STATEMENT OF ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
CAMBRIA ETF TRUST

Cambria Shareholder Yield ETF (SYLD)

Cambria Foreign Shareholder Yield ETF (FYLD)

Cambria Emerging Shareholder Yield ETF (EYLD)

Cambria Global Tail Risk ETF (FAIL)

Cambria Global Value ETF (GVAL)

Cambria Global Momentum ETF (GMOM)

Cambria Value and Momentum ETF (VAMO)

Cambria Global Asset Allocation ETF (GAA)

Cambria Tail Risk ETF (TAIL)

Cambria Trinity ETF (TRTY)

Cambria Cannabis ETF (TOKE)

Cambria Global Real Estate ETF (BLDG)

3300 Highland Avenue, Manhattan Beach, CA 30866
PHONE: (310) 683-5500

September 1, 2023, as revised November 16, 2023

This Statement of Additional Information (the “SAI”) describes additional information related to certain series of the Cambria ETF Trust. The Trust is an open-end registered management investment company under the Investment Company Act. This SAI relates to each of the Funds listed above.

Shares of each Fund are listed and traded on the CBOE BZX Exchange, Inc.

Each Fund is actively managed. Cambria Investment Management, L.P. serves as the investment adviser to the Funds, and Toroso Investments, LLC serves as the sub-adviser to each Fund. ALPS Distributors, Inc. serves as the Distributor for each Fund.

This SAI is not a prospectus. It should be read in conjunction with the Funds’ Prospectus, dated September 1, 2023, as revised November 16, 2023, and as may be further revised from time to time, which incorporates this SAI by reference.

Capitalized terms used herein that are not defined have the same meaning as in the Prospectus, unless otherwise noted. A copy of the Prospectus may be obtained without charge by writing to the Distributor, calling 855-ETF-INFO (383-4636) or visiting www.cambriafunds.com. An annual report for each Fund is available in the same manner at no charge by request to the Fund(s) at the address, website, or phone number noted above. Each Fund’s audited financial statements for the most recent fiscal year are incorporated in this SAI by reference to the Funds’ annual report to shareholders dated April 30, 2023.

THE U.S. SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION HAS NOT APPROVED OR DISAPPROVED THESE SECURITIES OR PASSED UPON THE ADEQUACY OF THIS SAI. ANY REPRESENTATION TO THE CONTRARY IS A CRIMINAL OFFENSE.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Page

GLOSSARY

 

3

TRUST AND FUNDS OVERVIEW

 

5

EXCHANGE LISTING AND TRADING

 

5

DISCLOSURE OF PORTFOLIO HOLDINGS

 

6

INVESTMENT POLICIES AND RESTRICTIONS

 

6

INVESTMENT OBJECTIVES, INVESTMENT STRATEGIES AND RISKS

 

9

PORTFOLIO TURNOVER

 

40

MANAGEMENT OF THE FUNDS

 

41

CONTROL PERSONS AND PRINCIPAL HOLDERS OF SECURITIES

 

46

INVESTMENT MANAGEMENT AND OTHER SERVICES

 

51

PORTFOLIO MANAGER

 

55

PORTFOLIO TRANSACTIONS AND BROKERAGE

 

55

THE DISTRIBUTOR

 

58

ACCOUNTING AND LEGAL SERVICE PROVIDERS

 

59

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION CONCERNING SHARES

 

60

TRANSACTIONS IN CREATION UNITS

 

62

DETERMINATION OF NET ASSET VALUE

 

70

TAXATION

 

70

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

 

78

APPENDIX A: PROXY VOTING POLICIES AND PROCEDURES FOR THE TRUST

 

A-1

APPENDIX B: DESCRIPTION OF SECURITIES RATINGS

 

B-1

No person has been authorized to give any information or to make any representations other than those contained in this SAI and the Prospectus and, if given or made, such information or representations may not be relied upon as having been authorized by the Trust. This SAI does not constitute an offer to sell securities.

2

GLOSSARY

The following terms are used throughout this SAI, and have the meanings used below:

1933 Act” means the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.

1934 Act” means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.

Authorized Participant” means a broker-dealer or other participant in the Continuous Net Settlement System of the National Securities Clearing Corporation (NSCC) or a participant in DTC with access to the DTC system, who has executed an agreement with the Distributor that governs transactions in the Funds’ Creation Units.

Balancing Amount means an amount equal to the difference between the NAV of a Creation Unit and the market value of the In-Kind Creation (or Redemption) Basket, used to ensure that the NAV of a Fund Deposit (or Redemption) (other than the Transaction Fee), is identical to the NAV of the Creation Unit being purchased.

Board” means the Board of Trustees of the Trust.

Business Day” means any day on which the Trust is open for business.

Cambria” or the “Adviser” means Cambria Investment Management, L.P., the investment adviser to each Fund.

Cash Component means an amount of cash consisting of a Balancing Amount and a Transaction Fee calculated in connection with creations.

Cash Redemption Amount means an amount of cash consisting of a Balancing Amount and a Transaction Fee calculated in connection with redemptions.

CEA” means the Commodity Exchange Act, as amended.

CFTC” means the Commodity Futures Trading Commission.

Code” means the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended.

Creation Unit” means an aggregation of Shares that each Fund issues and redeems on a continuous basis at NAV. Shares will not be issued or redeemed except in Creation Units.

“Distribution Plan” means the Funds’ Distribution and Service Plan adopted pursuant to Rule 12b-1 under the Investment Company Act.

Distributor” means ALPS Distributors, Inc., the distributor to each Fund.

Dodd-Frank Act” means the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act.

DTC” means the Depository Trust Company.

“ETF” means exchange-traded fund.

Exchange” means CBOE BZX Exchange, Inc.

FINRA” means the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority.

Funds” means the series of the Trust discussed in this SAI: Cambria Shareholder Yield ETF, Cambria Foreign Shareholder Yield ETF, Cambria Emerging Shareholder Yield ETF, Cambria Global Tail Risk ETF, Cambria Global Value ETF, Cambria Global Momentum ETF, Cambria Value and Momentum ETF, Cambria Global Asset Allocation ETF, Cambria Tail Risk ETF, Cambria Trinity ETF, Cambria Cannabis ETF, and Cambria Global Real Estate ETF.

3

Fund Deposit” means the In-Kind Creation Basket and Cash Component necessary to purchase a Creation Unit from a Fund.

Fund Redemption” means the In-Kind Redemption Basket and Cash Redemption Amount received in connection with the redemption of a Creation Unit.

In-Kind Creation Basket” means the basket of securities to be deposited to purchase Creation Units of a Fund.

In-Kind Redemption Basket” means the basket of securities a shareholder will receive upon redemption of a Creation Unit.

Investment Company Act” means the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended.

IRS means the Internal Revenue Service.

NAV” means the net asset value of a Share.

NSCC” means the National Securities Clearing Corporation.

NYSE means the New York Stock Exchange, Inc.

Prospectus” means the Funds’ Prospectus, dated September 1, 2023, as amended and supplemented from time to time.

REIT” means a real estate investment trust.

RIC” means a “regulated investment company” under Subchapter M of the Code.

SAI” means this Statement of Additional Information, dated September 1, 2023, as amended and supplemented from time to time.

SEC” means the United States Securities and Exchange Commission.

Shares” means the shares of a Fund.

Toroso” or the Sub-Adviser means Toroso Investments, LLC, the investment sub-adviser to each Fund.

Transaction Fees are fees imposed to compensate the Trust for costs incurred in connection with transactions for Creation Units. The Transaction Fee is comprised of a flat (or standard) fee and may include a variable fee. For the Transaction Fees applicable to each Fund, see “Transaction Fees” in this SAI.

Trust” means the Cambria ETF Trust, a Delaware statutory trust.

4

TRUST AND FUNDS OVERVIEW

The Trust is a Delaware statutory trust formed on September 9, 2011 and an open-end registered management investment company comprised of twenty funds, twelve of which have commenced operations as of the date of this SAI and are discussed in this SAI. Each Fund is a diversified, actively-managed ETF. The offering of the Shares is registered under the 1933 Act. Cambria serves as the investment adviser to each Fund. Toroso Investments, LLC serves as the investment sub-adviser to each Fund.

Each Fund offers and issues Shares at NAV only in aggregations of a specified number of Shares, generally in exchange for a basket of securities, together with the deposit of a specified cash payment, or, in certain circumstances, for an all cash payment. Shares of each Fund are listed and traded on the Exchange. Shares trade on the Exchange at market prices that may be below, at, or above NAV.

Unlike mutual funds, Shares are not individually redeemable securities. Rather, each Fund issues and redeems Shares on a continuous basis at NAV, only in Creation Units. In the event of the liquidation of a Fund, the Trust may lower the number of Shares in a Creation Unit.

In the instance of creations and redemptions, Transaction Fees may be imposed. Such fees are limited in accordance with requirements of the SEC applicable to management investment companies offering redeemable securities. Some of the information contained in this SAI and the Prospectus — such as information about purchasing and redeeming Shares from a Fund and Transaction Fees — is not relevant to most retail investors because it applies only to transactions for Creation Units and most retail investors do not transact for Creation Units.

Once created, Shares generally trade in the secondary market, at market prices that change throughout the day, in amounts less than a Creation Unit. Investors purchasing Shares in the secondary market through a brokerage account or with the assistance of a broker may be subject to brokerage commissions and charges.

Diversification

Each Fund is “diversified” within the meaning of the Investment Company Act. Under applicable federal laws, to qualify as a diversified fund, a Fund, with respect to 75% of its total assets, may not invest greater than 5% of its total assets in any one issuer and may not hold greater than 10% of the securities of one issuer, other than investments in cash and cash items (including receivables), U.S. government securities, and securities of other investment companies. The remaining 25% of the Fund’s total assets does not need to be “diversified” and may be invested in securities of a single issuer, subject to other applicable laws. The diversification of the Fund’s holdings is measured at the time the Fund purchases a security. However, if the Fund purchases a security and holds it for a period of time, the security may become a larger percentage of the Fund’s total assets due to movements in the financial markets. If the market affects several securities held by a Fund, the Fund may have a greater percentage of its assets invested in securities of fewer issuers.

EXCHANGE LISTING AND TRADING

Shares of each Fund are listed and traded on the Exchange. Shares trade on the Exchange or in secondary markets at prices that may differ from their NAV, including because such prices may be affected by market forces (such as supply and demand for Shares). As is the case of other securities traded on an exchange, when you buy or sell Shares on the Exchange or in the secondary markets your broker will normally charge you a commission or other transaction charges. Further, the Trust reserves the right to adjust the price of Shares in the future to maintain convenient trading ranges for investors (namely, to maintain a price per Share that is attractive to investors) by share splits or reverse share splits, which would have no effect on the NAV.

There can be no assurance that a Fund will continue to meet the requirements of the Exchange necessary to maintain the listing of Shares. The Exchange will consider the suspension of trading in, and will initiate delisting proceedings of, Shares under any of the following circumstances: (i) if any of the requirements set forth in the Exchange rules are not continuously maintained; (ii) if the Exchange files separate proposals under Section 19(b) of the Investment Company Act and any of the statements regarding (a) the description of the Fund; (b) limitations on the Fund’s portfolio holdings or reference assets; or (c) the applicability of the Exchange listing rules specified in such proposals are not continuously maintained; (iii) if following

5

the initial 12-month period beginning at the commencement of trading of the Fund, there are fewer than 50 beneficial owners of the Shares of such Fund; or (iv) such other event shall occur or condition shall exist that, in the opinion of the Exchange, makes further dealings on such Exchange inadvisable. The Exchange will remove the Shares of a Fund from listing and trading upon termination of a Fund.

The Funds are not sponsored, endorsed, sold or promoted by the Exchange. The Exchange makes no representation or warranty, express or implied, to the owners of Shares of the Funds or any member of the public regarding the advisability of investing in securities generally or in the Funds particularly or the ability of the Funds to achieve their objectives. The Exchange has no obligation or liability in connection with the administration, marketing or trading of the Funds.

DISCLOSURE OF PORTFOLIO HOLDINGS

The Board has adopted a policy regarding the disclosure of information about the Funds’ portfolio securities. Under the policy, portfolio holdings of the Funds, which form the basis for the calculation of NAV on a Business Day, are publicly disseminated prior to the opening of trading on the Exchange that Business Day through financial reporting or news services, including the website www.cambriafunds.com. In addition, each Business Day a portfolio composition file, which displays the In-Kind Creation Basket and Cash Component, is publicly disseminated prior to the opening of the Exchange via the NSCC.

INVESTMENT POLICIES AND RESTRICTIONS

In addition to the investment objectives and policies set forth in the Prospectus, each Fund is subject to the investment restrictions set forth below. The investment policies enumerated in this section may be changed with respect to a Fund only by a vote of the holders of a majority of a Fund’s outstanding voting securities. For the purposes of the Investment Company Act, a “majority of outstanding shares” means the vote of the lesser of: (i) 67% or more of the voting securities of the Fund present at the meeting if the holders of more than 50% of the Fund’s outstanding voting securities are present or represented by proxy; or (ii) more than 50% of the outstanding voting securities of the Fund.

1.    The Funds may not borrow money, except to the extent permitted by the Investment Company Act, the rules and regulations thereunder and any applicable exemptive relief.

2.    The Funds may not issue senior securities, except to the extent permitted by the Investment Company Act, the rules and regulations thereunder and any applicable exemptive relief.

3.    The Funds may not engage in the business of underwriting securities except to the extent that the Funds may be considered an underwriter within the meaning of the 1933 Act in the acquisition, disposition or resale of its portfolio securities or in connection with investments in other investment companies, or to the extent otherwise permitted under the Investment Company Act, the rules and regulations thereunder and any applicable exemptive relief.

4.    The Funds may not purchase or sell real estate, except to the extent permitted under the Investment Company Act, the rules and regulations thereunder and any applicable exemptive relief.

5.    The Funds may not purchase or sell commodities, contracts relating to commodities or options on contracts relating to commodities except to the extent permitted under the Investment Company Act, the rules and regulations thereunder and any applicable exemptive relief. This policy shall not prevent the Funds from purchasing or selling foreign currency or purchasing, selling or entering into futures contracts, options, forward contracts, swaps, caps, floors, collars and other financial instruments as currently exist or may in the future be developed.

6.    The Funds may not make loans, except to the extent permitted under the Investment Company Act, the rules and regulations thereunder and any applicable exemptive relief.

7.    No Fund, except for the Cambria Cannabis ETF and Cambria Global Real Estate ETF, will concentrate its investments in issuers of one or more particular industries, except that each of the Cambria Foreign Shareholder Yield ETF, Cambria Emerging Shareholder Yield ETF, and Cambria Global Value ETF will invest more than 25% of its total assets in securities of the same industry to approximately the same extent that each such Fund’s underlying index concentrates in the securities of a particular industry or group of industries. To the extent that the underlying index of the Cambria Global Value ETF is not concentrated in the securities of a particular industry or group of industries, the Cambria Global Value ETF will not concentrate its investments in issuers of one or more industries.

6

8.    The Cambria Cannabis ETF will concentrate (invest more than 25% of its total assets) in securities of the cannabis industry.

9.    The Cambria Global Real Estate ETF will concentrate (invest more than 25% of its total assets) in securities of real estate-related industries.

In addition to the foregoing fundamental investment policies, the Funds are also subject to the following non-fundamental investment policies, which may be changed by the Board without a shareholder vote upon at least 60 days’ prior written notice to shareholders:

1.    A Fund may not hold illiquid assets in excess of 15% of its net assets. For this purpose, “illiquid securities” are securities that the Fund may not sell or dispose of within seven days in the ordinary course of business at approximately the amount at which the Fund has valued the securities. A repurchase agreement maturing in more than seven days is considered illiquid, unless it can be terminated after a notice period of seven days or less.

2.    Under normal market conditions, the Cambria Cannabis ETF invests at least 80% of the value of the Fund’s net assets (plus borrowings for investment purposes) in Cannabis Companies (as defined the Prospectus).

3.    Under normal market conditions, the Cambria Global Real Estate ETF will invest at least 80% of the value of the Fund’s net assets (plus borrowings for investment purposes) in the securities of real estate companies.

With respect to the fundamental policy relating to borrowing money set forth in (1) above, the Investment Company Act permits a Fund to borrow money in amounts of up to one-third of the Fund’s total assets, at the time of borrowing, from banks for any purpose (the Fund’s total assets include the amounts being borrowed). To limit the risks attendant to borrowing, the Investment Company Act requires the Fund to maintain at all times an “asset coverage” of at least 300% of the amount of its borrowings (not including borrowings for temporary purposes in an amount not exceeding 5% of the value of the Fund’s total assets). Asset coverage means the ratio that the value of the Fund’s total assets (including amounts borrowed), minus liabilities other than borrowings, bears to the aggregate amount of all borrowings. In the event that such asset coverage falls below this percentage, the Fund is required to reduce the amount of its borrowings within three days (not including Sundays and holidays) so that the asset coverage is restored to at least 300%.

With respect to the fundamental policy relating to issuing senior securities set forth in (2) above, “senior securities” are defined as fund obligations that have a priority over the Fund’s shares with respect to the payment of dividends or the distribution of Fund assets. The Investment Company Act prohibits a Fund from issuing any class of senior securities or selling any senior securities of which it is the issuer, except that the Fund is permitted to borrow from banks, as described immediately above.

With respect to the fundamental policy relating to making loans set forth in (6) above, the Investment Company Act does not prohibit a Fund from making loans; however, SEC staff interpretations currently prohibit funds from lending more than one-third of their total assets, except through the purchase of debt obligations. (A repurchase agreement is an agreement to purchase a security, coupled with an agreement to sell that security back to the original seller on an agreed-upon date at a price that reflects current interest rates. The SEC staff treats repurchase agreements as loans). Certain types of derivatives give rise to future payment obligations and therefore, also may be considered to be senior securities. Rule 18f-4 under the 1940 Act permits funds that comply with the conditions therein to enter into certain types of derivatives transactions notwithstanding the prohibitions and restrictions on the issuance of senior securities under the 1940 Act.

Except with respect to borrowing and illiquid securities, if a percentage limitation is satisfied at the time of investment, a later increase or decrease in such percentage resulting from a change in the value of a Fund’s investments will not constitute a violation of such limitation. Thus, a Fund may continue to hold a security even though it causes the Fund to exceed a percentage limitation because of fluctuation in the value of the Fund’s assets, except that any borrowing by a Fund or investment in illiquid securities that exceeds the fundamental investment limitations stated above must be reduced to meet such limitations within the period required by the Investment Company Act or the relevant rules, regulations or interpretations thereunder.

For purposes of applying the limitations set forth in the concentration policies, the Funds, with respect to their equity holdings, will generally use the industry classifications provided by the Global Industry Classification Standards (GICS®), a widely recognized industry classification methodology developed by MSCI, Inc. and Standard & Poor’s Financial Services LLC. With respect to the Cambria Global Real Estate ETF, securities of “real estate-related industries” means securities classified in one of these two industries of the real estate sector, as determined by GICS: (1) equity REITs and (2) real

7

estate management and development. Also, with respect to the limitations set forth in the Funds’ concentration policies, securities of the U.S. government (including its agencies and instrumentalities) and, except as set forth in the following sentence, tax-free securities of state or municipal governments and their political subdivisions (and repurchase agreements collateralized by government securities) are not considered to be issued by members of any industry. To the extent that the income from a municipal bond is derived principally from a specific project or backed principally from the assets and revenue of a non-governmental user, the securities will be deemed to be from the industry of that project or user. In addition, as of June 29, 2020, each Fund is actively managed, and no Fund tracks an underlying index. Accordingly, the Cambria Foreign Shareholder Yield ETF, Cambria Emerging Shareholder Yield ETF, and Cambria Global Value ETF will not concentrate their investments in issuers of one or more particular industries to approximately the same extent as an underlying index.

With respect to the Cambria Global Real Estate ETF’s non-fundamental policy to invest in the securities of real estate companies, real estate companies are defined as (i) exchange-listed REITs and (ii) companies included in the real estate sector according to GICS.

8

INVESTMENT OBJECTIVES, INVESTMENT STRATEGIES AND RISKS

Each Fund’s investment objective, principal investment strategies and associated risks are described in the Fund’s Prospectus. The following chart, which supplements and should be read together with the information in the Prospectus, describe the specific investments and technique applicable to the Cambria Shareholder Yield ETF (SYLD), Cambria Foreign Shareholder Yield ETF (FYLD), Cambria Emerging Shareholder Yield ETF (EYLD), Cambria Global Tail Risk ETF (FAIL), Cambria Global Value ETF (GVAL), Cambria Global Momentum ETF (GMOM), Cambria Global Value and Momentum ETF (VAMO), Cambria Global Asset Allocation ETF (GAA), Cambria Tail Risk ETF (TAIL), Cambria Trinity ETF (TRTY), Cambria Cannabis ETF (TOKE), and Cambria Global Real Estate ETF (BLDG). Unless otherwise indicated in the Prospectus or this SAI, the investment objective and policies of each Fund may be changed without shareholder approval.

Recent Events. Local, regional, or global events such as war, acts of terrorism, the spread of infectious illness or other public health issues, recessions, or other events could have a significant impact on the market generally and on specific securities. Periods of market volatility may occur in response to such events and other economic, political, and global macro factors. The COVID-19 pandemic, Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, and higher inflation have resulted in extreme volatility in the financial markets, economic downturns around the world, severe losses to some sectors of the economy and individual issuers, and reduced liquidity of certain instruments. These events have caused significant disruptions to business operations, including business closures; strained healthcare systems; disruptions to supply chains and employee availability; large fluctuations in consumer demand; large expansion of government deficits and debt as a result of government actions to mitigate the effects of such events; and widespread uncertainty regarding the long-term effects of such events.

Governments and central banks, including the Federal Reserve in the United States, took extraordinary and unprecedented actions to support local and global economies and the financial markets in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, including by keeping interest rates at historically low levels for an extended period. The Federal Reserve concluded its market support activities in 2022 and began to raise interest rates in an effort to fight inflation. The Federal Reserve may determine to raise interest rates further. This and other government intervention into the economy and financial markets to address the pandemic, inflation, or other significant events in the future may not work as intended, particularly if the efforts are perceived by investors as being unlikely to achieve the desired results.

SYLD

FYLD

EYLD

FAIL

GVAL

GMOM

VAMO

GAA

TAIL

TRTY

TOKE

BLDG

Cannabis-Related Securities

                   

X

 

Cash Items

X

X

X

 

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Central Clearing

     

X

           

X

 

Credit Quality Standards

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Cryptocurrency Investments

         

X

 

X

 

X

   

Debt-Related Investments

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Asset-Backed Securities

     

X

     

X

X

X

   

Corporate Debt Securities

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

   

Debt and Other Fixed Income Securities Generally

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Exchange-Traded Notes

     

X

 

X

 

X

X

X

   

High Yield Securities

 

X

X

X

 

X

 

X

X

X

   

Mortgage-Related and Other Asset-Backed Securities

     

X

     

X

X

X

   

Municipal Securities

     

X

     

X

X

X

   

U.S. Government Securities

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

9

SYLD

FYLD

EYLD

FAIL

GVAL

GMOM

VAMO

GAA

TAIL

TRTY

TOKE

BLDG

Zero Coupon Securities

 

X

X

X

 

X

 

X

X

X

   

Derivatives

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

CFTC Regulation

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Futures Contracts and Related Options

     

X

 

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Options Contracts

     

X

   

X

X

X

X

   

Swap Agreements

     

X

     

X

X

X

X

 

Dollar Rolls, Delayed Delivery Transactions and When Issued or Forward Commitment Securities

     

X

     

X

 

X

X

X

Equity-Related Investments

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Common Stocks

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Convertible Securities

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

 

Master Limited Partnerships

     

X

     

X

X

X

X

X

Investments in Other Investment Companies or Other Pooled Investments

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Preferred Stocks

X

X

X

X

X

 

X

X

X

X

X

X

Real Estate Investment Trusts

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Rights and Warrants

     

X

     

X

 

X

X

X

Foreign Investments Generally

X

X

X

X

X

X

 

X

 

X

X

X

Asia-Pacific Risk

 

X

X

X

X

X

 

X

 

X

X

X

Australia Risk

 

X

 

X

X

X

 

X

 

X

X

X

Canada Risk

 

X

 

X

X

X

 

X

 

X

X

 

Depositary Receipts

X

X

X

X

X

X

 

X

 

X

X

X

Emerging Markets Risk

 

X

 

X

X

X

 

X

 

X

X

X

Europe Risk

 

X

X

X

X

X

 

X

 

X

X

X

Foreign Currency Transactions

 

X

X

X

X

   

X

 

X

X

X

Foreign Government Securities

     

X

 

X

 

X

 

X

X

X

Latin America Risk

   

X

X

X

X

 

X

 

X

X

 

Middle East Risk

   

X

X

X

X

 

X

 

X

X

 

Russia Risk

   

X

 

X

             

South Africa Risk

   

X

X

               

Illiquid Securities

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Repurchase Agreements

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Reverse Repurchase Agreements

     

X

       

X

X

X

X

Securities Lending

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Short Sales

           

X

X

 

X

   

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Cannabis-Related Securities

The Fund seeks to achieve its investment objective by investing, under normal market conditions, primarily in (1) Cannabis Companies, and (2) total return swaps intended to provide exposure to Cannabis Companies. Cannabis Companies are companies that (i) engage in or support the legal production, cultivation, and/or sale of cannabis, including marijuana and hemp, such as certain agrobusiness, biotechnology, life sciences, pharmaceutical, retail, finance, and real estate companies, (ii) perform lawful research as to the medical and pharmaceutical applications of marijuana and cannabis extracts, including cannabinoids, or (iii) produce and develop devices, goods, and equipment related to the cannabis industry, including hemp and its legal derivatives. To be identified as a Cannabis Company, Cambria must determine that a company derives a significant portion (i.e., at least 50%) of its revenue or profits from the legal sale, cultivation, production, or provision of cannabis-related products, services, or research. The Fund will only invest in publicly-traded Cannabis Companies that operate in a jurisdiction where the Cannabis Companies’ cannabis-related business activities are legal under the national and local laws of the relevant jurisdiction, including U.S. federal and state laws. Further, the Fund will only invest in Cannabis Companies listed and traded on a national securities exchange that requires compliance with all laws, rules and regulations applicable to their business, including U.S. federal laws. Accordingly, the Fund does not currently (directly or indirectly) invest in Cannabis Companies located in the U.S. if their cannabis-related business activities are illegal under U.S. federal law, even if such activities are legal under state law. If U.S. federal law changes in the future and these cannabis-related business activities become legal at the federal level, the Fund will begin investing in these U.S.-listed Cannabis Companies in accordance with the Fund’s investment objective and principal investment strategy.

As of the date of this SAI, the securities of Cannabis Companies held by the Fund will be purchased on regulated, major stock exchanges, such as the New York Stock Exchange, NYSE American, Nasdaq Stock Market, TSX Exchange, and TSX Venture Exchange. Cannabis Companies do not include those companies whose securities trade on the Canadian Stock Exchange.

The Fund does not invest in any Cannabis Company that grows, produces, distributes, or sells cannabis or products derived from cannabis in a country, state, province, locality or other political subdivision where this activity is illegal under applicable law. Cannabis Companies do not include companies that grow, produce, distribute, or sell cannabis or products derived from cannabis inside the U.S. This is the case regardless of whether such a company is listed on a U.S. exchange or an exchange in a country where cannabis is legal. Cannabis Companies do not include companies that grow, produce, distribute, or sell cannabis or products derived from cannabis both in a country where its activities are entirely legal and in the U.S. where its activities are legal under state and local law but not under U.S. federal law. Further, the Fund itself does not and is not seeking to distribute cannabis in the U.S.

Cannabis Companies only supply products and/or perform activities that are legal under applicable national and local laws, including U.S. federal, state, and local laws. Cannabis Companies may, however, supply such products and perform such activities in the U.S. to companies that grow, produce, distribute, or sell cannabis or products derived from cannabis in a manner that is legal under state and local law but not under U.S. federal law. Cannabis Companies with a presence in the U.S. may engage in pharmaceutical activities and/or grow, produce, distribute, or sell hemp or products derived from hemp but only if such activities are properly licensed and legal under applicable U.S. federal, state, and local laws and otherwise in conformity with the Farm Bill of 2018. If, after acquiring a Cannabis Company’s securities, the Advisor identifies or becomes aware that the company no longer meets the Fund’s definition of Cannabis Companies, the Fund will promptly sell that position.

Cash Items

The Fund may invest a portion of its assets in cash or cash items pending other investments or to maintain liquid assets required in connection with some of the Fund’s investments. These cash items and other high quality debt securities may include money market instruments, such as securities issued by the U.S. Government and its agencies, bankers’ acceptances, commercial paper, bank certificates of deposit and investment companies that invest primarily in such instruments.

Credit Quality Standards

All Funds, Except Cambria Global Tail Risk ETF. When investing in fixed income securities and, if applicable, preferred or convertible stocks, the Fund maintains the following credit quality standards, which apply at the time of investment:

For securities that carry a rating assigned by a nationally recognized statistical rating organization (a “Rating Organization”), Cambria will use the highest rating assigned by the Rating Organization to determine a security’s credit rating. Commercial paper must be rated at least “A-1” or equivalent by a Rating Organization. Corporate debt obligations,

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mortgage-backed and other asset-backed securities and municipal securities must be rated at least “B-” or equivalent by a Rating Organization. For securities that are not rated by a Rating Organization, Cambria’s internal credit rating will apply and be subject to the equivalent rating minimums described here. The Funds may retain a debt security that has been downgraded below the initial investment criteria.

Cambria Global Tail Risk ETF. The Fund is not subject to minimum credit rating standards and may invest in securities of any rating and unrated securities.

Cryptocurrency Investments

Cryptocurrencies (also referred to as “virtual currencies” and “digital currencies”) are digital assets designed to act as a medium of exchange. Although cryptocurrency is an emerging asset class, there are thousands of cryptocurrencies, the most well-known of which is bitcoin. The Fund may seek investment exposure to bitcoin indirectly through investing up to 5% of its net assets in Grayscale Bitcoin Trust (“GBTC”), a privately offered investment vehicle that invests in bitcoin. GBTC is not registered as an investment company under the Investment Company Act or regulated as a commodity pool under the CEA. Consequently, shareholders of GBTC do not have the regulatory protections afforded to investors under either regulatory scheme. Except for its investment in GBTC, the Fund will not invest, directly or indirectly, in cryptocurrencies.

In addition to the general risks of investing in other investment vehicles, the value of the Fund’s indirect investments in cryptocurrency is subject to fluctuations in the value of the cryptocurrency, which can be highly volatile. The value of cryptocurrencies is determined by the supply and demand for cryptocurrency in the global market for the trading of cryptocurrency, which consists primarily of transactions on electronic exchanges. The price of bitcoin could drop precipitously (including to zero) for a variety of reasons including but not limited to regulatory changes, a crisis of confidence in the bitcoin network or a change in user preference to competing cryptocurrencies. The Fund’s exposure to cryptocurrency can result in substantial losses to the Fund.

Cryptocurrency facilitates decentralized, peer-to-peer financial exchange and value storage that is used like money, without the oversight of a central authority or banks. The value of cryptocurrency is not backed by any government, corporation, or other identified body. Federal, state and/or foreign governments may restrict the use and exchange of cryptocurrency, and regulation in the U.S. is still developing. Ongoing and future regulatory actions may alter, perhaps to a materially adverse extent, the nature of an investment in cryptocurrency. A determination that cryptocurrency or any other digital asset is a “security” may adversely affect the value of cryptocurrency. Similar to fiat currencies (i.e., a currency that is backed by a central bank or a national, supra-national or quasi-national organization), cryptocurrencies are susceptible to theft, loss and destruction. Accordingly, the bitcoin held by GBTC (and the Fund’s indirect exposure to such holdings) is also susceptible to these risks.

Cryptocurrencies trade on exchanges, which are largely unregulated and may therefore be more exposed to fraud and failure than established, regulated exchanges for securities, derivatives and other currencies. These exchanges can cease operating temporarily or even permanently, resulting in the potential loss of users’ cryptocurrency or other market disruptions. Cryptocurrency exchanges may be more exposed to the risk of market manipulation than exchanges for more traditional assets. Cryptocurrency exchanges that are regulated typically must comply with minimum net worth, cybersecurity, and anti-money laundering requirements, but are not typically required to protect customers or their markets to the same extent that regulated securities exchanges or futures exchanges are required to do so. Furthermore, many cryptocurrency exchanges lack certain safeguards established by more traditional exchanges to enhance the stability of trading on the exchange, such as measures designed to prevent sudden drops in value of items traded on the exchange (i.e., “flash crashes”). As a result, the prices of cryptocurrencies on exchanges may be subject to larger and more frequent sudden declines than assets traded on more traditional exchanges.

Shares of GBTC have historically traded, and may continue to trade, at a significant premium or discount to net asset value. If GBTC were to cease to trade at a premium to its NAV, the value of the Fund’s investment in GBTC could decrease, even if the value of GBTC’s underlying holdings in bitcoin does not decrease. In addition, the Fund’s investment in GBTC will be subject to the operating expenses associated with GBTC. If GBTC incurs expenses in U.S. dollars, GBTC would be required to sell bitcoins to pay these expenses. The sale of GBTC’s bitcoins to pay expenses in U.S. dollars at a time of low bitcoin prices could adversely affect the value of an investment in the Fund.

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Factors affecting the further development of cryptocurrency include, but are not limited to, continued worldwide growth or possible cessation or reversal in the adoption and use of cryptocurrency and other digital assets; government and quasi-government regulation or restrictions on or regulation of access to and operation of digital asset networks; changes in consumer demographics and public preferences; maintenance and development of open-source software protocol; availability and popularity of other forms or methods of buying and selling goods and services; the use of the networks supporting digital assets, such as those for developing smart contracts and distributed applications; general economic conditions and the regulatory environment relating to digital assets; negative consumer or public perception; and general risks tied to the use of information technologies, including cyber risks. A hack or failure of one cryptocurrency may lead to a loss in confidence in, and thus decreased usage or and or value of, other cryptocurrencies.

Currently, there is relatively limited use of cryptocurrency in the retail and commercial marketplace, which contributes to price volatility. A lack of expansion by cryptocurrencies into retail and commercial markets, or a contraction of such use, may result in increased volatility or a reduction in the value of cryptocurrencies, either of which could adversely impact the Fund’s investment. In addition, to the extent market participants develop a preference for one cryptocurrency over another, the value of the less preferred cryptocurrency would likely be adversely affected.

The Fund’s exposure to cryptocurrency may change over time and, accordingly, such exposure may not be represented in the Fund’s portfolio at any given time. Many significant aspects of the tax treatment of investments in cryptocurrency are uncertain, and an investment in bitcoin may produce income that if directly earned by a RIC would not be treated as qualifying income for purposes of the applicable qualifying income requirement necessary for the Fund to qualify as a RIC under Subchapter M of the Code. The Fund may invest directly in GBTC, which is expected to be treated as a grantor trust for U.S. federal income tax purposes, and therefore an investment by the Fund in GBTC will generally be treated as a direct investment by the Fund in bitcoin for such purposes. To the extent the Fund invests in GBTC, it intends to seek to restrict its income from such investments to a maximum of 10% of its gross income (when combined with its other investments that produce non-qualifying income) to comply with the qualifying income requirement necessary for the Fund to qualify as a RIC under Subchapter M of the Code. However, the Fund may generate more non-qualifying income than anticipated, may not be able to generate qualifying income in a particular taxable year at levels sufficient to meet the qualifying income requirement, or may not be able to accurately predict the non-qualifying income from these investments. Accordingly, the extent to which the Fund invests in GBTC directly may be limited by the qualifying income requirement, which the Fund must continue to satisfy to maintain its status as a RIC. Failure to comply with the qualifying income requirement would have significant negative tax consequences to Fund shareholders.

In 2014, the IRS released Notice 2014-21 (the “Notice”) discussing certain aspects of “convertible” virtual currency (that is, digital assets that have an equivalent value in fiat currency or that act as a substitute for fiat currency) for U.S. federal income tax purposes and, in particular, stating that such a digital asset (i) is “property,” (ii) is not “currency” for purposes of the rules relating to foreign currency gain or loss and (iii) may be held as a capital asset. In 2019, the IRS released a Revenue Ruling 2019-24 and a set of “Frequently Asked Questions” (the “Ruling & FAQs”) that provide some additional guidance. However, the Notice and the Ruling & FAQs do not address other significant aspects of the U.S. federal income tax treatment of digital assets. Other tax issues include the income and withholding taxation of incidental rights received through a fork in the blockchain, airdrops offered to bitcoin holders and other similar events, including situations where such rights are disclaimed, as is expected with respect to GBTC’s intended treatment of such events. There is limited guidance from the IRS with respect to the treatment of bitcoin for tax purposes. In any event, there can be no assurance that the IRS will not alter its positions or otherwise provide further guidance, potentially retroactive in effect, with respect to digital assets in the future or that a court would uphold the treatment set forth in the Notice and the Ruling & FAQs or in other guidance. For these reasons, the Fund’s investment in GBTC could result in unexpected and potentially retroactive recognition of taxable income, which could increase distributions to shareholders and subject to the Fund to excise tax and income tax liability and potential loss in value, with effects that would be directly or indirectly negative or contrary to the Fund’s tax position and investment strategy, and result in the Fund altering its investment strategy, potentially resulting in substantial investment losses for shareholders. It is also unclear what additional guidance on the treatment of digital assets for U.S. federal income tax purposes may be issued in the future. Any such alteration of the current IRS positions or additional guidance could have an adverse effect on the value of bitcoin.

Cryptocurrency is a new technological innovation with a limited history; it is a highly speculative asset and future regulatory actions or policies may limit, perhaps to a materially adverse extent, the value of the Fund’s indirect investment in cryptocurrency and the ability to exchange a cryptocurrency or utilize it for payments.

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Debt-Related Investments

Asset-Backed Securities

Asset-backed securities (“ABS”) are bonds backed by pools of loans or other receivables. ABS are created from many types of assets, including auto loans, credit card receivables, home equity loans, and student loans. ABS are issued through special purpose vehicles that are bankruptcy remote from the issuer of the collateral. The credit quality of an ABS transaction depends on the performance of the underlying assets. To protect ABS investors from the possibility that some borrowers could miss payments or even default on their loans, ABS include various forms of credit enhancement.

Some ABS, particularly home equity loan transactions, are subject to interest-rate risk and prepayment risk. A change in interest rates can affect the pace of payments on the underlying loans, which in turn affects total return on the securities. ABS also carry credit or default risk. If many borrowers on the underlying loans default, losses could exceed the credit enhancement level and result in losses to investors in an ABS transaction. Finally, ABS have structure risk due to a unique characteristic known as early amortization, or early payout, risk. Built into the structure of most ABS are triggers for early payout, designed to protect investors from losses. These triggers are unique to each transaction and can include: a big rise in defaults on the underlying loans, a sharp drop in the credit enhancement level, or even the bankruptcy of the originator. Once early amortization begins, all incoming loan payments are used to pay investors as quickly as possible.

Consistent with the Fund’s investment objectives and policies, Cambria also may invest in other types of ABS.

Corporate Debt Securities

The rate of interest on a corporate debt security may be fixed, floating or variable, and may vary inversely with respect to a reference rate. Except for the Cambria Emerging Shareholder Yield ETF and Cambria Value and Momentum ETF, debt securities may be acquired with warrants attached. The Fund may invest in commercial interests, including commercial paper, master notes and other short-term corporate instruments that are denominated in U.S. dollars. Commercial paper consists of short-term promissory notes issued by corporations. Commercial paper may be traded in the secondary market after its issuance. Master notes are demand notes that permit the investment of fluctuating amounts of money at varying rates of interest pursuant to arrangements with issuers who meet the quality criteria of the Fund. The interest rate on a master note may fluctuate based upon changes in specified interest rates, be reset periodically according to a prescribed formula or be a set rate. Although there is no secondary market in master demand notes, if such notes have a demand future, the payee may demand payment of the principal amount of the note upon relatively short notice. Master notes are generally illiquid and therefore subject to the Fund’s percentage limitations for investments in illiquid securities. See Appendix B to this SAI for a description of corporate bond credit ratings.

Debt and Other Fixed Income Securities Generally

Debt securities include securities issued or guaranteed by the U.S. Government, its agencies, instrumentalities, and political subdivisions, foreign governments, their authorities, agencies, instrumentalities, and political subdivisions, supra-national agencies, corporate debt securities, master-demand notes, Yankee dollar and Eurodollar bank certificates of deposit, time deposits, bankers’ acceptances, commercial paper and other notes, inflation-indexed securities, and other debt securities. Debt securities may be investment grade securities or high yield securities, which are described below. Investment grade securities include securities issued or guaranteed by the U.S. Government, its agencies and instrumentalities, as well as securities rated in one of the four highest rating categories by at least two Rating Organizations rating that security, such as Standard & Poor’s Ratings Services (“Standard & Poor’s”), Moody’s Investors Service, Inc. (“Moody’s”) or Fitch Ratings Ltd. (“Fitch”), or rated in one of the four highest rating categories by one Rating Organization if it is the only Rating Organization rating that security or unrated, if deemed to be of comparable quality by Cambria and traded publicly on the world market. The Fund, at the discretion of Cambria, may retain a debt security that has been downgraded below the initial investment criteria.

Debt and other fixed income securities include fixed and floating rate securities of any maturity. Fixed rate securities pay a specified rate of interest or dividends. Floating rate securities pay a rate that is adjusted periodically by reference to a specified index or market rate. Fixed and floating rate securities include securities issued by federal, state, local, and foreign governments and related agencies, and by a wide range of private issuers, and generally are referred to in this SAI as “fixed income securities.” Indexed bonds are a type of fixed income security whose principal value and/or interest rate is adjusted periodically according to a specified instrument, index, or other statistic (e.g., another security, inflation index, currency, or commodity).

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Holders of fixed income securities are exposed to both market and credit risk. Market risk (or “interest rate risk”) relates to changes in a security’s value as a result of changes in interest rates. In general, the values of fixed income securities increase when interest rates fall and decrease when interest rates rise. Given the historically low interest rate environment, risks associated with rising rates are heightened. Credit risk relates to the ability of an issuer to make payments of principal and interest. Obligations of issuers are subject to bankruptcy, insolvency and other laws that affect the rights and remedies of creditors.

Because interest rates vary, the future income of the Fund that invests in fixed income securities cannot be predicted with certainty. The future income of the Fund that invests in indexed securities also will be affected by changes in those securities’ indices over time (e.g., changes in inflation rates, currency rates, or commodity prices).

Exchange-Traded Notes

The Fund may invest in exchange-traded notes (“ETNs”). ETNs are debt obligations of investment banks which are traded on exchanges and the returns of which are linked to the performance of market indexes. The market price for an ETN may be higher or lower than, respectively, the ETN’s NAV. Investing in ETNs exposes the Fund to all the risks of that investment and, in general, subjects it to a pro rata portion of the ETN’s fees and expenses. In addition to trading ETNs on exchanges, investors typically may redeem ETNs directly with the issuer on a periodic basis, typically in a minimum amount of 50,000 units, or hold the ETNs until maturity. ETNs may be riskier than ordinary debt securities and may have no principal protection. The Fund’s investment in an ETN may be influenced by many unpredictable factors, including highly volatile commodities prices, changes in supply and demand relationships, weather, agriculture, trade, changes in interest rates, and monetary and other governmental policies, action and inaction. Investing in ETNs is not equivalent to investing directly in index components or the relevant index itself. Because ETNs are debt securities, they possess credit risk; if the issuer has financial difficulties or goes bankrupt, the investor may not receive the return it was promised.

High Yield Securities

Securities rated lower than Baa by Moody’s, or equivalently rated by S&P or Fitch, are sometimes referred to as “high yield securities” or “junk bonds.” Investing in these securities involves special risks in addition to the risks associated with investments in higher-rated fixed income securities. While offering a greater potential opportunity for capital appreciation and higher yields, high yield securities typically entail greater potential price volatility and may be less liquid than higher-rated securities. The Fund may have difficulty selling certain junk bonds because they may have a thin trading market. The lack of a liquid secondary market may have an adverse effect on the market price and the Fund’s ability to dispose of particular issues and may also make it more difficult for the Fund to obtain accurate market quotations in valuing these assets. High yield securities are inherently speculative with respect to the issuer’s continuing ability to meet principal and interest payments. They may also be more susceptible to real or perceived adverse economic and competitive industry conditions than higher-rated securities. Issuers of securities in default may fail to resume principal or interest payments, in which case the Fund may lose its entire investment.

Companies that issue high yield bonds are often highly leveraged and may not have more traditional methods of financing available to them. During an economic downturn or recession, highly leveraged issuers of high-yield securities may experience financial stress, and may not have sufficient revenues to meet their interest payment obligations. Economic downturns tend to disrupt the market for high yield bonds, lowering their values and increasing their price volatility. The risk of issuer default is higher with respect to high yield bonds because such issues may be subordinated to other creditors of the issuer.

The credit rating of a high yield bond does not necessarily address its market value risk, and, from time to time, ratings may change to reflect developments regarding the issuer’s financial condition. Generally, the lower the rating of a high yield bond, the more speculative its characteristics.

Mortgage-Related and Other Asset-Backed Securities

Mortgage-related securities include mortgage pass-through securities, collateralized mortgage obligations (“CMOs”), commercial mortgage-backed securities, mortgage dollar rolls, CMO residuals, stripped mortgage-backed securities (“SMBSs”) and other securities that directly or indirectly represent a participation in, or are secured by and payable from, mortgage loans on real property. The value of some mortgage- or asset-backed securities may be particularly sensitive to changes in prevailing interest rates. Early repayment of principal on some mortgage-related securities may expose the Fund to a lower rate of return upon reinvestment of principal. When interest rates rise, the value of a mortgage-related security generally will decline; however, when interest rates are declining, the value of mortgage-related securities with prepayment features may not increase as much as other fixed income securities. The rate of prepayments on underlying mortgages will

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affect the price and volatility of a mortgage-related security, and may shorten or extend the effective maturity of the security beyond what was anticipated at the time of purchase. If unanticipated rates of prepayment on underlying mortgages increase the effective maturity of a mortgage-related security, the volatility of the security can be expected to increase. The value of these securities may fluctuate in response to the market’s perception of the creditworthiness of the issuers. Additionally, although mortgages and mortgage-related securities are generally supported by some form of government or private guarantee and/or insurance, there is no assurance that private guarantors or insurers will meet their obligations.

One type of SMBS has one class receiving all of the interest from the mortgage assets (the interest-only, or “IO” class), while the other class will receive all of the principal (the principal only, or “PO” class). The yield to maturity on an IO class is extremely sensitive to the rate of principal payments (including prepayments) on the underlying mortgage assets, and a rapid rate of principal payments may have a material adverse effect on the Fund’s yield to maturity from these securities. The Fund may invest in other asset-backed securities that have been offered to investors.

Other mortgage-related securities include securities other than those described above that directly or indirectly represent a participation in, or are secured by and payable from, mortgage loans on real property, including mortgage dollar rolls, CMO residuals or SMBSs. Other mortgage-related securities may be equity or debt securities issued by agencies or instrumentalities of the U.S. Government or by private originators of, or investors in, mortgage loans, including savings and loan associations, homebuilders, mortgage banks, commercial banks, investment banks, partnerships, trusts and special purpose entities of the foregoing.

Municipal Securities

Municipal securities include debt obligations issued by governmental entities to obtain funds for various public purposes, such as the construction of a wide range of public facilities, the refunding of outstanding obligations, the payment of general operating expenses, and the extension of loans to other public institutions and facilities. Other types of municipal securities include short-term General Obligation Notes, Tax Anticipation Notes, Bond Anticipation Notes, Revenue Anticipation Notes, Project Notes, Tax-Exempt Commercial Paper, Construction Loan Notes and other forms of short-term tax-exempt loans. Such instruments are issued with a short-term maturity in anticipation of the receipt of tax funds, the proceeds of bond placements or other revenues. An issuer’s obligations under its municipal securities are subject to the provisions of bankruptcy, insolvency, and other laws affecting the rights and remedies of creditors, such as the federal bankruptcy code, and laws, if any, which may be enacted by Congress or state legislatures extending the time for payment of principal or interest, or both, or imposing other constraints upon the enforcement of such obligations or upon the ability of municipalities to levy taxes. The power or ability of an issuer to meet its obligations for the payment of interest on and principal of its municipal securities may be materially adversely affected by litigation or other conditions.

Municipal securities can be significantly affected by political changes as well as uncertainties in the municipal market related to taxation, legislative changes, or the rights of municipal security holders. Because many municipal securities are issued to finance similar projects, especially those relating to education, health care, transportation and utilities, conditions in those sectors can affect the overall municipal market. In addition, changes in the financial condition of an individual municipal insurer can affect the overall municipal market.

Municipal bonds, which generally have maturities of more than one year when issued, are designed to meet longer-term capital needs. Some longer-term municipal bonds allow an investor to “put” or sell the security at a specified time and price to the issuer or other “put provider.” If a put provider fails to honor its commitment to purchase the security, the Fund may have to treat the security’s final maturity as its effective maturity, potentially increasing the volatility of the Fund.

The Fund may invest in municipal lease obligations. Municipal leases frequently carry risks distinct from those associated with general obligation or revenue bonds. State constitutions and statutes set requirements that states and municipalities must meet to incur debt. These may include voter referenda, interest rate limits or public sale requirements. Many leases and contracts include no appropriation clauses, which provide that the governmental issuer has no obligation to make future payments under the lease or contract unless money is appropriated for such purposes by the appropriate legislative body on a yearly or other periodic basis. Municipal lease obligations also may be subject to abatement risk. For example, construction delays or destruction of a facility as a result of an uninsurable disaster that prevents occupancy could result in all or a portion of a lease payment not being made.

Investing in the municipal bond market is subject to certain risks. The amount of public information available about the municipal bonds held by the Fund is generally less than that for corporate equities or bonds, and the investment performance of the Fund may therefore be more dependent on the analytical abilities of Cambria. The secondary market for municipal bonds, particularly the lower-rated bonds, also tends to be less well developed or liquid than many other securities markets,

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which may adversely affect the Fund’s ability to sell its bonds at attractive prices. The ability of municipal issuers to make timely payments of interest and principal may be diminished during general economic downturns and as governmental cost burdens are reallocated among federal, state and local governments. In addition, laws enacted in the future by Congress or state legislatures or referenda could extend the time for payment of principal and/or interest, or impose other constraints on enforcement of such obligations, or on the ability of municipal issuers to levy taxes. Issuers of municipal securities might seek protection under the bankruptcy laws. In the event of bankruptcy of such an issuer, the Fund could experience delays in collecting principal and interest and the Fund may not, in all circumstances, be able to collect all principal and interest to which it is entitled. See Appendix B to this SAI for a description of municipal bond credit ratings.

U.S. Government Securities

U.S. government securities include securities issued or guaranteed by the U.S. government or its authorities, agencies, or instrumentalities. Different kinds of U.S. government securities have different kinds of government support. For example, some U.S. government securities (e.g., U.S. Treasury bonds and Treasury inflation protected securities (TIPS)) are supported by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Other U.S. government securities are issued or guaranteed by federal agencies or government-chartered or -sponsored enterprises but are neither guaranteed nor insured by the U.S. government (e.g., debt securities issued by the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (“Freddie Mac”), Federal National Mortgage Association (“FNMA” or “Fannie Mae”), and Federal Home Loan Banks (“FHLBs”).

It is possible that the availability and the marketability (that is, liquidity) of the securities discussed in this section could be adversely affected by actions of the U.S. government to tighten the availability of credit.

As with other fixed income securities, U.S. government securities expose their holders to market risk because their values typically change as interest rates fluctuate. For example, the value of U.S. government securities may fall during times of rising interest rates. Yields on U.S. government securities tend to be lower than those of corporate securities of comparable maturities.

In addition to investing directly in U.S. government securities, the Fund may purchase certificates of accrual or similar instruments evidencing undivided ownership interests in interest payments and/or principal payments of U.S. government securities. Certificates of accrual and similar instruments may be more volatile than other government securities.

Zero Coupon Securities

Zero coupon securities may be issued by a wide variety of corporate and governmental issuers. Zero coupon securities tend to be subject to greater market risk than interest-paying securities of similar maturities. When an investor purchases a traditional coupon-bearing bond, it is paid periodic interest at a predetermined rate. Zero coupon securities tend to be subject to greater price fluctuations in response to changes in interest rates than are ordinary interest-paying debt securities with similar maturities. The value of zero coupon securities appreciates more during periods of declining interest rates and depreciates more during periods of rising interest rates than ordinary interest-paying debt securities with similar maturities.

Derivatives

The Fund may use derivative instruments as part of its investment strategies. Generally, derivatives are financial contracts whose value depends upon, or is derived from, the value of an underlying asset, reference rate or index, and may relate to bonds, interest rates, currencies, commodities, and related indexes. Examples of derivative instruments include put options, call options, swap agreements, forward currency contracts, futures contracts, and options on futures contracts.

Regulatory developments may limit the availability of certain derivatives, may make the use of derivatives by the Fund more costly, and may otherwise adversely impact the performance and value of derivatives. Regulatory developments also may change the way in which the Fund itself is regulated. Such developments may affect the Fund’s ability to invest or the extent to which it may invest in certain derivatives and subject the Fund to additional regulatory requirements. Complying with new requirements may increase the cost of the Fund’s investments and the cost of implementing the Fund’s investment program and related operations, which could adversely affect the Fund’s performance.

CFTC Regulation

The 2010 enactment of the Dodd-Frank Act resulted in historic and comprehensive statutory reform of derivatives, including swaps, options, futures and forward contracts, and the manner in which they are designed, negotiated, reported, executed, settled (or “cleared”) and regulated. Title VII of the Dodd-Frank Act creates a framework for the regulation of OTC derivatives, such as swaps. In particular, it makes broad changes to the OTC derivatives market and grants significant new authority to the

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SEC and the CFTC to regulate OTC derivatives and market participants. The legislation and the related regulations developed by the CFTC, SEC, and other federal regulators that have been and may be promulgated in the future may negatively impact a Fund’s ability to meet its investment objective either through investment limits or requirements imposed on it or any of its counterparties. In particular, capital requirements and requirements related to the mandatory clearing of OTC derivatives transactions have impacted and may continue to impact the costs to a Fund of trading these instruments and, as a result, may affect returns to investors in a Fund.

Central Clearing. Forward currency contracts that are centrally cleared are subject to the creditworthiness of the clearing organizations involved in the transaction. For example, an investor could lose margin payments it has deposited with the clearing organization as well as the net amount of gains not yet paid by the clearing organization if it breaches its agreement with the investor or becomes insolvent or goes into bankruptcy. In the event of bankruptcy of the clearing organization, the investor may be entitled to the net amount of gains the investor is entitled to receive plus the return of margin owed to it only in proportion to the amount received by the clearing organization’s other customers, potentially resulting in losses to the investor.

To the extent a forward currency contract is not centrally cleared, the use of forward currency contracts also involves the risk that a loss may be sustained as a result of the insolvency or bankruptcy of the counterparty or the failure of the counterparty to make required payments or otherwise comply with the terms of the agreement. The creditworthiness of firms with which the Fund enters into forward currency contracts will be monitored by Cambria. If a counterparty’s creditworthiness declines, the value of the forward currency contract might decline, potentially resulting in losses to the Fund. Changing conditions in a particular market area may have an adverse impact on the creditworthiness of the counterparty. For example, the counterparty may have experienced losses as a result of its exposure to a sector of the market that adversely affect its creditworthiness. If a default occurs by the other party to such transaction, the Fund may have contractual remedies pursuant to the agreements related to the transaction, but exercising these remedies could take significant time and expense.

Commodity Pool Exclusion and Registration. In February 2012, the CFTC announced substantial amendments to the exclusion in its Regulation 4.5 for registered investment companies from registration as a commodity pool operator (“CPO”). Under these amendments, if the Fund uses commodity interests (such as CFTC-regulated futures, options on futures and swaps) other than for bona fide hedging purposes (as defined by the CFTC) and seeks to claim the Regulation 4.5 exclusion from registration, the aggregate initial margin and premiums required to establish these positions (after taking into account unrealized profits and unrealized losses on any such positions and excluding the amount by which options are “in-the-money” at the time of purchase) may not exceed 5% of the Fund’s NAV. Alternatively, the aggregate net notional value of these positions, determined at the time the most recent position was established, may not exceed 100% of the Fund’s NAV (after taking into account unrealized profits and unrealized losses on any such positions).

Cambria has claimed the Regulation 4.5 exclusion from registration as a CPO under the CEA, in its management of the Fund and intends to comply with one of the two alternative limitations described above. To the extent these limits are approached, Cambria may not be able to take advantage of investment opportunities for the Fund in order to comply with and maintain the exclusion.

Outer Limits. Transactions using derivative instruments, such as options or forward currency contracts, may expose the Fund to an obligation to another party. Under such circumstances, the Fund will comply with Rule 18f-4 under the Investment Company Act and, if applicable, the value-at-risk limitations thereunder to create an outer limit on the Fund’s leverage risk.

Turnover. The Fund’s forward currency contracts activities, if any, may affect its turnover rate. The sale or purchase of forward currency contracts may cause the Fund to sell or purchase related investments, thus increasing its turnover rate.

Futures Contracts and Related Options

The Fund may utilize futures contracts and options. Rule 18f-4 under the 1940 Act imposes requirements and restrictions on a fund’s use of certain derivatives that may oblige the fund to make payments or incur additional obligations in the future. Rule 18f-4 imposes limits on the amount of leverage risk to which a fund may be exposed through such derivatives. If a fund’s derivatives exposure is more than 10% of its net assets the fund must apply a Value at Risk (“VaR”) test to its use of certain derivatives and financing transactions, establish and maintain a derivatives risk management program, and appoint a derivatives risk manager to implement such program.

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The Fund may purchase or sell stock index futures contracts and options thereon, including as a substitute for a comparable market position in the underlying securities, to hedge the portfolio, or to satisfy regulatory requirements. A futures contract generally obligates the seller to deliver (and the purchaser to take delivery of) the specified commodity on the expiration date of the contract. A stock index futures contract obligates the seller to deliver (and the purchaser to take) an amount of cash equal to a specific dollar amount (the contract multiplier) multiplied by the difference between the final settlement price of a specific stock index futures contract and the price at which the agreement is made. No physical delivery of the underlying stocks in the index is made.

The Fund generally chooses to engage in closing or offsetting transactions before final settlement wherein a second identical futures contract is sold to offset a long position (or bought to offset a short position). In such cases the obligation is to deliver (or take delivery of) cash equal to a specific dollar amount (the contract multiplier) multiplied by the difference between the price of the offsetting transaction and the price at which the original contract was entered into. If the original position entered into is a long position (futures contract purchased) there will be a gain (loss) if the offsetting sell transaction is done at a higher (lower) price, inclusive of commissions. If the original position entered into is a short position (futures contract sold) there will be a gain (loss) if the offsetting buy transaction is done at a lower (higher) price, inclusive of commissions.

Whether the Fund realizes a gain or loss from futures activities depends generally upon movements in the underlying asset. The extent of the Fund’s loss from an unhedged short position in futures contracts is potentially unlimited. The Fund may engage in related closing transactions with respect to options on futures contracts. The Fund intends to engage in transactions in futures contracts that are traded on a U.S. exchange or board of trade or that have been approved for sale in the United States by the CFTC.

Upon entering into a futures contract, the Fund will be required to deposit with the broker an amount of cash or cash equivalents known as “initial margin,” which is in the nature of a performance bond or good faith deposit on the contract, and that is returned to the Fund upon termination of the futures contract, assuming all contractual obligations have been satisfied. Subsequent payments, known as “variation margin,” to and from the broker will be made daily as the price of the index underlying the futures contract fluctuates, making the long and short positions in the futures contract more or less valuable, a process known as “marking-to-market.” At any time prior to expiration of a futures contract, the Fund may elect to close its position by taking an opposite position, which will operate to terminate the Fund’s existing position in the contract.

The Fund may cover its long position in a futures contract by taking a short position in the instruments underlying the futures contract, or by taking positions in instruments the prices of which are expected to move relatively consistently inversely with the futures contract. The Fund may cover its short position in a futures contract by taking a long position in the instruments underlying the futures contract, or by taking positions in instruments, the prices of which are expected to move relatively consistently to the futures contract. The Fund may “cover” its short position in a futures contract by purchasing a call option on the same futures contract with a strike price (i.e., an exercise price) as low or lower than the price of the futures contract, or, if the strike price of the call is greater than the price of the futures contract, the Fund may earmark or segregate cash or liquid instruments equal in value to the difference between the strike price of the call and the price of the future. The Fund may cover its long or short positions in futures by earmarking or segregating with its custodian bank or on the books and records of the Fund (and mark-to-market on a daily basis) cash or liquid instruments that, when added to any amounts deposited with a futures commission merchant as margin, are equal to the market value of the futures contract or otherwise “cover” its position.

Although the Fund intends to sell futures contracts only if there is an active market for such contracts, no assurance can be given that a liquid market will exist for any particular contract at any particular time. Many futures exchanges and boards of trade limit the amount of fluctuation permitted in futures contract prices during a single trading day. Once the daily limit has been reached in a particular contract, no trades may be made that day at a price beyond that limit or trading may be suspended for specified periods during the day. Futures contract prices could move to the limit for several consecutive trading days with little or no trading, thereby preventing prompt liquidation of futures positions and potentially subjecting the Fund to substantial losses. If trading is not possible, or if the Fund determines not to close a futures position in anticipation of adverse price movements, the Fund will be required to make daily cash payments of variation margin. The risk that the Fund will be unable to close out a futures position will be minimized by entering into such transactions on a national securities exchange with an active and liquid secondary market.

Options Contracts

The Fund may purchase put and call options on specific securities (including groups or “baskets” of specific securities), interest rates, and indices. In addition, the Fund may write put and call options on such financial instruments.

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Options on Securities. The Fund may purchase put and call options on securities. A put option on a security gives the purchaser of the option the right (but not the obligation) to sell, and the writer of the option the obligation to buy, the underlying security at a stated price (the “exercise price”) at any time before the option expires. A call option on a security gives the purchaser the right (but not the obligation) to buy, and the writer the obligation to sell, the underlying security at the exercise price at any time before the option expires. The purchase price for a put or call option is the “premium” paid by the purchaser for the right to sell or buy.

The Fund may purchase put options to hedge against a decline in the value of its portfolio. By using put options in this way, the Fund would reduce any profit it might otherwise have realized in the underlying security by the amount of the premium paid for the put option and by transaction costs. In similar fashion, the Fund may purchase call options to protect against an increase in the price of securities that the Fund anticipates purchasing in the future, a practice sometimes referred to as “anticipatory hedging.” The premium paid for the call option plus any transaction costs will reduce the benefit, if any, realized by the Fund upon exercise of the option, and, unless the price of the underlying security rises sufficiently, the option may expire unexercised.

Options on Interest Rates and Indices. The Fund may purchase put and call options on interest rates and bond indices. An option on interest rates or on an index gives the holder the right to receive, upon exercise of the option, an amount of cash if the closing value of the underlying interest rate or index is greater than, in the case of a call, or less than, in the case of a put, the exercise price of the option. This amount of cash is equal to the difference between the exercise-settlement value of the interest rate option or the closing price of the index and the exercise price of the option expressed in dollars times a specified multiple (the “multiplier”). The writer of the option is obligated, for the premium received, to make delivery of this amount. Settlements for interest rate and index options are always in cash.

Swap Agreements

The Fund may enter into swap agreements, including interest rate swaps, credit default swaps, currency swaps, commodity index swaps, inflation-linked swaps and total return swaps. A typical interest rate swap involves the exchange of a floating interest rate payment for a fixed interest payment. A typical credit default swap (“CDS”) involves an agreement to make a series of payments by the buyer in exchange for receipt of payment by the seller if the loan defaults. In the event of default the buyer of the CDS receives compensation (usually the face value of the loan), and the seller of the CDS takes possession of the defaulted loan. In the event that the Fund acts as a protection seller of a CDS, the Fund will segregate assets equivalent to the full notional value of the CDS. In the event that the Fund acts as a protection buyer of a CDS, the Fund will cover the total amount of required premium payments plus the pre-payment penalty. A typical foreign currency swap involves the exchange of cash flows based on the notional difference among two or more currencies (e.g., the U.S. dollar and the euro). Commodity index swaps and total return swaps involve the exchange of payments based on the value of an index or total return on an underlying reference asset. The total return includes appreciation or depreciation on the reference asset, plus any interest or dividend payments. Inflation-linked swaps are typically an agreement between two parties to exchange payments at a future date based on the difference between a fixed payment and a payment linked to the inflation rate at future date. Swaps agreements can be structured to provide for periodic payments over the term of the swap contract or a single payment at maturity (also known as a “bullet swap”). Swap agreements may be used to hedge or achieve exposure to, for example, commodities, currencies, and interest rates without actually purchasing such commodities, currencies or securities. The Fund may use swap agreements to invest in a market without owning or taking physical custody of the underlying securities in circumstances in which direct investment is restricted for legal reasons or is otherwise impracticable. Swap agreements will tend to shift the Fund’s investment exposure from one type of investment to another or from one payment stream to another.

Depending on their structure, swap agreements may increase or decrease the Fund’s exposure to long- or short-term interest rates (in the United States or abroad), commodities, and foreign currencies, and may increase or decrease the overall volatility of the Fund’s investments and its share price.

Dollar Rolls, Delayed Delivery Transactions and When Issued or Forward Commitment Securities

The purchase or sale of when-issued securities enables an investor to hedge against anticipated changes in interest rates and prices by locking in an attractive price or yield. The price of delayed delivery transactions, including when-issued securities, is fixed at the time the commitment to purchase or sell is made, but delivery and payment for the securities takes place at a later date, normally one to two months after the date of purchase. During the period between purchase and settlement, no payment is made by the purchaser to the issuer and no interest accrues to the purchaser. Such transactions therefore involve a risk of loss if the value of the security to be purchased declines prior to the settlement date or if the value of the security to be sold increases

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prior to the settlement date. A sale of a when-issued security also involves the risk that the other party will be unable to settle the transaction. Dollar rolls are a type of forward commitment transaction. Purchases and sales of securities on a forward commitment basis involve a commitment to purchase or sell securities with payment and delivery to take place at some future date, normally one to two months after the date of the transaction. As with when-issued securities, these transactions involve certain risks, but they also enable an investor to hedge against anticipated changes in interest rates and prices. Forward commitment transactions are executed for existing obligations, whereas in a when-issued transaction, the obligations have not yet been issued. When purchasing securities on a when-issued or forward commitment basis, a segregated account of liquid assets at least equal to the value of purchase commitments for such securities will be maintained until the settlement date. Such transactions, however, would be deemed not to involve a senior security (i.e., will not be considered derivatives transactions or subject to asset segregation requirements), provided that (i) the Fund intends to physically settle the transaction and (ii) the transaction will settle within 35 days of its trade date. If such a transaction were considered to be a derivatives transaction, it would be subject to the requirements of Rule 18f-4 under the 1940 Act.

Equity-Related Investments

Common Stocks

Common stock represents an ownership interest in a company and usually possesses voting rights and earns dividends. Dividends on common stock are not fixed but are declared at the discretion of the issuer. Common stock generally represents the riskiest investment in a company. In addition, common stock generally has the greatest appreciation and depreciation potential because increases and decreases in earnings are usually reflected in a company’s common stock price.

The fundamental risk of investing in common stock is the risk that the value of the stock might decrease. Stock values fluctuate in response to the activities of an individual company or in response to general market and/or economic conditions. Historically, common stocks have provided greater long-term returns and have entailed greater short-term risks than preferred stocks, fixed-income securities and money market investments. This may not be true currently or in the future. The market value of all securities, including common stocks, is based upon the market’s perception of value and not necessarily the book value of an issuer or other objective measure of a company’s worth. If you invest in the Fund, you should be willing to accept the risks of the stock market and should consider an investment in the Fund only as a part of your overall investment portfolio.

Convertible Securities

Convertible securities include fixed-income securities, preferred stock or other securities that may be converted into or exchanged for a given amount of common stock of the same or a different issuer during a specified period and at a specified price in the future. A convertible security entitles the holder to receive interest on debt or the dividend on preferred stock until the convertible security matures or is redeemed, converted or exchanged.

Convertible securities have unique investment characteristics in that they generally: (1) have higher yields than the underlying common stock, but lower yields than comparable non-convertible securities; (2) are less subject to fluctuation in value than the underlying common stock since they have fixed-income characteristics; and (3) provide the potential for capital appreciation if the market price of the underlying common stock increases.

A convertible security may be subject to redemption at the option of the issuer at a price established in the convertible security’s governing instrument. If a convertible security is called for redemption, the Fund will be required to permit the issuer to redeem the security, convert it into the underlying common stock or sell it to a third party.

Convertible securities are typically issued by smaller capitalization companies whose stock price may be volatile. Therefore, the price of a convertible security may reflect variations in the price of the underlying common stock in a way that non-convertible debt does not. The extent to which such risk is reduced, however, depends in large measure upon the degree to which the convertible security sells above its value as a fixed-income security.

Master Limited Partnerships

The Fund may invest in master limited partnerships (“MLPs”) which are publicly traded partnerships primarily engaged in the transportation, storage, processing, refining, marketing, exploration, production, and mining of minerals and natural resources. Their interests, or units, trade on public securities exchanges exactly like the shares of a corporation, without entity level taxation. MLPs generally have two classes of owners, one or more general partners and the limited partners (i.e., investors). The general partner typically controls the operations and management of the MLP through an equity interest in the MLP plus, in many cases, ownership of common units and subordinated units. Limited partners typically own the

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remainder of the partnership, through ownership of common units, and have a limited role in the partnership’s operations and management. In certain instances, creditors of an MLP would have the right to seek a return of capital that had been distributed to a limited partner. The right of an MLP’s creditors would continue even after the Fund had sold its investment in the partnership. MLPs typically invest in real estate, oil and gas equipment leasing assets, but they also finance entertainment, research and development, and other projects.

MLP common units, like other equity securities, can be affected by macroeconomic and other factors affecting the stock market in general, expectations of interest rates, investor sentiment towards an issuer or certain market sector, changes in a particular issuer’s financial condition, or unfavorable or unanticipated poor performance of a particular issuer (in the case of MLPs, generally measured in terms of distributable cash flow). Prices of common units of individual MLPs, like the prices of other equity securities, also can be affected by fundamentals unique to the partnership or company, including earnings power and coverage ratios.

Investments in Other Investment Companies or Other Pooled Investments

The Fund may invest in the securities of other investment companies to the extent permitted by law. Subject to applicable regulatory requirements, the Fund may invest in shares of both open- and closed-end investment companies (including money market funds and ETFs). The market price for ETF and closed-end fund shares may be higher or lower than, respectively, the ETF’s and closed-end fund’s NAV. Investing in another investment company exposes the Fund to all the risks of that investment company and, in general, subjects it to a pro rata portion of the other investment company’s fees and expenses. As a result, an investment by the Fund in an ETF or investment company could cause the Fund’s operating expenses to be higher and, in turn, performance to be lower than if the Fund were to invest directly in the securities underlying the ETF or investment company. The Fund also may invest in private investment funds, vehicles, or structures.

Preferred Stocks

The Fund may invest in preferred stocks. Preferred stocks include convertible and non-convertible preferred and preference stocks that are senior to common stock. Preferred stocks are equity securities that are senior to common stock with respect to the right to receive dividends and a fixed share of the proceeds resulting from the issuer’s liquidation. Some preferred stocks also entitle their holders to receive additional liquidation proceeds on the same basis as holders of the issuer’s common stock, and thus represent an ownership interest in the issuer. Depending on the features of the particular security, holders of preferred stock may bear the risks disclosed in the Prospectus or this SAI regarding equity or fixed income securities.

Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs)

A REIT is a company that pools investor funds to invest primarily in income producing real estate or real estate related loans or interests. REITs are not taxed on income distributed to their shareholders if, among other things, they distribute substantially all of their taxable income (other than net capital gains) for each taxable year.

Because REITs have ongoing fees and expenses, which may include management, operating and administration expenses, REIT shareholders, including the Fund, will indirectly bear a proportionate share of those expenses in addition to the expenses of the Fund. However, such expenses are not considered to be Acquired Fund Fees and Expenses and, therefore, are not reflected as such in the Fund’s fee table.

The Fund also may be subject to certain risks associated with the direct investments of the REITs. REITs may be affected by changes in their underlying properties and by defaults by borrowers or tenants. Mortgage REITs may be affected by the quality of the credit extended. Furthermore, REITs are dependent on specialized management skills. Some REITs may have limited diversification and may be subject to risks inherent in financing a limited number of properties. REITs depend generally on their ability to generate cash flow to make distributions to shareholders or unitholders, and may be subject to defaults by borrowers and to self-liquidations. In addition, the performance of a REIT may be affected by its failure to qualify for tax-free pass-through of income under the Code, including regulations thereunder and IRS interpretations, or similar authority upon which the Fund may rely or its failure to maintain exemption from registration under the Investment Company Act.

Rights and Warrants

A right is a privilege granted to existing shareholders of a corporation to subscribe to shares of a new issue of common stock before it is issued. Rights normally have a short life of usually two to four weeks, are freely transferable and entitle the holder to buy the new common stock at a lower price than the public offering price. Warrants are securities that are usually issued together with a debt security or preferred stock and that give the holder the right to buy proportionate amount of common stock at a specified price. Warrants are freely transferable and are traded on major exchanges. Unlike rights, warrants normally

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have a life that is measured in years and entitles the holder to buy common stock of a company at a price that is usually higher than the market price at the time the warrant is issued. Corporations often issue warrants to make the accompanying debt security more attractive. An investment in warrants and rights may entail greater risks than certain other types of investments. Generally, rights and warrants do not carry the right to receive dividends or exercise voting rights with respect to the underlying securities, and they do not represent any rights in the assets of the issuer. In addition, their value does not necessarily change with the value of the underlying securities, and they cease to have value if they are not exercised on or before their expiration date. Investing in rights and warrants increases the potential profit or loss to be realized from the investment as compared with investing the same amount in the underlying securities.

Foreign Investments Generally

Foreign Market Risk. Foreign security investment or exposure involves special risks not present in U.S. investments that can increase the chances that the Fund will lose money. These risks are higher for emerging markets investments, which can be subject to greater social, economic, regulatory and political uncertainties, and may have significantly less liquidity, than developed markets. In particular, the Fund is subject to the risk that because there are generally fewer investors on foreign exchanges and a smaller number of shares traded each day, it may be difficult for the Fund to buy and sell securities, or increase or decrease exposures, on those exchanges. In addition, prices of foreign securities may fluctuate more than prices of securities traded in the U.S.

Foreign Economy Risk. The economies of certain foreign markets often do not compare favorably with that of the U.S. with respect to such issues as growth of gross domestic product, reinvestment of capital, resources, and balance of payments positions. Certain foreign economies may rely heavily on particular industries or foreign capital and are more vulnerable to diplomatic developments, the imposition of economic sanctions against a particular country or countries, changes in international trading patterns, trade barriers, and other protectionist or retaliatory measures. Investments in foreign markets may also be adversely affected by governmental actions such as the imposition of capital controls, nationalization of companies or industries, expropriation of assets, or the imposition of punitive taxes. In addition, the governments of certain countries may prohibit or impose substantial restrictions on foreign investing in their capital markets or in certain industries. Any of these actions could severely affect security prices, impair the Fund’s ability to purchase or sell foreign securities, or obtain exposure to them, or transfer the Fund’s assets back into the U.S., or otherwise adversely affect the Fund’s operations. Other foreign market risks include foreign exchange controls, difficulties in pricing securities, defaults on foreign government securities, difficulties in enforcing favorable legal judgments in foreign courts, and political and social instability. Legal remedies available to investors in certain foreign countries may be less extensive than those available to investors in the U.S. or other foreign countries. Foreign corporate governance may not be as robust as in the U.S. As a result, protections for minority investors may not be strong, which could affect security prices.

Currency Risk and Exchange Risk. Securities in which the Fund invests, or to which they obtain exposure, may be denominated or quoted in currencies other than the U.S. dollar. Changes in foreign currency exchange rates will affect the value of these securities. Generally, when the U.S. dollar rises in value against a foreign currency, an investment in a security denominated in that currency loses value because the currency is worth fewer U.S. dollars. Similarly, when the U.S. dollar decreases in value against a foreign currency, an investment in, or exposure to, a security denominated in that currency gains value because the currency is worth more U.S. dollars. This risk is generally known as “currency risk,” which is the possibility that a stronger U.S. dollar will reduce returns for U.S. investors investing overseas. Foreign currencies also involve the risk that they will be devalued or replaced, adversely affecting the Fund’s investments.

Governmental Supervision and Regulation/Accounting Standards. Many foreign governments supervise and regulate stock exchanges, brokers and the sale of securities to a lesser extent than the U.S. government. Some countries may not have laws to protect investors the way that the U.S. securities laws do. Accounting standards in other countries are not necessarily the same as in the U.S. If the accounting standards in another country do not require as much disclosure or detail as U.S. accounting standards, it may be harder to completely and accurately determine a company’s financial condition.

Certain Risks of Holding Fund Assets Outside the U.S. Foreign securities in which the Fund invests, or to which it obtains exposure, are generally held outside the U.S. in foreign banks and securities depositories. The Fund’s custodian is the Fund’s “foreign custody manager” as provided in Rule 17f-5 under the Investment Company Act. The “foreign custody manager” is responsible for determining that the Fund’s directly-held foreign assets will be subject to reasonable care, based on standards applicable to custodians in relevant foreign markets. However, certain foreign banks and securities depositories may be recently organized or new to the foreign custody business. They may also have operations subject to limited or no regulatory oversight. Also, the laws of certain countries may put limits on the Fund’s ability to recover its assets if a foreign bank or depository or

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issuer of a security or an agent of any of the foregoing goes bankrupt. In addition, it likely will be more expensive for the Fund to buy, sell and hold securities, or increase or decrease exposures thereto, in certain foreign markets than it is in the U.S. market due to higher brokerage, transaction, custody and/or other costs. The increased expense of investing in foreign markets reduces the amount the Fund can earn on its investments.

Settlement and clearance procedures in certain foreign markets differ significantly from those in the U.S. Foreign settlement and clearance procedures and trade regulations also may involve certain risks (such as delays in payment for or delivery of securities) not typically involved with the settlement of U.S. investments. Communications between the U.S. and emerging market countries may be unreliable, increasing the risk of delayed settlements or losses of security certificates. Settlements in certain foreign countries at times have not kept pace with the number of securities transactions. The problems may make it difficult for the Fund to carry out transactions. If the Fund cannot settle or is delayed in settling a purchase of securities, the Fund may miss attractive investment opportunities and certain of its assets may be uninvested with no return earned thereon for some period. If the Fund cannot settle or is delayed in settling a sale of securities, directly or indirectly, it may lose money if the value of the security then declines or, if it has contracted to sell the security to another party, the Fund could be liable to that party for any losses incurred.

Dividends and interest on, and proceeds from the sale of, foreign securities the Fund holds, or has exposure to, may be subject to foreign withholding or other taxes, and special federal tax considerations may apply.

Cambria Global Tail Risk ETF. Although the Fund is designed to manage the risks associated with a significant negative movement in the value of global ex-U.S. equities over rolling one-month periods, and thus stands to benefit from a substantial downturn in the global ex-U.S. equity market, the Fund also invests in ex-U.S. fixed income securities and is subject generally to risks associated with foreign investments. Accordingly, the following risks may negatively impact the Fund’s ex-U.S. fixed income securities although the Fund’s put option strategy is designed to counter a downturn in the global ex-U.S. equity market.

Asia-Pacific Risk

Investments in securities of issuers in Asia-Pacific countries involve risks not typically associated with investments in securities of issuers in other regions. Such heightened risks include, among others, expropriation and/or nationalization of assets, confiscatory taxation, political instability, including authoritarian and/or military involvement in governmental decision-making, armed conflict and social instability as a result of religious, ethnic and/or socio-economic unrest. Certain Asia-Pacific economies have experienced rapid rates of economic growth and industrialization in recent years, and there is no assurance that these rates of economic growth and industrialization will be maintained.

Certain Asia-Pacific countries have democracies with relatively short histories, which may increase the risk of political instability. These countries have faced political and military unrest, and further unrest could present a risk to their local economies and securities markets. Indonesia and the Philippines have each experienced violence and terrorism, which has negatively impacted their economies. North Korea and South Korea each have substantial military capabilities, and historical tensions between the two countries present the risk of war; in the recent past, these tensions have escalated. Any outbreak of hostilities between the two countries could have a severe adverse effect on the South Korean economy and securities market. Increased political and social unrest in these geographic areas could adversely affect the performance of investments in this region.

Certain governments in this region administer prices on several basic goods, including fuel and electricity, within their respective countries. Certain governments may exercise substantial influence over many aspects of the private sector in their respective countries and may own or control many companies. Future government actions could have a significant effect on the economic conditions in this region, which in turn could have a negative impact on private sector companies. There is also the possibility of diplomatic developments adversely affecting investments in the region.

Corruption and the perceived lack of a rule of law in dealings with international companies in certain Asian countries may discourage foreign investment and could negatively impact the long-term growth of certain economies in this region. In addition, certain countries in the region are experiencing high unemployment and corruption, and those countries have fragile banking sectors. Their securities markets are not as developed as those of other countries and, therefore, are subject to additional risks such as trading halts.

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Some economies in this region are dependent on a range of commodities, including oil, natural gas and coal. Accordingly, they are strongly affected by international commodity prices and particularly vulnerable to any weakening in global demand for these products. The market for securities in this region may also be directly influenced by the flow of international capital, and by the economic and market conditions of neighboring countries. Adverse economic conditions or developments in neighboring countries may increase investors’ perception of the risk of investing in the region as a whole, which may adversely impact the market value of the securities issued by companies in the region.

Investments in China and Hong Kong. Investing in Chinese securities listed and traded in Hong Kong involves special considerations not typically associated with investing in countries with more democratic governments or more established economies or securities markets. Such risks may include: (i) the risk of nationalization or expropriation of assets or confiscatory taxation; (ii) greater social, economic and political uncertainty (including the risk of war); (iii) dependency on exports and the corresponding importance of international trade; (iv) increasing competition from Asia’s other low-cost emerging economies; (v) currency exchange rate fluctuations and the lack of available currency hedging instruments; (vi) higher rates of inflation; (vii) controls on foreign investment and limitations on repatriation of invested capital and on the Fund’s ability to exchange local currencies for U.S. dollars; (viii) greater governmental involvement in and control over the economy; (ix) the risk that the Chinese government may decide not to continue to support the economic reform programs implemented since 1978 and could return to the prior, completely centrally planned, economy; (x) the fact that Chinese companies, particularly those located in China, may be smaller, less seasoned and newly organized; (xi) the differences in, or lack of, auditing and financial reporting standards which may result in unavailability of material information about issuers, particularly in China where, for example, the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board )=(“PCAOB”) lacks access to inspect PCAOB registered accounting firms; (xii) the fact that statistical information regarding the economy of China may be inaccurate or not comparable to statistical information regarding the U.S. or other economies; (xiii) the less extensive, and still developing, regulation of the securities markets, business entities and commercial transactions; (xiv) the fact that the settlement period of securities transactions in foreign markets may be longer; (xv) the fact that the willingness and ability of the Chinese government to support the Chinese and Hong Kong economies and markets is uncertain; (xvi) the risk that it may be more difficult, or impossible, to obtain and/or enforce a judgment than in other countries; (xvii) the rapid and erratic nature of growth, particularly in China, resulting in inefficiencies and dislocations; (xviii) the risk that, because of the degree of interconnectivity between the economies and financial markets of China and Hong Kong, any sizable reduction in the demand for goods from China, or an economic downturn in China, could negatively affect the economy and financial market of Hong Kong as well; and (xix) the risk that certain companies in a Fund’s portfolio may have dealings with countries subject to sanctions or embargoes imposed by the U.S. Government or identified as state sponsors of terrorism.

After many years of steady growth, the growth rate of China’s economy has recently slowed. Although this slowdown was to some degree intentional, the slowdown has also slowed the once rapidly growing Chinese real estate market and left local governments with high debts with few viable means to raise revenue, especially with the fall in demand for housing. Despite its attempts to restructure its economy towards consumption, China remains heavily dependent on exports. Accordingly, China is susceptible to economic downturns abroad, including any weakness in demand from its major trading partners, including the United States, Japan, and Europe. In addition, China’s aging infrastructure, worsening environmental conditions, rapid and inequitable urbanization, quickly widening urban and rural income gap, domestic unrest and provincial separatism all present major challenges to the country. Further, China’s territorial claims, including its land reclamation projects and the establishment of an Air Defense Identification Zone over islands claimed and occupied by Japan, are another source of tension and present risks to diplomatic and trade relations with certain of China’s regional trade partners.

Investments in Hong Kong are also subject to certain political risks not associated with other investments. Following the establishment of the People’s Republic of China by the Communist Party in 1949, the Chinese government renounced various debt obligations incurred by China’s predecessor governments, which obligations remain in default, and expropriated assets without compensation. There can be no assurance that the Chinese government will not take similar action in the future. Investments in China and Hong Kong involve risk of a total loss due to government action or inaction. China has committed by treaty to preserve Hong Kong’s autonomy and its economic, political and social freedoms for 50 years from the July 1, 1997 transfer of sovereignty from the United Kingdom to China. However, if China would exert its authority so as to alter the economic, political or legal structures or the existing social policy of Hong Kong, investor and business confidence in Hong Kong could be negatively affected, which in turn could negatively affect markets and business performance. In addition, the Hong Kong dollar trades at a fixed exchange rate in relation to (or, is “pegged” to) the U.S. dollar, which has contributed to the growth and stability of the Hong Kong economy. However, it is uncertain how long the currency peg will continue or what effect the

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establishment of an alternative exchange rate system would have on the Hong Kong economy. Because each Fund’s NAV is denominated in U.S. dollars, the establishment of an alternative exchange rate system could result in a decline in a Fund’s NAV. These and other factors could have a negative impact on a Fund’s performance.

Investments in Japan. Although Japan continues to recover from a prolonged economic downturn dating back to 2000, Japan’s economic growth rate has remained relatively low and it may remain low in the future and/or continue to lag the growth rates of other developed nations and its Asian neighbors. Economic growth in Japan is heavily dependent on international trade, government support of the financial services sector and other troubled sectors, and consistent government policy supporting its export market. In the past, Japanese exports have been adversely affected by trade tariffs and other protectionist measures as well as increased competition from developing nations. Japan has few natural resources and is heavily dependent on oil imports. Higher commodity prices could therefore have a negative impact on the Japanese economy. Slowdowns in the economies of key trading partners such as the United States, China and/or countries in Southeast Asia, including economic, political or social instability in such countries, could also have a negative impact on the Japanese economy as a whole. Despite the emergence of China as an important trading partner of Japan, strained relationships between Japan and its neighboring countries, including China, Russia, South Korea and North Korea, based on historical grievances, territorial disputes, and defense concerns, may also inject uncertainty into Japanese markets. Increased political tension between countries in the region could adversely affect the Japanese economy and, in the event of a crisis, destabilize the region. The Japanese economy is also vulnerable to concerns of economic slowdown from within the Japanese financial system, including high levels of nonperforming loans, over-leveraged corporate balance sheets, extensive cross-ownership by major corporations, a changing corporate governance structure, and large government deficits. Japanese currency fluctuations may also adversely impact the Japanese economy and its export market. In the past, the Japanese government has intervened in its currency market to maintain or reduce the value of the yen. Any such intervention in the currency markets could cause the value of the yen to fluctuate sharply and unpredictably and could cause losses to investors. In addition, Japan’s labor market is adapting to an aging workforce, declining population, and demand for increased labor mobility. These demographic shifts and fundamental structural changes to the labor market may negatively impact Japan’s economic competitiveness.

In March 2011, a massive earthquake and tsunami struck northeastern Japan causing major damage to the country’s domestic energy supply, including damage to nuclear power plants. In the wake of this natural disaster, Japan’s financial markets fluctuated dramatically and the resulting economic distress affected Japan’s recovery from its recession. The government injected capital into the economy and proposed plans for massive spending on reconstruction efforts in disaster-affected areas in order to stimulate economic growth. The full extent of the disaster’s impact on Japan’s economy and foreign investment in Japan is difficult to estimate. The risks of natural disasters of varying degrees, such as earthquakes and tsunamis, and the resulting damage, continue to exist. These and other factors could have a negative impact on a Fund’s performance.

Investments in Korea. The economy of Korea is heavily dependent on exports and the demand for certain finished goods. Korea’s main industries include electronics, automobile production, chemicals, shipbuilding, steel, textiles, clothing, footwear, and food processing. Conditions that weaken demand for such products worldwide or in other Asian countries could have a negative impact on the Korean economy as a whole. The Korean economy’s reliance on international trade makes it highly sensitive to fluctuations in international commodity prices, currency exchange rates and government regulation, and vulnerable to downturns of the world economy, particularly with respect to its four largest export markets (the EU, Japan, United States, and China). Korea has experienced modest economic growth in recent years, but such continued growth may slow due, in part, to the economic slowdown in China and the increased competitive advantage of Japanese exports with the weakened yen. Relations with North Korea could also have a significant impact on the economy of Korea. Relations between South Korea and North Korea remain tense, as exemplified in periodic acts of hostility, and the possibility of serious military engagement still exists. These and other factors could have a negative impact on a Fund’s performance.

Investments in Malaysia. Investments in Malaysian issuers involve risks that are specific to Malaysia, including, legal, regulatory, political, currency and economic risks. The Malaysian economy, among other things is dependent upon external trade with other economies, including the U.S., China, Japan and Singapore. As a result, Malaysia is dependent on the economies of these other countries and any change in the price or demand for Malaysian exports may have an adverse impact on the Malaysian economy. In addition, the Malaysian economy is heavily focused on export of electronic goods. As a result, Malaysia’s reliance on the electronics sector makes it vulnerable to economic downturns in, among other sectors, the technology sector.

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Investments in Taiwan. The economy of Taiwan is heavily dependent on exports. Currency fluctuations, increasing competition from Asia’s other emerging economies, and conditions that weaken demand for Taiwan’s export products worldwide could have a negative impact on the Taiwanese economy as a whole. Concerns over Taiwan’s history of political contention and its current relationship with China may also have a significant impact on the economy of Taiwan. These and other factors could have a negative impact on a Fund’s performance.

Investments in Singapore. The economy of Singapore is heavily dependent on international trade and exports. Conditions that weaken demand for its products in the Asian region or worldwide could have a significant, negative impact on Singapore’s economy as a whole. Singapore’s economy may also be particularly vulnerable to external market changes due to the country’s small size. These and other factors could have a negative impact on the Fund’s performance.

Australia Risk. Australia’s economy depends heavily on agricultural and mining sector exports as well as the economies of its key trading partners, including China, the United States, and Japan. Conditions that weaken the price and demand for its exports and/or natural resources and commodities, in general, could have a significant, negative impact on the Australian economy as a whole.

Canada Risk

The U.S. is Canada’s largest trading partner and foreign investor. As a result, changes to the U.S. economy may significantly affect the Canadian economy. The economy of Canada is also heavily dependent on the demand for natural resources and agricultural products. Canada is a major producer of commodities such as forest products, metals, agricultural products, and energy related products like oil, gas, and hydroelectricity. Accordingly, a change in the supply and demand of these resources, both domestically and internationally, can have a significant effect on Canadian market performance. Canada is a top producer of zinc and uranium and a global source of many other natural resources, such as gold, nickel, aluminum, and lead. Conditions that weaken demand for such products worldwide could have a negative impact on the Canadian economy as a whole. These and other factors could have a negative impact on a Fund’s performance.

Colombia Risk

Investments in Colombian issuers and companies that have significant operations in Colombia subject the Fund to legal, regulatory, political, currency and economic risks specific to Colombia. Economic reforms, including tax, pension and budget reforms, and the aggressive promotion of free trade agreements with a number of countries, including the U.S., Canada, Chile, Mexico, Switzerland, the EU countries, Venezuela, South Korea, Turkey, Japan and Israel, have led to recent economic growth in the Colombian economy. There can be no assurance that these economic reforms will continue or that they will be effective. There can also be no assurance that the economic growth rate will be maintained. The Colombian economy depends heavily on oil, coal and other commodity exports, making it vulnerable to commodity prices. High unemployment and underemployment, income disparity, currency devaluations and high levels of debt and public spending remain significant challenges to the Colombian economy. The level of violence associated with internal conflicts and drug trafficking has fallen but remains high by international standards. Colombia’s infrastructure requires major improvements to sustain economic expansion. In addition, the market for Colombian issuers is directly influenced by the flow of international capital and economic and market conditions of certain countries, especially the U.S. and other countries in Central and South America.

Depositary Receipts

The Fund may invest in foreign securities by purchasing sponsored and unsponsored depositary receipts, including American Depositary Receipts (“ADRs”), European Depositary Receipts (“EDRs”) and Global Depositary Receipts (“GDRs”) or other securities convertible into securities of issuers based in foreign countries. These securities may not necessarily be denominated in the same currency as the securities which they represent. Generally, ADRs, in registered form, are denominated in U.S. dollars and are designed for use in the U.S. securities markets, GDRs, in bearer form, are issued and designed for use outside the United States and EDRs (also referred to as Continental Depositary Receipts (“CDRs”)), in bearer form, may be denominated in other currencies and are designed for use in European securities markets. ADRs are receipts typically issued by a U.S. bank or trust company evidencing ownership of the underlying securities. EDRs are European receipts evidencing a similar arrangement. GDRs are receipts typically issued by non-United States banks and trust companies that evidence ownership of either foreign or domestic securities. For purposes of the Fund’s investment policies, ADRs, GDRs and EDRs are deemed to have the same classification as the underlying securities they represent. Thus, an ADR, GDR or EDR representing ownership of common stock will be treated as common stock.

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In an unsponsored arrangement, the foreign issuer assumes no obligations and the depositary’s transaction fees are paid by the depositary holder. Unsponsored depositary receipts may be created without the participation of the foreign issuer. Holders of these receipts generally bear all the costs of the depositary receipt facility, whereas foreign issuers typically bear certain costs in a sponsored depositary receipt. The bank or trust company depositary of an unsponsored depositary receipt may be under no obligation to distribute shareholder communications received from the foreign issuer or to pass through voting rights. Accordingly, available information concerning the issuer may not be current, and the prices of unsponsored depositary receipts may be more volatile than the prices of sponsored depositary receipts. In addition, the issuers of securities underlying unsponsored depositary receipts may be subject to less stringent government supervision.

Emerging Markets Risk

Investing in companies domiciled in emerging market countries may be subject to greater risks than investments in developed countries. These risks include: (i) less social, political, and economic stability; (ii) greater illiquidity and price volatility due to smaller or limited local capital markets for such securities, or low or non-existent trading volumes; (iii) foreign exchanges and broker-dealers may be subject to less scrutiny and regulation by local authorities; (iv) local governments may decide to seize or confiscate securities held by foreign investors and/or local governments may decide to suspend or limit an issuer’s ability to make dividend or interest payments; (v) local governments may limit or entirely restrict repatriation of invested capital, profits, and dividends; (vi) capital gains may be subject to local taxation, including on a retroactive basis; (vii) issuers facing restrictions on dollar or euro payments imposed by local governments may attempt to make dividend or interest payments to foreign investors in the local currency; (viii) investors may experience difficulty in enforcing legal claims related to the securities and/or local judges may favor the interests of the issuer over those of foreign investors; (ix) bankruptcy judgments may only be permitted to be paid in the local currency; (x) limited public information regarding the issuer may result in greater difficulty in determining market valuations of the securities, and (xi) lax financial reporting on a regular basis, substandard disclosure, and differences in accounting standards may make it difficult to ascertain the financial health of an issuer. Many emerging market countries have experienced currency devaluations and substantial (and, in some cases, extremely high) rates of inflation. Other emerging market countries have experienced economic recessions. These circumstances have had a negative effect on the economies and securities markets of such emerging market countries.

Europe Risk

Investing in European countries exposes the Fund to the economic and political risks associated with Europe in general and the specific European countries in which it invests. The economies and markets of European countries are often closely connected and interdependent, and events in one European country can have an adverse impact on other European countries. The Fund makes investments in securities of issuers that are domiciled in, or have significant operations in, member countries of the Economic and Monetary Union of the European Union (the “EU”), which requires member countries to comply with restrictions on inflation rates, deficits, interest rates, debt levels and fiscal and monetary controls, each of which may significantly affect every country in Europe. Decreasing imports or exports, changes in governmental or EU regulations on trade, changes in the exchange rate of the euro (the common currency of certain EU countries), the default or threat of default by an EU member country on its sovereign debt, and/or an economic recession in an EU member country may have a significant adverse effect on the economies of EU member countries and their trading partners. Although certain European countries do not use the euro, many of these countries are obliged to meet the criteria for joining the euro zone. Consequently, these countries must comply with many of the restrictions noted above.

The European financial markets have experienced volatility and adverse trends in recent years due to concerns about economic downturns, rising government debt levels and the possible default of government debt in several European countries, including Greece, Ireland, Italy, Portugal and Spain. In order to prevent further economic deterioration, certain countries, without prior warning, can institute “capital controls.” Countries may use these controls to restrict volatile movements of capital entering and exiting their country. Such controls may negatively affect the Fund’s investments. A default or debt restructuring by any European country would adversely impact holders of that country’s debt and sellers of credit default swaps linked to that country’s creditworthiness, which may be located in countries other than those listed above. In addition, the credit ratings of certain European countries were recently downgraded. These downgrades may result in further deterioration of investor confidence. These events have adversely affected the value and exchange rate of the euro and may continue to significantly affect the economies of every country in Europe, including countries that do not use the euro and non-EU member countries. Responses to the financial problems by European governments, central banks and others, including austerity measures and reforms, may not produce the desired results, may result in social unrest and may limit future growth and economic recovery or have other unintended consequences. Further defaults or restructurings by governments and other entities of their debt could have additional adverse effects on economies, financial markets and asset valuations around the world. In addition, one or more countries may abandon the euro and/or withdraw from the EU. The impact of these actions, especially if they occur in a disorderly fashion, is not clear but could be significant and far-reaching.

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Investing in the securities of issuers located or operating in Eastern Europe is highly speculative and involves risks not usually associated with investing in the more developed markets of Western Europe. Political and economic reforms are too recent to establish a definite trend away from centrally planned economies and state-owned industries. In the past, some Eastern European governments have expropriated substantial amounts of private property, and many claims of the property owners have never been fully settled.

Many Eastern European countries continue to move toward market economies at different paces with different characteristics. Most Eastern European securities markets suffer from thin trading activity, dubious investor protections, and often a dearth of reliable corporate information. Information and transaction costs, differential taxes, and sometimes political or transfer risk give a comparative advantage to the domestic investor rather than the foreign investor. In addition, these markets are particularly sensitive to social, political, economic, and currency events in Russia and may suffer heavy losses as a result of their trading and investment links to the Russian economy and currency. Russia also may attempt to assert its influence in the region through economic or even military measures, as it did with Georgia in the summer of 2008 and Ukraine in 2014 and 2022. Eastern European economies may also be particularly susceptible to changes in the international credit markets due to their reliance on bank related inflows of capital. The global economic crisis has restricted international credit supplies, and several Eastern European economies have faced significant credit and economic crises. Although some Eastern European economies are expanding again, major challenges are still present as a result of their continued dependence on the Western European zone for credit.

On January 31, 2020, the United Kingdom (“UK”) formally withdrew from the EU, subject to a transition period that ended on December 31, 2020. The uncertainty associated with the Brexit process as well as the consequences that follow from its outcome could (i) adversely affect European or worldwide political, regulatory, economic, or market conditions, (ii) contribute to instability in global political institutions, regulatory agencies, and financial markets, and (iii) impact the volatility of exchange rates and interest rates. Brexit could also lead to legal uncertainty and politically divergent national laws and regulations as a new relationship between the UK and EU is defined and the UK determines which EU laws to replace or replicate. Any of these effects of Brexit could adversely affect any of the companies to which the Fund has exposure and any other assets in which the Fund invests. The impact of Brexit in the near- and long-term is still unknown and could have additional adverse effects on economies, financial markets and asset valuations around the world.

In addition, the extent and duration of Russia’s military invasion of Ukraine, initiated in February 2022, and the broad-ranging economic sanctions levied against Russia by the United States, the EU, the UK, and other countries, remain unknown, but these events could have a significant adverse impact on Europe’s overall economy. The current political and financial uncertainty surrounding Russia and Ukraine may increase market volatility and the economic risk of investing in securities in Europe and may also cause uncertainty for the global economy and broader financial markets. The ultimate fallout and long-term impact from these events are not known. For more information on the war in Ukraine and its impact on Europe, see “Investment Objectives, Investment Strategies and Risks — Recent Events” herein.

Investments in Austria. Investments in Austrian issuers may subject the Fund to legal, regulatory, political, currency, security, and economic risk specific to Austria. The Austrian economy, along with certain other EU economies, has from time to time experienced significant financial market volatility and economic adversity, and certain Austrian banks required government support in order to avoid potential insolvency and wider regional contagion. In addition, the Austrian banking sector has significant exposure to Central and Eastern Europe. Eastern European markets remain relatively undeveloped and can be particularly sensitive to political and economic developments, and adverse events in these Eastern European countries may greatly impact the Austrian economy.

Investments in Czech Republic. The Czech Republic’s economy is heavily dependent on the manufacturing and export of industrial materials and machinery. Key trading partners are member states of the European Union, most notably Germany, Spain, Italy, France and the United Kingdom. Decreasing demand for the Czech Republic’s products and services or changes in governmental regulations on trade may have a significantly adverse effect on the Czech economy. The Czech Republic and many of the Western European developed nations are member states of the EU. As a result, these member states are dependent upon one another economically and politically. The recent ratification of the Treaty of Lisbon by EU member states is expected to further heighten the degree of economic and political inter-dependence. This and other political or economic developments could cause market disruptions and affect adversely the values of securities of Czech issuers.

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The Czech Republic and surrounding regions have a history of ethnic unrest and conflict. If conflict were to renew in the future, it could have a significant adverse impact on Czech issuers.

Investments in France. Investments in securities of French issuers involve risks that are specific to France, including certain legal, regulatory, political, economic, currency and security risks. Interest rates on France’s debt may rise to levels that make it difficult for it to service high debt levels without significant financial help from, among others, the European Central Bank and could potentially result in default. In addition, the French economy is dependent to a significant extent on the economies of certain key trading partners, including Germany and other Western European countries. Reduction in spending on French products and services, or changes in any of the economies may cause an adverse impact on the French economy. In addition, France has been subject to acts of terrorism which has been detrimental to tourism. The French economy is dependent on exports from the agricultural sector. Leading agricultural exports include dairy products, meat, wine, fruit and vegetables, and fish. As a result, the French economy is susceptible to fluctuations in demand for agricultural products.

Investments in Italy. Investment in Italian issuers involves risks that are specific to Italy, including, regulatory, political, currency and economic risks. Italy’s economy is dependent upon external trade with other economies — specifically Germany, France and other Western European developed countries. As a result, Italy is dependent on the economies of these other countries and any change in the price or demand for Italy’s exports may have an adverse impact on its economy. Interest rates on Italy’s sovereign debt may rise to levels that may make it difficult for it to service high debt levels without significant financial help from the EU and could potentially lead to default. These events have adversely impacted the Italian economy, causing credit agencies to lower Italy’s sovereign debt rating and could decrease outside investment in Italian companies.

Investments in Poland. Investment in securities of Polish issuers involves risks not typically associated with investments in securities of issuers in developed countries. Such heightened risks include, among others, a relatively short history of democracy, expropriation and/or nationalization of assets, confiscatory taxation, less publicly available financial and other information, and potential difficulties in enforcing contractual obligations. In addition, Poland faces many economic development problems, including high unemployment, inadequate infrastructure, endemic corruption, poverty, and intensifying global competition from neighboring countries.

Securities laws in Poland are relatively new and unsettled and, consequently, there is a risk of rapid and unpredictable change in laws regarding foreign investment, securities regulation, custody and title to securities and shareholder rights. Accordingly, foreign investors may be adversely affected by new or amended laws and regulations. In circumstances where adequate laws and shareholder rights exist, it may not be possible to obtain swift and equitable enforcement of the law.

The securities market of Poland is considered an emerging market characterized by a small number of listed companies and a relatively illiquid secondary trading market, particularly for corporate bonds. These factors, coupled with restrictions on foreign investment and other factors, limit the supply of securities available for investment by a Fund. This will affect the rate at which a Fund is able to invest in Poland, the purchase and sale prices for such securities and the timing of purchases and sales.

The government in Poland may restrict or control to varying degrees the ability of foreign investors to invest in securities of issuers located or operating in Poland. Moreover, governmental approval or special licenses prior to investments by foreign investors may be required and may limit the amount of investments by foreign investors in a particular industry and/or issuer. A delay in obtaining a required government approval or license would delay investments in Poland, and, as a result, a Fund may not be able to invest in certain securities while approval is pending. The government of Poland may also withdraw or decline to renew a license that enables a Fund to invest in Poland. Any one of these factors could cause a decline in the value of a Fund.

The Polish government may exercise substantial influence over many aspects of the private sector and may own or control many companies. Future government actions could have a significant effect on the economic conditions in Poland, which could have a negative impact on private sector companies. There is also the possibility of diplomatic developments that could adversely affect investments in Poland.

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The market for Polish securities is directly influenced by the flow of international capital, and economic and market conditions of certain countries, especially emerging market countries in Eastern Europe. Adverse economic conditions or developments in other emerging market countries have at times significantly affected the availability of credit in the Polish economy and resulted in considerable outflows of funds and declines in the amount of foreign currency invested in Poland.

Investments in Spain. Investment in Spanish issuers involves risks that are specific to Spain, including, legal, regulatory, political, currency, security and economic risks. The Spanish economy, along with certain other EU economies, experienced a significant economic slowdown during the financial crisis that began in 2008. In reaction to the crisis, the Spanish government introduced austerity reforms aimed at reducing its fiscal deficit to sustainable levels. Austerity reforms included, among other things, reduction in government employees’ salaries, freezing of pension funds, and suspension of public work projects. Such austerity reforms, while directed at stimulating the Spanish economy in the long-term, may have a negative short-term effect on Spain’s financial markets. Due largely to outstanding bad loans to construction companies and real estate developers, Spanish banks underwent a series of mergers to increase liquidity and made efforts to shift debt off of their balance sheets. However, reports indicate that debt levels remain high, although bank lending has contracted. In addition, unemployment rates remain high. These factors could adversely impact growth potential of Spanish stocks in which the Fund invests. In addition, the Spanish government is engaged in a long-running campaign against terrorism. Acts of terrorism on Spanish soil or against Spanish interests abroad may cause uncertainty in the Spanish financial markets and adversely affect the performance of the issuers to which the Fund has exposure. Political tensions and social conflict have escalated recently as a result of a referendum by Catalonia for independence from Spain. The secessionist movement could have a negative impact on the Spanish economy and a destabilizing effect on the country.

Investments in the United Kingdom. The UK trades heavily with other European countries and the United States and may be impacted by changes to the economic health of their key trading partners. The UK also relies heavily on the export of financial services. Accordingly, a slowdown in the financial services sector may have an adverse impact on the UK’s economy. On January 31, 2020, the UK formally exited the EU. For more information about “Brexit” and the associated risks, see the above description of “Europe Risk.”

Foreign Currency Transactions

The Fund may hold funds in bank deposits in U.S. or foreign currency, including during the completion of investment programs. For additional currency exposure, the Fund may also conduct currency exchange transactions either on a spot (cash) basis at the spot rate prevailing in the foreign exchange market or by entering into a forward currency contract. These transactions will expose the Fund to foreign currency fluctuations.

The prediction of currency movements is extremely difficult and the successful execution of a speculative strategy is highly uncertain. Should exchange rates move in an unexpected manner, the Fund may not achieve the anticipated benefits of the transaction, or it may realize losses. The successful use of forward currency contracts will usually depend on Cambria’s ability to forecast accurately currency exchange rate movements and its skill in analyzing and predicting currency values. There is no assurance that Cambria’s use of forward currency contracts will be advantageous to the Fund or that Cambria will hedge exposures at an appropriate time. The precise matching of forward contract amounts and the value of the securities involved is generally not possible because the value of such securities, measured in the foreign currency, will change after the forward currency contract has been established. The projection of short-term currency market movements is extremely difficult, and the successful execution of a short-term hedging strategy is highly uncertain. Further, under certain circumstances, the Fund may have to limit its currency transactions to qualify as a RIC under the Code or to maintain its exception from registration as a commodity pool operator under the CEA.

Forward contracts may be considered “derivatives” — financial instruments whose performance is derived, at least in part, from the performance of another asset (such as a security, currency or an index of securities). A forward currency contract involves an obligation to purchase or sell a specific amount of a specific currency at a future date, which may be any fixed number of days (usually less than one year) from the date of the contract agreed upon by the parties, at a price set at the time of the contract.

At or before settlement of a forward currency contract, the Fund may either deliver the currency or terminate its contractual obligation to deliver the currency by purchasing an offsetting contract; or, if the forward currency contract is cash settled, pay or receive the difference between it and its counterparty’s obligations under the contract. If the Fund makes delivery of a

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currency at or before the settlement of a forward contract, it may be required to obtain the currency through the conversion of assets into the currency. The Fund may close out a forward contract obligating it to purchase currency by selling an offsetting contract. If the Fund engages in an offsetting transaction, it may later enter into a new forward currency contract to sell the currency. If the Fund engages in an offsetting transaction, it will incur a gain or loss to the extent that there has been movement in forward currency contract prices.

Forward currency contracts have historically been individually negotiated and privately traded by currency traders and their customers, though in the future they may become centrally cleared. These contracts may result in a loss if a counterparty, including a central clearing agency, does not perform as expected or becomes insolvent. In the event of insolvency of a counterparty, the Fund might be unable to close out a forward currency contract at any time prior to maturity or, even if it entered an offsetting transaction with a second counterparty, the Fund would continue to be subject to settlement risk relating to the transaction with the insolvent counterparty.

The Fund may enter into forward contracts for a variety of reasons, including hedging and extracting investment returns.

Hedging. With respect to hedging, the Fund may invest in forward currency contracts to hedge either specific transactions (transaction hedging) or portfolio positions (position hedging). Transaction hedging is the purchase or sale of forward currency contracts with respect to specific receivables or payables of the Fund in connection with the purchase and sale of portfolio securities. Position hedging is the sale of a forward currency contract on a particular currency with respect to portfolio positions denominated or quoted in that currency.

Position hedging and transaction hedging generally involve the Fund seeking to “lock in” the exchange rate between currencies. For example, if the Fund owned securities denominated in euros, to effectuate a position hedge, it could enter into a forward currency contract to sell euros in return for U.S. dollars to hedge against possible declines in the euro’s value. Such a hedge would tend to offset both positive and negative currency fluctuations, but would not offset changes in security values caused by other factors. The Fund could also hedge the position by selling another currency expected to perform similarly to the euro. This type of hedge, sometimes referred to as a proxy hedge, could offer advantages in terms of cost, yield or efficiency, but generally would not hedge currency exposure as effectively as a simple hedge into U.S. dollars. Proxy hedges may result in losses if the currency used to hedge does not perform similarly to the currency in which the hedged securities are denominated.

Purchasing a forward currency contract to lock in the U.S. dollar price of a security denominated in a foreign currency that the Fund intends to acquire may serve as a long hedge. Alternatively, selling a forward currency contract to lock in the U.S. dollar equivalent of the proceeds from the anticipated sale of a security or a dividend or interest payment denominated in a foreign currency may serve as a short hedge. Currency hedges do not protect against price movements in the securities that are attributable to other causes.

The Fund might seek to hedge against changes in the value of a particular currency when no forward currency contracts on that currency are available or such forward currency contracts are more expensive than certain other derivative instruments. In such cases, the Fund may seek to hedge against price movements in that currency by entering into transactions using forward currency contracts on another currency or a basket of currencies, the values of which Cambria believes will have a high degree of positive correlation to the value of the currency being hedged. The risk that movements in the price of the forward currency contract will not correlate perfectly with movements in the price of the currency subject to the hedging transaction is magnified when this strategy is used.

The Fund is not obligated to actively engage in currency hedging transactions; therefore, the Fund may not attempt to hedge its exposure to a particular foreign currency at a time when doing so might have avoided a loss. Further, the Fund may not be able to hedge against a currency devaluation that is so generally anticipated that the Fund is unable to contract to sell the currency at a price above the devaluation level it anticipates.

Investing. The Fund may invest in a combination of (i) forward foreign currency contracts and U.S. dollar-denominated instruments or (ii) forward currency contracts and non-U.S. dollar-denominated instruments to seek performance that is substantially the same as a direct investment in a foreign currency-denominated instrument. This investment technique creates a “synthetic” position in the particular foreign-currency instrument whose performance Cambria is trying to duplicate. For example, the combination of U.S. dollar-denominated ETFs or money market instruments with “long” forward currency exchange contracts creates a position economically equivalent to an instrument denominated in the foreign currency itself.

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The Fund also may use forward currency contracts to attempt to enhance income or yield. The Fund could use forward currency contracts to increase its exposure to foreign currencies that Cambria believes might rise in value relative to the U.S. dollar, or shift its exposure to foreign currency fluctuations from one country to another. For example, if the Fund owned securities denominated in a foreign currency and Cambria believed that currency would decline relative to another currency, it might enter into a forward currency contract to sell an appropriate amount of the first foreign currency, with payment to be made in the second foreign currency. This is accomplished through contractual agreements to purchase or sell a specified currency at a specified future date and price set at the time of the contract.

Forward currency contracts may involve the sale of U.S. dollars and the purchase of a foreign currency, or may be foreign cross-currency contracts involving the sale of one foreign currency and the purchase of another foreign currency. Such foreign cross-currency contracts may be considered a hedging strategy rather than a speculative strategy if the Fund’s commitment to purchase the new (more favorable) currency is limited to the market value of the Fund’s securities denominated in the old (less favorable) currency.

With respect to transactions not entered into for hedging purposes, the Fund’s custodian bank maintains, in a separate account of the Fund, liquid assets, such as cash, short-term securities and other liquid securities (marked to the market daily), having a value equal to, or greater than, any commitments to purchase currency on a forward basis.

Normally, consideration of the prospect for currency parities will be incorporated into the longer term investment decisions made with regard to overall diversification strategies. However, Cambria believes that it is important to have the flexibility to enter into such forward currency contracts when it determines that the best interests of the Fund will be served.

Conversion. Although the Fund values its assets daily in U.S. dollars, it does not convert its holdings of foreign currencies into U.S. dollars on a daily basis. The Fund will convert its holdings from time to time, however, and incur the costs of currency conversion. Foreign exchange dealers do not charge a fee for conversion, but they do realize a profit based on the difference between the prices at which they buy and sell various currencies. Thus, a dealer may offer to sell a foreign currency to the Fund at one rate, and offer to buy the currency at a lower rate if the Fund tries to resell the currency to the dealer.

Settlement of transactions involving foreign currencies might be required to take place within the country issuing the underlying currency. Thus, the Fund might be required to accept or make delivery of the underlying foreign currency in accordance with any U.S. or foreign regulations regarding the maintenance of foreign banking arrangements by U.S. residents and might be required to pay any fees, taxes and charges associated with such delivery assessed in the issuing country.

The value of the Fund’s investments is calculated in U.S. dollars each day that the NYSE is open for business. As a result, to the extent that the Fund’s assets are invested in instruments denominated in foreign currencies and the currencies depreciate relative to the U.S. dollar, the Fund’s NAV per share as expressed in U.S. dollars (and, therefore, the value of your investment) should decrease. If the U.S. dollar appreciates relative to the other currencies, the opposite should occur.

The currency-related gains and losses experienced by the Fund will be based on changes in the value of portfolio securities attributable to currency fluctuations only in relation to the original purchase price of such securities as stated in U.S. dollars. Gains or losses on shares of the Fund will be based on changes attributable to fluctuations in the NAV of such shares, expressed in U.S. dollars, in relation to the original U.S. dollar purchase price of the shares. The amount of appreciation or depreciation in the Fund’s assets also will be affected by the net investment income generated by the money market instruments in which the Fund invests and by changes in the value of the securities that are unrelated to changes in currency exchange rates.

Foreign currency transactions occurring in the interbank market might involve substantially larger amounts than those involved in the use of such forward currency contracts. Therefore, the Fund could be disadvantaged by having to deal in the odd lot market (generally consisting of transactions of less than $1 million) for the underlying foreign currencies at prices that are less favorable than for round lots. There is no systematic reporting of last sale information for foreign currencies or any regulatory requirement that quotations available through dealers or other market sources be firm or revised on a timely basis. Quotation information generally is representative of very large transactions in the

33

interbank market and thus might not reflect odd-lot transactions where rates might be less favorable. The interbank market in foreign currencies is a global, round-the-clock market. To the extent the U.S. options or futures markets are closed while the markets for the underlying currencies remain open, significant price and rate movements might take place in the underlying markets that cannot be reflected in the markets for the forward currency contracts until they reopen.

Foreign Government Securities

Foreign government securities include securities issued or guaranteed by foreign governments (including political subdivisions) or their authorities, agencies, or instrumentalities or by supra-national agencies. Different kinds of foreign government securities have different kinds of government support. For example, some foreign government securities are supported by the full faith and credit of a foreign national government or political subdivision and some are not. Foreign government securities of some countries may involve varying degrees of credit risk as a result of financial or political instability in those countries or the possible inability of the Fund to enforce its rights against the foreign government. As with issuers of other fixed income securities, sovereign issuers may be unable or unwilling to make timely principal or interest payments.

It is possible that the availability and the marketability (that is, liquidity) of the securities discussed in this section could be adversely affected by actions of foreign governments to tighten the availability of credit.

Supra-national agencies are agencies whose member nations make capital contributions to support the agencies’ activities. Examples include the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (the World Bank), the Asian Development Bank, the European Union, and the Inter-American Development Bank.

As with other fixed income securities, foreign government securities expose their holders to market risk because their values typically change as interest rates fluctuate. For example, the value of foreign government securities may fall during times of rising interest rates. Yields on foreign government securities tend to be lower than those of corporate securities of comparable maturities.

In addition to investing directly in foreign government securities, the Fund may purchase certificates of accrual or similar instruments evidencing undivided ownership interests in interest payments and/or principal payments of foreign government securities. Certificates of accrual and similar instruments may be more volatile than other government securities.

India Risk

Government actions, bureaucratic obstacles and inconsistent economic reform within the Indian government have had a significant effect on the Indian economy and could adversely affect market conditions, economic growth and the profitability of private enterprises in India. Global factors and foreign actions may inhibit the flow of foreign capital on which India is dependent to sustain its growth. Large portions of many Indian companies remain in the hands of their founders (including members of their families). Corporate governance standards of family-controlled companies may be weaker and less transparent, which increases the potential for loss and unequal treatment of investors. India experiences many of the risks associated with developing economies, including relatively low levels of liquidity, which may result in extreme volatility in the prices of Indian securities.

Religious, cultural and military disputes persist in India and between India and Pakistan (as well as sectarian groups within each country). Both India and Pakistan have tested nuclear arms, and the threat of deployment of such weapons could hinder development of the Indian economy, and escalating tensions could impact the broader region, including China.

Latin America Risk

Latin America, including Brazil and Chile, has long suffered from political, economic, and social instability. For investors, this has meant additional risk caused by periods of regional conflict, political corruption, totalitarianism, protectionist measures, nationalization, hyperinflation, debt crises and defaults, sudden and large currency devaluation, and intervention by the military in civilian and economic spheres. For example, the government of Brazil imposes a tax on foreign investment in Brazilian stocks and bonds, which may affect the value of the Fund’s investments in Brazilian issuers. While some Latin American governments have experienced privatization of state-owned companies and relaxation of trade restrictions, future free-market economic reforms are uncertain, and political unrest could result in significant disruption in securities markets in the region. The economies of certain Latin American countries have experienced high interest rates, economic volatility, inflation and high unemployment rates. Adverse economic events in one country may have a significant adverse effect on other Latin American countries.

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Commodities (such as oil, gas and minerals) represent a significant percentage of the region’s exports and many economies in this region are particularly sensitive to fluctuations in commodity prices. Some markets are in areas that have historically been prone to natural disasters or are economically sensitive to environmental events, and a natural disaster could have a significant adverse impact on the economies in the geographic region.

Many Latin American countries have high levels of debt, which may stifle economic growth, contribute to prolonged periods of recession and adversely impact the Fund’s investments. Most countries have been forced to restructure their loans or risk default on their debt obligations. Interest on debt is subject to market conditions and may reach levels that would impair economic activity and create a difficult and costly environment for borrowers. Governments may be forced to reschedule or freeze their debt repayment, which could negatively affect local markets.

Mexico Risk

Investment in Mexican issuers involves risks that are specific to Mexico, including regulatory, political, currency and economic risks. The Mexican economy is dependent upon trade with other economies, specifically with the U.S. and certain Latin American countries. As a result, Mexico is dependent on, among other things, the U.S. economy, and any change in the price or demand for Mexican exports may have an adverse impact on the Mexican economy. For example, lower oil prices have negatively impacted Petróleos Mexicanos, the Mexican state-owned petroleum company, which accounts for a significant percentage of the Mexican government’s tax revenue. Mexico has experienced adverse economic impacts as a result of earthquakes and hurricanes, as well as outbreaks of violence. Incidents involving Mexico’s security may have an adverse effect on the Mexican economy and cause uncertainty in its financial markets. In the past, Mexico has experienced high interest rates, economic volatility and high unemployment rates.

Political and Social Risk. Mexico has been destabilized by local insurrections, social upheavals and violence related to drug cartels and other organized crime, and the recurrence or continuation of these or similar conditions may adversely impact the Mexican economy. Recently, Mexican elections have been contentious and have been very closely decided. Changes in political parties or other Mexican political events may affect the economy and cause instability.

Currency Instability Risk. Historically, Mexico has experienced substantial economic instability resulting from, among other things, periods of very high inflation and significant devaluations of the Mexican currency, the peso.

Relations with the U.S. Recent political developments in the U.S. have raised potential implications for the current trade arrangements between the U.S. and Mexico, which could negatively affect the value of securities held by the Fund.

Middle East Risk

Many Middle Eastern countries are prone to political turbulence, which may have an adverse impact on the Fund. Many economies in the Middle East are highly reliant on income from the sale of oil or trade with countries involved in the sale of oil, and their economies are therefore vulnerable to changes in the market for oil and foreign currency values. As global demand for oil fluctuates, many Middle Eastern economies may be significantly impacted.

In addition, many Middle Eastern governments have exercised and continue to exercise substantial influence over many aspects of the private sector. In certain cases, a Middle Eastern country’s government may own or control many companies, including some of the largest companies in the country. Accordingly, governmental actions in the future could have a significant effect on economic conditions in Middle Eastern countries. This could affect private sector companies and the Fund, as well as the value of securities in the Fund’s portfolio.

Certain Middle Eastern markets are in the earliest stages of development. As a result, there may be a high concentration of market capitalization and trading volume in a small number of issuers representing a limited number of industries, as well as a high concentration of investors and financial intermediaries. Brokers in Middle Eastern countries typically are fewer in number and less well capitalized than brokers in the United States.

The legal systems in certain Middle Eastern countries also may have an adverse impact on the Fund. For example, the potential liability of a shareholder in a U.S. corporation with respect to acts of the corporation generally is limited to the amount of the shareholder’s investment. However, the notion of limited liability is less clear in certain Middle Eastern countries. The Fund therefore may be liable in certain Middle Eastern countries for the acts of a corporation in which it invests for an amount greater than its actual investment in that corporation. Similarly, the rights of investors in Middle Eastern issuers may be more limited than those of shareholders of a U.S. corporation. It may be difficult or impossible to obtain or enforce a legal judgment

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in a Middle Eastern country. Some Middle Eastern countries prohibit or impose substantial restrictions on investments in their capital markets, particularly their equity markets, by foreign entities such as the Fund. For example, certain countries may require governmental approval prior to investment by foreign persons or limit the amount of investment by foreign persons in a particular issuer. Certain Middle Eastern countries may also limit the investment by foreign persons to only a specific class of securities of an issuer that may have less advantageous terms (including price) than securities of the issuer available for purchase by nationals.

The manner in which foreign investors may invest in companies in certain Middle Eastern countries, as well as limitations on those investments, may have an adverse impact on the operations of the Fund. For example, in certain of these countries, the Fund may be required to invest initially through a local broker or other entity and then have the shares that were purchased re-registered in the name of the Fund. Re-registration in some instances may not be possible on a timely basis. This may result in a delay during which the Fund may be denied certain of its rights as an investor, including rights as to dividends or to be made aware of certain corporate actions. There also may be instances where the Fund places a purchase order but is subsequently informed, at the time of re-registration, that the permissible allocation of the investment to foreign investors has been filled.

Substantial limitations may exist in certain Middle Eastern countries with respect to the Fund’s ability to repatriate investment income or capital gains. The Fund could be adversely affected by delays in, or a refusal to grant, any required governmental approval for repatriation of capital, as well as by the application to the Fund of any restrictions on investment.

Certain Middle Eastern countries may be heavily dependent upon international trade and, consequently, have been and may continue to be negatively affected by trade barriers, exchange controls, managed adjustments in relative currency values and other protectionist measures imposed or negotiated by the countries with which they trade. These countries also have been and may continue to be adversely impacted by economic conditions in the countries with which they trade. In addition, certain issuers located in Middle Eastern countries in which the Fund invests may operate in, or have dealings with, countries subject to sanctions and/or embargoes imposed by the U.S. government and the United Nations, and/or countries identified by the U.S. government as state sponsors of terrorism. As a result, an issuer may sustain damage to its reputation if it is identified as an issuer which operates in, or has dealings with, such countries. The Fund, as an investor in such issuers, will be indirectly subject to those risks.

Certain Middle Eastern countries have strained relations with other Middle Eastern countries due to territorial disputes, historical animosities or defense concerns, which may adversely affect the economies of these Middle Eastern countries. Certain Middle Eastern countries experience significant unemployment, as well as widespread underemployment. Recently, many Middle Eastern countries have experienced political, economic and social unrest as protestors have called for widespread reform. These protests may adversely affect the economies of these Middle Eastern countries.

Russia Risk

As a result of recent events involving Ukraine and the Russian Federation, the United States, Canada, the European Union, Japan, the United Kingdom, and other Western countries have imposed sanctions on certain Russian individuals, corporate entities and large financial institutions. The United States has imposed additional sanctions on Russia as a result of Russia’s interference in the U.S. election in 2016 and its use of chemical weapons in 2018 and 2020 to attack Aleksey Navalny and Sergei Skripal, respectively, each a Russian opposition figure. More recently, in response to Russia’s military invasion of Ukraine in February 2022, the United States, the European Union, Canada, the United Kingdom, Japan and other countries levied more stringent economic sanctions against Russia. See “Investment Objectives, Investment Strategies and Risks — Recent Events” herein. The United States and other nations or international organizations may impose additional, broader economic sanctions or take other actions that may adversely affect Russian-related issuers in the future. These sanctions, any future sanctions or other actions, or even the threat of further sanctions or other actions, may negatively affect the value and liquidity of the Fund’s investments. For example, the Fund may be prohibited from investing in securities issued by Russian companies subject to such sanctions. In addition, the sanctions may require the Fund to freeze its existing investments in Russian companies, prohibiting the Fund from buying, selling or otherwise transacting in these investments. Russia may undertake countermeasures or retaliatory actions which may further impair the value and liquidity of the Fund’s portfolio and potentially disrupt its operations.

These sanctions could negatively impact the Russian economy, resulting in a weaker Russian currency, downgrades in Russia’s credit rating, and a significant decline in the value and liquidity of Russian securities. Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, the subsequent war, the world’s response to Russia’s actions through sanctions, and the potential for an escalating military conflict beyond Ukraine’s borders have increased the volatility in financial markets and could have severe adverse effects on regional and global economic markets in the future. In particular, the war in Ukraine has had a significant impact on various commodity

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markets, including those of oil, natural gas, and agricultural products. These sanctions could impair or eliminate a Fund’s ability to invest in accordance with its investment strategy and/or to meet its investment objective. In addition, these sanctions have required some Funds to stop trading in Russian securities and freeze their existing investments in Russian securities, thereby prohibiting such Funds from buying, selling, receiving or delivering those securities or other financial instruments. Further, due to closures of certain markets and restrictions on trading, certain Russian securities held by the Funds have been difficult to value or valued at zero. It is unknown when, or if, sanctions will be lifted in the future or whether the Funds’ ability to trade in Russian securities will resume.

For these or other reasons, the Fund could seek to suspend redemptions of Creation Units, including in the event that an emergency exists in which it is not reasonably practicable for the Fund to dispose of its securities or to determine its NAV. The Fund could also, among other things, limit or suspend creations of Creation Units. During the period that creations or redemptions are affected, Shares could trade at a significant premium or discount to their NAV. In the case of a period during which creations are suspended, the Fund could experience substantial redemptions, which may cause the Fund to experience increased transaction costs and make greater taxable distributions to shareholders of the Fund. The Fund could liquidate all or a portion of its assets, which may be at unfavorable prices.

South Africa Risk

Although South Africa is a developing country with a solid economic infrastructure (in some regards rivaling other developed countries), certain issues, such as unemployment, access to health care, limited economic opportunity, and other financial constraints, continue to present obstacles to full economic development. Disparities of wealth, the pace and success of democratization and capital market development and religious and racial disaffection have also led to social and political unrest. South Africa’s currency has recently fluctuated significantly and may be vulnerable to significant devaluation. There can be no assurance that initiatives by the government to address these issues will achieve the desired results. South Africa’s economy is heavily dependent on natural resources and commodity prices. South Africa’s currency may be vulnerable to devaluation. These and other factors could have a negative impact on a Fund’s performance.

Turkey Risk

Investments in Turkish issuers are subject to legal, regulatory, political, currency, security and economic risks specific to Turkey. Among other things, the Turkish economy is heavily dependent on relationships with certain key trading partners, including EU countries, China and Russia. The Turkish economy has certain significant economic weaknesses, such as its relatively high current account deficit and currency depreciation. Turkey has historically experienced acts of terrorism and strained relations related to border disputes with certain neighboring countries. The continuation of the conflict on the Turkish-Syrian border, for example, could have an adverse impact on the Turkish economy. Turkey is subject to considerable degrees of social and political instability. Unanticipated or sudden political, economic or social developments have caused and may cause further volatility in the Turkish securities markets or currency market and as a result may adversely affect the Fund’s investments.

Illiquid Securities

The Fund may invest up to 15% of its net assets in illiquid securities. For this purpose, “illiquid securities” are securities that the Fund may not sell or dispose of within seven days in the ordinary course of business at approximately the amount at which the Fund has valued the securities. A repurchase agreement maturing in more than seven days is considered illiquid, unless it can be terminated after a notice period of seven days or less.

Cambria also may deem certain securities to be illiquid as a result of Cambria’s receipt from time to time of material, non-public information about an issuer, which may limit Cambria’s ability to trade such securities for the account of any of its clients, including the Fund. In some instances, these trading restrictions could continue in effect for a substantial period of time.

At times, the inability to sell illiquid securities can make it more difficult to determine their fair value for purposes of computing the Fund’s net asset value. The judgment of Cambria normally plays a greater role in valuing these securities than in valuing publicly traded securities.

Repurchase Agreements

The Fund may enter into repurchase agreements with banks and broker-dealers. A repurchase agreement is an agreement under which securities are acquired by the Fund from a securities dealer or bank subject to resale at an agreed upon price on a later date. The Fund bears a risk of loss in the event that the other party to a repurchase agreement defaults on its obligations and the Fund is delayed or prevented from exercising its rights to dispose of the collateral securities. Such a default may subject

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the Fund to expenses, delays, and risks of loss including: (i) possible declines in the value of the underlying security while the Fund seeks to enforce its rights, (ii) possible reduced levels of income and lack of access to income during this period, and (iii) the inability to enforce its rights and the expenses involved in attempted enforcement.

Repurchase agreements may be treated as loans by the SEC staff. The Fund will not enter into repurchase agreements if, as a result, the aggregate amount of the Fund’s loans would exceed 33 1/3% of its total assets.

Reverse Repurchase Agreements

The Fund may enter into reverse repurchase agreements, which involve the sale of securities held by the Fund subject to its agreement to repurchase the securities at an agreed-upon date or upon demand and at a price reflecting a market rate of interest. Reverse repurchase agreements are subject to the Fund’s limitation on borrowings and may be entered into only with banks or securities dealers or their affiliates. While a reverse repurchase agreement is outstanding, the Fund will maintain the segregation, either on its records or with the Trust’s custodian, of cash or other liquid securities, marked to market daily, in an amount at least equal to its obligations under the reverse repurchase agreement. Under the 1940 Act, the Fund may elect to treat reverse repurchase agreements either as (i) borrowings subject to the asset coverage requirement of Section 18 of the 1940 Act or (ii) derivatives transactions for purposes of Rule 18f-4 under the 1940 Act including, as applicable, the VaR test to limit leverage risk. Although there is no limit on the percentage of total assets the Fund may invest in reverse repurchase agreements, the use of reverse repurchase agreements is not a principal strategy of the Fund.

Reverse repurchase agreements involve the risk that the buyer of the securities sold by the Fund might be unable to deliver them when the Fund seeks to repurchase. If the buyer of securities under a reverse repurchase agreement files for bankruptcy or becomes insolvent, the buyer or trustee or receiver may receive an extension of time to determine whether to enforce the Fund’s obligation to repurchase the securities, and the Fund’s use of the proceeds of the reverse repurchase agreement may effectively be restricted pending such decision.

Securities Lending

The Fund may make secured loans of its portfolio securities; however, securities loans will not be made if, as a result, the aggregate amount of all outstanding securities loans by the Fund exceeds 33 1/3% of its total assets (including the market value of collateral received). For purposes of complying with the Fund’s investment policies and restrictions, collateral received in connection with securities loans is deemed an asset of the Fund to the extent required by law. The Fund continues to receive dividends or interest, as applicable, on the securities loaned and simultaneously earns either interest on the investment of the cash collateral or fee income if the loan is otherwise collateralized.

To the extent the Fund engages in securities lending, securities loans will be made to broker-dealers that Cambria believes to be of relatively high credit standing pursuant to agreements requiring that the loans continuously be collateralized by cash, liquid securities, or shares of other investment companies with a value at least equal to the market value of the loaned securities. As with other extensions of credit, the Fund bears the risk of delay in the recovery of the securities and of loss of rights in the collateral should the borrower fail financially. The Fund also bears the entire risk of loss on any reinvested collateral received in connection with securities lending.

Voting rights or rights to consent with respect to the loaned securities pass to the borrower. The Fund has the right to call loans at any time on reasonable notice. However, the Fund bears the risk of delay in the return of the security, impairing the Fund’s ability to vote on such matters. Cambria will retain lending agents on behalf of the Fund based on a percentage of the Fund’s return on its securities lending. The Fund may also pay various fees in connection with securities loans, including shipping fees and custodian fees. The costs of lending securities are not reflected in the Fund’s Annual Fund Operating Expenses.

Short Sales

A short sale is a transaction in which the Fund sells a security it does not own. To complete such a transaction, the Fund must borrow the security to make delivery to the buyer. The Fund is then obligated to replace the security borrowed by borrowing the same security from another lender, purchasing it at the market price at the time of replacement or paying the lender an amount equal to the cost of purchasing the security. The price at such time may be more or less than the price at which the security was sold by the Fund. Until the security is replaced, the Fund is required to repay the lender any dividends it receives, or interest which accrues, during the period of the loan. To borrow the security, the Fund also may be required to pay a premium, which

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would increase the cost of the security sold. The net proceeds of the short sale will be retained by the broker, to the extent necessary to meet margin requirements, until the short position is closed out. The Fund also will incur transaction costs in effecting short sales.

Whenever the Fund engages in short sales, it earmarks or segregates liquid securities or cash in an amount that, when combined with the amount of collateral deposited with the broker in connection with the short sale (other than the proceeds of the short sale), equals the current market value of the security sold short. The earmarked or segregated assets are marked-to-market daily.

The Fund will incur a loss as a result of a short sale if the price of the security increases between the date of the short sale and the date on which the Fund replaces the borrowed security. The Fund will realize a gain if the price of the security declines in price between those dates. The amount of any gain will be decreased, and the amount of any loss increased, by the amount of the premium, dividends or interest the Fund may be required to pay, if any, in connection with a short sale. Short sales may be subject to unlimited losses as the price of a security can rise infinitely.

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PORTFOLIO TURNOVER

“Portfolio Turnover Rate” is defined under the rules of the SEC as the lesser of the value of the securities purchased or of the securities sold, excluding all securities whose maturities at the time of acquisition were one-year or less, divided by the average monthly value of such securities owned during the year. Based on this definition, instruments with a remaining maturity of less than one-year are excluded from the calculation of the portfolio turnover rate. Instruments excluded from the calculation of portfolio turnover generally would include the futures contracts and option contracts in which a Fund invests because such contracts generally have a remaining maturity of less than one-year.

The value of portfolio securities received or delivered as a result of in-kind creations or redemptions of each Fund’s shares also is excluded from the calculation of the Fund’s portfolio turnover rate. As a result, each Fund’s reported portfolio turnover may be low despite relatively high portfolio activity which would, in turn, produce correspondingly greater expenses for the Fund, including brokerage commissions or dealer mark-ups and other transaction costs on the sale of securities and reinvestments in other securities. Generally, the higher the rate of portfolio turnover of a fund, the higher these transaction costs borne by the fund and its long-term shareholders. Such sales may result in the realization of taxable capital gains (including short-term capital gains, which, when distributed, are generally taxed to shareholders at ordinary income tax rates).

The following table reflects the portfolio turnover rate for each Fund for the fiscal periods and/or years ended April 30, 2022 and 2023.

Fund

2022

2023

Commencement of
Operations1

Cambria Shareholder Yield ETF

51%

41%

May 14, 2013

Cambria Foreign Shareholder Yield ETF

63%

34%

Dec. 3, 2013

Cambria Global Value ETF

3%

94%2

Mar. 12, 2014

Cambria Global Momentum ETF

69%

307%3

Nov. 4, 2014

Cambria Global Asset Allocation ETF

8%

0%

Dec. 10, 2014

Cambria Value and Momentum ETF

78%

71%

Sept. 9, 2015

Cambria Global Tail Risk ETF

1%

62%4

Feb. 23, 2016

Cambria Emerging Shareholder Yield ETF

45%

43%

July 14, 2016

Cambria Tail Risk ETF

60%

129%5

Apr. 6, 2017

Cambria Trinity ETF

26%

102%6

Sept. 10, 2018

Cambria Cannabis ETF

46%

23%

July 24, 2019

Cambria Global Real Estate ETF

120%

94%

Sept. 24, 2020

1      Each Fund typically commences operations one Business Day after its inception date.

2      During the fiscal year ended April 30, 2023, the Cambria Global Value ETF experienced higher portfolio turnover due to (1) the significant turnover among countries with undervalued securities markets, as identified by the Fund's quantitative model, and (2) significant cash redemptions associated with the Fund's creation and redemption activity.

3      During the fiscal year ended April 30, 2023, the Cambria Global Momentum ETF, which pursues systematic trend following and momentum strategies, experienced higher portfolio turnover due to changes in market conditions.

4      During the fiscal year ended April 30, 2023, the Cambria Global Tail Risk ETF experienced higher portfolio turnover due to significant cash redemptions associated with the Fund's creation and redemption activity.

5      During the fiscal year ended April 30, 2023, the Cambria Tail Risk ETF experienced higher portfolio turnover primarily as a result of the Fund's exposure to rolling Treasury components.

6      During the fiscal year ended April 30, 2023, the Cambria Trinity ETF, which pursues systematic trend following and momentum strategies, experienced higher portfolio turnover due to changes in market conditions.

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MANAGEMENT OF THE FUNDS

Trustees and Officers

The business and affairs of the Trust are managed by its officers under the oversight of its Board. The Board sets broad policies for the Trust and may appoint Trust officers. The Board oversees the performance of Cambria and the Trust’s other service providers. Each Trustee serves until his or her successor is duly elected or appointed and qualified.

The Board is comprised of three Trustees. One Trustee and certain of the officers of the Trust are directors, officers or employees of Cambria. The other Trustees are not “interested persons” (as defined in Section 2(a)(19) of the Investment Company Act) of the Trust (the “Independent Trustees”). The fund complex includes all funds advised by Cambria (the “Fund Complex”).

The Trustees, their age (by year of birth), term of office and length of time served, their principal business occupations during the past five years, the number of portfolios in the Fund Complex overseen and other directorships, if any, held by each Trustee, are shown below. The officers, their age (by year of birth), term of office and length of time served and their principal business occupations during the past five years, are shown below. Unless noted otherwise, the address of each Trustee and each Officer is: c/o Cambria ETF Trust, 3300 Highland Avenue, Manhattan Beach, CA 30866.

Trustees

Name and Year
of Birth

Position(s) Held
with Trust, Term of
Office, and Length
of Time Served

Principal Occupation During Past 5 Years

Number
of Funds
in Fund
Complex
Overseen
by Trustee

Other Directorships
Held by Trustee

Interested Trustee*

       

Mebane Faber
YOB: 1977

Chairperson of the Board, Trustee, and President of the Trust since 2018; Vice President of the Trust (2013 – 2018); no set term

Co–Founder and Chief Investment Officer (2006 – present), Chief Executive Officer (2018 – present), Cambria Investment Management, L.P.

12

None

Independent Trustees

       

Cullen Roche
YOB: 1980

Trustee; no set term

Founder and Chief Investment Officer, Orcam Financial Group, d/b/a Discipline Funds (investment firm) (2012 – present).

12

None

Dennis G. Schmal
YOB: 1947

Trustee since 2013; no set term

Retired

12

Trustee, AssetMark Mutual Funds (since 2007); Trustee, Wells Fargo GAI Hedge Funds (2007 – 2019); Director and Chairman, Owens Realty Mortgage Inc. (real estate) (2013 – 2019); Director, Blue Calypso (e-commerce) (2015 – 2018).

Thomas (Taz) M.
Turner, Jr.**
YOB: 1977

Trustee; no set term

Founder and Portfolio Manager, Southshore Capital Partners (investment firm) (since 2010).

12

Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, CordovaCann Inc. (Canadian-domiciled cannabis retail) (since 2017).

*

Mr. Faber is an “interested person,” as defined by the Investment Company Act, because of his employment with and ownership interest in Cambria.

**

Messrs. Faber and Turner are first cousins, but they are not immediate family members for the purpose of identifying “interested persons” of the Trust as defined in the 1940 Act.

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Officers

Name and Year of Birth

Position(s) Held with Trust,
Term of Office, and Length of
Time Served

Principal Occupation
During Past 5 Years

Aaron Perkovich
YOB: 1973

Treasurer and Principal Financial
Officer since Sept. 2023; no set
term

Head of Fund Administration (since 2023), Fund Administration Manager (2022 – 2023), Tidal ETF Services LLC; Assistant Director – Investments, Mason Street Advisors, LLC (2021 – 2022); Vice President, U.S. Bancorp Fund Services, LLC (2006  – 2021).

Jonathan Keetz
YOB: 1988

Vice President since Nov. 2020;
no set term

Chief Operating Officer (since Nov. 2020) and
Vice President (2015 – 2020), Cambria Investment
Management, L.P.

Douglas Tyre
YOB: 1980

Chief Compliance Officer
since May 2018; no set term

Senior Principal Consultant, ACA Group, Compliance (May 2022 – Present); Compliance Director, Foreside Financial Group, LLC (April 2022 – May 2022); Compliance Director (2019 – 2022), Assistant Compliance Director (2018 – 2019) and Manager (2014 – 2017), Cipperman Compliance Services, LLC.

Additional Information About the Trustees

The following provides information additional to that set forth in the table above regarding other relevant qualifications, experience, attributes or skills applicable to each Trustee.

Mebane Faber: Mr. Faber has extensive experience in the investment management industry, including as a portfolio manager, an author of multiple investment strategy books, and host of his own wealth management podcast.

Cullen Roche: Mr. Roche has extensive experience in the investment management industry, including as a portfolio manager and an author well-known for his research on the monetary system and portfolio construction. He is the founder and Chief Investment Officer of an SEC-registered investment adviser, and he serves as the portfolio manager for the firm’s exchange-traded fund. Mr. Roche has consulted on portfolio management as a discretionary and non-discretionary advisor for over 15 years.

Dennis G. Schmal: Mr. Schmal has extensive experience in the investment management industry, including as a member of senior management of the investment company audit practice at a large public accounting firm, as well as service on multiple boards of directors overseeing public companies, registered investment companies and private companies and funds.

Taz Turner: Mr. Turner has extensive experience in the investment management industry, including over 20 years of experience investing in global equity and debt securities in both public and private markets on behalf of various hedge funds and private equity firms. In 2010, he founded the investment firm Southshore Capital Partners, and he serves as the firm’s General Partner and portfolio manager for the firm’s global investment fund.

The Board has determined that each Trustee on an individual basis and in combination with the other Trustees is qualified to serve, and should serve, on the Board. To make this determination the Board considered a variety of criteria, none of which in isolation was controlling. Among other things, the Board considered each Trustee’s experience, qualifications, attributes and skills.

Board Structure

Mr. Faber is considered to be an Interested Trustee and serves as Chairman of the Board. The Chairman’s responsibilities include: setting an agenda for each meeting of the Board; presiding at all meetings of the Board and, if present, meetings of the Independent Trustees; and, serving as a liaison between the other Trustees, Trust officers, management personnel and counsel.

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The Board believes that having an interested Chairman, who is familiar with Cambria and its operations, while also having two-thirds of the Board composed of Independent Trustees, strikes an appropriate balance that allows the Board to benefit from the insights and perspective of a representative of management while empowering the Independent Trustees with the ultimate decision-making authority. The Board has not appointed a lead Independent Trustee at this time. The Board does not believe that an independent Chairman or lead Independent Trustee would enhance the Board’s effectiveness, as the relatively small size of the Board allows for diverse viewpoints to be shared and for effective communications between and among Independent Trustees and management so that meetings proceed efficiently. Independent Trustees have effective control over the Board’s agenda because they form a majority of the Board and can direct Trust officers, Cambria, and the Fund’s third-party service providers to give presentations and address agenda topics at Board meetings.

The Board normally holds four regularly scheduled meetings each year, at least one of which is in person. The Board may hold special meetings, as needed, either in person or by telephone, to address matters arising between regular meetings. The Independent Trustees meet separately at each regularly scheduled in-person meeting of the Board; during a portion of each such separate meeting management is not present. The Independent Trustees may also hold special meetings, as needed, either in person or by telephone.

The Board conducts a self-assessment on an annual basis, as part of which it considers whether the structure of the Board and its Committees is appropriate under the circumstances. Based on such self-assessment, among other things, the Board considers whether its current structure is appropriate. As part of this self-assessment, the Board considers several factors, including the number of Funds overseen by the Board, their investment objectives, and the responsibilities entrusted to Cambria and other service providers with respect to the oversight of the day-to