485BPOS

January 26, 2024
Janus Investment Fund
Statement of Additional Information
 
Class A
Shares
Ticker
Class C
Shares
Ticker
Class D
Shares
Ticker
Class I
Shares
Ticker
Class N
Shares
Ticker
Class R
Shares
Ticker
Class S
Shares
Ticker
Class T
Shares
Ticker
Global & International Equity
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Janus Henderson Asia Equity Fund
JAQAX
JAQCX
JAQDX
JAQIX
JAQNX
N/A
JAQSX
JAQTX
Janus Henderson Emerging Markets Fund
HEMAX
HEMCX
HEMDX
HEMIX
HEMRX
N/A
HEMSX
HEMTX
Janus Henderson European Focus Fund
HFEAX
HFECX
HFEDX
HFEIX
HFERX
N/A
HFESX
HFETX
Janus Henderson Global Equity Income Fund
HFQAX
HFQCX
HFQDX
HFQIX
HFQRX
N/A
HFQSX
HFQTX
Janus Henderson Global Life Sciences Fund
JFNAX
JFNCX
JNGLX
JFNIX
JFNNX
N/A
JFNSX
JAGLX
Janus Henderson Global Real Estate Fund
JERAX
JERCX
JNGSX
JERIX
JERNX
N/A
JERSX
JERTX
Janus Henderson Global Research Fund
JDWAX
JWWCX
JANWX
JWWFX
JDWNX
JDWRX
JWGRX
JAWWX
Janus Henderson Global Select Fund
JORAX
JORCX
JANRX
JORFX
JSLNX
JORRX
JORIX
JORNX
Janus Henderson Global Sustainable Equity Fund
JEASX
JECTX
JEDTX
JEUIX
JETNX
JEGRX
JESSX
JETTX
Janus Henderson Global Technology and Innovation Fund
JATAX
JAGCX
JNGTX
JATIX
JATNX
N/A
JATSX
JAGTX
Janus Henderson Overseas Fund
JDIAX
JIGCX
JNOSX
JIGFX
JDINX
JDIRX
JIGRX
JAOSX
Multi-Asset U.S. Equity
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Janus Henderson Balanced Fund
JDBAX
JABCX
JANBX
JBALX
JABNX
JDBRX
JABRX
JABAX
Janus Henderson Contrarian Fund
JCNAX
JCNCX
JACNX
JCONX
JCNNX
JCNRX
JCNIX
JSVAX
Janus Henderson Enterprise Fund
JDMAX
JGRCX
JANEX
JMGRX
JDMNX
JDMRX
JGRTX
JAENX
Janus Henderson Forty Fund
JDCAX
JACCX
JFRDX
JCAPX
JFRNX
JDCRX
JARTX
JACTX
Janus Henderson Growth and Income Fund
JDNAX
JGICX
JNGIX
JGINX
JDNNX
JDNRX
JADGX
JAGIX
Janus Henderson Research Fund
JRAAX
JRACX
JNRFX
JRAIX
JRANX
JRARX
JRASX
JAMRX
Janus Henderson Triton Fund
JGMAX
JGMCX
JANIX
JSMGX
JGMNX
JGMRX
JGMIX
JATTX
Janus Henderson U.S. Dividend Income Fund
N/A
N/A
JDDVX
JIDVX
JNDVX
N/A
N/A
N/A
Janus Henderson Venture Fund
JVTAX
JVTCX
JANVX
JVTIX
JVTNX
N/A
JVTSX
JAVTX
This Statement of Additional Information (“SAI”) expands upon and supplements the information contained in the current Prospectuses for Class A Shares, Class C Shares, Class D Shares, Class I Shares, Class N Shares, Class R Shares, Class S Shares, and Class T Shares (collectively, the “Shares”) of the Funds listed above, each of which is a separate series of Janus Investment Fund, a Massachusetts business trust (the “Trust”). Each of these series of the Trust represents shares of beneficial interest in a separate portfolio of securities and other assets with its own objective and policies. Certain Funds do not offer all classes of Shares.
This SAI is not a Prospectus and should be read in conjunction with the Funds’ Prospectuses dated January 26, 2024, and any supplements thereto, which are incorporated by reference into this SAI and may be obtained from your plan sponsor, broker-dealer, or other financial intermediary, or by contacting a Janus Henderson representative at 1-877-335-2687 (or 1-800-525-3713 if you hold Class D Shares). This SAI contains additional and more detailed information about the Funds’ operations and activities than the Prospectuses. The most recent Annual Report, which contains important financial information about the Funds, is incorporated by reference into this SAI. The Annual and Semiannual Reports are available, without charge, from your plan sponsor, broker-dealer, or other financial intermediary, at janushenderson.com/info (or janushenderson.com/reports if you hold Class D Shares), or by contacting a Janus Henderson representative at 1-877-335-2687 (or 1-800-525-3713 if you hold Class D Shares).


Table of contents
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Janus Investment Fund
This Statement of Additional Information includes information about 20 series of the Trust. Each Fund is a series of the Trust, an open-end, management investment company.
Classification
The Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “1940 Act”), classifies mutual funds as either diversified or nondiversified. Janus Henderson Contrarian Fund and Janus Henderson Forty Fund are classified as nondiversified. Janus Henderson Asia Equity Fund, Janus Henderson Emerging Markets Fund, Janus Henderson European Focus Fund, Janus Henderson Global Equity Income Fund, Janus Henderson Global Life Sciences Fund, Janus Henderson Global Real Estate Fund, Janus Henderson Global Research Fund, Janus Henderson Global Select Fund, Janus Henderson Global Sustainable Equity Fund, Janus Henderson Global Technology and Innovation Fund, Janus Henderson Overseas Fund, Janus Henderson Balanced Fund, Janus Henderson Enterprise Fund, Janus Henderson Growth and Income Fund, Janus Henderson Research Fund, Janus Henderson Triton Fund, Janus Henderson U.S. Dividend Income Fund, and Janus Henderson Venture Fund are classified as diversified.
Adviser
Janus Henderson Investors US LLC (the “Adviser”) is the investment adviser for the Funds.
Investment Policies and Restrictions Applicable to all Funds
The Funds are subject to certain fundamental policies and restrictions that may not be changed without shareholder approval. Shareholder approval means approval by the lesser of: (i) more than 50% of the outstanding voting securities of the Trust (or a particular Fund or particular class of shares if a matter affects just that Fund or that class of shares) or (ii) 67% or more of the voting securities present at a meeting if the holders of more than 50% of the outstanding voting securities of the Trust (or a particular Fund or class of shares) are present or represented by proxy. The following policies are fundamental policies of the Funds. Unless otherwise noted, each of these policies applies to each Fund, except policies (1) and (2), which apply only to the Funds specifically listed in those policies.
(1)  With respect to 75% of its total assets, Janus Henderson Asia Equity Fund, Janus Henderson Emerging Markets Fund, Janus Henderson European Focus Fund, Janus Henderson Global Equity Income Fund, Janus Henderson Global Life Sciences Fund, Janus Henderson Global Real Estate Fund, Janus Henderson Global Research Fund, Janus Henderson Global Select Fund, Janus Henderson Global Sustainable Equity Fund, Janus Henderson Global Technology and Innovation Fund, Janus Henderson Overseas Fund, Janus Henderson Balanced Fund, Janus Henderson Enterprise Fund, Janus Henderson Growth and Income Fund, Janus Henderson Research Fund, Janus Henderson Triton Fund, Janus Henderson U.S. Dividend Income Fund, and Janus Henderson Venture Fund may not purchase securities of an issuer (other than the U.S. Government, its agencies, instrumentalities or authorities, or repurchase agreements collateralized by U.S. Government securities, and securities of other investment companies) if: (a) such purchase would, at the time, cause more than 5% of the Fund’s total assets taken at market value to be invested in the securities of such issuer or (b) such purchase would, at the time, result in more than 10% of the outstanding voting securities of such issuer being held by the Fund.
Each Fund may not:
(2)Invest 25% or more of the value of its total assets in any particular industry (other than U.S. Government securities), except that:
(i)
Janus Henderson Global Life Sciences Fund will normally invest 25% or more of the value of its total assets, in aggregate, in the following industry groups: health care, pharmaceuticals, agriculture, cosmetics/personal care, and biotechnology.
(ii)
Janus Henderson Global Real Estate Fund will invest 25% or more of the value of its total assets in the real estate industries or real estate-related industries.
(3)  Purchase or sell physical commodities unless acquired as a result of ownership of securities or other instruments (but this limitation shall not prevent a Fund from purchasing or selling foreign currencies, options, futures, swaps, forward contracts, or other derivative instruments, or from investing in securities or other instruments backed by physical commodities).
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(4)  Lend any security or make any other loan if, as a result, more than one-third of a Fund’s total assets would be lent to other parties (but this limitation does not apply to investments in repurchase agreements, commercial paper, debt securities, or loans, including assignments and participation interests).
(5)  Act as an underwriter of securities issued by others, except to the extent that a Fund may be deemed an underwriter in connection with the disposition of its portfolio securities.
(6)  Invest directly in real estate or interests in real estate; however, a Fund may own debt or equity securities issued by companies engaged in those businesses.
(7)  Each Fund (except for Janus Henderson Emerging Markets Fund, Janus Henderson European Focus Fund, Janus Henderson Global Equity Income Fund, and Janus Henderson U.S. Dividend Income Fund) may not:
Borrow money except that a Fund may borrow money for temporary or emergency purposes (not for leveraging or investment). Borrowings from banks will not, in any event, exceed one-third of the value of a Fund’s total assets (including the amount borrowed). This policy shall not prohibit short sales transactions, or futures, options, swaps, or forward transactions. The Funds may not issue “senior securities” in contravention of the 1940 Act.
(8)  With respect to Janus Henderson Emerging Markets Fund, Janus Henderson European Focus Fund, Janus Henderson Global Equity Income Fund, and Janus Henderson U.S. Dividend Income Fund, each Fund may not:
Borrow money or issue “senior securities,” in each case except as permitted under the 1940 Act.
As a fundamental policy, a Fund may, notwithstanding any other investment policy or limitation (whether or not fundamental), invest all of its assets in the securities of a single open-end management investment company with substantially the same fundamental investment objectives, policies, and limitations as such Fund.
The Board of Trustees (“Trustees”) has adopted additional investment restrictions for the Funds. These restrictions are operating policies of the Funds and may be changed by the Trustees without shareholder approval. The additional restrictions adopted by the Trustees to date include the following:
(1)  If a Fund is an underlying fund in a fund of funds managed by the Adviser, the Fund may not acquire securities of other investment companies in reliance on Section 12(d)(1)(F) of the 1940 Act and securities of open-end investment companies or registered unit investment trusts in reliance on Section 12(d)(1)(G) of the 1940 Act.
(2)  The Funds may sell securities short if they own or have the right to obtain securities equivalent in kind and amount to the securities sold short without the payment of any additional consideration therefor (“short sales against the box”). In addition, each Fund may engage in short sales other than against the box, which involve selling a security that a Fund borrows and does not own. Transactions in futures, options, swaps, and forward contracts not involving short sales are not deemed to constitute selling securities short.
(3)  The Fundsdo not intend to purchase securities on margin, except that the Funds may obtain such short-term credits as are necessary for the clearance of transactions, and provided that margin payments and other deposits in connection with transactions involving short sales, futures, options, swaps, forward contracts, “to be announced” commitments, and other permitted investment techniques shall not be deemed to constitute purchasing securities on margin.
(4)  A Fund may not mortgage or pledge any securities owned or held by such Fund in amounts that exceed, in the aggregate, 15% of that Fund’s net asset value (“NAV”), provided that this limitation does not apply to: reverse repurchase agreements; deposits of assets to margin; guarantee positions in futures, options, swaps, or forward contracts; or the segregation of assets in connection with such contracts.
(5)  A Fund may not acquire any illiquid investment if, immediately after the acquisition, the Fund would have invested more than 15% of its net assets in illiquid investments that are assets.
(6)  The Funds may not invest in companies for the purpose of exercising control of management.
(7)  The Funds may borrow money by engaging in reverse repurchase agreements (reverse repurchase agreements are treated as borrowings for purposes of the fundamental borrowing investment restriction).
Under the terms of an exemptive order received from the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”), each Fund may borrow money from or lend money to other funds that permit such transactions and for which the Adviser or one of its affiliates serves as investment adviser. All such borrowing and lending will be subject to the above limits and to the limits and other conditions in such exemptive order. A Fund will borrow money through the program only when the costs are equal to
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or lower than the cost of bank loans. Interfund loans and borrowings normally extend overnight, but can have a maximum duration of seven days. A Fund will lend through the program only when the returns are higher than those available from other short-term instruments (such as repurchase agreements). A Fund may have to borrow from a bank at a higher interest rate if an interfund loan is called or not renewed. Any delay in repayment to a lending Fund could result in a lost investment opportunity or additional borrowing costs, and interfund loans are subject to the risk that the borrowing Fund may be unable to repay the loan when due. While it is expected that aFund may borrow money through the program to satisfy redemption requests or to cover unanticipated cash shortfalls, aFund may elect to not participate in the program during times of market uncertainty or distress or for other reasons.
For purposes of these investment restrictions, the identification of the issuer of a municipal obligation depends on the terms and conditions of the security. When assets and revenues of a political subdivision are separate from those of the government that created the subdivision and the security is backed only by the assets and revenues of the subdivision, the subdivision is deemed to be the sole issuer. Similarly, in the case of an industrial development bond, if the bond is backed only by assets and revenues of a nongovernmental user, then the nongovernmental user would be deemed to be the sole issuer. If, however, in either case, the creating government or some other entity guarantees the security, the guarantee would be considered a separate security that would be treated as an issue of the guaranteeing entity.
For purposes of the Funds’ fundamental policy related to investments in real estate, the policy does not prohibit the purchase of securities directly or indirectly secured by real estate or interests therein, or issued by entities that invest in real estate or interests therein, such as, but not limited to, corporations, partnerships, real estate investment trusts (“REITs”), and other REIT-like entities, such as foreign entities that have REIT characteristics.
For purposes of each Fund’s policies on investing in particular industries, each Fund relies primarily on industry or industry group classifications under the Global Industry Classification Standard (“GICS”) developed by MSCI with respect to equity investments and classifications published by Bloomberg L.P. for fixed-income investments. Funds with both equity and fixed-income components will rely on industry classifications published by Bloomberg L.P. To the extent that the above classifications are so broad that the primary economic characteristics in a single class are materially different, a Fund may further classify issuers in accordance with industry classifications consistent with relevant SEC staff (the “Staff”) interpretations. The Funds may change any source used for determining industry classifications without prior shareholder notice or approval.
Investment Policies Applicable to Certain Funds
Janus Henderson Global Life Sciences Fund.As a fundamental policy, Janus Henderson Global Life Sciences Fund will normally invest at least 25% of its total assets, in aggregate, in the following industry groups: health care, pharmaceuticals, agriculture, cosmetics/personal care, and biotechnology. Janus Henderson Global Life Sciences Fund does not have a policy to concentrate in any industry other than those listed above.
Janus Henderson Global Real Estate Fund.As a fundamental policy, the Fund will concentrate 25% or more of its total assets in securities of issuers in real estate industries or real estate-related industries.
Janus Henderson Balanced Fund.As an operational policy, at least 25% of the assets of Janus Henderson Balanced Fund will normally be invested in fixed-income senior securities. A senior security ranks above an issuing company’s other securities in the event of a bankruptcy or liquidation, which means the Fund would be in line to receive repayment of its
investment before certain of the company’s other creditors.
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Investment Strategies and Risks
Diversification
Funds are classified as either diversified or nondiversified. To be classified as diversified under the 1940 Act, a fund may not, with respect to 75% of its total assets, invest more than 5% of its total assets in any issuer and may not own more than 10% of the outstanding voting securities of an issuer. A fund that is classified as nondiversified under the 1940 Act is not subject to the same restrictions and therefore has the ability to take larger positions in securities than a fund that is classified as diversified. This gives a fund that is classified as nondiversified more flexibility to focus its investments in companies that portfolio management has identified as the most attractive for the investment objective and strategy of the fund. However, because the appreciation or depreciation of a single security may have a greater impact on the NAV of a fund which is classified as nondiversified, its share price can be expected to fluctuate more than a comparable fund which is classified as diversified. This fluctuation, if significant, may affect the performance of a fund.
Cash Position
As discussed in the Prospectuses, a Fund’s cash position may temporarily increase under various circumstances. Securities that the Funds may invest in as a means of receiving a return on uninvested cash include domestic or foreign currency denominated commercial paper, certificates of deposit, repurchase agreements, or other short-term debt obligations. These securities may include U.S. and foreign short-term cash instruments and cash equivalent securities. Each Fund may also invest in affiliated or non-affiliated money market funds (refer to “Investment Company Securities”).
Commercial Paper
Commercial paper refers to short-term, unsecured promissory notes issued by banks, corporations and other borrowers to finance short-term credit needs. Commercial paper is usually sold on a discount basis and typically has a maturity at the time of issuance not exceeding nine months. Each Fund may invest in investment grade commercial paper (e.g., that is rated Prime-3 or higher by Moody’s Investors Service, Inc. (“Moody’s”) or A-3 or higher by Standard & Poor’s Ratings Services (“S&P”) or, if unrated by Moody’s or S&P, is issued by a company having an outstanding debt issue rated investment grade). Risks associated with commercial paper include credit risk and liquidity risk.
Illiquid Investments
Each Fund may not acquire any illiquid investment if, immediately after the acquisition, a Fund would have invested more than 15% of its net assets in illiquid investments that are assets. Illiquid investments, which include certain securities that are purchased in private placements, are securities that a Fund reasonably expects cannot be sold or disposed of in current market conditions in seven calendar days or less without the sale or disposition significantly changing the market value of the security. Certain securities previously deemed liquid may become illiquid over time, particularly in periods of economic distress.
If illiquid investments that are assets exceed 15% of aFund’s net assets, the Fund will take steps to reduce its holdings of such illiquid investments to or below 15% of its net assets within a reasonable period of time. Because illiquid investments may not be readily marketable, portfolio management may not be able to dispose of them in a timely manner. As a result, the Fund may be forced to hold illiquid investments while their price depreciates. Depreciation in the price of illiquid investments may cause the NAV of aFund to decline.
Private Placements and Other Exempt Securities Risk.Private placements are securities that are subject to legal and/or contractual restrictions on their sales. These securities may also include initial public offerings (“IPO”) where a Fund participates as an anchor or cornerstone investor (“Cornerstone Investor”) wherein it agrees, prior to a company’s IPO, to acquire a certain dollar amount of the IPO securities (“Cornerstone IPOs”). Private placements and other securities exempt from certain registration requirements may not be sold to the public unless certain conditions are met, which may include registration under the applicable securities laws. These securities may not be listed on an exchange and may have no active trading market. As a result of the absence of a public trading market, the prices of these securities may be more volatile and more difficult to determine than publicly traded securities and these securities may involve heightened risk as compared to investments in securities of publicly traded companies. Further, companies whose securities are not publicly traded may not be subject to the disclosure and other investor protection requirements that would be applicable if their securities were publicly traded. Accordingly, private placements and other securities exempt from certain registration requirements may involve a high degree of business and financial risk and may result in substantial losses.
Private placements and other securities exempt from certain registration requirements may be illiquid, and it frequently can be difficult to sell them at a time when it may otherwise be desirable to do so or a Fund may be able to sell them only at prices that are less than what the Fund regards as their fair market value. A security that was liquid at the time of purchase
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may subsequently become illiquid. In addition, transaction costs may be higher for private placements. The Fund may have to bear the expense of registering such securities for sale and there may be substantial delays in effecting the registration. If, during such a delay, adverse market conditions were to develop, the Fund might obtain a less favorable price than prevailed at the time it decided to seek registration of the securities. In addition, the Fund may get only limited information about the issuer of a private placement or other security exempt from certain registration requirements, so it may be less able to anticipate a loss. Also, if portfolio management receives material non-public information about the issuer, the Fund may, as a result, be legally prohibited from selling the securities.
Each Fund may make an initial investment of up to 0.5% of its total assets in any one private placement issuer. AFund may not invest more than 1% of its total assets in the aggregate, measured at the time of the subsequent purchase, in any one private placement issuer.
Investments in securities exempt from certain registration requirements may include securities issued through private offerings without registration with the SEC pursuant to Regulation S or Rule 144A under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “1933 Act”). Offerings of Regulation S securities may be conducted outside of the United States. Although Regulation S and Rule 144A securities may be resold in privately negotiated transactions, the amounts received from these sales could be less than those originally paid by the Funds.
Environmental, Social, and Governance Data
Within the parameters of a Fund’s specific investment policies, portfolio management may consider environmental, social, and governance (“ESG”) data inputs from third-party data providers. As of the date of this SAI, portfolio management receives such inputs provided by MSCI, Vigeo Eiris, Institutional Shareholder Services, Inc. (“ISS”) and Sustainalytics. A description of the ESG data provided is noted below. The third-party data providers used by the Adviser are subject to change over time. The use and reliance on such information will vary depending on the strategy employed by a Fund/investment team.
MSCI – Provides ESG and government ratings, corporate impact data including ESG-related controversies, business involvement screening and thematic alignment to the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals, and climate change solutions consisting of climate data, risk reporting and scenario analysis. A description of MSCI’s ESG ratings methodology can be found on their website at www.msci.com. As of January 17, 2024, MSCI uses a rules-based methodology to identify industry leaders and laggards according to their exposure to ESG risks and how well they manage those risks relative to peers, and their ESG ratings range from leader (AAA, AA), average (A, BBB, BB), to laggard (B, CCC).
Vigeo Eiris, part of Moody’s ESG Solutions – Provides activity-based exclusion classifications.
ISS – Provides climate risk data and reporting on carbon emissions, warming potential, alignment with Paris Agreement on Climate Change, physical risk information, transition risk information, scenario analysis, and voting governance analysis.
Sustainalytics, a Morningstar Company – Provides absolute ESG risk scoring, general activity-based and norms-based exclusion classifications, and information regarding certain ESG metrics to support focused evaluation or screening.
Private Investments in Public Equity
Private investments in public equity (“PIPEs”) are equity securities privately purchased from public companies (including special purpose acquisition companies as described below) at a specified price. PIPEs generally are not registered with the SEC until after a certain time period from the date the private sale is completed. Until the public registration process is completed, PIPEs are restricted as to resale and a Fund cannot freely trade the securities. Generally, such restrictions cause the PIPEs to be illiquid during this time. PIPEs may contain provisions that the issuer will pay specified financial penalties to the holder if the issuer does not publicly register the restricted equity securities within a specified period of time, but there is no assurance that the restricted equity securities will be publicly registered, or that the registration will remain in effect. Issuers may suspend the use of a registration statement because the registration statement must be amended or corrected to remedy a material misstatement or omission. This suspension period is often referred to as a black-out period, during which PIPE purchasers will not have the ability to sell PIPE shares pursuant to such registration statement and may have limited liquidity if other exemptions for public resale are not available. Black-out periods can be more common for PIPEs on special purpose acquisition companies (“SPACs”). Additionally, because of the potential likelihood of needing to amend registration statements for PIPE shares on SPACs, issuers are less likely to be willing to remove any restrictive legends on PIPE shares once the registration statement is initially effective and will only remove them pursuant to a pending sale, which can delay liquidity. To the extent that they increase the supply of a company’s stock in the market, PIPEs can potentially dilute the value of existing shares.
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Special Purpose Acquisition Companies
Certain Funds may invest in stock, warrants, and other SPACs or similar entities that pool funds to seek potential acquisition opportunities. Unless and until an acquisition is completed, a SPAC typically invests its assets (less a portion retained to cover expenses) in U.S. Government securities, money market fund securities, and cash. If an acquisition that meets the requirements for the SPAC is not completed within a pre-established period of time (typically two years), the invested funds are returned to the SPAC’s shareholders. Because SPACs and similar entities are in essence blank check companies without an operating history or ongoing business other than seeking acquisitions, the value of a SPAC’s securities is particularly dependent on the ability of the SPAC’s management to timely identify and complete a profitable acquisition. Some SPACs may pursue acquisitions only within certain industries or regions, which may increase the volatility of their prices. To the extent the SPAC is invested in cash or similar securities while awaiting an acquisition opportunity, a Fund’s ability to meet its investment objective may be negatively impacted. In addition, some SPACs may be traded in the over-the-counter market and may be considered illiquid and/or be subject to restrictions on resale.
Securities Lending
Under procedures adopted by the Trustees, certainFunds may seek to earn additional income by lending securities to qualified parties (typically brokers or other financial institutions) who need to borrow securities in order to complete, among other things, certain transactions such as covering short sales, avoiding failures to deliver securities, or completing arbitrage activities. To the extent a Fund engages in securities lending, there is the risk of delay in recovering a loaned security. In addition, the Adviser makes efforts to balance the benefits and risks from granting such loans. CertainFunds may participate in a securities lending program under which shares of an issuer may be on loan while that issuer is conducting a proxy solicitation. Generally, if shares of an issuer are on loan during a proxy solicitation, a Fund cannot vote the shares without recalling such securities on loan. The Funds that participate in securities lending have discretion to pull back lent shares before proxy record dates and vote proxies if time and jurisdictional requirements permit and based on the best interests of the Funds. All loans will be continuously secured by collateral which may consist of cash, U.S. Government securities, domestic and foreign short-term debt instruments, letters of credit, time deposits, repurchase agreements, money market mutual funds or other money market accounts, or such other collateral as permitted by the SEC. If a Fund is unable to recover a security on loan, the Fund may use the collateral to purchase replacement securities in the market. There is a risk that the value of the collateral could decrease below the cost of the replacement security by the time the replacement investment is made, resulting in a loss to the Fund. In certain circumstances, individual loan transactions could yield negative returns.
Upon receipt of cash collateral, the Adviser may invest it in affiliated or non-affiliated cash management vehicles, whether registered or unregistered entities, as permitted by the 1940 Act and rules promulgated thereunder. The Adviser currently intends to invest the cash collateral in a cash management vehicle for which the Adviser serves as investment adviser, or in time deposits, which are managed by the Funds’ securities lending agent, JPMorgan Chase Bank, National Association (“JPMorgan Chase Bank”). An investment in a cash management vehicle is generally subject to the same risks that shareholders experience when investing in similarly structured vehicles, such as the potential for significant fluctuations in assets as a result of the purchase and redemption activity of the securities lending program, a decline in the value of the collateral, and possible liquidity issues. Such risks may delay the return of the cash collateral and cause a Fund to violate its agreement to return the cash collateral to a borrower in a timely manner. As adviser to the Funds and the affiliated cash management vehicle in which a portion of the cash collateral is invested, the Adviser has an inherent conflict of interest as a result of its fiduciary duties to both the Funds and the cash management vehicle. Additionally, the Adviser receives an investment advisory fee of 0.05% for managing the cash management vehicle used for the securities lending program, but it may not receive a fee for managing certain other affiliated cash management vehicles in which the Funds may invest, and therefore may have an incentive to allocate preferred investment opportunities to investment vehicles for which it is receiving a fee.
Equity Securities
The Funds may invest in equity securities, which include, but are not limited to, common and preferred stocks, securities convertible or exchangeable into common stock, and warrants.
Common Stock.Common stock represents a proportionate share of the ownership of a company. Common stocks sometimes are divided into several classes, with each class having different voting rights, dividend rights, or other differences in their rights and priorities. The value of a stock is based on the market’s assessment of the current and future success of a company’s business, any income paid to stockholders, the value of the company’s assets, and general market conditions. The value of a stock may also be adversely affected by other factors such as accounting irregularities, actual or perceived
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weaknesses in corporate governance practices of a company’s board or management, and changes in company management. Common stock values can fluctuate dramatically over short periods.
Preferred Stock.A preferred stock represents an ownership interest in a company, but pays dividends at a specific rate and has priority over common stock in payment of dividends and liquidation claims. Preferred stock dividends are generally cumulative, noncumulative, or participating. “Cumulative” dividend provisions require all or a portion of prior unpaid dividends to be paid before dividends can be paid to the issuer’s common stock. “Participating” preferred stock may be entitled to a dividend exceeding the stated dividend in certain cases. Like debt securities, the value of a preferred stock often fluctuates more in response to changes in interest rates and the creditworthiness of the issuer, rather than in response to changes in the issuer’s profitability and business prospects. Preferred stock is subject to similar risks as common stock and debt securities.
Convertible Security.A convertible security is generally a debt obligation or preferred stock that may be converted within a specified period of time into a certain amount of common stock of the same or a different issuer. A convertible security, such as a “convertible preferred stock,” provides a fixed-income stream and the opportunity, through its conversion feature, to participate in the capital appreciation resulting from a market price advance in its underlying common stock. Like a common stock, the value of a convertible security tends to increase as the market value of the underlying stock rises, and it tends to decrease as the market value of the underlying stock declines. As with a fixed-income security, a convertible security tends to increase in market value when interest rates decline and decrease in value when interest rates rise. Because both interest rate and market movements can influence its value, a convertible security is not as sensitive to interest rates as a similar fixed-income security, nor is it as sensitive to changes in share price as its underlying stock.
Convertible securities generally have less potential for gain or loss than common stocks. Convertible securities generally provide yields higher than the underlying common stocks, but generally lower than comparable non-convertible securities. Because of this higher yield, convertible securities generally sell at prices above their “conversion value,” which is the current market value of the stock to be received upon conversion. The difference between this conversion value and the price of convertible securities will vary over time depending on changes in the value of the underlying common stocks and interest rates.
A convertible security may also be called for redemption or conversion by the issuer after a particular date and under certain circumstances (including a specified price) established upon issue. If a convertible security held by aFund is called for redemption or conversion, the Fund could be required to tender it for redemption, convert it into the underlying common stock, or sell it to a third party.
Synthetic convertible securities are created by combining separate securities that possess the two principal characteristics of a traditional convertible security, i.e., an income-producing security (“income-producing component”) and the right to acquire an equity security (“convertible component”). The income-producing component is achieved by investing in non-convertible, income-producing securities such as bonds, preferred stocks and money market instruments, which may be represented by derivative instruments. The convertible component is achieved by investing in securities or instruments such as warrants or options to buy common stock at a certain exercise price, or options on a stock index. Unlike a traditional convertible security, which is a single security having a single market value, a synthetic convertible security is comprised of two or more separate securities, each with its own market value. Therefore, the “market value” of a synthetic convertible security is the sum of the values of its income-producing component and its convertible component. For this reason, the values of a synthetic convertible security and a traditional convertible security may respond differently to market fluctuations.
More flexibility is possible in the assembly of a synthetic convertible security than in the purchase of a convertible security. Although synthetic convertible securities may be selected where the two components are issued by a single issuer, thus making the synthetic convertible security similar to the traditional convertible security, the character of a synthetic convertible security allows the combination of components representing distinct issuers. A synthetic convertible security also is a more flexible investment in that its two components may be purchased separately. For example, aFund may purchase a warrant for inclusion in a synthetic convertible security but temporarily hold short-term investments while postponing the purchase of a corresponding bond pending development of more favorable market conditions.
A holder of a synthetic convertible security faces the risk of a decline in the price of the security or the level of the index involved in the convertible component, causing a decline in the value of the security or instrument, such as a call option or warrant, purchased to create the synthetic convertible security. Should the price of the stock fall below the exercise price and remain there throughout the exercise period, the entire amount paid for the convertible component would be lost. Because a
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synthetic convertible security includes the income-producing component as well, the holder of a synthetic convertible security also faces the risk that interest rates will rise, causing a decline in the value of the income-producing instrument.
Certain Funds also may purchase synthetic convertible securities created by other parties, including convertible structured notes. Convertible structured notes are income-producing debentures linked to equity, and are typically issued by investment banks. Convertible structured notes have the attributes of a convertible security; however, the investment bank that issues the convertible note, rather than the issuer of the underlying common stock into which the note is convertible, assumes the credit risk associated with the underlying investment, and such Fund in turn assumes the credit risk associated with the convertible note.
Warrants.Warrants constitute options to purchase equity securities at a specific price and are valid for a specific period of time. They do not represent ownership of the equity securities, but only the right to buy them. Warrants have no voting rights, pay no dividends, and have no rights with respect to the assets of the corporation issuing them. Warrants differ from call options in that warrants are issued by the issuer of the security that may be purchased on their exercise, whereas call options may be issued by anyone. The prices of warrants do not necessarily move parallel to the prices of the underlying equity securities. The price usually represents a premium over the applicable market value of the common stock at the time of the warrant’s issuance. Investments in warrants involve certain risks, including the possible lack of a liquid market for the resale of the warrants, potential price fluctuations as a result of speculation or other factors, and failure of the price of the common stock to rise. The price of a warrant may be more volatile than the price of its underlying security. A warrant becomes worthless if it is not exercised within the specified time period.
Certain Funds may from time to time use non-standard warrants, including low exercise price warrants or low exercise price options (“LEPOs”), to gain exposure to issuers in certain countries. LEPOs are different from standard warrants in that they do not give their holders the right to receive a security of the issuer upon exercise. Rather, LEPOs pay the holder the difference in the price of the underlying security between the date the LEPO was purchased and the date it is sold. Additionally, LEPOs entail the same risks as derivatives that are traded over-the-counter, including the risks that the counterparty or issuer of the LEPO may not be able to fulfill its obligations, that the holder and counterparty or issuer may disagree as to the meaning or application of contractual terms, or that the instrument may not perform as expected. Furthermore, while LEPOs may be listed on an exchange, there is no guarantee that a liquid market will exist or that the counterparty or issuer of a LEPO will be willing to repurchase such instrument when such Fund wishes to sell it.
Industry and Sector Risks
Financial Services Sector.To the extent aFund invests a significant portion of its assets in the financial services sector, thatFund will have more exposure to the risks inherent to the financial services sector. Financial services companies may be adversely affected by changes in regulatory framework or interest rates that may negatively affect financial services businesses; exposure of a financial institution to a nondiversified or concentrated loan portfolio; exposure to financial leverage and/or investments or agreements that, under certain circumstances, may lead to losses; and the risk that a market shock or other unexpected market, economic, political, regulatory, or other event, including a banking crisis or financial emergency, might lead to a sudden decline in the values of most or all financial services companies.
Information Technology Sector.To the extent aFund invests a significant portion of its assets in technology-related industries or sectors, competitive pressures may have a significant effect on the performance of companies in which thatFund may invest. In addition, technology and technology-related companies often progress at an accelerated rate, and these companies may be subject to short product cycles and aggressive pricing, which may increase their volatility.
Cyber Security Risk
The Fundsare susceptible to operational and information security risks. In general, cyber incidents can result from deliberate attacks or unintentional events. Cyber-attacks include, but are not limited to, infection by computer viruses or other malicious software code, gaining unauthorized access to systems, networks, or devices that are used to service the Funds’ operations through “hacking” or other means for the purpose of misappropriating assets or sensitive information, corrupting data, or causing operational disruption. Cyber-attacks may also be carried out in a manner that does not require gaining unauthorized access, such as causing denial-of-service attacks on the Funds’ websites or a service provider’s systems, which renders them inoperable to intended users until appropriate actions are taken. In addition, authorized persons could inadvertently or intentionally release confidential or proprietary information stored on the Funds’ systems.
Cyber security failures or breaches by the Funds’ service providers (including, but not limited to, the Adviser, custodians, transfer agents, subadministrators, and financial intermediaries) may subject a Fund to many of the same risks associated with direct cyber security failures or breaches, and may cause disruptions and impact the service providers’ and the Funds’business
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operations, potentially resulting in financial losses, the inability of fund shareholders to transact business and the mutual funds to process transactions, inability to calculate a Fund’s net asset value, violations of applicable privacy and other laws, regulatory fines, penalties, reputational damage, reimbursement or other compensation costs, and/or additional compliance costs. The Funds may incur incremental costs to prevent cyber incidents in the future. The Funds could be negatively impacted as a result. While the Adviser has established business continuity plans and risk management systems designed to prevent or reduce the impact of such cyber-attacks, there are inherent limitations in such plans and systems due in part to the ever-changing nature of technology and cyber-attack tactics. As such, there is a possibility that certain risks have not been adequately identified or prepared for. Furthermore, the Funds cannot directly control any cyber security plans and systems put in place by third party service providers. Cyber security risks are also present for issuers of securities in which a Fund invests, which could result in material adverse consequences for such issuers, and may cause the Fund’s investment in such securities to lose value.
Operational Risk
An investment in a Fund can involve operational risks arising from factors such as processing errors, human errors, inadequate or failed internal or external processes, failures in systems and technology, changes in personnel, and errors caused by third party service providers. Among other things, these errors or failures, as well as other technological issues, may adversely affect a Fund’s ability to calculate its net asset value in a timely manner, including over a potentially extended period of time. These errors or failures may also result in a loss or compromise of information, regulatory scrutiny, reputational damage or other events, any of which could have a material adverse effect on a Fund. While the Fundsseek to minimize such events through internal controls and oversight of third party service providers, there is no guarantee that a Fund will not suffer losses if such events occur.
Foreign Securities
Each Fund may invest in foreign securities either indirectly (e.g., depositary receipts, depositary shares, and passive foreign investment companies) or directly in foreign markets, including emerging markets. Investments in foreign securities may include, but are not necessarily limited to, corporate debt securities of foreign issuers, preferred or preference stock of foreign issuers, certain foreign bank obligations, and U.S. dollar or foreign currency-denominated obligations of foreign governments or supranational entities or their subdivisions, agencies, and instrumentalities. In addition to the Global and International Funds, Janus Henderson Enterprise Fund and Janus Henderson Venture Fund have, at times, invested a substantial portion of their assets in foreign securities and may continue to do so. Investments in foreign securities, including securities of foreign and emerging market governments, may involve greater risks than investing in domestic securities because a Fund’s performance may depend on factors other than the performance of a particular company. These risks may include:
Brexit Risk.The United Kingdom formally left the European Union (the “EU”) in January 2020 (commonly known as “Brexit”) and entered into a new trade agreement with the EU, which became effective in January 2021. Significant economic and regulatory uncertainty caused by the United Kingdom’s exit from the EU has resulted in volatile markets for the United Kingdom and broader international financial markets. In addition, financial markets may experience, among other things, greater illiquidity, currency fluctuations, a decline in cross-border investment between the United Kingdom and the EU, and lower economic growth for companies that relied significantly on the United Kingdom and/or the EU for their business activities and revenues. Accordingly, there remains a risk that the aftermath of Brexit, including its ongoing effect on the United Kingdom’s relationships with other countries, including the United States, and with the EU, may negatively impact the value of investments held by the Fund. In addition, any further exits from the EU, or an increase in the belief that such exits are likely or possible, would likely cause additional market disruption globally and introduce new legal and regulatory uncertainties.
Currency Risk.As long as a Fund holds a foreign security, its value will be affected by the value of the local currency relative to the U.S. dollar. When a Fund sells a foreign currency denominated security, its value may be worth less in U.S. dollars even if the security increases in value in its home country. U.S. dollar-denominated securities of foreign issuers may also be affected by currency risk, as the value of these securities may also be affected by changes in the issuer’s local currency.
Emerging Markets Risk.Within the parameters of its specific investment policies, each Fund, particularly Janus Henderson Asia Equity Fund, Janus Henderson Emerging Markets Fund, Janus Henderson European Focus Fund, Janus Henderson Global Life Sciences Fund, Janus Henderson Global Research Fund, Janus Henderson Global Technology and Innovation Fund, and Janus Henderson Overseas Fund, may invest its assets in securities of issuers or companies from or with exposure to one or more “developing countries” or “emerging market countries.” Such countries include, but are not limited to, countries included in the MSCI Emerging Markets Indexsm. For Janus Henderson Emerging Markets Fund, such countries include any country that has been considered by the World Bank, the International Finance Corporation or the United
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Nations to be developing and/or any country that is included in the MSCI Emerging Markets Index, which measures the equity market performance of developing markets. Each of Janus Henderson Global Real Estate Fund and Janus Henderson Global Select Fund will normally limit its investments in emerging market countries to 15% and 30%, respectively, of its net assets. Janus Henderson Global Equity Income Fund does not expect to invest more than 25% of its assets in securities of companies based in emerging markets. Janus Henderson Global Sustainable Equity Fund will normally limit its investments in emerging market countries to 5% of its net assets. Investing in emerging markets involves certain risks not typically associated with investing in the United States and imposes risks greater than, or in addition to, the risks associated with investing in securities of more developed foreign countries. The prices of investments in emerging markets can experience sudden and sharp price swings. In many developing markets, there is less government supervision and regulation of stock exchanges, brokers, and listed companies than in more developed markets. Similarly, issuers in such markets may not be subject to regulatory, disclosure, accounting, auditing, and financial reporting and recordkeeping standards comparable to those to which U.S. companies are subject. Information about emerging markets companies, including financial information, may be less available or reliable and a Fund’s ability to conduct due diligence with respect to such companies may be limited. In addition, certain emerging market jurisdictions materially restrict the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board’s (“PCAOB”) inspection, investigation and enforcement capabilities which impairs the ability to conduct independent oversight or inspection of accounting firms located in or operating in certain emerging markets; therefore, there is no guarantee that the quality of financial reporting or the audits conducted by audit firms of emerging market issuers meet PCAOB standards. Accordingly, these investments may be potentially more volatile in price and less liquid than investments in developed securities markets, resulting in greater risk to investors. There is a risk in developing countries that a current or future economic or political crisis could lead to price controls, forced mergers of companies, expropriation or confiscatory taxation, imposition or enforcement of foreign ownership limits, seizure, nationalization, sanctions or imposition of restrictions by various governmental entities on investment and trading, or creation of government monopolies, any of which may have a detrimental effect on a Fund’s investments. Many emerging market countries have experienced substantial, and in some periods extremely high, rates of inflation or deflation for many years, and future inflation may adversely affect the economies and securities markets of such countries. In addition, the economies of developing countries tend to be heavily dependent upon international trade and, as such, have been, and may continue to be, adversely impacted by trade barriers, exchange controls, managed adjustments in relative currency values, and other protectionist measures. Developing countries may also experience a higher level of exposure and vulnerability to the adverse effects of climate change. This may be attributed to both the geographic location of emerging market countries and/or a country’s lack of access to technology or resources to adjust and adapt to its effects. An increased occurrence and severity of natural disasters and extreme weather events such as droughts and decreased crop yields, heat waves, flooding and rising sea levels, and increased spread of disease, could cause harmful effects to the performance of affected economies. These economies also have been, and may continue to be, adversely affected by economic conditions in the countries with which they do business. Emerging markets may be subject to a higher degree of corruption and fraud than developed markets, and financial institutions and transaction counterparties may have less financial sophistication, creditworthiness and/or resources than participants in developed markets.
The securities markets of many of the emerging market countries in which the Funds may invest may also be smaller, less liquid, and subject to greater price volatility than those in the United States. Moreover, the legal remedies for investors in emerging markets or other legal systems to ensure orderly enforcement of property interests such as bankruptcy may be more limited than the remedies available in the United States. Additionally, the ability of U.S. authorities (e.g., the SEC and the U.S. Department of Justice) to bring actions against bad actors may be limited. A shareholder’s ability to bring and enforce legal actions in emerging market countries, or to obtain information needed to pursue or enforce such actions, may be limited and as a result such claims may be difficult or impossible to pursue. In the event of a default on any investments in foreign debt obligations, it may be more difficult for the Funds to obtain or to enforce a judgment against the issuers of such securities. In addition, there may be little financial or accounting information available with respect to issuers of emerging market securities, and it may be difficult as a result to assess the value of an investment in such securities. Further, a Fund’s ability to participate fully in the smaller, less liquid emerging markets may be limited by the policy restricting its investments in illiquid securities. In addition, the taxation systems at the federal, regional and local levels in developing or emerging market countries may be less transparent and inconsistently enforced, and subject to sudden change.
The Funds may be subject to emerging markets risk to the extent that they invest in securities of issuers or companies which are not considered to be from emerging markets, but which have customers, products, or transactions associated with emerging markets.
Eurozone Risk.A number of countries in the EU have experienced, and may continue to experience, severe economic and financial difficulties. In particular, many EU nations are susceptible to economic risks associated with high levels of debt.
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Many non-governmental issuers, and even certain governments, have defaulted on, or been forced to restructure, their debts. Many other issuers have faced difficulties obtaining credit or refinancing existing obligations. Financial institutions have in many cases required government or central bank support, have needed to raise capital, and/or have been impaired in their ability to extend credit. As a result, financial markets in the EU have experienced extreme volatility and declines in asset values and liquidity. These difficulties may continue, worsen, or spread further within the EU.
Certain countries in the EU have had to accept assistance from supra-governmental agencies such as the International Monetary Fund and the European Financial Service Facility. The European Central Bank has also been intervening to purchase Eurozone debt in an attempt to stabilize markets and reduce borrowing costs. Responses to these financial problems by European governments, central banks and others, including austerity measures and reforms, may not work, may result in social unrest, and may limit future growth and economic recovery or have other unintended consequences. Further defaults or restructurings by governments and others of their debt could have additional adverse effects on economies, financial markets, and asset valuations around the world.
In addition, certain European countries have at times experienced negative interest rates on certain fixed-income instruments. A negative interest rate policy is an unconventional central bank monetary policy tool where nominal target interest rates are set with a negative value (i.e., below zero percent) intended to help create self-sustaining growth in the local economy. Negative interest rates may result in heightened market volatility and may detract from a Fund’s performance to the extent the Fund is exposed to such interest rates.
Among other things, these developments have adversely affected the value and exchange rate of the euro and pound sterling, and may continue to significantly affect the economies of all EU countries, which in turn may have a material adverse effect on a Fund’s investments in such countries, other countries that depend on EU countries for significant amounts of trade or investment, or issuers with exposure to debt issued by certain EU countries.
Foreign Market Risk.Foreign securities markets, particularly those of emerging market countries, may be less liquid and more volatile than domestic markets. These securities markets may trade a small number of securities, may have a limited number of issuers and a high proportion of shares, or may be held by a relatively small number of persons or institutions. Local securities markets may be unable to respond effectively to increases in trading volume, potentially making prompt liquidation of substantial holdings difficult or impossible at times. It is also possible that certain markets may require payment for securities before delivery, and delays may be encountered in settling securities transactions. In some foreign markets, there may not be protection against failure by other parties to complete transactions. A Fund could be adversely affected by delays in, or a refusal to grant, any required approval for repatriation of capital, dividends, interest, and other income from a particular country or governmental entity. In addition, securities of issuers located in or economically tied to countries with emerging markets may have limited marketability and may be subject to more abrupt or erratic price movements which could also have a negative effect on a Fund. Such factors may hinder a Fund’s ability to buy and sell emerging market securities in a timely manner, affecting the Fund’s investment strategies and potentially affecting the value of the Fund.
Geographic Investment Risk.To the extent a Fund invests a significant portion of its assets in a particular country or geographic region, the Fund will generally have more exposure to certain risks due to possible political, economic, social, regulatory events, and conflicts in that country or region. Adverse developments in certain regions could also adversely affect securities of other countries whose economies appear to be unrelated and could have a negative impact on a Fund’s performance.
Similarly, a particular country or geographic region may be more prone to and economically sensitive to environmental events such as, but not limited to, hurricanes, earthquakes, typhoons, flooding, tidal waves, tsunamis, erupting volcanoes, wildfires or droughts, tornadoes, mudslides, or other weather-related phenomena. Such disasters, and the resulting physical or economic damage, could have a severe and negative impact on a Fund’s investment portfolio and, in the longer term, could impair the ability of issuers in which the Fund invests to conduct their businesses as they would under normal conditions. Adverse weather conditions may also have a particularly significant negative effect on issuers in the agricultural sector and on insurance and reinsurance companies that insure or reinsure against the impact of natural disasters.
Political and Economic Risk.Foreign investments may be subject to heightened political and economic risks, particularly in emerging markets which may have relatively unstable governments, immature economic structures, national policies restricting investments by foreigners, social instability, and different and/or developing legal systems. In some countries, there is the risk that the government may take over the assets or operations of a company or that the government may impose withholding and other taxes or limits on the removal of a Fund’s assets from that country. Further, acts of terrorism in the
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United States or other countries may cause uncertainty in the financial markets and adversely affect the performance of the issuers to which a Fund has exposure. In addition, the economies of emerging markets may be predominantly based on only a few industries, may be highly vulnerable to changes in local or global trade conditions, and may suffer from extreme and volatile debt burdens or inflation rates.
Regulatory Risk.There may be less government supervision of foreign markets. As a result, foreign issuers may not be subject to the uniform accounting, auditing, and financial reporting standards and practices applicable to domestic issuers, and there may be less publicly available information about foreign issuers.
Risks of Investments in Latin American Countries.Investing in Latin American countries, or having indirect exposure to Latin American securities through derivative investments, presents additional risks. Many Latin American countries have experienced, at one time or another, considerable difficulties, including high inflation and high interest rates. In addition, the economies of many Latin American countries are sensitive to fluctuations in commodities prices because exports of agricultural products, minerals, and metals represent a significant percentage of Latin American exports.
Some Latin American currencies have experienced steady devaluations relative to the U.S. dollar and certain Latin American countries have had to make major adjustments in their currencies from time to time. In addition, governments of many Latin American countries have exercised and continue to exercise substantial influence over many aspects of the private sector. Governmental actions in the future could have a significant effect on economic conditions in Latin American countries, which could affect the companies in which a Fund invests and, therefore, the value of Fund shares. As noted above, in the past, many Latin American countries have experienced substantial, and in some periods extremely high, rates of inflation for many years. For companies that keep accounting records in the local currency, inflation accounting rules in some Latin American countries require, for both tax and accounting purposes, that certain assets and liabilities be restated on the company’s balance sheet in order to express items in terms of currency of constant purchasing power. Inflation accounting may indirectly generate losses or profits for certain Latin American companies. Inflation and rapid fluctuations in inflation rates have had, and could have, in the future, very negative effects on the economies and securities markets of certain Latin American countries.
Substantial limitations may exist in certain countries with respect to a Fund’s ability to repatriate investment income, capital, or the proceeds of sales of securities. A Fund could be adversely affected by delays in, or a refusal to grant, any required governmental approval for repatriation of capital, as well as by the application to the Fund of any restrictions on investments.
Certain Latin American countries have entered into regional trade agreements that are designed to, among other things, reduce barriers between countries, increase competition among companies, and reduce government subsidies in certain industries. No assurance can be given that these changes will be successful in the long term, or that these changes will result in the economic stability intended. There is a possibility that these trade arrangements will not be fully implemented, or will be partially or completely unwound. It is also possible that a significant participant could choose to abandon a trade agreement, which could diminish its credibility and influence. Any of these occurrences could have adverse effects on the markets of both participating and non-participating countries, including sharp appreciation or depreciation of participants’ national currencies and a significant increase in exchange rate volatility, a resurgence in economic protectionism, an undermining of confidence in the Latin American markets, an undermining of Latin American economic stability, the collapse or slowdown of the drive towards Latin American economic unity, and/or reversion of the attempts to lower government debt and inflation rates that were introduced in anticipation of such trade agreements. Such developments could have an adverse impact on a Fund’s investments in Latin America generally or in specific countries participating in such trade agreements.
Other Latin American market risks include foreign exchange controls, difficulties in pricing securities, defaults on sovereign debt, difficulties in enforcing favorable legal judgments in local courts, and political and social instability. Legal remedies available to investors in certain Latin American countries may be less extensive than those available to investors in the United States or other foreign countries.
Risks of Investments in Russia.Investing in Russia, or having indirect exposure to Russian securities through derivative investments, presents additional risks. Compared to most national securities markets, the Russian securities market is relatively new, and a substantial portion of securities transactions are privately negotiated outside of stock exchanges. The inexperience of the Russian securities market and the limited volume of trading in securities in the market may make obtaining accurate prices on portfolio securities from independent sources more difficult than in more developed markets. Additionally, because of less stringent auditing and financial reporting standards, as compared to U.S. companies, there may be little reliable corporate information available to investors. As a result, it may be difficult to assess the value or prospects of
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an investment in Russian companies. Securities of Russian companies also may experience greater price volatility than securities of U.S. companies.
Because of the relatively recent formation of the Russian securities markets, the underdeveloped state of Russia’s banking and telecommunication system and the legal and regulatory framework in Russia, settlement, clearing and registration of securities transactions are subject to additional risks. Prior to 2013, there was no central registration system for equity share registration in Russia and registration was carried out either by the issuers themselves or by registrars located throughout Russia. These registrars may not have been subject to effective state supervision or licensed with any governmental entity. In 2013, Russia established the National Settlement Depository (“NSD”) as a recognized central securities depository, and title to Russian equities is now based on the records of the NSD and not on the records of the local registrars. The implementation of the NSD is generally expected to decrease the risk of loss in connection with recording and transferring title to securities; however, loss may still occur. Additionally, issuers and registrars remain prominent in the validation and approval of documentation requirements for corporate action processing in Russia, and there remain inconsistent market standards in the Russian market with respect to the completion and submission of corporate action elections. To the extent that a Fund suffers a loss relating to title or corporate actions relating to its portfolio securities, it may be difficult for that Fund to enforce its rights or otherwise remedy the loss.
The Russian economy is heavily dependent upon the export of a range of commodities including most industrial metals, forestry products, oil, and gas. Accordingly, it is strongly affected by international commodity prices and is particularly vulnerable to any weakening in global demand for these products. Foreign investors also face a high degree of currency risk when investing in Russian securities and a lack of available currency hedging instruments. In addition, there is the risk that the Russian government may impose capital controls on foreign portfolio investments in the event of extreme financial or political crisis. Such capital controls may prevent the sale of a portfolio of foreign assets and the repatriation of investment income and capital.
As a result of previous and current political and military actions undertaken by Russia, the United States and certain other countries, as well as the EU, have instituted economic sanctions against certain Russian individuals and companies. The political and economic situation in Russia, and the current and any future sanctions or other government actions against Russia, may result in the decline in the value and liquidity of Russian securities, devaluation of Russian currency, a downgrade in Russia’s credit rating, the inability to freely trade securities of sanctioned companies (either due to the sanctions imposed or related operational issues) and/or other adverse consequences to the Russian economy, any of which could negatively impact a Fund’s investments in Russian securities. Sanctions could result in the immediate freeze of Russian securities, impairing the ability of a Fund to buy, sell, receive or deliver those securities. Both the current and potential future sanctions or other government actions against Russia also could result in Russia taking counter measures or retaliatory actions, which may impair further the value or liquidity of Russian securities and negatively impact a Fund. Any or all of these potential results could lead Russia’s economy into a recession. The extent and duration of Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, resulting sanctions and resulting future market disruptions in Europe and globally, including declines in its stock markets and the value of the ruble against the U.S. dollar, are impossible to predict, but could be significant and have a severe adverse effect on Russia and Europe in general. Actual and threatened responses to such military action may also impact the market for certain Russian commodities, such as oil and natural gas, as well as other sectors of the Russian economy, and may likely have collateral impacts on such sectors in Europe and globally. It is also possible that this conflict could expand and attacks could occur elsewhere in Europe. The potential for wider conflict may increase financial market volatility and could have severe adverse effects on regional and global markets.
Risks of Investments in the Asian Region.Investing in the Asian region, or having indirect exposure to Asian securities through derivative investments, presents additional risks. Because Janus Henderson Asia Equity Fund intends to focus its investments in a particular geographic region, the Fund’s performance is expected to be closely tied to various factors such as the social, financial, economic, and political conditions within that region or country. Specifically, a Fund’s investments in Asian issuers increases the Fund’s exposure to various risks including, but not limited to, risks associated with volatile securities markets, currency fluctuations, social, political, and regulatory developments, economic environmental events (such as natural disasters), and changes in tax or economic policies, each of which, among others, may be particular to Asian countries or regions.
If a Fund’s investments focus on Asian issuers, its investments will be more sensitive to social, financial, economic, political, and regulatory developments affecting the fiscal stability of a particular country and/or the broader region. Events that negatively affect the fiscal stability of a particular country and/or the broader region may cause the value of the Fund’s
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holdings to decrease, in some cases significantly. As a result, that Fund is likely to be more volatile than a fund that is more geographically diverse in its investments.
The Asian region within which a Fund may focus its investments comprises countries in various stages of economic and political development. As a result, some countries may have relatively unstable governments or may experience adverse conditions such as overextension of credit, currency devaluations and restrictions, less efficient markets, rising unemployment, high inflation, underdeveloped financial services sectors, heavy reliance on international trade, prolonged economic recessions, and political instability, including military disruption, which could result in significant downturns and volatility in the economies of Asian countries and therefore have an adverse effect on the value of the Fund’s portfolio. Certain Asian countries may be vulnerable to trade barriers and other protectionist measures. Some countries have restricted the flow of money in and out of the country. Further, if Asian securities fall out of favor, it may cause the Fund to underperform funds that do not focus their investments in a single region of the world.
It is also possible that from time to time, a small number of companies and industries may represent a large portion of the market in a particular country or region, and these companies and industries can be sensitive to social, financial, economic, political, and regulatory developments. The economies of the Asian countries in which the Fund invests may be interdependent, which could increase the possibility that conditions in one country will adversely impact the issuers of securities in a different country or region, or that the impact of such conditions will be experienced at the same time by the region as a whole. Likewise, the economies of the Asian region may also be dependent on the economies of other countries, such as the United States and Europe, and events in these economies could negatively impact the economies of the Asian region. The trading volume on some Asian stock exchanges tends to be much lower than in the United States, and Asian securities of some companies are less liquid and more volatile than similar U.S. securities which could lead to a significant possibility of loss to the Fund. In addition, brokerage commissions on regional stock exchanges are fixed and are generally higher than the negotiated commissions in the United States.
Risks of Investments in the People’s Republic of China (“PRC”).Investing in the PRC, or having indirect exposure to the PRC through derivative investments, presents additional risks. These additional risks include (without limitation): (i) inefficiencies resulting from erratic growth; (ii) the unavailability of consistently-reliable economic data; (iii) potentially high rates of inflation; (iv) dependence on exports and international trade; (v) relatively high levels of asset price volatility; (vi) small market capitalization and less liquidity; (vii) greater competition from regional economies; (viii) fluctuations in currency exchange rates, particularly in light of the relative lack of currency hedging instruments and controls on the ability to exchange local currency for U.S. dollars; (ix) the relatively small size and absence of operating history of many Chinese companies; (x) the developing nature of the legal and regulatory framework for securities markets, custody arrangements and commerce; (xi) uncertainty with respect to the commitment of the government of the PRC to economic reforms; and (xii) the imposition of sanctions or embargoes imposed by the U.S. government.
Although the PRC has experienced a relatively stable political environment in recent years, there is no guarantee that such stability will be maintained in the future. As an emerging market, many factors may affect such stability – such as increasing gaps between the rich and poor or agrarian unrest and instability of existing political structures – and may result in adverse consequences to a Fund investing in securities and instruments economically tied to the PRC. Political uncertainty, military intervention and political corruption could reverse favorable trends toward market and economic reform, privatization and removal of trade barriers, and could result in significant disruption to securities markets. Reduction in spending on Chinese products and services, the imposition of tariffs or other trade barriers by the United States or other foreign governments on exports from the PRC, or a downturn in any of the economies of the PRC’s key trading partners may also have an adverse impact on Chinese issuers and the PRC’s economy as a whole. The current political climate has intensified concerns about trade tariffs and a potential trade war between the PRC and the United States. These consequences may trigger a significant reduction in international trade, the oversupply of certain manufactured goods, substantial price reductions of goods, and possible failure of individual companies and/or large segments of the PRC’s export industry with a potentially negative impact to a Fund.
The PRC is dominated by the one-party rule of the Communist Party. Investments in the PRC are subject to risks associated with greater governmental control over and involvement in the economy. The PRC manages its currency at artificial levels relative to the U.S. dollar rather than at levels determined by the market. This type of system can lead to sudden and large adjustments in the currency, which, in turn, can have a disruptive and negative effect on foreign investors. The PRC also may restrict the free conversion of its currency into foreign currencies, including the U.S. dollar. Currency repatriation restrictions may have the effect of making securities and instruments tied to the PRC relatively illiquid, particularly in connection with redemption requests. In addition, the government of the PRC exercises significant control over economic growth through
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direct and heavy involvement in resource allocation and monetary policy, control over payment of foreign currency denominated obligations and provision of preferential treatment to particular industries and/or companies. Economic reform programs in the PRC have contributed to growth, but there is no guarantee that such reforms will continue.
Chinese companies, particularly those located in China, may lack, or have different, accounting and financial reporting standards, which may result in the unavailability of material information about Chinese issuers. PRC companies are required to follow Chinese accounting standards and practices, which may be less rigorous and significantly different than international accounting standards. In particular, the assets and profits appearing on the financial statements of a Chinese issuer may not reflect its financial position or results of operations in the way they would be reflected had such financial statements been prepared in accordance with U.S. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles. Furthermore, the PCAOB has warned that it lacks the ability to inspect audit work and practices of PCAOB-registered auditing firms in China. This may result in inaccurate or incomplete financial records of an issuer’s operations within China, which may have a negative impact on a Fund’s investments in such companies.
Natural disasters such as droughts, floods, earthquakes and tsunamis have plagued the PRC in the past, and the region’s economy may be affected by such environmental events in the future. A Fund’s investment in the PRC is, therefore, subject to the risk of such events (see “Geographic Investment Risk”). In addition, the relationship between the PRC and Taiwan is particularly sensitive, and hostilities between the PRC and Taiwan may present a risk to a Fund’s investments in the PRC.
Moreover, as demonstrated by recent protests in Hong Kong over political, economic, social, and legal freedoms, and the PRC government’s response to them, political uncertainty exists within Hong Kong and there is no guarantee that additional protests will not arise in the future. Hostilities between the PRC and Hong Kong may present a risk to a Fund’s investments in the PRC or Hong Kong.
Securities Listed on Chinese Stock Exchanges.Funds with the ability to invest in foreign securities may invest in securities listed on Chinese stock exchanges or have indirect exposure to these securities through derivative investments. These securities are divided into two classes of shares: China B Shares, which may be owned by both Chinese and foreign investors and China A Shares. A fund with the ability to invest in foreign securities may invest in China A Shares and other eligible securities (“Stock Connect Securities”) listed and traded on the Shanghai Stock Exchange (“SSE”) through the Shanghai – Hong Kong Stock Connect program, as well as eligible China A Shares listed and traded on the Shenzhen Stock Exchange (“SZSE”) through the Shenzhen Hong Kong Stock Connect program (both programs collectively referred to herein as “Stock Connect”). Each of the SSE and SZSE are referred to as an “Exchange” and collectively as the “Exchanges” for purposes of this section. An investment in China A Shares is also generally subject to the risks identified under “Foreign Securities,” and foreign investment risks such as price controls, expropriation of assets, confiscatory taxation, and nationalization may be heightened when investing in China.
Stock Connect is a securities trading and clearing linked program developed by The Stock Exchange of Hong Kong Limited (“SEHK”), a wholly-owned subsidiary of Hong Kong Exchanges and Clearing Limited (“HKEC”), the Exchanges, and the China Securities Depository and Clearing Corporation Limited (“ChinaClear”) to permit mutual stock market access between mainland China and Hong Kong. Hong Kong Securities Clearing Company Limited (“HKSCC”), a clearing house operated by HKEC, acts as nominee for participants, such as a fund, accessing Stock Connect Securities.
A primary feature of the Stock Connect program is the application of the home market’s laws and rules to investors in a security. Thus, investors in Stock Connect Securities are generally subject to Chinese securities regulations and the listing rules of the respective Exchange, among other restrictions. Since the relevant regulations governing Stock Connect Securities are relatively new and untested, they are subject to change and there is no certainty as to how they will be applied. In particular, the courts may consider that the nominee or custodian, as registered holder of Stock Connect Securities, has full ownership over the Stock Connect Securities rather than a fund as the underlying beneficial owner. HKSCC, as nominee holder, does not guarantee the title to Stock Connect Securities held through it and is under no obligation to enforce title or other rights associated with ownership on behalf of beneficial owners. Consequently, title to these securities, or the rights associated with them such as participation in corporate actions or shareholder meetings cannot be assured. In the event ChinaClear defaults, HKSCC’s liabilities under its market contracts with participants will be limited to assisting participants with claims and a fund may not fully recover its losses or the Stock Connect Securities it owns. Recovery of a fund’s property may also be subject to delays and expenses, which may be material. Further, investors are currently able to trade Stock Connect Securities only up to certain daily maximums. Buy orders and sell orders are offset for purposes of the daily quota, which is applied to all market participants and not specifically to the funds or investment manager. If the daily quota is reached or a stock is recalled from the scope of eligible stocks for trading via Stock Connect, a fund’s investment program would be adversely impacted.
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Stock Connect will only operate on days when both the respective Exchange and SEHK are open for trading and when banks in both markets are open on the corresponding settlement days. Therefore, an investment in China A Shares through Stock Connect may subject a fund to a risk of price fluctuations on days where the Chinese market is open, but Stock Connect is not trading. Trading via Stock Connect is subject to trading, clearance and settlement procedures that are untested in China which could pose risks to a fund. Finally, the withholding tax treatment of dividends and capital gains payable to overseas investors currently is unsettled.
Transaction Costs.Costs of buying, selling, and holding foreign securities, including brokerage, tax, and custody costs, may be higher than those involved in domestic transactions.
Variable Interest Entities (“VIEs”).In seeking exposure to Chinese issuers, a Fund may invest in VIE structures which may subject the Fund to legal and regulatory uncertainties and additional risks. The VIE structure enables foreign investors, such as a Fund, to obtain exposure to a Chinese operating company in situations in which the Chinese government has limited or prohibited non-Chinese ownership of such company. The VIE structure does not involve equity ownership in a China-based company but rather involves claims to the China-based company’s profits and control of its assets through contractual arrangements. As a result, foreign investors do not have rights of direct equity owners, including rights to residual profits or control over management.
Intervention by the Chinese government with respect to VIE structure or the non-enforcement of VIE-related contractual rights could significantly affect a Chinese operating company’s business, the enforceability of the shell company’s contractual arrangements with the Chinese operating company and the value of the listed company’s stock. Intervention by the Chinese government could include nationalization of the Chinese operating company, confiscation of its assets, restrictions on operations and/or constraints on the use of VIE structures. Any change in the operations of entities in a VIE structure, the status of VIE contractual arrangements or the legal or regulatory environment in China could result in significant losses to a Fund.
Short Sales
The Funds may engage in short sales through short sales of stocks, futures, uncovered written calls, structured products, and through various types of derivatives. Except as follows, each Fund’s gross notional exposure to short positions may not exceed 10% of the Fund’s net assets. For Janus Henderson Balanced Fund, gross notional exposure to short positions may not exceed 10% of the net assets in the Fund’s equity portion and there is no limit on exposure to short positions in the Fund’s fixed-income portion. A Fund may engage in short sales when portfolio management anticipates that the market price of a security will decline. In a short sale transaction, a Fund sells a security it does not own to a purchaser at a specified price. To complete a short sale, the Fund must: (i) borrow the security to deliver it to the purchaser and (ii) buy that same security in the market to return it to the lender.
A Fund may incur a loss as a result of the short sale if the price of the security increases between the date of the short sale and the date on which the Fund replaces the borrowed security, and the Fund may realize a gain if the security declines in price between those same dates. Although a Fund’s potential for gain as a result of a short sale is limited to the price at which it sold the security short less the cost of borrowing the security, the potential for loss is theoretically unlimited because there is no upper limit to the cost of replacing the borrowed security. To borrow the security, a Fund may also be required to pay a premium, which would increase the cost of the security sold.
The Funds may not always be able to close out a short position at a particular time or at an acceptable price. A lender may request, or market conditions may dictate, that the borrowed securities be returned to the lender on short notice, and a Fund may have to buy the borrowed securities at an unfavorable price. If this occurs at a time when other short sellers of the same security also want to close out their positions, a “short squeeze” can occur, which means that the demand is greater than supply for the stock sold short. If a short squeeze occurs, it is more likely that a Fund will have to cover its short sale at an unfavorable price and potentially reduce or eliminate any gain, or cause a loss, as a result of the short sale.
Short Sales Against the Box
The Funds may engage in short sales “against the box” and options for hedging purposes. This technique involves either selling short a security that a Fund owns, or selling short a security that a Fund has the right to obtain, for delivery at a specified date in the future. A Fund does not deliver from its portfolio the securities sold short and does not immediately receive the proceeds of the short sale. A Fund borrows the securities sold short and receives proceeds from the short sale only when it delivers the securities to the lender. If the value of the securities sold short increases prior to the scheduled delivery date, a Fund loses the opportunity to participate in the gain. There are no limits on a Fund’s investments in short sales against the box for hedging purposes.
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Zero Coupon, Step Coupon, and Pay-In-Kind Securities
Within the parameters of its specific investment policies, each Fund may invest up to 10% of its net assets in zero coupon, step coupon, and pay-in-kind securities. Zero coupon bonds are securities that make no fixed interest payments but instead are issued and traded at a discount from their face value. They do not entitle the holder to any periodic payment of interest prior to maturity. Step coupon bonds are issued and traded at a discount from their face value and pay coupon interest that increases or decreases over the life of the bond. The discount from the face amount or par value depends on the time remaining until cash payments begin, prevailing interest rates, liquidity of the security and the perceived credit quality of the issuer. Pay-in-kind bonds normally give the issuer an option to pay cash at a coupon payment date or give the holder of the security a similar bond with the same coupon rate and a face value equal to the amount of the coupon payment that would have been made. For purposes of a Fund’s restriction on investing in income-producing securities, income-producing securities include securities that make periodic interest payments as well as those that make interest payments on a deferred basis or pay interest only at maturity (e.g., Treasury bills or zero coupon bonds).
For federal income tax purposes, holders of zero coupon securities and step coupon securities are required to recognize income even though the holders receive no cash payments of interest during the year. Similarly, holders of payment-in-kind securities must include in their gross income the value of securities they receive as “interest.” In order to qualify as a “regulated investment company” under Subchapter M of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Internal Revenue Code”), and the regulations thereunder, and to avoid a federal income or excise tax, a Fund must distribute a portion of such recognized income and may be required to dispose of other portfolio securities, which may occur in periods of adverse market prices, in order to generate cash to meet these distribution requirements.
Generally, the market prices of zero coupon, step coupon, and pay-in-kind securities are more volatile than the prices of securities that pay interest periodically and in cash and are likely to respond to changes in interest rates to a greater degree than other types of debt securities having similar maturities and credit quality. Additionally, such securities may be subject to heightened credit and valuation risk.
Pass-Through Securities
The Funds may invest in various types of pass-through securities, such as commercial and residential mortgage-backed securities, which include collateralized mortgage obligations (“CMOs”) and Real Estate Mortgage Investment Conduit (“REMIC”) pass-through or mortgage participation certificates, asset-backed securities, credit-linked trust certificates, traded custody receipts, and participation interests. A pass-through security is a share or certificate of interest in a pool of debt obligations that have been repackaged by an intermediary, such as a bank or broker-dealer. The purchaser of a pass-through security receives an undivided interest in the underlying pool of securities. The issuers of the underlying securities make interest and principal payments to the intermediary, which are passed through to purchasers, such as the Funds.
Agency Mortgage-Related Securities.The most common type of pass-through securities is mortgage-backed securities. Government National Mortgage Association (“Ginnie Mae”) Certificates are mortgage-backed securities that evidence an undivided interest in a pool of mortgage loans. Ginnie Mae Certificates differ from bonds in that principal is paid back monthly by the borrowers over the term of the loan rather than returned in a lump sum at maturity. A Fund will generally purchase “modified pass-through” Ginnie Mae Certificates, which entitle the holder to receive a share of all interest and principal payments paid and owned on the mortgage pool, net of fees paid to the “issuer” and Ginnie Mae, regardless of whether or not the mortgagor actually makes the payment. Ginnie Mae Certificates are backed as to the timely payment of principal and interest by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Government.
Government-related (i.e., not backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Government) guarantors include the Federal National Mortgage Association (“Fannie Mae”), and the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (“Freddie Mac”), which issue certificates (participation certificates and guaranteed mortgage certificates) that resemble Ginnie Mae Certificates in that each certificate represents a pro rata share of all interest and principal payments made and owned on the underlying pool. Pass-through securities issued by Fannie Mae are guaranteed as to timely payment of principal and interest by Fannie Mae. Participation certificates issued by Freddie Mac, which represent interests in mortgages from Freddie Mac’s national portfolio, are guaranteed by Freddie Mac as to the timely payment of interest and ultimate collection of principal.
In September 2008, the Federal Housing Finance Agency (“FHFA”), an agency of the U.S. Government, placed Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac under conservatorship. Since that time, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac have received capital support through U.S. Treasury preferred stock purchases and Treasury and Federal Reserve purchases of their mortgage-backed securities. These purchases are intended to enhance Fannie Mae’s and Freddie Mac’s ability to meet their obligations. The FHFA and the U.S. Treasury have imposed strict limits on the size of these entities’ mortgage portfolios. The FHFA has the power to cancel
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any contract entered into by Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac prior to FHFA’s appointment as conservator or receiver, including the guarantee obligations of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac.
More recently in 2019, under the direction of the FHFA, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac have entered into a joint initiative to develop a common securitization platform for the issuance of a uniform mortgage-backed security (the “Single Security Initiative”) that aligns the characteristics of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac certificates. The Single Security Initiative seeks to support the overall liquidity of both Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac certificates in the TBA market. The FHFA has indicated that the conservatorship will end when the director of the FHFA determines that the FHFA’s plan to restore the entities to a safe and solvent condition has been completed. As of the date of this SAI, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac remain under conservatorship.
The future for Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac is uncertain as the U.S. Government has considered proposals to wind down or restructure Fannie Mae’s and Freddie Mac’s operations. It is uncertain what legislation, if any, may be proposed in the future in Congress or which proposals, if any, might be enacted. The passage of any such proposal has the potential to impact the value of securities issued by a Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac, which could adversely affect the liquidity and value of a Fund’s portfolio. Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac also are the subject of several continuing legal actions and investigations over certain accounting, disclosure, and corporate governance matters, which (along with any resulting financial restatements) may continue to have an adverse effect on these guaranteeing entities.
Except for guaranteed mortgage certificates, each of the mortgage-backed securities described above is characterized by monthly payments to the holder, reflecting the monthly payments made by the borrowers who received the underlying mortgage loans. The payments to the security holders (such as the Funds), like the payments on the underlying loans, represent both principal and interest. Although the underlying mortgage loans are for specified periods of time, such as 20 or 30 years, the borrowers can, and typically do, pay them off sooner. Thus, the security holders frequently receive prepayments of principal in addition to the principal that is part of the regular monthly payments. Portfolio management will consider estimated prepayment rates in calculating the average-weighted maturity of a Fund, if relevant. A borrower is more likely to prepay a mortgage that bears a relatively high rate of interest. This means that in times of declining interest rates, higher yielding mortgage-backed securities held by a Fund might be converted to cash, and the Fund will be forced to accept lower interest rates when that cash is used to purchase additional securities in the mortgage-backed securities sector or in other investment sectors. Additionally, prepayments during such periods will limit a Fund’s ability to participate in as large a market gain as may be experienced with a comparable security not subject to prepayment.
The Funds’ investments in mortgage-backed securities may be backed by subprime mortgages. Subprime mortgages are loans made to borrowers with weakened credit histories or with a lower capacity to make timely payments on their mortgages.
Asset-Backed Securities.Asset-backed securities represent interests in pools of consumer and commercial loans and are backed by paper or accounts receivables originated by banks, credit card companies, or other providers of credit. Asset-backed securities are created from many types of assets, including, but not limited to, auto loans, accounts receivable such as credit card receivables and hospital account receivables, home equity loans, student loans, boat loans, mobile home loans, recreational vehicle loans, manufactured housing loans, aircraft leases, computer leases, and syndicated bank loans. Generally, the originating bank or credit provider is neither the obligor nor the guarantor of the security, and interest and principal payments ultimately depend upon payment of the underlying loans. Tax-exempt asset-backed securities include units of beneficial interests in pools of purchase contracts, financing leases, and sales agreements that may be created when a municipality enters into an installment purchase contract or lease with a vendor. Such securities may be secured by the assets purchased or leased by the municipality; however, if the municipality stops making payments, there generally will be no recourse against the vendor. The market for tax-exempt, asset-backed securities is still relatively new. These obligations are likely to involve unscheduled prepayments of principal.
Collateralized Bond Obligations and other Collateralized Debt Obligations.Certain Funds may invest in collateralized bond obligations (“CBOs”), other collateralized debt obligations (“CDOs”) and other similarly structured securities. CBOs and other CDOs are types of asset-backed securities. A CBO is a trust which is often backed by a diversified pool of high risk, below investment grade fixed income securities. The collateral can be from many different types of fixed income securities such as high-yield debt, residential privately issued mortgage-related securities, commercial privately issued mortgage-related securities, trust preferred securities and emerging market debt. Other CDOs are trusts backed by other types of assets representing obligations of various parties. CBOs and other CDOs may charge management fees and administrative expenses.
For CBOs and other CDOs, the cash flows from the trust are split into two or more portions, called tranches, varying in risk and yield. The riskiest portion is the “equity” tranche which bears the bulk of defaults from the bonds or loans in the trust
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and serves to protect the other, more senior tranches from default in all but the most severe circumstances. Since they are partially protected from defaults, senior tranches from a CBO trust or trust of another CDO typically have higher ratings and lower yields than their underlying securities, and can be rated investment grade. Despite the protection from the equity tranche, CBO or other CDO tranches can experience substantial losses due to actual defaults, increased sensitivity to defaults due to collateral default and disappearance of protecting tranches, market anticipation of defaults, as well as aversion to CBO or other CDO securities as a class.
The risks of an investment in a CBO or other CDO depend largely on the type of the collateral securities and the class of the instrument in which a Fund invests. Normally, CBOs and other CDOs are privately offered and sold, and thus, are not registered under the securities laws. As a result, investments in CBOs and other CDOs may be characterized by a Fund as illiquid securities. CDOs carry additional risks including, but not limited to: (i) the possibility that distributions from collateral securities will not be adequate to make interest or other payments; (ii) the quality of the collateral may decline in value or default; (iii) the risk that a Fund may invest in CBOs or other CDOs that are subordinate (or junior) to other classes; and (iv) the complex structure of the security may not be fully understood at the time of investment and may produce disputes with the issuer or unexpected investment results.
Collateralized Mortgage Obligations.Certain Funds may invest in CMOs. A CMO is a debt obligation of a legal entity that is collateralized by mortgages and divided into classes. Similar to a bond, interest and prepaid principal is paid, in most cases, on a monthly basis. CMOs may be collateralized by whole mortgage loans or private mortgage bonds, but are more typically collateralized by portfolios of mortgage pass-through securities guaranteed by Ginnie Mae, Freddie Mac, or Fannie Mae, and their income streams. A REMIC is a type of CMO that qualifies for special tax treatment, and unlike the debt securities structure of CMOs, REMICs may be structured as indirect ownership interests in the underlying assets of the REMICs themselves.
CMOs are structured into multiple classes, often referred to as “tranches,” with each class bearing a different stated maturity and entitled to a different schedule for payments of principal and interest, including pre-payments. Actual maturity and average life will depend upon the pre-payment experience of the collateral. In the case of certain CMOs (known as “sequential pay” CMOs), payments of principal received from the pool of underlying mortgages, including pre-payments, are applied to the classes of CMOs in the order of their respective final distribution dates. Thus, no payment of principal will be made to any class of sequential pay CMOs until all other classes having an earlier final distribution date have been paid in full.
In a typical CMO transaction, a corporation (“issuer”) issues multiple series (e.g., A, B, C, Z) of CMO bonds (“Bonds”). Proceeds of the Bond offering are used to purchase mortgages or mortgage pass-through certificates (“Collateral”). The Collateral is pledged to a third party trustee as security for the Bonds. Principal and interest payments from the Collateral are used to pay principal on the Bonds in the order A, B, C, Z. The Series A, B, and C Bonds all bear current interest. Interest on the Series Z Bond is accrued and added to principal and a like amount is paid as principal on the Series A, B, or C Bond currently being paid off. When the Series A, B, and C Bonds are paid in full, interest and principal on the Series Z Bond begins to be paid currently. CMOs may be less liquid and may exhibit greater price volatility than other types of mortgage- or asset-backed securities.
As CMOs have evolved, some classes of CMO bonds have become more common. For example, a Fund may invest in parallel-pay and planned amortization class (“PAC”) CMOs and multi-class pass-through certificates. Parallel-pay CMOs and multi-class pass-through certificates are structured to provide payments of principal on each payment date to more than one class. These simultaneous payments are taken into account in calculating the stated maturity date or final distribution date of each class, which, as with other CMO and multi-class pass-through structures, must be retired by its stated maturity date or final distribution date but may be retired earlier. PACs generally require payments of a specified amount of principal on each payment date. PACs are parallel-pay CMOs with the required principal amount on such securities having the highest priority after interest has been paid to all classes. Any CMO or multi-class pass-through structure that includes PAC securities must also have support tranches – known as support bonds, companion bonds or non-PAC bonds – which lend or absorb principal cash flows to allow the PAC securities to maintain their stated maturities and final distribution dates within a range of actual prepayment experience. These support tranches are subject to a higher level of maturity risk compared to other mortgage-related securities, and usually provide a higher yield to compensate investors. If principal cash flows are received in amounts outside a pre-determined range such that the support bonds cannot lend or absorb sufficient cash flows to the PAC securities as intended, the PAC securities are subject to heightened maturity risk. Consistent with certain Funds’ investment objective and policies, the Adviser may invest in various tranches of CMO bonds, including support bonds.
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Collateralized Loan Obligations (“CLO”).A CLO is a type of securitized asset, which is a sector of the fixed income market that also includes asset-backed and mortgage- backed securities. Typically organized as a trust or other special purpose vehicle, the CLO issues debt and equity interests and uses the proceeds from this issuance to acquire a portfolio of bank loans made primarily to businesses that are rated below investment grade. The underlying loans are generally senior-secured/first-priority loans; however, the CLO may also include an allowance for second-lien and/or unsecured debt. Additionally, the underlying loans may include domestic and foreign senior secured loans, senior unsecured loans, and subordinate corporate loans, some of which may individually be below investment grade or the equivalent if unrated. The portfolio of underlying loans is actively managed by the CLO manager for a fixed period of time (“reinvestment period”). During the reinvestment period, the CLO manager may buy and sell individual loans to create trading gains or mitigate loses. The CLO portfolio will generally be required to adhere to certain diversification rules established by the CLO issuer to mitigate against the risk of concentrated defaults within a given industry or sector. After a specified period of time, the majority owner of equity interests in the CLO may seek to call the CLO’s outstanding debt or refinance its position. If not called or refinanced, when the reinvestment period ends, the CLO uses cash flows from the underlying loans to pay down the outstanding debt tranches and wind up the CLO’s operations.
Interests in the CLOs are divided into two or more separate debt and equity tranches, each with a different credit rating and risk/return profile based upon its priority of claim on the cashflows produced by the underlying loan pool. Tranches are categorized as senior, mezzanine and subordinated/equity, according to their degree of credit risk. If there are defaults or the CLO’s collateral otherwise underperforms, scheduled payments to senior tranches take precedence over those of mezzanine tranches, and scheduled payments to mezzanine tranches take precedence over those to subordinated/equity tranches. The riskiest portion is the “Equity” tranche, which bears the bulk of defaults from the loans in the CLO and serves to protect the other, more senior tranches from default in all but the most severe circumstances. Senior and mezzanine tranches are typically rated, with the former receiving ratings of A to AAA/Aaa and the latter receiving ratings of B to BBB/Baa. The ratings reflect both the credit quality of underlying collateral as well as how much protection a given tranche is afforded by tranches that are subordinate to it. Normally, CLOs are privately offered and sold, and thus are not registered under the securities laws.
CLOs themselves, and the loan obligations underlying the CLOs, are typically subject to certain restrictions on transfer and sale, potentially making them less liquid than other types of securities. Additionally, when a Fund purchases a newly issued CLO directly from the issuer (rather than from the secondary market), there will be a delayed settlement period, during which time, the liquidity of the CLO may be further reduced. During periods of limited liquidity and higher price volatility, a Fund’s ability to acquire or dispose of CLOs at a price and time a Fund deems advantageous may be severely impaired. CLOs are generally considered to be long-term investments and there is no guarantee that an active secondary market will exist or be maintained for any given CLO. CLOs are typically structured such that, after a specified period of time, the majority investor in the equity tranche can call (i.e., redeem) the security in full. A Fund may not be able to accurately predict when or which of its CLO investments will be called, resulting in a Fund having to reinvest the proceeds in unfavorable circumstances, resulting in a decline in a Fund’s income. As interest rates decrease, issuers of the underlying loan obligations may refinance any floating rate loans, which will result in a reduction in the principal value of the CLO’s portfolio and requiring a Fund to reinvest cash at an inopportune time. Conversely, as interest rates rise, borrowers with floating rate loans may experience difficulty in making payments, resulting in delinquencies and defaults, which will result in a reduction in cash flow to the CLO and the CLO’s investors.
Privately Issued Mortgage-Related Securities.Privately issued mortgage-related securities are pass-through pools of conventional residential mortgage loans created by commercial banks, savings and loan institutions, private mortgage insurance companies, mortgage bankers and other secondary market issuers. Such issuers may be the originators and/or servicers of the underlying mortgage loans as well as the guarantors of the mortgage-related securities. Pools created by such non-governmental issuers generally offer a higher rate of interest than government and government-related pools because there are no direct or indirect government or agency guarantees of payments in the former pools. However, timely payment of interest and principal of these pools may be supported by various forms of insurance or guarantees, including individual loan, title, pool and hazard insurance and letters of credit, which may be issued by governmental entities or private insurers. Such insurance and guarantees and the creditworthiness of the issuers thereof will be considered in determining whether a mortgage-related security meets a Fund’s investment quality standards. There can be no assurance that insurers or guarantors can meet their obligations under the insurance policies or guarantee arrangements. A Fund may buy mortgage-related securities without insurance or guarantees if, through an examination of the loan experience and practices of the originators/servicers and poolers, the Adviser determines that the securities meet the Funds’ quality standards. Securities issued by certain private organizations may not be readily marketable.
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Privately issued mortgage-related securities are not subject to the same underwriting requirements for the underlying mortgages that are applicable to those mortgage-related securities that have a government or government-sponsored entity guarantee. As a result, the mortgage loans underlying privately issued mortgage-related securities may, and frequently do, have less favorable collateral, credit risk or other underwriting characteristics than government or government-sponsored mortgage-related securities and have wider variances in a number of terms including interest rate, term, size, purpose and borrower characteristics. Mortgage pools underlying privately issued mortgage-related securities more frequently include second mortgages, high loan-to-value ratio mortgages and manufactured housing loans, in addition to commercial mortgages and other types of mortgages where a government or government-sponsored entity guarantee is not available. The coupon rates and maturities of the underlying mortgage loans in a privately-issued mortgage-related securities pool may vary to a greater extent than those included in a government guaranteed pool. The Funds’ investments in privately issued mortgage-related securities may be backed by subprime mortgage loans.
The risk of non-payment is greater for mortgage-related securities that are backed by loans that were originated under weak underwriting standards, including loans made to borrowers with limited means to make repayment. A level of risk exists for all loans, although, historically, the poorest performing loans have been those classified as subprime. Other types of privately issued mortgage-related securities, such as those classified as pay-option adjustable rate or Alt-A have also performed poorly. Even loans classified as prime have experienced higher levels of delinquencies and defaults. A decline in real property values across the United States may exacerbate the level of losses that investors in privately issued mortgage-related securities have experienced. Market factors that may adversely affect mortgage loan repayment include adverse economic conditions, unemployment, a decline in the value of real property, or an increase in interest rates.
Privately issued mortgage-related securities are not traded on an exchange and there may be a limited market for the securities, especially when there is a perceived weakness in the mortgage and real estate market sectors. Without an active trading market, mortgage-related securities held by a Fund may be particularly difficult to value because of the complexities involved in assessing the value of the underlying mortgage loans.
A Fund may purchase privately issued mortgage-related securities that are originated, packaged and serviced by third party entities. It is possible these third parties could have interests that are in conflict with the holders of mortgage-related securities, and such holders (such as a Fund) could have rights against the third parties or their affiliates. For example, if a loan originator, servicer or its affiliates engaged in negligence or willful misconduct in carrying out its duties, then a holder of the mortgage-related security could seek recourse against the originator/servicer or its affiliates, as applicable. Also, as a loan originator/servicer, the originator/servicer or its affiliates may make certain representations and warranties regarding the quality of the mortgages and properties underlying a mortgage-related security. If one or more of those representations or warranties is false, then the holders of the mortgage-related securities (such as a Fund) could trigger an obligation of the originator/servicer or its affiliates, as applicable, to repurchase the mortgages from the issuing trust. Notwithstanding the foregoing, many of the third parties that are legally bound by trust and other documents have failed to perform their respective duties, as stipulated in such trust and other documents, and investors have had limited success in enforcing terms.
Mortgage-related securities that are issued or guaranteed by the U.S. Government, its agencies or instrumentalities, are not subject to the Funds’ industry concentration restrictions by virtue of the exclusion from that test available to all U.S. Government securities. In the case of privately issued mortgage-related securities, the Adviser takes the position that mortgage-related securities do not represent interests in any particular “industry” or group of industries. Therefore, a Fund may invest more or less than 25% of its total assets in privately issued mortgage-related securities. The assets underlying such securities may be represented by a portfolio of residential or commercial mortgages (including both whole mortgage loans and mortgage participation interests that may be senior or junior in terms of priority of repayment) or portfolios of mortgage pass-through securities issued or guaranteed by Ginnie Mae, Freddie Mac or Fannie Mae. Mortgage loans underlying a mortgage-related security may in turn be insured or guaranteed by the Federal Housing Administration or the Department of Veterans Affairs. In the case of privately issued mortgage-related securities whose underlying assets are neither U.S. Government securities nor U.S. Government-insured mortgages, to the extent that real properties securing such assets may be located in the same geographical region, the security may be subject to a greater risk of default than other comparable securities in the event of adverse economic, political or business developments that may affect such region and, ultimately, the ability of residential homeowners to make payments of principal and interest on the underlying mortgages.
Commercial Mortgage-Backed Securities.A Fund may invest in commercial mortgage-backed securities. Commercial mortgage-backed securities include securities that reflect an interest in, and are secured by, mortgage loans on commercial real property. Many of the risks of investing in commercial mortgage-backed securities reflect the risks of investing in the real estate securing the underlying mortgage loans, including office properties, retail properties, hotels, industrial mixed use
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properties or multi-family apartment buildings. These risks reflect the effects of local and other economic conditions on real estate markets, the ability of tenants to make loan payments, and the ability of a property to attract and retain tenants. Commercial mortgage-backed securities may be less liquid and exhibit greater price volatility than other types of mortgage- or asset-backed securities.
Other Mortgage-Related Securities.Other mortgage-related securities in which a Fund may invest include securities other than those described above that directly or indirectly represent a participation in, or are secured by and payable from, mortgage loans on real property, including collateralized mortgage obligation residuals or stripped mortgage-backed securities. Other mortgage-related securities may be equity or debt securities issued by agencies or instrumentalities of the U.S. Government or by private originators of, or investors in, mortgage loans, including savings and loan associations, homebuilders, mortgage banks, commercial banks, investment banks, partnerships, trusts and special purpose entities of the foregoing. In addition, a Fund may invest in any combination of mortgage-related interest-only or principal-only debt.
Mortgage-related securities include, among other things, securities that reflect an interest in reverse mortgages. In a reverse mortgage, a lender makes a loan to a homeowner based on the homeowner’s equity in his or her home. While a homeowner must be age 62 or older to qualify for a reverse mortgage, reverse mortgages may have no income restrictions. Repayment of the interest or principal for the loan is generally not required until the homeowner dies, sells the home, or ceases to use the home as his or her primary residence.
There are three general types of reverse mortgages: (1) single-purpose reverse mortgages, which are offered by certain state and local government agencies and nonprofit organizations; (2) federally-insured reverse mortgages, which are backed by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development; and (3) proprietary reverse mortgages, which are privately offered loans. A mortgage-related security may be backed by a single type of reverse mortgage. Reverse mortgage-related securities include agency and privately issued mortgage-related securities. The principal government guarantor of reverse mortgage-related securities is Ginnie Mae.
Reverse mortgage-related securities may be subject to risks different than other types of mortgage-related securities due to the unique nature of the underlying loans. The date of repayment for such loans is uncertain and may occur sooner or later than anticipated. The timing of payments for the corresponding mortgage-related security may be uncertain. Because reverse mortgages are offered only to persons 62 and older and there may be no income restrictions, the loans may react differently than traditional home loans to market events.
Credit Risk Transfer Securities.A Fund may invest in credit risk transfer securities (“CRTs”), which are unguaranteed and unsecured fixed or floating rate general obligations issued by government sponsored enterprises (“GSE”), such as Ginnie Mae, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. Credit risk transfer securities are typically issued at par and have stated final maturities. GSE CRTs are typically structured so that: (i) interest is paid directly by the issuing GSE; and (ii) principal is paid by the issuing GSE in accordance with the principal payments and default performance of a pool of residential mortgage loans acquired by the GSE. The issuing GSE selects the pool of mortgage loans based on that GSE’s eligibility criteria and the performance of the CRTs will be directly affected by the selection of such underlying mortgage loans.
GSE CRTs are not directly linked to or backed by the underlying mortgage loans. Therefore, although the payment of principal and interest on such securities is tied to the performance of the pool of underlying mortgage loans, the actual cash flow from the underlying mortgage loans will not be paid or otherwise made available to the holders of the securities and the holders of the securities will have no interest in the underlying mortgage loans. As a result, in the event that a GSE fails to pay principal or interest on its CRTs or goes through a bankruptcy, insolvency or similar proceeding, holders of such CRTs will have no direct recourse to the underlying mortgage loans. Such holders will receive recovery on par with other unsecured note holders (agency debentures) in such a scenario.
GSE CRTs are typically issued in multiple tranches, which are allocated certain principal repayments and credit losses corresponding to the seniority of the particular tranches. Each tranche will have credit exposure to underlying mortgage loans and the yield to maturity will be directly related to the amount and timing of certain defined credit events on the underlying mortgage loans, any prepayments by borrowers and any removals of a mortgage loan from the pool. Because credit risk exposure is allocated in accordance with the seniority of the particular tranche, principal losses will be first allocated to the most junior or subordinate tranches, thus making the most subordinate tranches subject to increased sensitivity to dramatic housing downturns. In addition, many CRTs have collateral performance triggers (such as those based on credit enhancement, delinquencies or defaults) that could shut off principal payments to subordinate tranches.
The risks associated with an investment in GSE CRTs will be different than the risks associated with an investment in mortgage-backed securities issued by GSEs, because some or all of the mortgage default or credit risk associated with the
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underlying mortgage loans in GSE CRTs is transferred to investors, such as the Fund. As a result, investors in GSE CRTs could lose some or all of their investment in these securities if the underlying mortgage loans default.
A Fund may also invest in CRTs issued by private entities, such as banks or other financial institutions. CRTs issued by private entities are structured similarly to those issued by GSEs and are generally subject to the same types of risks, including credit, prepayment, extension, interest rate, and market risks.
Adjustable Rate Mortgage-Backed Securities.A Fund may invest in adjustable rate mortgage-backed securities (“ARMBS”), which have interest rates that reset at periodic intervals. Acquiring ARMBS permits a Fund to participate in increases in prevailing current interest rates through periodic adjustments in the coupons of mortgages underlying the pool on which ARMBS are based. Such ARMBS generally have higher current yield and lower price fluctuations than is the case with more traditional fixed income debt securities of comparable rating and maturity. In addition, when prepayments of principal are made on the underlying mortgages during periods of rising interest rates, a Fund can reinvest the proceeds of such prepayments at rates higher than those at which they were previously invested. Mortgages underlying most ARMBS, however, have limits on the allowable annual or lifetime increases that can be made in the interest rate that the mortgagor pays. Therefore, if current interest rates rise above such limits over the period of the limitation, a Fund, when holding an ARMBS, does not benefit from further increases in interest rates. Moreover, when interest rates are in excess of coupon rates (i.e., the rates being paid by mortgagors) of the mortgages, ARMBS behave more like fixed-income securities and less like adjustable rate securities and are subject to the risks associated with fixed-income securities. In addition, during periods of rising interest rates, increases in the coupon rate of adjustable rate mortgages generally lag current market interest rates slightly, thereby creating the potential for capital depreciation on such securities.
Other Types of Pass-Through Securities.The Funds also may invest in other types of pass-through securities, such as credit-linked trust certificates, traded custody receipts, and participation interests. Holders of the interests are entitled to receive distributions of interest, principal, and other payments on each of the underlying debt securities (less expenses), and in some cases distributions of the underlying debt securities. The underlying debt securities have a specified maturity but are subject to prepayment risk because if an issuer prepays the principal, a Fund may have additional cash to invest at a time when prevailing interest rates have declined and reinvestment of such additional funds is made at a lower rate. The value of the underlying debt securities may change due to changes in market interest rates. If interest rates rise, the value of the underlying debt securities, and therefore the value of the pass-through security, may decline. If the underlying debt securities are high-yield securities, the risks associated with high-yield securities discussed in this SAI and in the Funds’ Prospectuses may apply.
Investment Company Securities
From time to time, a Fund may invest in securities of other investment companies, subject to the provisions of the 1940 Act or as otherwise permitted by the SEC. Section 12(d)(1) of the 1940 Act prohibits a Fund from acquiring: (i) more than 3% of another investment company’s voting stock; (ii) securities of another investment company with a value in excess of 5% of a Fund’s total assets; or (iii) securities of such other investment company and all other investment companies owned by a Fund having a value in excess of 10% of the Fund’s total assets. In addition, Section 12(d)(1) prohibits another investment company from selling its shares to a Fund if, after the sale: (i) the Fund owns more than 3% of the other investment company’s voting stock or (ii) the Fund and other investment companies, and companies controlled by them, own more than 10% of the voting stock of such other investment company. To the extent a Fund is an underlying fund in a fund of funds managed by the Adviser, the Fund may not acquire securities of other investment companies in reliance on Section 12(d)(1)(F) and securities of open-end investment companies or registered unit investment trusts in reliance on Section 12(d)(1)(G). A Fund may invest in other investment companies beyond these statutory limits to the extent the Fund abides by certain conditions of Rule 12d1-4 under the 1940 Act. A Fund may invest its cash holdings in affiliated or non-affiliated money market funds or cash management pooled investment vehicles that operate pursuant to the provision of the 1940 Act that governs the operation of money market funds as part of a cash sweep program. A Fund may purchase unlimited shares of affiliated or non-affiliated money market funds and of other funds managed by the Adviser, whether registered or unregistered entities, as permitted by the 1940 Act and rules promulgated thereunder.
To the extent a Fund invests in money market funds or other funds, such Fund will be subject to the same risks that investors experience when investing in such other funds. These risks may include the impact of significant fluctuations in assets as a result of the cash sweep program or purchase and redemption activity by affiliated or non-affiliated shareholders in such other funds. Additionally, to the extent that the Adviser serves as the investment adviser to underlying funds or investment vehicles in which a Fund may invest, the Adviser may have conflicting interests in fulfilling its fiduciary duties to both the Fund and the underlying funds or investment vehicles. Money market funds are open-end registered investment
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companies. Money market funds that meet the definition of a retail money market fund or government money market fund compute their price per share using the amortized cost method of valuation to seek to maintain a stable $1.00 price per share, and money market funds that do not meet the definitions of a retail money market fund or government money market fund transact at a floating NAV per share (similar to all other non-money market mutual funds). Money market funds may impose liquidity fees because of market conditions or other factors. Amendments to money market fund regulation could impact the trading and value of money market instruments, which may negatively affect a Fund’s return potential.
Investment companies may include index-based investments such as exchange-traded funds (“ETFs”) that hold substantially all of their assets in investments representing specific indices. The main risk of investing in index-based investments is the same as investing in a portfolio of investments comprising the index. Index-based investments may not replicate exactly the performance of their specific index because of transaction costs and because of the temporary unavailability of certain component securities of the index.
As a shareholder of another investment company, a Fund would bear its pro rata portion of the other investment company’s expenses, including advisory fees, in addition to the expenses the Fund bears directly in connection with its own operation. The market prices of index-based investments and closed-end funds will fluctuate in accordance with both changes in the market value of their underlying portfolio investments and due to supply and demand for the instruments on the exchanges on which they are traded (which may result in their trading at a discount or premium to their NAVs). If the market price of shares of an index-based investment or closed-end fund decreases below the price that a Fund paid for the shares and the Fund were to sell its shares of such investment company at a time when the market price is lower than the price at which it purchased the shares, the Fund would experience a loss.
Exchange-Traded Notes
Certain Funds may invest in exchange-traded notes (“ETNs”), which are senior, unsecured, unsubordinated debt securities whose returns are linked to a particular index and provide exposure to the total returns of various market indices, including indices linked to stocks, bonds, commodities, and currencies. This type of debt security differs from other types of bonds and notes. ETN returns are based upon the performance of a market index minus applicable fees; no period coupon payments are distributed and no principal protections exist. ETNs do not pay cash distributions. Instead, the value of dividends, interest, and investment gains are captured in a Fund’s total return. A Fund may invest in these securities when desiring exposure to debt securities or commodities. When evaluating ETNs for investment, the Adviser will consider the potential risks involved, expected tax efficiency, rate of return, and credit risk. As senior debt securities, ETNs rank above the issuing company’s other securities in the event of a bankruptcy or liquidation, which means a Fund would be in line to receive repayment of its investment before certain of the company’s other creditors. When a Fund invests in ETNs, it will bear its proportionate share of any fees and expenses borne by the ETN. There may be restrictions on a Fund’s right to redeem its investment in an ETN, which are meant to be held until maturity. A Fund’s decision to sell its ETN holdings may be limited by the availability of a secondary market.
Equity-Linked Notes
An equity-linked note (“ELN”) is a debt instrument whose value is based on the value of a single equity security, basket of equity securities or an index of equity securities (each, an “underlying equity”). An ELN typically provides interest income, thereby offering a yield advantage over investing directly in an underlying equity. A Fund may purchase ELNs that trade on a securities exchange or those that trade on the over-the-counter (“OTC”) markets, including securities eligible for resale pursuant to Rule 144A under the 1933 Act (“Rule 144A Securities”). A Fund may also purchase ELNs in a privately negotiated transaction with the issuer of the ELNs (or its broker-dealer affiliate). A Fund may or may not hold an ELN until its maturity.
Equity-linked securities also include issues such as Structured Yield Product Exchangeable for Stock (STRYPES), Trust Automatic Common Exchange Securities (TRACES), Trust Issued Mandatory Exchange Securities (TIMES) and Trust Enhanced Dividend Securities (TRENDS). The issuers of these equity-linked securities generally purchase and hold a portfolio of stripped U.S. Treasury securities maturing on a quarterly basis through the conversion date, and a forward purchase contract with an existing shareholder of the company relating to the common stock. Quarterly distributions on such equity-linked securities generally consist of the cash received from the U.S. Treasury securities and such equity-linked securities generally are not entitled to any dividends that may be declared on the common stock.
Depositary Receipts
Each Fund may invest in sponsored and unsponsored American Depositary Receipts (“ADRs”), which are receipts issued by an American bank or trust company evidencing ownership of underlying securities issued by a foreign issuer. ADRs, in registered form, are designed for use in U.S. securities markets. Unsponsored ADRs may be created without the participation
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of the foreign issuer. Holders of these ADRs generally bear all the costs of the ADR facility, whereas foreign issuers typically bear certain costs in a sponsored ADR. The bank or trust company depositary of an unsponsored ADR may be under no obligation to distribute shareholder communications received from the foreign issuer or to pass through voting rights. The Funds may also invest in European Depositary Receipts (“EDRs”), Global Depositary Receipts (“GDRs”), and in other similar instruments representing securities of foreign companies. EDRs and GDRs are securities that are typically issued by foreign banks or foreign trust companies, although U.S. banks or U.S. trust companies may issue them. EDRs and GDRs are structured similarly to the arrangements of ADRs. EDRs, in bearer form, are designed for use in European securities markets.
Depositary receipts are generally subject to the same sort of risks as direct investments in a foreign country, such as currency risk, political and economic risk, regulatory risk, market risk, and geographic investment risk, because their values depend on the performance of a foreign security denominated in its home currency. The risks of foreign investing are addressed in some detail in the Funds’ Prospectuses, as applicable.
U.S. Government Securities
To the extent permitted by its investment objective and policies, each Fund, particularly Janus Henderson Balanced Fund, may invest in U.S. Government securities. The 1940 Act defines U.S. Government securities to include securities issued or guaranteed by the U.S. Government, its agencies, and its instrumentalities. U.S. Government securities may also include repurchase agreements collateralized by and municipal securities escrowed with or refunded with U.S. Government securities. U.S. Government securities in which a Fund may invest include U.S. Treasury securities, including Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities (“TIPS”), Treasury bills, notes, and bonds, and obligations issued or guaranteed by U.S. Government agencies and instrumentalities that are backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Government, such as those issued or guaranteed by the Small Business Administration, Maritime Administration, Export-Import Bank of the United States, Farmers Home Administration, Federal Housing Administration, and Ginnie Mae. In addition, U.S. Government securities in which a Fund may invest include securities backed only by the rights of the issuers to borrow from the U.S. Treasury, such as those issued by the members of the Federal Farm Credit System, Federal Intermediate Credit Banks, Tennessee Valley Authority, and Freddie Mac. Securities issued by Fannie Mae, the Federal Home Loan Banks, and the Student Loan Marketing Association (“Sallie Mae”) are supported by the discretionary authority of the U.S. Government to purchase the obligations. There is no guarantee that the U.S. Government will support securities not backed by its full faith and credit. Accordingly, although these securities have historically involved little risk of loss of principal if held to maturity, they may involve more risk than securities backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Government because the Funds must look principally to the agency or instrumentality issuing or guaranteeing the securities for repayment and may not be able to assert a claim against the United States if the agency or instrumentality does not meet its commitment.
Because of the rising U.S. Government debt burden, it is possible that the U.S. Government may not be able to meet its financial obligations or that securities issued or backed by the U.S. Government may experience credit downgrades. Such a credit event may adversely affect the financial markets.
Inflation-Linked Securities
A Fund may invest in inflation-linked securities, including Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities (also known as TIPS), municipal inflation-indexed bonds and corporate inflation-indexed bonds, or in derivatives that are linked to these securities. TIPS are inflation-linked bonds issued by the U.S. Government. Inflation-linked bonds may also be issued by, or related to, sovereign governments of other developed countries, emerging market countries, or companies or other entities not affiliated with governments.
Inflation-linked bonds are fixed-income securities whose interest and principal payments are periodically adjusted according to the rate of inflation. The inflation adjustment, which is typically applied monthly to the principal of the bond, follows a designated inflation index, such as the consumer price index. If an index measuring inflation falls, the principal value of inflation-indexed bonds will typically be adjusted downward, and consequently the interest payable on these securities (calculated with respect to a smaller principal amount) will be reduced. Because of their inflation adjustment feature, inflation-linked bonds typically have lower yields than conventional fixed-rate bonds.
Inflation-linked bonds normally decline in price when real interest rates rise. In the event of deflation, when prices decline over time, the principal and income of inflation-linked bonds would likely decline, resulting in losses to a Fund.
In the case of TIPS, repayment of original bond principal upon maturity (as adjusted for inflation) is guaranteed. When TIPS mature, the holder is paid the adjusted principal or original principal, whichever is greater. For inflation-linked bonds that do not provide a similar guarantee, the adjusted principal value or maturity amount of the inflation-linked bond repaid at maturity may be less than the original principal.
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Municipal Obligations
The Funds may invest in municipal obligations issued by states, territories, and possessions of the United States and the District of Columbia. The municipal obligations which a Fund may purchase include general obligation bonds and limited obligation bonds (or revenue bonds), and private activity bonds. In addition, a Fund may invest in securities issued by entities whose underlying assets are municipal bonds. General obligation bonds are obligations involving the credit of an issuer possessing taxing power and are payable from such issuer’s general revenues and not from any particular source. Limited obligation bonds are payable only from the revenues derived from a particular facility or class of facilities or, in some cases, from the proceeds of a special excise or other specific revenue source. Tax-exempt private activity bonds generally are also revenue bonds and thus are not payable from the issuer’s general revenues.
The value of municipal obligations can be affected by changes in their actual or perceived credit quality. The credit quality of municipal obligations can be affected by, among other things, the financial condition of the issuer or guarantor, the issuer’s current financial obligations, the issuer’s future borrowing plans and sources of revenue, the economic feasibility of the revenue bond project or general borrowing purpose, political or economic developments in the region where the security is issued, and the liquidity of the security. Because municipal securities are generally traded over-the-counter, the liquidity of a particular issue often depends on the willingness of dealers to make a market in the security. The liquidity of some municipal obligations may be enhanced by demand features, which would enable a Fund to demand payment on short notice from the issuer or a financial intermediary.
A Fund may invest in longer-term municipal obligations that give the investor the right to “put” or sell the security at par (face value) within a specified number of days following the investor’s request – usually one to seven days. This demand feature enhances a security’s liquidity by shortening its effective maturity and enables it to trade at a price equal to or very close to par. If a demand feature terminates prior to being exercised, a Fund would hold the longer-term security, which could experience substantially more volatility.
Each Fund expects to invest less than 50% of its total assets in tax-exempt municipal bonds. As a result, the Funds do not expect to be eligible to pay exempt interest dividends to shareholders and interest on municipal bonds will be taxable to shareholders when received as a distribution from a Fund.
Other Securities
Other types of securities that the Funds may purchase include, but are not limited to, the following:
Inverse Floaters.Inverse floaters are debt instruments whose interest bears an inverse relationship to the interest rate on another security. No Fund will invest more than 5% of its assets in inverse floaters. If movements in interest rates are incorrectly anticipated, a Fund could lose money, or its NAV could decline by the use of inverse floaters.
When-Issued, Delayed Delivery and Forward Commitment Transactions.A Fund may enter into “to be announced” or “TBA” commitments and may purchase or sell securities on a when-issued, delayed delivery, or forward commitment basis. These securities may include Cornerstone IPOs. When purchasing a security on a when-issued, delayed delivery, or forward commitment basis, a Fund assumes the rights and risks of ownership of the security, including the risk of price and yield fluctuations, and takes such fluctuations into account when determining its net asset value, but does not pay for the securities until they are received. If the other party to a transaction fails to deliver the securities, a Fund could miss a favorable price or yield opportunity. If a Fund remains substantially fully invested at a time when when-issued, delayed delivery, or forward commitment purchases are outstanding, the purchases may result in a form of leverage.
When a Fund has sold a security on a when-issued, delayed delivery, or forward commitment basis, the Fund does not participate in future gains or losses with respect to the security. If the other party to a transaction fails to pay for the securities, a Fund could suffer a loss. Additionally, when selling a security on a when-issued, delayed delivery, or forward commitment basis without owning the security, a Fund will incur a loss if the security’s price appreciates in value such that the security’s price is above the agreed upon price on the settlement date.
A Fund may dispose of or renegotiate a transaction after it is entered into, and may purchase or sell when-issued, delayed delivery or forward commitment securities before the settlement date, which may result in a gain or loss.
Rules of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (“FINRA”), include certain mandatory margin requirements for TBA commitments and other forward setting agency mortgage-backed securities which may require a Fund to post collateral under certain circumstances. These collateral requirements may increase costs associated with a Fund’s participation in the TBA and agency mortgage-backed securities market.
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Standby Commitments.Standby commitments are the rights to sell a specified underlying security or securities within a specified period of time and at an exercise price equal to the amortized cost of the underlying security or securities plus accrued interest, if any, at the time of exercise, that may be sold, transferred, or assigned only with the underlying security or securities. A standby commitment entitles the holder to receive same day settlement and will be considered to be from the party to whom the investment company will look for payment of the exercise price.
Strip Bonds.Strip bonds are debt securities that are stripped of their interest (usually by a financial intermediary) after the securities are issued. The market value of these securities generally fluctuates more in response to changes in interest rates than interest-paying securities of comparable maturity.
Tender Option Bonds.Tender option bonds are relatively long-term bonds that are coupled with the option to tender the securities to a bank, broker-dealer, or other financial institution at periodic intervals and receive the face value of the bonds. This investment structure is commonly used as a means of enhancing a security’s liquidity.
A Fund will purchase standby commitments, tender option bonds, and instruments with demand features primarily for the purpose of increasing the liquidity of their portfolio holdings.
Variable and Floating Rate Obligations.These types of securities have variable or floating rates of interest and, under certain limited circumstances, may have varying principal amounts. Variable and floating rate securities pay interest at rates that are adjusted periodically according to a specified formula, usually with reference to some interest rate index or market interest rate (the “underlying index”). The floating rate tends to decrease the security’s price sensitivity to changes in interest rates. These types of securities may be relatively long-term instruments that often carry demand features permitting the holder to demand payment of principal at any time or at specified intervals prior to maturity.
In order to most effectively use these investments, portfolio management must correctly assess probable movements in interest rates. If portfolio management incorrectly forecasts such movements, a Fund could be adversely affected by the use of variable or floating rate obligations.
Real Estate Investment Trusts (“REITs”) and Real Estate-Linked Derivatives
Within the parameters of its specific investment policies, each Fund may invest in publicly traded REITs. Janus Henderson Global Real Estate Fund may invest a significant amount of its assets in these types of securities. REITs are sometimes informally characterized as equity REITs, mortgage REITs, and hybrid REITs. In addition, a Fund may gain exposure to the real estate sector by investing in real estate-linked derivatives and common, preferred and convertible securities of issuers in real estate-related industries. Investments in publicly traded REITs and real estate-linked derivatives are subject to risks similar to those associated with direct ownership of real estate, including loss to casualty or condemnation, increases in property taxes and operating expenses, zoning law amendments, changes in interest rates, overbuilding and increased competition, variations in market value, fluctuations in rental income, possible environmental liabilities, regulatory limitations on rent, and other risks related to local or general economic conditions. Equity REITs generally experience these risks directly through fee or leasehold interests, whereas mortgage REITs generally experience these risks indirectly through mortgage interests, unless the mortgage REIT forecloses on the underlying real estate. Changes in interest rates may also affect the value of a Fund’s investment in publicly traded REITs. For instance, during periods of declining interest rates, certain mortgage REITs may hold mortgages that the mortgagors elect to prepay, and prepayment may diminish the yield on securities issued by those REITs.
Certain REITs have relatively small market capitalizations, which may tend to increase the volatility of the market price of their securities. Furthermore, publicly traded REITs are dependent upon specialized management skills, have limited diversification and are, therefore, subject to risks inherent in operating and financing a limited number of projects. Publicly traded REITs are also subject to heavy cash flow dependency, defaults by borrowers, and the possibility of failing to qualify for tax-free pass-through of income under the Internal Revenue Code and to maintain exemption from the registration requirements of the 1940 Act. By investing in publicly traded REITs indirectly through a Fund, a shareholder will bear not only his or her proportionate share of the expenses of a Fund, but also, indirectly, similar expenses of the publicly traded REITs. In addition, publicly traded REITs depend generally on their ability to generate cash flow to make distributions to shareholders.
Repurchase and Reverse Repurchase Agreements
In a repurchase agreement, a Fund purchases an equity or fixed-income security and simultaneously commits to resell that security to the seller at an agreed upon price on an agreed upon date within a number of days (usually not more than seven) from the date of purchase. The resale price consists of the purchase price plus an agreed upon incremental amount that is unrelated to the coupon rate or maturity of the purchased security. A repurchase agreement involves the obligation of the
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seller to pay the agreed upon price, which obligation is in effect secured by the value (at least equal to the amount of the agreed upon resale price and marked-to-market daily) of the underlying security or “collateral.” A risk associated with repurchase agreements is the failure of the seller to repurchase the securities as agreed, which may cause a Fund to suffer a loss if the market value of such securities declines before they can be liquidated on the open market. In the event of bankruptcy or insolvency of the seller, a Fund may encounter delays and incur costs in liquidating the underlying security. In addition, the collateral received in the repurchase transaction may become worthless. To the extent a Fund’s collateral focuses in one or more sectors, such as banks and financial services, the Fund is subject to increased risk as a result of that exposure. Repurchase agreements that mature in more than seven calendar days are subject to the 15% limit on illiquid investments that are assets. While it is not possible to eliminate all risks from these transactions, it is the policy of the Funds to limit repurchase agreements to those parties whose creditworthiness has been reviewed and found satisfactory by the Adviser. There is no guarantee that the Adviser’s analysis of the creditworthiness of the counterparty will be accurate, and the underlying collateral involved in the transaction can expose a Fund to additional risk regardless of the creditworthiness of the parties involved in the transaction.
Reverse repurchase agreements are transactions in which a Fund sells an equity or fixed-income security and simultaneously commits to repurchase that security from the buyer, such as a bank or broker-dealer, at an agreed upon price on an agreed upon future date. The resale price in a reverse repurchase agreement reflects a market rate of interest that is not related to the coupon rate or maturity of the sold security. For certain demand agreements, there is no agreed upon repurchase date and interest payments are calculated daily, often based upon the prevailing overnight repurchase rate. The Funds will use the proceeds of reverse repurchase agreements only to satisfy unusually heavy redemption requests or for other temporary or emergency purposes without the necessity of selling portfolio securities, or to earn additional income on portfolio securities, such as Treasury bills or notes, or as part of an inflation-related investment strategy.
Generally, a reverse repurchase agreement enables a Fund to recover for the term of the reverse repurchase agreement all or most of the cash invested in the portfolio securities sold and to keep the interest income associated with those portfolio securities. Such transactions are only advantageous if the interest cost to a Fund of the reverse repurchase transaction is less than the cost of obtaining the cash otherwise. In addition, interest costs on the money received in a reverse repurchase agreement may exceed the return received on the investments made by a Fund with those monies. Using reverse repurchase agreements to earn additional income involves the risk that the interest earned on the invested proceeds is less than the expense of the reverse repurchase agreement transaction. This technique may also have a leveraging effect on a Fund’s portfolio. A Fund will enter into reverse repurchase agreements only with parties that the Adviser deems creditworthy. A Fund will limit its investments in reverse repurchase agreements to one-third or less of its total assets.
Callable Securities
Certain Funds may invest in callable securities. Callable securities give the issuer the right to redeem the security on a given date or dates (known as the call dates) prior to maturity. In return, the call feature is factored into the price of the debt security, and callable debt securities typically offer a higher yield than comparable non-callable securities. Certain securities may be called only in whole (the entire security is redeemed), while others may be called only in part (a portion of the total face value is redeemed) and possibly from time to time as determined by the issuer. There is no guarantee that a Fund will receive higher yields or a call premium on an investment in callable securities.
The period of time between the time of issue and the first call date, known as call protection, varies from security to security. Call protection provides the investor holding the security with assurance that the security will not be called before a specified date. As a result, securities with call protection generally cost more than similar securities without call protection. Call protection will make a callable security more similar to a long-term debt security, resulting in an associated increase in the callable security’s interest rate sensitivity.
Documentation for callable securities usually requires that investors be notified of a call within a prescribed period of time. If a security is called, a Fund will receive the principal amount and accrued interest, and may receive a small additional payment as a call premium. Issuers are more likely to exercise call options in periods when interest rates are below the rate at which the original security was issued, because the issuer can issue new securities with lower interest payments. Callable securities are subject to the risks of other debt securities in general, including prepayment risk, especially in falling interest rate environments.
Sale-Buybacks.Certain Funds may effect simultaneous purchase and sale transactions that are known as “sale-buybacks.” A sale-buyback is similar to a reverse repurchase agreement, except that in a sale-buyback, the counterparty that purchases the security is entitled to receive any principal or interest payments made on the underlying security pending settlement of a
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Fund’s repurchase of the underlying security. Such Fund’s obligations under a sale-buyback typically would be offset by liquid assets equal in value to the amount of the Fund’s forward commitment to repurchase the subject security.
Mortgage Dollar Rolls
Certain Funds may enter into “mortgage dollar rolls,” which are similar to reverse repurchase agreements in certain respects. In a “mortgage dollar roll” transaction, a Fund sells a mortgage-related security (such as a Ginnie Mae security) to a dealer and simultaneously agrees to repurchase a similar security (but not the same security) in the future at a predetermined price. A “dollar roll” can be viewed, like a reverse repurchase agreement, as a collateralized borrowing in which a Fund pledges a mortgage-related security to a dealer to obtain cash. Unlike in the case of reverse repurchase agreements, the dealer with which a Fund enters into a dollar roll transaction is not obligated to return the same securities as those originally sold by the Fund, but only securities which are “substantially identical.” To be considered “substantially identical,” the securities returned to a Fund generally must: (i) be collateralized by the same types of underlying mortgages; (ii) be issued by the same agency and be part of the same program; (iii) have a similar original stated maturity; (iv) have identical net coupon rates; (v) have similar market yields (and, therefore, price); and (vi) satisfy “good delivery” requirements, meaning that the aggregate principal amounts of the securities delivered and received back must be within 2.5% of the initial amount delivered.
Under certain circumstances, an underlying mortgage-backed security that is part of a dollar roll transaction may be considered illiquid. During the roll period, a Fund foregoes principal and interest paid on the mortgage-backed security. A Fund is compensated by the difference between the current sale price and the lower forward purchase price, often referred to as the “drop,” as well as the interest earned on the cash proceeds of the initial sale.
Successful use of mortgage dollar rolls depends on a Fund’s ability to predict mortgage supply dynamics, mortgage prepayments, and short-term Federal Reserve interest rate policy. Dollar roll transactions involve the risk that the market value of the securities a Fund is required to purchase may decline below the agreed upon repurchase price.
Loans
Certain Funds may invest in various commercial loans, including bank loans, bridge loans, debtor-in-possession (“DIP”) loans, mezzanine loans, and other fixed and floating rate loans. Commercial loans will comprise no more than 5% of Janus Henderson Global Technology and Innovation Fund’s total assets and no more than 20% of Janus Henderson Balanced Fund’s total assets. The loans in which a Fund may invest may be denominated in U.S. or non-U.S. currencies, including the euro. Some of a Fund’s bank loan investments may be deemed illiquid and therefore would be subject to the Fund’s limit of investing up to 15% of its net assets in illiquid investments that are assets, when combined with the Fund’s other illiquid investments.
Bank Loans.Bank loans are obligations of companies or other entities that are typically issued in connection with recapitalizations, acquisitions, and refinancings, and may be offered on a public or private basis. These investments may include institutionally-traded floating and fixed-rate debt securities. Bank loans often involve borrowers with low credit ratings whose financial conditions are troubled or uncertain, including companies that are highly leveraged and may be distressed or involved in bankruptcy proceedings. The Funds generally invest in bank loans directly through an agent, either by assignment from another holder of the loan or as a participation interest in another holder’s portion of the loan. A Fund may also purchase interests and/or servicing or similar rights in such loans. Assignments and participations involve credit risk, interest rate risk, and liquidity risk. To the extent a Fund invests in non-U.S. bank loan investments, those investments are subject to the risks of foreign investment, including Eurozone risk. Some bank loans may be purchased on a “when-issued” basis.
When a Fund purchases an assignment, the Fund generally assumes all the rights and obligations under the loan agreement and will generally become a “lender” for purposes of the particular loan agreement. The rights and obligations acquired by a Fund under an assignment may be different, and be more limited, than those held by an assigning lender. Subject to the terms of a loan agreement, a Fund may enforce compliance by a borrower with the terms of the loan agreement and may have rights with respect to any funds acquired by other lenders through set-off. If a loan is foreclosed, a Fund may become part owner of any collateral securing the loan and may bear the costs and liabilities associated with owning and disposing of any collateral. A Fund could be held liable as a co-lender. In addition, there is no assurance that the liquidation of collateral from a secured loan would satisfy the borrower’s obligations or that the collateral could be liquidated.
If a Fund purchases a participation interest, it typically will have a contractual relationship with the lender and not with the borrower. A Fund may only be able to enforce its rights through the lender and may assume the credit risk of both the borrower and the lender, or any other intermediate participant. A Fund may have the right to receive payments of principal, interest, and any fees to which it is entitled only from the lender and only upon receipt by the lender of the payments from
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the borrower. The failure by a Fund to receive scheduled interest or principal payments may adversely affect the income of the Fund and may likely reduce the value of its assets, which would be reflected by a reduction in the Fund’s NAV.
The borrower of a loan in which a Fund holds an assignment or participation interest may, either at its own election or pursuant to the terms of the loan documentation, prepay amounts of the loan from time to time. There is no assurance that a Fund will be able to reinvest the proceeds of any loan prepayment at the same interest rate or on the same terms as those of the original loan participation. This may result in a Fund realizing less income on a particular investment and replacing the loan with a less attractive security, which may provide less return to the Fund.
Bank Obligations.Bank obligations in which the Funds may invest include certificates of deposit, bankers’ acceptances, and fixed time deposits. Certificates of deposit are negotiable certificates issued against funds deposited in a commercial bank for a definite period of time and earning a specified return. Bankers’ acceptances are negotiable drafts or bills of exchange, normally drawn by an importer or exporter to pay for specific merchandise, which are “accepted” by a bank, meaning, in effect, that the bank unconditionally agrees to pay the face value of the instrument on maturity. Fixed time deposits are bank obligations payable at a stated maturity date and bearing interest at a fixed rate. Fixed time deposits may be withdrawn on demand by the investor, but may be subject to early withdrawal penalties which vary depending upon market conditions and the remaining maturity of the obligation. There are no contractual restrictions on the right to transfer a beneficial interest in a fixed time deposit to a third party, although there is no market for such deposits.
Corporate Loans.Certain Funds may invest in corporate loans. Corporate loans have the most senior position in a borrower’s capital structure or share the senior position with other senior debt securities of the borrower (“Corporate Loans”). This capital structure position generally gives holders of Corporate Loans a priority claim on some or all of the borrower’s assets in the event of default. Most of a Fund’s Corporate Loans investments will be secured by specific assets of the borrower. Corporate Loans also have contractual terms designed to protect lenders. Each applicable Fund generally acquires Corporate Loans of borrowers that, in the Adviser’s judgment, can make timely payments on their Corporate Loans and that satisfy other credit standards established by the Adviser. Nevertheless, investing in Corporate Loans does involve investment risk, and some borrowers default on their loan payments. A Fund attempts to manage these risks through careful analyses and monitoring of borrowers.
There is less readily available, reliable information about most Corporate Loans than is the case for many other types of securities. In addition, there is no minimum rating or other independent evaluation of a borrower or its securities, and thus the Adviser relies primarily on its own evaluation of borrower credit quality rather on any available independent source. As a result, a Fund is particularly dependent on the analytical abilities of the Adviser.
Corporate Loans generally are not listed on any national securities exchange or automated quotation system and no active trading market exists for many Corporate Loans. In addition, transactions in Corporate Loans may settle on a delayed basis. As a result, the proceeds from the sale of Corporate Loans may not be readily available to make additional investments or to meet a Fund’s redemption obligations. The market for Corporate Loans, if any, could be disrupted in the event of an economic downturn or a substantial increase or decrease in the interest rates. However, many Corporate Loans are of a large principal amount and are held by a large number of owners. In the opinion of the Adviser, this should enhance their liquidity.
A Fund may acquire Corporate Loans of borrowers that are experiencing, or are more likely to experience, financial difficulty, including Corporate Loans issued in highly leveraged transactions. A Fund may even acquire and retain in its portfolio Corporate Loans of borrowers that have filed for bankruptcy protection. Because of the protective terms of Corporate Loans, the Adviser believes that a Fund is more likely to recover more of its investment in a defaulted Corporate Loan than would be the case for most other types of defaulted debt securities. Nevertheless, even in the case of collateralized Corporate Loans, there is no assurance that sale of the collateral would raise enough cash to satisfy the borrower’s payment obligation or that the collateral can or will be liquidated. In the case of bankruptcy, liquidation may not occur and the court may not give lenders the full benefit of their senior position. Uncollateralized Corporate Loans involve a greater risk of loss.
Floating Rate Loans.A Fund may invest in secured and unsecured floating rate loans. Floating rate loans typically are negotiated, structured, and originated by a bank or other financial institution (an “agent”) for a lending group or “syndicate” of financial institutions. In most cases, a Fund relies on the agent to assert appropriate creditor remedies against the borrower. The agent may not have the same interests as the Fund, and the agent may determine to waive certain covenants contained in the loan agreement that the Fund would not otherwise have determined to waive. The typical practice of an agent relying on reports from a borrower about its financial condition may involve a risk of fraud by a borrower. In addition, if an agent becomes insolvent or carries out its duties improperly, the Fund may experience delays in realizing payment and/or risk loss
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of principal and/or income on its floating rate loan investments. The investment team performs a credit analysis on the borrower but typically does not perform a credit analysis on the agent or other intermediate participants.
Floating rate loans have interest rates that adjust periodically and are tied to a benchmark lending rate such as the Secured Overnight Financing Rate (“SOFR”), which is intended to be a broad measure of secured overnight U.S. Treasury repo rates, the prime rate offered by one or more major U.S. banks (“Prime Rate”), or the rate paid on large certificates of deposit traded in the secondary markets (“CD rate”). The interest rate on Prime Rate based loans and corporate debt securities may float daily as the Prime Rate changes, while the interest rate on CD rate based loans and corporate debt securities may reset periodically. If the benchmark lending rate changes, the rate payable to lenders under the loan will change at the next scheduled adjustment date specified in the loan agreement. Investing in floating rate loans with longer interest rate reset periods may increase fluctuations in a Fund’s NAV as a result of changes in interest rates. A Fund may attempt to hedge against interest rate fluctuations by entering into interest rate swaps or by using other hedging techniques.
While the Funds generally expect to invest in fully funded term loans, certain of the loans in which the Funds may invest may not be fully funded at the time of investment. These types of loans include revolving loans, bridge loans, DIP loans, delayed funding loans, and delayed draw term loans. Such loans generally obligate the lender (and those with an interest in the loan) to fund the loan at the borrower’s discretion. As such, a Fund would need to maintain assets sufficient to meet its contractual obligations. In cases where a Fund invests in revolving loans, bridge loans, DIP loans, delayed funding loans, or delayed draw term loans, the Fund will maintain high-quality liquid assets in an amount at least equal to its obligations under the loans. Amounts maintained in high-quality liquid assets may provide less return to a Fund than investments in floating rate loans or other investments. Loans involving revolving credit facilities, bridge financing, DIP loans, delayed funding loans, or delayed draw terms may require a Fund to increase its investment in a particular floating rate loan when it otherwise would not have done so. Further, a Fund may be obligated to do so even if it may be unlikely that the borrower will repay amounts due.
Purchasers of floating rate loans may pay and/or receive certain fees. The Funds may receive fees such as covenant waiver fees or prepayment penalty fees. A Fund may pay fees such as facility fees. Such fees may affect the Fund’s return.
The secondary market on which floating rate loans are traded may be less liquid than the market for investment grade securities or other types of income-producing securities, which may have an adverse impact on their market price. There is also a potential that there is no active market to trade floating rate loans and that there may be restrictions on their transfer. As a result, a Fund may be unable to sell assignments or participations at the desired time or may be able to sell only at a price less than fair market value. The secondary market may also be subject to irregular trading activity, wide price spreads, and extended trade settlement periods. With respect to below-investment grade or unrated securities, it also may be more difficult to value the securities because valuation may require more research, and elements of judgment may play a larger role in the valuation because there is less reliable, objective data available.
Corporate Bonds.Corporate bonds are debt obligations issued by corporations, institutions and other business entities. Typically, the debt is issued for the purpose of borrowing money, often to help the corporation develop a new product or service, to expand into a new market, or to buy another company. Corporate bonds may be either secured or unsecured. Collateral used for secured debt includes real property, machinery, equipment, accounts receivable, stocks, bonds or notes. If a bond is unsecured, it is known as a debenture. Corporate bonds may be either secured or unsecured. Collateral used for secured debt includes real property, machinery, equipment, accounts receivable, stocks, bonds or notes. If a bond is unsecured, it is known as a debenture. Bondholders, as creditors, have a prior legal claim over common and preferred stockholders as to both income and assets of the corporation for the principal and interest due them and may have a prior claim over other creditors if liens or mortgages are involved. Interest on corporate bonds may be fixed or floating, or the bonds may be zero coupons. Interest on corporate bonds is typically paid semi-annually and is fully taxable to the bondholder.
Corporate bonds are subject to interest rate risk. The market value of a corporate bond generally may be expected to rise and fall inversely with interest rates and may also be affected by the credit rating of the corporation, the corporation’s performance and perceptions of the corporation in the marketplace. Corporate bonds usually yield more than government or agency bonds due to the presence of credit risk. Corporate bonds are also subject to credit risk. As with other types of bonds, the issuer promises to repay the principal on a specific date and to make interest payments in the meantime. The amount of interest offered depends both on market conditions and on the financial health of the corporation issuing the bonds; a company whose credit rating is not strong will have to offer a higher interest rate to obtain buyers for its bonds. There is a risk that the issuers of corporate bonds may not be able to meet their obligations on interest or principal payments at the time called for by an instrument. The market value of a corporate bond may also be affected by factors directly related to the issuer, such as
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investors’ perceptions of the creditworthiness of the issuer, the issuer’s financial performance, perceptions of the issuer in the market place, performance of management of the issuer, the issuer’s capital structure and use of financial leverage and demand for the issuer’s goods and services. Corporate bonds of below investment grade quality are often high risk and have speculative characteristics and may be particularly susceptible to adverse issuer-specific developments.
Confidential Information.With respect to certain loan transactions, including but not limited to private placements, a Fund may determine not to receive confidential information. Such a decision may place the Fund at a disadvantage relative to other investors in loans who determine to receive confidential information, as the Fund may be limited in its available investments or unable to make accurate assessments related to certain investments.
In cases where the Adviser receives material, nonpublic information about the issuers of loans that may be held in a Fund’s holdings, the Adviser’s ability to trade in these loans for the account of the Fund could potentially be limited by its possession of such information, to the extent necessary to comply with certain regulatory restrictions. Such limitations on the ability to trade in the loans and/or other securities of the issuer could have an adverse effect on a Fund by, for example, preventing the Fund from selling a loan that is experiencing a material decline in value. In some instances, these trading restrictions could continue in effect for a substantial period of time.
In addition, because a Fund becomes a creditor of an issuer when holding a bond, the Adviser may from time to time participate on creditor committees on behalf of the Funds. These are committees formed by creditors to negotiate with management of the issuer and are intended to protect the rights of bondholders in the event of bankruptcy, bond covenant default, or other issuer-related financial problems. Participation on creditor committees may expose the Adviser or a Fund to material non-public information of the issuer, restricting such Fund’s ability to trade in or acquire additional positions in a particular security or other securities of the issuer when it might otherwise desire to do so. Participation on creditor committees may also expose the Funds to federal bankruptcy laws or other laws governing rights of debtors and creditors. Additionally, such participation may subject the Funds to expenses such as legal fees. The Adviser will only participate on creditor committees on behalf of a Fund when it believes such participation is necessary or desirable to protect the value of portfolio securities or enforce a Fund’s rights as a creditor.
High-Yield Bonds
To the extent a Fund invests in high-yield bonds (also known as “junk” bonds), under normal circumstances, each of the Funds indicated will limit its investments in such bonds to 35% or less of its net assets (Janus Henderson Global Life Sciences Fund, Janus Henderson Global Real Estate Fund, Janus Henderson Global Research Fund, Janus Henderson Global Select Fund, Janus Henderson Global Technology and Innovation Fund, Janus Henderson Overseas Fund, Janus Henderson Enterprise Fund, Janus Henderson Forty Fund, Janus Henderson Growth and Income Fund, Janus Henderson Research Fund, Janus Henderson Triton Fund, and Janus Henderson Venture Fund), 20% or less of its net assets (Janus Henderson Asia Equity Fund, Janus Henderson Emerging Markets Fund, and Janus Henderson Contrarian Fund), or 35% or less of the fixed-income portion of its net assets (Janus Henderson Balanced Fund). Janus Henderson U.S. Dividend Income Fund does not intend to invest in high-yield bonds.
Lower rated bonds, which are considered speculative, involve a higher degree of credit risk, which is the risk that the issuer will not make interest or principal payments when due. In the event of an unanticipated default, a Fund could expect a decline in the market value of the bonds so affected.
A Fund may also invest in unrated bonds of foreign and domestic issuers. For the Funds subject to such limit, unrated high-yield bonds will be included in each Fund’s limit, as applicable, on investments in bonds rated below investment grade unless portfolio management deems such securities to be the equivalent of investment grade bonds. Unrated bonds, while not necessarily of lower quality than rated bonds, may not have as broad a market. Because of the size and perceived demand of the issue, among other factors, certain municipalities may not incur the costs of obtaining a rating and may issue unrated securities. Portfolio management will analyze the creditworthiness of the issuer, as well as any financial institution or other party responsible for payments on the bond, in determining whether to purchase unrated municipal bonds.
The secondary market on which high-yield securities are traded is less liquid than the market for investment grade securities. The lack of a liquid secondary market may have an adverse impact on the market price of the security. Additionally, it may be more difficult to value the securities because valuation may require more research, and elements of judgment may play a larger role in the valuation because there is less reliable, objective data available.
Please refer to the “Explanation of Rating Categories” section of this SAI for a description of bond rating categories.
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Defaulted Securities
Certain Funds may hold defaulted securities if portfolio management believes, based upon an analysis of the financial condition, results of operations, and economic outlook of an issuer, that there is potential for resumption of income payments and that the securities offer an unusual opportunity for capital appreciation. For the Funds subject to such limit, defaulted securities will be included in each Fund’s limit on investments in bonds rated below investment grade. Notwithstanding portfolio management’s belief about the resumption of income, however, the purchase of any security on which payment of interest or dividends is suspended involves a high degree of risk. Such risk includes, among other things, the following:
Financial and Market Risks.Investments in securities that are in default involve a high degree of financial and market risks that can result in substantial or, at times, even total losses. Issuers of defaulted securities may have substantial capital needs and may become involved in bankruptcy or reorganization proceedings. Among the problems involved in investments in such issuers is the fact that it may be difficult to obtain information about the condition of such issuers. The market prices of such securities also are subject to abrupt and erratic movements and above average price volatility, and the spread between the bid and asked prices of such securities may be greater than normally expected.
Disposition of Portfolio Securities.Although the Funds generally will purchase securities for which portfolio management expects an active market to be maintained, defaulted securities may be less actively traded than other securities, and it may be difficult to dispose of substantial holdings of such securities at prevailing market prices. The Funds will limit holdings of any such securities to amounts that portfolio management believes could be readily sold, and holdings of such securities would, in any event, be limited so as not to limit a Fund’s ability to readily dispose of securities to meet redemptions.
Other.Defaulted securities require active monitoring and may, at times, require participation in bankruptcy or receivership proceedings on behalf of the Funds.
Derivative Instruments
Certain Funds may invest in various types of derivatives, which may at times result in significant derivative exposure. A derivative is a financial instrument whose performance is derived from the performance of another asset. The Funds may invest in derivative instruments including, but not limited to: futures contracts, put options, call options, options on futures contracts, options on foreign currencies, options on recovery locks, options on security and commodity indices, swaps, forward contracts (including TBA commitments), structured investments, and other equity-linked derivatives. The Funds may also invest in long-term equity anticipation securities (“LEAPS”). LEAPS are publicly traded options contracts with expiration dates of longer than one year. The longer expiration date of LEAPS offers the opportunity for a Fund to gain exposure to prolonged price changes without having to invest in a combination of shorter-term traditional options contracts. LEAPS may be purchased for individual stocks or for equity indices.
A Fund may use derivative instruments for hedging purposes (to offset risks associated with an investment, currency exposure, or market conditions), to adjust currency exposure relative to a benchmark index, or for speculative purposes (to earn income and seek to enhance returns). When a Fund invests in a derivative for speculative purposes, the Fund will be fully exposed to the risks of loss of that derivative, which may sometimes be greater than the derivative’s cost. The Funds may not use any derivative to gain exposure to an asset or class of assets that they would be prohibited by their investment restrictions from purchasing directly. A Fund’s ability to use derivative instruments may also be limited by tax considerations (see “Income Dividends, Capital Gains Distributions, and Tax Status”).
Investments in derivatives in general are subject to market risks that may cause their prices to fluctuate over time. Investments in derivatives may not directly correlate with the price movements of the underlying instrument. As a result, the use of derivatives may expose a Fund to additional risks that it would not be subject to if it invested directly in the securities underlying those derivatives. The use of derivatives may result in larger losses or smaller gains than otherwise would be the case. Derivatives can be volatile and may involve significant risks, including:
Counterparty risk – the risk that the counterparty (the party on the other side of the transaction) on a derivative transaction will be unable to honor its financial obligation to the Fund.
Currency risk – the risk that changes in the exchange rate between currencies will adversely affect the value (in U.S. dollar terms) of an investment.
Leverage risk – the risk associated with certain types of leveraged investments or trading strategies pursuant to which relatively small market movements may result in large changes in the value of an investment. A Fund creates leverage by investing in instruments where the investment loss can exceed the original amount invested. The use of investment techniques, such as short sales and certain derivative transactions, can create a leveraging effect on a Fund.
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Liquidity risk – the risk that certain securities may be difficult or impossible to sell at the time that the seller would like or at the price that the seller believes the security is currently worth.
Index risk – if the derivative is linked to the performance of an index, it will be subject to the risks associated with changes in that index. If the index changes, the Fund could receive lower interest payments or experience a reduction in the value of the derivative to below what the Fund paid. Certain indexed securities, including inverse securities (which move in an opposite direction to the index), may create leverage, to the extent that they increase or decrease in value at a rate that is a multiple of the changes in the applicable index.
Derivatives may generally be traded over-the-counter (“OTC”) or on an exchange. Derivatives traded OTC are agreements that are individually negotiated between parties and can be tailored to meet a purchaser’s needs. OTC derivatives are not guaranteed by a clearing agency and may be subject to increased credit risk.
In an effort to mitigate credit risk associated with derivatives traded OTC, the Funds may enter into collateral agreements with certain counterparties whereby, subject to certain minimum exposure requirements, a Fund may require the counterparty to post collateral if the Fund has a net aggregate unrealized gain on all OTC derivative contracts with a particular counterparty. There is no guarantee that counterparty exposure is reduced by using collateral and these arrangements are dependent on the Adviser’s ability to establish and maintain appropriate systems and trading.
Government Regulation of Derivatives.Rule 18f-4 under the 1940 Act governs the Funds’ use of derivative instruments and certain other transactions that create future payment and/or delivery obligations by the Funds. Rule 18f-4 permits the Funds to enter into derivatives and certain other transactions notwithstanding the restrictions on the issuance of “senior securities” under Section 18 of the 1940 Act. Section 18 of the 1940 Act, among other things, prohibits open-end funds, including the Funds, from issuing or selling any “senior security,” other than borrowing from a bank (subject to a requirement to maintain 300% “asset coverage”). In connection with the adoption of Rule 18f-4, the SEC eliminated the asset segregation framework arising from prior SEC guidance for covering derivatives transactions and certain financial instruments.
Pursuant to Rule 18f-4, the Funds have adopted and implemented a derivatives risk management program (“DRMP”) designed to identify, assess, and reasonably manage the risks associated with derivatives and certain other transactions. Under the DRMP, the Funds are required to comply with certain value-at-risk (VaR)-based leverage limits (VaR is an estimate of an instrument’s or portfolio’s potential losses over a given time horizon and at a specified confidence level). The DRMP is administered by a “derivatives risk manager,” who is appointed by the Trustees, and who periodically reviews the DRMP and reports to the Trustees. While the Funds are not required to segregate assets to cover derivatives transactions and certain financial instruments pursuant to Rule 18f-4, the Funds will continue to do so for other instruments as required under applicable federal securities laws.
In addition, the SEC, the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (“CFTC”), and the exchanges are authorized to take extraordinary actions in the event of a market emergency, including, for example, the implementation or reduction of speculative position limits, the implementation of higher margin requirements, the establishment of daily price limits and the suspension of trading. It is not possible to predict fully the effects of current or future regulation. However, it is possible that developments in government regulation of various types of derivative instruments may limit or prevent the Funds from using these instruments effectively as a part of their investment strategies, and could adversely affect a Fund’s ability to achieve its investment objective. The Funds will continue to monitor developments in the area, particularly to the extent regulatory changes affect the ability to enter into derivative transactions. New requirements, even if not directly applicable to the Funds, may increase the cost of the Funds’ investments and cost of doing business.
Futures Contracts.The Funds may enter into contracts for the purchase or sale for future delivery of equity securities, fixed-income securities, foreign currencies, commodities, and commodity-linked derivatives (to the extent permitted by the policies of a Fund and the Internal Revenue Code), or contracts based on interest rates and financial indices, including indices of U.S. Government securities, foreign government securities, commodities, and equity or fixed-income securities. A public market exists in futures contracts covering a number of indices as well as financial instruments and foreign currencies, including, but not limited to: the S&P 500®; the S&P Midcap 400®; the Nikkei 225; the Markit CDX credit index; the iTraxx credit index; U.S. Treasury bonds; U.S. Treasury notes; U.S. Treasury bills; 90-day commercial paper; bank certificates of deposit; the SOFR interest rate; the Euro Bund; Eurodollar certificates of deposit; the Australian dollar; the Canadian dollar; the British pound; the Japanese yen; the Swiss franc; the Mexican peso; and certain multinational currencies, such as the euro. It is expected that other futures contracts will be developed and traded in the future.
U.S. futures contracts are traded on exchanges which have been designated “contract markets” by the CFTC and must be executed through a futures commission merchant (“FCM”) or brokerage firm, which are members of a relevant contract
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market. Through their clearing corporations, the exchanges guarantee performance of the contracts as between the clearing members of the exchange.
Neither the CFTC, National Futures Association (“NFA”), SEC, nor any domestic exchange regulates activities of any foreign exchange or boards of trade, including the execution, delivery, and clearing of transactions, or has the power to compel enforcement of the rules of a foreign exchange or board of trade or any applicable foreign law. This is true even if the exchange is formally linked to a domestic market so that a position taken on the market may be liquidated by a transaction on another market. Moreover, such laws or regulations will vary depending on the foreign country in which the foreign futures or foreign options transaction occurs. For these reasons, a Fund’s investments in foreign futures transactions may not be provided the same protections in respect of transactions on U.S. exchanges. In particular, a Fund that trades foreign futures contracts may not be afforded certain of the protective measures provided by the Commodity Exchange Act, as amended (the “Commodity Exchange Act”), the CFTC’s regulations and the rules of the NFA and any domestic exchange, including the right to use reparations proceedings before the CFTC and arbitration proceedings provided by the NFA or any domestic futures exchange. Similarly, such Fund may not have the protection of the U.S. securities laws.
The buyer or seller of a futures contract is not required to deliver or pay for the underlying instrument unless the contract is held until the delivery date. However, both the buyer and seller are required to deposit “initial margin” for the benefit of the FCM when the contract is entered into. Initial margin deposits are equal to a percentage of the contract’s value, as set by the exchange on which the contract is traded, and currently are maintained in cash or certain other liquid assets held by the Funds. Initial margin payments are similar to good faith deposits or performance bonds. Unlike margin extended by a securities broker, initial margin payments do not constitute purchasing securities on margin for purposes of a Fund’s investment limitations. If the value of either party’s position declines, that party will be required to make additional “variation margin” payments for the benefit of the FCM to settle the change in value on a daily basis. The party that has a gain may be entitled to receive all or a portion of this amount. In the event of the bankruptcy of the FCM that holds margin on behalf of a Fund, that Fund may be entitled to return of margin owed to such Fund only in proportion to the amount received by the FCM’s other customers. The Adviser will attempt to minimize the risk by careful monitoring of the creditworthiness of the FCMs with which the Fundsdo business.
The Funds may enter into futures contracts to gain exposure to the stock market or other markets pending investment of cash balances or to meet liquidity needs. A Fund may also enter into futures contracts to protect itself from fluctuations in the value of individual securities, the securities markets generally, or interest rate fluctuations, without actually buying or selling the underlying debt or equity security. For example, if the Fund anticipates an increase in the price of stocks, and it intends to purchase stocks at a later time, that Fund could enter into a futures contract to purchase a stock index as a temporary substitute for stock purchases. If an increase in the market occurs that influences the stock index as anticipated, the value of the futures contracts will increase, thereby serving as a hedge against that Fund not participating in a market advance. This technique is sometimes known as an anticipatory hedge. A Fund may also use this technique with respect to an individual company’s stock. Conversely, if a Fund holds stocks and seeks to protect itself from a decrease in stock prices, the Fund might sell stock index futures contracts, thereby hoping to offset the potential decline in the value of its portfolio securities by a corresponding increase in the value of the futures contract position. Similarly, if a Fund holds an individual company’s stock and expects the price of that stock to decline, the Fund may sell a futures contract on that stock in hopes of offsetting the potential decline in the company’s stock price. A Fund could protect against a decline in stock prices by selling portfolio securities and investing in money market instruments, but the use of futures contracts enables it to maintain a defensive position without having to sell portfolio securities.
If portfolio management expects interest rates to increase, a Fund may take a short position in interest rate futures contracts. Taking such a position would have much the same effect as that Fund selling such securities in its portfolio. If interest rates increase as anticipated, the value of the securities would decline, but the value of that Fund’s interest rate futures contract would increase, thereby keeping the NAV of that Fund from declining as much as it may have otherwise. If, on the other hand, portfolio management expects interest rates to decline, that Fund may take a long position in interest rate futures contracts in anticipation of later closing out the futures position and purchasing the securities. Although a Fund can accomplish similar results by buying securities with long maturities and selling securities with short maturities, given the greater liquidity of the futures market than the cash market, it may be possible to accomplish the same result more easily and more quickly by using futures contracts as an investment tool to reduce risk. If portfolio management’s view about the direction of interest rates is incorrect, that Fund may incur a loss as the result of investments in interest rate futures.
The ordinary spreads between prices in the cash and futures markets, due to differences in the nature of those markets, are subject to distortions. First, all participants in the futures market are subject to initial margin and variation margin
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requirements. Rather than meeting additional variation margin requirements, investors may close out futures contracts through offsetting transactions which could distort the normal price relationship between the cash and futures markets. Second, the liquidity of the futures market depends on participants entering into offsetting transactions rather than making or taking delivery of the instrument underlying a futures contract. To the extent participants decide to make or take delivery, liquidity in the futures market could be reduced and prices in the futures market distorted. Third, from the point of view of speculators, the margin deposit requirements in the futures market are less onerous than margin requirements in the securities market. Therefore, increased participation by speculators in the futures market may cause temporary price distortions. Due to the possibility of the foregoing distortions, a correct forecast of general price trends by portfolio management still may not result in a successful use of futures.
Futures contracts entail risks. There is no guarantee that derivative investments will benefit the Funds. A Fund’s performance could be worse than if the Fund had not used such instruments. For example, if a Fund has hedged against the effects of a possible decrease in prices of securities held in its portfolio and prices increase instead, that Fund will lose part or all of the benefit of the increased value of these securities because of offsetting losses in its futures positions. This risk may be magnified for single stock futures transactions, as portfolio management must predict the direction of the price of an individual stock, as opposed to securities prices generally. In addition, if a Fund has insufficient cash, it may have to sell securities from its portfolio to meet daily variation margin requirements. Those sales may be, but will not necessarily be, at increased prices which reflect the rising market and may occur at a time when the sales are disadvantageous to such Fund.
The prices of futures contracts depend primarily on the value of their underlying instruments. Because there are a limited number of types of futures contracts, it is possible that the standardized futures contracts available to a Fund will not match exactly such Fund’s current or potential investments. A Fund may buy and sell futures contracts based on underlying instruments with different characteristics from the securities in which it typically invests – for example, by hedging investments in portfolio securities with a futures contract based on a broad index of securities – which involves a risk that the futures position will not correlate precisely with the performance of such Fund’s investments.
Futures prices can also diverge from the prices of their underlying instruments, even if the underlying instruments closely correlate with a Fund’s investments, such as with a single stock futures contract. Futures prices are affected by factors such as current and anticipated short-term interest rates, changes in volatility of the underlying instruments, and the time remaining until expiration of the contract. Those factors may affect securities prices differently from futures prices. Imperfect correlations between a Fund’s investments and its futures positions also may result from differing levels of demand in the futures markets and the securities markets, from structural differences in how futures and securities are traded, and from imposition of daily price fluctuation limits for futures contracts. A Fund may buy or sell futures contracts with a greater or lesser value than the securities it wishes to hedge or is considering purchasing in order to attempt to compensate for differences in historical volatility between the futures contract and the securities, although this may not be successful in all cases. If price changes in a Fund’s futures positions are poorly correlated with its other investments, its futures positions may fail to produce desired gains or result in losses that are not offset by the gains in that Fund’s other investments.
There is no assurance that a liquid secondary market will exist for any particular futures contract at any particular time. In addition, futures exchanges may establish daily price fluctuation limits for futures contracts and may halt trading if a contract’s price moves upward or downward more than the limit in a given day. On volatile trading days when the price fluctuation limit is reached, it may be impossible for a Fund to enter into new positions or close out existing positions.
Regulation of Commodity Interests – The Adviser has filed a notice of eligibility for exemption from the definition of the term “commodity pool operator” with respect to the Funds in accordance with Rule 4.5 of the Commodity Exchange Act and, therefore, the Adviser is not subject to regulation as a commodity pool operator under the Commodity Exchange Act with respect to the Funds.
Funds may enter into futures contracts and related options as permitted under Rule 4.5. The Adviser will become subject to increased CFTC regulation if a Fund invests more than a prescribed level of its assets in such instruments, or if a Fund markets itself as providing investment exposure to these instruments. If a Fund cannot meet the requirements of Rule 4.5, the Adviser and such Fund would need to comply with certain disclosure, reporting, and recordkeeping requirements. Such additional requirements would potentially increase a Fund’s expenses, which could negatively impact the Fund’s returns. The Adviser is registered as a commodity pool operator in connection with the operation of one or more other Janus Henderson mutual funds which do not qualify for the Rule 4.5 exemption.
Additionally, Janus Henderson Global Real Estate Fund may have investments in certain securitized vehicles and/or mortgage REITs that may invest in commodity-related investments and which, in turn, may be considered commodity pools. The
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Adviser has no transparency into the holdings of these “underlying funds,” and the Adviser has filed a claim with the CFTC to rely on available relief to delay any regulation as a “commodity pool operator” with respect to Janus Henderson Global Real Estate Fund which expires six months from the date on which the CFTC issues additional guidance on the treatment of commodity-related investments held by such “underlying funds.” To date, the CFTC has not issued additional guidance with respect to such investments.
Options on Futures Contracts.The Funds may buy and write put and call options on futures contracts with respect to, but not limited to, interest rates, commodities, foreign currencies, and security or commodity indices. A purchased option on a future gives a Fund the right (but not the obligation) to buy or sell a futures contract at a specified price on or before a specified date. The purchase of a call option on a futures contract is similar in some respects to the purchase of a call option on an individual security. Depending on the pricing of the option compared to either the price of the futures contract upon which it is based or the price of the underlying instrument, ownership of the option may or may not be less risky than ownership of the futures contract or the underlying instrument. As with the purchase of futures contracts, when a Fund is not fully invested, it may buy a call option on a futures contract to hedge against a market advance.
The writing of a call option on a futures contract constitutes a partial hedge against declining prices of a security, commodity, or foreign currency which is deliverable under, or of the index comprising, the futures contract. If the futures price at the expiration of the option is below the exercise price, a Fund will retain the full amount of the option premium which provides a partial hedge against any decline that may have occurred in that Fund’s portfolio holdings. The writing of a put option on a futures contract constitutes a partial hedge against increasing prices of a security, commodity, or foreign currency which is deliverable under, or of the index comprising, the futures contract. If the futures price at the expiration of the option is higher than the exercise price, a Fund will retain the full amount of the option premium which provides a partial hedge against any increase in the price of securities which that Fund is considering buying. If a call or put option a Fund has written is exercised, such Fund will incur a loss which will be reduced by the amount of the premium it received. Depending on the degree of correlation between the change in the value of its portfolio securities and changes in the value of the futures positions, a Fund’s losses from existing options on futures may to some extent be reduced or increased by changes in the value of portfolio securities.
The purchase of a put option on a futures contract is similar in some respects to the purchase of protective put options on portfolio securities. For example, a Fund may buy a put option on a futures contract to hedge its portfolio against the risk of falling prices or rising interest rates.
The amount of risk a Fund assumes when it buys an option on a futures contract is the premium paid for the option plus related transaction costs. In addition to the correlation risks discussed above, the purchase of an option also entails the risk that changes in the value of the underlying futures contract will not be fully reflected in the value of the options bought.
Forward Contracts.A forward contract is an agreement between two parties in which one party is obligated to deliver a stated amount of a stated asset at a specified time in the future and the other party is obligated to pay a specified amount for the asset at the time of delivery. The Funds may enter into forward contracts to purchase and sell government securities, equity or income securities, foreign currencies, or other financial instruments. Forward contracts generally are traded in an interbank market conducted directly between traders (usually large commercial banks) and their customers. Unlike futures contracts, which are standardized contracts, forward contracts can be specifically drawn to meet the needs of the parties that enter into them. The parties to a forward contract may agree to offset or terminate the contract before its maturity, or may hold the contract to maturity and complete the contemplated exchange.
The following discussion summarizes the Funds’ principal uses of forward foreign currency exchange contracts (“forward currency contracts”). A Fund may enter into forward currency contracts with stated contract values of up to the value of that Fund’s assets. A forward currency contract is an obligation to buy or sell an amount of a specified currency for an agreed price (which may be in U.S. dollars or a foreign currency). A Fund may invest in forward currency contracts for nonhedging purposes such as seeking to enhance return. A Fund will exchange foreign currencies for U.S. dollars and for other foreign currencies in the normal course of business and may buy and sell currencies through forward currency contracts in order to fix a price for securities it has agreed to buy or sell (“transaction hedge”). A Fund also may hedge some or all of its investments denominated in a foreign currency or exposed to foreign currency fluctuations against a decline in the value of that currency relative to the U.S. dollar by entering into forward currency contracts to sell an amount of that currency (or a proxy currency whose performance is expected to replicate or exceed the performance of that currency relative to the U.S. dollar) approximating the value of some or all of its portfolio securities denominated in or exposed to that currency (“position hedge”) or by participating in options or futures contracts with respect to the currency. A Fund also may enter into a forward currency contract with respect to a currency where the Fund is considering the purchase or sale of investments denominated
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in that currency but has not yet selected the specific investments (“anticipatory hedge”). In any of these circumstances a Fund may, alternatively, enter into a forward currency contract to purchase or sell one foreign currency for a second currency that is expected to perform more favorably relative to the U.S. dollar if portfolio management believes there is a reasonable degree of correlation between movements in the two currencies (“cross-hedge”). In addition, a Fund may cross-hedge its U.S. dollar exposure in order to achieve a representative weighted mix of the major currencies in its benchmark index and/or to cover an underweight country or region exposure in its portfolio.
These types of hedging minimize the effect of currency appreciation as well as depreciation, but do not eliminate fluctuations in the underlying U.S. dollar equivalent value of the proceeds of or rates of return on a Fund’s foreign currency denominated portfolio securities. The matching of the increase in value of a forward contract and the decline in the U.S. dollar equivalent value of the foreign currency denominated asset that is the subject of the hedge generally will not be precise. Shifting a Fund’s currency exposure from one foreign currency to another removes that Fund’s opportunity to profit from increases in the value of the original currency and involves a risk of increased losses to such Fund if portfolio management’s projection of future exchange rates is inaccurate. Proxy hedges and cross-hedges may protect against losses resulting from a decline in the hedged currency, but will cause a Fund to assume the risk of fluctuations in the value of the currency it purchases which may result in losses if the currency used to hedge does not perform similarly to the currency in which hedged securities are denominated. Unforeseen changes in currency prices may result in poorer overall performance for a Fund than if it had not entered into such contracts.
At the maturity of a currency or cross currency forward, a Fund may exchange the currencies specified at the maturity of a forward contract or, prior to maturity, the Fund may enter into a closing transaction involving the purchase or sale of an offsetting contract. Closing transactions with respect to forward contracts are usually effected with the counterparty to the original forward contract. A Fund may also enter into forward currency contracts that do not provide for physical settlement of the two currencies but instead provide for settlement by a single cash payment calculated as the difference between the agreed upon exchange rate and the spot rate at settlement based upon an agreed upon notional amount (non-deliverable forwards).
Under definitions adopted by the CFTC and SEC, non-deliverable forwards are considered swaps, and therefore are included in the definition of “commodity interests.” Although non-deliverable forwards have historically been traded in the OTC market, as swaps they may in the future be required to be centrally cleared and traded on public facilities.
Forward currency contracts that qualify as deliverable forwards are not regulated as swaps for most purposes. However, these forwards are subject to some requirements applicable to swaps, including reporting to swap data repositories, documentation requirements, and business conduct rules applicable to swap dealers.
As a result of current or future regulation, a Fund’s ability to utilize forward contracts may be restricted. In addition, a Fund may not always be able to enter into forward contracts at attractive prices and may be limited in its ability to use these contracts to hedge Fund assets.
Options on Foreign Currencies.The Funds may buy and write options on foreign currencies either on exchanges or in the OTC market in a manner similar to that in which futures or forward contracts on foreign currencies will be utilized. For example, a decline in the U.S. dollar value of a foreign currency in which portfolio securities are denominated will reduce the U.S. dollar value of such securities, even if their value in the foreign currency remains constant. In order to protect against such diminutions in the value of portfolio securities, a Fund may buy put options on the foreign currency. If the value of the currency declines, such Fund will have the right to sell such currency for a fixed amount in U.S. dollars, thereby offsetting, in whole or in part, the adverse effect on its portfolio.
Conversely, when a rise in the U.S. dollar value of a currency in which securities to be acquired are denominated is projected, thereby increasing the cost of such securities, a Fund may buy call options on the foreign currency. The purchase of such options could offset, at least partially, the effects of the adverse movements in exchange rates. As in the case of other types of options, however, the benefit to a Fund from purchases of foreign currency options will be reduced by the amount of the premium and related transaction costs. In addition, if currency exchange rates do not move in the direction or to the extent projected, a Fund could sustain losses on transactions in foreign currency options that would require such Fund to forego a portion or all of the benefits of advantageous changes in those rates.
The Funds may also write options on foreign currencies. For example, to hedge against a potential decline in the U.S. dollar value of foreign currency denominated securities due to adverse fluctuations in exchange rates, a Fund could, instead of purchasing a put option, write a call option on the relevant currency. If the expected decline occurs, the option will most likely not be exercised, and the decline in value of portfolio securities will be offset by the amount of the premium received.
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Similarly, instead of purchasing a call option to hedge against a potential increase in the U.S. dollar cost of securities to be acquired, a Fund could write a put option on the relevant currency which, if rates move in the manner projected, should expire unexercised and allow that Fund to hedge the increased cost up to the amount of the premium. As in the case of other types of options, however, the writing of a foreign currency option will constitute only a partial hedge up to the amount of the premium. If exchange rates do not move in the expected direction, the option may be exercised, and a Fund would be required to buy or sell the underlying currency at a loss which may not be offset by the amount of the premium. Through the writing of options on foreign currencies, a Fund also may lose all or a portion of the benefits which might otherwise have been obtained from favorable movements in exchange rates.
A Fund may write covered call options on foreign currencies. A covered call option is an option in which a Fund, in return for a premium, gives another party a right to buy specified securities owned by the Fund at a specified future date and price set at the time of the contract.
The Funds also may write call options on foreign currencies for cross-hedging purposes. A call option on a foreign currency is for cross-hedging purposes if it is designed to provide a hedge against a decline due to an adverse change in the exchange rate in the U.S. dollar value of a security which a Fund owns or has the right to acquire and which is denominated in the currency underlying the option. Call options on foreign currencies which are entered into for cross-hedging purposes are not covered.
Eurodollar Instruments.Each Fund may make investments in Eurodollar instruments. Eurodollar instruments are U.S. dollar-denominated futures contracts or options thereon which are linked to a reference rate, although foreign currency denominated instruments are available from time to time. Eurodollar futures contracts enable purchasers to obtain a fixed rate for the lending of funds and sellers to obtain a fixed rate for borrowings. A Fund might use Eurodollar futures contracts and options thereon to hedge against changes in a reference rate, to which many interest rate swaps and fixed-income instruments are linked.
Additional Risks of Options on Foreign Currencies, Forward Contracts, and Foreign Instruments.Unlike transactions entered into by the Funds in futures contracts, options on foreign currencies and forward contracts are not traded on contract markets regulated by the CFTC (with the exception of non-deliverable forwards) or (with the exception of certain foreign currency options) by the SEC. To the contrary, such instruments are traded through financial institutions acting as market-makers, although foreign currency options are also traded on certain national securities exchanges (“Exchanges”), such as the Philadelphia Stock Exchange and the Chicago Board Options Exchange, subject to SEC regulation.
Similarly, options on currencies may be traded over-the-counter. In an OTC trading environment, many of the protections afforded to Exchange participants will not be available. For example, there are no daily price fluctuation limits, and adverse market movements could therefore continue to an unlimited extent over a period of time. Although the buyer of an option cannot lose more than the amount of the premium plus related transaction costs, this entire amount could be lost. Moreover, an option writer and a buyer or seller of futures or forward contracts could lose amounts substantially in excess of any premium received or initial margin or collateral posted due to the potential additional margin and collateral requirements associated with such positions.
Options on foreign currencies traded on Exchanges are within the jurisdiction of the SEC, as are other securities traded on Exchanges. As a result, many of the protections provided to traders on organized Exchanges will be available with respect to such transactions. In particular, all foreign currency option positions entered into on an Exchange are cleared and guaranteed by the Options Clearing Corporation (“OCC”), thereby reducing the risk of credit default. Further, a liquid secondary market in options traded on an Exchange may be more readily available than in the OTC market, potentially permitting a Fund to liquidate open positions at a profit prior to exercise or expiration or to limit losses in the event of adverse market movements.
The purchase and sale of exchange-traded foreign currency options, however, is subject to the risks of the availability of a liquid secondary market described above, as well as the risks regarding adverse market movements, margining of options written, the nature of the foreign currency market, possible intervention by governmental authorities, and the effects of other political and economic events. In addition, exchange-traded options on foreign currencies involve certain risks not presented by the OTC market. For example, exercise and settlement of such options must be made exclusively through the OCC, which has established banking relationships in applicable foreign countries for this purpose. As a result, the OCC may, if it determines that foreign governmental restrictions or taxes would prevent the orderly settlement of foreign currency option exercises, or would result in undue burdens on the OCC or its clearing member, impose special procedures on exercise and
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settlement, such as technical changes in the mechanics of delivery of currency, the fixing of dollar settlement prices, or prohibitions on exercise.
In addition, options on U.S. Government securities, futures contracts, options on futures contracts, forward contracts, and options on foreign currencies may be traded on foreign exchanges and OTC in foreign countries. Such transactions are subject to the risk of governmental actions affecting trading in or the prices of foreign currencies or securities. The value of such positions also could be adversely affected by: (i) other complex foreign political and economic factors; (ii) lesser availability than in the United States of data on which to make trading decisions; (iii) delays in a Fund’s ability to act upon economic events occurring in foreign markets during nonbusiness hours in the United States; (iv) the imposition of different exercise and settlement terms and procedures and margin requirements than in the United States; and (v) low trading volume.
Options on Securities.In an effort to increase current income and to reduce fluctuations in NAV, the Funds may write covered and uncovered put and call options and buy put and call options on securities that are traded on U.S. and foreign securities exchanges and OTC. Examples of covering transactions include: (i) for a written put, selling short the underlying instrument at the same or higher price than the put’s exercise price; and (ii) for a written call, owning the underlying instrument. The Funds may write and buy options on the same types of securities that the Funds may purchase directly. The Funds may utilize American-style and European-style options. An American-style option is an option contract that can be exercised at any time between the time of purchase and the option’s expiration date. A European-style option is an option contract that can only be exercised on the option’s expiration date.
A Fund would write a call option for hedging purposes, instead of writing a covered call option, when the premium to be received from the cross-hedge transaction would exceed that which would be received from writing a covered call option and portfolio management believes that writing the option would achieve the desired hedge.
The premium paid by the buyer of an option will normally reflect, among other things, the relationship of the exercise price to the market price and the volatility of the underlying security, the remaining term of the option, supply and demand, and interest rates.
The writer of an option may have no control over when the underlying securities must be sold, in the case of a call option, or bought, in the case of a put option, since with regard to certain options, the writer may be assigned an exercise notice at any time prior to the termination of the obligation. Whether or not an option expires unexercised, the writer retains the amount of the premium. This amount, of course, may, in the case of a covered call option, be offset by a decline in the market value of the underlying security during the option period. If a call option is exercised, the writer experiences a profit or loss from the sale of the underlying security. If a put option is exercised, the writer must fulfill the obligation to buy the underlying security at the exercise price, which will usually exceed the then market value of the underlying security.
The writer of an option that wishes to terminate its obligation may effect a “closing purchase transaction.” This is accomplished by buying an option of the same series as the option previously written. The effect of the purchase is that the writer’s position will be canceled by the clearing corporation. However, a writer may not effect a closing purchase transaction after being notified of the exercise of an option. Likewise, an investor who is the holder of an option may liquidate its position by effecting a “closing sale transaction.” This is accomplished by selling an option of the same series as the option previously bought. There is no guarantee that either a closing purchase or a closing sale transaction can be effected.
In the case of a written call option, effecting a closing transaction will permit a Fund to write another call option on the underlying security with either a different exercise price or expiration date or both. In the case of a written put option, such transaction will permit a Fund to write another put option to the extent that the exercise price is secured by deposited liquid assets. Effecting a closing transaction also will permit a Fund to use the cash or proceeds from the concurrent sale of any securities subject to the option for other investments. If a Fund desires to sell a particular security from its portfolio on which it has written a call option, such Fund will effect a closing transaction prior to or concurrent with the sale of the security.
A Fund will realize a profit from a closing transaction if the price of the purchase transaction is less than the premium received from writing the option or the price received from a sale transaction is more than the premium paid to buy the option. A Fund will realize a loss from a closing transaction if the price of the purchase transaction is more than the premium received from writing the option or the price received from a sale transaction is less than the premium paid to buy the option. Because increases in the market price of a call option generally will reflect increases in the market price of the underlying security, any loss resulting from the repurchase of a call option is likely to be offset in whole or in part by appreciation of the underlying security owned by a Fund.
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An option position may be closed out only where a secondary market for an option of the same series exists. If a secondary market does not exist, a Fund may not be able to effect closing transactions in particular options and that Fund would have to exercise the options in order to realize any profit. If a Fund is unable to effect a closing purchase transaction in a secondary market, it will not be able to sell the underlying security until the option expires or it delivers the underlying security upon exercise. The absence of a liquid secondary market may be due to the following: (i) insufficient trading interest in certain options; (ii) restrictions imposed by an Exchange on which the option is traded on opening or closing transactions or both; (iii) trading halts, suspensions, or other restrictions imposed with respect to particular classes or series of options or underlying securities; (iv) unusual or unforeseen circumstances that interrupt normal operations on an Exchange; (v) the facilities of an Exchange or of the OCC may not at all times be adequate to handle current trading volume; or (vi) one or more Exchanges could, for economic or other reasons, decide or be compelled at some future date to discontinue the trading of options (or a particular class or series of options), in which event the secondary market on that Exchange (or in that class or series of options) would cease to exist, although outstanding options on that Exchange that had been issued by the OCC as a result of trades on that Exchange would continue to be exercisable in accordance with their terms.
A Fund may write options in connection with buy-and-write transactions. In other words, a Fund may buy a security and then write a call option against that security. The exercise price of such call will depend upon the expected price movement of the underlying security. The exercise price of a call option may be below (“in-the-money”), equal to (“at-the-money”), or above (“out-of-the-money”) the current value of the underlying security at the time the option is written. Buy-and-write transactions using in-the-money call options may be used when it is expected that the price of the underlying security will remain flat or decline moderately during the option period. Buy-and-write transactions using at-the-money call options may be used when it is expected that the price of the underlying security will remain fixed or advance moderately during the option period. Buy-and-write transactions using out-of-the-money call options may be used when it is expected that the premiums received from writing the call option plus the appreciation in the market price of the underlying security up to the exercise price will be greater than the appreciation in the price of the underlying security alone. If the call options are exercised in such transactions, a Fund’s maximum gain will be the premium received by it for writing the option, adjusted upwards or downwards by the difference between that Fund’s purchase price of the security and the exercise price. If the options are not exercised and the price of the underlying security declines, the amount of such decline will be offset by the amount of premium received.
The writing of covered put options is similar in terms of risk and return characteristics to buy-and-write transactions. If the market price of the underlying security rises or otherwise is above the exercise price, the put option will expire worthless and a Fund’s gain will be limited to the premium received. If the market price of the underlying security declines or otherwise is below the exercise price, a Fund may elect to close the position or take delivery of the security at the exercise price and that Fund’s return will be the premium received from the put options minus the amount by which the market price of the security is below the exercise price.
A Fund may buy put options to hedge against a decline in the value of its portfolio. By using put options in this way, a Fund will reduce any profit it might otherwise have realized in the underlying security by the amount of the premium paid for the put option and by transaction costs.
A Fund may buy call options to hedge against an increase in the price of securities that it may buy in the future. The premium paid for the call option plus any transaction costs will reduce the benefit, if any, realized by such Fund upon exercise of the option, and, unless the price of the underlying security rises sufficiently, the option may expire worthless to that Fund.
A Fund may write straddles (combinations of put and call options on the same underlying security), which are generally a nonhedging technique used for purposes such as seeking to enhance return. Because combined options positions involve multiple trades, they result in higher transaction costs and may be more difficult to open and close out than individual options contracts. The straddle rules of the Internal Revenue Code require deferral of certain losses realized on positions of a straddle to the extent that a Fund has unrealized gains in offsetting positions at year end. The holding period of the securities comprising the straddle will be suspended until the straddle is terminated.
Options on Securities Indices.The Funds may also purchase and write exchange-listed and OTC put and call options on securities indices. A securities index measures the movement of a certain group of securities by assigning relative values to the securities. The index may fluctuate as a result of changes in the market values of the securities included in the index. Some securities index options are based on a broad market index, such as the New York Stock Exchange Composite Index, or a narrower market index such as the Standard & Poor’s 100. Indices may also be based on a particular industry, market segment, or certain currencies such as the U.S. Dollar Index or DXY Index.
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Options on securities indices are similar to options on securities except that (1) the expiration cycles of securities index options are monthly, while those of securities options are currently quarterly, and (2) the delivery requirements are different. Instead of giving the right to take or make delivery of securities at a specified price, an option on a securities index gives the holder the right to receive a cash “exercise settlement amount” equal to (a) the amount, if any, by which the fixed exercise price of the option exceeds (in the case of a put) or is less than (in the case of a call) the closing value of the underlying index on the date of exercise, multiplied by (b) a fixed “index multiplier.” Receipt of this cash amount will depend upon the closing level of the securities index upon which the option is based being greater than, in the case of a call, or less than, in the case of a put, the exercise price of the index and the exercise price of the option times a specified multiple. The writer of the option is obligated, in return for the premium received, to make delivery of this amount. Securities index options may be offset by entering into closing transactions as described above for securities options.
Options on Non-U.S. Securities Indices.The Funds may purchase and write put and call options on foreign securities indices listed on domestic and foreign securities exchanges. The Funds may also purchase and write OTC options on foreign securities indices.
The Funds may, to the extent allowed by federal and state securities laws, invest in options on non-U.S. securities indices instead of investing directly in individual non-U.S. securities. The Funds may also use foreign securities index options for bona fide hedging and non-hedging purposes.
Options on securities indices entail risks in addition to the risks of options on securities. The absence of a liquid secondary market to close out options positions on securities indices may be more likely to occur, although the Funds generally will only purchase or write such an option if the Adviser believes the option can be closed out. Use of options on securities indices also entails the risk that trading in such options may be interrupted if trading in certain securities included in the index is interrupted. The Funds will not purchase such options unless the Adviser believes the market is sufficiently developed such that the risk of trading in such options is no greater than the risk of trading in options on securities.
Price movements in a Fund’s portfolio may not correlate precisely with movements in the level of an index and, therefore, the use of options on indices cannot serve as a complete hedge. Because options on securities indices require settlement in cash, portfolio management may be forced to liquidate portfolio securities to meet settlement obligations. A Fund’s activities in index options may also be restricted by the requirements of the Internal Revenue Code for qualification as a regulated investment company.
In addition, the hours of trading for options on the securities indices may not conform to the hours during which the underlying securities are traded. To the extent that the option markets close before the markets for the underlying securities, significant price and rate movements can take place in the underlying securities markets that cannot be reflected in the option markets. It is impossible to predict the volume of trading that may exist in such options, and there can be no assurance that viable exchange markets will develop or exist.
Other Options.In addition to the option strategies described above and in the Prospectuses, a Fund may purchase and sell a variety of options with non-standard payout structures or other features (“exotic options”). Exotic options are traded OTC and typically have price movements that can vary markedly from simple put or call options. The risks associated with exotic options are that they cannot be as easily priced and may be subject to liquidity risk. While some exotic options have fairly active markets others are mostly thinly traded instruments. Some options are pure two-party transactions and may have no liquidity. A Fund may use exotic options to the extent that they are consistent with the Fund’s investment objective and investment policies, and applicable regulations.
The Funds may purchase and sell exotic options that have values which are determined by the correlation of two or more underlying assets. These types of options include, but are not limited to, outperformance options, yield curve options, or other spread options.
Outperformance Option – An option that pays the holder the difference in the performance of two assets. The value of an outperformance option is based on the relative difference, i.e. the percentage outperformance of one underlying security or index compared to another. Outperformance options allow a Fund to gain leveraged exposure to the percentage price performance of one security or index over another. The holder of an outperformance option will only receive payment under the option contract if a designated underlying asset outperforms the other underlying asset. If outperformance does not occur, the holder will not receive payment. The option may expire worthless despite positive performance by the designated underlying asset. Outperformance options are typically cash settled and have European-style exercise provisions.
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Yield Curve Options – An option whose value is based on the yield spread or yield differential between two securities. In contrast to other types of options, a yield curve option is based on the difference between the yields of designated securities, rather than the prices of the individual securities, and is settled through cash payments. Accordingly, a yield curve option is profitable to the holder if this differential widens (in the case of a call) or narrows (in the case of a put), regardless of whether the yields of the underlying securities increase or decrease.
Spread Option – A type of option that derives its value from the price differential between two or more assets, or the same asset at different times or places. Spread options can be written on all types of financial products including equities, bonds, and currencies.
Swaps and Swap-Related Products.The Funds may enter into swap agreements or utilize swap-related products, including, but not limited to, total return swaps (including fixed-income total return swaps); equity swaps; interest rate swaps, caps and floors; commodity swaps; credit default swaps, including index credit default swaps (“CDX”), single-name credit default swaps (“CDS”), and other event-linked swaps; swap agreements on security or commodity indices; swaps on ETFs; and currency swaps (either on an asset-based or liability-based basis, depending upon whether it is hedging its assets or its liabilities). To the extent a Fund may invest in foreign currency-denominated securities, it also may invest in currency exchange rate swap agreements. Swap agreements are two-party contracts entered into primarily by institutional investors for periods ranging from a day to more than one year. A Fund may enter into swap agreements in an attempt to gain exposure to the issuers making up an index of securities in a market without actually purchasing those securities, or to hedge a position. Certain swaps, such as total return swaps, may add leverage to a Fund because, in addition to its total net assets, a Fund may be subject to investment exposure on the notional amount of the swap. The most significant factor in the performance of swap agreements is the change in value of the specific index, security, or currency, or other factors that determine the amounts of payments due to and from a Fund. The Funds will usually enter into total return swaps and interest rate swaps on a net basis (i.e., the two payment streams are netted out, with a Fund receiving or paying, as the case may be, only the net amount of the two payments). There is no limit on the number of total return, equity, or interest rate swap transactions that may be entered into by a Fund. A Fund may buy and sell (i.e., write) caps and floors, without limitation.
The swap market has grown substantially in recent years, with a large number of banks and investment banking firms acting both as principals and as agents utilizing standardized swap documentation. As a result, the swap market has become relatively liquid. Caps and floors, however, have lower overall liquidity than swaps. The use of swaps is a highly specialized activity which involves investment techniques and risks different from those associated with ordinary portfolio securities transactions. Swap transactions may in some instances involve the delivery of securities or other underlying assets by a Fund or its counterparty to collateralize obligations under the swap.
Swap agreements entail the risk that a party will default on its payment obligations to a Fund. If there is a default by the other party to such a transaction, the Fund normally will have contractual remedies pursuant to the agreements related to the transaction, and the Fund would risk the loss of the net amount of the payments that it contractually is entitled to receive. Swap agreements also bear the risk that a Fund will not be able to meet its obligation to the counterparty, and the risk of loss, under documentation currently used in those markets, is limited to the net amount of the payments that the Fund is contractually obligated to make.
Swap agreements are typically privately negotiated and entered into in the over-the-counter market. However, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010 (the “Dodd-Frank Act”) now requires a Fund to clear certain interest rate and credit default index swaps through a clearinghouse or central counterparty. Cleared swaps are transacted through futures commission merchants that are members of central clearinghouses with the clearinghouse serving as central counterparty, similar to transactions in futures contracts. Swaps that are required to be cleared are required to post initial and variation margins in accordance with the exchange requirements. Central clearing is intended to reduce counterparty credit risks and increase liquidity, but central clearing does not make swap transactions risk free. Some types of swaps are required to be executed on an exchange or on a swap execution facility. A swap execution facility is a trading platform where multiple market participants can execute derivatives by accepting bids and offers made by multiple other participants in the platform. While this execution requirement is designed to increase transparency and liquidity in the cleared derivatives market, trading on a swap execution facility can create additional costs and risks for a Fund.
A Fund normally will not enter into any total return, equity, or interest rate swap, cap, or floor transaction unless the claims-paying ability of the other party thereto meets guidelines established by the Adviser. The Adviser’s guidelines may be adjusted in accordance with market conditions. The Adviser will monitor the creditworthiness of all counterparties on an ongoing basis. Generally, parties that are rated in the highest short-term rating category by a nationally recognized statistical rating
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organization (“NRSRO”) will meet the Adviser’s guidelines. The ratings of NRSROs represent their opinions of the claims-paying ability of entities rated by them. NRSRO ratings are general and are not absolute standards of quality.
Credit Default Swaps.A Fund may enter into various types of credit default swap agreements, including OTC credit default swap agreements. Except as follows, each Fund’s gross notional exposure to credit default swap agreements may not exceed 10% of the Fund’s net assets. Janus Henderson Balanced Fund may invest without limit in credit default swap agreements.
A Fund may be either a buyer or seller in a credit default swap transaction. As a buyer, the Fund makes a stream of payments based on a fixed interest rate (the premium) over the life of the swap in exchange for the seller taking on the risk of default of a reference obligation. If a credit event occurs for the reference obligation, the Fund would cease making premium payments and it would deliver defaulted bonds to the seller. In return, the seller would pay a contingent payment to the buyer of either (i) the “face amount” of the reference obligation in which case the Fund will receive the reference obligation in return, or (ii) an amount equal to the difference between the face amount and the current market value of the obligation. If the Fund is a buyer and no credit event occurs, the Fund may recover nothing if the swap is held through its termination date.
As a seller, the Fund will receive premium payments from the buyer in exchange for taking the risk of default of the reference obligation. If a credit event occurs, the buyer would cease to make premium payments to the Fund and deliver the reference obligation to the Fund. In return, the Fund would pay the notional value of the reference obligation to the buyer. The value of the reference obligation received by the Fund as a seller if a credit event occurs, coupled with the periodic payments previously received, may be less than the contingent payment that it makes to the buyer, resulting in a loss of value to the Fund.
Credit default swap agreements may involve greater risks than if a Fund had invested in the reference obligation directly since, in addition to risks relating to the reference obligation, credit default swaps are subject to illiquidity risk, counterparty risk, and credit risk.
A Fund may invest in funded (notional value of contract paid up front) CDX or other similarly structured products. CDX are designed to track segments of the credit default swap market and provide investors with exposure to specific reference baskets of issuers of bonds or loans. These instruments have the potential to allow an investor to obtain the same investment exposure as an investor who invests in an individual credit default swap, but with the potential added benefit of diversification. The CDX reference baskets are normally priced daily and rebalanced every six months in conjunction with leading market makers in the credit industry. The liquidity of the market for CDX is normally subject to liquidity in the secured loan and credit derivatives markets.
A fund investing in CDX is normally only permitted to take long positions in these instruments. A fund holding a long position in CDX typically receives income from principal or interest paid on the underlying securities. A fund also normally indirectly bears its proportionate share of any expenses paid by a CDX in addition to the expenses of the fund. By investing in CDX, a fund could be exposed to risks relating to, among other things, the reference obligation, illiquidity risk, counterparty risk, and credit risk.
Options on Swap Contracts.Certain Funds may purchase or write covered and uncovered put and call options on swap contracts (“swaptions”). Swaption contracts grant the purchaser the right, but not the obligation, to enter into a swap transaction at preset terms detailed in the underlying agreement within a specified period of time. Entering into a swaption contract involves, to varying degrees, the elements of credit, market, and interest rate risk, associated with both option contracts and swap contracts.
Synthetic Equity Swaps.A Fund may enter into synthetic equity swaps, in which one party to the contract agrees to pay the other party the total return earned or realized on a particular “notional amount” of value of an underlying equity security including any dividends distributed by the underlying security. The other party to the contract makes regular payments, typically at a fixed rate or at a floating rate based on a reference rate or other variable interest rate based on the notional amount. Similar to currency swaps, synthetic equity swaps are generally entered into on a net basis, which means the two payment streams are netted out and a Fund will either pay or receive the net amount. A Fund will enter into a synthetic equity swap instead of purchasing the reference security when the synthetic equity swap provides a more efficient or less expensive way of gaining exposure to a security compared with a direct investment in the security.
Structured Investments.A structured investment is a security having a return tied to an underlying index or other security or asset class. Structured investments generally are individually negotiated agreements and may be traded over-the-counter. Structured investments are organized and operated to restructure the investment characteristics of the underlying security.
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This restructuring involves the deposit with or purchase by an entity, such as a corporation or trust, or specified instruments (such as commercial bank loans) and the issuance by that entity of one or more classes of securities (“structured securities”) backed by, or representing interests in, the underlying instruments. The cash flow on the underlying instruments may be apportioned among the newly issued structured securities to create securities with different investment characteristics, such as varying maturities, payment priorities, and interest rate provisions, and the extent of such payments made with respect to structured securities is dependent on the extent of the cash flow on the underlying instruments. Because structured securities typically involve no credit enhancement, their credit risk generally will be equivalent to that of the underlying instruments. Investments in structured securities are generally of a class of structured securities that is either subordinated or unsubordinated to the right of payment of another class. Subordinated structured securities typically have higher yields and present greater risks than unsubordinated structured securities. Structured securities are typically sold in private placement transactions, and there currently is no active trading market for structured securities.
Investments in government and government-related restructured debt instruments are subject to special risks, including the inability or unwillingness to repay principal and interest, requests to reschedule or restructure outstanding debt, and requests to extend additional loan amounts. Structured investments include a wide variety of instruments which are also subject to special risk such as inverse floaters and collateralized debt obligations. Inverse floaters involve leverage which may magnify a Fund’s gains or losses. The risk of collateral debt obligations depends largely on the type of collateral securing the obligations. There is a risk that the collateral will not be adequate to make interest or other payments related to the debt obligation the collateral supports.
Structured instruments that are registered under the federal securities laws may be treated as liquid. In addition, many structured instruments may not be registered under the federal securities laws. In that event, a Fund’s ability to resell such a structured instrument may be more limited than its ability to resell other Fund securities. Accordingly, the Funds may treat such instruments as illiquid investments.
Regulatory Changes and Market Events and Risks.Federal, state, and foreign governments, regulatory agencies, and self-regulatory organizations may take actions that affect the regulation of the Funds or the instruments in which the Funds invest, or the issuers of such instruments, in ways that are unforeseeable. Future legislation or regulation or other governmental actions could limit or preclude the Funds’ abilities to achieve their investment objectives or otherwise adversely impact an investment in the Funds. Furthermore, worsened market conditions, including as a result of U.S. government shutdowns or the perceived creditworthiness of the United States, could have a negative impact on securities markets.
Economic downturns can prompt various economic, legal, budgetary, tax, and regulatory reforms across the globe. In the aftermath of the 2007-2008 financial crisis, the financial sector experienced reduced liquidity in credit and other fixed-income markets, and an unusually high degree of volatility, both domestically and internationally. In response to the crisis, the United States and certain foreign governments, along with the U.S. Federal Reserve and certain foreign central banks, took a number of unprecedented steps designed to support the financial markets, which provided for widespread regulation of the financial industry, including expanded federal oversight in the financial sector. The U.S. government and the Federal Reserve, as well as certain foreign governments and central banks, took, or are taking, extraordinary actions to support local and global economies and the financial markets in response to the COVID-19 pandemic and rising inflation. This and other government intervention into the economy and financial markets to address the COVID-19 pandemic and rising inflation may not work as intended, particularly if the efforts are perceived by investors as being unlikely to achieve the desired results. Government actions to mitigate the economic impact of the pandemic resulted in a large expansion of government deficits and debt, the long-term consequences of which are not known. Although measures have been taken to mitigate its effects, any continued effects of COVID-19 could adversely affect the value and liquidity of a Fund, impair a Fund’s ability to satisfy redemption requests, negatively impact a Fund’s performance, and result in disruptions to the services provided to a Fund by its service providers.
Policy and legislative changes in the United States and in other countries continue to impact many aspects of financial regulation. For example, some countries, including the United States, are considering more protectionist trade policies, a move away from the tighter financial industry regulations that followed the 2007-2008 financial crisis. The exact specifics of these policies are still under consideration, but the markets may react strongly, which could increase volatility. The rise in protectionist trade policies, with potential changes to some international trade agreements, may affect many nations’ economies in ways that cannot be presently foreseen.
The value and liquidity of a Fund’s holdings are also generally subject to the risk of significant future local, national, or global economic or political disruptions or slowdowns in the markets in which a Fund invests, especially given that the economies and financial markets throughout the world are becoming increasingly interconnected and reliant on each other. In the event
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of such an occurrence, the issuers of securities held by a Fund may experience significant declines in the value of their assets and even cease operations, or may require government assistance that is contingent on increased restrictions on their business operations or their government interventions. In addition, it is not certain that the U.S. government or foreign governments will intervene in response to a future market disruption and the effect of any such future intervention cannot be predicted.
Widespread disease, including pandemics and epidemics, and natural or environmental disasters, including those which may be attributable to global climate change, such as earthquakes, fires, floods, hurricanes, tsunamis and weather-related phenomena generally have been and can be highly disruptive to economies and markets, adversely impacting individual companies, sectors, industries, markets, currencies, interest and inflation rates, credit ratings, investor sentiment, and other factors affecting the value of a Fund’s investments. Economies and financial markets throughout the world have become increasingly interconnected, which increases the likelihood that events or conditions in one region or country will adversely affect markets or issuers in other regions or countries, including the United States. These disruptions could prevent a Fund from executing advantageous investment decisions in a timely manner and negatively impact a Fund’s ability to achieve its investment objective(s). Any such event(s) could have a significant adverse impact on the value of a Fund’s assets. In addition, these disruptions could also impair the information technology and other operational systems upon which the Funds’ service providers, including the Adviser, rely, and could otherwise disrupt the ability of employees of the Funds’ service providers to perform essential tasks on behalf of the Funds.
ESG Exclusions Policy.The Adviser has adopted a firmwide environmental, social, and governance (“ESG”) exclusions policy that generally applies to the accounts it manages, including the Funds. Using third-party inputs, the Adviser applies exclusionary criteria to seek to avoid investing in securities of issuers that, in the determination of the Adviser, manufacture cluster munitions, anti-personnel mines, chemical weapons, and biological weapons.
Portfolio Turnover
The portfolio turnover rate of a Fund is calculated by dividing the lesser of purchases or sales of portfolio securities (exclusive of purchases or sales of U.S. Government securities and all other securities whose maturities at the time of acquisition were one year or less) by the monthly average of the value of the portfolio securities owned by the Fund during the year. Proceeds from short sales and assets used to cover short positions undertaken are included in the amounts of securities sold and purchased, respectively, during the fiscal year. A 100% portfolio turnover rate would occur, for example, if all of the securities held by a Fund were replaced once during the fiscal year. A Fund cannot accurately predict its turnover rate. Variations in portfolio turnover rates shown may be due to market conditions, changes in the size of a Fund, fluctuating volume of shareholder purchase and redemption orders, the nature of a Fund’s investments, and the investment style and/or outlook of portfolio management, or due to a restructuring of a Fund’s portfolio as a result of a change in portfolio management. A Fund’s portfolio turnover rate may be higher when a Fund finds it necessary to significantly change its portfolio to adopt a temporary defensive position or respond to economic or market events. Higher levels of portfolio turnover may result in higher costs for brokerage commissions, dealer mark-ups, and other transaction costs, and may also result in taxable capital gains. Higher costs associated with increased portfolio turnover may offset gains in Fund performance. The following table summarizes the portfolio turnover rates for the Funds for the last two fiscal years, unless otherwise noted.
Fund Name
Portfolio Turnover Rate for
the fiscal year ended
September 30, 2023
Portfolio Turnover Rate for
the fiscal year ended
September 30, 2022
Global & International Equity
Janus Henderson Asia Equity Fund
106%
117%
Janus Henderson Emerging Markets Fund
63%
63%
Janus Henderson European Focus Fund
169%
145%
Janus Henderson Global Equity Income Fund(1)
152%
86%
Janus Henderson Global Life Sciences Fund
34%
21%
Janus Henderson Global Real Estate Fund
66%
68%
Janus Henderson Global Research Fund
24%
33%
Janus Henderson Global Select Fund
46%
56%
Janus Henderson Global Sustainable Equity Fund
20%
33%
Janus Henderson Global Technology and Innovation Fund
43%
47%
Janus Henderson Overseas Fund
42%
32%
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Fund Name
Portfolio Turnover Rate for
the fiscal year ended
September 30, 2023
Portfolio Turnover Rate for
the fiscal year ended
September 30, 2022
Multi-Asset U.S. Equity
Janus Henderson Balanced Fund
92%
79%
Janus Henderson Contrarian Fund
45%
48%
Janus Henderson Enterprise Fund
14%
9%
Janus Henderson Forty Fund
39%
39%
Janus Henderson Growth and Income Fund
22%
17%
Janus Henderson Research Fund
27%
32%
Janus Henderson Triton Fund
19%
8%
Janus Henderson U.S. Dividend Income Fund
85%
(2)
N/A
Janus Henderson Venture Fund
23%
14%
(1) 
The variation in the Fund’s portfolio turnover rates was due to changes in market conditions.
(2) 
December 20, 2022 (effective date) to September 30, 2023.
Portfolio Holdings Disclosure Policies and Procedures
The Mutual Fund Holdings Disclosure Policies and Procedures adopted by the Adviser and the series of the Trust (the “Janus Henderson funds”) are designed to be in the best interests of the funds and to protect the confidentiality of the funds’ portfolio holdings. The following describes policies and procedures with respect to disclosure of portfolio holdings.
Full Holdings.A schedule of each Fund’s portfolio holdings, consisting of at least the names of the holdings, is generally available on a monthly basis with a 30-day lag and is posted under Full Holdings for each Fund at janushenderson.com/info (or janushenderson.com/reports if you hold Class D Shares). A complete schedule of each Fund’s portfolio holdings is also available semiannually and annually in Form N-CSR and, after the first and third fiscal quarters, in Form N-PORT. Information reported in Form N-CSR and in Form N-PORT will be made publicly available within 70 and 60 days, respectively, after the end of the respective fiscal quarter. Each Fund’s Form N-CSR and Form N-PORT filings are available on the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov.
Top Holdings.Each Fund’s top portfolio holdings, in order of position size and as a percentage of a Fund’s total portfolio, are available monthly with a 15-day lag.
Other Information.Each Fund may occasionally provide security breakdowns (e.g., industry, sector, regional, market capitalization, and asset allocation) and specific portfolio level performance attribution information and statistics monthly with a 15-day lag. Top/bottom equity securities and/or fixed-income issuers ranked by performance attribution, including the percentage attribution to Fund performance, average Fund weighting, and other relevant data points, may be provided monthly with a 15-day lag.
The Adviser may exclude from publication on its websites all or any portion of portfolio holdings or change the time periods of disclosure as deemed necessary to protect the interests of the Janus Henderson funds.
The Janus Henderson funds’ Trustees, officers, and primary service providers, including investment advisers identified in this SAI, distributors, administrators, transfer agents, custodians, securities lending agents, and their respective personnel, may receive or have access to nonpublic portfolio holdings information. In addition, third parties, including but not limited to those that provide services to the Janus Henderson funds, the Adviser, and its affiliates, such as trade execution measurement systems providers, independent pricing services, proxy voting service providers, the funds’ insurers, computer systems service providers, lenders, counsel, accountants/auditors, and rating and ranking organizations may also receive or have access to nonpublic portfolio holdings information. Other recipients of nonpublic portfolio holdings information may include, but may not be limited to, third parties such as consultants, data aggregators, and asset allocation services which calculate information derived from holdings for use by the Adviser, and which supply their analyses (but not the holdings themselves) to their clients. Such parties, either by agreement or by virtue of their duties, are required to maintain confidentiality with respect to such nonpublic portfolio holdings. Any confidentiality agreement entered into regarding disclosure of a Janus Henderson fund’s portfolio holdings includes a provision that portfolio holdings are the confidential property of that Janus Henderson fund and may not be shared or used directly or indirectly for any purpose (except as specifically provided in the confidentiality agreement), including trading in fund shares.
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Nonpublic portfolio holdings information may be disclosed to certain third parties upon a good faith determination made by the head of the applicable investment unit or a delegate, in consultation with the Funds’ Chief Compliance Officer (the “Funds’ CCO”) or a delegate, that a Janus Henderson fund has a legitimate business purpose for such disclosure and the recipient agrees to maintain confidentiality. Preapproval by the head of the applicable investment unit or a delegate, in consultation with the Funds’ CCO, or a delegate, is not required for certain routine service providers and in response to regulatory, administrative, and judicial requirements. The Funds’ CCO reports to the Janus Henderson funds’ Trustees regarding material compliance matters with respect to the portfolio holdings disclosure policies and procedures.
Under extraordinary circumstances, the head of the applicable investment unit or a delegate, in consultation with the Funds’ CCO, or a delegate, has the authority to waive one or more provisions of, or make exceptions to, the Mutual Fund Holdings Disclosure Policies and Procedures when in the best interest of the Janus Henderson funds and when such waiver or exception is consistent with federal securities laws and applicable fiduciary duties. The frequency with which portfolio holdings are disclosed, as well as the lag time associated with such disclosure, may vary as deemed appropriate under the circumstances. All waivers and exceptions involving any of the Janus Henderson funds shall be pre-approved by the head of the applicable investment unit or a delegate, in consultation with the Funds’ CCO or a delegate.
To the best knowledge of the Janus Henderson funds, as of January 19, 2024, the following non-affiliated third parties, which consist of service providers and consultants as described above under ongoing arrangements with the funds and/or the Adviser, receive or have access to nonpublic portfolio holdings information, which may include the full holdings of a fund.
Name
Frequency
Lag Time
Acuity Knowledge Partners (UK) Limited
As needed
1 day or more
Adviser Compliance Associates, LLC
As needed
Current
Alpha Financial Markets Consulting
Monthly
Current
Barclays Risk Analytics and Index Solutions Limited
Daily
Current
Barra, Inc.
Daily
Current
Bloomberg Finance L.P.
Daily
Current
Boston Financial Data Services, Inc.
As needed
Current
BNP Paribas Fund Services LLC
Daily
Current
BNP Paribas New York Branch
Daily
Current
BNP Paribas Prime Brokerage, Inc.
Daily
Current
BNP Paribas Securities Services
Daily
Current
BNP Securities Corp.
Daily
Current
Brown Brothers Harriman & Co.
Daily
Current
Callan Associates Inc.
As needed
Current
Charles River Brokerage, LLC
As needed
Current
Charles River Systems, Inc.
As needed
Current
Charles Schwab & Co., Inc.
As needed
Current
Command Financial Press Corporation
As needed
2 days
Deloitte & Touche LLP
As needed
Current
Deloitte Tax LLP
As needed
Current
DTCC Loan/SERV LLC
Daily
Current
Eagle Investment Systems LLC
As needed
Current
Envestnet Asset Management Inc.
As needed
Current
Ernst & Young Global Limited
Semiannually
1-2 days
Ernst & Young LLP
As needed
Current
FactSet Research Systems, Inc.
As needed
Current
Fintech SISU LLC
Daily
Current
FIS Financial Systems LLC – Wall Street Concepts (WSC)
As needed
Current
FlexTrade LLC
Daily
Current
Frank Russell Company
As needed
Current
HedgeFacts
Weekly
7 days
HeterMedia Services Limited
Monthly
Current
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Name
Frequency
Lag Time
IHS Markit
Daily
Current
Infotech Consulting Inc.
Daily
Current
Institutional Shareholder Services, Inc.
Daily
Current
Interactive Data (Europe) Limited
Quarterly
10 days
Interactive Data Pricing and Reference Data LLC
Daily
Current
International Data Corporation
Daily
Current
Investment Technology Group, Inc.
Daily
Current
JPMorgan Chase Bank, National Association
Daily
Current
KPMG LLP
As needed
Current
LendAmend LLC
As needed
Current
Markit EDM Limited
Daily
Current
Markit Group Limited
Daily
Current
Merrill Communications LLC
Quarterly
Current
Moody’s Investors Service Inc.
Weekly
7 days or more
Nasdaq Inc.
Daily
Current
PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP
As needed
Current
Prima Capital Holding, Inc.
As needed
Current
Prima Capital Management, Inc.
Quarterly
15 days
RR Donnelley and Sons Company
Daily
Current
Russell/Mellon Analytical Services, LLC
Monthly
Current
Seismic Software, Inc.
Quarterly
7 days
SimCorp USA, Inc.
As needed
Current
SS&C Technologies, Inc.
As needed
Current
Standard & Poor’s
Daily
Current
Standard & Poor’s Financial Services
Weekly
2 days or more
Standard & Poor’s Securities Evaluation
Daily
Current
The Ohio National Life Insurance Company
As needed
Current
Thomson Reuters (Markets) LLC
Daily
Current
TradingScreen Inc.
As needed
Current
TriOptima AB
Daily
Current
Wachovia Securities LLC
As needed
Current
Wilshire Associates Incorporated
As needed
Current
Zephyr Associates, Inc.
Quarterly
Current
In addition to the categories of persons and names of persons described above who receive nonpublic portfolio holdings information, brokers executing portfolio trades on behalf of the funds may receive nonpublic portfolio holdings information. Under no circumstance does the Adviser, a Janus Henderson mutual fund, or other party receive any compensation in connection with the arrangements to release portfolio holdings information to any of the described recipients of the information.
The Adviser manages other accounts such as separately managed accounts, other pooled investment vehicles, registered investment companies, and funds sponsored by companies other than the Adviser. These other accounts may be managed in a similar fashion to certain Janus Henderson funds and thus may have similar portfolio holdings. Such accounts may be subject to different portfolio holdings disclosure policies that permit public disclosure of portfolio holdings information in different forms and at different times than the Funds’ portfolio holdings disclosure policies. Additionally, clients of such accounts have access to their portfolio holdings, and may not be subject to the Funds’ portfolio holdings disclosure policies.
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Investment Adviser – Janus Henderson Investors US LLC
As stated in the Prospectuses, each Fund has an Investment Advisory Agreement (“Advisory Agreement”) with Janus Henderson Investors US LLC (the “Adviser”), 151 Detroit Street, Denver, Colorado 80206-4805. The Adviser is an indirect wholly-owned subsidiary of Janus Henderson Group plc (“JHG”). Janus Henderson US (Holdings) Inc., the direct parent of the Adviser, completed a strategic combination with Henderson Group plc on May 30, 2017 to form JHG, doing business as Janus Henderson Investors.
Each Fund’s Advisory Agreement continues in effect from year to year so long as such continuance is approved at least annually by the vote of a majority of the Trustees of the Trust who are not parties to the Advisory Agreements or “interested persons” (as defined by the 1940 Act) of any such party (the “Independent Trustees”), and by either the Trustees of the Trust (the “Trustees”) or the affirmative vote of a majority of the outstanding voting securities of each Fund. Each Advisory Agreement: (i) may be terminated, without the payment of any penalty, by the Trustees, or the vote of at least a majority of the outstanding voting securities of a Fund, or the Adviser, on at least 60 days’ advance written notice; (ii) terminates automatically in the event of its assignment; and (iii) generally, may not be amended without the approval by vote of a majority of the Trustees of the affected Fund, including a majority of the Independent Trustees, and, to the extent required by the 1940 Act, the affirmative vote of a majority of the outstanding voting securities of that Fund.
Each Advisory Agreement provides that the Adviser will furnish continuous advice and recommendations concerning the Funds’ investments, provide office space for the Funds and certain other advisory-related services. Each Fund pays custodian fees and expenses, any brokerage commissions and dealer spreads, and other expenses in connection with the execution of portfolio transactions, legal and audit expenses, interest and taxes, a portion of trade or other investment company dues and expenses, expenses of shareholders’ meetings, mailing of prospectuses, statements of additional information, and reports to shareholders, fees and expenses of the Trustees, other costs of complying with applicable laws regulating the sale of Fund shares, compensation to the Funds’ transfer agent, and other costs, including shareholder servicing costs.
In rendering investment advisory services to Janus Henderson European Focus Fund, Janus Henderson Global Equity Income Fund, Janus Henderson Global Real Estate Fund, and Janus Henderson Global Sustainable Equity Fund, the Adviser may use services provided by its foreign (non-U.S.) affiliates, Janus Henderson Investors UK Limited, Henderson Global Investors (Singapore) Ltd., Henderson Global Investors (Japan) Ltd., or Janus Henderson Investors (Jersey) Limited (collectively, “JHIUKL”). One or more Janus Henderson employees, acting for JHIUKL, may provide services to these Funds through a “participating affiliate” arrangement, as that term is used in guidance issued by the Staff allowing U.S. registered investment advisers to use portfolio management or research resources of advisory affiliates subject to the regulatory supervision of the registered investment adviser. Under the participating affiliate arrangement, Janus Henderson employees, acting for JHIUKL, are considered “associated persons” of the Adviser (as that term is defined in the Investment Advisers Act of 1940, as amended) and in this capacity, such Janus Henderson employees, acting for JHIUKL, are subject to supervision of the Adviser and may provide portfolio management, research, and other services to the Funds. The responsibilities of both the Adviser and JHIUKL under the participating affiliate arrangement are documented in a memorandum of understanding between the two entities.
The Adviser also serves as administrator and is authorized to perform, or cause others to perform, the administration services necessary for the operation of the Funds, including, but not limited to, NAV determination, portfolio accounting, recordkeeping, blue sky registration and monitoring services, preparation of prospectuses and other Fund documents, and other services for which the Fundsreimburse the Adviser for its out-of-pocket costs. Each Fund also pays for some or all of the salaries, fees, and expenses of certain Adviser employees and Fund officers, with respect to certain specified administration functions they perform on behalf of the Funds. Administration costs are separate and apart from advisory fees and other expenses paid in connection with the investment advisory services that the Adviser provides to each Fund. Some expenses related to compensation payable to the Funds’ CCO and compliance staff are shared with the Funds.
Many of these costs vary from year to year which can make it difficult to predict the total impact to your Fund’s expense ratio, in particular during times of declining asset values of a Fund. Certain costs may be waived and/or reimbursed by the Adviser pursuant to an expense limitation agreement with a Fund.
A discussion regarding the basis for the Trustees’ approval of the Funds’ Advisory Agreements is included in each Fund’s annual report (for the period ended September 30, 2023) and will be included in each Fund’s semiannual report (for the period ending March 31, 2024) to shareholders. You can request the Funds’ annual or semiannual reports (as they become available), free of charge, by contacting your plan sponsor, broker-dealer, or financial intermediary, or by contacting a Janus
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Henderson representative at 1-877-335-2687 (or 1-800-525-3713 if you hold Class D Shares). The reports are also available, free of charge, at janushenderson.com/info (or janushenderson.com/reports if you hold Class D Shares).
The Funds pay a monthly investment advisory fee to the Adviser for its services. The fee is based on the average daily net assets of each Fund for Funds with an annual fixed-rate fee, and is calculated at the annual rate. The detail for Funds with this fee structure is shown below under “Average Daily Net Assets of the Fund.” Funds that pay a fee that may adjust up or down based on the Fund’s performance relative to its benchmark index over the performance measurement period have “N/A” in the “Average Daily Net Assets of the Fund” column below. The following table also reflects the Funds’ contractual fixed-rate investment advisory fee rate for Funds with an annual fee based on average daily net assets and the “base fee” rate prior to any performance fee adjustment for Funds that have a performance fee structure.
Fund Name
Average Daily Net
Assets of the Fund
Contractual
Investment Advisory
Fees/Base Fees (%)
(annual rate)
Global & International Equity
Janus Henderson Asia Equity Fund
N/A
0.92
Janus Henderson Emerging Markets Fund
First $1 Billion
Next $1 Billion
Over $2 Billion
1.00
0.90
0.85
Janus Henderson European Focus Fund
First $500 Million
Next $1 Billion
Next $1 Billion
Over $2.5 Billion
1.00
0.90
0.85
0.80
Janus Henderson Global Equity Income Fund
First $1 Billion
Next $1 Billion
Over $2 Billion
0.85
0.65
0.60
Janus Henderson Global Life Sciences Fund
All Asset Levels
0.64
Janus Henderson Global Real Estate Fund
N/A
0.75
Janus Henderson Global Research Fund
N/A
0.60
Janus Henderson Global Select Fund
All Asset Levels
0.64
Janus Henderson Global Sustainable Equity Fund
First $2 Billion
Over $2 Billion
0.75
0.70
Janus Henderson Global Technology and Innovation Fund
All Asset Levels
0.64
Janus Henderson Overseas Fund
N/A
0.64
Multi-Asset U.S. Equity
Janus Henderson Balanced Fund
All Asset Levels
0.55
Janus Henderson Contrarian Fund
N/A
0.64
Janus Henderson Enterprise Fund
All Asset Levels
0.64
Janus Henderson Forty Fund
N/A
0.64
Janus Henderson Growth and Income Fund
All Asset Levels
0.60
Janus Henderson Research Fund
N/A
0.64
Janus Henderson Triton Fund
All Asset Levels
0.64
Janus Henderson U.S. Dividend Income Fund
First $2 Billion
Over $2 Billion
0.60
0.55
Janus Henderson Venture Fund
All Asset Levels
0.64
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Performance-Based Investment Advisory Fee
Applies to Janus Henderson Global Research Fund, Janus Henderson Contrarian Fund, Janus Henderson Research Fund, Janus Henderson Global Real Estate Fund, Janus Henderson Forty Fund, Janus Henderson Overseas Fund, and Janus Henderson Asia Equity Fund only
Effective on the dates shown below, each of Janus Henderson Global Research Fund, Janus Henderson Contrarian Fund, Janus Henderson Research Fund, Janus Henderson Global Real Estate Fund, Janus Henderson Forty Fund, Janus Henderson Overseas Fund, and Janus Henderson Asia Equity Fund implemented an investment advisory fee rate that adjusts up or down based upon each Fund’s performance relative to the cumulative investment record of its respective benchmark index over the performance measurement period. Any performance adjustment commenced on the date shown below. Prior to the effective date of the performance adjustment, only the base fee applied.
Fund Name
Effective Date of
Performance Fee
Arrangement
Effective Date of
First Adjustment
to Advisory Fee
Janus Henderson Global Research Fund
01/01/06
01/01/07
Janus Henderson Contrarian Fund
02/01/06
02/01/07
Janus Henderson Research Fund
02/01/06
02/01/07
Janus Henderson Global Real Estate Fund
12/01/07
12/01/08
Janus Henderson Forty Fund
07/01/10
01/01/12
Janus Henderson Overseas Fund
08/01/10
11/01/11
Janus Henderson Asia Equity Fund
08/01/11
08/01/12
Under the performance-based fee structure, the investment advisory fee paid to the Adviser by each Fund consists of two components: (1) a base fee calculated by applying the contractual fixed rate of the advisory fee to the Fund’s average daily net assets during the previous month (“Base Fee Rate”), plus or minus (2) a performance-fee adjustment (“Performance Adjustment”) calculated by applying a variable rate of up to 0.15% (positive or negative) to the Fund’s average daily net assets based on the Fund’s relative performance compared to the cumulative investment record of its benchmark index over a 36-month performance measurement period. The Base Fee Rate is calculated and accrued daily. The Performance Adjustment is calculated monthly in arrears and is accrued throughout the month. The investment advisory fee is paid monthly in arrears.
The Performance Adjustment may result in an increase or decrease in the investment advisory fee paid by a Fund, depending upon the investment performance of the Fund relative to its benchmark index over the performance measurement period. No Performance Adjustment is applied unless the difference between the Fund’s investment performance and the cumulative investment record of the Fund’s benchmark index is 0.50% or greater (positive or negative) during the applicable performance measurement period. The Base Fee Rate is subject to an upward or downward Performance Adjustment for every full 0.50% increment by which the Fund outperforms or underperforms its benchmark index. Because the Performance Adjustment is tied to a Fund’s performance relative to its benchmark index (and not its absolute performance), the Performance Adjustment could increase the Adviser’s fee even if the Fund’s shares lose value during the performance measurement period and could decrease the Adviser’s fee even if the Fund’s shares increase in value during the performance measurement period. For purposes of computing the Base Fee Rate and the Performance Adjustment, net assets are averaged over different periods (average daily net assets during the previous month for the Base Fee Rate versus average daily net assets during the performance measurement period for the Performance Adjustment). Performance of a Fund is calculated net of expenses, whereas a Fund’s benchmark index does not have any fees or expenses. Reinvestment of dividends and distributions is included in calculating both the performance of a Fund and the Fund’s benchmark index. Under extreme circumstances involving underperformance by a rapidly shrinking Fund, the dollar amount of the Performance Adjustment could be more than the dollar amount of the Base Fee Rate. In such circumstances, the Adviser would reimburse the applicable Fund.
The application of an expense limit, if any, will have a positive effect upon a Fund’s performance and may result in an increase in the Performance Adjustment. It is possible that the cumulative dollar amount of additional compensation ultimately payable to the Adviser may, under some circumstances, exceed the cumulative dollar amount of management fees waived by the Adviser.
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The investment performance of a Fund’s Class A Shares (waiving the upfront sales load) for the performance measurement period is used to calculate the Performance Adjustment. After the Adviser determines whether a particular Fund’s performance was above or below its benchmark index by comparing the investment performance of the Fund’s load-waived Class A Shares against the cumulative investment record of that Fund’s benchmark index, the Adviser applies the same Performance Adjustment (positive or negative) across each other class of shares of the Fund.
The Trustees may determine that a class of shares of a Fund other than Class A Shares is the most appropriate for use in calculating the Performance Adjustment. If a different class of shares is substituted in calculating the Performance Adjustment, the use of that successor class of shares may apply to the entire performance measurement period so long as the successor class was outstanding at the beginning of such period. If the successor class of shares was not outstanding for all or a portion of the performance measurement period, it may only be used in calculating that portion of the Performance Adjustment attributable to the period during which the successor class was outstanding, and any prior portion of the performance measurement period would be calculated using the class of shares previously designated. Any change to the class of shares used to calculate the Performance Adjustment is subject to applicable law.
The Trustees may from time to time determine that another securities index for a Fund is a more appropriate benchmark index for purposes of evaluating the performance of that Fund. In that event, the Trustees may approve the substitution of a successor index for the Fund’s benchmark index. However, the calculation of the Performance Adjustment for any portion of the performance measurement period prior to the adoption of the successor index will still be based upon the Fund’s performance compared to its former benchmark index. Any change to a particular Fund’s benchmark index for purposes of calculating the Performance Adjustment is subject to applicable law. It is currently the position of the Staff that, with respect to Funds that charge a performance fee, changing a Fund’s benchmark index used to calculate the performance fee will require shareholder approval. If there is a change in the Staff’s position, the Trustees intend to notify shareholders of such change in position at such time as the Trustees may determine that a change in a Fund’s benchmark index is appropriate.
Under certain circumstances, the Trustees may, without the prior approval of Fund shareholders, implement changes to the performance fee structure of a Fund as discussed above, subject to applicable law.
It is not possible to predict the effect of the Performance Adjustment on future overall compensation to the Adviser since it will depend on the performance of each Fund relative to the record of the Fund’s benchmark index and future changes to the size of each Fund.
If the average daily net assets of a Fund remain constant during a 36-month performance measurement period, current net assets will be the same as average net assets over the performance measurement period and the maximum Performance Adjustment will be equivalent to 0.15% of current net assets. When current net assets vary from net assets over the 36-month performance measurement period, the Performance Adjustment, as a percentage of current assets, may vary significantly, including at a rate more or less than 0.15%, depending upon whether the net assets of the Fund had been increasing or decreasing (and the amount of such increase or decrease) during the performance measurement period. Note that if net assets for a Fund were increasing during the performance measurement period, the total performance fee paid, measured in dollars, would be more than if that Fund had not increased its net assets during the performance measurement period.
Suppose, for example, that the Performance Adjustment was being computed after the assets of a Fund had been shrinking. Assume its monthly Base Fee Rate was 1/12th of 0.60% of average daily net assets during the previous month. Assume also that average daily net assets during the 36-month performance measurement period were $500 million, but that average daily net assets during the preceding month were just $200 million.
The Base Fee Rate would be computed as follows:
$200 million x 0.60% ÷ 12 = $100,000
If the Fund outperformed or underperformed its benchmark index by an amount which triggered the maximum Performance Adjustment, the Performance Adjustment would be computed as follows:
$500 million x 0.15% ÷ 12 = $62,500, which is approximately 1/12th of 0.375% of $200 million.
If the Fund had outperformed its benchmark index, the total advisory fee rate for that month would be $162,500, which is approximately 1/12th of 0.975% of $200 million.
If the Fund had underperformed its benchmark index, the total advisory fee rate for that month would be $37,500, which is approximately 1/12th of 0.225% of $200 million.
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Therefore, the total advisory fee rate for that month, as a percentage of average net assets during the preceding month, would be approximately 1/12th of 0.975% in the case of outperformance, or approximately 1/12th of 0.225% in the case of underperformance. Under extreme circumstances involving underperformance by a rapidly shrinking Fund, the dollar amount of the Performance Adjustment could be more than the dollar amount of the Base Fee Rate. In such circumstances, the Adviser would reimburse the applicable Fund.
By contrast, the Performance Adjustment would be a smaller percentage of current assets if the net assets of the Fund were increasing during the performance measurement period. Suppose, for example, that the Performance Adjustment was being computed after the assets of a Fund had been growing. Assume its average daily net assets during the 36-month performance measurement period were $500 million, but that average daily net assets during the preceding month were $800 million.
The Base Fee Rate would be computed as follows:
$800 million x 0.60% ÷ 12 = $400,000
If the Fund outperformed or underperformed its benchmark index by an amount which triggered the maximum Performance Adjustment, the Performance Adjustment would be computed as follows:
$500 million x 0.15% ÷ 12 = $62,500, which is approximately 1/12th of 0.094% of $800 million.
If the Fund had outperformed its benchmark index, the total advisory fee rate for that month would be $462,500, which is approximately 1/12th of 0.694% of $800 million.
If the Fund had underperformed its benchmark index, the total advisory fee rate for that month would be $337,500, which is approximately 1/12th of 0.506% of $800 million.
Therefore, the total advisory fee rate for that month, as a percentage of average net assets during the preceding month, would be approximately 1/12th of 0.694% in the case of outperformance, or approximately 1/12th of 0.506% in the case of underperformance.
The Base Fee Rate for each Fund and the Fund’s benchmark index used for purposes of calculating the Performance Adjustment are shown in the following table:
Fund Name
Benchmark Index
Base Fee Rate (%)
(annual rate)
Janus Henderson Global Research Fund
MSCI World IndexSM (1)
0.60
Janus Henderson Contrarian Fund
S&P 500® Index(2)
0.64
Janus Henderson Research Fund
Russell 1000® Growth Index(3)
0.64
Janus Henderson Global Real Estate Fund
FTSE EPRA Nareit Global Index(4)
0.75
Janus Henderson Forty Fund
Russell 1000 Growth Index(3)
0.64
Janus Henderson Overseas Fund
MSCI All Country World ex-USA Indexsm(5)
0.64
Janus Henderson Asia Equity Fund
MSCI All Country Asia ex-Japan Index(6)
0.92
(1) 
The MSCI World Index is designed to measure the equity market performance of developed market countries in North America, Europe, and the Asia/Pacific Region.
(2) 
The Standard & Poor’s (“S&P”) 500 Index is a commonly recognized market capitalization-weighted index of 500 widely held equity securities, designed to measure broad U.S. equity performance.
(3) 
The Russell 1000 Growth Index measures the performance of those Russell 1000® companies with higher price-to-book ratios and higher forecasted growth values.
(4) 
The FTSE EPRA Nareit Global Index is a global market capitalization weighted index composed of listed real estate companies and real estate investment trusts in both developed and emerging market countries.
(5) 
The MSCI All Country World ex-USA Index is designed to measure equity market performance in global developed and emerging markets outside the United States.
(6) 
The MSCI All Country Asia ex-Japan Index is designed to measure the equity market performance of Asia, excluding Japan.
The following hypothetical examples illustrate the application of the Performance Adjustment for each Fund. The examples assume that the average daily net assets of the Fund remain constant during a 36-month performance measurement period. The Performance Adjustment would be a smaller percentage of current assets if the net assets of the Fund were increasing during the performance measurement period, and a greater percentage of current assets if the net assets of the Fund were decreasing during the performance measurement period. All numbers in the examples are rounded to the nearest hundredth percent. The net assets of each Fund as of the fiscal year ended September 30, 2023 are shown below.
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Fund Name
Net Assets
Janus Henderson Global Research Fund
$2,959,490,220
Janus Henderson Contrarian Fund
$4,230,808,234
Janus Henderson Research Fund
$17,203,918,820
Janus Henderson Global Real Estate Fund
$462,006,189
Janus Henderson Forty Fund
$16,549,970,394
Janus Henderson Overseas Fund
$2,899,667,040
Janus Henderson Asia Equity Fund
$23,582,666
Examples: Janus Henderson Global Research Fund
The monthly maximum positive or negative Performance Adjustment of 1/12th of 0.15% of average net assets during the prior 36 months occurs if the Fund outperforms or underperforms its benchmark index by 6.00% over the same period. The Performance Adjustment is made in even increments for every 0.50% difference in the investment performance of the Fund’s Class A Shares (waiving the upfront sales load) compared to the cumulative investment record of the MSCI World Index.
Example 1: Fund Outperforms Its Benchmark Index By 6.00%
If the Fund has outperformed the MSCI World Index by 6.00% during the preceding 36 months, the Fund would calculate the investment advisory fee as follows:
Base Fee Rate
Performance Adjustment Rate
Total Advisory Fee Rate
for that Month
1/12th of 0.60%
1/12th of 0.15%
1/12th of 0.75%
Example 2: Fund Performance Tracks Its Benchmark Index
If the Fund performance has tracked the performance of the MSCI World Index during the preceding 36 months, the Fund would calculate the investment advisory fee as follows:
Base Fee Rate
Performance Adjustment Rate
Total Advisory Fee Rate
for that Month
1/12th of 0.60%
0.00
1/12th of 0.60%
Example 3: Fund Underperforms Its Benchmark Index By 6.00%
If the Fund has underperformed the MSCI World Index by 6.00% during the preceding 36 months, the Fund would calculate the investment advisory fee as follows:
Base Fee Rate
Performance Adjustment Rate
Total Advisory Fee Rate
for that Month
1/12th of 0.60%
1/12th of -0.15%
1/12th of 0.45%
Examples: Janus Henderson Contrarian Fund
The monthly maximum positive or negative Performance Adjustment of 1/12th of 0.15% of average net assets during the prior 36 months occurs if the Fund outperforms or underperforms its benchmark index by 7.00% over the same period. The Performance Adjustment is made in even increments for every 0.50% difference in the investment performance of the Fund’s Class A Shares (waiving the upfront sales load) compared to the cumulative investment record of the S&P 500 Index.
Example 1: Fund Outperforms Its Benchmark Index By 7.00%
If the Fund has outperformed the S&P 500 Index by 7.00% during the preceding 36 months, the Fund would calculate the investment advisory fee as follows:
Base Fee Rate
Performance Adjustment Rate
Total Advisory Fee Rate
for that Month
1/12th of 0.64%
1/12th of 0.15%
1/12th of 0.79%
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Example 2: Fund Performance Tracks Its Benchmark Index
If the Fund performance has tracked the performance of the S&P 500 Index during the preceding 36 months, the Fund would calculate the investment advisory fee as follows:
Base Fee Rate
Performance Adjustment Rate
Total Advisory Fee Rate
for that Month
1/12th of 0.64%
0.00
1/12th of 0.64%
Example 3: Fund Underperforms Its Benchmark Index By 7.00%
If the Fund has underperformed the S&P 500 Index by 7.00% during the preceding 36 months, the Fund would calculate the investment advisory fee as follows:
Base Fee Rate
Performance Adjustment Rate
Total Advisory Fee Rate
for that Month
1/12th of 0.64%
1/12th of -0.15%
1/12th of 0.49%
Examples: Janus Henderson Research Fund
The monthly maximum positive or negative Performance Adjustment of 1/12th of 0.15% of average net assets during the prior 36 months occurs if the Fund outperforms or underperforms its benchmark index by 5.00% over the same period. The Performance Adjustment is made in even increments for every 0.50% difference in the investment performance of the Fund’s Class A Shares (waiving the upfront sales load) compared to the cumulative investment record of the Russell 1000 Growth Index.
Example 1: Fund Outperforms Its Benchmark Index By 5.00%
If the Fund has outperformed the Russell 1000 Growth Index by 5.00% during the preceding 36 months, the Fund would calculate the investment advisory fee as follows:
Base Fee Rate
Performance Adjustment Rate
Total Advisory Fee Rate
for that Month
1/12th of 0.64%
1/12th of 0.15%
1/12th of 0.79%
Example 2: Fund Performance Tracks Its Benchmark Index
If the Fund performance has tracked the performance of the Russell 1000 Growth Index during the preceding 36 months, the Fund would calculate the investment advisory fee as follows:
Base Fee Rate
Performance Adjustment Rate
Total Advisory Fee Rate
for that Month
1/12th of 0.64%
0.00
1/12th of 0.64%
Example 3: Fund Underperforms Its Benchmark Index By 5.00%
If the Fund has underperformed the Russell 1000 Growth Index by 5.00% during the preceding 36 months, the Fund would calculate the investment advisory fee as follows:
Base Fee Rate
Performance Adjustment Rate
Total Advisory Fee Rate
for that Month
1/12th of 0.64%
1/12th of -0.15%
1/12th of 0.49%
Examples: Janus Henderson Global Real Estate Fund
The monthly maximum positive or negative Performance Adjustment of 1/12th of 0.15% of average net assets during the prior 36 months occurs if the Fund outperforms or underperforms its benchmark index by 4.00% over the same period. The Performance Adjustment is made in even increments for every 0.50% difference in the investment performance of the Fund’s Class A Shares (waiving the upfront sales load) compared to the cumulative investment record of the FTSE EPRA Nareit Global Index.
Example 1: Fund Outperforms Its Benchmark Index By 4.00%
If the Fund has outperformed the FTSE EPRA Nareit Global Index by 4.00% during the preceding 36 months, the Fund would calculate the investment advisory fee as follows:
Base Fee Rate
Performance Adjustment Rate
Total Advisory Fee Rate
for that Month
1/12th of 0.75%
1/12th of 0.15%
1/12th of 0.90%
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Example 2: Fund Performance Tracks Its Benchmark Index
If the Fund performance has tracked the performance of the FTSE EPRA Nareit Global Index during the preceding 36 months, the Fund would calculate the investment advisory fee as follows:
Base Fee Rate
Performance Adjustment Rate
Total Advisory Fee Rate
for that Month
1/12th of 0.75%
0.00
1/12th of 0.75%
Example 3: Fund Underperforms Its Benchmark Index By 4.00%
If the Fund has underperformed the FTSE EPRA Nareit Global Index by 4.00% during the preceding 36 months, the Fund would calculate the investment advisory fee as follows:
Base Fee Rate
Performance Adjustment Rate
Total Advisory Fee Rate
for that Month
1/12th of 0.75%
1/12th of -0.15%
1/12th of 0.60%
Examples: Janus Henderson Forty Fund
The monthly maximum positive or negative Performance Adjustment of 1/12th of 0.15% of average net assets during the prior 36 months occurs if the Fund outperforms or underperforms its benchmark index by 8.50% over the same period. The Performance Adjustment is made in even increments for every 0.50% difference in the investment performance of the Fund’s Class A Shares (waiving the upfront sales load) compared to the cumulative investment record of the Russell 1000 Growth Index.
Example 1: Fund Outperforms Its Benchmark Index By 8.50%
If the Fund has outperformed the Russell 1000 Growth Index by 8.50% during the preceding 36 months, the Fund would calculate the investment advisory fee as follows:
Base Fee Rate
Performance Adjustment Rate
Total Advisory Fee Rate
for that Month
1/12th of 0.64%
1/12th of 0.15%
1/12th of 0.79%
Example 2: Fund Performance Tracks Its Benchmark Index
If the Fund performance has tracked the performance of the Russell 1000 Growth Index during the preceding 36 months, the Fund would calculate the investment advisory fee as follows:
Base Fee Rate
Performance Adjustment Rate
Total Advisory Fee Rate
for that Month
1/12th of 0.64%
0.00
1/12th of 0.64%
Example 3: Fund Underperforms Its Benchmark Index By 8.50%
If the Fund has underperformed the Russell 1000 Growth Index by 8.50% during the preceding 36 months, the Fund would calculate the investment advisory fee as follows:
Base Fee Rate
Performance Adjustment Rate
Total Advisory Fee Rate
for that Month
1/12th of 0.64%
1/12th of -0.15%
1/12th of 0.49%
Examples: Janus Henderson Overseas Fund
The monthly maximum positive or negative Performance Adjustment of 1/12th of 0.15% of average net assets during the prior 36 months occurs if the Fund outperforms or underperforms its benchmark index by 7.00% over the same period. The Performance Adjustment is made in even increments for every 0.50% difference in the investment performance of the Fund’s Class A Shares (waiving the upfront sales load) compared to the cumulative investment record of the MSCI All Country World ex-USA Index.
Example 1: Fund Outperforms Its Benchmark Index By 7.00%
If the Fund has outperformed the MSCI All Country World ex-USA Index by 7.00% during the preceding 36 months, the Fund would calculate the investment advisory fee as follows:
Base Fee Rate
Performance Adjustment Rate
Total Advisory Fee Rate
for that Month
1/12th of 0.64%
1/12th of 0.15%
1/12th of 0.79%
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Example 2: Fund Performance Tracks Its Benchmark Index
If the Fund performance has tracked the performance of the MSCI All Country World ex-USA Index during the preceding 36 months, the Fund would calculate the investment advisory fee as follows:
Base Fee Rate
Performance Adjustment Rate
Total Advisory Fee Rate
for that Month
1/12th of 0.64%
0.00
1/12th of 0.64%
Example 3: Fund Underperforms Its Benchmark Index By 7.00%
If the Fund has underperformed the MSCI All Country World ex-USA Index by 7.00% during the preceding 36 months, the Fund would calculate the investment advisory fee as follows:
Base Fee Rate
Performance Adjustment Rate
Total Advisory Fee Rate
for that Month
1/12th of 0.64%
1/12th of -0.15%
1/12th of 0.49%
Examples: Janus Henderson Asia Equity Fund
The monthly maximum positive or negative Performance Adjustment of 1/12th of 0.15% of average net assets during the prior 36 months occurs if the Fund outperforms or underperforms its benchmark index by 7.00% over the same period. The Performance Adjustment is made in even increments for every 0.50% difference in the investment performance of the Fund’s Class A Shares (waiving the upfront sales load) compared to the cumulative investment record of the MSCI All Country Asia ex-Japan Index.
Example 1: Fund Outperforms Its Benchmark Index By 7.00%
If the Fund has outperformed the MSCI All Country Asia ex-Japan Index by 7.00% during the preceding 36 months, the Fund would calculate the investment advisory fee as follows:
Base Fee Rate
Performance Adjustment Rate
Total Advisory Fee Rate
for that Month
1/12th of 0.92%
1/12th of 0.15%
1/12th of 1.07%
Example 2: Fund Performance Tracks Its Benchmark Index
If the Fund performance has tracked the performance of the MSCI All Country Asia ex-Japan Index during the preceding 36 months, the Fund would calculate the investment advisory fee as follows:
Base Fee Rate
Performance Adjustment Rate
Total Advisory Fee Rate
for that Month
1/12th of 0.92%
0.00
1/12th of 0.92%
Example 3: Fund Underperforms Its Benchmark Index By 7.00%
If the Fund has underperformed the MSCI All Country Asia ex-Japan Index by 7.00% during the preceding 36 months, the Fund would calculate the investment advisory fee as follows:
Base Fee Rate
Performance Adjustment Rate
Total Advisory Fee Rate
for that Month
1/12th of 0.92%
1/12th of -0.15%
1/12th of 0.77%
Expense Limitations
The Adviser has contractually agreed to waive the advisory fee payable by each Fund listed in the following table, or reimburse expenses, in an amount equal to the amount, if any, that the Fund’s total annual fund operating expenses, including the investment advisory fee, but excluding any performance adjustments to management fees, if applicable, the fees payable pursuant to a Rule 12b-1 plan, shareholder servicing fees, such as transfer agency fees (including out-of-pocket costs), administrative services fees and any networking/omnibus fees payable by any share class, brokerage commissions, interest, dividends, taxes, acquired fund fees and expenses, and extraordinary expenses, exceed the annual rate shown below. Provided that the Adviser remains investment adviser to the Funds, the Adviser has agreed to continue each waiver for at least a one-year period commencing on January 26, 2024.
With respect to Janus Henderson Overseas Fund, for a period of one year commencing on June 16, 2023, the Adviser has also agreed to limit the net annual fund operating expenses of Class C Shares, Class D Shares, and Class R Shares (excluding
59

any performance adjustments to management fees, brokerage commissions, interest, dividends, taxes, acquired fund fees and expenses, and extraordinary expenses) to the extent they exceed 1.95%, 0.95%, and 1.54%, respectively.
For information about how these expense limits affect the total expenses of each Fund, if applicable, refer to the “Fees and Expenses of the Fund” table in the Fund Summary of each Prospectus.
Fund Name
Expense Limit
Percentage (%)
Global & International Equity
Janus Henderson Asia Equity Fund
0.94
(1)
Janus Henderson Emerging Markets Fund
1.03
Janus Henderson European Focus Fund
0.96
Janus Henderson Global Equity Income Fund
0.84
Janus Henderson Global Real Estate Fund
0.91
(1)
Janus Henderson Global Research Fund
0.86
(1)
Janus Henderson Global Select Fund
0.81
Janus Henderson Global Sustainable Equity Fund
0.85
Janus Henderson Global Technology and Innovation Fund
0.71
Janus Henderson Overseas Fund
0.82
(1)
Multi-Asset U.S. Equity
Janus Henderson Balanced Fund
0.68
Janus Henderson Contrarian Fund
0.75
(1)
Janus Henderson Enterprise Fund
0.80
Janus Henderson Forty Fund
0.68
(1)
Janus Henderson Growth and Income Fund
0.62
(2)
Janus Henderson Research Fund
0.68
(1)
Janus Henderson Triton Fund
0.86
Janus Henderson U.S. Dividend Income Fund
0.75
(3)
Janus Henderson Venture Fund
0.86
(1) 
The Fund has a performance-based investment advisory fee with a rate that adjusts up or down based upon the Fund’s performance relative to its benchmark index over the performance measurement period. Additional details are included in the “Performance-Based Investment Advisory Fee” section of this SAI. Because a fee waiver will have a positive effect upon the Fund’s performance, a fee waiver that is in place during the period when the performance adjustment applies may affect the performance adjustment in a way that is favorable to the Adviser.
(2) 
The previous expense limit (for the one-year period commencing January 27, 2023) was 0.67%.
(3) 
The Adviser will be entitled to recoup such reimbursement or fee reduction from the Fund, beginning with the commencement of operations (December 20, 2022) and expiring on the third anniversary of the commencement of operations or when the Fund’s assets meet the first breakpoint in the investment advisory fee schedule, whichever occurs first, provided that at no time during such period shall the normal operating expenses allocated to the Fund, with the exceptions previously noted, exceed the percentage stated or the expense limit in effect at the time the fees and expenses subject to recoupment were waived.
The following table summarizes the investment advisory fees paid by each Fund and any advisory fee waivers pursuant to the investment advisory fee agreement in effect during the last three fiscal years ended September 30, unless otherwise noted.
 
2023
2022
2021
Fund Name
Advisory
Fees
Waivers and/or
Expense
Reimbursements(–)
Advisory
Fees
Waivers and/or
Expense
Reimbursements(–)
Advisory
Fees
Waivers and/or
Expense
Reimbursements(–)
Global & International Equity
Janus
Henderson
Asia Equity
Fund
$199,839
– $199,839(1)
$280,033
– $239,324
$380,879
– $191,061
Janus
Henderson
Emerging
Markets Fund
$635,098
– $337,747
$878,441
– $290,110
$1,062,241
– $281,341
60

 
2023
2022
2021<