prices have experienced significant volatility in recent years, which has adversely affected the exports of Indonesia's economy. Indonesia is particularly vulnerable to the effects of a continued slowdown in China, which has been a major source of demand growth for Indonesia's commodity exports. Indonesia is also vulnerable to further weakness in Japan, which remains one of Indonesia's largest single export markets. Indonesia has recently reversed several policies that restricted foreign investment by permitting increased foreign ownership in several sectors and opening up sectors previously closed to foreign investors. Failure to pursue internal reform, peacefully resolve internal conflicts, bolster the confidence of international and domestic investors, and weak global economic growth could limit Indonesia's economic growth in the future. 
Thailand. Thailand has well-developed infrastructure and a free-enterprise economy, which is both conducive and enticing to certain foreign investment. Thailand's manageable public and external debt burden as well as the country's acceptable fiscal and monetary policy are also positive factors for foreign investors. While Thailand experienced an increase in exports in recent years, the rate of export growth has since slowed, in part due to domestic political turmoil, weakness in commodity prices, and declines in growth rates in China. Moreover, Thailand has pursued preferential trade agreements with a variety of partners in an effort to boost exports and maintain high growth. Weakening fiscal discipline, separatist violence in the south, the intervention by the military in civilian spheres, and continued political instability, however, may cause additional risks for investments in Thailand. The risk of political instability has proven substantial as the protests, disputed election, government collapse, and coup of 2014 have led to short term declines in GDP, a collapse of tourism, and a decrease in foreign direct investment. Following the coup, the military junta formally controlled the government from 2014 until July 2019.  Parliamentary elections were held in May 2019 in which pro-military parties won a slim majority and the former military junta leader became Prime Minister. International watchdog groups, however, claimed the election was not free and fair. Since the election there have been a number of attempts to unseat the Prime Minister and protests challenging his leadership and the monarchy. An election is due to take place before May 2023. Uncertainty regarding the upcoming election could have a negative impact on economic growth.  
In the long term, Thailand's economy faces challenges including an aging population, outdated infrastructure, and an inadequate education system. Thailand's cost of labor has risen rapidly in recent years, threatening its status as a low-cost manufacturing hub. In addition, natural disasters may affect economic growth in the country. Natural disasters may become more frequent and severe as a result of global climate change. Given the particular vulnerability of Thailand to the effects of climate change, disruptions in international efforts to address climate-related issues may have a disproportionate impact on a fund's investments in the country. Thailand continues to be vulnerable to weak economic growth of its major trading partners, particularly China and Japan. Additionally, Thailand's economy may be limited by lack of available capital for investment resulting from the European debt crisis and persistent slow growth in the global economy. 
Philippines. The economy of the Philippines has benefitted from its relatively low dependence on exports and high domestic rates of consumption, as well as substantial remittances received from large overseas populations. Additionally, the Philippines' solid monetary and fiscal policies, relatively low external debt, and foreign exchange reserves support the country's economic stability. Although the economy of the Philippines has grown quickly in recent years, there can be no assurances that such growth will continue. Like other countries in the Asia Pacific region, the Philippines' growth in recent years has been reliant, in part, on exports to larger economies, notably the United States, Japan and China. Given that China is a large importer and source of global demand, a continued Chinese slowdown may, directly or indirectly, negatively impact Philippine economic growth. Additionally, lower global economic growth may lead to lower remittances from Filipino emigrants abroad, negatively impacting economic growth in the Philippines. Furthermore, certain weaknesses in the economy, such as inadequate infrastructure, high poverty rates, uneven wealth distribution, low fiscal revenues, endemic corruption, inconsistent regulation, unpredictable taxation, unreliable judicial processes, high-risk security environment, high dependency on electronic exports and the tourism sector, and the appropriation of foreign assets may present risks to a fund's investments in the Philippines. In more recent years, poverty rates have declined; however, there is no guarantee that this trend will continue. In addition, investments in the Philippines are subject to risks arising from political or social unrest, including governmental actions that strain relations with the country's major trading partners, threats from military coups, terrorist groups and separatist movements. Likewise, the Philippines is prone to natural disasters such as typhoons, tsunamis, earthquakes and flooding, which may also present risks to a fund's investments in the Philippines. Natural disasters may become more frequent and severe as a result of global climate change. Given the particular vulnerability of the Philippines to the effects of climate change, disruptions in international efforts to address climate-related issues may have a disproportionate impact on a fund's investments in the country.  
Latin America. Latin American countries have historically suffered from social, political, and economic instability. For investors, this has meant additional risk caused by periods of regional conflict, political corruption, totalitarianism, protectionist measures, nationalization, hyperinflation, debt crises, sudden and large currency devaluation, and intervention by the military in civilian and economic spheres. In recent decades, certain Latin American economies have experienced prolonged, significant economic growth, and many countries have developed sustainable democracies and a more mature and accountable political environment. Additionally, some Latin American countries have a growing middle class and an increasingly diversified economy. In recent periods, however, many Latin American countries have experienced persistent low growth rates and certain countries have fallen into recessions. Specifically, the region has recently suffered from the effects of Argentina's economic crisis. While the region is experiencing an economic recovery, there can be no guarantee that such recovery will continue or that Latin American countries will not face further recessionary pressures. Furthermore, economic recovery efforts continue to be weighed down by the costs of the COVID-19 pandemic. Rising global inflation, supply chain disruptions, the tightening of monetary policies in other countries, and high energy and food prices caused by the COVID-19 pandemic and the conflict in Ukraine pose significant challenges to Latin American countries' economies.
The region's economies represent a spectrum of different levels of political and economic development. In many Latin American countries, domestic economies have been deregulated, privatization of state-owned companies had been undertaken and foreign trade restrictions have been relaxed. There can be no guarantee, however, that such trends in economic liberalization will continue or that the desired outcomes of these developments will be successful. Nonetheless, to the extent that the risks identified above continue or re-emerge in the future, such developments could reverse favorable trends toward market and economic reform, privatization, and removal of trade barriers, and result in significant disruption in securities markets in the region. In addition, recent favorable economic performance in much of the region has led to a concern regarding government overspending in certain Latin American countries. Investors in the region continue to face a number of potential risks. Certain Latin American countries depend heavily on exports to the United States and investments from a small number of countries. Accordingly, these countries may be sensitive to fluctuations in demand, exchange rates and changes in market conditions associated with those countries. The economic growth of most Latin American countries is highly dependent on commodity exports and the economies of certain Latin American countries, particularly Mexico and Venezuela, are highly dependent on oil exports. These economies are particularly susceptible to fluctuations in the price of oil and other commodities and currency fluctuations. The prices of oil and other commodities are in the midst of a period of high volatility driven, in part, by a continued slowdown in growth in China, the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, and the conflict in Ukraine. If growth in China remains slow, or if global economic conditions worsen, Latin American countries may face significant economic difficulties.
Certain Latin American countries may experience significant and unexpected adjustments to their currencies which may have an adverse effect on foreign investors. Furthermore, some Latin American currencies have recently experienced steady devaluations relative to the U.S. dollar and have had to make significant adjustments in their currencies. Continued adjustments and devaluations of currencies in certain countries may undermine a fund's investment there. 
Although certain Latin American countries have recently shown signs of improved economic growth, such improvements, if sustained, may be gradual. In addition, prolonged economic difficulties may have negative effects on the transition to a more stable democracy in some Latin American countries. Political risks remain prevalent throughout the region, including the risk of nationalization of foreign assets. Certain economies in the region may rely heavily on particular industries or foreign capital and are more vulnerable to diplomatic developments, the imposition of economic sanctions against a particular country or countries, changes in international trading patterns, trade barriers, and other protectionist or retaliatory measures. 
A number of Latin American countries are among the largest debtors of developing countries and have a long history of reliance on foreign debt and default. The majority of the region's economies have become highly dependent upon foreign credit and loans from external sources to fuel their state-sponsored economic plans. Most countries have been forced to restructure their loans or risk default on their debt obligations. In addition, interest on the debt is subject to market conditions and may reach levels that would impair economic activity and create a difficult and costly environment for borrowers. Accordingly, these governments may be forced to reschedule or freeze their debt repayment, which could negatively affect local markets. Most recently, Argentina defaulted on its debt after a U.S. court ruled in 2014 that payments to a majority of bondholders (who had settled for lower rates of repayment) could not be made so long as holdout bondholders were not paid the full value of their bonds. The ruling increases the risk of default on all sovereign debt containing similar clauses. Although Argentina settled with its bondholders following the 2014 court ruling, the country defaulted on its debt obligations again in May 2020. While Argentina emerged from its 2020 default after negotiation with its bondholders, analysts and investors are concerned that another default is inevitable given the troubles with Argentina's bond market and soaring inflation.
As a result of their dependence on foreign credit and loans, a number of Latin American economies may be adversely affected by the increases in interest rates by the U.S. Federal Reserve in recent months and by the rising global inflation. While the region has recently had mixed levels of economic growth, recovery from past economic downturns in Latin America has historically been slow, and such growth, if sustained, may be gradual. The ongoing effects of the European debt crisis, the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, and persistent low growth in the global economy may reduce demand for exports from Latin America and limit the availability of foreign credit for some countries in the region. As a result, a fund's investments in Latin American securities could be harmed if economic recovery in the region is limited. 
Russia. Investing in Russian securities is highly speculative and involves significant risks and special considerations not typically associated with investing in the securities markets of the United States and most other developed countries. 
Political. Over the past century, Russia has experienced political and economic turbulence and has endured decades of communist rule under which tens of millions of its citizens were collectivized into state agricultural and industrial enterprises. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, Russia's government has been faced with the daunting task of stabilizing its domestic economy, while transforming it into a modern and efficient structure able to compete in international markets and to respond to the needs of its citizens. To date, however, many of the country's economic reform initiatives have floundered or been retrenched. In this environment, political and economic policies could shift suddenly in ways detrimental to the interest of foreign and private investors. 
In the last several years, as significant income from oil and commodity exports boosted Russia's economic growth, the Russian government began to re-assert its regional geopolitical influence, including most recently its military actions in Ukraine and Syria. The conflict with Ukraine has increased tensions between Russia and its neighbors and the West, resulting in the United States and EU placing sanctions on the Russian financial, energy, and defense sectors, as well as targeting top Russian officials. These sanctions, which include banning Russia from global payments systems that facilitate cross-border payments, combined with a collapse in energy and commodity prices, have slowed the Russian economy, which has continued to experience recessionary trends. Economic sanctions include, among others, prohibiting certain securities trades, prohibiting certain private transactions in the energy sector, certain asset freezes of Russian businesses and officials, and certain freezes of Russian securities. As a result, Russian securities declined significantly in value, and the Russian currency, ruble, has experienced great fluctuations. These sanctions may also result in a downgrade in Russia's credit rating and/or a decline in the value and liquidity of Russian securities, property, or interests. Furthermore, these sanctions may impair the ability of a fund to buy, sell, hold, receive, or deliver the affected securities. Further possible actions by Russia could lead to greater consequences for the Russian economy. 
Economic. Many Russian businesses are inefficient and uncompetitive by global standards due to systemic corruption, regulatory favoritism for government-affiliated enterprises, or the legacy of old management teams and techniques left over from the command economy of the Soviet Union. Poor accounting standards, inept management, pervasive corruption, insider trading and crime, and inadequate regulatory protection for the rights of investors all pose a significant risk, particularly to foreign investors. In addition, enforcement of the Russian tax system is prone to inconsistent, arbitrary, retroactive, confiscatory, and/or exorbitant taxation. 
Compared to most national stock markets, the Russian securities market suffers from a variety of problems not encountered in more developed markets. There is little long-term historical data on the Russian securities market because it is relatively new and a substantial proportion of securities transactions in Russia are privately negotiated outside of stock exchanges. The inexperience of the Russian securities market and the limited volume of trading in securities in the market may make obtaining accurate prices on portfolio securities from independent sources more difficult than in more developed markets. Additionally, there is little solid corporate information available to investors because of less stringent auditing and financial reporting standards that apply to companies operating in Russia. As a result, it may be difficult to assess the value or prospects of an investment in Russian companies. 
Because of the recent formation of the Russian securities market as well as the underdeveloped state of the banking and telecommunications systems, settlement, clearing and registration of securities transactions are subject to significant risks. Ownership of shares (except where shares are held through depositories that meet the requirements of the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (1940 Act) is defined according to entries in the company's share register and normally evidenced by extracts from the register or by formal share certificates. These services, however, are carried out by the companies themselves or by registrars located throughout Russia. These registrars are not necessarily subject to effective state supervision nor are they licensed with any governmental entity, and it is possible for a fund to lose its registration through fraud, negligence, or even mere oversight. While a fund will endeavor to ensure that its interest continues to be appropriately recorded either itself or through a custodian or other agent inspecting the share register and by obtaining extracts of share registers through regular confirmations, these extracts have no legal enforceability, and it is possible that subsequent illegal amendment or other fraudulent act may deprive a fund of its ownership rights or improperly dilute its interests. In addition, while applicable Russian regulations impose liability on registrars for losses resulting from their errors, it may be difficult for a fund to enforce any rights it may have against the registrar or issuer of the securities in the event of loss of share registration. Furthermore, significant delays or problems may occur in registering the transfer of securities, which could cause a fund to incur losses due to either a counterparty's failure to pay for securities the fund has delivered or the fund's inability to complete its contractual obligations. The designation of the National Settlement Depository (NSD) as the exclusive settlement organization for all publicly traded Russian companies and investment funds has enhanced the efficiency and transparency of the Russian securities market. Additionally, agreements between the NSD and foreign central securities depositories and settlement organizations have allowed for simpler and more secure access for foreign investors as well. 
The Russian economy is heavily dependent upon the export of a range of commodities including industrial metals, forestry products, oil, and gas. Accordingly, it is strongly affected by international commodity prices and is particularly vulnerable to any weakening in global demand for these products. Furthermore, the sale and use of certain strategically important commodities, such as gas, may be dictated by political, rather than economic, considerations. 
Over the long-term, Russia faces challenges including a shrinking workforce, high levels of corruption, difficulty in accessing capital for smaller, non-energy companies, and poor infrastructure in need of large investments. 
The sanctions imposed on Russia by the United States and the European Union, as well as the threat of additional sanctions, could have further adverse consequences for the Russian economy, including continued weakening of the ruble, additional downgrades in the country's credit rating, and a significant decline in the value and liquidity of securities issued by Russian companies or the Russian government. The imposition of broader sanctions targeting specific issuers or sectors could prohibit a fund from investing in any securities issued by companies subject to such sanctions. In addition, these sanctions and/or retaliatory action by Russia could require a fund to freeze its existing investments in Russian companies. This could prohibit a fund from selling or transacting in these investments and potentially impact a fund's liquidity. 
Currency. Foreign investors also face a high degree of currency risk when investing in Russian securities and a lack of available currency hedging instruments. The Russian ruble has recently been subject to significant fluctuations due to the conflict in Ukraine and the sanctions imposed by the West. The Russian Central Bank has spent significant foreign exchange reserves to maintain the value of the ruble. Such reserves, however, are finite and, as exemplified by the recent rise in inflation, the Russian Central Bank may be unable to properly manage competing demands of supporting the ruble, managing inflation, and stimulating a struggling Russian economy. Russia's foreign exchange reserves may be spent to stabilize Russia's currency and/or economy in the future. Therefore, any investment denominated in rubles may be subject to significant devaluation in the future. Although official sovereign debt to GDP figures are low for a developed economy, sovereign default remains a risk. Even absent a sovereign default, foreign investors could face the possibility of further devaluations. There is the risk that the government may impose capital controls on foreign portfolio investments in the event of extreme financial or political crisis. Such capital controls could prevent the sale of a portfolio of foreign assets and the repatriation of investment income and capital. Such risks have led to heightened scrutiny of Russian liquidity conditions which, in turn, creates a heightened risk of the repatriation of ruble assets by concerned foreign investors. The persistent economic turmoil in Russia caused the Russian ruble to depreciate as unemployment levels increased and global demand for oil exports decreased. In particular, the recent collapse in energy prices has shrunk the value of Russian exports and further weakened both the value of the ruble and the finances of the Russian state. The Russian economy has also suffered following the conflict in Ukraine, due to significant capital flight from the country. The pressure put on the ruble caused by this divestment has been compounded by the sanctions from the United States and EU, leading to further depreciation, a limitation of the ruble's convertibility, and an increase in inflation. 
The Middle East and Africa. Investing in Middle Eastern and African securities is highly speculative and involves significant risks and special considerations not typically associated with investing in the securities markets of the United States and most other developed countries. For instance, changes in investment policies or shifts in political climates in the region could result in changes to government regulations such as price controls, export and import controls, income and other taxes, foreign ownership restrictions, foreign exchange and currency controls, and labor and welfare benefit policies. Any unexpected changes to these policies or regulations may result in increased investment, operating or compliance expenses for a fund and may have an adverse effect on a fund's business and financial condition.
Political. Many Middle Eastern and African countries historically have suffered from political instability. Despite the trend towards democratization in recent years, especially in Africa, significant political risks continue to affect some Middle Eastern and African countries. These risks may include substantial government intervention in and control over the private sector, corrupt leaders, civil unrest, suppression of opposition parties that can lead to further dissidence and militancy, fixed elections, terrorism, coups, and war. In recent years, several countries in the Middle East and North Africa have experienced pro-democracy movements that resulted in swift regime changes. In some instances where pro-democracy movements successfully toppled regimes, the stability of successor regimes has proven weak, as evidenced by the political situation in Egypt. In other instances, these changes have devolved into armed conflict involving local factions, regional allies or international forces, and even protracted civil wars, such as in Libya and Syria. 
The protracted civil war in Syria has given rise to numerous militias, terrorist groups and, most notably, the proto-state of ISIS. The conflict has disrupted oil production across Syria and Iraq, effectively destroying the economic value of large portions of the region and has caused a massive exodus of refugees into neighboring states, which further threatens government infrastructure of the refuge countries.
Regional instability has not been confined to the Middle East. In Nigeria, Africa's largest economy, continued conflicts between the government and various insurgent groups have caused grave humanitarian and economic consequences. In addition, Africa has experienced a number of regional health crises in recent years, which have demonstrated the vulnerabilities of political institutions and health care systems in the face of crisis. African countries, particularly in Eastern and sub-Saharan Africa, have struggled to access sufficient quantities of COVID-19 vaccines to support their populations.
Continued instability may slow the adoption of economic and political reforms and could damage trade, investment, and economic growth going forward. Further, because many Middle East and African nations have a history of dictatorship, military intervention, and corruption, any successful reforms may prove impermanent. In addition, there is an increasing risk that historical animosities, border disputes, or defense concerns may lead to further armed conflict in the region. Across the Middle East and Africa, such developments could have a negative effect on economic growth and reverse favorable trends toward economic and market reform, privatization, and the removal of trade barriers. Such developments could also result in significant disruptions in securities markets.
Although geographically remote from the conflict in Ukraine, Middle Eastern and African countries are subject to the adverse effect Russian's invasion of Ukraine brought to the global economy. Surging oil and food prices are straining the external and fiscal balances of commodity-importing countries and have increased food security problems in these regions. These economic disruptions may undermine a fund's investment in these countries. 
Economic. Middle Eastern and African countries historically have suffered from underdeveloped infrastructure, high unemployment rates, a comparatively unskilled labor force, and inconsistent access to capital, which have contributed to economic instability and stifled economic growth in the region. Furthermore, certain Middle Eastern and African markets may face a higher concentration of market capitalization, greater illiquidity and greater price volatility compared to those found in more developed markets of Western Europe or the United States. Additionally, certain countries in the region have a history of nationalizing or expropriating foreign assets, which could cause a fund to lose the value of its investments in those countries or could negatively affect foreign investor confidence in the region. Despite a growing trend towards economic diversification, many Middle Eastern and African economies remain heavily dependent upon a limited range of commodities. These include gold, silver, copper, cocoa, diamonds, natural gas and petroleum. These economies are greatly affected by international commodity prices and are particularly vulnerable to any weakening in global demand for these products. As a result, many countries have been forced to scale down their infrastructure investment and the size of their public welfare systems, which could have long-term economic, social, and political implications. 
South Africa, Africa's second largest economy, is the largest destination for foreign direct investment on the continent. The country has a two-tiered, developing economy with one tier similar to that of a developed country and the second tier having only the most basic infrastructure. Although South Africa has experienced modest economic growth in recent years, such growth has been sluggish, hampered by endemic corruption, ethnic and civil conflicts, labor unrest, the effects of the HIV health crisis, and political instability. In addition, reduced demand for South African exports due to the lasting effects of the European debt crisis and persistent low growth in the global economy may limit any such recovery. These problems have been compounded by worries over South African sovereign debt prompted by an increasing deficit and rising level of sovereign debt. These conditions led to tremendous downgrades in South Africa's credit ratings in recent years. Although the ratings are slowly recovering, such downgrades in South African sovereign debt and the likelihood of an issuer default could have serious consequences for investments in South Africa.
The securities markets in these countries are generally less developed. Financial information about the issuers is not always publicly available, and these issuers are not subjected to uniform accounting, auditing, and financial reporting rules. Market volatility, lower trading volume, illiquidity, and rising global inflation all create risks for a fund investing in these countries. These shortcomings may undermine a fund's investment in these countries. 
Currency. Certain Middle Eastern and African countries have currencies pegged to the U.S. dollar or euro rather than free-floating exchange rates determined by market forces. Although intended to stabilize the currencies, these pegs, if abandoned, may cause sudden and significant currency adjustments, which may adversely impact investment returns. There is no significant foreign exchange market for certain currencies, and it would be difficult for a fund to engage in foreign currency transactions designed to protect the value of a fund's interests in securities denominated in such currencies. 
PORTFOLIO TRANSACTIONS
Orders for the purchase or sale of portfolio securities are placed on behalf of a fund by Fidelity Management & Research Company LLC (FMR or the Adviser) pursuant to authority contained in the management contract.  
To the extent that the Adviser grants investment management authority to a sub-adviser (see the section entitled "Management Contracts"), that sub-adviser is authorized to provide the services described in the respective sub-advisory agreement, and in accordance with the policies described in this section. Furthermore, the sub-adviser's trading and associated policies, which may differ from the Adviser's policies, may apply to that fund, subject to applicable law.
The Adviser or a sub-adviser may be responsible for the placement of portfolio securities transactions for other investment companies and investment accounts for which it has or its affiliates have investment discretion.
A fund will not incur any commissions or sales charges when it invests in shares of mutual funds (including any underlying Central funds), but it may incur such costs when it invests directly in other types of securities.
Purchases and sales of equity securities on a securities exchange or OTC are effected through brokers who receive compensation for their services. Generally, compensation relating to securities traded on foreign exchanges will be higher than compensation relating to securities traded on U.S. exchanges and may not be subject to negotiation. Compensation may also be paid in connection with principal transactions (in both OTC securities and securities listed on an exchange) and agency OTC transactions executed with an electronic communications network (ECN) or an alternative trading system. Equity securities may be purchased from underwriters at prices that include underwriting fees.
Purchases and sales of fixed-income securities are generally made with an issuer or a primary market-maker acting as principal. Although there is no stated brokerage commission paid by a fund for any fixed-income security, the price paid by a fund to an underwriter includes the disclosed underwriting fee and prices in secondary trades usually include an undisclosed dealer commission or markup reflecting the spread between the bid and ask prices of the fixed-income security. New issues of equity and fixed-income securities may also be purchased in underwritten fixed price offerings. 
The Trustees of each fund periodically review the Adviser's performance of its responsibilities in connection with the placement of portfolio securities transactions on behalf of each fund. The Trustees also review the compensation paid by each fund over representative periods of time to determine if it was reasonable in relation to the benefits to the fund.
The Selection of Securities Brokers and Dealers
The Adviser or its affiliates generally have authority to select brokers (whether acting as a broker or a dealer) to place or execute a fund's portfolio securities transactions. In selecting brokers, including affiliates of the Adviser, to execute a fund's portfolio securities transactions, the Adviser or its affiliates consider the factors they deem relevant in the context of a particular trade and in regard to the Adviser's or its affiliates' overall responsibilities with respect to the fund and other investment accounts, including any instructions from the fund's portfolio manager, which may emphasize, for example, speed of execution over other factors. Based on the factors considered, the Adviser or its affiliates may choose to execute an order using ECNs, including broker-sponsored algorithms, internal crossing, or by verbally working an order with one or more brokers. Other possibly relevant factors include, but are not limited to, the following: price; costs; the size, nature and type of the order; the speed of execution; financial condition and reputation of the broker; broker specific considerations (e.g., not all brokers are able to execute all types of trades); broker willingness to commit capital; the nature and characteristics of the markets in which the security is traded; the trader's assessment of whether and how closely the broker likely will follow the trader's instructions to the broker; confidentiality and the potential for information leakage; the nature or existence of post-trade clearing, settlement, custody and currency convertibility mechanisms; and the provision of additional brokerage and research products and services, if applicable and where allowed by law.
In seeking best execution for portfolio securities transactions, the Adviser or its affiliates may from time to time select a broker that uses a trading method, including algorithmic trading, for which the broker charges a higher commission than its lowest available commission rate. The Adviser or its affiliates also may select a broker that charges more than the lowest commission rate available from another broker. Occasionally the Adviser or its affiliates execute an entire securities transaction with a broker and allocate all or a portion of the transaction and/or related commissions to a second broker where a client does not permit trading with an affiliate of the Adviser or in other limited situations. In those situations, the commission rate paid to the second broker may be higher than the commission rate paid to the executing broker. For futures transactions, the selection of a futures commission merchant is generally based on the overall quality of execution and other services provided by the futures commission merchant. The Adviser or its affiliates execute futures transactions verbally and electronically.
The Acquisition of Brokerage and Research Products and Services
Brokers (who are not affiliates of the Adviser) that execute transactions for a fund managed outside of the European Union may receive higher compensation from the fund than other brokers might have charged the fund, in recognition of the value of the brokerage or research products and services they provide to the Adviser or its affiliates.
Research Products and Services. These products and services may include, when permissible under applicable law, but are not limited to: economic, industry, company, municipal, sovereign (U.S. and non-U.S.), legal, or political research reports; market color; company meeting facilitation; compilation of securities prices, earnings, dividends and similar data; quotation services, data, information and other services; analytical computer software and services; and investment recommendations. In addition to receiving brokerage and research products and services via written reports and computer-delivered services, such reports may also be provided by telephone and in video and in-person meetings with securities analysts, corporate and industry spokespersons, economists, academicians and government representatives and others with relevant professional expertise. The Adviser or its affiliates may request that a broker provide a specific proprietary or third-party product or service. Some of these brokerage and research products and services supplement the Adviser's or its affiliates' own research activities in providing investment advice to the funds.
Execution Services. In addition, when permissible under applicable law, brokerage and research products and services include those that assist in the execution, clearing, and settlement of securities transactions, as well as other incidental functions (including, but not limited to, communication services related to trade execution, order routing and algorithmic trading, post-trade matching, exchange of messages among brokers or dealers, custodians and institutions, and the use of electronic confirmation and affirmation of institutional trades).
Mixed-Use Products and Services. Although the Adviser or its affiliates do not use fund commissions to pay for products or services that do not qualify as brokerage and research products and services or eligible external research under MiFID II and FCA regulations (as defined below), where allowed by applicable law, they, at times, will use commission dollars to obtain certain products or services that are not used exclusively in the Adviser's or its affiliates' investment decision-making process (mixed-use products or services). In those circumstances, the Adviser or its affiliates will make a good faith judgment to evaluate the various benefits and uses to which they intend to put the mixed-use product or service, and will pay for that portion of the mixed-use product or service that does not qualify as brokerage and research products and services or eligible external research with their own resources (referred to as "hard dollars").
Benefit to the Adviser. The Adviser's or its affiliates' expenses likely would be increased if they attempted to generate these additional brokerage and research products and services through their own efforts, or if they paid for these brokerage and research products or services with their own resources. Therefore, an economic incentive exists for the Adviser or its affiliates to select or recommend a broker-dealer based on its interest in receiving the brokerage and research products and services, rather than on the Adviser's or its affiliates' funds interest in receiving most favorable execution. The Adviser and its affiliates manage the receipt of brokerage and research products and services and the potential for conflicts through its Commission Uses Program. The Commission Uses Program effectively "unbundles" commissions paid to brokers who provide brokerage and research products and services, i.e., commissions consist of an execution commission, which covers the execution of the trade (including clearance and settlement), and a research charge, which is used to cover brokerage and research products and services. Those brokers have client commission arrangements (each a CCA) in place with the Adviser and its affiliates (each of those brokers referred to as CCA brokers). In selecting brokers for executing transactions on behalf of the fund, the trading desks through which the Adviser or its affiliates may execute trades are instructed to execute portfolio transactions on behalf of the funds based on the quality of execution without any consideration of brokerage and research products and services the CCA broker provides. Commissions paid to a CCA broker include both an execution commission and a research charge, and while the CCA broker receives the entire commission, it retains the execution commission and either credits or transmits the research portion (also known as "soft dollars") to a CCA pool maintained by each CCA broker. Soft dollar credits (credits) accumulated in CCA pools are used to pay research expenses. In some cases, the Adviser or its affiliates may request that a broker that is not a party to any particular transaction provide a specific proprietary or third-party product or service, which would be paid with credits from the CCA pool. The administration of brokerage and research products and services is managed separately from the trading desks, and traders have no responsibility for administering the research program, including the payment for research. The Adviser or its affiliates, at times, use a third-party aggregator to facilitate payments to research providers. Where an aggregator is involved, the aggregator would maintain credits in an account that is segregated from the aggregator's proprietary assets and the assets of its other clients and use those credits to pay research providers as instructed by the Adviser or its affiliates. Furthermore, where permissible under applicable law, certain of the brokerage and research products and services that the Adviser or its affiliates receive are furnished by brokers on their own initiative, either in connection with a particular transaction or as part of their overall services. Some of these brokerage and research products or services may be provided at no additional cost to the Adviser or its affiliates or have no explicit cost associated with them. In addition, the Adviser or its affiliates may request that a broker provide a specific proprietary or third-party product or service, certain of which third-party products or services may be provided by a broker that is not a party to a particular transaction and is not connected with the transacting broker's overall services.
The Adviser's Decision-Making Process. In connection with the allocation of fund brokerage, the Adviser or its affiliates make a good faith determination that the compensation paid to brokers and dealers is reasonable in relation to the value of the brokerage and/or research products and services provided to the Adviser or its affiliates, viewed in terms of the particular transaction for a fund or the Adviser's or its affiliates' overall responsibilities to that fund or other investment companies and investment accounts for which the Adviser or its affiliates have investment discretion; however, each brokerage and research product or service received in connection with a fund's brokerage does not benefit all funds and certain funds will receive the benefit of the brokerage and research product or services obtained with other funds' commissions. As required under applicable laws or fund policy, commissions generated by certain funds may only be used to obtain certain brokerage and research products and services. As a result, certain funds will pay more proportionately of certain types of brokerage and research products and services than others, while the overall amount of brokerage and research products and services paid by each fund continues to be allocated equitably. While the Adviser or its affiliates take into account the brokerage and/or research products and services provided by a broker or dealer in determining whether compensation paid is reasonable, neither the Adviser, its affiliates, nor the funds incur an obligation to any broker, dealer, or third party to pay for any brokerage and research product or service (or portion thereof) by generating a specific amount of compensation or otherwise. Typically, for funds managed by the Adviser or its affiliates outside of the European Union or the United Kingdom, these brokerage and research products and services assist the Adviser or its affiliates in terms of their overall investment responsibilities to a fund or any other investment companies and investment accounts for which the Adviser or its affiliates may have investment discretion. Certain funds or investment accounts may use brokerage commissions to acquire brokerage and research products and services that also benefit other funds or accounts managed by the Adviser or its affiliates, and not every fund or investment account uses the brokerage and research products and services that may have been acquired through that fund's commissions.
Research Contracts. The Adviser or its affiliates have arrangements with certain third-party research providers and brokers through whom the Adviser or its affiliates effect fund trades, whereby the Adviser or its affiliates may pay with fund commissions or hard dollars for all or a portion of the cost of research products and services purchased from such research providers or brokers. If hard dollar payments are used, the Adviser or its affiliates, at times, will cause a fund to pay more for execution than the lowest commission rate available from the broker providing research products and services to the Adviser or its affiliates, or that may be available from another broker. The Adviser's or its affiliates' determination to pay for research products and services separately is wholly voluntary on the Adviser's or its affiliates' part and may be extended to additional brokers or discontinued with any broker participating in this arrangement.
Funds Managed within the European Union. The Adviser and its affiliates have established policies and procedures relating to brokerage commission uses in compliance with the revised Markets in Financial Instruments Directive in the European Union, commonly referred to as "MiFID II", as implemented in the United Kingdom through the Conduct of Business Sourcebook Rules of the UK Financial Conduct Authority (the FCA), where applicable.
Funds, or portions thereof, that are managed within the United Kingdom by FMR Investment Management (UK) Limited (FMR UK) use research payment accounts (RPAs) to cover costs associated with equity and high income external research that is consumed by those funds or investment accounts in accordance with MiFID II and FCA regulations. With RPAs, funds pay for external research through a separate research charge that is generally assessed and collected alongside the execution commission 1 . For funds that use an RPA, FMR UK establishes a research budget. The budget is set by first grouping funds or investment accounts by strategy (e.g., asset allocation, blend, growth, etc.), and then determining what external research is consumed to support the strategies and portfolio management services provided within the European Union or the United Kingdom. In this regard, research budgets are set by research needs and are not otherwise linked to the volume or value of transactions executed on behalf of the fund or investment account. For funds where portions are managed both within and outside of the United Kingdom, external research may be paid using both a CCA and an RPA. Determinations of what is eligible research and how costs are allocated are made in accordance with the Adviser's and its affiliates' policies and procedures. Costs for research consumed by funds that use an RPA will be allocated among the funds or investment accounts within defined strategies pro rata based on the assets under management for each fund or investment account. While the research charge paid on behalf of any one fund that uses an RPA varies over time, the overall research charge determined at the fund level on an annual basis will not be exceeded.
FMR UK is responsible for managing the RPA and may delegate its administration to a third-party administrator for the facilitation of the purchase of external research and payments to research providers. RPA assets will be maintained in accounts at a third-party depository institution, held in the name of FMR UK. FMR UK provides on request, a summary of: (i) the providers paid from the RPA; (ii) the total amount they were paid over a defined period; (iii) the benefits and services received by FMR UK; and (iv) how the total amount spent from the RPA compares to the research budget set for that period, noting any rebate or carryover if residual funds remain in the RPA.
Impacted funds, like those funds that participate in CCA pools, at times, will make payments to a broker that include both an execution commission and a research charge, but unlike CCAs (for which research charges may be retained by the CCA broker and credited to the CCA, as described above), the broker will receive separate payments for the execution commission and the research charge and will promptly remit the research charge to the RPA. Assets in the RPA are used to satisfy external research costs consumed by the funds.
If the costs of paying for external research exceed the amount initially agreed in relation to funds in a given strategy, the Adviser or its affiliates may continue to charge those funds or investment accounts beyond the initially agreed amount in accordance with MiFID II, continue to acquire external research for the funds or investment accounts using its own resources, or cease to purchase external research for those funds or investment accounts until the next annual research budget. If assets for specific funds remain in the RPA at the end of a period, they may be rolled over to the next period to offset next year's research charges for those funds or rebated to those funds.
Funds managed by FMR UK that trade only fixed income securities will not participate in RPAs because fixed income securities trade based on spreads rather than commissions, and thus unbundling the execution commission and research charge is impractical. Therefore, FMR UK and its affiliates have established policies and procedures to ensure that external research that is paid for through RPAs is not made available to FMR UK portfolio managers that manage fixed income funds or investment accounts in any manner inconsistent with MiFID II and FCA regulations.
1 The staff of the SEC addressed concerns that reliance on an RPA mechanism to pay for research would be permissible under Section 28(e) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 by indicating that they would not recommend enforcement against investment advisers who used an RPA to pay for research and brokerage products and services so long as certain conditions were met. Therefore, references to "research charges" as part of the RPA mechanism to satisfy MiFID II requirements can be considered "commissions" for Section 28(e) purposes.
Commission Recapture
From time to time, the Adviser or its affiliates engages in brokerage transactions with brokers (who are not affiliates of the Adviser) who have entered into arrangements with the Adviser or its affiliates under which the broker will, at times, rebate a portion of the compensation paid by a fund (commission recapture). Not all brokers with whom a fund trades have been asked to participate in brokerage commission recapture.
Affiliated Transactions
The Adviser or its affiliates place trades with certain brokers, including NFS, through its Fidelity Capital Markets (FCM) division, and Luminex Trading & Analytics LLC (Luminex), with whom they are under common control or otherwise affiliated, provided the Adviser or its affiliates determine that these affiliates' trade-execution abilities and costs are comparable to those of non-affiliated, qualified brokerage firms, and that such transactions be executed in accordance with applicable rules under the 1940 Act and procedures adopted by the Board of Trustees of the funds and subject to other applicable law. In addition, from time to time, the Adviser or its affiliates place trades with brokers that use NFS or Fidelity Clearing Canada ULC (FCC) as a clearing agent and/or use Level ATS, an alternative trading system that is deemed to be affiliated with the Adviser, for execution services.
In certain circumstances, trades are executed through alternative trading systems or national securities exchanges in which the Adviser or its affiliates have an interest. Any decision to execute a trade through an alternative trading system or exchange in which the Adviser or its affiliates have an interest would be made in accordance with applicable law, including best execution obligations. For trades placed on such a system or exchange, not limited to ones in which the Adviser or its affiliates have an ownership interest, the Adviser or its affiliates derive benefit in the form of increased valuation(s) of its equity interest, where it has an ownership interest, or other remuneration, including rebates.
The Trustees of each fund have approved procedures whereby a fund is permitted to purchase securities that are offered in underwritings in which an affiliate of the adviser or certain other affiliates participate. In addition, for underwritings where such an affiliate participates as a principal underwriter, certain restrictions may apply that could, among other things, limit the amount of securities that the funds could purchase in the underwritings.
Non-U.S. Securities Transactions
To facilitate trade settlement and related activities in non-U.S. securities transactions, the Adviser or its affiliates effect spot foreign currency transactions with foreign currency dealers. In certain circumstances, due to local law and regulation, logistical or operational challenges, or the process for settling securities transactions in certain markets (e.g., short settlement periods), spot currency transactions are effected on behalf of funds by parties other than the Adviser or its affiliates, including funds' custodian banks (working through sub-custodians or agents in the relevant non-U.S. jurisdiction) or broker-dealers that executed the related securities transaction.
Trade Allocation
Although the Trustees and officers of each fund are substantially the same as those of certain other Fidelity ® funds, investment decisions for each fund are made independently from those of other Fidelity ® funds or investment accounts (including proprietary accounts). The same security is often held in the portfolio of more than one of these funds or investment accounts. Simultaneous transactions are inevitable when several funds and investment accounts are managed by the same investment adviser, or an affiliate thereof, particularly when the same security is suitable for the investment objective of more than one fund or investment account.
When two or more funds or investment accounts are simultaneously engaged in the purchase or sale of the same security or instrument, the prices and amounts are allocated in accordance with procedures believed by the Adviser to be appropriate and equitable to each fund or investment account. In some cases this could have a detrimental effect on the price or value of the security or instrument as far as a fund is concerned. In other cases, however, the ability of the funds to participate in volume transactions will produce better executions and prices for the funds.
Commissions Paid
A fund may pay compensation including both commissions and spreads in connection with the placement of portfolio transactions. The amount of brokerage commissions paid by a fund may change from year to year because of, among other things, changing asset levels, shareholder activity, and/or portfolio turnover.
For each of Fidelity® Series Emerging Markets Fund, Fidelity® Series Emerging Markets Opportunities Fund, Fidelity® Series International Growth Fund, Fidelity® Series International Small Cap Fund, and Fidelity® Series International Value Fund, the following table shows the fund's portfolio turnover rate for the fiscal period(s) ended October 31, 2022 and 2021. Variations in turnover rate may be due to a fluctuating volume of shareholder purchase and redemption orders, market conditions, and/or changes in the Adviser's investment outlook.
Turnover Rates
2022
2021
Fidelity® Series Emerging Markets Fund
65%
78%
Fidelity® Series Emerging Markets Opportunities Fund
37%
69%
Fidelity® Series International Growth Fund
22%
24%
Fidelity® Series International Small Cap Fund
25%
32%
Fidelity® Series International Value Fund
31%
34%
 
 
 
During the fiscal year ended October 31, 2022, the following fund(s) held securities issued by one or more of its regular brokers or dealers or a parent company of its regular brokers or dealers. The following table shows the aggregate value of the securities of the regular broker or dealer or parent company held by a fund as of the fiscal year ended October 31, 2022.
 
Fund
 
Regular Broker or Dealer
 
Aggregate Value of
Securities Held
Fidelity® Series International Small Cap Fund
Goldman Sachs Group, Inc.
 $
2,613,901
Fidelity® Series International Value Fund
UBS AG
 $
226,513,963
The following table shows the total amount of brokerage commissions paid by the following fund(s), comprising commissions paid on securities and/or futures transactions, as applicable, for the fiscal year(s) ended October 31, 2022, 2021, and 2020. The total amount of brokerage commissions paid is stated as a dollar amount and a percentage of the fund's average net assets.
Fund
Fiscal Year
Ended
 
Dollar
Amount
Percentage
of
Average
Net Assets
Fidelity® Series Emerging Markets Fund
2022
$
4,652,248
0.16%
 
2021
$
5,864,415
0.17%
 
2020
$
7,106,655
0.29%
Fidelity® Series Emerging Markets Opportunities Fund
2022
$
28,031,923
0.11%
 
2021
$
41,177,142
0.13%
 
2020
$
26,800,888
0.12%
Fidelity® Series International Growth Fund
2022
$
5,024,390
0.04%
 
2021
$
4,911,658
0.03%
 
2020
$
6,441,067
0.05%
Fidelity® Series International Small Cap Fund
2022
$
1,516,704
0.04%
 
2021
$
2,166,450
0.05%
 
2020
$
1,392,611
0.04%
Fidelity® Series International Value Fund
2022
$
6,315,423
0.05%
 
2021
$
7,907,264
0.06%
 
2020
$
9,351,631
0.07%
The table below shows the total amount of brokerage commissions paid by the following fund(s) to an affiliated broker for the fiscal year(s) ended October 31, 2022, 2021, and 2020. The table also shows the approximate amount of aggregate brokerage commissions paid by a fund to an affiliated broker as a percentage of the approximate aggregate dollar amount of transactions for which the fund paid brokerage commissions as well as the percentage of transactions effected by a fund through an affiliated broker, in each case for the fiscal year ended October 31, 2022. Affiliated brokers are paid on a commission basis.
Fund(s)
Fiscal Year Ended
Broker
Affiliated With
C
ommissions
Percentage
of
Aggregate
Brokerage
Commissions
Percentage
of
Aggregate
Dollar
Amount
of
Brokerage
  Transactions
Fidelity® Series Emerging Markets Fund
2022
FCM
FMR LLC
$
945
0.02%
0.29%
 
2022
Luminex
FMR LLC
$
20
0.00%
0.01%
 
2021
FCM
FMR LLC
$
802
 
 
 
2021
Luminex
FMR LLC
$
0
 
 
 
2020
FCM
FMR LLC
$
4,469
 
 
 
2020
Luminex
FMR LLC
$
167
 
 
Fidelity® Series Emerging Markets Opportunities Fund
2022
FCM
FMR LLC
$
111,461
0.40%
1.61%
 
2022
Luminex
FMR LLC
$
18,594
0.07%
0.33%
 
2021
FCM
FMR LLC
$
109,071
 
 
 
2021
Luminex
FMR LLC
$
17,009
 
 
 
2020
FCM
FMR LLC
$
75,258
 
 
 
2020
Luminex
FMR LLC
$
13,371
 
 
Fidelity® Series International Growth Fund
2022
FCM (A)
FMR LLC
$
5,447
0.11%
2.55%
 
2022
Luminex
FMR LLC
$
1,314
0.03%
0.94%
 
2021
FCM
FMR LLC
$
4,418
 
 
 
2021
Luminex
FMR LLC
$
1,381
 
 
 
2020
FCM
FMR LLC
$
11,365
 
 
 
2020
Luminex
FMR LLC
$
1,783
 
 
Fidelity® Series International Small Cap Fund
2022
FCM
FMR LLC
$
658
0.04%
0.28%
 
2022
Luminex
FMR LLC
$
56
0.00%
0.04%
 
2021
FCM
FMR LLC
$
480
 
 
 
2021
Luminex
FMR LLC
$
0
 
 
 
2020
FCM
FMR LLC
$
519
 
 
Fidelity® Series International Value Fund
2022
FCM
FMR LLC
$
4,526
0.07%
0.34%
 
2022
Luminex
FMR LLC
$
695
0.01%
0.08%
 
2021
FCM
FMR LLC
$
2,231
 
 
 
2021
Luminex
FMR LLC
$
0
 
 
 
2020
FCM
FMR LLC
$
2,491
 
 
 
2020
Luminex
FMR LLC
$
90
 
 
(A)The difference between the percentage of aggregate brokerage commissions paid to, and the percentage of the aggregate dollar amount of transactions effected through, an affiliated broker is a result of the low commission rates charged by an affiliated broker.
The following table shows the dollar amount of brokerage commissions paid to firms that may have provided research or brokerage services and the approximate dollar amount of the transactions involved for the fiscal year ended October 31, 2022. 
Fund
Fiscal Year
Ended
 
$ Amount of
Commissions
Paid to Firms
for Providing
Research or
Brokerage
Services
 
$ Amount of
Brokerage
Transactions
Involved
Fidelity® Series Emerging Markets Fund
2022
$
3,621,509
$
2,954,831,284
Fidelity® Series Emerging Markets Opportunities Fund
2022
$
21,549,732
$
19,610,920,265
Fidelity® Series International Growth Fund
2022
$
4,706,051
$
6,036,801,992
Fidelity® Series International Small Cap Fund
2022
$
1,219,989
$
1,186,846,865
Fidelity® Series International Value Fund
2022
$
6,195,531
$
7,775,044,827
The following table shows the brokerage commissions that were allocated for research or brokerage services for the twelve-month period ended September 30, 2022. 
Fund
Twelve Month
Period Ended
 
$ Amount of
Commissions
Allocated
for Research or
Brokerage
Services (A)
Fidelity® Series Emerging Markets Fund
September 30, 2022
$
1,043,708
Fidelity® Series Emerging Markets Opportunities Fund
September 30, 2022
$
6,581,881
Fidelity® Series International Growth Fund
September 30, 2022
$
1,475,683
Fidelity® Series International Small Cap Fund
September 30, 2022
$
431,204
Fidelity® Series International Value Fund
September 30, 2022
$
2,213,591
(A) The staff of the SEC addressed concerns that reliance on an RPA mechanism to pay for research would not be deemed a "commission" for purposes of Section 28(e) by indicating that they would not recommend enforcement against investment advisers who used an RPA to pay for research and brokerage services so long as certain conditions were met. Therefore, references to "research charges" as part of the RPA mechanism to satisfy MiFID II requirements can be considered commissions for Section 28(e) purposes.
 
 
VALUATION
The NAV is the value of a single share. NAV is computed by adding the value of a fund's investments, cash, and other assets, subtracting its liabilities, and dividing the result by the number of shares outstanding.
The Board of Trustees has designated the fund's investment adviser as the valuation designee responsible for the fair valuation function and performing fair value determinations as needed. The adviser has established a Fair Value Committee (the Committee) to carry out the day-to-day fair valuation responsibilities and has adopted policies and procedures to govern the fair valuation process and the activities of the Committee.
Shares of open-end investment companies (including any underlying Central funds) held by a fund are valued at their respective NAVs. If an underlying fund's NAV is unavailable, shares of that underlying fund will be fair valued in good faith by the Committee in accordance with applicable fair value pricing policies.
Generally, other portfolio securities and assets held by a fund, as well as portfolio securities and assets held by an underlying Central fund, are valued as follows:
Most equity securities are valued at the official closing price or the last reported sale price or, if no sale has occurred, at the last quoted bid price on the primary market or exchange on which they are traded.
Debt securities and other assets for which market quotations are readily available may be valued at market values in the principal market in which they normally are traded, as furnished by recognized dealers in such securities or assets. Or, debt securities and convertible securities may be valued on the basis of information furnished by a pricing service that uses a valuation matrix which incorporates both dealer-supplied valuations and electronic data processing techniques.
Short-term securities with remaining maturities of sixty days or less for which market quotations and information furnished by a pricing service are not readily available may be valued at amortized cost, which approximates current value.
Futures contracts are valued at the settlement or closing price. Options are valued at their market quotations, if available. Swaps are valued daily using quotations received from independent pricing services or recognized dealers.
Prices described above are obtained from pricing services that have been approved by the Committee. A number of pricing services are available and a fund may use more than one of these services. A fund may also discontinue the use of any pricing service at any time. A fund's adviser through the Committee engages in oversight activities with respect to the fund's pricing services, which includes, among other things, testing the prices provided by pricing services prior to calculation of a fund's NAV, conducting periodic due diligence meetings, and periodically reviewing the methodologies and inputs used by these services.
Foreign securities and instruments are valued in their local currency following the methodologies described above. Foreign securities, instruments and currencies are translated to U.S. dollars, based on foreign currency exchange rate quotations supplied by a pricing service as of the close of the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), which uses a proprietary model to determine the exchange rate. Forward foreign currency exchange contracts are valued at an interpolated rate based on days to maturity between the closest preceding and subsequent settlement period reported by the third party pricing service.
Other portfolio securities and assets for which market quotations, official closing prices, or information furnished by a pricing service are not readily available or, in the opinion of the Committee, are deemed unreliable will be fair valued in good faith by the Committee in accordance with applicable fair value pricing policies. For example, if, in the opinion of the Committee, a security's value has been materially affected by events occurring before a fund's pricing time but after the close of the exchange or market on which the security is principally traded, that security will be fair valued in good faith by the Committee in accordance with applicable fair value pricing policies. In fair valuing a security, the Committee may consider factors including, but not limited to, price movements in futures contracts and American Depositary Receipts (ADRs), market and trading trends, the bid/ask quotes of brokers, and off-exchange institutional trading. The frequency that portfolio securities or assets are fair valued cannot be predicted and may be significant.
In determining the fair value of a private placement security for which market quotations are not available, the Committee generally applies one or more valuation methods including the market approach, income approach and cost approach. The market approach considers factors including the price of recent investments in the same or a similar security or financial metrics of comparable securities. The income approach considers factors including expected future cash flows, security specific risks and corresponding discount rates. The cost approach considers factors including the value of the security's underlying assets and liabilities.
The fund's adviser reports to the Board information regarding the fair valuation process and related material matters.
BUYING AND SELLING INFORMATION
A fund may make redemption payments in whole or in part in readily marketable securities or other property pursuant to procedures approved by the Trustees if FMR determines it is in the best interests of the fund. Such securities or other property will be valued for this purpose as they are valued in computing the NAV of a fund or class, as applicable. Shareholders that receive securities or other property will realize, upon receipt, a gain or loss for tax purposes, and will incur additional costs and be exposed to market risk prior to and upon the sale of such securities or other property.
Each fund, in its discretion, may determine to issue its shares in kind in exchange for securities held by the purchaser having a value, determined in accordance with the fund's policies for valuation of portfolio securities, equal to the purchase price of the fund shares issued. A fund will accept for in-kind purchases only securities or other instruments that are appropriate under its investment objective and policies. In addition, a fund generally will not accept securities of any issuer unless they are liquid, have a readily ascertainable market value, and are not subject to restrictions on resale. All dividends, distributions, and subscription or other rights associated with the securities become the property of the fund, along with the securities. Shares purchased in exchange for securities in kind generally cannot be redeemed for fifteen days following the exchange to allow time for the transfer to settle.
DISTRIBUTIONS AND TAXES
Dividends. Because each fund invests significantly in foreign securities, corporate shareholders should not expect fund dividends to qualify for the dividends-received deduction. However, a portion of the fund's dividends, when distributed to individual shareholders, may qualify for taxation at long-term capital gains rates (provided certain holding period requirements are met). Short-term capital gains are taxable at ordinary income tax rates. Distributions by a fund to tax-advantaged retirement plan accounts are not taxable currently (but you may be taxed later, upon withdrawal of your investment from such account).
Capital Gain Distributions. Unless your shares of a fund are held in a tax-advantaged retirement plan, each fund's long-term capital gain distributions are federally taxable to shareholders generally as capital gains.
The following table shows a fund's aggregate capital loss carryforward as of October 31, 2022, which is available to offset future capital gains. A fund's ability to utilize its capital loss carryforwards in a given year or in total may be limited.
Fund
 
Capital Loss Carryforward (CLC)
Fidelity® Series Emerging Markets Fund
$
297,426,554
Fidelity® Series Emerging Markets Opportunities Fund
$
834,830,045
Fidelity® Series International Value Fund
$
1,007,762,687
Returns of Capital. If a fund's distributions exceed its taxable income and capital gains realized during a taxable year, all or a portion of the distributions made in the same taxable year may be recharacterized as a return of capital to shareholders. A return of capital distribution will generally not be taxable, but will reduce each shareholder's cost basis in the fund and result in a higher reported capital gain or lower reported capital loss when those shares on which the distribution was received are sold in taxable accounts.
Foreign Tax Credit or Deduction. Foreign governments may impose withholding taxes on dividends and interest earned by a fund with respect to foreign securities held directly by a fund. Foreign governments may also impose taxes on other payments or gains with respect to foreign securities held directly by a fund. As a general matter, if, at the close of its fiscal year, more than 50% of a fund's total assets is invested in securities of foreign issuers, the fund may elect to pass through eligible foreign taxes paid and thereby allow shareholders to take a deduction or, if they meet certain holding period requirements with respect to fund shares, a credit on their individual tax returns. In addition, if at the close of each quarter of its fiscal year at least 50% of a fund's total assets is represented by interests in other regulated investment companies, the same rules will apply to any foreign tax credits that underlying funds pass through to the fund. Special rules may apply to the credit for individuals who receive dividends qualifying for the long-term capital gains tax rate.
Tax Status of the Funds. Each fund intends to qualify each year as a "regulated investment company" under Subchapter M of the Internal Revenue Code so that it will not be liable for federal tax on income and capital gains distributed to shareholders. In order to qualify as a regulated investment company, and avoid being subject to federal income or excise taxes at the fund level, each fund intends to distribute substantially all of its net investment income and net realized capital gains within each calendar year as well as on a fiscal year basis (if the fiscal year is other than the calendar year), and intends to comply with other tax rules applicable to regulated investment companies.
Other Tax Information. The information above is only a summary of some of the tax consequences generally affecting each fund and its shareholders, and no attempt has been made to discuss individual tax consequences. It is up to you or your tax preparer to determine whether the sale of shares of a fund resulted in a capital gain or loss or other tax consequence to you. In addition to federal income taxes, shareholders may be subject to state and local taxes on fund distributions, and shares may be subject to state and local personal property taxes. Investors should consult their tax advisers to determine whether a fund is suitable to their particular tax situation.
TRUSTEES AND OFFICERS
The Trustees, Members of the Advisory Board (if any), and officers of the trust and funds, as applicable, are listed below. The Board of Trustees governs each fund and is responsible for protecting the interests of shareholders. The Trustees are experienced executives who meet periodically throughout the year to oversee each fund's activities, review contractual arrangements with companies that provide services to each fund, oversee management of the risks associated with such activities and contractual arrangements, and review each fund's performance. Except for Jonathan Chiel, each of the Trustees oversees 316 funds. Mr. Chiel oversees 184 funds.
The Trustees hold office without limit in time except that (a) any Trustee may resign; (b) any Trustee may be removed by written instrument, signed by at least two-thirds of the number of Trustees prior to such removal; (c) any Trustee who requests to be retired or who has become incapacitated by illness or injury may be retired by written instrument signed by a majority of the other Trustees; and (d) any Trustee may be removed at any special meeting of shareholders by a two-thirds vote of the outstanding voting securities of the trust. Each Trustee who is not an interested person (as defined in the 1940 Act) of the trust and the funds is referred to herein as an Independent Trustee. Each Independent Trustee shall retire not later than the last day of the calendar year in which his or her 75th birthday occurs. The Independent Trustees may waive this mandatory retirement age policy with respect to individual Trustees. Officers and Advisory Board Members hold office without limit in time, except that any officer or Advisory Board Member may resign or may be removed by a vote of a majority of the Trustees at any regular meeting or any special meeting of the Trustees. Except as indicated, each individual has held the office shown or other offices in the same company for the past five years.
Experience, Skills, Attributes, and Qualifications of the Trustees. The Governance and Nominating Committee has adopted a statement of policy that describes the experience, qualifications, attributes, and skills that are necessary and desirable for potential Independent Trustee candidates (Statement of Policy). The Board believes that each Trustee satisfied at the time he or she was initially elected or appointed a Trustee, and continues to satisfy, the standards contemplated by the Statement of Policy. The Governance and Nominating Committee also engages professional search firms to help identify potential Independent Trustee candidates who have the experience, qualifications, attributes, and skills consistent with the Statement of Policy. From time to time, additional criteria based on the composition and skills of the current Independent Trustees, as well as experience or skills that may be appropriate in light of future changes to board composition, business conditions, and regulatory or other developments, have also been considered by the professional search firms and the Governance and Nominating Committee. In addition, the Board takes into account the Trustees' commitment and participation in Board and committee meetings, as well as their leadership of standing and ad hoc committees throughout their tenure.
In determining that a particular Trustee was and continues to be qualified to serve as a Trustee, the Board has considered a variety of criteria, none of which, in isolation, was controlling. The Board believes that, collectively, the Trustees have balanced and diverse experience, qualifications, attributes, and skills, which allow the Board to operate effectively in governing each fund and protecting the interests of shareholders. Information about the specific experience, skills, attributes, and qualifications of each Trustee, which in each case led to the Board's conclusion that the Trustee should serve (or continue to serve) as a trustee of the funds, is provided below.
Board Structure and Oversight Function. Robert A. Lawrence is an interested person and currently serves as Chair. The Trustees have determined that an interested Chair is appropriate and benefits shareholders because an interested Chair has a personal and professional stake in the quality and continuity of services provided to the funds. Independent Trustees exercise their informed business judgment to appoint an individual of their choosing to serve as Chair, regardless of whether the Trustee happens to be independent or a member of management. The Independent Trustees have determined that they can act independently and effectively without having an Independent Trustee serve as Chair and that a key structural component for assuring that they are in a position to do so is for the Independent Trustees to constitute a substantial majority for the Board. The Independent Trustees also regularly meet in executive session. David M. Thomas serves as Lead Independent Trustee and as such (i) acts as a liaison between the Independent Trustees and management with respect to matters important to the Independent Trustees and (ii) with management prepares agendas for Board meetings.
Fidelity ® funds are overseen by different Boards of Trustees. The funds' Board oversees Fidelity's high income and certain equity funds, and other Boards oversee Fidelity's investment-grade bond, money market, asset allocation, and other equity funds. The asset allocation funds may invest in Fidelity ® funds overseen by the funds' Board. The use of separate Boards, each with its own committee structure, allows the Trustees of each group of Fidelity ® funds to focus on the unique issues of the funds they oversee, including common research, investment, and operational issues. On occasion, the separate Boards establish joint committees to address issues of overlapping consequences for the Fidelity ® funds overseen by each Board.
The Trustees operate using a system of committees to facilitate the timely and efficient consideration of all matters of importance to the Trustees, each fund, and fund shareholders and to facilitate compliance with legal and regulatory requirements and oversight of the funds' activities and associated risks. The Board, acting through its committees, has charged FMR and its affiliates with (i) identifying events or circumstances the occurrence of which could have demonstrably adverse effects on the funds' business and/or reputation; (ii) implementing processes and controls to lessen the possibility that such events or circumstances occur or to mitigate the effects of such events or circumstances if they do occur; and (iii) creating and maintaining a system designed to evaluate continuously business and market conditions in order to facilitate the identification and implementation processes described in (i) and (ii) above. Because the day-to-day operations and activities of the funds are carried out by or through FMR, its affiliates, and other service providers, the funds' exposure to risks is mitigated but not eliminated by the processes overseen by the Trustees. While each of the Board's committees has responsibility for overseeing different aspects of the funds' activities, oversight is exercised primarily through the Operations, Audit, and Compliance Committees. Appropriate personnel, including but not limited to the funds' Chief Compliance Officer (CCO), FMR's internal auditor, the independent accountants, the funds' Treasurer and portfolio management personnel, make periodic reports to the Board's committees, as appropriate, including an annual review of Fidelity's risk management program for the Fidelity ® funds. The responsibilities of each standing committee, including their oversight responsibilities, are described further under "Standing Committees of the Trustees."
Interested Trustees*:
Correspondence intended for a Trustee who is an interested person may be sent to Fidelity Investments, 245 Summer Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02210.
Name, Year of Birth; Principal Occupations and Other Relevant Experience+
Jonathan Chiel (1957)
Year of Election or Appointment: 2016
Trustee
Mr. Chiel also serves as Trustee of other Fidelity ® funds. Mr. Chiel is Executive Vice President and General Counsel for FMR LLC (diversified financial services company, 2012-present). Previously, Mr. Chiel served as general counsel (2004-2012) and senior vice president and deputy general counsel (2000-2004) for John Hancock Financial Services; a partner with Choate, Hall & Stewart (1996-2000) (law firm); and an Assistant United States Attorney for the United States Attorney's Office of the District of Massachusetts (1986-95), including Chief of the Criminal Division (1993-1995). Mr. Chiel is a director on the boards of the Boston Bar Foundation and the Maimonides School.
Bettina Doulton (1964)
Year of Election or Appointment: 2021
Trustee
Ms. Doulton also serves as Trustee of other Fidelity ® funds. Prior to her retirement, Ms. Doulton served in a variety of positions at Fidelity Investments, including as a managing director of research (2006-2007), portfolio manager to certain Fidelity ® funds (1993-2005), equity analyst and portfolio assistant (1990-1993), and research assistant (1987-1990). Ms. Doulton currently owns and operates Phi Builders + Architects and Cellardoor Winery. Previously, Ms. Doulton served as a member of the Board of Brown Capital Management, LLC (2014-2018).
Robert A. Lawrence (1952)
Year of Election or Appointment: 2020
Trustee
Chair of the Board of Trustees
Mr. Lawrence also serves as Trustee of other funds. Previously, Mr. Lawrence served as a Trustee and Member of the Advisory Board of certain funds. Prior to his retirement in 2008, Mr. Lawrence served as Vice President of certain Fidelity ® funds (2006-2008), Senior Vice President, Head of High Income Division of Fidelity Management & Research Company (investment adviser firm, 2006-2008), and President of Fidelity Strategic Investments (investment adviser firm, 2002-2005).
* Determined to be an "Interested Trustee" by virtue of, among other things, his or her affiliation with the trust or various entities under common control with FMR.
+ The information includes the Trustee's principal occupation during the last five years and other information relating to the experience, attributes, and skills relevant to the Trustee's qualifications to serve as a Trustee, which led to the conclusion that the Trustee should serve as a Trustee for each fund.
Independent Trustees:
Correspondence intended for an Independent Trustee may be sent to Fidelity Investments, P.O. Box 55235, Boston, Massachusetts 02205-5235.
Name, Year of Birth; Principal Occupations and Other Relevant Experience+
Thomas P. Bostick (1956)
Year of Election or Appointment: 2021
Trustee
Lieutenant General Bostick also serves as Trustee of other Fidelity ® funds. Prior to his retirement, General Bostick (United States Army, Retired) held a variety of positions within the U.S. Army, including Commanding General and Chief of Engineers, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (2012-2016) and Deputy Chief of Staff and Director of Human Resources, U.S. Army (2009-2012). General Bostick currently serves as a member of the Board and Finance and Governance Committees of CSX Corporation (transportation, 2020-present) and a member of the Board and Corporate Governance and Nominating Committee of Perma-Fix Environmental Services, Inc. (nuclear waste management, 2020-present). General Bostick serves as Chief Executive Officer of Bostick Global Strategies, LLC (consulting, 2016-present) and as a member of the Board of HireVue, Inc. (video interview and assessment, 2020-present). Previously, General Bostick served as a Member of the Advisory Board of certain Fidelity® funds (2021), President, Intrexon Bioengineering (2018-2020) and Chief Operating Officer (2017-2020) and Senior Vice President of the Environment Sector (2016-2017) of Intrexon Corporation (biopharmaceutical company).     
Dennis J. Dirks (1948)
Year of Election or Appointment: 2005
Trustee
Mr. Dirks also serves as Trustee of other Fidelity ® funds. Prior to his retirement in May 2003, Mr. Dirks served as Chief Operating Officer and as a member of the Board of The Depository Trust & Clearing Corporation (financial markets infrastructure), President, Chief Operating Officer and a member of the Board of The Depository Trust Company (DTC), President and a member of the Board of the National Securities Clearing Corporation (NSCC), Chief Executive Officer and a member of the Board of the Government Securities Clearing Corporation and Chief Executive Officer and a member of the Board of the Mortgage-Backed Securities Clearing Corporation. Mr. Dirks currently serves as a member of the Finance Committee (2016-present) and Board (2017-present) and is Treasurer (2018-present) of the Asolo Repertory Theatre.
Donald F. Donahue (1950)
Year of Election or Appointment: 2018
Trustee
Mr. Donahue also serves as Trustee of other Fidelity ® funds. Mr. Donahue serves as President and Chief Executive Officer of Miranda Partners, LLC (risk consulting for the financial services industry, 2012-present). Previously, Mr. Donahue served as Chief Executive Officer (2006-2012), Chief Operating Officer (2003-2006) and Managing Director, Customer Marketing and Development (1999-2003) of The Depository Trust & Clearing Corporation (financial markets infrastructure). Mr. Donahue currently serves as a member (2007-present) and Co-Chairman (2016-present) of the Board of United Way of New York and a member of the Board of The Leadership Academy (previously NYC Leadership Academy) (2012-present). Mr. Donahue previously served as a member of the Advisory Board of certain Fidelity® funds (2015-2018).     
Vicki L. Fuller (1957)
Year of Election or Appointment: 2020
Trustee
Ms. Fuller also serves as Trustee of other Fidelity ® funds. Previously, Ms. Fuller served as a member of the Advisory Board of certain Fidelity ® funds (2018-2020), Chief Investment Officer of the New York State Common Retirement Fund (2012-2018) and held a variety of positions at AllianceBernstein L.P. (global asset management, 1985-2012), including Managing Director (2006-2012) and Senior Vice President and Senior Portfolio Manager (2001-2006). Ms. Fuller currently serves as a member of the Board, Audit Committee and Nominating and Governance Committee of two Blackstone business development companies (2020-present), as a member of the Board of Treliant, LLC (consulting, 2019-present), as a member of the Advisory Board of Ariel Alternatives, LLC (private equity, 2021-present) and as a member of the Board and Chair of the Audit Committee of Gusto, Inc. (software, 2021-present). In addition, Ms. Fuller currently serves as a member of the Board of Roosevelt University (2019-present) and as a member of the Executive Board of New York University's Stern School of Business. Ms. Fuller previously served as a member of the Board, Audit Committee and Nominating and Governance Committee of The Williams Companies, Inc. (natural gas infrastructure, 2018-2021).     
Patricia L. Kampling (1959)
Year of Election or Appointment: 2020
Trustee
Ms. Kampling also serves as Trustee of other Fidelity ® funds. Prior to her retirement, Ms. Kampling served as Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer (2012-2019), President and Chief Operating Officer (2011-2012) and Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer (2010-2011) of Alliant Energy Corporation. Ms. Kampling currently serves as a member of the Board, Finance Committee and Governance, Compensation and Nominating Committee of Xcel Energy Inc. (utilities company, 2020-present) and as a member of the Board, Audit, Finance and Risk Committee and Safety, Environmental, Technology and Operations Committee and Chair of the Executive Development and Compensation Committee of American Water Works Company, Inc. (utilities company, 2019-present). In addition, Ms. Kampling currently serves as a member of the Board of the Nature Conservancy, Wisconsin Chapter (2019-present). Previously, Ms. Kampling served as a Member of the Advisory Board of certain Fidelity® funds (2020), a member of the Board, Compensation Committee and Executive Committee and Chair of the Audit Committee of Briggs & Stratton Corporation (manufacturing, 2011-2021), a member of the Board of Interstate Power and Light Company (2012-2019) and Wisconsin Power and Light Company (2012-2019) (each a subsidiary of Alliant Energy Corporation) and as a member of the Board and Workforce Development Committee of the Business Roundtable (2018-2019).         
Thomas A. Kennedy (1955)
Year of Election or Appointment: 2021
Trustee
Mr. Kennedy also serves as Trustee of other Fidelity ® funds. Previously, Mr. Kennedy served as a Member of the Advisory Board of certain Fidelity ® funds (2020) and held a variety of positions at Raytheon Company (aerospace and defense, 1983-2020), including Chairman and Chief Executive Officer (2014-2020) and Executive Vice President and Chief Operating Officer (2013-2014). Mr. Kennedy currently serves as Executive Chairman of the Board of Directors of Raytheon Technologies Corporation (aerospace and defense, 2020-present). He is also a member of the Rutgers School of Engineering Industry Advisory Board (2011-present) and a member of the UCLA Engineering Dean's Executive Board (2016-present).
Oscar Munoz (1959)
Year of Election or Appointment: 2021
Trustee
Mr. Munoz also serves as Trustee of other Fidelity ® funds. Prior to his retirement, Mr. Munoz served as Executive Chairman (2020-2021), Chief Executive Officer (2015-2020), President (2015-2016) and a member of the Board (2010-2021) of United Airlines Holdings, Inc. Mr. Munoz currently serves as a member of the Board of CBRE Group, Inc. (commercial real estate, 2020-present), a member of the Board of Univision Communications, Inc. (Hispanic media, 2020-present) and a member of the Advisory Board of Salesforce.com, Inc. (cloud-based software, 2020-present). Previously, Mr. Munoz served as a Member of the Advisory Board of certain Fidelity ® funds (2021).
Garnett A. Smith (1947)
Year of Election or Appointment: 2018
Trustee
Mr. Smith also serves as Trustee of other Fidelity ® funds. Prior to his retirement, Mr. Smith served as Chairman and Chief Executive Officer (1990-1997) and President (1986-1990) of Inbrand Corp. (manufacturer of personal absorbent products). Prior to his employment with Inbrand Corp., he was employed by a retail fabric chain and North Carolina National Bank (now Bank of America). Mr. Smith previously served as a member of the Advisory Board of certain Fidelity ® funds (2012-2013).
David M. Thomas (1949)
Year of Election or Appointment: 2008
Trustee
Lead Independent Trustee
Mr. Thomas also serves as Trustee of other Fidelity ® funds. Previously, Mr. Thomas served as Executive Chairman (2005-2006) and Chairman and Chief Executive Officer (2000-2005) of IMS Health, Inc. (pharmaceutical and healthcare information solutions). Mr. Thomas currently serves as a member of the Board of Fortune Brands Home and Security (home and security products, 2004-present) and as Director (2013-present) and Non-Executive Chairman of the Board (2022-present) of Interpublic Group of Companies, Inc. (marketing communication).     
Susan Tomasky (1953)
Year of Election or Appointment: 2020
Trustee
Ms. Tomasky also serves as Trustee of other Fidelity ® funds. Prior to her retirement, Ms. Tomasky served in various executive officer positions at American Electric Power Company, Inc. (1998-2011), including most recently as President of AEP Transmission (2007-2011). Ms. Tomasky currently serves as a member of the Board and Sustainability Committee and as Chair of the Audit Committee of Marathon Petroleum Corporation (2018-present) and as a member of the Board, Executive Committee, Corporate Governance Committee and Organization and Compensation Committee and as Chair of the Audit Committee of Public Service Enterprise Group, Inc. (utilities company, 2012-present) and as a member of the Board of its subsidiary company, Public Service Electric and Gas Co. (2021-present). In addition, Ms. Tomasky currently serves as a member (2009-present) and President (2020-present) of the Board of the Royal Shakespeare Company - America (2009-present), as a member of the Board of the Columbus Association for the Performing Arts (2011-present) and as a member of the Board and Kenyon in the World Committee of Kenyon College (2016-present). Previously, Ms. Tomasky served as a Member of the Advisory Board of certain Fidelity ® funds (2020), as a member of the Board of the Columbus Regional Airport Authority (2007-2020), as a member of the Board (2011-2018) and Lead Independent Director (2015-2018) of Andeavor Corporation (previously Tesoro Corporation) (independent oil refiner and marketer) and as a member of the Board of Summit Midstream Partners LP (energy, 2012-2018).     
Michael E. Wiley (1950)
Year of Election or Appointment: 2020
Trustee
Mr. Wiley also serves as Trustee of other Fidelity ® funds. Previously, Mr. Wiley served as a member of the Advisory Board of certain Fidelity ® funds (2018-2020), Chairman, President and CEO of Baker Hughes, Inc. (oilfield services, 2000-2004). Mr. Wiley also previously served as a member of the Board of Andeavor Corporation (independent oil refiner and marketer, 2005-2018), a member of the Board of Andeavor Logistics LP (natural resources logistics, 2015-2018) and a member of the Board of High Point Resources (exploration and production, 2005-2020).
+ The information includes the Trustee's principal occupation during the last five years and other information relating to the experience, attributes, and skills relevant to the Trustee's qualifications to serve as a Trustee, which led to the conclusion that the Trustee should serve as a Trustee for each fund.
Advisory Board Members and Officers:
Correspondence intended for a Member of the Advisory Board (if any) may be sent to Fidelity Investments, P.O. Box 55235, Boston, Massachusetts 02205-5235. Correspondence intended for an officer or Peter S. Lynch may be sent to Fidelity Investments, 245 Summer Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02210. Officers appear below in alphabetical order.
Name, Year of Birth; Principal Occupation
Peter S. Lynch (1944)
Year of Election or Appointment: 2003
Member of the Advisory Board
Mr. Lynch also serves as a Member of the Advisory Board of other Fidelity ® funds. Mr. Lynch is Vice Chairman and a Director of Fidelity Management & Research Company LLC (investment adviser firm). In addition, Mr. Lynch serves as a Trustee of Boston College and as the Chairman of the Inner-City Scholarship Fund. Previously, Mr. Lynch served as Vice Chairman and a Director of FMR Co., Inc. (investment adviser firm) and on the Special Olympics International Board of Directors (1997-2006).     
Craig S. Brown (1977)
Year of Election or Appointment: 2022
Deputy Treasurer
Mr. Brown also serves as an officer of other funds. Mr. Brown serves as Assistant Treasurer of FIMM, LLC (2021-present) and is an employee of Fidelity Investments (2013-present). Previously, Mr. Brown served as Assistant Treasurer of certain Fidelity ® funds (2019-2022).     
John J. Burke III (1964)
Year of Election or Appointment: 2018
Chief Financial Officer
Mr. Burke also serves as Chief Financial Officer of other funds. Mr. Burke serves as Head of Investment Operations for Fidelity Fund and Investment Operations (2018-present) and is an employee of Fidelity Investments (1998-present). Previously Mr. Burke served as head of Asset Management Investment Operations (2012-2018).     
William C. Coffey (1969)
Year of Election or Appointment: 2019
Assistant Secretary
Mr. Coffey also serves as Assistant Secretary of other funds. He is Senior Vice President and Deputy General Counsel of FMR LLC (diversified financial services company, 2010-present), and is an employee of Fidelity Investments. Previously, Mr. Coffey served as Secretary and CLO of certain funds (2018-2019); CLO, Secretary, and Senior Vice President of Fidelity Management & Research Company and FMR Co., Inc. (investment adviser firms, 2018-2019); Secretary of Fidelity SelectCo, LLC and Fidelity Investments Money Management, Inc. (investment adviser firms, 2018-2019); CLO of Fidelity Management & Research (Hong Kong) Limited, FMR Investment Management (UK) Limited, and Fidelity Management & Research (Japan) Limited (investment adviser firms, 2018-2019); and Assistant Secretary of certain funds (2009-2018).     
Timothy M. Cohen (1969)
Year of Election or Appointment: 2018
Vice President
Mr. Cohen also serves as Vice President of other funds. Mr. Cohen serves as Co-Head of Equity (2018-present), a Director of Fidelity Management & Research (Japan) Limited (investment adviser firm, 2016-present), and is an employee of Fidelity Investments. Previously, Mr. Cohen served as Executive Vice President of Fidelity SelectCo, LLC (2019), Head of Global Equity Research (2016-2018), Chief Investment Officer - Equity and a Director of Fidelity Management & Research (U.K.) Inc. (investment adviser firm, 2013-2015) and as a Director of Fidelity Management & Research (Hong Kong) Limited (investment adviser firm, 2017).     
Jonathan Davis (1968)
Year of Election or Appointment: 2010
Assistant Treasurer
Mr. Davis also serves as an officer of other funds. Mr. Davis serves as Assistant Treasurer of FIMM, LLC (2021-present), FMR Capital, Inc. (2017-present), FD Funds GP LLC (2021-present), FD Funds Holding LLC (2021-present), and FD Funds Management LLC (2021-present); and is an employee of Fidelity Investments. Previously, Mr. Davis served as Vice President and Associate General Counsel of FMR LLC (diversified financial services company, 2003-2010).     
Laura M. Del Prato (1964)
Year of Election or Appointment: 2018
Assistant Treasurer
Ms. Del Prato also serves as an officer of other funds. Ms. Del Prato serves as Assistant Treasurer of FIMM, LLC (2021-present) and is an employee of Fidelity Investments (2017-present). Previously, Ms. Del Prato served as President and Treasurer of The North Carolina Capital Management Trust: Cash Portfolio and Term Portfolio (2018-2020). Prior to joining Fidelity Investments, Ms. Del Prato served as a Managing Director and Treasurer of the JPMorgan Mutual Funds (2014-2017). Prior to JPMorgan, Ms. Del Prato served as a partner at Cohen Fund Audit Services (accounting firm, 2012-2013) and KPMG LLP (accounting firm, 2004-2012).     
Colm A. Hogan (1973)
Year of Election or Appointment: 2020
Assistant Treasurer
Mr. Hogan also serves as an officer of other funds. Mr. Hogan serves as Assistant Treasurer of FIMM, LLC (2021-present) and FMR Capital, Inc. (2017-present) and is an employee of Fidelity Investments (2005-present). Previously, Mr. Hogan served as Deputy Treasurer of certain Fidelity ® funds (2016-2020) and Assistant Treasurer of certain Fidelity ® funds (2016-2018).     
Pamela R. Holding (1964)
Year of Election or Appointment: 2018
Vice President
Ms. Holding also serves as Vice President of other funds. Ms. Holding serves as Co-Head of Equity (2018-present) and is an employee of Fidelity Investments (2013-present). Previously, Ms. Holding served as Executive Vice President of Fidelity SelectCo, LLC (2019) and as Chief Investment Officer of Fidelity Institutional Asset Management (2013-2018).     
Cynthia Lo Bessette (1969)
Year of Election or Appointment: 2019
Secretary and Chief Legal Officer (CLO)
Ms. Lo Bessette also serves as an officer of other funds. Ms. Lo Bessette serves as CLO, Secretary, and Senior Vice President of Fidelity Management & Research Company LLC (investment adviser firm, 2019-present); CLO of Fidelity Management & Research (Hong Kong) Limited, FMR Investment Management (UK) Limited, and Fidelity Management & Research (Japan) Limited (investment adviser firms, 2019-present); Secretary of FD Funds GP LLC (2021-present), FD Funds Holding LLC (2021-present), FD Funds Management LLC (2021-present), and Fidelity Diversifying Solutions LLC (investment adviser firm, 2022-present); and Assistant Secretary of FIMM, LLC (2019-present). She is a Senior Vice President and Deputy General Counsel of FMR LLC (diversified financial services company, 2019-present), and is an employee of Fidelity Investments. Previously, Ms. Lo Bessette served as CLO, Secretary, and Senior Vice President of FMR Co., Inc. (investment adviser firm, 2019); Secretary of Fidelity SelectCo, LLC and Fidelity Investments Money Management, Inc. (investment adviser firms, 2019). Prior to joining Fidelity Investments, Ms. Lo Bessette was Executive Vice President, General Counsel (2016-2019) and Senior Vice President, Deputy General Counsel (2015-2016) of OppenheimerFunds (investment management company) and Deputy Chief Legal Officer (2013-2015) of Jennison Associates LLC (investment adviser firm).     
Chris Maher (1972)
Year of Election or Appointment: 2020
Deputy Treasurer
Mr. Maher also serves as an officer of other funds. Mr. Maher serves as Assistant Treasurer of FIMM, LLC (2021-present) and FMR Capital, Inc. (2017-present), and is an employee of Fidelity Investments (2008-present). Previously, Mr. Maher served as Assistant Treasurer of certain funds (2013-2020); Vice President of Asset Management Compliance (2013), Vice President of the Program Management Group of FMR (investment adviser firm, 2010-2013), and Vice President of Valuation Oversight (2008-2010).     
Jason P. Pogorelec (1975)
Year of Election or Appointment: 2020
Chief Compliance Officer
Mr. Pogorelec also serves as Chief Compliance Officer of other funds. Mr. Pogorelec is a senior Vice President of Asset Management Compliance for Fidelity Investments and is an employee of Fidelity Investments (2006-present). Previously, Mr. Pogorelec served as Vice President, Associate General Counsel for Fidelity Investments (2010-2020) and Assistant Secretary of certain Fidelity funds (2015-2020).     
Brett Segaloff (1972)
Year of Election or Appointment: 2021
Anti-Money Laundering (AML) Officer
Mr. Segaloff also serves as an AML Officer of other funds and other related entities. He is Director, Anti-Money Laundering (2007-present) of FMR LLC (diversified financial services company) and is an employee of Fidelity Investments (1996-present).     
Stacie M. Smith (1974)
Year of Election or Appointment: 2016
President and Treasurer
Ms. Smith also serves as an officer of other funds. Ms. Smith serves as Assistant Treasurer of FIMM, LLC (2021-present) and FMR Capital, Inc. (2017-present), is an employee of Fidelity Investments (2009-present), and has served in other fund officer roles. Prior to joining Fidelity Investments, Ms. Smith served as Senior Audit Manager of Ernst & Young LLP (accounting firm, 1996-2009). Previously, Ms. Smith served as Assistant Treasurer (2013-2019) and Deputy Treasurer (2013-2016) of certain Fidelity ® funds.     
Jim Wegmann (1979)
Year of Election or Appointment: 2019
Assistant Treasurer
Mr. Wegmann also serves as an officer of other funds. Mr. Wegmann serves as Assistant Treasurer of FIMM, LLC (2021-present) and is an employee of Fidelity Investments (2011-present). Previously, Mr. Wegmann served as Assistant Treasurer of certain Fidelity ® funds (2019-2021).     
Standing Committees of the Trustees. The Board of Trustees has established various committees to support the Independent Trustees in acting independently in pursuing the best interests of the funds and their shareholders. Currently, the Board of Trustees has 9 standing committees. The members of each committee are Independent Trustees. Advisory Board members may be invited to attend meetings of the committees.
The Operations Committee is composed of all of the Independent Trustees, with Mr. Thomas currently serving as Chair and Mr. Wiley serving as Vice Chair. The committee serves as a forum for consideration of issues of importance to, or calling for particular determinations by, the Independent Trustees. The committee also considers matters involving potential conflicts of interest between the funds and FMR and its affiliates and reviews proposed contracts and the proposed continuation of contracts between the funds and FMR and its affiliates, and reviews and makes recommendations regarding contracts with third parties unaffiliated with FMR, including insurance coverage and custody agreements. The committee also monitors additional issues including the nature, levels and quality of services provided to shareholders and significant litigation. The committee also has oversight of compliance issues not specifically within the scope of any other committee. The committee is also responsible for definitive action on all compliance matters involving the potential for significant reimbursement by FMR.
The Fair Value Oversight Committee is composed of Mses. Fuller (Chair) and Tomasky, and Messrs. Donahue and Wiley. The Fair Value Oversight Committee oversees the valuation of fund investments by the valuation designee, receives and reviews related reports and information, and monitors matters of disclosure to the extent required to fulfill its statutory responsibilities.
The Board of Trustees has established two Fund Oversight Committees: the Equity I Committee (composed of Ms. Tomasky (Chair) and Messrs. Smith, Bostick, Donahue, and Thomas) and the Equity II Committee (composed of Messrs. Kennedy (Chair), Dirks, Munoz, and Wiley, and Mses. Fuller and Kampling). Each committee develops an understanding of and reviews the investment objectives, policies, and practices of each fund under its oversight. Each committee also monitors investment performance, compliance by each relevant fund with its investment policies and restrictions and reviews appropriate benchmarks, competitive universes, unusual or exceptional investment matters, the personnel and other resources devoted to the management of each fund and all other matters bearing on each fund's investment results. Each committee will review and recommend any required action to the Board in respect of specific funds, including new funds, changes in fundamental and non-fundamental investment policies and restrictions, partial or full closing to new investors, fund mergers, fund name changes, and liquidations of funds. The members of each committee may organize working groups to make recommendations concerning issues related to funds that are within the scope of the committee's review. These working groups report to the committee or to the Independent Trustees, or both, as appropriate. Each working group may request from FMR such information from FMR as may be appropriate to the working group's deliberations.
The Shareholder, Distribution, Brokerage and Proxy Voting Committee is composed of Mses. Kampling (Chair) and Fuller and Messrs. Dirks, Smith, and Thomas. Regarding shareholder services, the committee considers the structure and amount of the funds' transfer agency fees and fees, including direct fees to investors (other than sales loads), such as bookkeeping and custodial fees, and the nature and quality of services rendered by FMR and its affiliates or third parties (such as custodians) in consideration of these fees. The committee also considers other non-investment management services rendered to the funds by FMR and its affiliates, including pricing and bookkeeping services. The committee monitors and recommends policies concerning the securities transactions of the funds, including brokerage. The committee periodically reviews the policies and practices with respect to efforts to achieve best execution, commissions paid to firms supplying research and brokerage services or paying fund expenses, and policies and procedures designed to assure that any allocation of portfolio transactions is not influenced by the sale of fund shares. The committee also monitors brokerage and other similar relationships between the funds and firms affiliated with FMR that participate in the execution of securities transactions. Regarding the distribution of fund shares, the committee considers issues bearing on the various distribution channels employed by the funds, including issues regarding Rule 18f-3 plans and related consideration of classes of shares, sales load structures (including breakpoints), load waivers, selling concessions and service charges paid to intermediaries, Rule 12b-1 plans, contingent deferred sales charges, and finder's fees, and other means by which intermediaries are compensated for selling fund shares or providing shareholder servicing, including revenue sharing. The committee also considers issues bearing on the preparation and use of advertisements and sales literature for the funds, policies and procedures regarding frequent purchase of fund shares, and selective disclosure of portfolio holdings. Regarding proxy voting, the committee reviews the fund's proxy voting policies, considers changes to the policies, and reviews the manner in which the policies have been applied. The committee will receive reports on the manner in which proxy votes have been cast under the proxy voting policies and reports on consultations between the fund's investment advisers and portfolio companies concerning matters presented to shareholders for approval. The committee will address issues relating to the fund's annual voting report filed with the SEC. The committee will receive reports concerning the implementation of procedures and controls designed to ensure that the proxy voting policies are implemented in accordance with their terms. The committee will consider FMR's recommendations concerning certain non-routine proposals not covered by the proxy voting policies. The committee will receive reports with respect to steps taken by FMR to assure that proxy voting has been done without regard to any other FMR relationships, business or otherwise, with that portfolio company. The committee will make recommendations to the Board concerning the casting of proxy votes in circumstances where FMR has determined that, because of a conflict of interest, the proposal to be voted on should be reviewed by the Board.
The Audit Committee is composed of Messrs. Donahue (Chair), Bostick, Kennedy, and Smith, and Ms. Tomasky. All committee members must be able to read and understand fundamental financial statements, including a company's balance sheet, income statement, and cash flow statement. At least one committee member will be an "audit committee financial expert" as defined by the SEC. The committee meets separately at least annually with the funds' Treasurer, with the funds' Chief Financial Officer, with personnel responsible for the internal audit function of FMR LLC, with the funds' independent auditors, and with the funds' CCO. The committee has direct responsibility for the appointment, compensation, and oversight of the work of the independent auditors employed by the funds. The committee assists the Trustees in fulfilling their responsibility to oversee: (i) the systems relating to internal control over financial reporting of the funds and the funds' service providers; (ii) the funds' auditors and the annual audits of the funds' financial statements; (iii) the financial reporting processes of the funds; (iv) the handling of whistleblower reports relating to internal accounting and/or financial control matters; (v) the accounting policies and disclosures of the funds; and (vi) studies of fund profitability and other comparative analyses relevant to the board's consideration of the investment management contracts for the funds. The committee considers and acts upon (i) the provision by any independent auditor of any non-audit services for any fund, and (ii) the provision by any independent auditor of certain non-audit services to fund service providers and their affiliates to the extent that such approval (in the case of this clause (ii)) is required under applicable regulations of the SEC. In furtherance of the foregoing, the committee has adopted (and may from time to time amend or supplement) and provides oversight of policies and procedures for non-audit engagements by independent auditors of the funds. The committee is responsible for approving all audit engagement fees and terms for the funds and for resolving disagreements between a fund and any independent auditor regarding any fund's financial reporting. Auditors of the funds report directly to the committee. The committee will obtain assurance of independence and objectivity from the independent auditors, including a formal written statement delineating all relationships between the auditor and the funds and any service providers consistent with the rules of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board. It will discuss regularly and oversee the review of internal controls of and the management of risks by the funds and their service providers with respect to accounting and financial matters (including financial reporting relating to the funds), including a review of: (i) any significant deficiencies or material weaknesses in the design or operation of internal control over financial reporting that are reasonably likely to adversely affect the funds' ability to record, process, summarize, and report financial data; (ii) any change in the fund's internal control over financial reporting that has materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, the fund's internal control over financial reporting; and (iii) any fraud, whether material or not, that involves management or other employees who have a significant role in the funds' or service providers' internal control over financial reporting. The committee will also review periodically the funds' major exposures relating to internal control over financial reporting and the steps that have been taken to monitor and control such exposures. In connection to such reviews the committee will receive periodic reports on the funds' service providers' internal control over financial reporting. It will also review any correspondence with regulators or governmental agencies or published reports that raise material issues regarding the funds' financial statements or accounting policies. These matters may also be reviewed by the Compliance Committee or the Operations Committee. The Chair of the Audit Committee will coordinate with the Chairs of other committees, as appropriate. The committee reviews at least annually a report from each independent auditor describing any material issues raised by the most recent internal quality control, peer review, or Public Company Accounting Oversight Board examination of the auditing firm and any material issues raised by any inquiry or investigation by governmental or professional authorities of the auditing firm and in each case any steps taken to deal with such issues. The committee will oversee and receive reports on the funds' financial reporting process, will discuss with FMR, the funds' Treasurer, independent auditors and, if appropriate, internal audit personnel of FMR LLC, their qualitative judgments about the appropriateness and acceptability of accounting principles and financial disclosure practices used or proposed for adoption by the funds. The committee will review with FMR, the funds' Treasurer, independent auditor, and internal audit personnel of FMR LLC and, as appropriate, legal counsel the results of audits of the funds' financial statements.
The Governance and Nominating Committee is composed of Messrs. Thomas (Chair), Dirks, and Wiley. With respect to fund governance and board administration matters, the committee periodically reviews procedures of the Board of Trustees and its committees (including committee charters) and periodically reviews compensation of Independent Trustees. The committee monitors corporate governance matters and makes recommendations to the Board of Trustees on the frequency and structure of the Board of Trustee meetings and on any other aspect of Board procedures. It acts as the administrative committee under the retirement plan for Independent Trustees who retired prior to December 30, 1996 and under the fee deferral plan for Independent Trustees. It reviews the performance of legal counsel employed by the funds and the Independent Trustees. On behalf of the Independent Trustees, the committee will make such findings and determinations as to the independence of counsel for the Independent Trustees as may be necessary or appropriate under applicable regulations or otherwise. The committee is also responsible for Board administrative matters applicable to Independent Trustees, such as expense reimbursement policies and compensation for attendance at meetings, conferences and other events. The committee monitors compliance with, acts as the administrator of, and makes determinations in respect of, the provisions of the code of ethics and any supplemental policies regarding personal securities transactions applicable to the Independent Trustees. The committee monitors the functioning of each Board committee and makes recommendations for any changes, including the creation or elimination of standing or ad hoc Board committees. The committee monitors regulatory and other developments to determine whether to recommend modifications to the committee's responsibilities or other Trustee policies and procedures in light of rule changes, reports concerning "best practices" in corporate governance, and other developments in mutual fund governance. The committee reports regularly to the Independent Trustees with respect to these activities. The committee recommends that the Board establish such special or ad hoc Board committees as may be desirable or necessary from time to time in order to address ethical, legal, or other matters that may arise. The committee also oversees the annual self-evaluation of the Board of Trustees and of each committee and establishes procedures to allow it to exercise this oversight function. In conducting this oversight, the committee shall address all matters that it considers relevant to the performance of the Board of Trustees and shall report the results of its evaluation to the Board of Trustees, including any recommended amendments to the principles of governance, and any recommended changes to the funds' or the Board of Trustees' policies, procedures, and structures. The committee reviews periodically the size and composition of the Board of Trustees as a whole and recommends, if necessary, measures to be taken so that the Board of Trustees reflects the appropriate balance of knowledge, experience, skills, expertise, and diversity required for the Board as a whole and contains at least the minimum number of Independent Trustees required by law. The committee makes nominations for the election or appointment of Independent Trustees and non-management Members of any Advisory Board, and for membership on committees. The committee shall have authority to retain and terminate any third-party advisers, including authority to approve fees and other retention terms. Such advisers may include search firms to identify Independent Trustee candidates and board compensation consultants. The committee may conduct or authorize investigations into or studies of matters within the committee's scope of responsibilities, and may retain, at the funds' expense, such independent counsel or other advisers as it deems necessary. The committee will consider Independent Trustee candidates to the Board of Trustees recommended by shareholders based upon the criteria applied to candidates presented to the committee by a search firm or other source. Recommendations, along with appropriate background material concerning the candidate that demonstrates his or her ability to serve as an Independent Trustee of the funds, should be submitted to the Chair of the committee at the address maintained for communications with Independent Trustees. If the committee retains a search firm, the Chair will generally forward all such submissions to the search firm for evaluation. With respect to the criteria for selecting Independent Trustees, it is expected that all candidates will possess the following minimum qualifications: (i) unquestioned personal integrity; (ii) not an interested person of the funds within the meaning of the 1940 Act; (iii) does not have a material relationship (e.g., commercial, banking, consulting, legal, or accounting) with the adviser, any sub-adviser, or their affiliates that could create an appearance of lack of independence in respect of the funds; (iv) has the disposition to act independently in respect of FMR and its affiliates and others in order to protect the interests of the funds and all shareholders; (v) ability to attend regularly scheduled meetings during the year; (vi) demonstrates sound business judgment gained through broad experience in significant positions where the candidate has dealt with management, technical, financial, or regulatory issues; (vii) sufficient financial or accounting knowledge to add value in the complex financial environment of the funds; (viii) experience on corporate or other institutional oversight bodies having similar responsibilities, but which board memberships or other relationships could not result in business or regulatory conflicts with the funds; and (ix) capacity for the hard work and attention to detail that is required to be an effective Independent Trustee in light of the funds' complex regulatory, operational, and marketing setting. The Governance and Nominating Committee may determine that a candidate who does not have the type of previous experience or knowledge referred to above should nevertheless be considered as a nominee if the Governance and Nominating Committee finds that the candidate has additional qualifications such that his or her qualifications, taken as a whole, demonstrate the same level of fitness to serve as an Independent Trustee.
The Compliance Committee is composed of Messrs. Wiley (Chair) and Munoz, and Mses. Fuller and Kampling. The committee oversees the administration and operation of the compliance policies and procedures of the funds and their service providers as required by Rule 38a-1 of the 1940 Act. The committee is responsible for the review and approval of policies and procedures relating to (i) provisions of the Code of Ethics, (ii) anti-money laundering requirements, (iii) compliance with investment restrictions and limitations, (iv) privacy, (v) recordkeeping, and (vi) other compliance policies and procedures which are not otherwise delegated to another committee. The committee has responsibility for recommending to the Board the designation of a CCO of the funds. The committee serves as the primary point of contact between the CCO and the Board, oversees the annual performance review and compensation of the CCO, and makes recommendations to the Board with respect to the removal of the appointed CCO, as appropriate. The committee receives reports of significant correspondence with regulators or governmental agencies, employee complaints or published reports which raise concerns regarding compliance matters, and copies of significant non-routine correspondence with the SEC. The committee receives reports from the CCO including the annual report concerning the funds' compliance policies as required by Rule 38a-1, quarterly reports in respect of any breaches of fiduciary duty or violations of federal securities laws, and reports on any other compliance or related matters that would otherwise be subject to periodic reporting or that may have a significant impact on the funds. The committee will recommend to the Board, what actions, if any, should be taken with respect to such reports.
The Research Committee is composed of all of the Independent Trustees, with Mr. Bostick currently serving as Chair. The Committee's purpose is to assess the quality of the investment research available to FMR's investment professionals. As such, the Committee reviews information pertaining to the sources of such research, the categories of research, the manner in which the funds bear the cost of research, and FMR's internal research capabilities, including performance metrics, interactions between FMR portfolio managers and research analysts, and the professional quality of analysts in research careers. Where necessary, the Committee recommends actions with respect to various reports providing information on FMR's research function.
During the fiscal year ended October 31, 2022, each committee held the number of meetings shown in the table below:
COMMITTEE
NUMBER OF MEETINGS HELD
Operations Committee
10
Fair Value Oversight Committee
4
Equity I Committee
8
Equity II Committee
8
Shareholder, Distribution, Brokerage, and Proxy Voting Committee
8
Audit Committee
4
Governance and Nominating Committee
6
Compliance Committee
6
Research Committee
8
The following table sets forth information describing the dollar range of equity securities beneficially owned by each Trustee in each fund and in all funds in the aggregate within the same fund family overseen by the Trustee for the calendar year ended December 31, 2021.
Interested Trustees
DOLLAR RANGE OF
FUND SHARES
Jonathan Chiel
Bettina Doulton
Robert Lawrence
 
Fidelity® Series Emerging Markets Fund
none
none
none
 
Fidelity® Series Emerging Markets Opportunities Fund
none
none
none
 
Fidelity® Series International Growth Fund
none
none
none
 
Fidelity® Series International Small Cap Fund
none
none
none
 
Fidelity® Series International Value Fund
none
none
none
 
 
AGGREGATE DOLLAR RANGE OF
FUND SHARES IN ALL FUNDS
OVERSEEN WITHIN FUND FAMILY
over $100,000
over $100,000
over $100,000
 
Independent Trustees
DOLLAR RANGE OF
FUND SHARES
Thomas Bostick
Dennis Dirks
Donald Donahue
Vicki Fuller
Fidelity® Series Emerging Markets Fund
none
none
none
none
Fidelity® Series Emerging Markets Opportunities Fund
none
none
none
none
Fidelity® Series International Growth Fund
none
none
none
none
Fidelity® Series International Small Cap Fund
none
none
none
none
Fidelity® Series International Value Fund
none
none
none
none
 
AGGREGATE DOLLAR RANGE OF
FUND SHARES IN ALL FUNDS
OVERSEEN WITHIN FUND FAMILY
none
over $100,000
over $100,000
over $100,000
DOLLAR RANGE OF
FUND SHARES
Patricia Kampling
Thomas Kennedy
Oscar Munoz
Garnett Smith
Fidelity® Series Emerging Markets Fund
none
none
none
none
Fidelity® Series Emerging Markets Opportunities Fund
none
none
none
none
Fidelity® Series International Growth Fund
none
none
none
none
Fidelity® Series International Small Cap Fund
none
none
none
none
Fidelity® Series International Value Fund
none
none
none
none
 
AGGREGATE DOLLAR RANGE OF
FUND SHARES IN ALL FUNDS
OVERSEEN WITHIN FUND FAMILY
over $100,000
over $100,000
none
over $100,000
DOLLAR RANGE OF
FUND SHARES
David Thomas
Susan Tomasky
Michael Wiley
 
Fidelity® Series Emerging Markets Fund
none
none
none
 
Fidelity® Series Emerging Markets Opportunities Fund
none
none
none
 
Fidelity® Series International Growth Fund
none
none
none
 
Fidelity® Series International Small Cap Fund
none
none
none
 
Fidelity® Series International Value Fund
none
none
none
 
 
AGGREGATE DOLLAR RANGE OF
FUND SHARES IN ALL FUNDS
OVERSEEN WITHIN FUND FAMILY
over $100,000
over $100,000
over $100,000
 
The following table sets forth information describing the compensation of each Trustee and Member of the Advisory Board (if any) for his or her services for the fiscal year ended October 31, 2022, or calendar year ended December 31, 2021, as applicable.
Compensation Table (A)
AGGREGATE
COMPENSATION
FROM A FUND
 
Thomas Bostick (B)
 
 
Dennis Dirks
 
 
Donald Donahue
 
 
Vicki Fuller
 
Fidelity® Series Emerging Markets Fund
$
769
 
$
810
 
$
818
 
$
769
 
Fidelity® Series Emerging Markets Opportunities Fund
$
7,000
 
$
7,372
 
$
7,447
 
$
7,000
 
Fidelity® Series International Growth Fund
$
3,717
 
$
3,915
 
$
3,955
 
$
3,717
 
Fidelity® Series International Small Cap Fund
$
1,051
 
$
1,107
 
$
1,118
 
$
1,051
 
Fidelity® Series International Value Fund
$
3,736
 
$
3,935
 
$
3,975
 
$
3,736
 
TOTAL COMPENSATION
FROM THE FUND COMPLEX (C)
$
313,333
$
495,000
$
536,000
$
470,000
AGGREGATE
COMPENSATION
FROM A FUND
 
Patricia Kampling
 
 
Thomas Kennedy
 
 
Oscar Munoz (D)
 
 
Garnett Smith
 
Fidelity® Series Emerging Markets Fund
$
769
 
$
769
 
$
769
 
$
769
 
Fidelity® Series Emerging Markets Opportunities Fund
$
7,000
 
$
7,000
 
$
7,000
 
$
7,000
 
Fidelity® Series International Growth Fund
$
3,717
 
$
3,717
 
$
3,717
 
$
3,717
 
Fidelity® Series International Small Cap Fund
$
1,051
 
$
1,051
 
$
1,051
 
$
1,051
 
Fidelity® Series International Value Fund
$
3,736
 
$
3,736
 
$
3,736
 
$
3,736
 
TOTAL COMPENSATION
FROM THE FUND COMPLEX (C)
$
506,000
$
470,000
$
313,333
$
470,000
AGGREGATE
COMPENSATION
FROM A FUND
 
David Thomas
 
 
Susan Tomasky
 
 
Michael Wiley
 
 
 
Fidelity® Series Emerging Markets Fund
$
933
 
$
769
 
$
810
 
 
Fidelity® Series Emerging Markets Opportunities Fund
$
8,489
 
$
7,000
 
$
7,372
 
 
Fidelity® Series International Growth Fund
$
4,508
 
$
3,717
 
$
3,915
 
 
Fidelity® Series International Small Cap Fund
$
1,274
 
$
1,051
 
$
1,107
 
 
Fidelity® Series International Value Fund
$
4,531
 
$
3,736
 
$
3,935
 
 
TOTAL COMPENSATION
FROM THE FUND COMPLEX (C)
$
570,000
$
528,917
$
495,000
 
(A) Jonathan Chiel, Bettina Doulton, Robert A. Lawrence, and Peter S. Lynch are interested persons and are compensated by Fidelity.
 
 
(B) Mr. Bostick served as a Member of the Advisory Board of Fidelity Investment Trust from May 1, 2021 through May 31, 2021. Mr. Bostick serves as a Trustee of Fidelity Investment Trust effective June 1, 2021.
 
 
(C) Reflects compensation received for the calendar year ended December 31, 2021 for 314 funds of 30 trusts (including Fidelity Central Investment Portfolios LLC). Compensation figures include cash and may include amounts elected to be deferred. Certain individuals elected voluntarily to defer a portion of their compensation as follows: Donald F. Donahue, $291,125; Vicki L. Fuller, $99,996; Patricia L. Kampling, $240,000; Thomas A. Kennedy, $136,770; Garnett A. Smith, $273,540; and Susan Tomasky, $180,000.
 
 
(D) Mr. Munoz served as a Member of the Advisory Board of Fidelity Investment Trust from May 1, 2021 through May 31, 2021. Mr. Munoz serves as a Trustee of Fidelity Investment Trust effective June 1, 2021.
 
 
As of October 31, 2022, 100% of each fund's total outstanding shares was held by Fidelity ® funds, Fidelity managed 529 plans, and Fidelity managed collective investment trusts, as applicable. As of October 31, 2022, the Trustees, Members of the Advisory Board (if any), and officers of each fund owned, in the aggregate, less than 1% of each class's total outstanding shares, with respect to each fund.
CONTROL OF INVESTMENT ADVISERS
FMR LLC, as successor by merger to FMR Corp., is the ultimate parent company of FMR, FMR Investment Management (UK) Limited, Fidelity Management & Research (Hong Kong) Limited, and Fidelity Management & Research (Japan) Limited. The voting common shares of FMR LLC are divided into two series. Series B is held predominantly by members of the Johnson family, including Abigail P. Johnson, directly or through trusts, and is entitled to 49% of the vote on any matter acted upon by the voting common shares. Series A is held predominantly by non-Johnson family member employees of FMR LLC and its affiliates and is entitled to 51% of the vote on any such matter. The Johnson family group and all other Series B shareholders have entered into a shareholders' voting agreement under which all Series B shares will be voted in accordance with the majority vote of Series B shares. Under the 1940 Act, control of a company is presumed where one individual or group of individuals owns more than 25% of the voting securities of that company. Therefore, through their ownership of voting common shares and the execution of the shareholders' voting agreement, members of the Johnson family may be deemed, under the 1940 Act, to form a controlling group with respect to FMR LLC.
At present, the primary business activities of FMR LLC and its subsidiaries are: (i) the provision of investment advisory, management, shareholder, investment information and assistance and certain fiduciary services for individual and institutional investors; (ii) the provision of securities brokerage services; (iii) the management and development of real estate; and (iv) the investment in and operation of a number of emerging businesses.
FMR, FMR Investment Management (UK) Limited, Fidelity Management & Research (Hong Kong) Limited, Fidelity Management & Research (Japan) Limited, Fidelity Distributors Company LLC (FDC), and the funds have adopted a code of ethics under Rule 17j-1 of the 1940 Act that sets forth employees' fiduciary responsibilities regarding the funds, establishes procedures for personal investing, and restricts certain transactions. Employees subject to the code of ethics, including Fidelity investment personnel, may invest in securities for their own investment accounts, including securities that may be purchased or held by the funds.
MANAGEMENT CONTRACTS
Each fund has entered into a management contract with FMR, pursuant to which FMR furnishes investment advisory and other services.
Management Services. Under the terms of its management contract with each fund, FMR acts as investment adviser and, subject to the supervision of the Board of Trustees, has overall responsibility for directing the investments of the fund in accordance with its investment objective, policies and limitations. FMR also provides each fund with all necessary office facilities and personnel for servicing the fund's investments, compensates all officers of each fund and all Trustees who are interested persons of the trust or of FMR, and compensates all personnel of each fund or FMR performing services relating to research, statistical and investment activities.
In addition, FMR or its affiliates, subject to the supervision of the Board of Trustees, provide the management and administrative services necessary for the operation of each fund. These services include providing facilities for maintaining each fund's organization; supervising relations with custodians, transfer and pricing agents, accountants, underwriters and other persons dealing with each fund; preparing all general shareholder communications and conducting shareholder relations; maintaining each fund's records and the registration of each fund's shares under federal securities laws and making necessary filings under state securities laws; developing management and shareholder services for each fund; and furnishing reports, evaluations and analyses on a variety of subjects to the Trustees.
Management-Related Expenses. Under the terms of a fund's management contract, FMR or an affiliate is responsible for payment of all expenses involved in the operation of the fund, including all expenses allocable at the fund level, except the following: (i) transfer agent fees, Rule 12b-1 fees and other expenses allocable at the class level; (ii) interest and taxes; (iii) fees and expenses of the trust's Trustees other than those who are "interested persons" of the trust or of FMR; (iv) custodian fees and expenses; (v) expenses of printing and mailing proxy materials to shareholders of the fund; (vi) all other expenses incidental to holding meetings of the fund's shareholders, including proxy solicitations therefor; and (vii) such non-recurring and/or extraordinary expenses as may arise, including those relating to actions, suits or proceedings to which the fund is a party and the legal obligation which the fund may have to indemnify the trust's Trustees and officers with respect thereto. The fund shall pay its non-operating expenses, including brokerage commissions and fees and expenses associated with the fund's securities lending program, if applicable.
Management Fees.
Each fund does not pay a management fee to FMR for the services rendered.
FMR may, from time to time, voluntarily reimburse all or a portion of a fund's or, in the case of a multiple class fund, a class's operating expenses. FMR retains the ability to be repaid for these expense reimbursements in the amount that expenses fall below the limit prior to the end of the fiscal year.
Expense reimbursements will increase returns, and repayment of the reimbursement will decrease returns.
Sub-Advisers - FMR Investment Management (UK) Limited, Fidelity Management & Research (Hong Kong) Limited, and Fidelity Management & Research (Japan) Limited. 
On behalf of each fund, FMR has entered into sub-advisory agreements with Fidelity Management & Research (Hong Kong) Limited (FMR H.K.) and Fidelity Management & Research (Japan) Limited (FMR Japan).
On behalf of each fund, FMR has entered into a sub-advisory agreement with FMR UK.
Pursuant to the sub-advisory agreements, FMR may receive from the sub-advisers investment research and advice on issuers outside the United States (non-discretionary services) and FMR may grant the sub-advisers investment management authority and the authority to buy and sell securities if FMR believes it would be beneficial to the fund (discretionary services). 
FMR or an affiliate, and not the fund, pays the sub-advisers. 
Currently, FMR UK has day-to-day responsibility for choosing certain types of investments for Fidelity ®  Series Emerging Markets Opportunities Fund and Fidelity ®  Series International Small Cap Fund.
Currently, FMR H.K. has day-to-day responsibility for choosing certain types of investments for Fidelity® Series Emerging Markets Opportunities Fund.
Currently, FMR Japan has day-to-day responsibility for choosing certain types of investments for Fidelity® Series Emerging Markets Opportunities Fund.
John Chow is the Portfolio Manager of Fidelity® Series Emerging Markets Fund and receives compensation for those services. As of October 31, 2022, portfolio manager compensation generally consists of a fixed base salary determined periodically (typically annually), a bonus, and in certain cases, participation in several types of equity-based compensation plans. A portion of the portfolio manager's compensation may be deferred based on criteria established by FMR or an affiliate or at the election of the portfolio manager.  
The portfolio manager's base salary is determined by level of responsibility and tenure at FMR or its affiliates. The primary components of the portfolio manager's bonus are based on (i) the pre-tax investment performance of the portfolio manager's fund(s), account(s) measured against a benchmark index and within a defined peer group, if applicable, assigned to each fund or account and (ii) the investment performance of other funds and accounts managed by the portfolio manager. The pre-tax investment performance of the portfolio manager's fund(s) and account(s) is weighted according to the portfolio manager's tenure on those fund(s) and account(s) and the average asset size of those fund(s) and accounts over the portfolio manager's tenure. Each component is calculated separately over the portfolio manager's tenure on those fund(s) and account(s) over a measurement period that initially is contemporaneous with the portfolio manager's tenure, but that eventually encompasses rolling periods of up to five years for the comparison to a benchmark index and peer group, if applicable. A smaller, subjective component of the portfolio manager's bonus is based on the portfolio manager's overall contribution to management. The portion of the portfolio manager's bonus that is linked to the investment performance of Fidelity® Series Emerging Markets Fund is based on the fund's pre-tax investment performance measured against the MSCI Emerging Markets Index (net MA tax), and the fund's pre-tax investment performance within the Morningstar® Diversified Emerging Markets Category. The portfolio manager also is compensated under equity-based compensation plans linked to increases or decreases in the net asset value of the stock of FMR LLC, FMR's parent company. FMR LLC is a diverse financial services company engaged in various activities that include fund management, brokerage, retirement, and employer administrative services.
Alex Zavratsky is the Portfolio Manager of Fidelity® Series International Value Fund and receives compensation for those services. As of October 31, 2022, portfolio manager compensation generally consists of a fixed base salary determined periodically (typically annually), a bonus, and in certain cases, participation in several types of equity-based compensation plans. A portion of the portfolio manager's compensation may be deferred based on criteria established by FMR or at the election of the portfolio manager.
The portfolio manager's base salary is determined by level of responsibility and tenure at FMR or its affiliates. The primary components of the portfolio manager's bonus are based on (i) the pre-tax investment performance of the portfolio manager's fund(s) and account(s) measured against a benchmark index and within a defined peer group assigned to each fund or account, and (ii) the investment performance of other FMR equity funds and accounts. The pre-tax investment performance of the portfolio manager's fund(s) and account(s) is weighted according to the portfolio manager's tenure on those fund(s) and account(s) and the average asset size of those fund(s) and account(s) over the portfolio manager's tenure. Each component is calculated separately over the portfolio manager's tenure on those fund(s) and account(s) over a measurement period that initially is contemporaneous with the portfolio manager's tenure, but that eventually encompasses rolling periods of up to five years for the comparison to a benchmark index and rolling periods of up to three years for the comparison to a peer group. A smaller, subjective component of the portfolio manager's bonus is based on the portfolio manager's overall contribution to management of FMR. The portion of the portfolio manager's bonus that is linked to the investment performance of Fidelity® Series International Value Fund is based on the fund's pre-tax investment performance measured against the MSCI EAFE Value Index (net MA), and the fund's pre-tax investment performance within the Morningstar® Foreign Large Value Category. The portfolio manager also is compensated under equity-based compensation plans linked to increases or decreases in the net asset value of the stock of FMR LLC, FMR's parent company. FMR LLC is a diverse financial services company engaged in various activities that include fund management, brokerage, retirement, and employer administrative services.
Jed Weiss is the Portfolio Manager of Fidelity® Series International Growth Fund and the Lead Portfolio Manager of Fidelity® Series International Small Cap Fund, and receives compensation for those services. As of October 31, 2022, portfolio manager compensation generally consists of a fixed base salary determined periodically (typically annually), a bonus, and in certain cases, participation in several types of equity-based compensation plans. A portion of the portfolio manager's compensation may be deferred based on criteria established by FMR or at the election of the portfolio manager.
The portfolio manager's base salary is determined by level of responsibility and tenure at FMR or its affiliates. The primary components of the portfolio manager's bonus are based on (i) the pre-tax investment performance of the portfolio manager's fund(s) and account(s) measured against a benchmark index and within a defined peer group assigned to each fund or account, and (ii) the investment performance of other FMR equity funds and accounts. The pre-tax investment performance of the portfolio manager's fund(s) and account(s) is weighted according to the portfolio manager's tenure on those fund(s) and account(s) and the average asset size of those fund(s)and account(s) over the portfolio manager's tenure. Each component is calculated separately over the portfolio manager's tenure on those fund(s) and account(s) over a measurement period that initially is contemporaneous with the portfolio manager's tenure, but that eventually encompasses rolling periods of up to five years for the comparison to a benchmark index and rolling periods of up to three years for the comparison to a peer group. A smaller, subjective component of the portfolio manager's bonus is based on the portfolio manager's overall contribution to management of FMR. The portion of the portfolio manager's bonus that is linked to the investment performance of Fidelity® Series International Growth Fund is based on the pre-tax investment performance of the fund measured against the MSCI EAFE Growth Index (net MA), and the fund's pre-tax investment performance within the Morningstar® Foreign Large Growth Category. The portion of the portfolio manager's bonus that is linked to the investment performance of Fidelity® Series International Small Cap Fund is based on the pre-tax investment performance of the fund measured against the MSCI EAFE Small Cap Index (net MA), and the fund's pre-tax investment performance within the Lipper℠ International Small Cap Funds. Another component of the portfolio manager's bonus is based on the pre-tax investment performance of the portion of the fund's assets the portfolio manager manages measured against the MSCI EAFE Small Cap Index (Net MA), and the pre-tax investment performance of the portion of the fund's assets the portfolio manager manages within the Lipper℠ International Small Cap Funds. The portfolio manager also is compensated under equity-based compensation plans linked to increases or decreases in the net asset value of the stock of FMR LLC, FMR's parent company. FMR LLC is a diverse financial services company engaged in various activities that include fund management, brokerage, retirement, and employer administrative services.
Patrick Drouot and Preeti Sayana are research analysts and Co-Portfolio Managers of Fidelity® Series International Small Cap Fund and each receives compensation for services as a research analyst and as a portfolio manager under a single compensation plan. As of October 31, 2022, each portfolio manager's compensation generally consists of a fixed base salary determined periodically (typically annually), a bonus, and in certain cases, participation in several types of equity-based compensation plans. A portion of each portfolio manager's compensation may be deferred based on criteria established by FMR or at the election of the portfolio manager. 
Each portfolio manager's base salary is determined primarily by level of experience and skills, and performance as a research analyst and fund manager at FMR or its affiliates. A portion of each portfolio manager's bonus relates to the portfolio manager's performance as a research analyst and is based on the Director of Research's assessment of the research analyst's performance and may include factors such as qualitative feedback assessments, which relate to analytical work and investment results within the relevant market(s) and impact on other equity funds and accounts as a research analyst, and the research analyst's contributions to the research groups and to FMR. Another component of the bonus is based upon (i) the pre-tax investment performance of the portfolio manager's fund(s) and account(s) measured against a benchmark index (which may be a customized industry benchmark index developed by FMR) and within a defined peer group, if applicable, assigned to each fund or account, (ii) the investment performance of other FMR equity funds and accounts, and (iii) the pre-tax investment performance of the research analyst's recommendations measured against a benchmark index corresponding to the research analyst's assignment universe and against a broadly diversified equity index. The pre-tax investment performance of each portfolio manager's fund(s) and account(s) is weighted according to the portfolio manager's tenure on those fund(s) and account(s). The component of the bonus relating to the Director of Research's assessment is calculated over a one-year period, and each other component of the bonus is calculated over a measurement period that initially is contemporaneous with the portfolio manager's tenure, but that eventually encompasses rolling periods of up to five years for the comparison to a benchmark index and rolling periods of up to three years for the comparison to a peer group, if applicable. The portion of each portfolio manager's bonus that is linked to the investment performance of Fidelity® Series International Small Cap Fund is based on the pre-tax investment performance of the fund measured against the MSCI EAFE Small Cap Index (net MA tax), and the fund's pre-tax investment performance within the Lipper℠ International Small Cap Funds. Another component of Mr. Drouot's bonus is based on the pre-tax investment performance of the portion of the fund's assets the portfolio manager manages measured against the MSCI EAFE Small Cap Index (net MA tax), and the fund's pre-tax investment performance within the Lipper℠ International Small Cap Funds. Another component of Ms. Sayana's bonus is based on the pre-tax investment performance of the portion of the fund's assets the portfolio manager manages measured against the MSCI EAFE Small Cap Index (net MA tax). Each portfolio manager also is compensated under equity-based compensation plans linked to increases or decreases in the net asset value of the stock of FMR LLC, FMR's parent company. FMR LLC is a diverse financial services company engaged in various activities that include fund management, brokerage, retirement, and employer administrative services.
A portfolio manager's compensation plan may give rise to potential conflicts of interest. A portfolio manager's compensation is linked to the pre-tax performance of a fund, rather than its after-tax performance. A portfolio manager's base pay tends to increase with additional and more complex responsibilities that include increased assets under management and a portion of the bonus relates to marketing efforts, which together indirectly link compensation to sales. When a portfolio manager takes over a fund or an account, the time period over which performance is measured may be adjusted to provide a transition period in which to assess the portfolio. The management of multiple funds and accounts (including proprietary accounts) may give rise to potential conflicts of interest if the funds and accounts have different objectives, benchmarks, time horizons, and fees as a portfolio manager must allocate time and investment ideas across multiple funds and accounts. In addition, a fund's trade allocation policies and procedures may give rise to conflicts of interest if the fund's orders do not get fully executed due to being aggregated with those of other accounts managed by FMR or an affiliate. A portfolio manager may execute transactions for another fund or account that may adversely impact the value of securities held by a fund. Securities selected for other funds or accounts may outperform the securities selected for the fund. Portfolio managers may be permitted to invest in the funds they manage, even if a fund is closed to new investors. Trading in personal accounts, which may give rise to potential conflicts of interest, is restricted by a fund's Code of Ethics.
Gregory Lee is Co-Portfolio Manager of Fidelity® Series Emerging Markets Opportunities Fund and receives compensation for those services. Sam Polyak is Co-Portfolio Manager of Fidelity® Series Emerging Markets Opportunities Fund and receives compensation for those services. Will Pruett is Co-Portfolio Manager of Fidelity® Series Emerging Markets Opportunities Fund and receives compensation for those services. Xiaoting Zhao is Co-Portfolio Manager of Fidelity® Series Emerging Markets Opportunities Fund and receives compensation for those services. As of October 31, 2022, portfolio manager compensation generally consists of a fixed base salary determined periodically (typically annually), a bonus, and in certain cases, participation in several types of equity-based compensation plans. A portion of each portfolio manager's compensation may be deferred based on criteria established by FMR or at the election of the portfolio manager.
Each portfolio manager's base salary is determined by level of responsibility and tenure at FMR or its affiliates. The primary components of each portfolio manager's bonus are based on (i) the pre-tax investment performance of the portfolio manager's fund(s) and account(s) measured against a benchmark index and within a defined peer group assigned to each fund or account, and (ii) the investment performance of other FMR equity funds and accounts. The pre-tax investment performance of each portfolio manager's fund(s) and account(s) is weighted according to the portfolio manager's tenure on those fund(s) and account(s) and the average asset size of those fund(s) and account(s) over the portfolio manager's tenure. Each component is calculated separately over the portfolio manager's tenure on those fund(s) and account(s) over a measurement period that initially is contemporaneous with the portfolio manager's tenure, but that eventually encompasses rolling periods of up to five years for the comparison to a benchmark index and rolling periods of up to three years for the comparison to a peer group. A smaller, subjective component of each portfolio manager's bonus is based on the portfolio manager's overall contribution to management of FMR. The portion of each portfolio manager's bonus that is linked to the investment performance of Fidelity® Series Emerging Markets Opportunities Fund is based on the fund's pre-tax investment performance measured against the MSCI Emerging Markets Index (net MA tax), and the fund's pre-tax investment performance within the Morningstar® Diversified Emerging Markets Category. Another component of each portfolio manager's bonus is based on the pre-tax investment performance of the portion of the fund's assets the portfolio manager manages measured against the benchmark index identified in the table below. Each portfolio manager also is compensated under equity-based compensation plans linked to increases or decreases in the net asset value of the stock of FMR LLC, FMR's parent company. FMR LLC is a diverse financial services company engaged in various activities that include fund management, brokerage, retirement and employer administrative services.
Manager / Benchmark Index(es)  
Gregory Lee / MSCI Emerging Markets Energy Index; MSCI Emerging Markets Industrials Index; and MSCI Emerging Markets Utilities Index
Sam Polyak / MSCI Emerging Markets Consumer Staples Index; and MSCI Emerging Markets Materials Index
Will Pruett / MSCI Emerging Markets Financials Index
Xiaoting Zhao / MSCI Emerging Markets Communication Services Index
A portfolio manager's compensation plan may give rise to potential conflicts of interest. A portfolio manager's compensation is linked to the pre-tax performance of the fund, rather than its after-tax performance. A portfolio manager's base pay tends to increase with additional and more complex responsibilities that include increased assets under management and a portion of the bonus relates to marketing efforts, which together indirectly link compensation to sales. When a portfolio manager takes over a fund or an account, the time period over which performance is measured may be adjusted to provide a transition period in which to assess the portfolio. The management of multiple funds and accounts (including proprietary accounts) may give rise to potential conflicts of interest if the funds and accounts have different objectives, benchmarks, time horizons, and fees as a portfolio manager must allocate time and investment ideas across multiple funds and accounts. In addition, a fund's trade allocation policies and procedures may give rise to conflicts of interest if the fund's orders do not get fully executed due to being aggregated with those of other accounts managed by FMR or an affiliate. A portfolio manager may execute transactions for another fund or account that may adversely impact the value of securities held by a fund. Securities selected for other funds or accounts may outperform the securities selected for the fund. Portfolio managers may be permitted to invest in the funds they manage, even if a fund is closed to new investors. Trading in personal accounts, which may give rise to potential conflicts of interest, is restricted by a fund's Code of Ethics.
Priyanshu Bakshi, Di Chen, Guillermo de las Casas, and Takamitsu Nishikawa are research analysts and Co-Portfolio Managers of Fidelity® Series Emerging Markets Opportunities Fund and each receives compensation for services as a research analyst and as a portfolio manager under a single compensation plan. Effective December 27, 2022, Lewis Chung serves as a research analyst and Co-Portfolio Manager of Fidelity® Series Emerging Markets Opportunities Fund and receives compensation for services as a research analyst and as a portfolio manager under a single compensation plan. Information with respect to Mr. Chung's holdings and other accounts managed will be updated in a supplement to this SAI. As of October 31, 2022 (December 27, 2022 for Mr. Chung), compensation generally consists of a fixed base salary determined periodically (typically annually), a bonus, and in certain cases, participation in several types of equity-based compensation plans. A portion of each portfolio manager's compensation may be deferred based on criteria established by FMR or at the election of the portfolio manager.
Each portfolio manager's base salary is determined primarily by level of experience and skills, and performance as a research analyst and fund manager at FMR or its affiliates. A portion of each portfolio manager's bonus relates to the portfolio manager's performance as a research analyst and is based on the Director of Research's assessment of the research analyst's performance and may include factors such as portfolio manager survey-based assessments, which relate to analytical work and investment results within the relevant market(s) and impact on other emerging market funds and accounts as a research analyst, and the research analyst's contributions to the research groups and to FMR. Another component of the bonus is based upon (i) the pre-tax investment performance of each portfolio manager's fund(s) and account(s) measured against a benchmark index (which may be a customized industry benchmark index developed by FMR) assigned to each fund or account, and within a defined peer group assigned to each fund or account, if applicable, (ii) the investment performance of other FMR equity funds and accounts, and (iii) the pre-tax investment performance of the portfolio manager's recommendations measured against a benchmark index corresponding to the portfolio manager's assignment universe and against a broadly diversified emerging markets index. The pre-tax investment performance of each portfolio manager's fund(s) and account(s) is weighted according to the portfolio manager's tenure on those fund(s) and account(s). The component of the bonus relating to the Director of Research's assessment is calculated over a one-year period, and each other component of the bonus is calculated over a measurement period that initially is contemporaneous with each portfolio manager's tenure, but that eventually encompasses rolling periods of up to five years for the comparison to a benchmark index and rolling periods of up to three years for the comparison to a peer group, if applicable. The portion of each portfolio manager's bonus that is linked to the investment performance of Fidelity® Series Emerging Markets Opportunities Fund is based on the fund's pre-tax investment performance measured against the MSCI Emerging Markets Index (net MA tax), and the fund's pre-tax investment performance within the Morningstar® Diversified Emerging Markets Category. Another component of each portfolio manager's bonus is based on the pre-tax investment performance of the portion of the fund's assets the portfolio manager manages measured against the benchmark index identified in the table below. Each portfolio manager also is compensated under equity-based compensation plans linked to increases or decreases in the net asset value of the stock of FMR LLC, FMR's parent company. FMR LLC is a diverse financial services company engaged in various activities that include fund management, brokerage, retirement, and employer administrative services.
Manager / Benchmark Index(es)  
Priyanshu Bakshi / MSCI Emerging Markets Information Technology Index  
Di Chen / MSCI Emerging Markets Consumer Discretionary Index  
Lewis Chung / MSCI Emerging Markets Real Estate Index
Guillermo de las Casas / MSCI Emerging Markets Real Estate Index
Takamitsu Nishikawa / MSCI Emerging Markets Health Care Index
A portfolio manager's compensation plan may give rise to potential conflicts of interest. A portfolio manager's compensation is linked to the pre-tax performance of the fund, rather than its after-tax performance. the portfolio manager's base pay and bonus opportunity tend to increase with the portfolio manager's level of experience and skills relative to research and fund assignments. The management of multiple funds and accounts (including proprietary accounts) may give rise to potential conflicts of interest if the funds and accounts have different objectives, benchmarks, time horizons, and fees as a portfolio manager must allocate time and investment ideas across multiple funds and accounts. In addition, the fund's trade allocation policies and procedures may give rise to conflicts of interest if the fund's orders do not get fully executed due to being aggregated with those of other accounts managed by FMR. A portfolio manager may execute transactions for another fund or account that may adversely impact the value of securities held by the fund. Securities selected for other funds or accounts may outperform the securities selected for the fund. Trading in personal accounts, which may give rise to potential conflicts of interest, is restricted by a fund's Code of Ethics. Furthermore, the potential exists that a portfolio manager's responsibilities as a portfolio manager of the fund may not be entirely consistent with the portfolio manager's responsibilities as a research analyst providing recommendations to other Fidelity portfolio managers.       
Portfolio managers may receive interests in certain funds or accounts managed by FMR or one of its affiliated advisers (collectively, "Proprietary Accounts"). A conflict of interest situation is presented where a portfolio manager considers investing a client account in securities of an issuer in which FMR, its affiliates or their (or their fund clients') respective directors, officers or employees already hold a significant position for their own account, including positions held indirectly through Proprietary Accounts. Because the 1940 Act, as well as other applicable laws and regulations, restricts certain transactions between affiliated entities or between an advisor and its clients, client accounts managed by FMR or its affiliates, including accounts sub-advised by third parties, are, in certain circumstances, prohibited from participating in offerings of such securities (including initial public offerings and other offerings occurring before or after an issuer's initial public offering) or acquiring such securities in the secondary market. For example, ownership of a company by Proprietary Accounts has, in certain situations, resulted in restrictions on FMR's and its affiliates' client accounts' ability to acquire securities in the company's initial public offering and subsequent public offerings, private offerings, and in the secondary market, and additional restrictions could arise in the future; to the extent such client accounts acquire the relevant securities after such restrictions are subsequently lifted, the delay could affect the price at which the securities are acquired.  
A conflict of interest situation is presented when FMR or its affiliates acquire, on behalf of their client accounts, securities of the same issuers whose securities are already held in Proprietary Accounts, because such investments could have the effect of increasing or supporting the value of the Proprietary Accounts. A conflict of interest situation also arises when FMR investment advisory personnel consider whether client accounts they manage should invest in an investment opportunity that they know is also being considered by an affiliate of FMR for a Proprietary Account, to the extent that not investing on behalf of such client accounts improves the ability of the Proprietary Account to take advantage of the opportunity. FMR has adopted policies and procedures and maintains a compliance program designed to help manage such actual and potential conflicts of interest.
The following table provides information relating to other accounts managed by John Chow as of October 31, 2022:
 
Registered Investment Companies *
 
Other Pooled
Investment
Vehicles
 
Other
Accounts
Number of Accounts Managed
5
 
4
 
4
Number of Accounts Managed with Performance-Based Advisory Fees
1
 
none
 
none
Assets Managed (in millions)
$4,719
 
$1,667
 
$849
Assets Managed with Performance-Based Advisory Fees (in millions)
$3
 
none
 
none
* Includes Fidelity® Series Emerging Markets Fund ($2,326 (in millions) assets managed). The amount of assets managed of the fund reflects trades and other assets as of the close of the business day prior to the fund's fiscal year-end.
As of October 31, 2022, the dollar range of shares of Fidelity® Series Emerging Markets Fund beneficially owned by Mr. Chow was none.
The following table provides information relating to other accounts managed by Priyanshu Bakshi as of October 31, 2022:
 
Registered Investment Companies *
 
Other Pooled
Investment
Vehicles
 
Other
Accounts
Number of Accounts Managed
9
 
3
 
1
Number of Accounts Managed with Performance-Based Advisory Fees
none
 
none
 
none
Assets Managed (in millions)
$16,748
 
$1,137
 
$221
Assets Managed with Performance-Based Advisory Fees (in millions)
none
 
none
 
none
* Includes Fidelity ® Series Emerging Markets Opportunities Fund ($4,033 (in millions) assets managed). The amount of assets managed of the fund reflects trades and other assets as of the close of the business day prior to the fund's fiscal year-end.
As of October 31, 2022, the dollar range of shares of Fidelity ® Series Emerging Markets Opportunities Fund beneficially owned by Mr. Bakshi was none.
The following table provides information relating to other accounts managed by Di Chen as of October 31, 2022:
 
Registered Investment Companies *
 
Other Pooled
Investment
Vehicles
 
Other
Accounts
Number of Accounts Managed
3
 
3
 
none
Number of Accounts Managed with Performance-Based Advisory Fees
none
 
none
 
none
Assets Managed (in millions)
$2,789
 
$723
 
none
Assets Managed with Performance-Based Advisory Fees (in millions)
none
 
none
 
none
* Includes Fidelity ® Series Emerging Markets Opportunities Fund ($2,563 (in millions) assets managed). The amount of assets managed of the fund reflects trades and other assets as of the close of the business day prior to the fund's fiscal year-end.
As of October 31, 2022, the dollar range of shares of Fidelity ® Series Emerging Markets Opportunities Fund beneficially owned by Ms. Chen was none.
The following table provides information relating to other accounts managed by Guillermo de las Casas as of October 31, 2022:
 
Registered Investment Companies *
 
Other Pooled
Investment
Vehicles
 
Other
Accounts
Number of Accounts Managed
5
 
3
 
none
Number of Accounts Managed with Performance-Based Advisory Fees
none
 
none
 
none
Assets Managed (in millions)
$1,107
 
$107
 
none
Assets Managed with Performance-Based Advisory Fees (in millions)
none
 
none
 
none
* Includes Fidelity ® Series Emerging Markets Opportunities Fund ($405 (in millions) assets managed). The amount of assets managed of the fund reflects trades and other assets as of the close of the business day prior to the fund's fiscal year-end.
As of October 31, 2022, the dollar range of shares of Fidelity ® Series Emerging Markets Opportunities Fund beneficially owned by Mr. de las Casas was none.
The following table provides information relating to other accounts managed by Gregory Lee as of October 31, 2022:
 
Registered Investment Companies *
 
Other Pooled
Investment
Vehicles
 
Other
Accounts
Number of Accounts Managed
4
 
9
 
1
Number of Accounts Managed with Performance-Based Advisory Fees
none
 
none
 
none
Assets Managed (in millions)
$4,030
 
$921
 
$5
Assets Managed with Performance-Based Advisory Fees (in millions)
none
 
none
 
none
* Includes Fidelity ® Series Emerging Markets Opportunities Fund ($3,319 (in millions) assets managed). The amount of assets managed of the fund reflects trades and other assets as of the close of the business day prior to the fund's fiscal year-end.
As of October 31, 2022, the dollar range of shares of Fidelity ® Series Emerging Markets Opportunities Fund beneficially owned by Mr. Lee was none.
The following table provides information relating to other accounts managed by Takamitsu Nishikawa as of October 31, 2022:
 
Registered Investment Companies *
 
Other Pooled
Investment
Vehicles
 
Other
Accounts
Number of Accounts Managed
3
 
3
 
none
Number of Accounts Managed with Performance-Based Advisory Fees
none
 
none
 
none
Assets Managed (in millions)
$869
 
$223
 
none
Assets Managed with Performance-Based Advisory Fees (in millions)
none
 
none
 
none
* Includes Fidelity ®  Series Emerging Markets Opportunities Fund ($797 (in millions) assets managed). The amount of assets managed of the fund reflects trades and other assets as of the close of the business day prior to the fund's fiscal year-end.
As of October 31, 2022, the dollar range of shares of Fidelity ® Series Emerging Markets Opportunities Fund beneficially owned by Mr. Nishikawa is none.
The following table provides information relating to other accounts managed by Sam Polyak as of October 31, 2022:
 
Registered Investment Companies *
 
Other Pooled
Investment
Vehicles
 
Other
Accounts
Number of Accounts Managed
8
 
10
 
1
Number of Accounts Managed with Performance-Based Advisory Fees
1
 
none
 
none
Assets Managed (in millions)
$7,872
 
$4,023
 
$238
Assets Managed with Performance-Based Advisory Fees (in millions)
$53
 
none
 
none
* Includes Fidelity ®  Series Emerging Markets Opportunities Fund ($3,512 (in millions) assets managed). The amount of assets managed of the fund reflects trades and other assets as of the close of the business day prior to the fund's fiscal year-end.
As of October 31, 2022, the dollar range of shares of Fidelity ® Series Emerging Markets Opportunities Fund beneficially owned by Mr. Polyak was none.
The following table provides information relating to other accounts managed by Will Pruett as of October 31, 2022:
 
Registered Investment Companies *
 
Other Pooled
Investment
Vehicles
 
Other
Accounts
Number of Accounts Managed
4
 
3
 
none
Number of Accounts Managed with Performance-Based Advisory Fees
none
 
none
 
none
Assets Managed (in millions)
$5,862
 
$1,442
 
none
Assets Managed with Performance-Based Advisory Fees (in millions)
none
 
none
 
none
* Includes Fidelity ®  Series Emerging Markets Opportunities Fund ($5,131 (in millions) assets managed). The amount of assets managed of the fund reflects trades and other assets as of the close of the business day prior to the fund's fiscal year-end.
As of October 31, 2022, the dollar range of shares of Fidelity ® Series Emerging Markets Opportunities Fund beneficially owned by Mr. Pruett was none.
The following table provides information relating to other accounts managed by Xiaoting Zhao as of October 31, 2022:
 
Registered Investment Companies *
 
Other Pooled
Investment
Vehicles
 
Other
Accounts
Number of Accounts Managed
5
 
5
 
none
Number of Accounts Managed with Performance-Based Advisory Fees
1
 
none
 
none
Assets Managed (in millions)
$3,148
 
$799
 
none
Assets Managed with Performance-Based Advisory Fees (in millions)
$824
 
none
 
none
* Includes Fidelity ® Series Emerging Markets Opportunities Fund ($1,797 (in millions) assets managed). The amount of assets managed of the fund reflects trades and other assets as of the close of the business day prior to the fund's fiscal year-end.
As of October 31, 2022, the dollar range of shares of Fidelity ® Series Emerging Markets Opportunities Fund beneficially owned by Mr. Zhao was none.
The following table provides information relating to other accounts managed by Jed Weiss as of October 31, 2022:
 
Registered Investment Companies *
 
Other Pooled
Investment
Vehicles
 
Other
Accounts
Number of Accounts Managed
5
 
4
 
2
Number of Accounts Managed with Performance-Based Advisory Fees
3
 
none
 
none
Assets Managed (in millions)
$20,668
 
$4,496
 
$839
Assets Managed with Performance-Based Advisory Fees (in millions)
$4,976
 
none
 
none
* Includes Fidelity ®  Series International Growth Fund ($12,444 (in millions) assets managed). The amount of assets managed of the fund reflects trades and other assets as of the close of the business day prior to the fund's fiscal year-end.
As of October 31, 2022, the dollar range of shares of Fidelity ® Series International Growth Fund beneficially owned by Mr. Nielsen was none.
The following table provides information relating to other accounts managed by Patrick Drouot as of October 31, 2022:
 
Registered Investment Companies *
 
Other Pooled
Investment
Vehicles
 
Other
Accounts
Number of Accounts Managed
1
 
none
 
1
Number of Accounts Managed with Performance-Based Advisory Fees
none
 
none
 
none
Assets Managed (in millions)
$358
 
none
 
$1
Assets Managed with Performance-Based Advisory Fees (in millions)
none
 
none
 
none
* Includes Fidelity ® Series International Small Cap Fund ($358 (in millions) assets managed). The amount of assets managed of the fund reflects trades and other assets as of the close of the business day prior to the fund's fiscal year-end.
As of October 31, 2022, the dollar range of shares of Fidelity ® Series International Small Cap Fund beneficially owned by Mr. Drouot was none.
The following table provides information relating to other accounts managed by Preeti Sayana as of October 31, 2022:
 
Registered Investment Companies *
 
Other Pooled
Investment
Vehicles
 
Other
Accounts
Number of Accounts Managed
1
 
none
 
1
Number of Accounts Managed with Performance-Based Advisory Fees
none
 
none
 
none
Assets Managed (in millions)
$288
 
none
 
$1
Assets Managed with Performance-Based Advisory Fees (in millions)
none
 
none
 
none
* Includes Fidelity ® Series International Small Cap Fund ($288 (in millions) assets managed). The amount of assets managed of the fund reflects trades and other assets as of the close of the business day prior to the fund's fiscal year-end.
As of October 31, 2022, the dollar range of shares of Fidelity ® Series International Small Cap Fund beneficially owned by Ms. Sayana was none.
The following table provides information relating to other accounts managed by Jed Weiss as of October 31, 2022:
 
Registered Investment Companies *
 
Other Pooled
Investment
Vehicles
 
Other
Accounts
Number of Accounts Managed
5
 
4
 
2
Number of Accounts Managed with Performance-Based Advisory Fees
3
 
none
 
none
Assets Managed (in millions)
$20,668
 
$4,496
 
$839
Assets Managed with Performance-Based Advisory Fees (in millions)
$4,976
 
none
 
none
* Includes Fidelity ®  Series International Small Cap Fund ($3,248 (in millions) assets managed). The amount of assets managed of the fund reflects trades and other assets as of the close of the business day prior to the fund's fiscal year-end.
As of October 31, 2022, the dollar range of shares of Fidelity ® Series International Small Cap Fund beneficially owned by Mr. Weiss was none.
The following table provides information relating to other accounts managed by Alex Zavratsky as of October 31, 2022:
 
Registered Investment Companies *
 
Other Pooled
Investment
Vehicles
 
Other
Accounts
Number of Accounts Managed
4
 
1
 
none
Number of Accounts Managed with Performance-Based Advisory Fees
2
 
none
 
none
Assets Managed (in millions)
$14,655
 
$2,747
 
none
Assets Managed with Performance-Based Advisory Fees (in millions)
$732
 
none
 
none
* Includes Fidelity ® Series International Value Fund ($12,537 (in millions) assets managed). The amount of assets managed of the fund reflects trades and other assets as of the close of the business day prior to the fund's fiscal year-end.
 As of October 31, 2022, the dollar range of shares of Fidelity ® Series International Value Fund beneficially owned by Mr. Zavratsky was none.
PROXY VOTING GUIDELINES
Fidelity ® Funds' Proxy Voting Guidelines  
I. Introduction  
These guidelines are intended to help Fidelity's customers and the companies in which Fidelity invests understand how Fidelity votes proxies to further the values that have sustained Fidelity for over 70 years. In particular, these guidelines are animated by two fundamental principles: 1) putting first the long-term interests of our customers and fund shareholders; and 2) investing in companies that share our approach to creating value over the long-term. Fidelity generally adheres to these guidelines in voting proxies and our Stewardship Principles serve as the foundation for these guidelines. Our evaluation of proxies reflects information from many sources, including management or shareholders of a company presenting a proposal and proxy voting advisory firms. Fidelity maintains the flexibility to vote individual proxies based on our assessment of each situation.  
In evaluating proxies, we recognize that companies can conduct themselves in ways that have important environmental and social consequences. While Fidelity always remains focused on maximizing long-term shareholder value, we also consider potential environmental, social and governance (ESG) impacts that we believe are material to individual companies and investing funds' investment objectives and strategies.  
Fidelity will vote on proposals not specifically addressed by these guidelines based on an evaluation of a proposal's likelihood to enhance the long-term economic returns or profitability of the company or to maximize long-term shareholder value. Fidelity will not be influenced by business relationships or outside perspectives that may conflict with the interests of the funds and their shareholders.  
II. Board of Directors and Corporate Governance  
Directors of public companies play a critical role in ensuring that a company and its management team serve the interests of its shareholders. Fidelity believes that through proxy voting, it can help ensure accountability of management teams and boards of directors, align management and shareholder interests, and monitor and assess the degree of transparency and disclosure with respect to executive compensation and board actions affecting shareholders' rights. The following general guidelines are intended to reflect these proxy voting principles.  
A. Election of Directors  
Fidelity will generally support director nominees in elections where all directors are unopposed (uncontested elections), except where board composition raises concerns, and/or where a director clearly appears to have failed to exercise reasonable judgment or otherwise failed to sufficiently protect the interests of shareholders.  
Fidelity will evaluate board composition and generally will oppose the election of certain or all directors if, by way of example:  
1. Inside or affiliated directors serve on boards that are not composed of a majority of independent directors.
2. There are no women on the board or if a board of ten or more members has fewer than two women directors.
3. The director is a public company CEO who sits on more than two unaffiliated public company boards.
Fidelity will evaluate board actions and generally will oppose the election of certain or all directors if, by way of example:
1. The director attended fewer than 75% of the total number of meetings of the board and its committees on which the director served during the company's prior fiscal year, absent extenuating circumstances.  
2. The company made a commitment to modify a proposal or practice to conform to these guidelines, and failed to act on that commitment.  
3. For reasons described below under the sections entitled Compensation and Anti-Takeover Provisions and Director Elections.
B. Contested Director Elections  
On occasion, directors are forced to compete for election against outside director nominees (contested elections). Fidelity believes that strong management creates long-term shareholder value. As a result, Fidelity generally will vote in support of management of companies in which the funds' assets are invested. Fidelity will vote its proxy on a case-by-case basis in a contested election, taking into consideration a number of factors, amongst others:  
1. Management's track record and strategic plan for enhancing shareholder value;
2. The long-term performance of the company compared to its industry peers; and
3. The qualifications of the shareholder's and management's nominees.
Fidelity will vote for the outcome it believes has the best prospects for maximizing shareholder value over the long-term.
C. Cumulative Voting Rights  
Under cumulative voting, each shareholder may exercise the number of votes equal to the number of shares owned multiplied by the number of directors up for election. Shareholders may cast all of their votes for a single nominee (or multiple nominees in varying amounts). With regular (non-cumulative) voting, by contrast, shareholders cannot allocate more than one vote per share to any one director nominee. Fidelity believes that cumulative voting can be detrimental to the overall strength of a board. Generally, therefore, Fidelity will oppose the introduction of, and support the elimination of, cumulative voting rights.  
D. Classified Boards  
A classified board is one that elects only a percentage of its members each year (usually one-third of directors are elected to serve a three-year term). This means that at each annual meeting only a subset of directors is up for re-election. Fidelity believes that, in general, classified boards are not as accountable to shareholders as declassified boards. For this and other reasons, Fidelity generally will oppose a board's adoption of a classified board structure and support declassification of existing boards.  
E. Independent Chairperson  
In general, Fidelity believes that boards should have a process and criteria for selecting the board chair, and will oppose shareholder proposals calling for, or recommending the appointment of, a non-executive or independent chairperson. If, however, based on particular facts and circumstances, Fidelity believes that appointment of a non-executive or independent chairperson appears likely to further the interests of shareholders and promote effective oversight of management by the board of directors, Fidelity will consider voting to support a proposal for an independent chairperson under such circumstances.  
F. Majority Voting in Director Elections  
In general, Fidelity supports proposals calling for directors to be elected by a majority of votes cast if the proposal permits election by a plurality in the case of contested elections (where, for example, there are more nominees than board seats). Fidelity may oppose a majority voting shareholder proposal where a company's board has adopted a policy requiring the resignation of an incumbent director who fails to receive the support of a majority of the votes cast in an uncontested election.  
G. Proxy Access  
Proxy access proposals generally require a company to amend its by-laws to allow a qualifying shareholder or group of shareholders to nominate directors on a company's proxy ballot. Fidelity believes that certain safeguards as to ownership threshold and duration of ownership are important to assure that proxy access is not misused by those without a significant economic interest in the company or those driven by short term goals. Fidelity will evaluate proxy access proposals on a case-by-case basis, but generally will support proposals that include ownership of at least 3% (5% in the case of small-cap companies) of the company's shares outstanding for at least three years; limit the number of directors that eligible shareholders may nominate to 20% of the board; and limit to 20 the number of shareholders that may form a nominating group.  
H. Indemnification of Directors and Officers  
In many instances there are sound reasons to indemnify officers and directors, so that they may perform their duties without the distraction of unwarranted litigation or other legal process. Fidelity generally supports charter and by-law amendments expanding the indemnification of officers or directors, or limiting their liability for breaches of care unless Fidelity is dissatisfied with their performance or the proposal is accompanied by anti-takeover provisions (see Anti-Takeover Provisions and Shareholders Rights Plans below).  
III. Compensation  
Incentive compensation plans can be complicated and many factors are considered when evaluating such plans. Fidelity evaluates such plans based on protecting shareholder interests and our historical knowledge of the company and its management.  
A. Equity Compensation Plans  
Fidelity encourages the use of reasonably designed equity compensation plans that align the interest of management with those of shareholders by providing officers and employees with incentives to increase long-term shareholder value. Fidelity considers whether such plans are too dilutive to existing shareholders because dilution reduces the voting power or economic interest of existing shareholders as a result of an increase in shares available for distribution to employees in lieu of cash compensation. Fidelity will generally oppose equity compensation plans or amendments to authorize additional shares under such plans if:  
1. The company grants stock options and equity awards in a given year at a rate higher than a benchmark rate ("burn rate") considered appropriate by Fidelity and there were no circumstances specific to the company or the compensation plans that leads Fidelity to conclude that the rate of awards is otherwise acceptable.  
2. The plan includes an evergreen provision, which is a feature that provides for an automatic increase in the shares available for grant under an equity compensation plan on a regular basis.  
3. The plan provides for the acceleration of vesting of equity compensation even though an actual change in control may not occur.  
As to stock option plans, considerations include the following:
1. Pricing: We believe that options should be priced at 100% of fair market value on the date they are granted. We generally oppose options priced at a discount to the market, although the price may be as low as 85% of fair market value if the discount is expressly granted in lieu of salary or cash bonus.  
2. Re-pricing: An "out-of-the-money" (or underwater) option has an exercise price that is higher than the current price of the stock. We generally oppose the re-pricing of underwater options because it is not consistent with a policy of offering options as a form of long-term compensation. Fidelity also generally opposes a stock option plan if the board or compensation committee has re-priced options outstanding in the past two years without shareholder approval.  
Fidelity generally will support a management proposal to exchange, re-price or tender for cash, outstanding options if the proposed exchange, re-pricing, or tender offer is consistent with the interests of shareholders, taking into account a variety of factors such as:  
1. Whether the proposal excludes senior management and directors;
2. Whether the exchange or re-pricing proposal is value neutral to shareholders based upon an acceptable pricing model;
3. The company's relative performance compared to other companies within the relevant industry or industries;
4. Economic and other conditions affecting the relevant industry or industries in which the company competes; and
5. Any other facts or circumstances relevant to determining whether an exchange or re-pricing proposal is consistent with the interests of shareholders.  
B. Employee Stock Purchase Plans  
These plans are designed to allow employees to purchase company stock at a discounted price and receive favorable tax treatment when the stock is sold. Fidelity generally will support employee stock purchase plans if the minimum stock purchase price is equal to or greater than 85% (or at least 75% in the case of non-U.S. companies where a lower minimum stock purchase price is equal to the prevailing "best practices" in that market) of the stock's fair market value and the plan constitutes a reasonable effort to encourage broad based participation in the company's stock.  
IV. Advisory Vote on Executive Compensation (Say on Pay) and Frequency of Say on Pay Vote  
Current law requires companies to allow shareholders to cast non-binding votes on the compensation for named executive officers, as well as the frequency of such votes. Fidelity generally will support proposals to ratify executive compensation unless the compensation appears misaligned with shareholder interests or is otherwise problematic, taking into account:  
- The actions taken by the board or compensation committee in the previous year, including whether the company re-priced or exchanged outstanding stock options without shareholder approval; adopted or extended a golden parachute without shareholder approval; or adequately addressed concerns communicated by Fidelity in the process of discussing executive compensation;  
- The alignment of executive compensation and company performance relative to peers; and
- The structure of the compensation program, including factors such as whether incentive plan metrics are appropriate, rigorous and transparent; whether the long-term element of the compensation program is evaluated over at least a three-year period; the sensitivity of pay to below median performance; the amount and nature of non-performance-based compensation; the justification and rationale behind paying discretionary bonuses; the use of stock ownership guidelines and amount of executive stock ownership; and how well elements of compensation are disclosed.  
When presented with a frequency of Say on Pay vote, Fidelity generally will support holding an annual advisory vote on Say on Pay.  
A. Compensation Committee  
Directors serving on the compensation committee of the Board have a special responsibility to ensure that management is appropriately compensated and that compensation, among other things, fairly reflects the performance of the company. Fidelity believes that compensation should align with company performance as measured by key business metrics. Compensation policies should align the interests of executives with those of shareholders. Further, the compensation program should be disclosed in a transparent and timely manner.  
Fidelity will oppose the election of directors on the compensation committees if:
1. The company has not adequately addressed concerns communicated by Fidelity in the process of discussing executive compensation.
2. Within the last year, and without shareholder approval, a company's board of directors or compensation committee has either:
a) Re-priced outstanding options, exchanged outstanding options for equity, or tendered cash for outstanding options; or
b) Adopted or extended a golden parachute.
B. Executive Severance Agreements  
Executive severance compensation and benefit arrangements resulting from a termination following a change in control are known as "golden parachutes." Fidelity generally will oppose proposals to ratify golden parachutes where the arrangement includes an excise tax gross-up provision; single trigger for cash incentives; or may result in a lump sum payment of cash and acceleration of equity that may total more than three times annual compensation (salary and bonus) in the event of a termination following a change in control.  
V. Environmental and Social Issues  
Grounded in our Stewardship Principles, these guidelines outline our views on corporate governance. As part of our efforts to maximize long-term shareholder value, we incorporate environmental and social issues into our evaluation of a company, particularly if we believe an issue is material to that company and the investing fund's investment objective and strategies.  
Fidelity generally considers management's recommendation and current practice when voting on shareholder proposals concerning environmental or social issues because it generally believes that management and the board are in the best position to determine how to address these matters. Fidelity, however, also believes that transparency is critical to sound corporate governance. Therefore, Fidelity may support shareholder proposals that request additional disclosures from companies regarding environmental or social issues, including where it believes that the proposed disclosures could provide meaningful information to the investment management process without unduly burdening the company. This means that Fidelity may support shareholder proposals calling for reports on sustainability, renewable energy, and environmental impact issues. Fidelity also may support proposals on issues in other areas, including but not limited to equal employment, board diversity and workforce diversity.  
VI. Anti-Takeover Provisions and Shareholders Rights Plans  
Fidelity generally will oppose a proposal to adopt an anti-takeover provision.
Anti-takeover provisions include:
- classified boards;
- "blank check" preferred stock (whose terms and conditions may be expressly determined by the company's board, for example, with differential voting rights);  
- golden parachutes;
- supermajority provisions (that require a large majority (generally between 67-90%) of shareholders to approve corporate changes as compared to a majority provision that simply requires more than 50% of shareholders to approve those changes);  
- poison pills;
- restricting the right to call special meetings;
- provisions restricting the right of shareholders to set board size; and
- any other provision that eliminates or limits shareholder rights.
A. Shareholders Rights Plans ("poison pills")  
Poison pills allow shareholders opposed to a takeover offer to purchase stock at discounted prices under certain circumstances and effectively give boards veto power over any takeover offer. While there are advantages and disadvantages to poison pills, they can be detrimental to the creation of shareholder value and can help entrench management by deterring acquisition offers not favored by the board, but that may, in fact, be beneficial to shareholders.  
Fidelity generally will support a proposal to adopt or extend a poison pill if the proposal:
1. Includes a condition in the charter or plan that specifies an expiration date (sunset provision) of no greater than five years;  
2. Is integral to a business strategy that is expected to result in greater value for the shareholders;
3. Requires shareholder approval to be reinstated upon expiration or if amended;
4. Contains a mechanism to allow shareholders to consider a bona fide takeover offer for all outstanding shares without triggering the poison pill; and  
5. Allows the Fidelity funds to hold an aggregate position of up to 20% of a company's total voting securities, where permissible.
Fidelity generally also will support a proposal that is crafted only for the purpose of protecting a specific tax benefit if it also believes the proposal is likely to enhance long-term economic returns or maximize long-term shareholder value.  
B. Shareholder Ability to Call a Special Meeting