Legg Mason Partners Money Market Trust

December 29, 2022

STATEMENT OF ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

 

LEGG MASON PARTNERS MONEY MARKET TRUST:
Fund   Ticker Symbols
 

Class A

  Class N

WESTERN ASSET GOVERNMENT RESERVES

(“Government Reserves”)

 

SMGXX

  LGMXX
LEGG MASON PARTNERS INSTITUTIONAL TRUST:
Fund   Ticker Symbols
   Class L   

 Administrative 

Shares

 

 Institutional 

Shares

 

 Investor 

Shares

 

 Select 

Shares

 

  Capital  

Shares

 

 Premium 

Shares

WESTERN ASSET INSTITUTIONAL GOVERNMENT RESERVES

(“Institutional Government Reserves”)

  LWPXX   LGAXX   INGXX   LGRXX   N/A   N/A   N/A

WESTERN ASSET INSTITUTIONAL LIQUID RESERVES

(“Institutional Liquid Reserves”)

  N/A   LRAXX   CILXX   LLRXX   N/A   N/A   N/A

WESTERN ASSET INSTITUTIONAL U.S. TREASURY OBLIGATIONS MONEY MARKET FUND

(“Institutional U.S. Treasury Obligations Money Market Fund”)

  N/A   LAOXX   LUIXX   LAIXX   N/A   N/A   N/A

WESTERN ASSET INSTITUTIONAL U.S. TREASURY RESERVES

(“Institutional U.S. Treasury Reserves”)

  N/A   LTAXX   CIIXX   LTRXX   N/A   N/A   N/A

WESTERN ASSET PREMIER INSTITUTIONAL GOVERNMENT RESERVES

(“Premier Institutional Government Reserves”)

  N/A   N/A   N/A   N/A   N/A   WABXX   WACXX

WESTERN ASSET PREMIER INSTITUTIONAL LIQUID RESERVES

(“Premier Institutional Liquid Reserves”)

  N/A   N/A   N/A   N/A   N/A   WAAXX   N/A

WESTERN ASSET PREMIER INSTITUTIONAL U.S. TREASURY RESERVES

(“Premier Institutional U.S. Treasury Reserves”)

  N/A   N/A   N/A   N/A   N/A   WADXX   WAEXX

WESTERN ASSET SELECT TAX FREE RESERVES

(“Select Tax Free Reserves”)

  N/A   LFAXX   N/A   LTFXX   CIFXX   N/A   N/A

620 Eighth Avenue

New York, New York 10018

1-877-721-1926

1-203-703-6002

This Statement of Additional Information (“SAI”) is not a prospectus and is meant to be read in conjunction with the Prospectus of the Fund, dated December 29, 2022, as amended or supplemented from time to time, and is incorporated by reference in its entirety into each Prospectus. This SAI contains additional information about each fund listed above (references to the “Fund” mean each Fund listed on this cover page, unless otherwise noted).

As indicated in the chart above, each fund is a series of Legg Mason Partners Money Market Trust or Legg Mason Partners Institutional Trust, each a Maryland statutory trust (each a “Trust”).

Additional information about the Fund’s investments is available in the Fund’s annual and semi-annual reports to shareholders. The annual reports contain financial statements that are incorporated herein by reference

(https://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgar/data/747576/000119312522273337/d381762dncsr.htm

https://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgar/data/889512/000119312522273341/d387494dncsr.htm

https://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgar/data/889512/000119312522271984/d167686dncsr.htm

https://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgar/data/889512/000119312522271979/d271542dncsr.htm

https://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgar/data/889512/000119312522270807/d418221dncsr.htm

https://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgar/data/889512/000119312522273330/d346345dncsr.htm

https://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgar/data/889512/000119312522271990/d342103dncsr.htm

https://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgar/data/889512/000119312522270801/d373875dncsr.htm

https://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgar/data/889512/000119312522270816/d364837dncsr.htm). The Fund’s Prospectus and copies of the annual and semi-annual reports may be obtained free of charge by contacting banks, brokers, dealers, insurance companies, investment advisers, financial consultants or advisers, mutual fund supermarkets and other financial intermediaries that have entered into an agreement with the Fund’s distributor


to sell shares of the Fund (each called a “Service Agent”), by writing the Fund at BNY Mellon, Attn: Western Asset Money Market Funds, 4400 Computer Drive, Westborough, MA 01581, by calling the telephone numbers set forth above, by sending an e-mail request to [email protected] or by visiting www.franklintempleton.com/moneymarketfundsliterature. Franklin Distributors, LLC (“Franklin Distributors” or the “Distributor”), an indirect, wholly-owned broker/dealer subsidiary of Franklin Resources, Inc., serves as the Fund’s sole and exclusive distributor.

FUND SHARES ARE NOT DEPOSITS OR OBLIGATIONS OF, OR GUARANTEED OR ENDORSED BY ANY BANK, ARE NOT INSURED BY THE FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION OR ANY OTHER AGENCY, AND INVOLVE INVESTMENT RISKS, INCLUDING POSSIBLE LOSS OF PRINCIPAL AMOUNT INVESTED.

THIS SAI IS NOT A PROSPECTUS AND IS AUTHORIZED FOR DISTRIBUTION TO PROSPECTIVE INVESTORS ONLY IF PRECEDED OR ACCOMPANIED BY AN EFFECTIVE PROSPECTUS.

No person has been authorized to give any information or to make any representations not contained in the Prospectus or this SAI in connection with the offering made by the Prospectus and, if given or made, such information or representations must not be relied upon as having been authorized by the Fund or the Distributor. The Prospectus and this SAI do not constitute an offering by the Fund or by the Distributor in any jurisdiction in which such offering may not lawfully be made.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

GLOSSARY OF TERMS

     1  

MASTER/FEEDER STRUCTURE

     3  

INVESTMENT POLICIES

     4  

Investment Objective and Investment Strategies

     4  

Fundamental and Non-Fundamental Investment Policies—General

     6  

Fundamental Investment Policies

     7  

Additional Fundamental Investment Policy

     10  

Diversification

     10  

Commodity Exchange Act Regulation

     10  

INVESTMENT PRACTICES AND RISK FACTORS

     10  

MANAGEMENT

     37  

Trustees and Officers

     37  

Qualifications of Trustees, Board Leadership Structure and Oversight and Standing Committees

     41  

Trustee Ownership of Securities

     43  

Trustee Compensation

     45  

INVESTMENT MANAGEMENT AND SERVICE PROVIDER INFORMATION

     47  

Manager

     47  

Subadviser

     51  

Expenses

     51  

Custodian and Transfer Agent

     52  

Fund Counsel

     53  

Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

     53  

PORTFOLIO TRANSACTIONS AND BROKERAGE

     53  

Portfolio Transactions

     53  

Brokerage and Research Services

     53  

Aggregate Brokerage Commissions Paid

     54  

Securities of Regular Broker/Dealers

     54  

SHARE OWNERSHIP

     55  

Principal Shareholders

     55  

DISTRIBUTOR

     60  

Dealer Commissions and Concessions

     63  

Services and Distribution Plan

     63  

PURCHASE OF SHARES

     66  

REDEMPTION OF SHARES

     69  

EXCHANGE OF SHARES

     72  

VALUATION OF SHARES

     73  

PROXY VOTING GUIDELINES AND PROCEDURES

     75  

DISCLOSURE OF PORTFOLIO HOLDINGS

     75  

THE TRUST

     78  

TAXES

     81  

CODES OF ETHICS

     92  

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

     93  

APPENDIX A—PROXY VOTING POLICIES

     A-1  

APPENDIX B—CREDIT RATINGS

     B-1  

APPENDIX C—PROCEDURES FOR SHAREHOLDERS TO SUBMIT NOMINEE CANDIDATES

     C-1  

GLOSSARY OF TERMS

Because the following is a combined glossary of terms used for all the Legg Mason Funds, certain terms below may not apply to your fund. Any terms used but not defined herein have the meaning ascribed to them in the applicable Fund’s prospectus.

“12b-1 Plans” means the Fund’s distribution and shareholder services plan.

“1933 Act” means the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.

“1934 Act” means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.

“1940 Act” means the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended.

“1940 Act Vote” means the vote of the lesser of: (a) more than 50% of the outstanding shares of the Fund; or (b) 67% or more of the shares of the Fund present at a shareholders’ meeting if more than 50% of the outstanding shares of that Fund are represented at the meeting in person or by proxy.

“Advisers Act” means the Investment Advisers Act of 1940, as amended.

“Board” means the Board of Trustees or Board of Directors, as applicable.

“CEA” means the Commodity Exchange Act, as amended.

“CFTC” means the U.S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission.

“Code” means the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended.

“Corporation” (if applicable) means the corporation listed on the cover page of this SAI.

“Directors” means the directors of the Corporation.

“Distributor” means the party that is responsible for the distribution or sale of the Fund’s shares. Franklin Distributors, LLC (“Franklin Distributors”) is the Fund’s distributor.

“FINRA” means the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.

“Franklin Resources” means Franklin Resources, Inc.

“Fund” means the Fund or Funds listed on the cover of this SAI unless stated otherwise.

“Fundamental Investment Policy” means an investment policy of the Fund that may be changed only by a 1940 Act Vote. Only those policies expressly designated as such are fundamental investment policies. All other policies and restrictions may be changed by the Board without shareholder approval.

“Independent Director” or “Independent Trustee” (as applicable) means a Director of the Corporation or a Trustee of the Trust who is not an “interested person” (as defined in the 1940 Act) of the Corporation or Trust (as applicable).

“IRAs” means Individual Retirement Accounts.

“IRS” means Internal Revenue Service.

 

1


“Legg Mason” means Legg Mason, Inc.

“Legg Mason Funds” means the funds managed by Legg Mason Partners Fund Advisor, LLC or an affiliate.

“Manager” or “LMPFA” means Legg Mason Partners Fund Advisor, LLC.

“NAV” means net asset value.

“NRSROs” means nationally recognized (or non-U.S.) statistical rating organizations, including, but not limited to, Moody’s Investors Service, Inc. (“Moody’s”), Fitch Ratings and S&P Global Ratings, a subsidiary of S&P Global Inc. (“S&P”).

“NYSE” means the New York Stock Exchange.

“Prospectus” means the prospectus of a Fund as referenced on the cover page of this SAI.

“SAI” means this Statement of Additional Information.

“SEC” means the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission.

“Service Agent” means each bank, broker, dealer, insurance company, investment adviser, financial consultant or adviser, mutual fund supermarket and any other financial intermediaries that have entered into an agreement with the Distributor to sell shares of the Fund.

“Subadviser” means Western Asset Management Company, LLC, as referred to in the Fund’s Prospectus and this SAI.

“Trust” (if applicable) means the trust listed on the cover page of this SAI.

“Trustees” means the trustees of the Trust.

 

2


MASTER/FEEDER STRUCTURE

The chart below illustrates the funds utilizing a master/feeder structure by investing all of their investable assets in the respective portfolio. In this section, each portfolio is referred to as the “Portfolio”.

 

Name of Fund    Name of Corresponding Portfolio

Government Reserves

Institutional Government Reserves

Premier Institutional Government Reserves

   Government Portfolio

Institutional Liquid Reserves

Premier Institutional Liquid Reserves

   Liquid Reserves Portfolio
Institutional U.S. Treasury Obligations Money Market Fund    U.S. Treasury Obligations Portfolio

Institutional U.S. Treasury Reserves

Premier Institutional U.S. Treasury Reserves

   U.S. Treasury Reserves Portfolio

The Board believes that the aggregate per share expenses of the Fund and its corresponding Portfolio will be less than or approximately equal to the expenses that the Fund would incur if the assets of the Fund were invested directly in the types of securities held by its Portfolio. The Fund may withdraw its investment in its Portfolio at any time, and will do so if the Fund’s Trustees believe it to be in the best interest of the Fund’s shareholders. If the Fund were to withdraw its investment in its Portfolio, the Fund could either invest directly in securities in accordance with its investment policies or invest in one or more other mutual funds or pooled investment vehicles having similar investment objectives and policies. If the Fund were to withdraw, the Fund could receive securities from its Portfolio instead of cash, causing the Fund to incur brokerage, tax and other charges or leaving it with securities that may or may not be readily marketable or widely diversified.

The Portfolio may change its investment objective, investment strategies and certain of its investment policies and restrictions without approval by its investors, but it will notify its corresponding Fund and its other investors before implementing any change in its investment objective. A change in the Portfolio’s investment objective, investment strategies, policies or restrictions may cause the Fund to withdraw its investment in its Portfolio.

The Portfolio is a series of a Maryland statutory trust, is not required to hold and have no intention of holding annual meetings of investors. However, when the Portfolio is required to do so by law or in the judgment of its Trustees it is necessary or desirable to do so, the Portfolio will submit matters to its investors for a vote. When the Fund is asked to vote on matters concerning its corresponding Portfolio (other than a vote to continue the Portfolio following the withdrawal of an investor), the Fund will either hold a shareholder meeting and vote in accordance with shareholder instructions, or otherwise act in accordance with applicable law. Of course, the Fund could be outvoted, or otherwise adversely affected, by other investors in the Portfolio.

The Portfolio may sell interests to investors in addition to its corresponding Fund. These investors may be funds which offer shares to their shareholders with different costs and expenses than the Fund. Therefore, the investment returns for all investors in funds investing in a portfolio may not be the same. These differences in returns are also present in other mutual fund structures.

The Portfolio is open for business on each day that its corresponding Fund is open for business as set forth in the Fund’s Prospectus. The Portfolio determines its NAV at the same time or times on each fund business day as its corresponding Fund. The Portfolio may make additional NAV calculations to accommodate the NAV calculation times of other investors, such as other funds, that invest in the Portfolio. The Fund may add to or reduce its investment in its Portfolio on each fund business day. For more information, see the Fund’s Prospectus.

Information about other holders of interests in the Portfolio is available from Franklin Distributors.

 

3


Select Tax Free Reserves may, in the future, convert to a master/feeder structure. The Fund may, in the future, convert to a fund of funds structure. In a fund of funds structure, a fund invests all or a portion of its assets in multiple investment companies.

References to the “Fund” in this SAI as it applies to each of Government Reserves, Institutional Government Reserves, Premier Institutional Government Reserves, Institutional Liquid Reserves, Premier Institutional Liquid Reserves, Institutional U.S. Treasury Obligations Money Market Fund, Institutional U.S. Treasury Reserves and Premier Institutional U.S. Treasury Reserves include the Portfolio in which they invest, unless the context requires otherwise.

INVESTMENT POLICIES

Investment Objective and Strategies

The Fund and the Portfolio (as applicable) is registered under the 1940 Act as an open-end management investment company. The Fund’s Prospectus discusses the Fund’s investment objective and strategies. The following is a summary of certain strategies and investment limitations of the Fund and supplements the description of the Fund’s investment strategies in its Prospectus. Additional information regarding investment practices and risk factors with respect to the Fund may also be found below in the section entitled Investment Practices and Risk Factors.

All Funds

 

 

The Fund invests in securities that, at the time of purchase, are treated under applicable regulations as having remaining maturities of 397 days or less.

 

The Fund maintains a dollar weighted average maturity of not more than 60 days.

 

The Fund maintains a dollar weighted average life of not more than 120 days.

 

The Fund may not purchase or otherwise acquire any security if, as a result, more than 5% of its total assets would be invested in securities and other assets that are illiquid.

Government Reserves, Institutional Government Reserves and Premier Institutional Government Reserves

 

 

Investment objective. The Fund’s investment objective is to seek maximum current income to the extent consistent with preservation of capital and the maintenance of liquidity.

 

The Fund seeks to achieve its investment objective by investing all of its investable assets in Government Portfolio.

 

The Fund invests in securities that, at the time of purchase, are rated in the highest short-term rating category or, if not rated, are determined by the Subadviser to be of equivalent quality. In addition, each security, at the time of purchase by the Fund, has been determined by the Subadviser to present minimal credit risk.

 

The Fund invests exclusively in short-term U.S. government obligations, including U.S. Treasuries and securities issued or guaranteed by the U.S. government or its agencies, authorities, instrumentalities or sponsored entities and in repurchase agreements collateralized by government obligations. The Fund may also hold cash for cash management and defensive purposes.

 

The Fund meets the requirement under Rule 2a-7 under the 1940 Act, that a government money market fund invest at least 99.5% of its total assets in U.S. government obligations, cash, and/or repurchase agreements that are fully collateralized by U.S. government obligations or cash. In addition, the Fund meets the requirement under Rule 35d-1 under the 1940 Act, that a fund that includes the term “government” in its name invest, under normal circumstances, at least 80% of its net assets in U.S. government obligations and/or repurchase agreements that are collateralized by U.S. government obligations.

 

If either the Fund or the Portfolio were to change its investment policies so that more than 20% of its assets, under normal market conditions, could be invested in securities other than U.S. government obligations and related investments, the Fund or the Portfolio, as applicable, would give written notice to its shareholders (or investors, as applicable) at least 60 days prior to implementing the change.

 

4


Institutional Liquid Reserves and Premier Institutional Liquid Reserves

 

 

Investment objective. The Fund’s investment objective is to provide shareholders with liquidity and as high a level of current income as is consistent with preservation of capital.

 

The Fund seeks to achieve its investment objective by investing all of its investable assets in Liquid Reserves Portfolio.

 

The Fund invests in securities that, at the time of purchase, are rated by one or more rating agencies in the highest short-term rating category or, if not rated, are determined by the Subadviser to be of equivalent quality. In addition, each security, at the time of purchase by the Fund, has been determined by the Subadviser to present minimal credit risk.

 

The Fund may invest without limit in obligations of U.S. banks, and up to 25% of its assets in U.S. dollar-denominated obligations of non-U.S. banks, such as certificates of deposit, fixed time deposits and bankers’ acceptances.

 

The Fund limits its investments in U.S. bank obligations (including, for these purposes, their non-U.S. branches) to banks having more than $100 million of equity capital or total assets in excess of $1 billion and which are subject to regulation by an agency of the U.S. government, except that the investments in certificates of deposit, time deposits and banker’s acceptances are limited to those issued by banks having total assets in excess of $1 billion. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the Fund may also invest in certificates of deposit with principal amounts of no more than $100,000 per issuing bank with total assets of less than $1 billion, if those deposits are fully insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”).

 

The Fund limits its investments in “non-U.S. bank obligations” to U.S. dollar-denominated obligations of banks that at the time of investment are non-U.S. branches or subsidiaries of U.S. banks that meet the criteria in the preceding paragraphs or are U.S. or non-U.S. branches of non-U.S. banks, which banks (i) have more than $10 billion, or the equivalent in other currencies, in total assets; (ii) in terms of assets are among the 75 largest non-U.S. banks in the world; (iii) have branches or agencies in the United States; and (iv) in the opinion of the Subadviser, are of an investment quality comparable with obligations of U.S. banks which may be purchased by the Fund. These obligations may be general obligations of the parent bank, in addition to the issuing branch or subsidiary, but the parent bank’s obligations may be limited by the terms of the specific obligation or by governmental regulation.

 

The Fund may also enter into repurchase agreements where the underlying collateral consists of other types of securities, including securities the Fund could not purchase directly. For such repurchase agreements, the underlying securities which serve as collateral may include, but are not limited to, U.S. government securities, municipal securities, corporate debt obligations, asset-backed securities (including collateralized mortgage obligations (“CMOs”)), convertible securities and common and preferred stock and may be of below investment grade quality.

Institutional U.S. Treasury Obligations Money Market Fund

 

 

Investment objective. The Fund’s investment objective is to seek maximum current income to the extent consistent with preservation of capital and the maintenance of liquidity.

 

The Fund seeks to achieve its investment objective by investing all of its investable assets in U.S. Treasury Obligations Portfolio.

 

The Fund is a money market fund that invests all of its assets in direct obligations of the U.S. Treasury and in repurchase agreements secured by these obligations. The Fund may also hold cash for cash management and defensive purposes.

 

The Fund meets the requirement under Rule 2a-7 under the 1940 Act that a government money market fund invest at least 99.5% of its total assets in U.S. government obligations, cash, and/or repurchase agreements that are fully collateralized by U.S. government obligations or cash. In addition, the Fund meets the requirement under Rule 35d-1 under the 1940 Act that a fund that includes the term “U.S. Treasury obligations” in its name invest, under normal circumstances, at least 80% of its net assets in U.S. Treasury obligations and in repurchase agreements secured by U.S. Treasury obligations.

 

If the Fund or the Portfolio were to change its investment policies so that more than 20% of its assets, under normal market conditions, could be invested in securities other than those issued or backed by the U.S. Treasury and repurchase agreements secured by such securities, the Fund or the Portfolio, as applicable, would give written notice to its shareholders (or investors, as applicable) at least 60 days prior to implementing the change.

Institutional U.S. Treasury Reserves and Premier Institutional U.S. Treasury Reserves

 

 

Investment objective. The Fund’s investment objective is to provide shareholders with liquidity and as high a level of current income from U.S. government obligations as is consistent with preservation of capital.

 

The Fund seeks to achieve its investment objective by investing all of its investable assets in U.S. Treasury Reserves Portfolio.

 

5


 

The Fund is a money market fund that invests all of its assets in direct obligations of the U.S. Treasury. The Fund may also hold cash for cash management and defensive purposes.

 

The Fund meets the requirement under Rule 2a-7 under the 1940 Act that a government money market fund invest at least 99.5% of its total assets in U.S. government obligations, cash, and/or repurchase agreements that are fully collateralized by U.S. government obligations or cash. In addition, the Fund meets the requirement under Rule 35d-1 under the 1940 Act that a fund that includes the term “U.S. Treasury” in its name invest, under normal circumstances, at least 80% of its net assets in U.S. Treasury obligations.

Select Tax Free Reserves

 

 

Investment objective. The Fund’s investment objectives are to provide shareholders with high levels of current income exempt from federal income taxes, preservation of capital and liquidity.

 

The Fund invests in securities that, at the time of purchase, are rated by one or more rating agencies in the highest short-term rating category (or, with respect to not more than 3% of its total assets, in the second highest category) or, if not rated, are determined by the Subadviser to be of equivalent quality. In addition, each security, at the time of purchase by the Fund, has been determined by the Subadviser to present minimal credit risk.

 

The Fund is a money market fund that, under normal market conditions, invests at least 80% of its assets in short-term high-quality municipal obligations and interests in municipal obligations (“municipal securities”) that pay interest that is exempt from federal income tax, including the federal alternative minimum tax (“AMT”).

 

The Fund’s policy to invest at least 80% of its assets, under normal market conditions, in certain municipal securities may not be changed without shareholder or investor approval.

 

The Fund may invest without limit in obligations of U.S. banks, and up to 25% of its assets in dollar-denominated obligations of non-U.S. banks. These include participation interests in municipal securities issued and/or backed by banks and other obligations that have credit support or liquidity features provided by banks.

 

Under normal circumstances, the Fund may invest up to 20% of its assets in investments that pay interest that may be subject to regular federal income tax and/or the AMT, although for temporary or defensive purposes, the Fund may invest an unlimited amount in such securities.

 

Circumstances in which the Fund may invest in taxable securities include the following: (a) pending investment in the type of securities described above; (b) to maintain liquidity for the purpose of meeting anticipated withdrawals; and (c) when, in the opinion of the Subadviser, it is advisable to do so because of adverse market conditions affecting the market for municipal securities. The kinds of taxable securities in which the Fund’s assets may be invested are generally limited to the following short-term, fixed-income securities (maturing in 397 days or less from the time of purchase): (1) obligations of the U.S. government or its agencies, instrumentalities or authorities; (2) commercial paper; (3) certificates of deposit of U.S. banks with assets of $1 billion or more; and (4) repurchase agreements with respect to any municipal securities or obligations of the U.S. government or its agencies, instrumentalities, or authorities. As described above, the Fund’s assets may also be invested in municipal securities which are subject to the AMT.

Fundamental and Non-Fundamental Investment Policies

General

The Fund and the Portfolio (as applicable) have adopted the fundamental and non-fundamental investment policies below for the protection of shareholders. References to the Fund in this section include the Portfolio, unless the context requires otherwise. Fundamental investment policies of the Fund may not be changed without a 1940 Act Vote. The Board may change non-fundamental investment policies at any time.

Whenever the Fund is requested to vote on a change in the fundamental investment policies of the Portfolio, the Fund will either call a meeting of its shareholders and will vote its shares in the Portfolio in accordance with instructions it receives from its shareholders, or vote its shares in the Portfolio in the same proportion as the vote of all other investors in the Portfolio.

If any percentage restriction described below (other than the limitation on borrowing) is complied with at the time of an investment, a later increase or decrease in the percentage resulting from a change in asset values or characteristics will not constitute a violation of such restriction, unless otherwise noted below.

The Fund’s investment objective is non-fundamental.

 

6


Fundamental Investment Policies

The Fund’s fundamental investment policies are as follows:

Borrowing. The Fund may not borrow money except as permitted by (i) the 1940 Act, or interpretations or modifications by the SEC, SEC staff or other authority with appropriate jurisdiction, or (ii) exemptive or other relief or permission from the SEC, SEC staff or other authority.

Underwriting. The Fund may not engage in the business of underwriting the securities of other issuers except as permitted by (i) the 1940 Act, or interpretations or modifications by the SEC, SEC staff or other authority with appropriate jurisdiction, or (ii) exemptive or other relief or permission from the SEC, SEC staff or other authority.

Lending. The Fund may lend money or other assets to the extent permitted by (i) the 1940 Act, or interpretations or modifications by the SEC, SEC staff or other authority with appropriate jurisdiction, or (ii) exemptive or other relief or permission from the SEC, SEC staff or other authority.

Senior Securities. The Fund may not issue senior securities except as permitted by (i) the 1940 Act, or interpretations or modifications by the SEC, SEC staff or other authority with appropriate jurisdiction, or (ii) exemptive or other relief or permission from the SEC, SEC staff or other authority.

Real Estate. The Fund may not purchase or sell real estate except as permitted by (i) the 1940 Act, or interpretations or modifications by the SEC, SEC staff or other authority with appropriate jurisdiction, or (ii) exemptive or other relief or permission from the SEC, SEC staff or other authority.

Commodities. The Fund may purchase or sell commodities or contracts related to commodities to the extent permitted by (i) the 1940 Act, or interpretations or modifications by the SEC, SEC staff or other authority with appropriate jurisdiction, or (ii) exemptive or other relief or permission from the SEC, SEC staff or other authority.

Concentration.

Government Reserves, Institutional Government Reserves and Premier Institutional Government Reserves. Except as permitted by exemptive or other relief or permission from the SEC, SEC staff or other authority with appropriate jurisdiction, the Fund may not make any investment if, as a result, the Fund’s investments will be concentrated in any one industry, except that the Fund may invest without limit in obligations issued by banks.

Institutional U.S. Treasury Reserves and Premier Institutional U.S. Treasury Reserves. The Fund may not purchase any securities of an issuer in a particular industry if as a result 25% or more of its total assets (taken at market value at the time of purchase) would be invested in securities of issuers whose principal business activities are in the same industry.

Institutional Liquid Reserves and Premier Institutional Liquid Reserves. The Fund may not purchase any securities of an issuer in a particular industry if as a result 25% or more of its total assets (taken at market value at the time of purchase) would be invested in securities of issuers whose principal business activities are in the same industry, except that the Fund may invest at least 25% of its assets in bank obligations issued by domestic banks.

Institutional U.S. Treasury Obligations Money Market Fund. The Fund may not purchase any securities of an issuer in a particular industry if as a result 25% or more of its total assets (taken at market value at the time of purchase) would be invested in securities of issuers whose principal business activities are in the same industry.

Select Tax Free Reserves. The Fund may not purchase any securities of an issuer in a particular industry if as a result 25% or more of its total assets (taken at market value at the time of purchase) would be invested in securities of issuers whose principal business activities are in the same industry, except that the Fund may invest at least 25% of its assets in bank obligations issued by domestic banks, including, bank participation interests in municipal obligations.

For purposes of the investment restrictions described above, the issuer of a tax-exempt security is deemed to be the entity (public or private) principally responsible for the payment of principal of and interest on the security. If, however, the creating government or some other entity, such as an insurance company or other corporate obligor, guarantees a security or a bank issues a letter of credit, such a guarantee or letter of credit may, in accordance with applicable SEC rules, be considered a separate security and treated as an issue of such government, other entity or bank.

 

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With respect to the fundamental policy relating to borrowing money set forth above, the 1940 Act permits a fund to borrow money in amounts of up to one-third of the fund’s total assets from banks for any purpose, and to borrow up to 5% of the fund’s total assets from banks or other lenders for temporary purposes. (A fund’s total assets include the amounts being borrowed.) To limit the risks attendant to borrowing, the 1940 Act requires a fund to maintain an “asset coverage” of at least 300% of the amount of its borrowings, provided that in the event that the fund’s asset coverage falls below 300%, the fund is required to reduce the amount of its borrowings so that it meets the 300% asset coverage threshold within three days (not including Sundays and holidays). Asset coverage means the ratio that the value of a fund’s total assets (including amounts borrowed), minus liabilities other than borrowings, bears to the aggregate amount of all borrowings. Certain trading practices and investments, such as reverse repurchase agreements, may be considered to be borrowing, and thus, subject to the 1940 Act restrictions. Borrowing money to increase portfolio holdings is known as “leveraging.” Borrowing, especially when used for leverage, may cause the value of the Fund’s shares to be more volatile than if the Fund did not borrow. This is because borrowing tends to magnify the effect of any increase or decrease in the value of the Fund’s portfolio holdings. Borrowed money thus creates an opportunity for greater gains, but also greater losses. To repay borrowings, the Fund may have to sell securities at a time and at a price that is unfavorable to the Fund. There also are costs associated with borrowing money, and these costs would offset and could eliminate the Fund’s net investment income in any given period. Currently, no Fund contemplates borrowing money for leverage, but if it does so, it will not likely do so to a substantial degree. The policy above will be interpreted to permit the Fund to engage in trading practices and investments that may be considered to be borrowing to the extent permitted by the 1940 Act. Short-term credits necessary for the settlement of securities transactions and arrangements with respect to securities lending will not be considered to be borrowings under the policy. Practices and investments that may involve leverage but are not considered to be borrowings are not subject to the policy.

With respect to the fundamental policy relating to underwriting set forth above, the 1940 Act does not prohibit a fund from engaging in the underwriting business or from underwriting the securities of other issuers; in fact, the 1940 Act permits a fund to have underwriting commitments of up to 25% of its assets under certain circumstances. Those circumstances currently are that the amount of the fund’s underwriting commitments, when added to the value of the fund’s investments in issuers where the fund owns more than 10% of the outstanding voting securities of those issuers, cannot exceed the 25% cap. A fund engaging in transactions involving the acquisition or disposition of portfolio securities may be considered to be an underwriter under the 1933 Act. Under the 1933 Act, an underwriter may be liable for material omissions or misstatements in an issuer’s registration statement or prospectus. Securities purchased from an issuer and not registered for sale under the 1933 Act are considered restricted securities. There may be a limited market for these securities. If these securities are registered under the 1933 Act, they may then be eligible for sale but participating in the sale may subject the seller to underwriter liability. These risks could apply to a fund investing in restricted securities. Although it is not believed that the application of the 1933 Act provisions described above would cause the Fund to be engaged in the business of underwriting, the policy above will be interpreted not to prevent the Fund from engaging in transactions involving the acquisition or disposition of portfolio securities, regardless of whether the Fund may be considered to be an underwriter under the 1933 Act.

With respect to the fundamental policy relating to lending set forth above, the 1940 Act does not prohibit a fund from making loans; however, SEC staff interpretations currently prohibit funds from lending more than one-third of their total assets, except through the purchase of debt obligations or the use of repurchase agreements. (A repurchase agreement is an agreement to purchase a security, coupled with an agreement to sell that security back to the original seller on an agreed-upon date at a price that reflects current interest rates. The SEC frequently treats repurchase agreements as loans.) While lending securities may be a source of income to the Fund, as with other extensions of credit, there are risks of delay in recovery or even loss of rights in the underlying securities should the borrower fail financially. However, loans would be made only when the Fund’s Manager or Subadviser believes the income justifies the attendant risks. The Fund also will be permitted by this policy to make loans of money, including to other funds. The Fund would have to obtain exemptive relief from the SEC to make loans to other funds. The policy above will be interpreted not to prevent the Fund from purchasing or investing in debt obligations and loans.

With respect to the fundamental policy relating to issuing senior securities set forth above, “senior securities” are defined as fund obligations that have a priority over the fund’s shares with respect to the payment of dividends or the distribution of fund assets. The 1940 Act prohibits a fund from issuing senior securities, except that the fund may borrow money in amounts of up to one-third of the fund’s total assets from banks for any purpose. A fund also may borrow up to 5% of the fund’s total assets from banks or other lenders for temporary purposes, and these borrowings are not considered senior securities. The issuance of senior securities by a fund can increase the speculative character of the fund’s outstanding shares through

 

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leveraging. Leveraging of the Fund’s portfolio through the issuance of senior securities magnifies the potential for gain or loss on monies, because even though the Fund’s net assets remain the same, the total risk to investors is increased to the extent of the Fund’s gross assets.

With respect to the fundamental policy relating to real estate set forth above, the 1940 Act does not prohibit a fund from owning real estate; however, a fund is limited in the amount of illiquid assets it may purchase. Investing in real estate may involve risks, including that real estate is generally considered illiquid and may be difficult to value and sell. Owners of real estate may be subject to various liabilities, including environmental liabilities. To the extent that investments in real estate are considered illiquid, SEC rules limit a money market fund’s purchases of illiquid securities to 5% of total assets. The policy above will be interpreted not to prevent the Fund from investing in real estate-related companies, companies whose businesses consist in whole or in part of investing in real estate, instruments (like mortgages) that are secured by real estate or interests therein, or real estate investment trust securities. As government money market funds, neither Premier Institutional Government Reserves nor Premier Institutional U.S. Treasury Reserves will invest in real estate.

With respect to the fundamental policy relating to commodities set forth above, the 1940 Act does not prohibit a fund from owning commodities, whether physical commodities and contracts related to physical commodities (such as oil or grains and related futures contracts), or financial commodities and contracts related to financial commodities (such as currencies and, possibly, currency futures). However, a fund is limited in the amount of illiquid assets it may purchase. To the extent that investments in commodities are considered illiquid, SEC rules limit a money market fund’s purchases of illiquid securities to 5% of total assets. If the Fund were to invest in a physical commodity or a physical commodity-related instrument, the Fund would be subject to the additional risks of the particular physical commodity and its related market. The value of commodities and commodity-related instruments may be extremely volatile and may be affected either directly or indirectly by a variety of factors. There also may be storage charges and risks of loss associated with physical commodities. The policy above will be interpreted to permit investments in exchange traded funds that invest in physical and/or financial commodities. As government money market funds, neither Premier Institutional Government Reserves nor Premier Institutional U.S. Treasury Reserves will invest in commodities.

With respect to the fundamental policy relating to concentration set forth above, the 1940 Act does not define what constitutes “concentration” in an industry. The SEC staff has taken the position that investment of 25% or more of a fund’s total assets in one or more issuers conducting their principal activities in the same industry or group of industries constitutes concentration. It is possible that interpretations of concentration could change in the future. A fund that invests a significant percentage of its total assets in a single industry may be particularly susceptible to adverse events affecting that industry and may be more risky than a fund that does not concentrate in an industry. The concentration policy above will be interpreted to refer to concentration as that term may be interpreted from time to time. In addition, the term industry will be interpreted to include related groups of industries. The SEC has taken the position that money market funds may reserve the right to invest without limit in instruments of domestic banks without being deemed to concentrate their investments. The policy above will be interpreted to permit investment without limit in domestic bank participation interests in municipal securities. Currently, Government Reserves, Institutional Government Reserves and Premier Institutional Government Reserves do not intend to purchase or concentrate in banking obligations. The policy also will be interpreted to permit investment without limit in the following: securities of the U.S. government and its agencies or instrumentalities; securities of state, territory, possession or municipal governments and their authorities, agencies, instrumentalities or political subdivisions; and repurchase agreements collateralized fully by any such obligations. Accordingly, issuers of the foregoing securities will not be considered to be members of any industry. There also will be no limit on investment in issuers based solely on their domicile in a single jurisdiction or country. The policy also will be interpreted to give broad authority to the Fund as to how to classify issuers within or among industries or groups of industries. The Fund has been advised by the staff of the SEC that the staff currently views securities issued by a foreign government to be in a single industry for purposes of calculating applicable limits on concentration. Neither Premier Institutional Government Reserves nor Premier Institutional U.S. Treasury Reserves invests in securities issued by foreign governments, and Premier Institutional Liquid Reserves does not intend to invest more than 25% of its assets in securities issued by a foreign government.

The Fund’s fundamental policies are written and will be interpreted broadly. For example, the policies will be interpreted to refer to the 1940 Act and the related rules as they are in effect from time to time, and to interpretations and modifications of or relating to the 1940 Act by the SEC and others as they are given from time to time. When a policy provides

 

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that an investment practice may be conducted as permitted by the 1940 Act, the policy will be interpreted to mean either that the 1940 Act expressly permits the practice or that the 1940 Act does not prohibit the practice.

Rule 2a-7 under the 1940 Act may limit a money market fund’s ability to engage in a strategy otherwise permitted under the 1940 Act.

Additional Fundamental Investment Policy

As a fundamental policy, under normal market conditions, Select Tax Free Reserves invests at least 80% of its assets in municipal obligations and interests in municipal obligations that pay interest that is exempt from federal income tax, including the federal alternative minimum tax.

Diversification

Each of Government Reserves, Institutional Government Reserves, Premier Institutional Government Reserves, Institutional Liquid Reserves, Premier Institutional Liquid Reserves, Institutional U.S. Treasury Obligations Money Market Fund, Institutional U.S. Treasury Reserves and Premier Institutional U.S. Treasury Reserves is currently classified as a diversified fund under the 1940 Act. The Fund may only change to non-diversified status with a 1940 Act Vote.

Select Tax Free Reserves is currently classified as a non-diversified fund under the 1940 Act. A non-diversified fund can invest a greater portion of its assets in a single issuer or a limited number of issuers than may a diversified fund. In this regard, a non-diversified fund is subject to greater risk than a diversified fund. However, Select Tax Free Reserves intends to comply with the diversification requirements applicable to money market funds, which limit a fund’s ability to invest in the obligations of a single issuer. Under the 1940 Act, the Fund may change its classification from non-diversified to diversified without shareholder approval.

Commodity Exchange Act Regulation- Exclusion from Commodity Pool Operator Definition

The Fund and the Portfolio are operated by persons who have claimed an exclusion, granted to operators of registered investment companies, like the Fund and the Portfolio, from registration as a “commodity pool operator” with respect to the Fund and the Portfolio under the CEA and, therefore are not subject to registration or regulation with respect to the Fund and the Portfolio under the CEA.

INVESTMENT PRACTICES AND RISK FACTORS

In addition to the investment strategies and the risks described in the Fund’s Prospectus and in this SAI under Investment Objective and Strategies, the Fund may employ other investment practices and may be subject to other risks, which are described below. The Fund may engage in the practices described below to the extent consistent with its investment objectives, strategies, policies and restrictions. However, as with any investment or investment technique, even when the Fund’s Prospectus or this discussion indicates that the Fund may engage in an activity, the Fund may not actually do so for a variety of reasons. In addition, new types of instruments and other securities may be developed and marketed from time to time. Consistent with its investment limitations, the Fund expects to invest in those new types of securities and instruments that its portfolio manager believes may assist the Fund in achieving its investment objective.

This discussion is not intended to limit the Fund’s investment flexibility, unless such a limitation is expressly stated, and therefore will be construed by the Fund as broadly as possible. Statements concerning what the Fund may do are not intended to limit any other activity.

Investing in the Banking Industry

The Fund may invest in U.S. dollar-denominated obligations of foreign banks, and in obligations of domestic banks, as that term has been interpreted by the SEC. Under SEC interpretations, a U.S. branch of a foreign bank may be considered a domestic bank if the U.S. branch of the foreign bank is subject to the same regulation as a U.S. bank. Likewise, a non-U.S. branch of a U.S. bank may be considered a domestic bank if the investment risk associated with investing in instruments issued by the non-U.S. branch is the same, in the opinion of the portfolio manager, as that of investing in instruments issued by the branch’s domestic parent. The Fund may also invest in Eurodollar and Yankee bank obligations.

 

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Certificates of deposit (“CDs”) are savings certificates generally issued by commercial banks that bear a maturity date and a specified interest rate, and can be issued in any denomination. Fixed time deposits (“Fixed TDs”) are obligations which are payable at a stated maturity date and bear a fixed rate of interest. Generally, Fixed TDs may be withdrawn on demand by the Fund, but they may be subject to early withdrawal penalties which vary depending upon market conditions and the remaining maturity of the obligation. Although Fixed TDs do not have a market, there are no contractual restrictions on the Fund’s right to transfer a beneficial interest in the deposit to a third party. A bankers’ acceptance is a draft drawn on and accepted by a bank that orders payment to a third party at a later date. Bankers’ acceptances generally act as a negotiable time draft for financing imports, exports, or other transactions in goods.

U.S. banks organized under federal law are supervised and examined by the Comptroller of the Currency and are required to be members of the Federal Reserve System and to be insured by the FDIC. U.S. banks organized under state law are supervised and examined by state banking authorities and are members of the Federal Reserve System only if they elect to join. However, state banks which are insured by the FDIC are subject to federal examination and to a substantial body of federal law and regulation. As a result of federal and state laws and regulations, U.S. branches of U.S. banks, among other things, are generally required to maintain specified levels of reserves, and are subject to other supervision and regulation designed to promote financial soundness.

The provisions of federal law governing the establishment and operation of U.S. branches do not apply to non-U.S. branches of U.S. banks. However, the Fund may purchase obligations only of those non-U.S. branches of U.S. banks which were established with the approval of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (the “Board of Governors”). As a result of such approval, these branches are subject to examination by the Board of Governors and the Comptroller of the Currency. In addition, such non-U.S. branches of U.S. banks are subject to the supervision of the U.S. bank and creditors of the non-U.S. branch are considered general creditors of the U.S. bank subject to whatever defenses may be available under the governing non-U.S. law and to the terms of the specific obligation. Nonetheless, the Fund generally will be subject to whatever risk may exist that the non-U.S. country may impose restrictions on payment of certificates of deposit or time deposits.

U.S. branches of non-U.S. banks are subject to the laws of the state in which the branch is located or to the laws of the United States. Such branches are therefore subject to many of the regulations, including reserve requirements, to which U.S. banks are subject.

Obligations of foreign branches of domestic banks and of foreign branches of foreign banks, such as CDs and Fixed TDs, may be general obligations of the parent bank in addition to the issuing branch, or may be limited by the terms of a specific obligation or by governmental regulation. Such obligations are subject to many of the same risks as those of domestic banks or domestic branches of foreign banks. They are also subject to risks such as future political and economic developments, the possible imposition of non-U.S. withholding taxes on interest income payable on such obligations held by the Fund, the possible seizure or nationalization of non-U.S. deposits and the possible establishment of exchange controls or other non-U.S. governmental laws or restrictions that might adversely affect payment of principal and interest on such obligations held by the Fund. Foreign branches of domestic banks and foreign branches of foreign banks are not necessarily subject to the same or similar regulatory requirements that apply to domestic banks, such as mandatory reserve requirements, loan limitations and accounting, auditing and financial record keeping requirements. Additionally, there may be less public information available about non-U.S. entities. Non-U.S. issuers may be subject to less governmental regulation and supervision than U.S. issuers. Non-U.S. issuers also generally are not bound by uniform accounting, auditing and financial reporting requirements comparable to those applicable to U.S. issuers.

Borrowings

The Fund may engage in borrowing transactions as a means of raising cash to satisfy redemption requests, for other temporary or emergency purposes or, to the extent permitted by its investment policies, to raise additional cash to be invested by the Fund in other securities or instruments in an effort to increase the Fund’s investment returns. Reverse repurchase agreements may be considered to be a type of borrowing.

When the Fund invests borrowing proceeds in other securities, the Fund will be at risk for any fluctuations in the market value of the securities in which the proceeds are invested. Like other leveraging risks, this makes the value of an investment in the Fund more volatile and increases the Fund’s overall investment exposure. In addition, if the Fund’s return on its

 

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investment of the borrowing proceeds does not equal or exceed the interest that the Fund is obligated to pay under the terms of a borrowing, engaging in these transactions will lower the Fund’s return.

The Fund may be required to liquidate portfolio securities at a time when it would be disadvantageous to do so in order to make payments with respect to its borrowing obligations. Interest on any borrowings will be an expense to the Fund and will reduce the value of the Fund’s shares. The Fund may borrow on a secured or on an unsecured basis. If the Fund enters into a secured borrowing arrangement, a portion of the Fund’s assets will be used as collateral. During the term of the borrowing, the Fund will remain at risk for any fluctuations in the market value of these assets in addition to any securities purchased with the proceeds of the loan. In addition, the Fund may be unable to sell the collateral at a time when it would be advantageous to do so, which could result in lower returns. The Fund would also be subject to the risk that the lender may file for bankruptcy, become insolvent, or otherwise default on its obligations to return the collateral to the Fund. In the event of a default by the lender, there may be delays, costs and risks of loss involved in the Fund’s exercising its rights with respect to the collateral or those rights may be limited by other contractual agreements or obligations or by applicable law.

The 1940 Act requires the Fund to maintain an “asset coverage” of at least 300% of the amount of its borrowings, provided that in the event that the Fund’s asset coverage falls below 300%, the Fund is required to reduce the amount of its borrowings so that it meets the 300% asset coverage threshold within three days (not including Sundays and holidays). Asset coverage means the ratio that the value of the Fund’s total assets, minus liabilities other than borrowings and other senior securities, bears to the aggregate amount of all borrowings. Although complying with this guideline would have the effect of limiting the amount that the Fund may borrow, it does not otherwise mitigate the risks of entering into borrowing transactions.

Commercial Paper

Commercial paper (including variable amount master demand notes and funding agreements) consists of short-term, unsecured promissory notes issued by corporations, partnerships, trusts and other entities to finance short-term credit needs.

Custodial Receipts

The Fund may acquire custodial receipts or certificates underwritten by securities dealers or banks that evidence ownership of future interest payments, principal payments or both on certain municipal obligations. The underwriter of these certificates or receipts typically purchases municipal obligations and deposits the obligations in an irrevocable trust or custodial account with a custodian bank, which then issues receipts or certificates that evidence ownership of the periodic unmatured coupon payments and the final principal payment on the obligations. Although under the terms of a custodial receipt, the Fund would be typically authorized to assert its rights directly against the issuer of the underlying obligation, the Fund could be required to assert through the custodian bank those rights as may exist against the underlying issuer. Thus, in the event the underlying issuer fails to pay principal and/or interest when due, the Fund may be subject to delays, expenses and risks that are greater than those that would have been involved if the Fund had purchased a direct obligation of the issuer. In addition, in the event that the trust or custodial account in which the underlying security has been deposited is determined to be an association taxable as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes, the yield on the underlying security would be reduced by any entity-level corporate taxes paid by the issuer.

Custodial receipts may also evidence ownership of future interest payments, principal payments or both on certain U.S. government obligations. Such obligations are held in custody by a bank on behalf of the owners. Custodial receipts are generally not considered obligations of the U.S. government for purposes of securities laws.

Cybersecurity Risk

With the increased use of technologies such as mobile devices and Web-based or “cloud” applications, and the dependence on the Internet and computer systems to conduct business, the Fund is susceptible to operational, information security and related risks. In general, cybersecurity incidents can result from deliberate attacks or unintentional events (arising from external or internal sources) that may cause the Fund to lose proprietary information, suffer data corruption, physical damage to a computer or network system or lose operational capacity. Cybersecurity attacks include, but are not limited to, infection by malicious software, such as malware or computer viruses or gaining unauthorized access to digital systems, networks or devices that are used to service the Fund’s operations (e.g., through “hacking,” “phishing” or malicious software coding) or other means for purposes of misappropriating assets or sensitive information, corrupting data, or causing operational disruption. Cybersecurity attacks may also be carried out in a manner that does not require gaining unauthorized access, such as

 

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causing denial-of-service attacks on the Fund’s websites (i.e., efforts to make network services unavailable to intended users). Recently, geopolitical tensions may have increased the scale and sophistication of deliberate cybersecurity attacks, particularly those from nation-states or from entities with nation-state backing. In addition, authorized persons could inadvertently or intentionally release confidential or proprietary information stored on the Fund’s systems.

Cybersecurity incidents affecting the Fund’s Manager, the Subadviser, and other service providers to the Fund or its shareholders (including, but not limited to, Fund accountants, custodians, sub-custodians, transfer agents and financial intermediaries) have the ability to cause disruptions and impact business operations, potentially resulting in financial losses to both the Fund and its shareholders, interference with the Fund’s ability to calculate its net asset value, impediments to trading, the inability of Fund shareholders to transact business and the Fund to process transactions (including fulfillment of Fund share purchases and redemptions), violations of applicable privacy and other laws (including the release of private shareholder information) and attendant breach notification and credit monitoring costs, regulatory fines, penalties, litigation costs, reputational damage, reimbursement or other compensation costs, forensic investigation and remediation costs, and/or additional compliance costs. Similar adverse consequences could result from cybersecurity incidents affecting issuers of securities in which the Fund invests, counterparties with which the Fund engages in transactions, governmental and other regulatory authorities, exchange and other financial market operators, banks, brokers, dealers, insurance companies and other financial institutions (including financial intermediaries and other service providers) and other parties. In addition, substantial costs may be incurred in order to safeguard against and reduce the risk of any cybersecurity incidents in the future. In addition to administrative, technological and procedural safeguards, the Fund’s Manager and the Subadviser have established business continuity plans in the event of, and risk management systems to prevent or reduce the impact of, such cybersecurity incidents. However, there are inherent limitations in such plans and systems, including the possibility that certain risks have not been identified, as well as the rapid development of new threats. Furthermore, the Fund cannot control the cybersecurity plans and systems put in place by its service providers or any other third parties whose operations may affect the Fund and its shareholders. The Fund and its shareholders could be negatively impacted as a result.

Because technology is frequently changing, new ways to carry out cyber attacks are always developing. Therefore, there is a chance that some risks have not been identified or prepared for, or that an attack may not be detected, which puts limitations on the Fund’s ability to plan for or respond to a cyber attack. Like other funds and business enterprises, the Fund, the Manager and the Subadviser and their service providers are subject to the risk of cyber incidents occurring from time to time.

Demand Instruments

Demand instruments are securities issued as floating- or variable-rate securities subject to demand features. Demand instruments usually have a stated maturity of more than one year but contain a demand feature (or “put”) that enables the holder to tender the investment at an exercise price equal to approximately the amortized cost of the instrument plus accrued interest on no more than 30 days’ notice. Variable-rate demand instruments provide for automatic establishment of a new interest rate on set dates. Floating-rate demand instruments provide for automatic adjustment of interest rates whenever a specified interest rate (e.g., the prime rate) changes. The Fund currently is permitted to purchase floating rate and variable rate obligations with demand features in accordance with requirements established by the SEC, which, among other things, permit such instruments to be deemed to have remaining maturities of 13 months or less, notwithstanding that they may otherwise have a stated maturity in excess of 13 months. Securities with ultimate maturities of greater than 13 months may be purchased only pursuant to Rule 2a-7 of the 1940 Act. Frequently, floating rate and variable rate obligations are secured by letters of credit or other credit support arrangements provided by banks.

Securities with demand features may involve certain expenses and risks, including the inability of the issuer of the instrument to pay for the securities at the time the instrument is exercised, non-marketability of the instrument and differences between the maturity of the underlying security and the maturity of the instrument. Securities may cost more with demand features than without them. Demand features can serve three purposes: (i) to shorten the maturity of a variable or floating rate security, (ii) to enhance the instrument’s credit quality and (iii) to provide a source of liquidity. Demand features are often issued by third party financial institutions, generally U.S. and non-U.S. banks, and by brokerage firms or insurance companies. Accordingly, the credit quality and liquidity of the Fund’s investments may be dependent in part on the credit quality of the institutions supporting the Fund’s investments and changes in the credit quality of these institutions could cause losses to the Fund and affect its share price.

 

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Variable rate demand instruments include variable rate demand preferred shares or other forms of liquidity protected preferred shares that are issued by closed end investment companies that invest in municipal securities. These preferred shares have a liquidation preference and pay a dividend that is set weekly or at some other interval (typically 28 days) by a remarketing agent or through a similar process that is designed to approximate current prevailing interest rates. The Fund, as a holder of one of these instruments, will have the right to tender the securities for remarketing or, if the securities cannot be remarketed, to tender the securities to a liquidity provider, in each case at a price equal to its liquidation preference plus accrued dividends. The Fund would have no right to tender the shares to the issuer for payment or redemption, and the shares will be not freely transferable. The Fund will be subject to the risk that the liquidity provider will not be able to honor its unconditional commitment to purchase the shares.

Foreign Securities

The risks of investing in securities of non-U.S. issuers or issuers with significant exposure to non-U.S. markets may be related, among other things, to (i) differences in size, liquidity and volatility of, and the degree and manner of regulation of, the securities markets of certain non-U.S. markets compared to the securities markets in the U.S.; (ii) economic, political and social factors; and (iii) foreign exchange matters, such as restrictions on the repatriation of capital, fluctuations in exchange rates between the U.S. dollar and the currencies in which the Fund’s portfolio securities are quoted or denominated, exchange control regulations and costs associated with currency exchange. The political and economic structures in certain foreign countries, particularly emerging markets, are expected to undergo significant evolution and rapid development, and such countries may lack the social, political and economic stability characteristic of more developed countries.

Unanticipated political or social developments may affect the values of the Fund’s investments in such countries. The economies and securities and currency markets of many emerging markets have experienced significant disruption and declines. There can be no assurances that these economic and market disruptions will not continue.

Legal remedies available to investors in certain foreign countries may be less extensive than those available to investors in the U.S. or other foreign countries. Accounting standards in other countries are also not necessarily the same as in the United States. If the accounting standards in another country do not require as much detail as U.S. accounting standards, it may be harder for the portfolio manager to completely and accurately determine a company’s financial condition. In addition, the U.S. Government has from time to time in the past imposed restrictions, through penalties and otherwise, on foreign investments by U.S. investors such as the Fund. Also, brokerage commissions and other costs of buying or selling securities often are higher in foreign countries than they are in the U.S. This reduces the amount the Fund can earn on its investments.

The Fund generally holds its foreign securities and cash in foreign banks and securities depositories. Some foreign banks and securities depositories may be recently organized or new to the foreign custody business. In addition, there may be limited or no regulatory oversight over their operations. Also, the laws of certain countries may put limits on the Fund’s ability to recover its assets if a foreign bank or depository or issuer of a security or any of their agents goes bankrupt. In addition, it is often more expensive for the Fund to buy, sell and hold securities in certain foreign markets than in the U.S. The increased expense of investing in foreign markets reduces the amount the Fund can earn on its investments and typically results in a higher operating expense ratio for the Fund as compared to investment companies that invest only in the United States.

Securities of some foreign companies have lower liquidity, and their prices are more volatile, than securities of comparable domestic companies. Certain foreign countries are known to experience long delays between the trade and settlement dates of securities purchased or sold resulting in increased exposure of the Fund to market and foreign exchange fluctuations brought about by such delays, and to the corresponding negative impact on Fund liquidity.

Foreign Currency Risks

The U.S. dollar value of securities denominated in a foreign currency will vary with changes in currency exchange rates, which can be volatile. Accordingly, changes in the value of the currency in which the Fund’s investments are denominated relative to the U.S. dollar will affect the Fund’s net asset value. Exchange rates are generally affected by the forces of supply and demand in the international currency markets, the relative merits of investing in different countries and the intervention or failure to intervene of U.S. or foreign governments and central banks. However, currency exchange rates may fluctuate based on factors intrinsic to a country’s economy. Some emerging market countries also may have managed currencies, which are not free floating against the U.S. dollar. In addition, emerging markets are subject to the risk of restrictions upon the free conversion of their

 

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currencies into other currencies. Any devaluations relative to the U.S. dollar in the currencies in which the Fund’s securities are quoted would reduce the Fund’s net asset value per share.

Europe — Recent Events

A number of countries in Europe have experienced severe economic and financial difficulties. Many non-governmental issuers, and even certain governments, have defaulted on, or been forced to restructure, their debts; many other issuers have faced difficulties obtaining credit or refinancing existing obligations; financial institutions have in many cases required government or central bank support, have needed to raise capital, and/or have been impaired in their ability to extend credit; and financial markets in Europe and elsewhere have experienced extreme volatility and declines in asset values and liquidity. These difficulties may continue, worsen or spread within and outside of Europe. Responses to the financial problems by European governments, central banks and others, including austerity measures and reforms, may not work, may result in social unrest and may limit future growth and economic recovery or have other unintended consequences. Further defaults or restructurings by governments and others of their debt could have additional adverse effects on economies, financial markets and asset valuations around the world.

In addition, the United Kingdom left the European Union on January 31, 2020, commonly referred to as “Brexit.” Following a transition period, the United Kingdom’s post-Brexit trade agreement with the European Union passed into law in December 2020, was provisionally applied effective January 1, 2021, and formally entered into force on May 1, 2021. There is significant market uncertainty regarding Brexit’s ramifications. The range and potential implications of possible political, regulatory, economic, and market outcomes cannot be fully known but could be significant, potentially resulting in increased volatility and illiquidity and lower economic growth for companies that rely significantly on Europe for their business activities and revenues. The United Kingdom has one of the largest economies in Europe and is a major trading partner with the European Union countries and the United States. Brexit may create additional and substantial economic stresses for the United Kingdom, including a contraction of the United Kingdom’s economy, decreased trade, capital outflows, devaluation of the British pound, as well as a decrease in business and consumer spending and investment. The negative impact on not only the United Kingdom and other European economies but also the broader global economy could be significant. Moreover, other countries may seek to withdraw from the European Union and/or abandon the euro, the common currency of the European Union. A number of countries in Europe have suffered terror attacks, and additional attacks may occur in the future. Europe has also been struggling with mass migration from the Middle East and Africa.

The ultimate effects of these events and other socio-political or geopolitical issues are not known but could profoundly affect global economies and markets. Whether or not the Fund invests in securities of issuers located in Europe or with significant exposure to European issuers or countries, these events could negatively affect the value and liquidity of the Fund’s investments.

Risks Related to Russia’s Invasion of Ukraine

Russia’s military invasion of Ukraine in February 2022, the resulting responses by the United States and other countries, and the potential for wider conflict could increase volatility and uncertainty in the financial markets and adversely affect regional and global economies. The United States and other countries have imposed broad-ranging economic sanctions on Russia, certain Russian individuals, banking entities and corporations, and Belarus as a response to Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, and may impose sanctions on other countries that provide military or economic support to Russia. The extent and duration of Russia’s military actions and the repercussions of such actions (including any retaliatory actions or countermeasures that may be taken by those subject to sanctions, including cyber attacks) are impossible to predict, but could result in significant market disruptions, including in certain industries or sectors, such as the oil and natural gas markets, and may negatively affect global supply chains, inflation and global growth. These and any related events could significantly impact the Fund’s performance and the value of an investment in the Fund, even if the Fund does not have direct exposure to Russian issuers or issuers in other countries affected by the invasion.

Sovereign Government and Supranational Debt Obligations

The Fund may invest in all types of debt securities of governmental issuers in all countries, including emerging markets. These sovereign debt securities may include: debt securities issued or guaranteed by governments, governmental agencies or instrumentalities and political subdivisions located in emerging market countries; debt securities issued by government owned, controlled or sponsored entities located in emerging market countries; interests issued for the purpose of restructuring the

 

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investment characteristics of instruments issued by any of the above issuers; Brady Bonds, which are debt securities issued under the framework of the Brady Plan as a means for debtor nations to restructure their outstanding external indebtedness; participations in loans between emerging market governments and financial institutions; or debt securities issued by supranational entities such as the World Bank. A supranational entity is a bank, commission or company established or financially supported by the national governments of one or more countries to promote reconstruction or development. Included among these entities are the Asian Development Bank, the European Union, the European Investment Bank, the Inter-American Development Bank, the International Monetary Fund, the United Nations, the World Bank and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. Supranational organizations have no taxing authority and are dependent on their members for payments of interest and principal. There is no guarantee that one or more members of a supranational organization will continue to make capital contributions. If such contributions are not made, the organization may be unable to pay interest or repay principal on its debt securities, and the Fund may lose money on such investments. Further, the lending activities of such entities are limited to a percentage of their total capital, reserves and net income.

Sovereign debt is subject to risks in addition to those relating to non-U.S. investments generally. As a sovereign entity, the issuing government may be immune from lawsuits in the event of its failure or refusal to pay the obligations when due. The debtor’s willingness or ability to repay in a timely manner may be affected by, among other factors, its cash flow situation, the extent of its non-U.S. currency reserves, the availability of sufficient foreign currency exchange on the date a payment is due, the relative size of the debt service burden to the economy as a whole, the sovereign debtor’s policy toward principal international lenders and the political constraints to which the sovereign debtor may be subject. Sovereign debtors may also be dependent on disbursements or assistance from non-U.S. governments or multinational agencies, the country’s access to trade and other international credits, and the country’s balance of trade. Assistance may be dependent on a country’s implementation of austerity measures and reforms, economic performance and/or the timely service of such debtor’s obligations. Failure to implement such reforms, achieve such levels of economic performance or repay principal or interest when due may result in the cancellation of such third parties’ commitments to lend funds to the governmental entity, which may further impair such debtor’s ability or willingness to service its debts in a timely manner. Some sovereign debtors have rescheduled their debt payments, declared moratoria on payments or restructured their debt to effectively eliminate portions of it, and similar occurrences may happen in the future. There is no bankruptcy proceeding by which sovereign debt on which governmental entities have defaulted may be collected in whole or in part.

High Quality Corporate Obligations

High quality corporate obligations include obligations of corporations that are originally issued with a maturity of greater than 397 days and are: (1) rated as long-term debt obligations in the highest rating category or (2) issued by an issuer that has a class of short-term debt obligations that are comparable in priority and security with the obligation and that have been rated in the highest rating category for short-term debt obligations, or are otherwise comparable to short-term debt obligations having such a rating.

Illiquid Investments and Restricted Securities

An illiquid security is any security which the Fund reasonably expects cannot be sold or disposed of in current market conditions in seven calendar days or less without the sale or disposition significantly changing the market value of the security. The Fund must follow strict rules with respect to the liquidity of its portfolio securities, including daily and weekly liquidity requirements. To the extent required by applicable law and SEC guidance, the Fund will not acquire an illiquid security if such acquisition would cause the aggregate value of illiquid securities to exceed 5% of the Fund’s total assets. If at any time the portfolio manager determines that the value of illiquid securities held by the Fund exceeds 5% of the Fund’s total assets, the portfolio manager will take such steps as it considers appropriate to reduce the percentage as soon as reasonably practicable.

Restricted securities are securities subject to legal or contractual restrictions on their resale, such as private placements. Such restrictions might prevent the sale of restricted securities at a time when the sale would otherwise be desirable. Under SEC regulations, certain restricted securities acquired through private placements can be traded freely among qualified purchasers. While restricted securities are generally presumed to be illiquid, it may be determined that a particular restricted security is liquid. Investing in these restricted securities could have the effect of increasing the Fund’s illiquidity if qualified purchasers become, for a time, uninterested in buying these securities.

 

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Restricted securities may be sold only (1) pursuant to SEC Rule 144A or another exemption, (2) in privately negotiated transactions or (3) in public offerings with respect to which a registration statement is in effect under the 1933 Act. Rule 144A securities, although not registered in the U.S., may be sold to qualified institutional buyers in accordance with Rule 144A under the 1933 Act. As noted above, the Fund may determine that some Rule 144A securities are liquid. Where registration is required, the Fund may be obligated to pay all or part of the registration expenses and a considerable period may elapse between the time of the decision to sell and the time the Fund may be permitted to sell a restricted security under an effective registration statement. If, during such a period, adverse market conditions were to develop, the Fund might obtain a less favorable price than prevailed when it decided to sell.

Illiquid securities may be difficult to value, and the Fund may have difficulty disposing of such securities promptly. The Fund does not consider non-U.S. securities to be restricted if they can be freely sold in the principal markets in which they are traded, even if they are not registered for sale in the U.S.

Investments by Other Funds and by Other Significant Investors

Certain investment companies, including those that are affiliated with the Fund because they are managed by the Manager or an affiliate of the Manager, may invest in the Fund and may at times have substantial investments in one or more funds. Other investors also may at times have substantial investments in one or more funds.

From time to time, the Fund may experience relatively large redemptions or investments due to transactions in Fund shares by a fund or other significant investor. The effects of these transactions could adversely affect the Fund’s performance. In the event of such redemptions or investments, the Fund could be required to sell securities or to invest cash at a time when it is not advantageous to do so. Such transactions may increase brokerage and/or other transaction costs of the Fund. A large redemption could cause the Fund’s expenses to increase and could result in the Fund becoming too small to be economically viable. Redemptions of Fund shares could also accelerate the realization of taxable capital gains in the Fund if sales of securities result in capital gains. The impact of these transactions is likely to be greater when a fund or other significant investor purchases, redeems, or owns a substantial portion of the Fund’s shares.

The Manager and the Subadviser are subject to potential conflicts of interest in connection with investments in the Fund by an affiliated fund due to their affiliation. For example, the Manager or the Subadviser could have the incentive to permit an affiliated fund to become a more significant shareholder (with the potential to cause greater disruption) than would be permitted for an unaffiliated investor. Investments by an affiliated fund may also give rise to conflicts in connection with the voting of fund shares. The Manager, the Subadviser and/or its advisory affiliates intend to seek to address these potential conflicts of interest in the best interests of the Fund’s shareholders, although there can be no assurance that such efforts will be successful. The Manager and the Subadviser will consider how to minimize potential adverse impacts of affiliated fund investments, and, may take such actions as each deems appropriate to address potential adverse impacts, including redemption of shares in-kind, rather than in cash.

London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”) Replacement and Other Reference Rates Risk

Many debt securities, derivatives, and other financial instruments, including some of the Fund’s investments, utilize benchmark or reference rates such as LIBOR, Euro Interbank Offer Rate (“EURIBOR”), Sterling Overnight Index Average Rate (“SONIA”), and other similar types of reference rates for variable interest rate calculations. Instruments in which the Fund invests may pay interest at floating rates based on LIBOR or other similar types of reference rates or may be subject to interest caps or floors based on such reference rates. The Fund and issuers of instruments in which the Fund invests may also obtain financing at floating rates based on such reference rates. The elimination of a reference rate or any other changes to or reforms of the determination or supervision of reference rates could have an adverse impact on the market for—or value of—any instruments or payments linked to those reference rates.

In 2017, the U.K. Financial Conduct Authority (“FCA”) announced its intention to cease compelling banks to provide the quotations needed to sustain LIBOR after 2021. ICE Benchmark Administration, the administrator of LIBOR, ceased publication of most LIBOR settings on a representative basis at the end of 2021 and is expected to cease publication of a majority of U.S. dollar LIBOR settings on a representative basis after June 30, 2023. In addition, global regulators have announced that, with limited exceptions, no new LIBOR-based contracts should be entered into after 2021. Actions by regulators have resulted in the establishment of alternative reference rates to LIBOR in most major currencies. Markets are developing in response to these new rates but questions around liquidity in these rates and how to appropriately adjust these rates to eliminate any economic value

 

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transfer at the time of transition remain a significant concern. The effect of any changes to—or discontinuation of—LIBOR on the Fund will vary depending on, among other things, existing fallback provisions in individual contracts and whether, how, and when industry participants develop and widely adopt new reference rates and fallbacks for both legacy and new products and instruments. In March 2022, the U.S. federal government enacted legislation to establish a process for replacing LIBOR in certain existing contracts that do not already provide for the use of a clearly defined or practicable replacement benchmark rate as described in the legislation. Generally speaking, for contracts that do not contain a fallback provision as described in the legislation, a benchmark replacement recommended by the Federal Reserve Board will effectively automatically replace the USD LIBOR benchmark in the contract after June 30, 2023. The recommended benchmark replacement will be based on the Secured Overnight Financing Rate (SOFR) published by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, including certain spread adjustments and benchmark replacement conforming changes. It is difficult to predict the full impact of the transition away from LIBOR on the Fund. The transition process may involve, among other things, increased volatility or illiquidity in markets for instruments that rely on LIBOR. The transition may also result in a reduction in the value of certain LIBOR-based investments held by the Fund or reduce the effectiveness of related transactions such as hedges. Any such effects of the transition away from LIBOR, as well as other unforeseen effects, could result in losses for the Fund. Because the usefulness of LIBOR as a benchmark may deteriorate during the transition period, these effects could occur at any time.

Money Market Instruments Generally

Money market instruments are short-term IOUs issued by banks or other non-governmental issuers, the U.S. or non-U.S. governments, or state or local governments. Money market instruments generally have maturity dates of 13 months or less, and may pay interest at fixed, floating or adjustable rates, or may be issued at a discount. Money market instruments may include certificates of deposit, bankers’ acceptances, variable rate demand securities (where the interest rate is reset periodically and the holder may demand payment from the issuer or another obligor at any time), preferred shares, fixed-term obligations, commercial paper (short-term unsecured debt), asset-backed commercial paper, other mortgage-backed and asset-backed securities and repurchase agreements. Asset-backed commercial paper refers to a debt security with an original term to maturity of up to 270 days that may be backed by residential and commercial mortgage loans or mortgage-backed securities or other types of receivables. Payments due on asset-backed commercial paper are supported by cash flows from underlying assets, or one or more liquidity or credit support providers, or both.

Mortgage-Backed and Other Asset-Backed Securities – Generally

An asset-backed security is a fixed income security that derives its value primarily from cash flows relating to a pool of assets. There are a number of different types of asset-backed and related securities, including mortgage-backed securities, securities backed by other pools of collateral (such as automobile loans, student loans, sub-prime mortgages, and credit card receivables), collateralized mortgage obligations, and collateralized debt obligations.

Asset-backed and mortgage-backed securities differ from conventional bonds in that principal is paid over the life of the securities rather than at maturity. As a result, payments of principal of and interest on mortgage-backed securities and asset-backed securities are made more frequently than are payments on conventional debt securities. The average life of asset-backed and mortgage-backed securities is likely to be substantially less than the original maturity of the underlying asset pools as a result of prepayments or foreclosures of mortgages, as applicable. In addition, holders of mortgage-backed securities and of certain asset-backed securities (such as asset-backed securities backed by home equity loans) may receive unscheduled payments of principal at any time representing prepayments on the underlying mortgage loans or financial assets. When the holder of the security attempts to reinvest prepayments or even the scheduled payments of principal and interest, it may receive a rate of interest that is higher or lower than the rate on the mortgage-backed security or asset-backed security originally held. To the extent that mortgage-backed securities or asset-backed securities are purchased by the Fund at a premium, mortgage foreclosures and principal prepayments may result in a loss to the extent of the premium paid. To the extent the loans underlying a security representing an interest in a pool of mortgages or other assets are prepaid, the Fund may experience a loss (if the price at which the respective security was acquired by the Fund was at a premium over par, which represents the price at which the security will be redeemed upon prepayment) or a gain (if the price at which the respective security was acquired by the Fund was at a discount from par). In addition, prepayments of such securities held by the Fund will reduce the share price of the Fund to the extent the market value of the securities at the time of prepayment exceeds their par value, and will increase the share price of the Fund to the extent the par value of the securities exceeds their market value at the time of prepayment. Prepayments may occur with greater frequency in periods of declining interest rates because, among other reasons, it may be possible for

 

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borrowers to refinance their outstanding obligation at lower interest rates. When market interest rates increase, the market values of asset-backed and mortgage-backed securities decline. At the same time, however, refinancing slows, which lengthens the effective maturities of these securities. As a result, the negative effect of the rate increase on the market value of asset-backed and mortgage-backed securities is usually more pronounced than it is for other types of fixed income securities.

Changes in the market’s perception of the mortgages or assets backing the security, the creditworthiness of the servicing agent for the loan pool, the originator of the loans, or the financial institution providing any credit enhancement, will all affect the value of an asset-backed or mortgage-backed security, as will the exhaustion of any credit enhancement.

The risks of investing in asset-backed and mortgage-backed securities ultimately depend upon the payment of the underlying loans by the individual borrowers. In its capacity as purchaser of an asset-backed security or mortgage-backed security, the Fund would generally have no recourse to the entity that originated the loans in the event of default by the borrower. The risk of non-payment is greater for asset-backed and mortgage-backed securities that are backed by pools that contain subprime loans, but a level of risk exists for all loans. Market factors adversely affecting loan repayments may include a general economic turndown and high unemployment. Mortgage-backed securities may be adversely affected by a general slowdown in the real estate market, a drop in the market prices of real estate, or an increase in interest rates resulting in higher mortgage payments by holders of adjustable rate mortgages.

Additional information regarding different types of asset-backed and mortgage-backed securities is provided below. Governmental, government-related or private entities may create pools of loan assets offering pass-through investments in addition to those described below. As new types of asset-backed or mortgage-backed securities are developed and offered to investors, the portfolio manager may, consistent with the Fund’s investment objective and policies, consider making investments in such new types of securities.

Mortgage-Backed Securities. Mortgage-backed securities (“MBS”) represent interests in pools of mortgage loans made by lenders such as savings and loan institutions, mortgage bankers, commercial banks and others, to finance purchases of homes, commercial buildings or other real estate. The individual mortgage loans are assembled for sale to investors (such as the Fund) by various governmental or government-related agencies and private organizations, such as dealers.

Government-sponsored MBS. Some government sponsored mortgage-related securities are backed by the full faith and credit of the United States. The Government National Mortgage Association (“Ginnie Mae”), the principal guarantor of such securities, is a wholly-owned United States government corporation within the Department of Housing and Urban Development. Other government-sponsored mortgage-related securities are not backed by the full faith and credit of the United States government. Issuers of such securities include Fannie Mae (formally known as the Federal National Mortgage Association) and Freddie Mac (formally known as the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation). Fannie Mae is a government-sponsored corporation which is subject to general regulation by the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development. Pass-through securities issued by Fannie Mae are guaranteed as to timely payment of principal and interest by Fannie Mae. Freddie Mac is a stockholder-owned corporation chartered by Congress and subject to general regulation by the Department of Housing and Urban Development. Participation certificates representing interests in mortgages from Freddie Mac’s national portfolio are guaranteed as to the timely payment of interest and ultimate collection of principal by Freddie Mac. The U.S. government has provided financial support to Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac in the past, but there can be no assurances that it will support these or other government-sponsored entities in the future.

Privately issued MBS. Unlike MBS issued or guaranteed by the U.S. government or certain government-sponsored entities, MBS issued by private issuers do not have a government or government-sponsored entity guarantee, but may have credit enhancement provided by external entities such as banks or financial institutions or achieved through the structuring of the transaction itself.

In addition, MBS that are issued by private issuers are not subject to the underwriting requirements for the underlying mortgages that are applicable to those MBS that have a government or government-sponsored entity guarantee. As a result, the mortgage loans underlying private MBS may, and frequently do, have less favorable collateral, credit risk or other underwriting characteristics than government or government-sponsored MBS and have wider variances in a number of terms including interest rate, term, size, purpose and borrower characteristics. Privately issued pools more frequently include second mortgages, high loan-to-value mortgages and manufactured housing loans. The coupon rates and maturities of the underlying mortgage loans in a private-label MBS pool may vary to a greater extent than those included in a government guaranteed pool, and the pool may

 

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include subprime mortgage loans. Subprime loans refer to loans made to borrowers with weakened credit histories or with a lower capacity to make timely payments on their loans. For these reasons, the loans underlying these securities have had in many cases higher default rates than those loans that meet government underwriting requirements.

Privately issued mortgage-backed securities are not traded on an exchange and there may be a limited market for the securities, especially when there is a perceived weakness in the mortgage and real estate market sectors. Without an active trading market, mortgage-backed securities held in the Fund’s portfolio may be particularly difficult to value because of the complexities involved in assessing the value of the underlying mortgage loans.

Adjustable rate mortgage-backed securities. Adjustable rate mortgage-backed securities (“ARMBS”) are pass-through securities collateralized by mortgages with adjustable rather than fixed rates. Adjustable rate mortgages eligible for inclusion in a mortgage pool generally provide for a fixed initial mortgage interest rate for a set number of scheduled monthly payments. After that schedule of payments has been completed, the interest rates of the adjustable rate mortgages are subject to periodic adjustment based on changes to a designated benchmark index.

Mortgages underlying most ARMBS may contain maximum and minimum rates beyond which the mortgage interest rate may not vary over the lifetime of the mortgage. In addition, certain adjustable rate mortgages provide for additional limitations on the maximum amount by which the mortgage interest rate may adjust for any single adjustment period. In the event that market rates of interest rise more rapidly to levels above that of the maximum rate for the adjustable rate mortgages underlying an ARMBS, the ARMBS’ coupon may represent a below market rate of interest. In these circumstances, the market value of the ARMBS will likely have fallen. During periods of declining interest rates, income to the Fund derived from adjustable rate mortgages that remain in the mortgage pool underlying the ARMBS may decrease in contrast to the income on fixed rate mortgages, which will remain constant. Adjustable rate mortgages also have less potential for appreciation in value as interest rates decline than do fixed rate investments. In addition, the current yields on ARMBS may be different than market yields during interim periods between coupon reset dates.

Stripped mortgage-backed securities. Stripped mortgage-backed securities (“SMBS”) are structured with two or more classes of securities that receive different proportions of the interest and principal distributions on a pool of mortgage assets. A common type of SMBS will have at least one class receiving only a small portion of the principal. In the most extreme case, one class will receive all of the interest (“IO” or interest-only class), while the other class will receive all of the principal (“PO” or principal-only class). The yield to maturity on IOs, POs and other mortgage-backed securities that are purchased at a substantial premium or discount generally are extremely sensitive not only to changes in prevailing interest rates but also to the rate of principal payments (including prepayments) on the related underlying mortgage assets, and a rapid rate of principal payments may have a material adverse effect on such securities’ yield to maturity. If the underlying mortgage assets experience greater than anticipated prepayments of principal, the Fund may fail to fully recoup its initial investment in these securities even if the securities have received the highest rating by a NRSRO.

SMBS have greater volatility than other types of securities. Although SMBS are purchased and sold by institutional investors through several investment banking firms acting as brokers or dealers, the market for such securities has not yet been fully developed. Accordingly, the secondary market for SMBS may be more volatile and have lower liquidity than that for other MBS, potentially limiting the Fund’s ability to buy or sell SMBS at any particular time.

Collateralized mortgage obligations. Another type of security representing an interest in a pool of mortgage loans is known as a collateralized mortgage obligation (“CMO”). CMOs represent interests in a short-term, intermediate-term or long-term portion of a mortgage pool. Each portion of the pool receives monthly interest payments, but the principal repayments pass through to the short-term CMO first and to the long-term CMO last. A CMO permits an investor to more accurately predict the rate of principal repayments. CMOs are issued by private issuers, such as broker-dealers, and by government agencies, such as Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. Investments in CMOs are subject to the same risks as direct investments in the underlying mortgage-backed securities. In addition, in the event of a bankruptcy or other default of a broker that issued the CMO held by the Fund, the Fund could experience delays in liquidating both its position and losses. The Fund may invest in CMOs in any rating category of the recognized rating services and may invest in unrated CMOs. The Fund may also invest in “stripped” CMOs, which represent only the income portion or the principal portion of the CMO. The values of stripped CMOs are very sensitive to interest rate changes; accordingly, these instruments present a greater risk of loss than conventional mortgage-backed securities.

 

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Tiered index bonds. Tiered index bonds are relatively new forms of mortgage-related securities. The interest rate on a tiered index bond is tied to a specified index or market rate. So long as this index or market rate is below a predetermined “strike” rate, the interest rate on the tiered index bond remains fixed. If, however, the specified index or market rate rises above the “strike” rate, the interest rate of the tiered index bond will decrease. Thus, under these circumstances, the interest rate on a tiered index bond, like an inverse floater, will move in the opposite direction of prevailing interest rates, with the result that the price of the tiered index bond would decline and may be considerably more volatile than that of a fixed-rate bond.

Other Asset-Backed Securities – Additional Information

Similar to mortgage-backed securities, other types of asset-backed securities may be issued by agencies or instrumentalities of the U.S. government (including those whose securities are neither guaranteed nor insured by the U.S. government), foreign governments (or their agencies or instrumentalities), or non-governmental issuers. These securities include securities backed by pools of automobile loans, educational loans, home equity loans, and credit card receivables. The underlying pools of assets are securitized through the use of trusts and special purpose entities. These securities may be subject to the risks described above under “Mortgage-Backed and Other Asset-Backed Securities — Generally,” including risks associated with changes in interest rates and prepayment of underlying obligations.

Certain types of asset-backed securities present additional risks that are not presented by mortgage-backed securities. In particular, certain types of asset-backed securities may not have the benefit of a security interest in the related assets. For example, many securities backed by credit card receivables are unsecured. Even when security interests are present, the ability of an issuer of certain types of asset-backed securities to enforce those interests may be more limited than that of an issuer of mortgage-backed securities. For instance, automobile receivables generally are secured by automobiles rather than by real property. Most issuers of automobile receivables permit loan servicers to retain possession of the underlying assets. In addition, because of the large number of underlying vehicles involved in a typical issue of asset-backed securities and technical requirements under state law, the trustee for the holders of the automobile receivables may not have a proper security interest in all of the automobiles. Therefore, recoveries on repossessed automobiles may not be available to support payments on these securities.

In addition, certain types of asset-backed securities may experience losses on the underlying assets as a result of certain rights provided to consumer debtors under federal and state law. In the case of certain consumer debt, such as credit card debt, debtors are entitled to the protection of a number of state and federal consumer credit laws, many of which give such debtors the right to set off certain amounts owed on their credit cards (or other debt), thereby reducing their balances due. For instance, a debtor may be able to offset certain damages for which a court has determined that the creditor is liable to the debtor against amounts owed to the creditor by the debtor on his or her credit card.

Additionally, an asset-backed security is subject to risks associated with the servicing agent’s or originator’s performance. For example, a servicing agent or originator’s mishandling of documentation related to the underlying collateral (e.g., failure to properly document a security interest in the underlying collateral) may affect the rights of the security holders in and to the underlying collateral.

Asset-backed commercial paper. The Fund may purchase commercial paper, including asset-backed commercial paper (“ABCP”) that is issued by structured investment vehicles or other conduits. These conduits may be sponsored by mortgage companies, investment banking firms, finance companies, hedge funds, private equity firms and special purpose finance entities. ABCP typically refers to a debt security with an original term to maturity of up to 270 days, the payment of which is supported by cash flows from underlying assets, or one or more liquidity or credit support providers, or both. Assets backing ABCP, which may be included in revolving pools of assets with large numbers of obligors, include credit card, car loan and other consumer receivables and home or commercial mortgages, including subprime mortgages. The repayment of ABCP issued by a conduit depends primarily on the cash collections received from the conduit’s underlying asset portfolio and the conduit’s ability to issue new ABCP. Therefore, there could be losses to the Fund investing in ABCP in the event of credit or market value deterioration in the conduit’s underlying portfolio, mismatches in the timing of the cash flows of the underlying asset interests and the repayment obligations of maturing ABCP, or the conduit’s inability to issue new ABCP. To protect investors from these risks, ABCP programs may be structured with various protections, such as credit enhancement, liquidity support, and commercial paper stop-issuance and wind-down triggers. However there can be no guarantee that these protections will be sufficient to prevent losses to investors in ABCP.

 

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Some ABCP programs provide for an extension of the maturity date of the ABCP if, on the related maturity date, the conduit is unable to access sufficient liquidity through the issue of additional ABCP. This may delay the sale of the underlying collateral and the Fund may incur a loss if the value of the collateral deteriorates during the extension period. Alternatively, if collateral for ABCP deteriorates in value, the collateral may be required to be sold at inopportune times or at prices insufficient to repay the principal and interest on the ABCP. ABCP programs may provide for the issuance of subordinated notes as an additional form of credit enhancement. The subordinated notes are typically of a lower credit quality and have a higher risk of default. A fund purchasing these subordinated notes will therefore have a higher likelihood of loss than investors in the senior notes.

Municipal Securities

Municipal securities (which are also referred to herein as “municipal obligations” or “municipal bonds”) generally include debt obligations (including, but not limited to bonds, notes or commercial paper) issued by or on behalf of any of the 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia and their political subdivisions, agencies and public authorities, certain other governmental issuers (such as Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands and Guam) or other qualifying issuers, participations or other interests in these securities and other related investments. The interest paid on municipal securities is generally excluded from gross income for regular U.S. federal income tax purposes, although it may be subject to the U.S. federal alternative minimum tax (“AMT”). With the exception of Select Tax Free Reserves, the Fund does not anticipate holding municipal securities in sufficient quantities to qualify to pay exempt-interest dividends and, as a result, distributions to shareholders are expected to be treated for federal income tax purposes as ordinary dividends without regard to the character of any interest that was received on municipal securities.

Municipal securities are issued to obtain funds for various public purposes, including the construction of a wide range of public facilities, such as airports, bridges, highways, housing, hospitals, mass transportation, schools, streets, water and sewer works, gas, and electric utilities. They may also be issued to refund outstanding obligations, to obtain funds for general operating expenses, or to obtain funds to loan to other public institutions and facilities and in anticipation of the receipt of revenue or the issuance of other obligations.

The two principal classifications of municipal securities are “general obligation” securities and “limited obligation” or “revenue” securities. General obligation securities are secured by a municipal issuer’s pledge of its full faith, credit, and taxing power for the payment of principal and interest. Accordingly, the capacity of the issuer of a general obligation bond to pay interest and repay principal when due is affected by the issuer’s maintenance of its tax base. Revenue securities are payable only from the revenues derived from a particular facility or class of facilities or, in some cases, from the proceeds of a special excise tax or other specific revenue source. Accordingly, the timely payment of interest and the repayment of principal in accordance with the terms of the revenue security is a function of the economic viability of the facility or revenue source. Revenue securities include private activity bonds which are not payable from the unrestricted revenues of the issuer. Consequently, the credit quality of private activity bonds is usually directly related to the credit standing of the corporate user of the facility involved. Municipal securities may also include “moral obligation” bonds, which are normally issued by special purpose public authorities. If the issuer of moral obligation bonds is unable to meet its debt service obligations from current revenues, it may draw on a reserve fund the restoration of which is a moral commitment but not a legal obligation of the state or municipality which created the issuer.

Private Activity Bonds. Private activity bonds are issued by or on behalf of public authorities to provide funds, usually through a loan or lease arrangement, to a private entity for the purpose of financing construction of privately operated industrial facilities, such as warehouse, office, plant and storage facilities and environmental and pollution control facilities. Such bonds are secured primarily by revenues derived from loan repayments or lease payments due from the entity, which may or may not be guaranteed by a parent company or otherwise secured. Private activity bonds generally are not secured by a pledge of the taxing power of the issuer of such bonds. Therefore, repayment of such bonds generally depends on the revenue of a private entity. The continued ability of an entity to generate sufficient revenues for the payment of principal and interest on such bonds will be affected by many factors, including the size of the entity, its capital structure, demand for its products or services, competition, general economic conditions, government regulation and the entity’s dependence on revenues for the operation of the particular facility being financed.

Under U.S. federal income tax law, interest on municipal bonds issued after August 7, 1986 which are specified private activity bonds, and the proportionate share of any exempt-interest dividend paid by a regulated investment company that receives interest from such private activity bonds, will be treated as an item of tax preference for purposes of the AMT. For

 

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regular U.S. federal income tax purposes such interest is tax-exempt. Bonds issued in 2009 and 2010 generally will not be treated as private activity bonds, and interest earned on such bonds generally will not be treated as a tax preference item.

Industrial Development Bonds. Industrial development bonds (“IDBs”) are issued by public authorities to obtain funds to provide financing for privately-operated facilities for business and manufacturing, housing, sports, convention or trade show facilities, airport, mass transit, port and parking facilities, air or water pollution control facilities, and certain facilities for water supply, gas, electricity or sewerage or solid waste disposal. Although IDBs are issued by municipal authorities, the payment of principal and interest on IDBs is dependent solely on the ability of the user of the facilities financed by the bonds to meet its financial obligations and the pledge, if any, of the real and personal property being financed as security for such payments. IDBs are considered municipal securities if the interest paid is exempt from regular federal income tax. Interest earned on IDBs may be subject to the AMT.

Tender Option Bonds. In a tender option bond (“TOB”) transaction, a tender option bond trust (“TOB Trust”) issues floating rate certificates (“TOB Floaters”) and residual interest certificates (“TOB Residuals” also known as an “inverse floaters”) and utilizes the proceeds of such issuance to purchase a bond, typically a fixed-rate municipal bond (“Fixed Rate Bond”). The Fund may invest in both TOB Floaters and TOB Residuals. The Fund may purchase a TOB Residual in the secondary market or purchase a TOB Residual from a TOB Trust where the Fixed-Rate Bond held by the TOB Trust was either owned or identified by the Fund. The TOB Floaters typically have first priority on the cash flow from the Fixed Rate Bond held by the trust, and the remaining cash flow, less certain expenses, is paid to holders of the TOB Residuals. Where the Fixed-Rate Bond held by the TOB Trust was either owned or identified by the Fund, the net proceeds of the sale of the TOB Floaters, after expenses, may be received by the Fund and may be invested in additional securities. This would generate economic leverage for the Fund.

TOB Residuals in which the Fund will invest will pay interest or income that, in the opinion of counsel to the applicable TOB Trust, is exempt from regular U.S. federal income tax. Neither the Fund, nor the Manager, nor the Subadviser will conduct its own analysis of the tax status of the interest or income paid by residual interest held by the Fund, but will rely on the opinion of counsel to the applicable TOB Trust. There is a risk that the Fund will not be considered the owner of a TOB for federal income tax purposes, and in that case it would not be entitled to treat such interest as exempt from federal income tax.

Typically, a liquidity provider is engaged to purchase the TOB Floaters at their original purchase price plus accrued interest upon the occurrence of certain events, such as the failure to remarket a certain percentage of the floating rate interests in a timely fashion, the downgrading (but typically not below investment grade or in connection with events indicating that bankruptcy of the issuer may be likely) of the bonds held by the TOB Trust, or certain regulatory or tax events. A Fund participating in a TOB transaction will bear the fees paid to the liquidity provider for providing the put option to the holders of the TOB Floaters. If the liquidity provider acquires the TOB Floaters upon the occurrence of an event described above, the liquidity provider generally will be entitled to an in-kind distribution of the Fixed Rate Bond held by the TOB Trust or to cause the TOB Trust to sell the securities and distribute the proceeds to the liquidity provider.

The TOB Trust may be collapsed without the consent of the Fund upon the occurrence of tender option termination events (“TOTEs”) and mandatory termination events (“MTEs”), as defined in the TOB Trust agreements. TOTEs typically include the bankruptcy or default of the issuer of the Fixed-Rate Bonds held in the TOB Trust, a substantial downgrade in the credit quality of the issuer of the Fixed-Rate Bonds held in the TOB Trust, failure of any scheduled payment of principal or interest on the Fixed-Rate Bonds, and a judgment or ruling that interest on the Fixed-Rate Bonds is subject to U.S. federal income taxation. MTEs may include, among other things, a failed remarketing of the TOB Floaters, the inability of the TOB Trust to obtain renewal of the liquidity support agreement, and a substantial decline in the market value of the Fixed-Rate Bonds held in the TOB Trust. Upon the occurrence of a TOTE or an MTE, a TOB Trust would be liquidated with the proceeds applied first to any accrued fees owed to the trustee of the TOB Trust, the remarketing agent of the TOB Floaters and the liquidity provider. In the case of an MTE, after the payment of fees, the holders of the TOB Floaters would be paid senior to the TOB Residual holders. In contrast, generally in the case of a TOTE, after payment of fees, the holders of TOB Floaters and the TOB Residual holders would be paid pro rata in proportion to the respective face values of their certificates.

The Fund may invest in a TOB Trust on either a non-recourse and recourse basis. TOB Trusts are typically supported by a liquidity facility provided by a third-party bank or other financial institution (the “liquidity provider”) that allows the holders of the TOB Floaters to tender their TOB Floaters in exchange for payment of par plus accrued interest on any business day (subject to the non-occurrence of a TOTE described above). Depending on the structure of the TOB Trust, the liquidity provider may

 

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purchase the tendered TOB Floaters, or the TOB Trust may draw upon a loan from the liquidity provider to purchase the tendered TOB Floaters.

When the Fund invests in TOB Trusts on a non-recourse basis, and the liquidity provider is required to make a payment under the liquidity facility, the liquidity provider will typically liquidate all or a portion of the fixed-income bonds held in the TOB Trust and then fund the balance, if any, of the amount owed under the liquidity facility over the liquidation proceeds (the “Liquidation Shortfall”). If the Fund invests in a TOB Trust on a recourse basis, it will typically enter into a reimbursement agreement with the liquidity provider pursuant to which the Fund is required to reimburse the liquidity provider the amount of any Liquidation Shortfall. As a result, if the Fund invests in a recourse TOB Trust, the Fund will bear the risk of loss with respect to any Liquidation Shortfall. The net economic effect of this agreement is to treat the Fund as though it had entered into a special type of reverse repurchase agreement pursuant to which the Fund is required to repurchase the municipal bonds or other securities upon the occurrence of certain events. Such an arrangement may expose the Fund to a risk of loss that exceeds its investment in the TOB and the residual interest income received by the Fund.

In a non-recourse transaction, the Fund does not expect to pay the liquidity provider in the event that it suffers a loss. However, the Fund might incur a loss if the liquidity provider liquidates the TOB Trust at an inopportune time. Even if a TOB transaction was entered into on a non-recourse basis, under certain circumstances it might be in the Fund’s interest to later agree to a recourse arrangement in order to prevent the liquidity provider from terminating the TOB Trust at that time.

Transactions in the short-term floating rate interests of TOBs are generally facilitated by a remarketing agent for the TOB Trust, which sets an interest rate for the securities periodically, usually every 7-35 days. Holders of the floating rate securities usually have the right to require the TOB Trust or a specified third party acting as agent for the TOB Trust (such as the liquidity provider) to purchase the bonds, usually at par plus accrued interest, at a certain time or times prior to maturity or upon the occurrence of specified events or conditions. The put option or tender option right is typically available to the investor on a periodic (daily, weekly or monthly) basis. Typically, the put option is exercisable on dates on which the interest rate changes. A failure to remarket typically requires the liquidity provider to purchase the floating rate interests and in turn the liquidity provider may have recourse to the TOB Trust and to the Fund, as described above. A Fund participating in a TOB transaction will also bear the fees paid to the remarketing agent and or tender agent for providing services to the TOB Trust.

If the Fund purchases all or a portion of the short-term floating rate securities sold by the TOB Trust, it is usually permitted to surrender those short-term floating rate securities together with a proportionate amount of residual interests to the trustee of the TOB Trust in exchange for a proportionate amount of the municipal bonds or other securities held by the TOB Trust.

In December 2013, U.S. regulators finalized rules implementing Section 619 (the “Volcker Rule”) and Section 941 (the “Risk Retention Rules”) of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the “Dodd-Frank Act”), both of which place restrictions on TOB Trust sponsors and their participation in TOB transactions. TOB Trusts and related transactions are generally considered to be subject to the limitations of the Volcker Rule and, thus, may not be sponsored by a banking entity absent an applicable exemption. No exemption to the Volcker Rule exists that would allow covered banking entities to sponsor TOB Trusts in the same manner as they did prior to the Volcker Rule’s compliance date in 2017.

In response to the Volcker Rule, industry participants developed alternative structures for TOB financings in which service providers are engaged to assist with establishing, structuring and sponsoring TOB Trusts. The service providers, such as administrators, liquidity providers, trustees and remarketing agents act at the direction of, and as agent of, the Fund holding residual interests of the TOB trust. This new structure and any other strategies that may be developed to address the Volcker Rule may be more or less advantageous to the Fund than obtaining leverage through existing TOB transactions. In addition, the Fund, rather than a bank entity, may be the sponsor of the TOB Trust and undertakes certain responsibilities that previously belonged to the sponsor bank. Although the Fund may use third-party service providers to complete some of these additional responsibilities, being the sponsor of the TOB Trust may give rise to certain additional risks including compliance, securities law and operational risks.

The Risk Retention Rules, which took effect in 2016, require the sponsor of a TOB Trust to retain at least five percent of the credit risk of the underlying assets supporting the TOB Trust’s underlying securities. The Risk Retention Rules may adversely affect the Fund’s ability to engage in TOB Trust transactions or increase the costs of such transactions in certain circumstances. Other accounts managed by the subadviser may contribute bonds to a TOB Trust into which the Fund has contributed bonds. If

 

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multiple accounts/funds managed by the subadviser participate in the same TOB Trust, the economic rights and obligations under the TOB Residual will generally be shared among the funds/accounts ratably in proportion to their participation in the TOB Trust.

Separately, whenever the Fund engages in a TOB Trust transaction, it will either (i) be consistent with Section 18 of the 1940 Act, maintain asset coverage of at least 300% of the value of such transaction or (ii) treat the transaction as a derivatives transaction for purposes of Rule 18f-4, including, as applicable, the value-at-risk based limit on leverage risk.

Municipal Leases. Municipal leases or installment purchase contracts are issued by a U.S. state or local government to acquire equipment or facilities. Municipal leases frequently have special risks not normally associated with general obligation bonds or revenue bonds. Many leases include “non-appropriation” clauses that provide that the governmental issuer has no obligation to make future payments under the lease or contract unless money is appropriated for such purpose by the appropriate legislative body on a yearly or other periodic basis. Although the obligations are typically secured by the leased equipment or facilities, the disposition of the property in the event of non-appropriation or foreclosure might, in some cases, prove difficult or, if sold, may not fully cover the Fund’s exposure.

Participation Interests. Tax-exempt participation interests in municipal obligations (such as private activity bonds and municipal lease obligations) are typically issued by a financial institution. A participation interest gives the Fund an undivided interest in the municipal obligation in the proportion that the Fund’s participation interest bears to the total principal amount of the municipal obligation. Participation interests in municipal obligations may be backed by an irrevocable letter of credit or guarantee of, or a right to put to, a bank (which may be the bank issuing the participation interest, a bank issuing a confirming letter of credit to that of the issuing bank, or a bank serving as agent of the issuing bank with respect to the possible repurchase of the participation interest) or insurance policy of an insurance company. The Fund has the right to sell the participation interest back to the institution or draw on the letter of credit or insurance after a specified period of notice, for all or any part of the full principal amount of the Fund’s participation in the security, plus accrued interest.

Issuers of participation interests will retain a service and letter of credit fee and a fee for providing the liquidity feature, in an amount equal to the excess of the interest paid on the instruments over the negotiated yield at which the participations were purchased on behalf of the Fund. The issuer of the participation interest may bear the cost of insurance backing the participation interest, although the Fund may also purchase insurance, in which case the cost of insurance will be an expense of the Fund. Participation interests may be sold prior to maturity. Participation interests may include municipal lease obligations. Purchase of a participation interest may involve the risk that the Fund will not be deemed to be the owner of the underlying municipal obligation for purposes of the ability to claim tax exemption of interest paid on that municipal obligation.

Municipal Notes. There are four major varieties of municipal notes: Tax and Revenue Anticipation Notes (“TRANs”); Tax Anticipation Notes (“TANs”); Revenue Anticipation Notes (“RANs”); and Bond Anticipation Notes (“BANs”). TRANs, TANs and RANs are issued by U.S. states, municipalities and other tax-exempt issuers to finance short-term cash needs or, occasionally, to finance construction. Many TRANs, TANs and RANs are general obligations of the issuing entity payable from taxes or designated revenues, respectively, expected to be received within the related fiscal period. BANs are issued with the expectation that their principal and interest will be paid out of proceeds from renewal notes or bonds to be issued prior to the maturity of the BANs. BANs are issued most frequently by both general obligation and revenue bond issuers usually to finance such items as land acquisition, facility acquisition and/or construction and capital improvement projects.

Tax-Exempt Commercial Paper. Tax-exempt commercial paper is a short-term obligation with a stated maturity of 270 days or less. It is issued by state and local governments or their agencies to finance seasonal working capital needs or as short-term financing in anticipation of longer term financing. Although tax-exempt commercial paper is intended to be repaid from general revenues or refinanced, it frequently is backed by a letter of credit, lending arrangement, note repurchase agreement or other credit facility agreement offered by a bank or financial institution.

Demand Instruments. Municipal bonds may be issued as floating- or variable-rate securities subject to demand features (“demand instruments”). Demand instruments usually have a stated maturity of more than one year but contain a demand feature (or “put”) that enables the holder to redeem the investment. Variable-rate demand instruments provide for automatic establishment of a new interest rate on set dates. Floating-rate demand instruments provide for automatic adjustment of interest rates whenever a specified interest rate (e.g., the prime rate) changes.

These floating and variable rate instruments are payable upon a specified period of notice which may range from one day up to one year. The terms of the instruments provide that interest rates are adjustable at intervals ranging from daily to up to

 

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one year and the adjustments are based upon the prime rate of a bank or other appropriate interest rate adjustment index as provided in the respective instruments. Variable rate instruments include participation interests in variable- or fixed-rate municipal obligations owned by a bank, insurance company or other financial institution or affiliated organizations. Although the rate of the underlying municipal obligations may be fixed, the terms of the participation interest may result in the Fund receiving a variable rate on its investment.

Because of the variable nature of the instruments when prevailing interest rates decline, the yield on these instruments generally will decline. On the other hand, during periods when prevailing interest rates increase, the yield on these instruments generally will increase and the instruments will have less risk of capital depreciation than instruments bearing a fixed rate of return.

Stand-By Commitments. Under a stand-by commitment a dealer agrees to purchase, at the Fund’s option, specified municipal obligations held by the Fund at a specified price and, in this respect, stand-by commitments are comparable to put options. A stand-by commitment entitles the holder to achieve same day settlement and to receive an exercise price equal to the amortized cost of the underlying security plus accrued interest, if any, at the time of exercise. The Fund will be subject to credit risk with respect to an institution providing a stand-by commitment and a decline in the credit quality of the institution could cause losses to the Fund.

The Fund will generally acquire stand-by commitments to facilitate fund liquidity. The cost of entering into stand-by commitments will increase the cost of the underlying municipal obligation and similarly will decrease such security’s yield to investors. Gains, if any, realized in connection with stand-by commitments will be taxable.

Taxable Municipal Obligations. The market for U.S. taxable municipal obligations is relatively small, which may result in a lack of liquidity and in price volatility of those securities. Interest on taxable municipal obligations is includable in gross income for regular U.S. federal income tax purposes. While interest on taxable municipal obligations may be exempt from personal taxes imposed by the U.S. state within which the obligation is issued, such interest will nevertheless generally be subject to all other U.S. state and local income and franchise taxes.

Additional Risks Relating to Municipal Securities

Tax Risk. The Code imposes certain continuing requirements on issuers of tax-exempt bonds regarding the use, expenditure and investment of bond proceeds and the payment of rebates to the U.S. government. Failure by the issuer to comply after the issuance of tax-exempt bonds with certain of these requirements could cause interest on the bonds to become includable in gross income retroactive to the date of issuance.

From time to time, proposals have been introduced before the U.S. Congress for the purpose of restricting or eliminating the U.S. federal income tax exemption for interest on municipal obligations. In this regard, for bonds issued after December 31, 2017, the tax-advantaged treatment previously available to “tax credit bonds” and “advance refunding bonds” is no longer available. Further, similar proposals may be introduced in the future. In addition, the U.S. federal income tax exemption has been, and may in the future be, the subject of litigation. If one of these proposals were enacted, or if any such litigation were adversely decided, the availability of tax-exempt obligations for investment by the Fund and the value of the Fund’s investments could be affected.

Opinions relating to the validity of municipal obligations and to the exclusion of interest thereon from gross income for regular federal and/or state income tax purposes are rendered by bond counsel to the respective issuers at the time of issuance. The Fund and its service providers will rely on such opinions and will not review the proceedings relating to the issuance of municipal obligations or the bases for such opinions.

Information Risk. Information about the financial condition of issuers of municipal obligations may be less available than about corporations whose securities are publicly traded.

U.S. State and Federal Law Risk. Municipal obligations are subject to the provisions of bankruptcy, insolvency and other laws affecting the rights and remedies of creditors, such as the U.S. federal Bankruptcy Code, and laws, if any, that may be enacted by the U.S. Congress or state legislatures extending the time for payment of principal or interest, or both, or imposing other constraints upon enforcement of such obligations or upon the ability of municipalities to levy taxes. There is also the possibility that, as a result of litigation or other conditions, the power or ability of any one or more issuers to pay, when due, the principal of and interest on its or their municipal obligations may be materially affected.

 

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Market and Ratings Risk. The yields on municipal obligations are dependent on a variety of factors, including economic and monetary conditions, general market conditions, supply and demand, general conditions of the municipal market, size of a particular offering, the maturity of the obligation and the rating of the issue. Adverse economic, business, legal or political developments might affect all or substantial portions of the Fund’s municipal obligations in the same manner.

Unfavorable developments in any economic sector may have far-reaching ramifications for the municipal market overall or any state’s municipal market. Although the ratings of tax-exempt securities by ratings agencies are relative and subjective, and are not absolute standards of quality, such ratings reflect the assessment of the ratings agency, at the time of issuance of the rating, of the economic viability of the issuer of a general obligation bond or, with respect to a revenue bond, the special revenue source, with respect to the timely payment of interest and the repayment of principal in accordance with the terms of the obligation, but do not reflect an assessment of the market value of the obligation. See Appendix B for additional information regarding ratings. Consequently, municipal obligations with the same maturity, coupon and rating may have different yields when purchased in the open market, while municipal obligations of the same maturity and coupon with different ratings may have the same yield.

Risks Associated with Sources of Liquidity or Credit Support. Issuers of municipal obligations may employ various forms of credit and liquidity enhancements, including letters of credit, guarantees, swaps, puts and demand features, and insurance, provided by U.S. or non-U.S. entities such as banks and other financial institutions. Changes in the credit quality of the entities providing the enhancement could affect the value of the securities or the Fund’s share price. U.S. banks and certain financial institutions are subject to extensive governmental regulation which may limit both the amounts and types of loans and other financial commitments which may be made and interest rates and fees which may be charged. Non-U.S. banks and financial institutions may be less regulated than their U.S. counterparts and may be subject to additional risks, such as those relating to foreign economic and political developments and foreign governmental restrictions. The profitability of the banking industry is largely dependent upon the availability and cost of capital for the purpose of financing lending operations under prevailing money market conditions. Also, general economic conditions play an important part in the operation of the banking industry, and exposure to credit losses arising from possible financial difficulties of borrowers might affect a bank’s ability to meet its obligations under a letter of credit.

Other. Securities may be sold in anticipation of a market decline (a rise in interest rates) or purchased in anticipation of a market rise (a decline in interest rates). In addition, a security may be sold and another purchased at approximately the same time to take advantage of what the portfolio manager believes to be a temporary disparity in the normal yield relationship between the two securities. In general, the secondary market for tax-exempt securities in the Fund’s portfolio may have lower liquidity than that for taxable fixed income securities. Accordingly, the ability of the Fund to make purchases and sales of securities in the foregoing manner may be limited. Yield disparities may occur for reasons not directly related to the investment quality of particular issues or the general movement of interest rates, but instead due to such factors as changes in the overall demand for or supply of various types of tax-exempt securities or changes in the investment objectives of investors.

Risks Inherent in an Investment in Different Types of Municipal Securities

General Obligation Bonds. General obligation bonds are backed by the issuer’s pledge of its full faith, credit and taxing power for the payment of principal and interest. However, the taxing power of any governmental entity may be limited by provisions of state constitutions or laws and an entity’s credit will depend on many factors. Some such factors are the entity’s tax base, the extent to which the entity relies on federal or state aid, and other factors which are beyond the entity’s control.

Industrial Development Revenue Bonds (“IDRs”). IDRs are tax-exempt securities issued by states, municipalities, public authorities or similar entities to finance the cost of acquiring, constructing or improving various projects. These projects are usually operated by corporate entities. IDRs are not general obligations of governmental entities backed by their taxing power. Issuers are only obligated to pay amounts due on the IDRs to the extent that funds are available from the unexpended proceeds of the IDRs or receipts or revenues of the issuer. Payment of IDRs is solely dependent upon the creditworthiness of the corporate operator of the project or corporate guarantor. Such corporate operators or guarantors that are industrial companies may be affected by many factors, which may have an adverse impact on the credit quality of the particular company or industry.

Hospital and Health Care Facility Bonds. The ability of hospitals and other health care facilities to meet their obligations with respect to revenue bonds issued on their behalf is dependent on various factors. Some such factors are the level of payments received from private third-party payors and government programs and the cost of providing health care services, as

 

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well as competition from other health care facilities and providers. There can be no assurance that payments under governmental programs will be sufficient to cover the costs associated with their bonds. It also may be necessary for a hospital or other health care facility to incur substantial capital expenditures or increased operating expenses to effect changes in its facilities, equipment, personnel and services. Hospitals and other health care facilities are additionally subject to claims and legal actions by patients and others in the ordinary course of business. There can be no assurance that a claim will not exceed the insurance coverage of a health care facility or that insurance coverage will be available to a facility.

Single Family and Multi-Family Housing Bonds. Multi-family housing revenue bonds and single family mortgage revenue bonds are state and local housing issues that have been issued to provide financing for various housing projects. Multi-family housing revenue bonds are payable primarily from mortgage loans to housing projects for low to moderate income families. Single-family mortgage revenue bonds are issued for the purpose of acquiring notes secured by mortgages on residences. The ability of housing issuers to make debt service payments on their obligations may be affected by various economic and non-economic factors. Such factors include: occupancy levels, adequate rental income in multi-family projects, the rate of default on mortgage loans underlying single family issues and the ability of mortgage insurers to pay claims. All single-family mortgage revenue bonds and certain multi-family housing revenue bonds are prepayable over the life of the underlying mortgage or mortgage pool. Therefore, the average life of housing obligations cannot be determined. However, the average life of these obligations will ordinarily be less than their stated maturities. Mortgage loans are frequently partially or completely prepaid prior to their final stated maturities.

Power Facility Bonds. The ability of utilities to meet their obligations with respect to bonds they issue is dependent on various factors. These factors include the rates that they may charge their customers, the demand for a utility’s services and the cost of providing those services. Utilities are also subject to extensive regulations relating to the rates which they may charge customers. Utilities can experience regulatory, political and consumer resistance to rate increases. Utilities engaged in long-term capital projects are especially sensitive to regulatory lags in granting rate increases. Utilities are additionally subject to increased costs due to governmental environmental regulation and decreased profits due to increasing competition. Any difficulty in obtaining timely and adequate rate increases could adversely affect a utility’s results of operations. The portfolio manager cannot predict with certainty the effect of such factors on the ability of issuers to meet their obligations with respect to bonds.

Water and Sewer Revenue Bonds. Water and sewer bonds are generally payable from user fees. The ability of state and local water and sewer authorities to meet their obligations may be affected by a number of factors. Some such factors are the failure of municipalities to utilize fully the facilities constructed by these authorities, declines in revenue from user charges, rising construction and maintenance costs, impact of environmental requirements, the difficulty of obtaining or discovering new supplies of fresh water, the effect of conservation programs, the impact of “no growth” zoning ordinances and the continued availability of federal and state financial assistance and of municipal bond insurance for future bond issues.

University and College Bonds. The ability of universities and colleges to meet their obligations is dependent upon various factors. Some of these factors of which an investor should be aware are the size and diversity of their sources of revenues, enrollment, reputation, management expertise, the availability and restrictions on the use of endowments and other funds and the quality and maintenance costs of campus facilities. Also, in the case of public institutions, the financial condition of the relevant state or other governmental entity and its policies with respect to education may affect an institution’s ability to make payments on its own.

Lease Rental Bonds. Lease rental bonds are predominantly issued by governmental authorities that have no taxing power or other means of directly raising revenues. Rather, the authorities are financing vehicles created solely for the construction of buildings or the purchase of equipment that will be used by a state or local government. Thus, the bonds are subject to the ability and willingness of the lessee government to meet its lease rental payments, which include debt service on the bonds. Lease rental bonds are subject to the risk that the lessee government is not legally obligated to budget and appropriate for the rental payments beyond the current fiscal year. These bonds are also subject to the risk of abatement in many states as rents cease in the event that damage, destruction or condemnation of the project prevents its use by the lessee. Also, in the event of default by the lessee government, there may be significant legal and/or practical difficulties involved in the reletting or sale of the project.

Capital Improvement Facility Bonds. Capital improvement bonds are bonds issued to provide funds to assist political subdivisions or agencies of a state through acquisition of the underlying debt of a state or local political subdivision or agency.

 

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The risks of an investment in such bonds include the risk of possible prepayment or failure of payment of proceeds on and default of the underlying debt.

Solid Waste Disposal Bonds. Bonds issued for solid waste disposal facilities are generally payable from tipping fees and from revenues that may be earned by the facility on the sale of electrical energy generated in the combustion of waste products. The ability of solid waste disposal facilities to meet their obligations depends upon the continued use of the facility, the successful and efficient operation of the facility and, in the case of waste-to-energy facilities, the continued ability of the facility to generate electricity on a commercial basis. Also, increasing environmental regulation on the federal, state and local level has a significant impact on waste disposal facilities. While regulation requires more waste producers to use waste disposal facilities, it also imposes significant costs on the facilities.

Moral Obligation Bonds. A moral obligation bond is a type of revenue bond issued by a state or municipality pursuant to legislation authorizing the establishment of a reserve fund to pay principal and interest payments if the issuer is unable to meet its obligations. The establishment of such a reserve fund generally requires appropriation by the state legislature, which is not legally required. Accordingly, the establishment of a reserve fund is generally considered a moral commitment but not a legal obligation of the state or municipality that created the issuer.

Pre-Refunded Bonds. Pre-refunded bonds are typically secured by direct obligations of the U.S. government, or in some cases obligations guaranteed by the U.S. government, placed in an escrow account maintained by an independent trustee until maturity or a predetermined redemption date. These obligations are generally non-callable prior to maturity or the predetermined redemption date. In a few isolated instances to date, however, bonds which were thought to be escrowed to maturity have been called for redemption prior to maturity. For credit ratings purposes, pre-refunded bonds are deemed to be unrated. The Subadviser determines the credit quality of pre-refunded bonds based on the quality of the escrowed collateral and such other factors as the Subadviser deems appropriate.

Airport, Port and Highway Revenue Bonds. Certain facility revenue bonds are payable from and secured by the revenue from the ownership and operation of particular facilities, such as airports, highways and port authorities. Airport operating income may be affected by the ability of airlines to meet their obligations under the agreements with airports. Similarly, payment on bonds related to other facilities is dependent on revenues from the projects, such as use fees from ports, tolls on turnpikes and bridges and rents from buildings. Therefore, payment may be adversely affected by reduction in revenues due to such factors and increased cost of maintenance or decreased use of a facility. The portfolio manager cannot predict what effect conditions may have on revenues which are required for payment on these bonds.

Special Tax Bonds. Special tax bonds are payable from and secured by the revenues derived by a municipality from a particular tax. Examples of such special taxes are a tax on the rental of a hotel room, the purchase of food and beverages, the rental of automobiles or the consumption of liquor. Special tax bonds are not secured by the general tax revenues of the municipality, and they do not represent general obligations of the municipality. Therefore, payment on special tax bonds may be adversely affected by a reduction in revenues realized from the underlying special tax. Also, should spending on the particular goods or services that are subject to the special tax decline, the municipality may be under no obligation to increase the rate of the special tax to ensure that sufficient revenues are raised from the shrinking taxable base.

Tax Allocation Bonds. Tax allocation bonds are typically secured by incremental tax revenues collected on property within the areas where redevelopment projects financed by bond proceeds are located. Such payments are expected to be made from projected increases in tax revenues derived from higher assessed values of property resulting from development in the particular project area and not from an increase in tax rates. Special risk considerations include: reduction of, or a less than anticipated increase in, taxable values of property in the project area; successful appeals by property owners of assessed valuations; substantial delinquencies in the payment of property taxes; or imposition of any constitutional or legislative property tax rate decrease.

Tobacco Settlement Revenue Bonds. Tobacco settlement revenue bonds are secured by a state or local government’s proportionate share in the Master Settlement Agreement (“MSA”). The MSA is an agreement, reached out of court in November 1998 between the attorneys general of 46 states (Florida, Minnesota, Mississippi and Texas all settled independently) and six other U.S. jurisdictions (including the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico and Guam), and the four largest U.S. tobacco manufacturers at that time (Philip Morris, RJ Reynolds, Brown & Williamson, and Lorillard). Subsequently, smaller tobacco manufacturers signed on to the MSA. The MSA basically provides for payments annually by the manufacturers to the states and

 

29


jurisdictions in perpetuity, in exchange for releases of all claims against the manufacturers and a pledge of no further litigation. The MSA established a base payment schedule and a formula for adjusting payments each year. Manufacturers pay into a master escrow trust based on their market share, and each state receives a fixed percentage of the payment as set forth in the MSA. Annual payments are highly dependent on annual U.S. cigarette shipments and inflation, as well as several other factors. As a result, payments made by tobacco manufacturers could be reduced if there is a decrease in tobacco consumption over time. A market share loss by the MSA companies to non-MSA participating manufacturers would also cause a downward adjustment in the payment amounts. A participating manufacturer filing for bankruptcy could cause delays or reductions in bond payments.

Certain tobacco settlement revenue bonds are issued with “turbo” redemption features. Under this turbo structure, all available excess revenues are applied as an early redemption to the designated first turbo maturity until it is completely repaid, and then to the next turbo maturity until paid in full, and so on. The result is that the returned principal creates an average maturity that could be much shorter than the legal final maturity.

Transit Authority Bonds. Mass transit is generally not self-supporting from fare revenues. Therefore, additional financial resources must be made available to ensure operation of mass transit systems as well as the timely payment of debt service. Often such financial resources include federal and state subsidies, lease rentals paid by funds of the state or local government or a pledge of a special tax. If fare revenues or the additional financial resources do not increase appropriately to pay for rising operating expenses, the ability of the issuer to adequately service the debt may be adversely affected.

Convention Facility Bonds. Bonds in the convention facilities category include special limited obligation securities issued to finance convention and sports facilities payable from rental payments and annual governmental appropriations. The governmental agency is not obligated to make payments in any year in which the monies have not been appropriated to make such payments. In addition, these facilities are limited use facilities that may not be used for purposes other than as convention centers or sports facilities.

Correctional Facility Bonds. Bonds in the correctional facilities category include special limited obligation securities issued to construct, rehabilitate and purchase correctional facilities payable from governmental rental payments and/or appropriations. An issuer’s ability to pay its lease obligations under these bonds could be adversely affected by a number of factors, including insufficient occupancy rates, unanticipated costs (such as legal claims), or the reduction or discontinuation of legislative appropriations.

Land-Secured or “Dirt” Bonds. Land-secured or “dirt” bonds are issued in connection with special taxing districts that are organized to plan and finance infrastructure development to induce residential, commercial and industrial growth and redevelopment. Obligations under these bonds are generally payable solely from taxes (using methods such as tax assessments, special taxes or tax increment financing) or other revenues attributable to the specific projects financed by the bonds, without recourse to the credit or taxing power of related or overlapping municipalities. The projects to which these bonds relate often are exposed to real estate development-related risks, such as the failure of property development, unavailability of financing, extended vacancies of properties, increased competition, limitations on rents, changes in neighborhood values, lessening demand for properties, and changes in interest rates. These real estate risks may be heightened if a project is subject to foreclosure and, in that event, the Fund, as a holder of the bonds, might be required to pay certain maintenance or operating expenses or taxes relating to the project. In addition, the bonds financing these projects may have more taxpayer concentration risk than general tax-supported bonds. Further, the fees, special taxes, or tax allocations and other revenues that are established to secure such financings generally are limited as to the rate or amount that may be levied or assessed and are not subject to increase pursuant to rate covenants or municipal or corporate guarantees. The bonds could default if a development fails to progress as anticipated or if taxpayers fail to pay the assessments, fees and taxes as provided in the financing plans of the projects.

New York Municipal Obligations

Payment of interest and preservation of principal is dependent upon the continuing ability of New York issuers and/or obligors of state, municipal and public authority debt obligations to meet their obligations thereunder.

There can be no assurance that current or future economic difficulties in the United States or New York and the resulting impact on the State will not adversely affect the market value of New York municipal obligations held by the Fund or the ability of particular issuers to make timely payments of debt service on these obligations. It should also be noted that the fiscal condition and creditworthiness of the state may not have a direct relationship to the fiscal condition or creditworthiness of

 

30


other issuers or obligors of New York municipal obligations. There is no obligation on the part of the state to make payments on those securities in the event of default.

Municipal Obligations of Other U.S. Territories

Municipal securities include the obligations of the governments of Puerto Rico and other U.S. territories and their political subdivisions (such as the U.S. Virgin Islands and Guam). Payment of interest and preservation of principal is dependent upon the continuing ability of such issuers and/or obligors of territorial, municipal and public authority debt obligations to meet their obligations thereunder. The sources of payment for such obligations and the marketability thereof may be affected by financial and other difficulties experienced by such issuers.

Puerto Rico. Municipal securities of issuers located in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico may be affected by political, social and economic conditions in Puerto Rico. Puerto Rico’s economy has been in a recession since late 2006, which has contributed to a steep increase in unemployment rates, funding shortfalls of state employees’ retirement systems, a budget deficit resulting from a structural imbalance, and reduced government revenues. In May 2017, Puerto Rico made a filing in the U.S. District Court in Puerto Rico to commence a debt restructuring process similar to that of a traditional municipal bankruptcy. Puerto Rico had previously defaulted on certain agency debt payments and the Governor had warned of its inability to meet additional pending obligations, including under general obligation bonds.

On March 15, 2022, Puerto Rico’s government formally exited bankruptcy, completing the largest public debt restructuring in U.S. history. Puerto Rico’s debt restructuring plan was approved by a federal judge in January 2022, and reduced claims against Puerto Rico’s government from $33 billion to just over $7.4 billion. The restructuring is related to Puerto Rico’s general obligation bonds, and did not resolve the bankruptcy proceedings for Puerto Rico’s Highways and Transportation Authority and the Electric Power Company, which owed nearly $9 billion, the largest debt of any government agency. The continued debt restructuring process could adversely affect the value of Puerto Rico municipal securities, including Puerto Rico municipal securities that are not subject to the debt restructuring process. In addition, Puerto Rico municipal securities remain subject to all of the other risks applicable to fixed income securities, including the risk of non-payment. To the extent that the Fund holds any Puerto Rico municipal securities, the Fund may lose some or all of the value of those investments.

Additionally, the COVID-19 pandemic has also caused unprecedented damage to Puerto Rico’s economy. Because of Puerto Rico’s close ties to the United States’ mainland economy, a downturn in the U.S. economy indirectly affects Puerto Rico. These indirect impacts stem from the slowdown of the overall U.S. economy and the threat of a prolonged recession that will affect many industries, including retail, manufacturing, oil and gas, tourism, gaming and lodging, transportation, healthcare, and education, to name a few. Government revenue collections have been materially adversely affected by reductions in overall economic activity as a result of mobility restrictions and business closures, and delays in the receipt of income taxes as a result of the postponement of tax return filing dates.

The following is a brief summary of certain factors affecting Puerto Rico’s economy and does not purport to be a complete description of such factors.

The dominant sectors of the Puerto Rico economy are manufacturing and services. The manufacturing sector has undergone fundamental changes over the years as a result of increased emphasis on higher wage, high technology industries, such as pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, computers, microprocessors, professional and scientific instruments, and certain high technology machinery and equipment. The services sector, including finance, insurance, real estate, wholesale and retail trade, transportation, communications and public utilities and other services, also plays a major role in the economy. It ranks second only to manufacturing in contribution to the gross domestic product and leads all sectors in providing employment.

Most external factors that affect the Puerto Rico economy are determined by the policies and performance of the United States. These external factors include exports, direct investment, the amount of federal transfer payments, the level of interest rates, the rate of inflation, and tourist expenditures.

Guam. General obligations and/or revenue bonds of issuers located in Guam may be affected by political, social and economic conditions in Guam. The following is a brief summary of factors affecting the economy of Guam and does not purport to be a complete description of such factors.

 

31


Guam, the westernmost territory of the U.S., is located 3,800 miles to the west-southwest of Honolulu, Hawaii and approximately 1,550 miles south-southeast of Tokyo, Japan. The population of Guam was estimated to be 171,519 in July 2022. Guam’s unemployment rate was at 7.2% as of December 2021.

Guam’s economy depends in large measure on tourism and the U.S. military presence, each of which is subject to uncertainties as a result of global economic, social and political events. Tourism, particularly from Japan, which has been a source of a majority of visitors to Guam, represents the primary source of income for Guam’s economy. A weak economy, war, severe weather, epidemic outbreaks or the threat of terrorist activity, among other influences that are beyond Guam’s control, can adversely affect its tourism industry. Guam is also exposed to periodic typhoons, tropical storms, super typhoons and earthquakes, such as the March 2011 earthquake and tsunami that occurred in Japan and caused a decline in tourism for a period of time. The U.S. military presence also affects economic activity on Guam in various ways and recently has been a positive contributor to the economy. The U.S. Department of Defense is in the process of relocating certain military forces from Okinawa, Japan to Guam. Nevertheless, economic, geopolitical, and other influences which are beyond Guam’s control could cause the U.S. military to reduce its existing presence on Guam or forgo any planned enhancements to its presence on Guam. Any reduction in tourism or the U.S. military presence could adversely affect Guam’s economy. The Government of Guam has declared a public health emergency in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. The ultimate financial effect of the pandemic on Guam’s economy is uncertain.

United States Virgin Islands. General obligations and/or revenue bonds of issuers located in the U.S. Virgin Islands may be affected by political, social and economic conditions in the U.S. Virgin Islands. The territory has experienced high levels of debt, increasing pension obligations and a declining population. The credit rating of certain bonds issued by the territory are rated below investment grade due to a perceived increased possibility that the territory may be forced to restructure its debts to address its financial problems.

In September 2017, the territory was hit by two hurricanes within the span of two weeks. Together, the hurricanes caused significant damage to the most populated islands, including to their infrastructure, hospitals, homes and other structures.

The following is a brief summary of factors affecting the economy of the U.S. Virgin Islands and does not purport to be a complete description of such factors.

The U.S. Virgin Islands consists of four main islands: St. Croix, St. Thomas, St. John, and Water Island and approximately 70 smaller islands, islets and cays. The total land area is about twice the size of Washington, D.C.

The U.S. Virgin Islands is located 60 miles east of Puerto Rico and 1,075 miles south of Miami, Florida in the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. The population of the U.S. Virgin Islands was estimated to be 104,110 in July 2022.

Tourism, trade, and other services, including manufacturing (rum distilling, watch assembly, pharmaceuticals, and electronics), are the primary economic activities, accounting for a substantial portion of the Virgin Island’s gross domestic product and civilian employment. The agricultural sector is small, with most of the islands’ food being imported. A weak economy, severe weather, war, epidemic outbreaks or the threat of terrorist activity, among other influences that are beyond the control of the territory, can adversely affect its tourism and other industries. The COVID-19 pandemic and the travel bans instituted by the U.S. and many countries have had a significant effect on the tourism industry in the Virgin Islands.

Repurchase Agreements

Under the terms of a typical repurchase agreement, the Fund would acquire one or more underlying debt securities from a counterparty (typically a bank or a broker-dealer), subject to the counterparty’s obligation to repurchase, and the Fund to resell, the securities at an agreed-upon time and price. The Fund may enter into repurchase agreements where the underlying collateral consists entirely of cash items and/or securities of the U.S. Government, its agencies, its instrumentalities, or U.S. Government sponsored enterprises. The Fund may also enter into repurchase agreements where the underlying collateral consists of other types of securities, including securities the Fund could not purchase directly. For such repurchase agreements, the underlying securities which serve as collateral may include, but are not limited to, U.S. government securities, municipal securities, corporate debt obligations, asset-backed securities (including collateralized mortgage obligations (“CMOs”)), convertible securities and common and preferred stock and may be of below investment grade quality. The repurchase price is typically greater than the purchase price paid by the Fund, thereby determining the Fund’s yield. A repurchase agreement is similar to, and may be treated as, a secured loan, where the Fund loans cash to the counterparty and the loan is secured by the underlying

 

32


securities as collateral. All repurchase agreements entered into by the Fund are required to be collateralized so that at all times during the term of a repurchase agreement, the value of the underlying securities is at least equal to the amount of the repurchase price. Also, the Fund or its custodian is required to have control of the collateral, which the portfolio manager believes will give the Fund a valid, perfected security interest in the collateral.

Repurchase agreements could involve certain risks in the event of default or insolvency of the counterparty, including possible delays or restrictions upon the Fund’s ability to dispose of the underlying securities, the risk of a possible decline in the value of the underlying securities during the period in which the Fund seeks to assert its right to them, the risk that there may be a limited market or no market for disposition of such underlying securities, the risk of incurring expenses associated with asserting those rights and the risk of losing all or part of the income from the agreement. The Fund will seek to mitigate these risks but there is no guarantee that such efforts will be successful. If the Fund enters into a repurchase agreement involving securities the Fund could not purchase directly, and the counterparty defaults, the Fund may become the holder of such securities. Repurchase agreements collateralized by securities other than U.S. government securities may be subject to greater risks and are more likely to have a term to maturity of longer than seven days. Repurchase agreements with a maturity of more than seven days are considered to be illiquid.

Repurchase agreements may be entered into or novated with a financial clearinghouse, which would become the Fund’s counterparty. The Fund would then become subject to the rules of the clearinghouse, which may limit the Fund’s rights and remedies (including recourse to collateral) or delay or restrict the rights and remedies, and expose the Fund to the risks of the clearinghouses’ insolvency.

Pursuant to an exemptive order issued by the SEC, the Fund, along with other affiliated entities managed by the Manager, may transfer uninvested cash balances into one or more joint accounts for the purpose of entering into repurchase agreements secured by cash and U.S. government securities, subject to certain conditions.

Reverse Repurchase Agreements (Except for Institutional U.S. Treasury Reserves and Premier Institutional U.S. Treasury Reserves)

The Fund may enter into reverse repurchase agreements. A reverse repurchase agreement has the characteristics of a secured borrowing by the Fund and creates leverage in the Fund’s portfolio. In a reverse repurchase transaction, the Fund sells a portfolio instrument to another person, such as a financial institution or broker-dealer, in return for cash. At the same time, the Fund agrees to repurchase the instrument at an agreed-upon time and at a price that is greater than the amount of cash that the Fund received when it sold the instrument, representing the equivalent of an interest payment by the Fund for the use of the cash. During the term of the transaction, the Fund will continue to receive any principal and interest payments (or the equivalent thereof) on the underlying instruments.

The Fund may engage in reverse repurchase agreements as a means of raising cash to satisfy redemption requests or for other temporary or emergency purposes. Unless otherwise limited in the Fund’s Prospectus or this SAI, the Fund may also engage in reverse repurchase agreements to the extent permitted by its fundamental investment policies in order to raise additional cash to be invested by the Fund’s portfolio manager in other securities or instruments in an effort to increase the Fund’s investment returns.

During the term of the transaction, the Fund will remain at risk for any fluctuations in the market value of the instruments subject to the reverse repurchase agreement as if it had not entered into the transaction. When the Fund reinvests the proceeds of a reverse repurchase agreement in other securities, the Fund will also be at risk for any fluctuations in the market value of the securities in which the proceeds are invested. Like other forms of leverage, this makes the value of an investment in the Fund more volatile and increases the Fund’s overall investment exposure. In addition, if the Fund’s return on its investment of the proceeds of the reverse repurchase agreement does not equal or exceed the implied interest that it is obligated to pay under the reverse repurchase agreement, engaging in the transaction will lower the Fund’s return.

When the Fund enters into a reverse repurchase agreement, it is subject to the risk that the buyer under the agreement may file for bankruptcy, become insolvent or otherwise default on its obligations to the Fund. In the event of a default by the counterparty, there may be delays, costs and risks of loss involved in the Fund’s exercising its rights under the agreement, or those rights may be limited by other contractual agreements or obligations or by applicable law.

 

33


In addition, the Fund may be unable to sell the instruments subject to the reverse repurchase agreement at a time when it would be advantageous to do so, or may be required to liquidate portfolio securities at a time when it would be disadvantageous to do so in order to make payments with respect to its obligations under a reverse repurchase agreement. This could adversely affect the Fund’s strategy and result in lower fund returns.

Whenever the Fund enters into a reverse repurchase agreement, it will either (i) be consistent with Section 18 of the 1940 Act, maintain asset coverage of at least 300% of the value of the repurchase agreement or (ii) treat the reverse repurchase agreement as a derivatives transaction for purposes of Rule 18f-4, including, as applicable, the value-at-risk based limit on leverage risk.

Risks Associated with Sources of Liquidity or Credit Support

Issuers of obligations may employ various forms of credit and liquidity enhancements, including letters of credit, guarantees, swaps, puts and demand features, and insurance, provided by U.S. or non-U.S. entities such as banks and other financial institutions. Changes in the credit quality of the entities providing the enhancement could affect the value of the securities or the share price of the Fund. U.S. banks and certain financial institutions are subject to extensive governmental regulation which may limit both the amounts and types of loans and other financial commitments which may be made and interest rates and fees which may be charged. Non-U.S. banks and financial institutions may be less regulated than their U.S. counterparts and may be subject to additional risks, such as those relating to foreign economic and political developments and foreign governmental restrictions. The profitability of the banking industry is largely dependent upon the availability and cost of capital for the purpose of financing lending operations under prevailing money market conditions. Also, general economic conditions play an important part in the operation of the banking industry, and exposure to credit losses arising from possible financial difficulties of borrowers might affect a bank’s ability to meet its obligations under a letter of credit.

Securities Lending (Except for Institutional U.S. Treasury Reserves and Premier Institutional U.S. Treasury Reserves)

The Fund may lend its portfolio securities, provided that cash or equivalent collateral, equal to at least 100% of the market value of such securities, is continuously maintained by the other party with the Fund. During the pendency of the transaction, the other party will pay the Fund an amount equivalent to any dividends or interest paid on such securities, and the Fund may invest the cash collateral and earn additional income, or it may receive an agreed upon amount of interest income from the other party who has delivered equivalent collateral. These transactions are subject to termination at the option of the Fund or the other party. The Fund may pay administrative and custodial fees in connection with these transactions and may pay a negotiated portion of the interest earned on the cash or equivalent collateral to the other party or placing agent or broker. Although voting rights or rights to consent with respect to the relevant securities generally pass to the other party, the Fund will make arrangements to vote or consent with respect to a material event affecting such securities. The risks in lending portfolio securities include possible delay in recovery of the securities or possible loss of rights in the collateral should the borrower fail financially. The Fund runs the risk that the counterparty to a loan transaction will default on its obligation and that the value of the collateral received may decline before the Fund can dispose of it. If the Fund receives cash as collateral and invests that cash, the Fund is subject to the risk that the collateral will decline in value before the Fund must return it to the counterparty. Subject to the foregoing, loans of fund securities are effectively borrowings by the Fund and have economic characteristics similar to reverse repurchase agreements. The Fund does not currently intend to engage in securities lending, although it may engage in transactions (such as reverse repurchase agreements) which have similar characteristics.

Structured Instruments

Structured instruments are money market instruments that have been structured to meet the regulatory requirements for investment by money market funds, typically by a bank, broker/dealer or other financial institution. They generally consist of a trust or partnership through which the Fund holds an interest in one or more underlying bonds or other debt obligations coupled with a conditional right to sell (“put”) the Fund’s interest in the underlying bonds at par plus accrued interest to a financial institution. With respect to tax-exempt instruments, the instrument is typically structured as a trust or partnership which provides for pass-through tax-exempt income. Structured instruments in which the Fund may invest include: (1) tender option bonds, (2) swap products, in which the trust or partnership swaps the payments due on an underlying bond with a swap counterparty who agrees to pay a floating money market interest rate; and (3) partnerships, which allocate to the partners income, expenses,

 

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capital gains and losses in accordance with a governing partnership agreement. Structured instruments may be more volatile, have lower liquidity and may be more difficult to price accurately than less complex securities or more traditional debt securities.

These types of instruments raise certain tax, legal, regulatory and accounting issues which may not be presented by direct investments in debt obligations. There is some risk that certain of these issues could be resolved in a manner that could adversely impact the performance of the Fund.

Temporary Defensive Investing

The Fund may depart from its principal investment strategies in response to adverse market, economic or political conditions by taking temporary defensive positions, including by investing in any type of investment grade, government, corporate and money market instruments and short-term debt securities or holding cash without regard to any percentage limitations. Although the portfolio manager has the ability to take defensive positions, they may choose not to do so for a variety of reasons, even during volatile market conditions.

U.S. Government Securities

U.S. Government securities include (1) U.S. Treasury bills (maturity of one year or less), U.S. Treasury notes (maturity of one to ten years) and U.S. Treasury bonds (maturities generally greater than ten years); (2) obligations issued or guaranteed by U.S. Government agencies or instrumentalities which are supported by any of the following: (a) the full faith and credit of the U.S. Government (such as certificates issued by the Government National Mortgage Association (“Ginnie Mae”)); (b) the right of the issuer to borrow an amount limited to a specific line of credit from the U.S. Government (such as obligations of the Federal Home Loan Banks); (c) the discretionary authority of the U.S. Government to purchase certain obligations of agencies or instrumentalities (such as securities issued by the Federal National Mortgage Association); or (d) only the credit of the agency or instrumentality (such as securities issued by the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation); and (3) obligations issued by non-governmental entities (like financial institutions) that carry direct guarantees from U.S. government agencies as part of government initiatives in response to a market crisis or otherwise. Agencies and instrumentalities of the U.S. Government include but are not limited to: Farmers Home Administration, Export-Import Bank of the United States, Federal Housing Administration, Federal Land Banks, Federal Financing Bank, Central Bank for Cooperatives, Federal Intermediate Credit Banks, Farm Credit Bank System, Federal Home Loan Banks, Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation, Federal National Mortgage Association, General Services Administration, Government National Mortgage Association, Student Loan Marketing Association, United States Postal Service, Maritime Administration, Small Business Administration, Tennessee Valley Authority, Washington D.C. Armory Board and any other instrumentality established or sponsored by the U.S. Government.

In the case of obligations not backed by the full faith and credit of the United States, the Fund must look principally to the agency or instrumentality issuing or guaranteeing the obligation for ultimate repayment and may not be able to assert a claim against the United States itself in the event the agency or instrumentality does not meet its commitments. Neither the U.S. Government nor any of its agencies or instrumentalities guarantees the market value of the securities they issue. Therefore, the market value of such securities will fluctuate in response to changes in interest rates and other factors. In addition, any downgrade of the credit rating of the securities issued by the U.S. Government may result in a downgrade of securities issued by its agencies or instrumentalities, including government-sponsored entities. From time to time, uncertainty regarding the status of negotiations in the U.S. government to increase the statutory debt ceiling could increase the risk that the U.S. government may default on payments on certain U.S. government securities, cause the credit rating of the U.S. government to be downgraded, increase volatility in the stock and bond markets, result in higher interest rates, reduce prices of U.S. Treasury securities, and/or increase the costs of various kinds of debt. If a U.S. Government-sponsored entity is negatively impacted by legislative or regulatory action (or lack thereof), is unable to meet its obligations, or its creditworthiness declines, the performance of a fund that holds securities of the entity will be adversely impacted.

U.S. Treasury Obligations

U.S. Treasury obligations are direct debt obligations issued by the U.S. government. Treasury bills, with maturities normally from 4 weeks to 52 weeks, are typically issued at a discount as they pay interest only upon maturity. Treasury bills are non-callable. Treasury notes have a maturity between two and ten years and typically pay interest semi-annually, while Treasury bonds have a maturity of over ten years and pay interest semi- annually. U.S. Treasury obligations also include STRIPS, TIPS, and FRNs. STRIPS are Treasury obligations with separately traded principal and interest component parts of such obligations that are

 

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transferable through the federal book-entry system. The principal and interest components of U.S. Treasury bonds with remaining maturities of longer than ten years are eligible to be traded independently under the STRIPS program. Under the STRIPS program, the principal and interest components are separately issued through depository financial institutions, which then trade the component parts separately. Each interest payment and the principal payment becomes a separate zero-coupon security. STRIPS pay interest only at maturity. The interest component of STRIPS may be more volatile than that of U.S. Treasury bills with comparable maturities. TIPS are Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities, the principal of which increases with inflation and decreases with deflation. The inflation adjustment is based on a three month-lagged value of the non-seasonally adjusted Consumer Price Index for Urban Consumers (CPI-U). TIPS entitle the holder, upon maturity, to the adjusted principal or original principal, whichever is greater, thus providing a deflation floor. TIPS pay interest twice a year, at a fixed rate. The rate is applied to the adjusted principal; so, like the principal, interest payments rise with inflation and fall with deflation. However, because the interest rate is fixed, TIPS may lose value when market interest rates increase, particularly during periods of low inflation. FRNs are floating rate notes, the interest on which is indexed to the most recent 13-week Treasury bill auction High Rate, which is the highest accepted discount rate in a Treasury bill auction.

Variable and Floating Rate Securities

Variable and floating rate securities provide for a periodic adjustment in the interest rate paid on the obligations. The terms of such obligations provide that interest rates are adjusted periodically based upon an interest rate adjustment index as provided in the respective obligations. The adjustment intervals may be regular, and range from daily up to annually, or may be event-based, such as based on a change in the prime rate.

The Fund may invest in floating rate debt instruments (“floaters”) and engage in credit spread trades. The interest rate on a floater is a variable rate which is tied to another interest rate, such as a corporate bond index or U.S. Treasury bill rate. The interest rate on a floater resets periodically, typically every six months. While, because of the interest rate reset feature, floaters may provide the Fund with a certain degree of protection against rising interest rates, the Fund will participate in any declines in interest rates as well. A credit spread trade is an investment position relating to a difference in the prices or interest rates of two bonds or other securities or currencies, where the value of the investment position is determined by movements in the difference between the prices or interest rates, as the case may be, of the respective securities or currencies.

The Fund may also invest in variable amount master demand notes, which permit the indebtedness thereunder to vary in addition to providing for periodic adjustments in the interest rate. The absence of an active secondary market with respect to particular variable and floating rate instruments could make it difficult for the Fund to dispose of a variable or floating rate note if the issuer were to default on its payment obligation or during periods that the Fund is not entitled to exercise its demand rights, and the Fund could, for these or other reasons, suffer a loss with respect to such instruments. In determining average-weighted portfolio maturity, an instrument will be deemed to have a maturity equal to either the period remaining until the next interest rate adjustment or the time the Fund can recover payment of principal as specified in the instrument, depending on the type of instrument involved.

When-Issued Securities and Forward Commitments

Securities may be purchased on a “when-issued” or “to be announced” or “forward delivery” basis. Institutional U.S. Treasury Reserves and Premier Institutional U.S. Treasury Reserves will not invest in securities on a “to be announced” basis. The payment obligation and the interest rate that will be received on the “when-issued” securities are fixed at the time the buyer enters into the commitment although settlement, i.e., delivery of and payment for the securities, takes place at a later date. In a “to be announced” transaction, the Fund commits to purchase securities for which all specific information is not known at the time of the trade.

Securities purchased on a “when-issued” or “forward delivery” basis are subject to changes in value based upon the market’s perception of the creditworthiness of the issuer and changes, real or anticipated, in the level of interest rates. The value of these securities experiences appreciation when interest rates decline and depreciation when interest rates rise. Purchasing securities on a “when-issued” or “forward delivery” basis can involve a risk that the yields available in the market on the settlement date may actually be higher or lower than those obtained in the transaction itself.

An increase in the percentage of the Fund’s assets committed to the purchase of securities on a “when-issued” basis may increase the volatility of its net asset value.

 

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MANAGEMENT

Trustees and Officers

The business and affairs of the Fund are conducted by management under the supervision and subject to the direction of its Board. The business address of each Trustee (including each Independent Trustee) is c/o Jane Trust, Franklin Templeton, 100 International Drive, 11th Floor, Baltimore, Maryland 21202. The tables below provide information about each of the Trustees and officers of the Trust.

Independent Trustees#:

 

Name and

Year of Birth

  Position(s) with Trust  

Term of Office*

and Length of

Time Served**

 

Principal Occupation(s)
During

the Past Five Years

 

Number of

Funds in the

Legg Mason

Funds

Complex

Overseen

by Trustee***

  Other Board Memberships
Held by Trustee During the
Past Five Years

Robert Abeles, Jr.

Born 1945

  Trustee   Since 2013   Board Member of Great Public Schools Now (since 2018); Senior Vice President Emeritus (since 2016) and formerly, Senior Vice President, Finance and Chief Financial Officer (2009 to 2016) at University of Southern California; Board Member of Excellent Education Development (since 2012)   51   None

Jane F. Dasher

Born 1949

  Trustee   Since 1999   Chief Financial Officer, Long Light Capital, LLC, formerly known as Korsant Partners, LLC (a family investment company) (since 1997)   51   Director, Visual Kinematics, Inc. (since 2018)

Anita L. DeFrantz

Born 1952

  Trustee   Since 1998   President of Tubman Truth Corp. (since 2015); President Emeritus (since 2015) and formerly, President (1987 to 2015) and Director (1990 to 2015) of LA84 (formerly Amateur Athletic Foundation of Los Angeles); Member (since 1986), Member of the Executive Board (since 2013) and Vice President (since 2017) of the International Olympic Committee   51   None

Susan B. Kerley

Born 1951

  Trustee   Since 1992   Investment Consulting Partner, Strategic Management Advisors, LLC (investment consulting) (since 1990)   51  

Director and Trustee (since 1990) and Chairman (since 2017 and 2005 to 2012) of

various series of MainStay Family of Funds (66 funds); formerly, Investment Company Institute (ICI) Board of Governors (2006 to 2014); ICI Executive Committee (2011 to 2014); Chairman of the Independent Directors Council (2012 to 2014)

Michael Larson

Born 1959

  Trustee   Since 2004   Chief Investment Officer for William H. Gates III (since 1994)±   51   Republic Services, Inc. (since 2009); Fomento Economico Mexicano, SAB (since 2011); Ecolab Inc. (since 2012); formerly, AutoNation, Inc. (2010 to 2018)

 

37


Avedick B. Poladian

Born 1951

  Trustee   Since 2007   Director and Advisor (since 2017) and former Executive Vice President and Chief Operating Officer (2002 to 2016) of Lowe Enterprises, Inc. (privately held real estate and hospitality firm); formerly, Partner, Arthur Andersen, LLP (1974 to 2002)   51   Occidental Petroleum Corporation (since 2008); California Resources Corporation (2014 to 2021); and Public Storage (since 2010)

William E.B. Siart

Born 1946

 

Trustee and

Chairman of the Board

  Since 1997 (Chairman of the Board since 2020)   Chairman of Great Public Schools Now (since 2015); Chairman of Excellent Education Development (since 2000); formerly, Trustee of The Getty Trust (2005 to 2017); Chairman of Walt Disney Concert Hall, Inc. (1998 to 2006)   51   Member of Board of United States Golf Association, Executive Committee Member (since 2017); Trustee, University of Southern California (since 1994)

Jaynie Miller Studenmund

Born 1954

  Trustee   Since 2004   Corporate Board Member and Advisor (since 2004); formerly, Chief Operating Officer of Overture Services, Inc. (publicly traded internet company that created search engine marketing) (2001 to 2004); President and Chief Operating Officer, PayMyBills (internet innovator in bill presentment/payment space) (1999 to 2001); Executive vice president for consumer and business banking for three national financial institutions (1984 to 1997)   51   Director of Pacific Premier Bancorp Inc. and Pacific Premier Bank (since 2019); Director of EXL (operations management and analytics company) (since 2018); Director of CoreLogic, Inc. (information, analytics and business services company) (since 2012); formerly, Director of Pinnacle Entertainment, Inc. (gaming and hospitality company) (2012 to 2018); Director of LifeLock, Inc. (identity theft protection company) (2015 to 2017); Director of Orbitz Worldwide, Inc. (online travel company) (2007 to 2014)

Peter J. Taylor

Born 1958

  Trustee   Since 2019   President, ECMC Foundation (nonprofit organization) (since 2014); formerly, Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer for University of California system (2009 to 2014)   51   Director of Pacific Mutual Holding Company (since 2016); Member of the Board of Trustees of California State University system (since 2015); Ralph M. Parson Foundation (since 2015), Kaiser Family Foundation (since 2012), and Edison International (since 2011)

Interested Trustee:

       

Ronald L. Olson‡

Born 1941

  Trustee   Since 2005  

Partner of Munger, Tolles &

Olson LLP (a law partnership) (since 1968)

  51   Berkshire Hathaway, Inc. (since 1997)

 

38


Interested Trustee and Officer:

     

Jane Trust, CFA†

Born 1962

 

Trustee, President and

Chief Executive Officer

  Since 2015   Senior Vice President, Fund Board Management, Franklin Templeton (since 2020); Officer and/or Trustee/Director of 131 funds associated with LMPFA or its affiliates (since 2015); President and Chief Executive Officer of LMPFA (since 2015); formerly, Senior Managing Director (2018 to 2020) and Managing Director (2016 to 2018) of Legg Mason & Co., LLC (“Legg Mason & Co.”); Senior Vice President of LMPFA (2015)   131   None

 

#

Trustees who are not “interested persons” of the Trust within the meaning of Section 2(a)(19) of the 1940 Act.

 

*

Each Trustee serves until his or her respective successor has been duly elected and qualified or until his or her earlier death, resignation, retirement or removal.

 

**

Indicates the earliest year in which the Trustee became a board member for a fund in the Legg Mason Funds complex.

 

***

Information is for the calendar year ended December 31, 2021, except as otherwise noted.

 

±

Mr. Larson is the chief investment officer for William H. Gates III and in that capacity oversees the non-Microsoft investments of Mr. Gates and all the investments of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation Trust (such combined investments are referred to as the “Accounts”). Since 1997, Western Asset has provided discretionary investment advice with respect to one or more Accounts. Since December 31, 2019, at no time did the value of those investment portfolios exceed 0.5% of Western Asset’s total assets under management. No changes to these arrangements are currently contemplated.

 

Western Asset and its affiliates provide investment advisory services with respect to registered investment companies sponsored by an affiliate of Pacific Mutual Holding Company (“Pacific Holdings”). Affiliates of Pacific Holdings receive compensation from LMPFA or its affiliates for shareholder or distribution services provided with respect to registered investment companies for which Western Asset or its affiliates serve as investment adviser.

 

Mr. Olson is an “interested person” of the Trust, as defined in the 1940 Act, because his law firm has provided legal services to Western Asset.

 

Ms. Trust is an “interested person” of the Trust, as defined in the 1940 Act, because of her position with LMPFA and/or certain of its affiliates.

 

39


Additional Officers:

 

Name, Year of

Birth

and Address

     Position(s) with Trust   

Term of Office*

and Length of

Time Served**

  

Principal Occupation(s)

During the Past Five Years

Ted P. Becker

Born 1951

Franklin Templeton

280 Park Avenue

New York, NY 10017

    

Chief Compliance

Officer

   Since 2007    Vice President, Global Compliance of Franklin Templeton (since 2020); Chief Compliance Officer of LMPFA (since 2006); Chief Compliance Officer of certain funds associated with Legg Mason & Co. or its affiliates (since 2006); formerly, Director of Global Compliance at Legg Mason (2006 to 2020); Managing Director of Compliance of Legg Mason & Co. (2005 to 2020)
       

Christopher Berarducci

Born 1974

Franklin Templeton

280 Park Avenue

New York, NY 10017

     Treasurer and Principal Financial Officer    Since 2019    Vice President, Fund Administration and Reporting, Franklin Templeton (since 2020), Treasurer (since 2010) and Principal Financial Officer (since 2019) of certain funds associated with Legg Mason & Co. or its affiliates; formerly, Managing Director (2020), Director (2015 to 2020), and Vice President (2011 to 2015) of Legg Mason & Co.
       

Marc A. De Oliveira

Born 1971

Franklin Templeton

100 First Stamford Place

6th Floor

Stamford, CT 06902

     Secretary and Chief Legal Officer    Since 2020    Associate General Counsel of Franklin Templeton (since 2020); Assistant Secretary of certain funds associated with Legg Mason & Co. or its affiliates (since 2006); formerly, Managing Director (2016 to 2020) and Associate General Counsel of Legg Mason & Co. (2005 to 2020)
       

Jeanne Kelly

Born 1951

Franklin Templeton

280 Park Avenue

New York, NY 10017

     Senior Vice President    Since 2007    U.S. Fund Board Team Manager, Franklin Templeton (since 2020); Senior Vice President of certain funds associated with Legg Mason & Co. or its affiliates (since 2007); Senior Vice President of LMPFA (since 2006); President and Chief Executive Officer of LM Asset Services, LLC (“LMAS”) and Legg Mason Fund Asset Management, Inc. (“LMFAM”) (formerly registered investment advisers) (since 2015); formerly, Managing Director of Legg Mason & Co. (2005 to 2020), and Senior Vice President of LMFAM (2013 to 2015)
       

Susan Kerr

Born 1949

Franklin Templeton

280 Park Avenue

New York, NY 10017

    

Chief Anti-Money

Laundering

Compliance

Officer

   Since 2013    Senior Compliance Analyst, Franklin Templeton (since 2020); Chief Anti-Money Laundering Compliance Officer of certain funds associated with Legg Mason & Co. or its affiliates (since 2013) and Anti-Money Laundering Compliance Officer (since 2012), Senior Compliance Officer (since 2011) and Assistant Vice President (since 2010) of the Distributor; formerly, Assistant Vice President of Legg Mason & Co. (2010 to 2020)
       

Thomas C. Mandia

Born 1962

Franklin Templeton

100 First Stamford Place

6th Floor

Stamford, CT 06902

     Senior Vice President    Since 2020    Senior Associate General Counsel to Franklin Templeton (since 2020); Secretary of LMPFA (since 2006); Assistant Secretary of certain funds associated with Legg Mason & Co. or its affiliates (since 2006); Secretary of LMAS (since 2002) and LMFAM (formerly registered investment advisers) (since 2013); formerly, Managing Director and Deputy General Counsel of Legg Mason & Co. (2005 to 2020)

 

*

Each officer serves until his or her respective successor has been duly elected and qualified or until his or her earlier death, resignation, retirement or removal.

 

**

Indicates the earliest year in which the officer took such office.

 

40


Qualifications of Trustees, Board Leadership Structure and Oversight and Standing Committees

The Board believes that each Trustee’s experience, qualifications, attributes or skills on an individual basis and in combination with those of its other Trustees lead to the conclusion that the Board possesses the requisite skills and attributes. The Board believes that the Trustees’ abilities to review, critically evaluate, question and discuss information provided to them; to interact effectively with the Manager, the Subadviser, other service providers, counsel and independent auditors; and to exercise effective business judgment in the performance of their duties serves to support this conclusion. The Board has considered the following experience, qualifications, attributes and/or skills, among others, of its members in reaching its conclusion: his or her character and integrity; such person’s length of service as a board member of certain Funds; such person’s willingness to serve and willingness and ability to commit the time necessary to perform the duties of a Trustee; as to each Trustee other than Mr. Olson and Ms. Trust, his or her status as not being an “interested person” (as defined in the 1940 Act) of the Funds. In addition, the following specific experience, qualifications, attributes and/or skills apply as to each Trustee: Mr. Abeles, business, accounting and finance expertise and experience as a chief financial officer, board member and/or executive officer of various businesses and other organizations; Ms. Dasher, experience as a chief financial officer of a private investment company; Ms. DeFrantz, business expertise and experience as a president, board member and/or executive officer of various businesses and non-profit and other organizations; Ms. Kerley, investment consulting experience and background and mutual fund board experience; Mr. Larson, portfolio management expertise and experience as a board member of various businesses and other organizations; Mr. Poladian, business, finance and accounting expertise and experience as a board member of various businesses and/or as a partner of a multi-national accounting firm; Mr. Siart, business and finance expertise and experience as a president, chairperson, chief executive officer and/or board member of various businesses and non-profit and other organizations; Ms. Studenmund, business and finance expertise and experience as a president, board member and/or chief operating officer of various businesses; Mr. Olson, business and legal expertise and experience as a partner of a law firm and/or board member of various businesses and non-profit and other organizations; Mr. Taylor, business and finance expertise and experience as a chief financial officer, president and/or board member of various businesses and non-profit organizations; and Ms. Trust, investment management and risk oversight experience as an executive and portfolio manager and leadership roles within Legg Mason and affiliated entities. References to the qualifications, attributes and skills of Trustees are pursuant to requirements of the SEC, do not constitute holding out of the Board or any Trustee as having any special expertise or experience, and shall not impose any greater responsibility or liability on any such person or the Board by reason thereof.

The Board is responsible for overseeing the management and operations of the Fund. Ms. Trust and Mr. Olson are each interested persons of the Fund. Independent Trustees constitute more than 75% of the Board. Mr. Siart, who is not an interested person of the Fund, serves as Chair of the Board (since 2020).

The Board has four standing committees: the Audit Committee, Governance and Nominating Committee (referred to as the Governance Committee), Executive and Contracts Committee (referred to as the Contracts Committee) and Investment and Performance Committee (referred to as the Performance Committee). Each of the Audit, Governance, Contracts and Performance Committees is chaired by an Independent Trustee and each (other than the Performance Committee) is composed of all the Independent Trustees. Where deemed appropriate, the Board constitutes ad hoc committees.

The Contracts Committee, which consists of Messrs. Abeles, Larson, Poladian, Siart and Taylor and Mses. Dasher, DeFrantz, Kerley and Studenmund, may meet from time to time between Board meetings in order to consider appropriate matters and to review the various contractual arrangements between the Trust and its affiliated persons.

The Audit Committee, which consists of Messrs. Abeles, Larson, Poladian, Siart and Taylor and Mses. Dasher, DeFrantz, Kerley and Studenmund, provides oversight with respect to the accounting and financial reporting and compliance policies and practices of the Fund and, among other things, considers the selection of an independent registered public accounting firm for the Fund and the scope of the audit and approves all services proposed to be performed by the independent registered public accounting firm on behalf of the Fund and, under certain circumstances, the Subadviser and certain affiliates.

The Governance Committee, which consists of Messrs. Abeles, Larson, Poladian, Siart and Taylor and Mses. Dasher, DeFrantz, Kerley and Studenmund, meets to select nominees for election as Trustees of the Trust and consider other matters of Board policy, including to review and make recommendations to the Board with respect to the compensation of the Independent Trustees. It is the policy of the Governance and Nominating Committee to consider nominees recommended by shareholders. Shareholders of the Trust who wish to recommend a nominee to the Governance Committee of a Trust should send recommendations to the Secretary of the Trust that include all information relating to such person that is required to be disclosed

 

41


in solicitations of proxies for the election of Trustees. Such a recommendation must be accompanied by a written consent of the individual to stand for election if nominated by the Board and to serve if elected by the shareholders of the Trust. The procedures by which shareholders of the Trust can submit nominee recommendations to the Governance Committee of the Trust are set forth in Appendix C to the SAI.

The Performance Committee, which consists of Messrs. Abeles, Larson, Poladian, Olson, Siart and Taylor and Mses. Dasher, DeFrantz, Kerley, Studenmund and Trust, is charged with, among other things, reviewing investment performance.

The Board has determined that its leadership structure is appropriate given the business and nature of the Fund. In connection with its determination, the Board considered that the Chairman of the Board is an Independent Trustee. The Chairman of the Board can play an important role in setting the agenda of the Board and also serves as a key point person for dealings between management and the other Independent Trustees. The Independent Trustees believe that the Chairman’s independence facilitates meaningful dialogue between Fund management and the Independent Trustees. The Board also considered that the chairperson of each Board committee is an Independent Trustee, which yields similar benefits with respect to the functions and activities of the various Board committees (e.g., each committee’s chairperson works with the Manager and other service providers to set agendas for the meetings of the applicable Board committees). As noted above, through the committees the Independent Trustees consider and address important matters involving the Fund, including those presenting conflicts or potential conflicts of interest for management. The Independent Trustees also regularly meet outside the presence of management and are advised by independent legal counsel. The Board has determined that its committees help ensure that the Fund has effective and independent governance and oversight. The Board also believes that its leadership structure, in which the Chair of the Board is not affiliated with Legg Mason, is appropriate. The Board also believes that its leadership structure facilitates the orderly and efficient flow of information to the Independent Trustees from management, including the Subadviser. The Board reviews its structure on an annual basis.

As an integral part of its responsibility for oversight of the Fund in the interests of shareholders, the Board oversees risk management of the Fund’s investment programs and business affairs. The function of the Board with respect to risk management is one of oversight not active involvement in, or coordination of, day-to-day risk management activities for the Fund. The Board has emphasized to the Fund’s Manager and Subadviser the importance of maintaining vigorous risk management. The Board exercises oversight of the risk management process primarily through the Performance Committee, the Audit Committee and the Contracts Committee, and through oversight by the Board itself.

The Fund faces a number of risks, such as investment risk, counterparty risk, valuation risk, reputational risk, risk of operational failure or lack of business continuity, and legal, compliance and regulatory risk. Risk management seeks to identify and address risks, i.e., events or circumstances that could have material adverse effects on the business, operations, shareholder services, investment performance or reputation of the Fund. Under the overall supervision of the Board or the applicable committee, the Fund, the Manager, the Subadviser, and the affiliates of the Manager and the Subadviser, or other service providers to the Fund employ a variety of processes, procedures and controls to identify various of those possible events or circumstances, to lessen the probability of their occurrence and/or to mitigate the effects of such events or circumstances if they do occur.

Different processes, procedures and controls are employed with respect to different types of risks. Various personnel, including the Fund’s and the Manager’s CCO and the Manager’s chief risk officer, as well as various personnel of the Subadviser and other service providers such as the Fund’s independent accountants, also make periodic reports to the Performance Committee, Contracts Committee, Audit Committee and/or to the Board with respect to various aspects of risk management, as well as events and circumstances that have arisen and responses thereto.

These reports and other similar reports received by the Trustees as to risk management matters are typically summaries of the relevant information. The Board recognizes that not all risks that may affect the Fund can be identified, that it may not be practical or cost-effective to eliminate or mitigate certain risks, that it may be necessary to bear certain risks (such as investment-related risks) to achieve the Fund’s goals, and that the processes, procedures and controls employed to address certain risks may be limited in their effectiveness.

During the fiscal year ended August 31, 2022, the Board met 8 times. The Committees of the Board met as follows: the Audit Committee met 5 times, the Governance and Nominating Committee met 3 times, the Investment and Performance Committee met 5 times, and the Executive and Contracts Committee met 2 times.

 

42


Trustee Ownership of Securities

As indicated above, the Board members are recently elected to the Board. All members of the Board have served previously on boards overseeing funds in the Legg Mason Funds complex.

The following tables show the dollar range of equity securities owned by the Trustees in the Fund and other investment companies in the Legg Mason Funds complex overseen by the Trustees as of December 31, 2021.

 

     Dollar Range of
Equity Securities in the Fund ($)
    

Name of Trustee

   Government
Reserves
   Institutional
Government
Reserves
   Institutional
Liquid
Reserves
   Institutional
U.S. Treasury
Obligations
Money
Market Fund
   Institutional
U.S. Treasury
Reserves
   Aggregate Dollar
Range of Equity
Securities in All
Registered
Investment
Companies in
Legg Mason
Funds Complex
Overseen by
Trustee ($)

Independent

Trustees:

                 

Robert Abeles, Jr.

   None    None    None    None    None    None

Jane F. Dasher

   None    None    None    None    None    Over 100,000

Anita L. DeFrantz

   None    None    None    None    None    10,001 to 50,000

Susan B. Kerley

   None    None    None    None    None    Over 100,000

Michael Larson

   None    None    None    None    None    Over 100,000

Avedick B. Poladian

   None    None    None    None    None    Over 100,000

William E. B. Siart

   None    None    None    None    None    None

Jaynie Miller

Studenmund

   None    None    None    None    None    None

Peter J. Taylor

   None    None    None    None    None    Over 100,000
Interested Trustees:                  

Ronald L. Olson

   None    None    None    None    None    None

Jane Trust

   None    None    None    None    None    Over 100,000

 

     Dollar Range of
Equity Securities in the Fund ($)
        

Name of Trustee

   Premier
Institutional
Government
Reserves
     Premier
Institutional
Liquid Reserves
     Premier
Institutional
U.S. Treasury
Reserves
     Select Tax Free
Reserves
     Aggregate Dollar
Range of Equity
Securities in All
Registered
Investment
Companies in Legg
Mason Funds
Complex Overseen
by Trustee ($)
 
Independent Trustees:               

Robert Abeles, Jr.

     None        None        None        None        None  

 

43


                                                                                                                                           

Jane F. Dasher

     None        None        None        None        Over 100,000  

Anita L. DeFrantz

     None        None        None        None        10,001 to 50,000  

Susan B. Kerley

     None        None        None        None        Over 100,000  

Michael Larson

     None        None        None        None        Over 100,000  

Avedick B. Poladian

     None        None        None        None        Over 100,000  

William E. B. Siart

     None        None        None        None        None  

Jaynie Miller Studenmund

     None        None        None        None        None  

Peter J. Taylor

     None        None        None        None        Over 100,000  

Interested Trustees:

              

Ronald L. Olson

     None        None        None        None        None  

Jane Trust

     None        None        None        None        Over 100,000  

As of December 31, 2021, none of the Independent Trustees or their immediate family members owned beneficially or of record any securities of the Manager, the Subadviser, or the Distributor of the Fund, or of a person (other than a registered investment company) directly or indirectly controlling, controlled by or under common control with the Manager, the Subadviser, or the Distributor of the Fund.

 

44


For serving as a Trustee of the Trust, each Independent Trustee receives an annual retainer plus fees for attending each regularly scheduled meeting and special Board meeting they attend in person or by telephone. Each Independent Trustee is also reimbursed for all out-of-pocket expenses relating to attendance at such meetings. Those Independent Trustees who serve in leadership positions of the Board or Board committees receive additional compensation. The Board reviews the level of Trustee compensation periodically and Trustee compensation may change from time to time. Ms. Trust, an “interested person” of the Trust, as defined in the 1940 Act, does not receive compensation from the Fund for her service as Trustee. Mr. Olson, an “interested person” (as defined in the 1940 Act) of the Trust, receives from Western Asset an annual retainer plus fees for attending each regularly scheduled meeting and special Board meeting he attends in person or by telephone. The Fund pays its pro rata share of the fees and expenses of the Trustees based upon asset size.

Officers of the Trust receive no compensation from the Fund, although they may be reimbursed for reasonable out-of-pocket travel expenses for attending Board meetings.

Trustee Compensation

Information regarding compensation paid to the Trustees is shown below.

 

    Aggregate Compensation from the Fund*($)              
Name of Trustee   Government
Reserves
  Institutional
Government
Reserves
  Institutional
Liquid
Reserves
  Institutional
U.S. Treasury
Obligations
Money Market
Fund
    Institutional
U.S. Treasury
Reserves
   

Total
Pension

or
Retirement
Benefits
Paid

as Part of
Fund
Expenses*
($)

   

Total
Compensation
from Legg
Mason

Funds
Complex

Paid to
Trustee**

($)

 

Independent Trustees:

       

Robert Abeles, Jr.

  3,317   25,699   4,543     880       28,503       None       332,000  

Jane F. Dasher

  2,986   23,132   4,086     792       25,666       None       297,000  

Anita L. DeFrantz

  3,203   24,824   4,381     850       27,539       None       317,000  

Susan B. Kerley

  3,203   24,824   4,381     850       27,539       None       317,000  

Michael Larson

  2,986   23,132   4,086     792       25,666       None       297,000  

Avedick B. Poladian

  2,986   23,132   4,086     792       25,666       None       297,000  

William E. B. Siart

  4,125   31,990   5,640     1,093       35,463       None       407,000  

Jaynie Miller

Studenmund

  2,986   23,132   4,086     792       25,666       None       297,000  

Peter J. Taylor

  2,986   23,132   4,086     792       25,666       None       297,000  

Interested Trustees:

         

Ronald L. Olson†

  None   None   None     None       None       None       None  

Jane Trust †

  None   None   None     None       None       None       None  

 

45


    Aggregate Compensation from the Fund*($)              

Name of

Trustee

  Premier
Institutional
Government
Reserves
  Premier
Institutional
Liquid Reserves
  Premier
Institutional U.S.
Treasury
Reserves
  Select Tax Free
Reserves
   

Total Pension
or

Retirement
Benefits Paid
as Part of
Fund
Expenses*

($)

   

Total
Compensation
from Legg
Mason

Funds
Complex

Paid to
Trustee**

($)

 

Independent Trustees:

     

Robert Abeles, Jr.

  2,190   790   1,656     535       None       332,000  

Jane F. Dasher

  1,981   710   1,493     481       None       297,000  

Anita L. DeFrantz

  2,117   762   1,600     517       None       317,000  

Susan B. Kerley

  2,117   762   1,600     517       None       317,000  

Michael Larson

  1,981   710   1,493     481       None       297,000  

Avedick B. Poladian

  1,981   710   1,493     481       None       297,000  

William E. B. Siart

  2,695   983   2,054     666       None       407,000  
Jaynie Miller Studenmund   1,981   710   1,493     481       None       297,000  

Peter J. Taylor

  1,981   710   1,493     481       None       297,000  

Interested Trustees:

       

Ronald L. Olson†

  None   None   None     None       None       None  

Jane Trust †

  None   None   None     None       None       None  

 

*

Information is for the fiscal year ended August 31, 2022.

 

**

Information is for the calendar year ended December 31, 2021.

 

Mr. Olson and Ms. Trust are not compensated by the Trust for their services as Trustees because of their affiliations with Western Asset and the Manager, respectively.

 

46


INVESTMENT MANAGEMENT AND SERVICE PROVIDER INFORMATION

Manager

The Manager, a limited liability company organized under the laws of the State of Delaware, serves as investment manager to the Fund and the Portfolio and provides administrative and certain oversight services to the Fund and the Portfolio, pursuant to an investment management agreement (the “Management Agreement”). The Manager has offices at 280 Park Avenue, New York, New York, 10017 and also serves as the investment manager of other Legg Mason Funds. The Manager is an indirect, wholly-owned subsidiary of Franklin Resources, a Delaware corporation. Franklin Resources, whose principal executive offices are at One Franklin Parkway, San Mateo, California 94403, is a global investment management organization operating, together with its subsidiaries, as Franklin Templeton. References to the Fund in the following paragraphs include the Portfolio, if applicable.

The Manager has agreed, under the Management Agreement, subject to the supervision of the Board, to provide the Fund and the Portfolio with investment research, advice, management and supervision, furnish a continuous investment program for the Fund’s or the Portfolio’s portfolio of securities and other investments consistent with the Fund’s or the Portfolio’s investment objectives, policies and restrictions, and place orders pursuant to its investment determinations. The Manager is permitted to enter into contracts with subadvisers or subadministrators, subject to the Board’s approval. The Manager has entered into subadvisory agreements, as described below.

As compensation for services performed, facilities furnished and expenses assumed by the Manager, the Fund pays the Manager a fee computed daily at an annual rate of the Fund’s average daily net assets as described below. The Manager also performs administrative and management services as reasonably requested by the Fund necessary for the operation of the Fund, such as (i) supervising the overall administration of the Fund, including negotiation of contracts and fees with, and monitoring of performance and billings of, the Fund’s transfer agent, shareholder servicing agents, custodian and other independent contractors or agents; (ii) providing certain compliance, fund accounting, regulatory reporting and tax reporting services; (iii) preparing or participating in the preparation of Board materials, registration statements, proxy statements and reports and other communications to shareholders; (iv) maintaining the Fund’s existence; and (v) maintaining the registration or qualification of the Fund’s shares under federal and state laws.

The Management Agreement will continue in effect for its initial term and thereafter from year to year, provided continuance is specifically approved at least annually (a) by the Board or by a 1940 Act Vote, and (b) in either event, by a majority of the Independent Trustees, with such Independent Trustees casting votes in person at a meeting called for such purpose.

The Management Agreement provides that the Manager may render services to others. The Management Agreement is terminable without penalty by the Board or by vote of a majority of the outstanding voting securities of the Fund on not more than 60 days’ nor less than 30 days’ written notice to the Manager, or by the Manager on not less than 90 days’ written notice to the Fund as applicable, and will automatically terminate in the event of its assignment (as defined in the 1940 Act) by the Manager. No Management Agreement is assignable by the Trust except with the consent of the Manager.

The Management Agreement provides that the Manager, its affiliates performing services contemplated by the Management Agreement, and the partners, shareholders, directors, officers and employees of the Manager and such affiliates, will not be liable for any error of judgment or mistake of law, for any loss arising out of any investment, or for any act or omission in the execution of securities transactions for the Fund, but the Manager is not protected against any liability to the Fund to which the Manager would be subject by reason of willful misfeasance, bad faith or gross negligence in the performance of its duties or by reason of its reckless disregard of its obligations and duties under the Management Agreement.

Subject to such policies as the Board or the board of the Portfolio, as applicable, may determine, the Manager manages the securities of and makes investment decisions for the Portfolio. Currently, advisory services for the Fund are provided through the Portfolio, but the Manager may, if requested by the Trustees, provide advisory services directly to the Fund. In addition, the Manager provides certain administrative services to the Fund and the Portfolio under the Management Agreement.

 

47


For its services under the Fund’s Management Agreement, the Manager receives an investment management fee that is calculated daily and payable monthly at an annual rate that decreases as assets increase according to the following schedule:

 

                Fund                

  

Average Daily Net
Assets

   Investment Management Fee Rate
(% of Average Daily Net Assets)

Government Reserves

  

  First $1 billion

 

  Next $1 billion

 

  Next $3 billion

 

  Next $5 billion

 

  Over $10 billion

   0.450

 

0.425

 

0.400

 

0.375

 

0.350

Institutional Government Reserves

  

  First $1 billion

 

  Next $1 billion

 

  Next $3 billion

 

  Next $5 billion

 

  Over $10 billion

   0.250

 

0.225

 

0.200

 

0.175

 

0.150

Institutional Liquid Reserves

  

  First $5 billion

 

  Next $5 billion

 

  Over $10 billion

   0.200

 

0.175

 

0.150

Institutional U.S. Treasury Obligations Money Market Fund   

  First $1 billion

 

  Next $1 billion

 

  Next $3 billion

 

  Next $5 billion

 

  Over $10 billion

   0.250

 

0.225

 

0.200

 

0.175

 

0.150

Institutional U.S. Treasury Reserves

  

  First $1 billion

 

  Next $1 billion

 

  Next $3 billion

 

  Next $5 billion

 

  Over $10 billion

   0.250

 

0.225

 

0.200

 

0.175

 

0.150

 

48


                                                                                           
     

Premier Institutional Government Reserves

  

First $1 billion

 

Next $1 billion

 

Next $3 billion

 

Next $5 billion

 

Over $10 billion

   0.250

 

0.225

 

0.200

 

0.175

 

0.150

     

Premier Institutional Liquid Reserves

  

First $5 billion

 

Next $5 billion

 

Over $10 billion

   0.200

 

0.175

 

0.150

     

Premier Institutional U.S. Treasury Reserves

  

First $1 billion

 

Next $1 billion

 

Next $3 billion

 

Next $5 billion

 

Over $10 billion

   0.250

 

0.225

 

0.200

 

0.175

 

0.150

     

Select Tax Free Reserves

  

First $1 billion

 

Next $1 billion

 

Next $3 billion

 

Next $5 billion

 

Over $10 billion

   0.250

 

0.225

 

0.200

 

0.175

 

0.150

Each Fund pays the applicable annual rate based on its average daily net assets, less the amount, if any, of the Fund’s share of the management fee payable by its corresponding portfolio.

The table below sets forth the management fees paid by the Fund and the Portfolio to the Manager (waived/reimbursed amounts are in parentheses), with respect to the fiscal periods indicated:

 

                                                                                                                                       

Fund

  For the Fiscal Period
Ended

August 31,
  Gross
Management
Fees ($)
  Management Fees
Waived/Expenses
Reimbursed ($)
  Net Management
Fees (After
Waivers/Expense
Reimbursements) ($)
Premier Institutional Liquid Reserves   2022   719,185   (517,407)   201,778
  2021   866,460   (651,795)   214,665
  2020   45,532   (155,627)  

 

49


                                                                                                                                                   
Premier Institutional Government Reserves   2022   2,634,314   (2,120,729)   513,585
  2021   5,642,533   (4,463,520)   1,179,013
  2020   3,245,579   (1,895,087)   1,350,492
Premier Institutional U.S. Treasury Reserves   2022   2,082,574   (1,660,848)   421,726
  2021   814,421   (771,831)   42,590
  2020   334,007   (345,491)  
Institutional Liquid Reserves   2022   3,758,554   (1,296,520)   2,462,034
  2021   9,392,096   (2,778,380)   6,613,716
  2020   8,037,517   (1,751,685)   6,285,832
Government Reserves   2022   6,743,215   (4,435,474)   2,307,741
  2021   7,749,033   (7,469,152)   279,881
  2020   6,148,670   (1,822,772)   4,325,898
Institutional U.S. Treasury Reserves   2022   24,561,041   (10,714,663)   13,846,378
  2021   20,272,532   (12,150,560)   8,121,972
  2020   16,578,661   (2,957,106)   13,621,555
Select Tax Free Reserves   2022   673,930   (562,481)   111,449
  2021   573,188   (699,658)  
  2020   678,729   (502,995)   175,734
Institutional U.S. Treasury Obligations Money Market Fund   2022   1,062,484   (854,992)   207,492
  2021   1,449,600   (1,402,030)   47,570
  2020   1,974,134   (902,804)   1,071,330
Institutional Government Reserves   2022   22,182,866   (11,449,496)   10,733,370
  2021   22,659,021   (13,057,189)   9,601,832
  2020   21,040,342   (3,907,914)   17,132,428
Government Portfolio   2022   16,755,810   (16,755,810)  
  2021   19,051,593   (19,051,593)  
  2020   17,018,669   (17,133,379)  
Liquid Reserves Portfolio   2022   8,528,762   (8,528,762)  
  2021   13,162,409   (13,162,409)  
  2020   20,757,035   (20,931,128)  
U.S. Treasury Obligations Portfolio   2022   N/A   N/A   N/A
  2021   N/A   N/A   N/A
  2020   N/A   (6,400)*   N/A

 

50


                                                                                                                                                   
U.S. Treasury Reserves Portfolio    2022    22,376,715    (22,376,715)  
   2021    19,470,457    (19,470,457)  
   2020    17,038,137    (17,149,483)  

 

*

Because the U.S. Treasury Obligations Portfolio does not charge a management fee, these amounts represent waivers/reimbursements offsetting other expenses.

Any expense limitation arrangements in place during the Fund’s past three fiscal periods can be found in the Fund’s Prospectus in effect (as amended or supplemented from time to time) for such year.

Subadviser

Western Asset Management Company, LLC, organized under the laws of the State of California, serves as the subadviser to the Fund and the Portfolio (the “Subadviser”) pursuant to a subadvisory agreement between the Manager and the Subadviser (the “Subadvisory Agreement”). The Subadviser has offices at 385 East Colorado Boulevard, Pasadena, California 91101 and 620 Eighth Avenue, New York, New York 10018. The Subadviser is an indirect, wholly-owned subsidiary of Franklin Resources.

Under the Subadvisory Agreement, subject to the supervision of the Board and the Manager, the Subadviser regularly provides with respect to the portion of the Fund’s or the Portfolio’s assets allocated to it by the Manager, investment research, advice, management and supervision; furnishes a continuous investment program for the allocated assets consistent with the Fund’s or the Portfolio’s investment objectives, policies and restrictions; and places orders pursuant to its investment determinations. The Subadviser may delegate to companies that the Subadviser controls, is controlled by, or is under common control with, certain of the Subadviser’s duties under a Subadvisory Agreement, subject to the Subadviser’s supervision, provided the Subadviser will not be relieved of its duties or obligations under the Subadvisory Agreement as a result of any delegation.

The Subadvisory Agreement will continue in effect for its initial term and thereafter from year to year provided such continuance is specifically approved at least annually (a) by the Board or by a majority of the outstanding voting securities of the Fund (as defined in the 1940 Act), and (b) in either event, by a majority of the Independent Trustees with such Independent Trustees casting votes in person at a meeting called for such purpose. The Board or a majority of the outstanding voting securities of the Fund or the Portfolio (as applicable) (as defined in the 1940 Act) may terminate the Subadvisory Agreement without penalty, in each case on not more than 60 days’ nor less than 30 days’ written notice to the Subadviser. The Subadviser may terminate the respective Subadvisory Agreement, on 90 days’ written notice to the Fund or the Portfolio and the Manager. The Subadvisory Agreement may be terminated upon the mutual written consent of the Manager and the Subadviser. The Subadvisory Agreement will terminate automatically in the event of assignment (as defined in the 1940 Act) by the applicable Subadviser, and shall not be assignable by the Manager without the consent of the Subadviser.

The Subadvisory Agreement provides that the Subadviser, its affiliates performing services contemplated by the Subadvisory Agreement, and the partners, shareholders, directors, officers and employees of the Subadviser and such affiliates will not be liable for any error of judgment or mistake of law, or for any loss arising out of any investment, or for any act or omission in the execution of securities transactions for the Fund or the Portfolio, but the Subadviser is not protected against any liability to the Fund or the Portfolio or the Manager to which the Subadviser would be subject by reason of willful misfeasance, bad faith or gross negligence in the performance of its duties or by reason of its reckless disregard of its obligations and duties under the Subadvisory Agreement.

As compensation for its services, the Manager pays to Western Asset a fee equal to 70% of the management fee paid to the Manager by the Fund or the Portfolio, net of any waivers and expense reimbursements.

Expenses

In addition to amounts payable under the Management Agreement and the 12b-1 Plan (as discussed in this SAI), the Fund and the Portfolio is responsible for its own expenses, including, among other things: interest; taxes; governmental fees; voluntary assessments and other expenses incurred in connection with membership in investment company organizations;

 

51


organization costs of the Fund; the cost (including interest, brokerage commissions, transaction fees or charges or acquired fund fees and expenses, if any) in connection with the purchase or sale of the Fund’s securities and other investments and any losses in connection therewith; fees and expenses of custodians, transfer agents, registrars, independent pricing vendors or other agents; legal expenses; loan commitment fees; expenses relating to the issuance and redemption or repurchase of the Fund’s shares or the Portfolio’s interests and servicing shareholder accounts; expenses of registering and qualifying the Fund’s shares for sale under applicable federal and state law; expenses of preparing, setting in print, printing and distributing prospectuses and statements of additional information and any supplements thereto, reports, proxy statements, notices and dividends to the Fund’s shareholders or the Portfolio’s investors; costs of stationery; website costs; costs of meetings of the Board or any committee thereof, meetings of shareholders and other meetings of the Fund or the Portfolio; Board fees; audit fees; travel expenses of officers, Trustees and employees of the Fund or the Portfolio, if any; the Fund’s or the Portfolio’s pro rata portion of premiums on any fidelity bond and other insurance covering the Fund and its officers, Trustees and employees; and litigation expenses and any non-recurring or extraordinary expenses as may arise, including, without limitation, those relating to actions, suits or proceedings to which the Fund or the Portfolio is a party and any legal obligation which the Fund or the Portfolio may have to indemnify the Fund’s or the Portfolio’s Trustees and officers with respect thereto.

Management may agree to implement an expense cap, waive fees and/or reimburse operating expenses for one or more classes of shares. Any such waived fees and/or reimbursed expenses are described in the Fund’s Prospectus. The expense caps and waived fees and/or reimbursed expenses do not cover extraordinary expenses, such as (a) any expenses or charges related to litigation, derivative actions, demand related to litigation, regulatory or other government investigations and proceedings, “for cause” regulatory inspections and indemnification or advancement of related expenses or costs, to the extent any such expenses are considered extraordinary expenses for the purposes of fee disclosure in Form N-1A as the same may be amended from time to time; (b) transaction costs (such as brokerage commissions and dealer and underwriter spreads) and taxes; (c) other extraordinary expenses as determined for the purposes of fee disclosure in Form N-1A, as the same may be amended from time to time; and (d) any other exclusions enumerated in the Fund’s particular expense cap. Without limiting the foregoing, extraordinary expenses are generally those that are unusual or expected to recur only infrequently, and may include such expenses, by way of illustration, as (i) expenses of the reorganization, restructuring, redomiciling or merger of the Fund or class or the acquisition of all or substantially all of the assets of another fund or class; (ii) expenses of holding, and soliciting proxies for, a meeting of shareholders of the Fund or class or a meeting of investors of a portfolio (except to the extent relating to routine items such as the election of Trustees or the approval of the independent registered public accounting firm); and (iii) expenses of converting to a new custodian, transfer agent or other service provider, in each case to the extent any such expenses are considered extraordinary expenses for the purposes of fee disclosure in Form N-1A as the same may be amended from time to time. In order to implement an expense limitation, the Manager will, as necessary, waive management fees or reimburse operating expenses. The Manager is also permitted to recapture amounts waived and/or reimbursed to the Fund during the same fiscal year if the Fund’s total annual operating expenses have fallen to a level below the Fund’s expense limitation. In no case will the Manager recapture any amount that would result, on any particular business day of the Fund, in the class’ total annual fund operating expenses exceeding such expense limitation or any other lower limit then in effect. These arrangements may be reduced or terminated under certain circumstances. The Manager may also waive management fees and/or reimburse the operating expenses of one or more portfolios, subject to recapture, under terms similar to the arrangements described above for the Fund.

Custodian and Transfer Agent

The Fund has entered into an agreement with The Bank of New York Mellon (“BNY Mellon”), 240 Greenwich Street, New York, New York 10286, to serve as custodian of the Fund. BNY Mellon, among other things, maintains a custody account or accounts in the name of the Fund, receives and delivers all assets for the Fund upon purchase and upon sale or maturity, collects and receives all income and other payments and distributions on account of the assets of the Fund and makes disbursements on behalf of the Fund. BNY Mellon neither determines the Fund’s investment policies nor decides which securities the Fund will buy or sell. For its services, BNY Mellon receives a monthly fee based upon the daily average market value of securities held in custody and also receives securities transaction charges, including out-of-pocket expenses. The Fund may also periodically enter into arrangements with other qualified custodians with respect to certain types of securities or other transactions such as repurchase agreements or derivatives transactions. BNY Mellon may also act as the Fund’s securities lending agent and in that case would receive a share of the income generated by such activities.

 

52


BNY Mellon Investment Servicing (US) Inc. (“BNY”), located at 4400 Computer Drive, Westborough, Massachusetts 01581, serves as the Fund’s transfer agent. Under the transfer agency agreement with BNY, BNY maintains the shareholder account records for the Fund, handles certain communications between shareholders and the Fund and distributes dividends and distributions payable by the Fund. For these services, BNY receives a monthly fee computed on the basis of the number of shareholder accounts it maintains for the Fund during the month and is reimbursed for out-of-pocket expenses.

Fund Counsel

Ropes & Gray LLP, 1211 Avenue of the Americas, New York, New York 10036, serves as legal counsel to the Trust and the Fund.

Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, 100 East Pratt Street, Suite 2600, Baltimore, Maryland 21202, serves as the Fund’s independent registered public accounting firm.

PORTFOLIO TRANSACTIONS AND BROKERAGE

Portfolio Transactions

Pursuant to the Subadvisory Agreement and subject to the general supervision of the Board and in accordance with the Fund’s investment objectives and strategies, the Subadviser is responsible for the execution of the Fund’s portfolio transactions with respect to assets allocated to the Subadviser. The Subadviser is authorized to place orders pursuant to its investment determinations for the Fund either directly with the issuer or with any broker or dealer, foreign currency dealer, futures commission merchant or others selected by it.

In certain instances, there may be securities that are suitable as an investment for the Fund as well as for one or more of the other clients of the Subadviser. Investment decisions for the Fund and for the Subadviser’s other clients are made with a view to achieving their respective investment objectives. It may develop that a particular security is bought or sold for only one client even though it might be held by, or bought or sold for, other clients. Likewise, a particular security may be bought for one or more clients when one or more clients are selling the same security. Some simultaneous transactions are inevitable when several clients receive investment advice from the same investment adviser, particularly when the same security is suitable for the investment objectives of more than one client. When two or more clients are simultaneously engaged in the purchase or sale of the same security, the securities are allocated among clients in a manner believed to be equitable to each. It is recognized that in some cases this system could adversely affect the price of or the size of the position obtainable in a security for the Fund. When purchases or sales of the same security for the Fund and for other portfolios managed by the Subadviser occur contemporaneously, the purchase or sale orders may be aggregated in order to obtain any price advantages available to large volume purchases or sales.

Transactions on stock exchanges and other agency transactions involve the payment of negotiated brokerage commissions by the Fund. Transactions in foreign securities often involve the payment of brokerage commissions that may be higher than those in the United States. Fixed income securities are generally traded on a net basis (i.e., without a commission) through dealers acting as principal for their own account and not as brokers. This means that a dealer makes a market for securities by offering to buy at one price and selling the security at a slightly higher price. The difference between the prices is known as a “spread.” Other portfolio transactions may be executed through brokers acting as agents and the Fund will pay a spread or commission in connection with such transactions. The cost of securities purchased from underwriters includes an underwriting commission, concession or a net price. The Fund may also purchase securities directly from the issuer. The aggregate brokerage commissions paid by the Fund for the three most recent fiscal years or periods, as applicable, are set forth below under “Aggregate Brokerage Commissions Paid.”

Brokerage and Research Services

The general policy of the Subadviser in selecting brokers and dealers is to obtain the best results achievable in the context of a number of factors which are considered both in relation to individual trades and broader trading patterns. The Fund may not always pay the lowest commission or spread available. Rather, in placing orders on behalf of the Fund, the Subadviser also takes into account other factors bearing on the overall quality of execution, such as size of the order, difficulty of execution,

 

53


the reliability of the broker/dealer, the competitiveness of the price and the commission, the research services received and whether the broker/dealer commits its own capital.

In connection with the selection of such brokers or dealers and the placing of such orders, subject to applicable law, brokers or dealers may be selected who also provide brokerage and research services (as those terms are defined in Section 28(e) of the 1934 Act) to the Fund and/or the other accounts over which the Subadviser or its affiliates exercise investment discretion. The Subadviser is authorized to pay a broker or dealer that provides such brokerage and research services a commission for executing a portfolio transaction for the Fund which is in excess of the amount of commission another broker or dealer would have charged for effecting that transaction if the Subadviser determines in good faith that such amount of commission is reasonable in relation to the value of the brokerage and research services provided by such broker or dealer. Investment research services include information and analysis on particular companies and industries as well as market or economic trends and portfolio strategy, market quotations for portfolio evaluations, analytical software and similar products and services. If a research service also assists the Subadviser in a non-research capacity (such as bookkeeping or other administrative functions), then only the percentage or component that provides assistance to the Subadviser in the investment decision making process may be paid in commission dollars. This determination may be viewed in terms of either that particular transaction or the overall responsibilities that the Subadviser and its affiliates have with respect to accounts over which they exercise investment discretion. The Subadviser may also have arrangements with brokers pursuant to which such brokers provide research services to the Subadviser in exchange for a certain volume of brokerage transactions to be executed by such brokers. While the payment of higher commissions increases the Fund’s costs, the Subadviser does not believe that the receipt of such brokerage and research services significantly reduces its expenses as Subadviser. Arrangements for the receipt of research services from brokers (so-called “soft dollar” arrangements) may create conflicts of interest. Although the Subadviser is authorized to use soft dollar arrangements in order to obtain research services, it is not required to do so, and the Subadviser may not be able or may choose not to use soft dollar arrangements because of regulatory restrictions, operational considerations or for other reasons.

Research services furnished to the Subadviser by brokers that effect securities transactions for the Fund may be used by the Subadviser in servicing other investment companies and accounts which the Subadviser manages. Similarly, research services furnished to the Subadviser by brokers that effect securities transactions for other investment companies and accounts which the Subadviser manages may be used by the Subadviser in servicing the Fund. Not all of these research services are used by the Subadviser in managing any particular account, including the Fund.

Firms that provide research and brokerage services to the Subadviser may also promote the sale of the Fund or other pooled investment vehicles advised by the Subadviser, and the Subadviser and/or its affiliates may separately compensate them for doing so. Such brokerage business is placed on the basis of brokerage and research services provided by the firm and is not based on any sales of the Fund or other pooled investment vehicles advised by the Subadviser.

The Fund contemplates that, consistent with the policy of obtaining the best net results, brokerage transactions may be conducted through “affiliated broker/dealers,” as defined in the 1940 Act. The Fund’s Board has adopted procedures in accordance with Rule 17e-1 under the 1940 Act to ensure that all brokerage commissions paid to such affiliates are reasonable and fair in the context of the market in which such affiliates operate. For the three most recent fiscal periods (as applicable), the Fund did not pay any brokerage commission to its affiliates.

For the fiscal period ended August 31, 2022, the Fund did not direct any brokerage transactions related to research services and did not pay any brokerage commissions related to research services.

Aggregate Brokerage Commissions Paid

The Fund paid no brokerage commissions for portfolio transactions for the past three fiscal periods.

Securities of Regular Broker/Dealers

As of August 31, 2022, the Fund did not hold securities issued by its regular broker/dealers (as defined in Rule 10b-1 under the 1940 Act).

 

54


SHARE OWNERSHIP

Principal Shareholders

As of November 30, 2022, to the knowledge of the Trust, the following shareholders owned of record or beneficially 5% or more of the outstanding shares of the classes of the Fund as set forth below:

 

  Class

  

  Name and Address

     Percent of Class (%)                

  Government Reserves

       

  A

  

  PERSHING LLC FOR THE EXCLUSIVE

  BENEFIT OF ITS CUSTOMERS

  ATTN: CASH MANAGEMENT SERVICES

  1 PERSHING PLZ

  JERSEY CITY NJ 07399-0001

       64.18

  A

  

  FIDUCIARY TRUST INTL REVENUE

  280 PARK AVE FL 6TH

  NEW YORK NY 10017-1274

       21.91

  A

  

  MORGAN STANLEY SMITH BARNEY LLC

  FOR THE EXCLUSIVE BENEFIT OF ITS

  CUSTOMERS

  1 NEW YORK PLAZA FL 12

  NEW YORK NY 10004-1901

       6.08
  Institutional Government Reserves     

  INST

  

  SMITH BARNEY PRIVATE TRUST COMPANY

  CASH MANAGEMENT OPERATIONS

  1 COURT SQUARE FL 22

  LONG ISLAND CITY NY 11120-0001

       20.68

  INST

  

  PERSHING LLC FOR THE EXCLUSIVE

  BENEFIT OF ITS CUSTOMERS

  ATTN: CASH MANAGEMENT SERVICES

  1 PERSHING PLZ

  JERSEY CITY NJ 07399-0001

       12.48

  INST

  

  WELLS FARGO BANK ACCOUNT

  FOR THE EXCLUSIVE BENEFIT OF ITS

  CUSTOMERS ATTN MONEY FUNDS

  550 S 4TH ST FL 13

  MINNEAPOLIS MN 55415-1529

       10.69

  INST

  

  HARE & CO 2

  111 SANDERS CREEK PKWY

  EAST SYRACUSE NY 13057-1382

       8.12

  INST

  

  RBC CAPITAL MARKETS, LLC

  MUTUAL FUND OMNIBUS PROCESSING

  OMNIBUS ATT MUTL FD OPS MANAGER

  510 MARQUETTE AVE SOUTH

  MINNEAPOLIS MN 55402-1110

       7.19

 

55


  Class

  

  Name and Address

     Percent of Class (%)                

  INV

  

  SILICON VALLEY BANK

  ATTN SVB INVESTMENT OPS

  3003 TASMAN DR

  SANTA CLARA CA 95054-1191

       99.48

  L

  

  CITIBANK

  C/O CITIBANK GTS/INS TRUST UNIT

  111 WALL ST FL 15

  NEW YORK NY 10043-1000

       22.23

  L

  

  CITIBANK

  C/O CITIBANK GTS INSURANCE UNIT

  480 WASHINGTON BLVD

  JERSEY CITY NJ 07310-2053

       7.30

  Institutional Liquid Reserves

    

  INST

  

  WELLS FARGO BANK ACCOUNT

  FOR THE EXCLUSIVE BENEFIT OF ITS

  CUSTOMERS ATTN MONEY FUNDS

  550 S 4TH ST FL 13

  MINNEAPOLIS MN 55415-1529

       27.10

  INST

  

  MORGAN STANLEY DOMESTIC HOLDINGS

  INC

  201 PLAZA TWO FL 3

  JERSEY CITY NJ 07311

       15.14

  INST

  

  HARE & CO 2

  111 SANDERS CREEK PKWY

  EAST SYRACUSE NY 13057-1382

       10.70

  INST

  

  THE TOA-RE INSURANCE COMPANY

  OF AMERICA

  PO BOX 1930

  MORRISTOWN NJ 07962-1930

       7.67

  INST

  

  WALTER OIL & GAS

  CORPORATION - OPERATING

  1100 LOUISIANA ST STE 200

  HOUSTON TX 77002-5215

       7.48

  INST

  

  MERRILL LYNCH, PIERCE FENNER & SMITH

  200 N COLLEGE ST FL 3

  NC1 004-03-42

  CHARLOTTE NC 28202-2191

       5.51

  INV

  

  MORGAN STANLEY DOMESTIC HOLDINGS

  INC

  201 PLAZA TWO FL 3

  JERSEY CITY NJ 07311

       100.00

 

56


  Class

  

  Name and Address

     Percent of Class (%)                
           
  Institutional U.S. Treasury Obligations Money Market Fund     

  ADM

  

  FIDUCIARY TRUST INTL REVENUE

  280 PARK AVE FL 6TH

  NEW YORK NY 10017-1274

       99.95

  INST

  

  MORGAN STANLEY DOMESTIC HOLDINGS

  INC

  201 PLAZA TWO FL 3

  JERSEY CITY NJ 07311

       41.01

  INST

  

  JPMS - CHASE PROCESSING

  FBO MCLAREN HEALTH CARE CORP

  4 CHASE METROTECH CENTER 7THFL

  BROOKLYN, NY 11245

       28.90

  INST

  

  BOFA SECURITIES INC

  FOR THE SOLE BENEFIT OF ITS CUSTOMERS

  200 N COLLEGE ST FL 3

  NC1 004-03-42

  CHARLOTTE NC 28202-2191

       19.63

  INST

  

  CITIGROUP GLOBAL MARKETS INC

  111 WALL ST FL 241581-1755

  NEW YORK NY 10005-3501

       6.65

  INV

  

  STIFEL NICOLAUS & CO INC

  EXCLUSIVE BENEFIT OF CUSTOMERS

  501 N BROADWAY

  ST LOUIS MO 63102-2188

       56.68

  INV

  

  MORGAN STANLEY DOMESTIC HOLDINGS

  INC

  201 PLAZA TWO FL 3

  JERSEY CITY NJ 07311

       42.38
  Institutional U.S. Treasury Reserves     

  INST

  

  CITIBANK NA

  1 COURT SQUARE

  FL 22

  LONG ISLAND NY 11120

       27.38

  INST

  

  MORGAN STANLEY DOMESTIC HOLDINGS

  INC

  201 PLAZA TWO FL 3

  JERSEY CITY NJ 07311

       19.16

 

57


  Class

  

  Name and Address

     Percent of Class (%)                

  INST

  

  BOFA SECURITIES INC

  FOR THE SOLE BENEFIT OF ITS CUSTOMERS

  200 N COLLEGE ST FL 3

  NC1 004-03-42

  CHARLOTTE NC 28202-2191

       8.52

  INST

  

  GS GLOBAL CASH SERVICES

  FBO GOLDMAN SACHS & CO LLC

  CUSTOMERS

  71 S WACKER DR STE 500

  CHICAGO IL 60606-4673

       6.68

  INST

  

  PERSHING LLC FOR THE EXCLUSIVE

  BENEFIT OF ITS CUSTOMERS

  ATTN: CASH MANAGEMENT SERVICES

  1 PERSHING PLZ

  JERSEY CITY NJ 07399-0001

       5.46

  INV

  

  SILICON VALLEY BANK

  ATTN SVB INVESTMENT OPS

  3003 TASMAN DR

  SANTA CLARA CA 95054-1191

       99.23

  Premier Institutional

  Government Reserves

          

  CAPITAL

  

  BANCO DE LA REPUBLICA

  DIEGO CIFUENTES PARIS

  CALLE 12 #4-55

  BOGOTA COLOMBIA

       94.64

  PREMIUM

  

  HARE & CO 2

  ATTN: STIF OPERATIONS

  500 ROSS ST 154-0455

  PITTSBURGH PA 15262-0001

       100.00

  Premier Institutional Liquid

  Reserves

       

  CAPITAL

  

  ENDEAVOR ENERGY RESOURCES LP

  110 N MARIENFELD ST STE 200

  MIDLAND TX 79701-4412

       49.99

  CAPITAL

  

  MINISTERIO DE HACIENDA Y CREDITO

  PUBLICO

  CRA 8 NO 6-C-38

  BOGOTA COLOMBIA

       33.17

  CAPITAL

  

  SCRIPPS HEALTH

  10140 CAMPUS POINT DR CPA 345

  SAN DIEGO CA 92121

       16.82

 

58


  Class

  

  Name and Address

     Percent of Class (%)                

  Premier Institutional U.S.

  Treasury Reserves

       

  CAPITAL

  

  CONDUCTORES MONTERREY SA DE CV

  CONDUCTORES 505 SN

  CONSTITUYENTES DE QUERETARO SECT 3

  NUEVO LEON MEX CP 66490

       53.68

  CAPITAL

  

  GE PROLEC TRANSFORMERS INC

  1224 COMMERCE ST SW SUITE J

  CONOVER NC 28613

       23.72

  CAPITAL

  

  XIGNUX SA E CV

  COLONIA PARQUE CORPORATIVO UCALY

  SAN PEDRO GARZA GARCIA N.L

  MEXICO C.P 66278

       17.48

  PREMIUM

  

  HARE & CO 2

  ATTN: STIF OPERATIONS

  500 ROSS ST 154-0455

  PITTSBURGH PA 15262-0001

       100.00
  Select Tax Free Reserves     

  INV

  

  MORGAN STANLEY DOMESTIC HOLDINGS

  INC

  201 PLAZA TWO FL 3

  JERSEY CITY NJ 07311

       95.99

  SLCT

  

  MORGAN STANLEY DOMESTIC HOLDINGS

  INC

  201 PLAZA TWO FL 3

  JERSEY CITY NJ 07311

       86.18

  SLCT

  

  FIDUCIARY TRUST INTL REVENUE

  280 PARK AVE FL 6TH

  NEW YORK NY 10017-1274

       11.16

As of November 30, 2022, to the knowledge of the Trust, the following shareholders owned of record or beneficially 25% or more of the outstanding shares of the Fund as set forth below. Shareholders who beneficially own 25% or more of the outstanding shares of the Fund or who are otherwise deemed to “control” the Fund may be able to determine or significantly influence the outcome of matters submitted to a vote of the Fund’s shareholders.

 

  Fund

  

  Name and Address

     Percent of Fund (%)                

  Government Reserves

  

  PERSHING LLC FOR THE EXCLUSIVE

  BENEFIT OF ITS CUSTOMERS

  ATTN: CASH MANAGEMENT SERVICES

  1 PERSHING PLZ

  JERSEY CITY NJ 07399-0001

       64.18

  Institutional Liquid Reserves

     WELLS FARGO BANK ACCOUNT        27.09

 

59


  

  FOR THE EXCLUSIVE BENEFIT OF ITS

  CUSTOMERS ATTN MONEY FUNDS

  550 S 4TH ST FL 13

  MINNEAPOLIS MN 55415-1529

    

Institutional U.S. Treasury Obligations Money Market Fund

  

  FIDUCIARY TRUST INTL REVENUE

  280 PARK AVE FL 6TH

  NEW YORK NY 10017-1274

       73.78

Institutional U.S. Treasury Reserves

  

  SILICON VALLEY BANK

  ATTN SVB INVESTMENT OPS

  3003 TASMAN DR

  SANTA CLARA CA 95054-1191

       44.73

Premier Institutional Government Reserves

  

  HARE & CO 2

  111 SANDERS CREEK PKWY

  EAST SYRACUSE NY 13057-1382

       87.81

Premier Institutional Liquid Reserves

  

  ENDEAVOR ENERGY RESOURCES LP

  110 N MARIENFELD ST STE 200

  MIDLAND TX 79701-4412

       49.99

Premier Institutional Liquid Reserves

  

  MINISTERIO DE HACIENDA Y CREDITO

  PUBLICO

  CRA 8 NO 6-C-38

  BOGOTA COLOMBIA

       33.17

Premier Institutional U.S. Treasury Reserves

  

  HARE & CO 2

  111 SANDERS CREEK PKWY

  EAST SYRACUSE NY 13057-1382

       87.68

Select Tax Free Reserves

  

  MORGAN STANLEY DOMESTIC HOLDINGS

  INC

  201 PLAZA TWO FL 3

  JERSEY CITY NJ 07311

       86.26

As of November 30, 2022, the Trustees and officers of the Trust, as a group, owned less than 1% of the outstanding shares of each class of the Fund.

DISTRIBUTOR

Franklin Distributors, LLC, an indirect, wholly-owned broker/dealer subsidiary of Franklin Resources, located at 100 International Drive, Baltimore, Maryland 21202, serves as the sole and exclusive distributor of the Fund pursuant to a written agreement (as amended, the “Distribution Agreement”). The Distributor also serves as exclusive placement agent with respect to the Portfolio.

Under the Distribution Agreement, the Distributor is appointed as principal underwriter and distributor in connection with the offering and sale of shares of the Fund. The Distributor offers the shares on an agency or “best efforts” basis under which the Fund issues only the number of shares actually sold. Shares of the Fund are continuously offered by the Distributor.

The Distribution Agreement is renewable from year to year with respect to the Fund if approved (a) by the Board or by a vote of a majority of the Fund’s outstanding voting securities, and (b) by the affirmative vote of a majority of Trustees who are not parties to such agreement or interested persons of any party by votes cast in person at a meeting called for such purpose.

The Distribution Agreement is terminable with respect to the Fund without penalty by the Board or by vote of a majority of the outstanding voting securities of the Fund, or by the Distributor, on not less than 60 days’ written notice to the other party (unless the notice period is waived by mutual consent). The Distribution Agreement will automatically and immediately terminate in the event of its assignment.

The Distributor may be deemed to be an underwriter for purposes of the 1933 Act.

 

60


The Distributor, the Manager, their affiliates and their personnel have interests in promoting sales of the Legg Mason Funds, including remuneration, fees and profitability relating to services to and sales of the funds. Associated persons of the Manager, the Distributor or their affiliates (including wholesalers registered with the Distributor) may receive additional compensation related to the sale of individual Legg Mason Funds or categories of Legg Mason Funds. The Manager, the Subadviser(s), and their advisory or other personnel may also benefit from increased amounts of assets under management.

Service Agents also may benefit from the sales of shares of the Legg Mason Funds. For example, in connection with such sales, Service Agents may receive compensation from the Fund (with respect to the Fund as a whole or a particular class of shares) and/or from the Manager, the Distributor, and/or their affiliates, as further described below. The structure of these compensation arrangements, as well as the amounts paid under such arrangements, vary and may change from time to time. In addition, new compensation arrangements may be negotiated at any time. The compensation arrangements described in this section are not mutually exclusive, and a single Service Agent may receive multiple types of compensation.

The Distributor has agreements in place with Service Agents defining how much each firm will be paid for the sale of the Fund from sales charges, if any, paid by Fund shareholders and from 12b-1 Plan fees paid to the Distributor by the Fund. These Service Agents then pay their employees or associated persons who sell such fund shares from the sales charges and/or fees they receive. The Service Agent, and/or its employees or associated persons may receive a payment when a sale is made and will, in most cases, continue to receive ongoing payments while you are invested in the Fund. In other cases, the Distributor may retain all or a portion of such fees and sales charges.

In addition, the Distributor, the Manager and/or certain of their affiliates may make additional payments (which are often referred to as “revenue sharing” payments) to the Service Agents from their past profits and other available sources, including profits from their relationships with the Fund. Revenue sharing payments are a form of compensation paid to a Service Agent in addition to the sales charges paid by Fund shareholders or 12b-1 Plan fees paid by the Fund. The Manager, the Distributor and/or certain of its affiliates may revise the terms of any existing revenue sharing arrangement and may enter into additional revenue sharing arrangements with other Service Agents.

Revenue sharing arrangements are intended, among other things, to foster the sale of Fund shares and/or to compensate financial services firms for assisting in marketing or promotional activities in connection with the sale of Fund shares. In exchange for revenue sharing payments, the Manager and the Distributor generally expect to receive the opportunity for the Fund to be sold through the Service Agents’ sales forces or to have access to third-party platforms or other marketing programs, including but not limited to mutual fund “supermarket” platforms or other sales programs. To the extent that Service Agents receiving revenue sharing payments sell more shares of the Fund, the Manager and the Distributor and/or their affiliates benefit from the increase in Fund assets as a result of the fees they receive from the Fund. The Distributor, LMPFA or their affiliates consider revenue sharing arrangements based on a variety of factors and services to be provided.

Revenue sharing payments are usually calculated based on a percentage of Fund sales and/or Fund assets attributable to a particular Service Agent. Payments are at times based on other criteria or factors such as, for example, a fee per each transaction. Specific payment formulas are negotiated based on a number of factors, including, but not limited to, reputation in the industry, ability to attract and retain assets, target markets, customer relationships and scope and quality of services provided. In addition, the Distributor, the Manager and/or certain of their affiliates may pay flat fees on a one-time or irregular basis for the initial set-up of the fund on a Service Agent’s systems, participation or attendance at a Service Agent’s meetings, or for other reasons. Furthermore, the Distributor, the Manager and/or certain of their affiliates at times pay certain education and training costs of Service Agents (including, in some cases, travel expenses) to train and educate the personnel of the Service Agents. In addition, the Distributor, the Manager and/or certain of their affiliates at times may provide access to technology and other tools and support services that facilitate the marketing and promotion of investment management portfolios sponsored by Legg Mason and/or its affiliates. It is likely that Service Agents that execute portfolio transactions for the Fund will include those firms with which the Manager, the Distributor and/or certain of their affiliates have entered into revenue sharing arrangements.

The Fund generally pays the transfer agent for certain recordkeeping and administrative services. In addition, the Fund may pay Service Agents for certain recordkeeping, administrative, sub-accounting and networking services. These services include maintenance of shareholder accounts by the firms, such as recordkeeping and other activities that otherwise would be performed by a Fund’s transfer agent. Administrative fees may be paid to a firm that undertakes, for example, shareholder communications on behalf of the Fund. Networking services are services undertaken to support the electronic transmission of shareholder purchase and redemption orders through the National Securities Clearing Corporation (“NSCC”). These payments are

 

61


generally based on either (1) a percentage of the average daily net assets of Fund shareholders serviced by a Service Agent or (2) a fixed dollar amount for each account serviced by a Service Agent. The Distributor, the Manager and/or their affiliates may make all or a portion of these payments.

In addition, the Fund reimburses the Distributor for NSCC fees that are invoiced to the Distributor as the party to the agreement with NSCC for the administrative services provided by NSCC to the Fund and its shareholders. These services include transaction processing and settlement through Fund/SERV, electronic networking services to support the transmission of shareholder purchase and redemption orders to and from Service Agents, and related recordkeeping provided by NSCC to the Fund and its shareholders.

If your Fund shares are purchased through a retirement plan, the Distributor, the Manager or certain of their affiliates at times also make similar payments to those described in this section to the plan’s recordkeeper or an affiliate.

Revenue sharing payments, as well as the other types of compensation arrangements described in this section, create an incentive for Service Agents and their employees or associated persons to recommend the Fund over other investments or sell shares of the Fund to customers and in doing so may create conflicts of interest between the firms’ financial interests and the interests of their customers. The total amount of these payments is substantial, may be substantial to any given recipient and may exceed the costs and expenses incurred by the recipient for any Fund-related marketing or shareholder servicing activities.

As of December 31, 2021, the Distributor, the Manager or their affiliates made revenue sharing payments to the Service Agents listed below (or their affiliates or successors). It is possible that each Service Agent listed is not receiving payments with respect to each fund in the Legg Mason Funds complex. This list of intermediaries will change over time, and any additions, modifications or deletions thereto that have occurred since December 31, 2021 are not reflected.

BMO Harris Bank, N.A.

BNP Paribas Prime Brokerage, Inc.

Bridge Bank, N.A.

Cachematrix

Citigroup Global Markets Inc.

Comerica Bank

Fiduciary Trust Company International

Goldman Sachs & Co.

Goldman Sachs International

Hightower Securities, LLC

Institutional Cash Distributors, LLC

J.P. Morgan Clearing Corp

Merrill Lynch, Pierce, Fenner & Smith Incorporated

Mid Atlantic Capital Corporation

Morgan Stanley Wealth Management

MSCS Financial Services Division of Broadridge Business Process Outsourcing, LLC

Oppenheimer & Co. Inc.

Paychex Inc.

Pershing, LLC

PFS Investments, Inc.

PNC Investments LLC

 

62


RBC Wealth Management

Silicon Valley Bank

State Street Bank

Sunguard Institutional Brokerage

The Bank of New York Mellon

Treasury Curve

Union Bank, N.A.

U.S. Bancorp Investments, Inc.

Wells Fargo Securities, LLC

Winterbotham Trust Co., Ltd.

The Distributor, the Manager or their affiliates may also pay fees, from their own assets, to Service Agents for providing other distribution-related services as well as recordkeeping, administrative, subaccounting, and networking services (or portions thereof), and other shareholder or administrative services in connection with investments in the Fund. These payments may be considered revenue sharing payments. The Service Agents receiving such payments may not be listed above.

You should assume that your Service Agent receives revenue sharing payments and/or other compensation described in this SAI. Please contact your Service Agent for details about any payments it (and its employees) may receive from the Fund and/or from the Distributor, the Manager and/or their affiliates. You should review your Service Agent’s disclosure and/or talk to your Service Agent to obtain more information on how this compensation may have influenced your Service Agent’s recommendation of the Fund.

Dealer Commissions and Concessions

From time to time, the Distributor or the Manager, at its expense, may provide compensation or promotional incentives (“concessions”) to dealers that sell or arrange for the sale of shares of the Fund or a managed account strategy of which the Fund is part. Such concessions provided by the Distributor or the Manager may include financial assistance to dealers in connection with preapproved conferences or seminars, sales or training programs for invited registered representatives and other employees, payment for travel expenses, including lodging, incurred by registered representatives and other employees for such seminars or training programs, seminars for the public, advertising and sales campaigns regarding one or more funds, and/or other dealer-sponsored events. From time to time, the Distributor or the Manager may make expense reimbursements for special training of a dealer’s registered representatives and other employees in group meetings or to help pay the expenses of sales contests. Other concessions may be offered to the extent not prohibited by applicable laws or any self-regulatory agency, such as the FINRA.

Services and Distribution Plan

The Trust, on behalf of the Fund, has adopted a 12b-1 Plan in accordance with Rule 12b-1 under the 1940 Act. Under the 12b-1 Plan, the Fund may pay monthly fees to the Distributor at up to the annual rates set forth below (as a percentage of the average daily net assets of the Fund attributable to the applicable share class).

 

  Fund/Class

  

            Rate (%)            

  Government Reserves

  

Class A

   0.10

Class N

  

0.25

  Institutional Government Reserves

  

Class L

   0.10

Administrative Shares

   0.20

Institutional Shares

   0.00

 

63


Investor Shares

   0.10

  Institutional Liquid Reserves

  

Administrative Shares

   0.20

Institutional Shares

   0.00

Investor Shares

   0.10

  Institutional U.S. Treasury Obligations Money Market Fund

  

Administrative Shares

   0.20

Institutional Shares

   0.00

Investor Shares

   0.10

  Institutional U.S. Treasury Reserves

  

Administrative Shares

   0.20

Institutional Shares

   0.00

Investor Shares

   0.10

  Select Tax Free Reserves

  

Administrative Shares

   0.20

Investor Shares

   0.10

Select Shares

   0.00

The Fund will provide the Board with periodic reports of amounts expended under the 12b-1 Plan and the purposes for which such expenditures were made. Fees under the 12b-1 Plan may be used to make payments to the Distributor, Service Agents and other parties with respect to the sale of Fund shares for advertising, marketing or other promotional activity, and payments for preparation, printing, and distribution of prospectuses, statements of additional information and reports for recipients other than existing shareholders. The Fund also may make payments to the Distributor, Service Agents and others for providing personal service or the maintenance of shareholder accounts. The amounts paid to each recipient may vary based upon certain factors, including, among other things, the levels of sales of shares and/or shareholder services; provided, however, that the fees paid to a recipient with respect to a particular class that may be used to cover expenses primarily intended to result in the sale of shares of that class, or that may be used to cover expenses primarily intended for personal service and/or maintenance of shareholder accounts, may not exceed the maximum amounts, if any, as may from time to time be permitted for such services under FINRA Conduct Rule 2341 or any successor rule, in each case as amended or interpreted by FINRA.

Since fees paid under the 12b-1 Plan are not tied directly to expenses incurred by the Distributor (or others), the amount of the fees paid by a class of the Fund during any year may be more or less than actual expenses incurred by the Distributor (or others). This type of distribution fee arrangement is characterized by the staff of the SEC as being of the “compensation variety” (in contrast to “reimbursement” arrangements by which a distributor’s payments are directly linked to its expenses). Thus, even if the Distributor’s expenses exceed the fees provided for by the 12b-1 Plan, the Fund will not be obligated to pay more than those fees and, if expenses incurred by the Distributor (or others) are less than the fees paid to the Distributor and others, they will realize a profit.

The 12b-1 Plan recognizes that various service providers to the Fund, such as the Manager, may make payments for distribution, marketing or sales-related expenses out of their own resources of any kind, including profits or payments received from the Fund for other purposes, such as management fees. The 12b-1 Plan provides that, to the extent that such payments might be deemed to be indirect financing of any activity primarily intended to result in the sale of shares of the Fund, the payments are deemed to be authorized by the 12b-1 Plan.

Under its terms, the 12b-1 Plan continues in effect for successive annual periods, provided continuance is specifically approved at least annually by vote of the Board, including a majority of the Independent Trustees who have no direct or indirect financial interest in the operation of the 12b-1 Plan or in any agreements related to it (“Qualified Trustees”). The 12b-1 Plan may not be amended to increase the amount of the service and distribution fees without shareholder approval, and all amendments of the 12b-1 Plan also must be approved by the Trustees, including the Qualified Trustees, in the manner described above. The 12b-1 Plan may be terminated with respect to a class of the Fund at any time, without penalty, by vote of a majority of the Qualified Trustees or by vote of a majority of the outstanding voting securities of that class (as defined in the 1940 Act).

 

64


The following service and distribution fees were incurred by the Fund pursuant to the 12b-1 Plan in effect during the fiscal period ended August 31, 2022:

 

Fund/Class

   Service and Distribution Fees Incurred
($)
             Service and Distribution Fees        
Waived/Reimbursed ($)
 
Government Reserves      

Class A

     1,307,175        927,033  

Class A2*

     220,661        220,661  
Institutional Government Reserves      

Investor

     2,724,961        2,138,711  

Class L

     907,574        690,381  
Institutional Liquid Reserves      

Investor

     3,011        2,463  
Institutional U.S. Treasury Obligations Money Market Fund      

Administrative

     829,643        485,156  

Investor

     4,934        3,691  
Institutional U.S. Treasury Reserves      

Investor

     6,490,750        5,265,528  
Select Tax Free Reserves      

Investor

     3,189        2,613  

* Class A2 shares were fully redeemed on February 18, 2022. Effective March 7, 2022, Class A2 shares of the Fund were closed to new purchases.

No information is provided for the following share classes as they were not offered during the period shown:

 

 

Class N shares of Government Reserves

 

Administrative Shares (except for Institutional U.S. Treasury Obligations Money Market Fund)

For the fiscal period ended August 31, 2022, the Distributor incurred distribution expenses for advertising, printing and mailing prospectuses, support service and overhead expenses and compensation to Service Agents and third parties as expressed in the following table. The Distributor may have made revenue sharing payments in addition to the expenses shown here.

 

65


Fund/Class

   Third Party Fees
($)
   Financial
Consultant
Compensation
(Amortized) ($)
    Marketing ($)       Printing ($)      Total
  Expenses ($)  
Government Reserves               

Class A

   380,142    0    28,162    0    408,304

Class A2*

   0    0    145,065    0    145,065
Institutional Government Reserves               

Investor

   586,250    0    52,322    0    638,572

Class L

   217,192    0    59,734    0    276,927

Institutional Liquid Reserves

              

Investor

   548    0    37    0    585
Institutional U.S. Treasury Obligations Money Market Fund               

Administrative

   344,487    0    13,824    0    358,311

Investor

   1,243    0    135    0    1,379

Institutional U.S. Treasury Reserves

              

Investor

   1,225,223    0    104,184    0    1,329,407

Select Tax Free Reserves

              

Investor

   576    0    121    0    697

* Class A2 shares were fully redeemed on February 18, 2022. Effective March 7, 2022, Class A2 shares of the Fund were closed to new purchases.

No information is provided for the following share classes as they were not offered during the period shown:

 

 

Class N shares of Government Reserves

 

Administrative Shares (except for Institutional U.S. Treasury Obligations Money Market Fund)

PURCHASE OF SHARES

Purchases of Fund shares are discussed under the “Buying shares” and “Exchanging shares” sections of the Fund’s Prospectus; this information is incorporated herein by reference. See the Fund’s Prospectus for a discussion of which share classes of the Fund are available for purchase, who is eligible to purchase shares of each class, and applicable investment minimums.

Investors may purchase shares from a Service Agent. However, Service Agents may not offer all classes of shares. In addition, certain investors may purchase shares directly from the Fund. When purchasing shares of the Fund, investors must specify the class of shares being purchased. Payment must be made with the purchase order. Service Agents may charge their customers an annual account maintenance fee in connection with a brokerage or other financial account through which an investor purchases or holds shares. Accounts held directly at the transfer agent are not subject to a maintenance fee.

 

66


Class N shares, Class L shares, Select Shares, Administrative Shares and Investor Shares. Class N shares, Class L shares, Select Shares, Administrative Shares and Investor Shares are sold without an initial sales charge and are not subject to contingent deferred sales charges.

Class A Shares. Class A shares are sold without an initial sales charge and are generally not subject to contingent deferred sales charges. There are no minimum investment requirements for purchases of Class A shares by: (i) current and retired board members of Franklin Resources; (ii) current and retired board members of investment companies managed by affiliates of Franklin Templeton (such board members, together with board members of Franklin Resources, are referred to herein as “Board Members”); (iii) current employees of the Manager and its affiliates; (iv) the “immediate families” of such persons (“immediate families” are such person’s spouse, including the surviving spouse of a deceased Board Member, and children under the age of 21); and (v) a pension, profit-sharing or other benefit plan for the benefit of such persons.

Institutional Shares. Institutional Shares are sold without an initial sales charge and are not subject to contingent deferred sales charges. Institutional Shares may be purchased directly from the Fund by the following persons: (i) current employees of the Manager and its affiliates; (ii) former employees of the Manager and its affiliates with existing accounts; (iii) current and former board members of investment companies managed by affiliates of Franklin Templeton; (iv) current and former board members of Franklin Resources; and (v) the “immediate families” of such persons. “Immediate families” are such person’s spouse (including the surviving spouse of a deceased board member) and parents, grandparents and children and grandchildren under the age of 21 (including step-relationships). For such investors, the minimum initial investment is $1,000 and the minimum for each purchase of additional shares is $50.

Capital Shares and Premium Shares. Capital Shares and Premium Shares are not available to individual investors. Premium Shares are available to funds affiliated with LMPFA and/or its affiliates. However, Premium Shares may also be available to other investors approved by the Distributor.

Under certain circumstances, an investor who purchases Fund shares pursuant to a fee-based advisory account program of an eligible financial intermediary as authorized by the Distributor may be afforded an opportunity to make a conversion between one or more share classes owned by the investor in the same Fund to Class I shares of that Fund. Such a conversion in these particular circumstances does not cause the investor to realize taxable gain or loss.

The Fund reserves the right to waive or change minimums, to decline any order to purchase shares and to suspend the offering of shares from time to time.

Select Tax Free Reserves.

The Fund is only offered to accounts that are beneficially owned solely by natural persons. Natural persons include any person who provides the Fund or the Fund’s authorized agent or intermediary with a social security number issued to that person, a government-issued identification document such as a driver’s license or passport that bears a photograph of the person, or other similar documentation. Natural persons also may be able to invest in the Fund through certain tax-advantaged savings accounts, trusts and other retirement and investment accounts, provided all beneficial owners of the accounts are natural persons, Examples may include: (i) certain retirement accounts, such as participant directed defined contribution plans, individual retirement accounts, deferred compensation plans for employees of government or tax-exempt organizations, and Keogh plans; (ii) college savings plans; (iii) health savings accounts; (iv) custodial accounts; (v) accounts of the estate of a natural person; (vi) medical savings accounts; (vii) ordinary trusts; and (viii) other accounts beneficially owned solely by natural persons.

Beneficial ownership typically means having voting power, which includes the power to vote, or direct the voting of, the Fund shares, and/or sole or shared investment power, which includes the power to dispose of, or direct the disposition of, the Fund shares.

The Fund will require the Fund’s authorized agent or intermediary to certify to the Fund that it has determined that all beneficial owners of accounts that have invested in the Fund through or with the assistance of such authorized agent or intermediary are natural persons pursuant to reasonably designed procedures.

Accounts that are not beneficially owned solely by natural persons, such as those opened by businesses, including small businesses, defined benefit plans and endowments, are not eligible to invest in, and will be involuntarily redeemed from, the Fund.

 

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Systematic Investment Plan

Shareholders holding Class A shares may make additions to their accounts at any time by purchasing shares through a service known as the Systematic Investment Plan. Under the Systematic Investment Plan, shareholders may arrange for automatic periodic investments of $50 or more in certain share classes by authorizing the Distributor or the transfer agent to charge the shareholder’s account held with a bank or other financial institution, as indicated by the shareholder, to provide for systematic additions to the shareholder’s Fund account. Shareholders have the option of selecting the frequency of the investment (on a monthly, every alternate month, quarterly, semi-annual or annual basis) as long as the investment equals a minimum of $50 per month. Shareholders may terminate participation in the Systematic Investment Plan at any time without charge or penalty. Additional information is available from the Fund or your Service Agent.

Contingent Deferred Sales Charge Provisions

Class A Shares. If Class A shares of the Fund are acquired by exchange of shares of another fund sold by the Distributor that were subject to a contingent deferred sales charge, you may pay a contingent deferred sales charge if the shares acquired by exchange are redeemed within 18 months of purchase of the shares from the original fund.

Any applicable contingent deferred sales charge will be assessed on the NAV at the time of purchase or redemption, whichever is less.

In determining the applicability of any contingent deferred sales charge, it will be assumed that a redemption is made first of shares representing capital appreciation, next of shares representing the reinvestment of dividends and capital gain distributions, next of shares that are not subject to the contingent deferred sales charge and finally of other shares held by the shareholder for the longest period of time. The length of time that contingent deferred sales charge shares acquired through an exchange have been held will be calculated from the date the shares exchanged were initially acquired in one of the other funds sold by the Distributor. For federal income tax purposes, the amount of the contingent deferred sales charge will reduce the gain or increase the loss, as the case may be, on the amount realized on redemption. The Distributor receives contingent deferred sales charges in partial consideration for its expenses in selling shares.

Waivers of Contingent Deferred Sales Charge

The contingent deferred sales charge will be waived on:

 

      i.

exchanges (see “Exchange of Shares”);

     ii.

systematic withdrawals in amounts equal to or less than 2.00% of the shareholder’s account balance at the time the withdrawals commence, up to a maximum of 12.00% in one year (see “Systematic Withdrawal Plan”);

    iii.

redemptions of shares within 12 months following the death or disability (as defined by the Code) of the shareholder;

    iv.

mandatory post-retirement distributions from retirement plans or IRAs commencing on or after attainment of a specific age required by law, (except that shareholders of certain retirement plans or IRAs established prior to May 23, 2005 will be eligible to obtain a waiver of the contingent deferred sales charge on all funds held in those accounts at age 59 1/2 and may be required to demonstrate such eligibility at the time of redemption);

     v.

involuntary redemptions;

    vi.

redemptions of shares to effect a combination of the Fund with any investment company by merger, acquisition of assets or otherwise;

   vii.

effective May 1, 2020, on redemptions with respect to investors where the Distributor did not pay the Service Agent a commission;

  viii.

tax-free returns of an excess contribution to any retirement plan;

    ix.

certain redemptions of shares of the Fund in connection with lump-sum or other distributions made by eligible retirement plans or redemption of shares by participants in certain “wrap fee” or asset allocation programs sponsored by broker/dealers and other financial institutions that have entered into agreements with the Distributor or the Manager; and

     x.

Class A shares held through accounts where Franklin Distributors is the broker-dealer of record (“Distributor Accounts”).

 

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A shareholder who has redeemed shares from another Legg Mason or Franklin Templeton fund may, under certain circumstances, reinvest all or part of the redemption proceeds within 90 days in a Legg Mason or Franklin Templeton fund and receive pro rata credit for any contingent deferred sales charge imposed on the prior redemption.

To have a contingent deferred sales charge waived, you or your Service Agent must let the Fund know at the time you redeem shares that you qualify for such a waiver. Contingent deferred sales charge waivers will be granted subject to confirmation by Franklin Distributors or the Fund transfer agent of the shareholder’s status or holdings, as the case may be.

Grandfathered Retirement Program with Exchange Features

Certain retirement plan programs with exchange features in effect prior to November 20, 2006 (collectively, the “Grandfathered Retirement Program”) that are authorized by the Distributor to offer eligible retirement plan investors the opportunity to exchange all of their Class C shares or Class C1 shares, if applicable, for Class A shares of an applicable fund sold by the Distributor, are permitted to maintain such share class exchange features for current and prospective retirement plan investors.

Under the Grandfathered Retirement Program, Class C shares and Class C1 shares of the Fund may be purchased by plans investing less than $3,000,000. Class C shares and Class C1 shares are eligible for exchange into Class A shares not later than eight years after the plan joins the program. They are eligible for exchange in the following circumstances: For participating plans established with the Fund or another fund in the Legg Mason family of funds (including funds for which LMPFA or any predecessor serves or has served as investment manager or administrator) prior to June 2, 2003, if such plan’s total Class C and Class C1 holdings in all non-money market funds sold by the Distributor equal at least $1,000,000 at the end of the fifth year after the date the participating plan enrolled in the Grandfathered Retirement Program, the participating plan will be permitted to exchange all of its Class C shares and Class C1 shares for Class A shares of the Fund. For participating plans established with the Fund or another fund in the Legg Mason family of funds (including funds for which LMPFA or any predecessor serves or has served as investment manager or administrator) on or after June 2, 2003, if such plan’s total Class C and Class C1 holdings in all non-money market funds sold by the Distributor equal at least $3,000,000 at the end of the fifth year after the date the participating plan enrolled in the Grandfathered Retirement Program, the participating plan will be permitted to exchange all of its Class C shares and Class C1 shares for Class A shares of the Fund.

Unless the exchange offer has been rejected in writing, the exchange will automatically occur within approximately 30 days after the fifth anniversary date. If the participating plan does not qualify for the five-year exchange to Class A shares, a review of the participating plan’s holdings will be performed each quarter until either the participating plan qualifies or the end of the eighth year.

Any participating plan that has not previously qualified for an exchange into Class A shares will be offered the opportunity to exchange all of its Class C shares and Class C1 shares for Class A shares of the same fund regardless of asset size at the end of the eighth year after the date the participating plan enrolled in the Grandfathered Retirement Program. Unless the exchange has been rejected in writing, the exchange will automatically occur on or about the eighth anniversary date. Once an exchange has occurred, a participating plan will not be eligible to acquire additional Class C shares and Class C1 shares but instead may acquire Class A shares of the same fund. Any Class C shares and Class C1 shares not converted will continue to be subject to the distribution fee.

For further information regarding the Grandfathered Retirement Program, contact your Service Agent or the transfer agent. Participating plans that enrolled in the Grandfathered Retirement Program prior to June 2, 2003 should contact the transfer agent for information regarding Class C shares and Class C1 shares exchange privileges applicable to their plan.

REDEMPTION OF SHARES

Redemptions of Fund shares are discussed under the “Exchanging shares” and “Redeeming shares” sections of the Fund’s Prospectus; this information is incorporated herein by reference.

The right of redemption may be suspended or the date of payment postponed:

 

  i.

for any period during which the NYSE is closed (other than for customary weekend and holiday closings);

 

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   ii.

when trading in the markets the Fund normally utilizes is restricted, or an emergency exists, as determined by the SEC, so that disposal of the Fund’s investments or determination of NAV is not reasonably practicable; or

  iii.

for such other periods as the SEC by order may permit for protection of the Fund’s shareholders.

If a shareholder holds shares in more than one class, any request for redemption must specify the class being redeemed. In the event of a failure to specify which class, or if the investor owns fewer shares of the class than specified, the redemption request will be delayed until the transfer agent receives further instructions.

(Only applies to Government Reserves) The Fund’s transfer agent, acting on behalf of the Fund, may place a temporary hold for up to 25 business days on the disbursement of redemption proceeds from an account held directly with the Fund if the transfer agent, in consultation with the Fund reasonably believes that financial exploitation of a Specified Adult (as defined below) has occurred, is occurring, has been attempted, or will be attempted. In order to delay payment of redemption proceeds under these circumstances, the Fund and the transfer agent must adopt certain policies and procedures and otherwise comply with the terms and conditions of no-action relief provided by the SEC staff. Financial exploitation means: (A) the wrongful or unauthorized taking, withholding, appropriation, or use of a Specified Adult’s funds or securities; or (B) any act or omission by a person, including through the use of a power of attorney, guardianship, or any other authority regarding a Specified Adult, to (i) obtain control, through deception, intimidation or undue influence, over the Specified Adult’s money, assets or property, or (ii) convert the Specified Adult’s money, assets or property. The transfer agent and/or the Fund may not be aware of factors suggesting financial exploitation of a Specified Adult and may not be able to identify Specified Adults in all circumstances. Furthermore, the transfer agent is not required to delay the disbursement of redemption proceeds and does not assume any obligation to do so. For purposes of this paragraph, the term “Specified Adult” refers to an individual who is a natural person (A) age 65 and older, or (B) age 18 and older and whom the fund’s transfer agent reasonably believes has a mental or physical impairment that renders the individual unable to protect his or her own interests.

The Service Agent may charge you a fee for executing your order. The amount and applicability of such a fee is determined and should be disclosed to its customers by each Service Agent.

Additional Information Regarding Telephone Redemption and Exchange Program. The Fund reserves the right to suspend, modify or discontinue the telephone redemption and exchange program.

Redemption Fees and Gates (Institutional Liquid Reserves, Select Tax Free Reserves and Premier Institutional Liquid Reserves)

The Fund may impose a liquidity fee on redemptions from the Fund (up to 2%) or temporarily restrict redemptions from the Fund for up to 10 business days (a “redemption gate”), in the event that the Fund’s weekly liquid assets1 fall below the following thresholds:

 

  (i)

30% weekly liquid assets—if the Fund’s weekly liquid assets fall below 30% of the Fund’s total assets, and the Board determines that it is in the best interests of the Fund, the Fund may, as early as the same day, impose a liquidity fee of not more than 2% of the amount redeemed or a redemption gate that temporarily suspends the right of redemption

  (ii)

10% weekly liquid assets—if the Fund’s weekly liquid assets fall below 10% of the Fund’s total assets, the Fund will impose at the beginning of the next business day, a liquidity fee of 1% of the amount redeemed, unless the Board determines that imposing such a fee would not be in the best interests of the Fund or determines that a lower or higher fee (not to exceed 2%) would be in the best interests of the Fund.

If the Fund imposes a redemption gate, the Fund and the Fund’s authorized agent or intermediary will not accept redemption orders until the Fund has notified shareholders that the redemption gate has been lifted. Any redemption orders submitted while a redemption gate is in effect will be cancelled without further notice.

Pending redemption orders may be affected if the Fund imposes a redemption gate. If you still wish to redeem shares once the redemption gate has been lifted, you will need to submit a new redemption request to the Fund or the Fund’s authorized agent or intermediary.

Liquidity fees and redemption gates may be terminated at any time at the discretion of the Board. In addition, liquidity fees and redemption gates will terminate at the beginning of the next business day once the Fund has invested 30% or more of its total assets in weekly liquid assets. The Fund may only suspend redemptions for up to 10 business days in any 90-day period.

 

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A liquidity fee imposed by the Fund will reduce the amount you will receive upon the redemption of your shares, and could cause you to recognize a capital loss or could decrease the capital gain or increase the capital loss you would otherwise recognize. Liquidity fees would be retained by the Fund. Pending redemption orders may be affected if the Fund imposes a liquidity fee.

Any announcement regarding the imposition of a liquidity fee or redemption gate, or the termination of a liquidity fee or a redemption gate, will be available at the Fund’s website, www.franklintempleton.com/investments/options/money-market-funds, by clicking on the name of the Fund, and will be filed with the SEC.

If the Fund’s weekly liquid assets fall below 10% of the Fund’s total assets, the Fund reserves the right to permanently suspend redemptions and liquidate if the Board determines that it is not in the best interests of the Fund to continue operating.

The SEC has proposed amendments to money market fund regulation that if adopted as proposed would, among other things, increase the daily and weekly liquid asset requirements, remove liquidity fees and redemption gate provisions and require institutional prime money market funds to use swing pricing. As currently proposed, the amendments would not require retail money market funds or government money market funds to implement swing pricing. The enactment of any new legislation or regulations impacting the money market fund industry could limit the Fund’s investment flexibility and reduce its ability to generate returns.

 

                                  

  1 

“Weekly liquid assets” include (i) cash; (ii) direct obligations of the U.S. Government; (iii) Government securities issued by a person controlled or supervised by and acting as an instrumentality of the Government of the United States pursuant to authority granted by the Congress of the United States, that are issued at a discount to the principal amount to be repaid at maturity without the provision for the payment of interest and have a remaining maturity of 60 days or less; (iv) securities that will mature or are subject to a demand feature that is exercisable and payable within five business days; and (v) amounts receivable and due unconditionally within five business days on pending sales of portfolio securities.

Systematic Withdrawal Plan

A systematic withdrawal plan (the “Withdrawal Plan”) is available to shareholders of certain classes of shares, as described in the Fund’s Prospectus. To the extent withdrawals under the Withdrawal Plan exceed dividends, distributions and appreciation of a shareholder’s investment in the Fund, there will be a reduction in the value of the shareholder’s investment, and continued withdrawal payments may reduce the shareholder’s investment and ultimately exhaust it. Withdrawal payments should not be considered as income from investment in the Fund. All dividends and distributions on shares in the Withdrawal Plan are reinvested automatically at NAV in additional shares of the Fund.

For additional information shareholders should contact their Service Agents. A shareholder who purchases shares directly through the transfer agent may continue to do so and applications for participation in the Withdrawal Plan should be sent to the transfer agent. Withdrawals may be scheduled on any day of the month; however, if the shareholder does not specify a day, the transfer agent will schedule the withdrawal on the 25th day (or the next business day if the 25th day is a weekend or holiday) of the month.

Legg Mason Institutional Funds Systematic Withdrawal Plan

Certain shareholders of Class I shares with an initial NAV of $1,000,000 or more, or certain other shareholders authorized by Franklin Distributors, may be eligible to participate in the Legg Mason Institutional Funds Systematic Withdrawal Plan. Receipt of payment of proceeds of redemptions made through the Systematic Withdrawal Plan will be wired through ACH to your checking or savings account—redemptions of Fund shares may occur on any business day of the month and the checking or savings account will be credited with the proceeds in approximately two business days. Requests must be made in writing to the Fund or your Service Agent to participate in, change or discontinue the Systematic Withdrawal Plan. You may change the monthly amount to be paid to you or terminate the Systematic Withdrawal Plan at any time, without charge or penalty, by notifying the Fund or your Service Agent. The Fund, its transfer agent and the distributor also reserve the right to modify or terminate the Systematic Withdrawal Plan at any time.

Involuntary Redemptions of Shares

Subject to applicable law, the Fund may cause a shareholder’s shares to be redeemed under certain circumstances, including in order to eliminate small accounts for administrative efficiencies and cost savings, to protect the tax status of the

 

71


Fund if necessary and to eliminate ownership of shares by a particular shareholder when the Fund determines, pursuant to adopted policies, that the particular shareholder’s ownership is not in the best interests of the other shareholders of the Fund (for example, in the case of a market timer). In addition, Select Tax Free Reserves reserve the right to redeem shares of any investor that is not a natural person.

Redemptions In Kind

The Fund reserves the right, under certain conditions, to honor any request for a redemption by making payment in whole or in part by delivering securities valued in accordance with the procedures described under “Share price/ Fund business days” in the Fund’s Prospectus. Because redemption in kind may be used at times of unusual illiquidity in the markets, these valuation methods may include fair value estimations. If payment is made in securities, a shareholder should expect to incur brokerage expenses in converting those securities into cash, and the market price of those securities will be subject to fluctuation until they are sold. The securities delivered may not be representative of the entire Fund portfolio, may represent only one issuer or a limited number of issuers and may be securities that the Fund would otherwise sell. The Fund will not use securities to pay redemptions by Franklin Distributors or other affiliated persons of the Fund, except as permitted by law, SEC rules or orders, or interpretive guidance from the SEC staff or other proper authorities.

EXCHANGE OF SHARES

Exchanges of Fund shares are discussed under the Buying shares”, “Exchanging shares” and “Redeeming shares” sections of the Fund’s Prospectus; this information is incorporated herein by reference. The exchange privilege enables shareholders to acquire shares of the same class in another Western Asset money market fund sold by the Distributor. This privilege is available to shareholders residing in any state in which the fund shares being acquired may legally be sold. Prior to any exchange, the shareholder should obtain and review a copy of the current prospectus of each fund into which an exchange is being considered. The Prospectus describes the requirements for exchanging shares of the Fund and may be obtained as described on the cover page of this SAI.

Upon receipt of proper instructions and all necessary supporting documents, shares submitted for exchange are redeemed at the then-current NAV, and the proceeds, net of any applicable sales charge, are immediately invested in shares of the fund being acquired at that fund’s then current NAV. The Distributor reserves the right to reject any exchange request. The exchange privilege may be modified or terminated at any time after written notice to shareholders.

The exchange privilege is not available with respect to Government Reserves, Institutional Liquid Reserves, Premier Institutional Liquid Reserves or Class L shares of Institutional Government Reserves.

Institutional Shares, Investor Shares and Administration Shares Exchanges. Institutional Shares, Investor Shares and Administration Shares may be exchanged for the same class of shares of another Western Asset money market fund sold by the Distributor without imposition of any charge.

Capital Shares and Premium Shares. Capital Shares and Premium Shares may be exchanged for the same class of shares of another Western Asset money market fund sold by the Distributor without imposition of any charge.

Additional Information Regarding the Exchange Privilege

The Fund is not designed to provide investors with a means of speculation on short-term market movements. A pattern of frequent exchanges by investors can be disruptive to efficient portfolio management and, consequently, can be detrimental to the Fund and its shareholders. See “Frequent trading of fund shares” in the Fund’s Prospectuses.

During times of drastic economic or market conditions, the Fund may suspend the exchange privilege temporarily without notice and treat exchange requests based on their separate components—redemption orders with a simultaneous request to purchase the other fund’s shares. In such a case, the redemption request would be processed at the Fund’s next determined NAV but the purchase order would be effective only at the NAV next determined after the fund being purchased formally accepts the order, which may result in the purchase being delayed.

Certain shareholders may be able to exchange shares by telephone. See the Fund’s Prospectus for additional information. Exchanges will be processed at the NAV next determined. Redemption procedures discussed above are also applicable for exchanging shares, and exchanges will be made upon receipt of all supporting documents in proper form. If the

 

72


account registration of the shares of the fund being acquired is identical to the registration of the shares of the fund exchanged, no signature guarantee is required.

The exchange privilege may be modified or terminated at any time, and is available only in those jurisdictions where such exchanges legally may be made. An exchange is treated as a sale of the shares exchanged and could result in taxable gain or loss to the shareholder making the exchange. A shareholder generally will not recognize a gain or loss on an exchange if the fund whose shares are exchanged maintains a NAV of $1.00 per share. Other taxes or tax-related consequences may apply, and you should consult your tax adviser before requesting an exchange.

VALUATION OF SHARES

The NAV per share of each class of the Fund is determined on such days and at such times as is set forth in the Fund’s Prospectus. NAV is calculated for each class of the Fund by dividing the value of the Fund’s net assets (i.e., the value of its assets attributable to a class, including (if applicable) its investment in its underlying Portfolio, if any, less its liabilities, including expenses payable or accrued) by the number of the shares of the class outstanding at the time the determination is made. As of the date of this SAI, the NYSE is normally open for trading every weekday except in the event of an emergency or for the following holidays (or the days on which they are observed): New Year’s Day, Martin Luther King, Jr. Day, Presidents’ Day, Good Friday, Memorial Day, Juneteenth National Independence Day, Independence Day, Labor Day, Thanksgiving Day and Christmas Day. The Federal Reserve Bank of New York is closed for the following holidays (or the days on which they are observed): New Year’s Day, Martin Luther King Jr. Day, Presidents’ Day, Memorial Day, Juneteenth National Independence Day, Independence Day, Labor Day, Columbus Day, Veterans Day, Thanksgiving Day and Christmas Day. As of the date of this SAI, the Securities Industry and Financial Markets Association (SIFMA) recommends an early close to the bond markets on Good Friday, the business day following Thanksgiving Day and the business day preceding the following holidays (or the days on which they are observed): New Year’s Day, Good Friday, Memorial Day, Independence Day and Christmas Day.

The value of the Portfolio’s net assets (i.e., the value of its securities and other assets less its liabilities, including expenses payable or accrued) is determined at the same times and on the same days as the NAV per share of the corresponding Fund is determined (although the Portfolio’s NAV may also be determined at other times in addition to these times to accommodate the NAV times of other investors in the Portfolio). The NAV of the Fund’s investment in its corresponding Portfolio is equal to the Fund’s pro rata share of the total investment of the Fund and of other investors in the Portfolio less the Fund’s pro rata share of the Portfolio’s liabilities.

Government Reserves, Institutional Government Reserves, Premier Institutional Government Reserves, Institutional U.S. Treasury Obligations Money Market Fund, Institutional U.S. Treasury Reserves, Premier Institutional U.S. Treasury Reserves and Select Tax Free Reserves:

The Fund seeks to maintain a constant $1.00 NAV per share and, although no assurance can be given that it will be able to do so on a continuing basis, as described below, the Fund employs specific investment policies and procedures to accomplish this result.

The securities held by the Fund or the Portfolio are valued at their amortized cost. Amortized cost valuation involves valuing an instrument at its cost and thereafter assuming a constant amortization to maturity of any discount or premium. If the market value (or deemed market value) of the securities held by the Fund or the Portfolio deviates more than 1/2 of 1% from their value determined on the basis of amortized cost, the applicable Board will consider whether any action should be initiated, as described in the following paragraph. Although the amortized cost method provides certainty in valuation, it may result in periods during which the stated value of an instrument is higher or lower than the price the Fund or Portfolio would receive if the instrument were sold.

Pursuant to the rules of the SEC, the Fund’s and Portfolio’s Trustees have established procedures to stabilize the value of the Fund’s and Portfolio’s net assets within 1/2 of 1% of the value determined on the basis of amortized cost. These procedures include a review of the extent of any such deviation of NAV, based on available market rates. Should that deviation exceed 1/2 of 1% for the Fund or the Portfolio (as applicable), the Trustees will consider whether any action should be initiated to eliminate or reduce material dilution or other unfair results to investors in the Fund or the Portfolio. Such action may include redemption or withdrawal in kind, selling securities prior to maturity and utilizing a NAV as determined by using available market quotations.

 

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Because of the short-term maturities of the portfolio investments of the Fund, the Fund does not expect to realize any material long-term capital gains or losses. Any net realized short-term capital gains will be declared and distributed to the Fund’s shareholders annually after the close of the Fund’s fiscal year. Distributions of short-term capital gains are taxable to shareholders as ordinary income. Any realized short-term capital losses will be offset against short-term capital gains or, to the extent possible, utilized as capital loss carryover. The Fund may distribute short-term capital gains more frequently than annually, and the Fund, other than Institutional Government Reserves may reduce shares to reflect capital losses or make distributions of capital if necessary, in each case in order to maintain the Fund’s or Portfolio’s NAV of $1.00 per share. Reducing the number of shares would be accomplished by means of a reverse stock split, if authorized by the Fund’s Trustees. In a reverse stock split, the number of shares held by each shareholder would be reduced by the same proportional amount. That amount would be calculated such that, immediately after the reverse stock split, each outstanding share would be valued at $1.00. However, each shareholder would own fewer shares and, therefore, would have lost money.

It is expected that the Fund (and each class of the Fund) will have a positive net income at the time of each determination thereof. If for any reason the Fund’s or a class’ net income is a negative amount, which could occur, for instance, upon default by an issuer of a portfolio security, or if the Fund’s expenses exceeded its income, the Fund would first offset the negative amount with respect to each shareholder account in the Fund or class from the dividends declared during the month with respect to those accounts. If and to the extent that negative net income exceeds declared dividends at the end of the month, the Fund may reduce the number of outstanding shares of the Fund or class as described above. In addition, even where the Fund does not have negative income, the Fund may retain some portion of its income, which would have the effect of increasing its NAV.

Institutional Liquid Reserves and Premier Institutional Liquid Reserves:

Valuation of the Fund’s securities and other assets is performed in accordance with procedures approved by the Board. These procedures delegate most valuation functions to the Manager, which generally uses independent third party pricing services approved by the Board. Under the procedures, assets are valued as follows:

 

 

The valuations for fixed income securities are typically the prices supplied by independent third party pricing services, which may use market prices or broker/dealer quotations or a variety of fair valuation techniques and methodologies.

 

The valuations of securities traded on foreign markets and certain other fixed income securities will generally be based on prices determined as of the earlier closing time of the markets on which they primarily trade. Foreign markets are open for trading on weekends and other days when the fund does not price its shares. Therefore, the value of the Fund’s shares may change on days when you will not be able to purchase or redeem the Fund’s shares.

 

If independent third party pricing services are unable to supply prices for a portfolio investment, or if the prices supplied are deemed by the Manager to be unreliable, the market price may be determined by the manager using quotations from one or more broker/dealers. When such prices or quotations are not available, or when the Manager believes that they are unreliable, the Manager may price securities using fair value procedures approved by the Board. These procedures permit, among other things, the use of a formula or other method that takes into consideration market indices, yield curves and other specific adjustments to determine fair value. Fair value of a security is the amount, as determined by the Manager in good faith, that the Fund might reasonably expect to receive upon a current sale of the security. The Fund may also use fair value procedures if the Manager determines that a significant event has occurred between the time at which a market price is determined and the time at which the Fund’s NAV is calculated.

Many factors may influence the price at which the Fund could sell any particular portfolio investment. The sales price may well differ—higher or lower—from the Fund’s last valuation, and such differences could be significant, particularly for securities that trade in relatively thin markets and/or markets that experience extreme volatility. Moreover, valuing securities using fair value methodologies involves greater reliance on judgment than valuing securities based on market quotations. A fund that uses fair value methodologies may value those securities higher or lower than another fund using market quotations or its own fair value methodologies to price the same securities. There can be no assurance that the Fund could obtain the value assigned to a security if it were to sell the security at approximately the time at which the Fund determines its NAV. Investors who purchase or redeem fund shares on days when the Fund is holding fair-valued securities may receive a greater or lesser number of shares, or redemption proceeds, than they would have received if the Fund had not fair-valued the security or had used a different methodology. Because of the differences in distribution fees and class-specific expenses, the per share NAV of each class may differ.

 

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Because of the short-term maturities of the portfolio investments of the Fund, the Fund does not expect to realize any material long-term capital gains or losses. Any net realized short-term capital gains will be declared and distributed to the Fund’s shareholders annually after the close of the Fund’s fiscal year. Distributions of short-term capital gains are taxable to shareholders as ordinary income. Any realized short-term capital losses will be offset against short-term capital gains or, to the extent possible, utilized as capital loss carryover. The Fund may distribute short-term capital gains more frequently than annually, reduce shares to reflect capital losses or make distributions of capital. Reducing the number of shares would be accomplished by means of a reverse stock split, if authorized by the Fund’s Trustees. In a reverse stock split, the number of shares held by each shareholder would be reduced by the same proportional amount.

PROXY VOTING GUIDELINES AND PROCEDURES

The Manager delegates to the Subadviser the responsibility for voting proxies for the Fund through its contracts with the Subadviser. The Subadviser may use its own proxy voting policies and procedures to vote proxies of the Fund if the Fund’s Board reviews and approves the use of those policies and procedures. Accordingly, the Manager does not expect to have proxy-voting responsibility for the Fund.

Should the Manager become responsible for voting proxies for any reason, such as the inability of the Subadviser to provide investment advisory services, the Manager shall utilize the proxy voting guidelines established by the most recent Subadviser to vote proxies until a new subadviser is retained and the use of its proxy voting policies and procedures is authorized by the Board. In the case of a material conflict between the interests of the Manager (or its affiliates if such conflict is known to persons responsible for voting at the Manager) and any fund, the Board of Directors of the Manager shall consider how to address the conflict and/or how to vote the proxies. The Manager shall maintain records of all proxy votes in accordance with applicable securities laws and regulations.

The Manager shall be responsible for gathering relevant documents and records related to proxy voting from the Subadviser and providing them to the Fund as required for the Fund to comply with applicable rules under the 1940 Act. The Manager shall also be responsible for coordinating the provision of information to the Board with regard to the proxy voting policies and procedures of the Subadviser, including the actual proxy voting policies and procedures of the Subadviser, changes to such policies and procedures, and reports on the administration of such policies and procedures.

The Subadviser’s proxy voting policies and procedures govern in determining how proxies relating to the Fund’s portfolio securities are voted. A copy of the proxy voting policies and procedures is attached as Appendix A to this SAI. Information regarding how the Fund voted proxies (if any) relating to portfolio securities during the most recent twelve month period ended June 30 is available without charge (1) by calling 1-877-721-1926, (2) on www.franklintempleton.com/moneymarketfundsliterature (click on the name of the Fund), and (3) on the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov.

DISCLOSURE OF PORTFOLIO HOLDINGS

The Fund’s Board has adopted policies and procedures (the “policy”) developed by the Manager with respect to the disclosure of the Fund’s portfolio securities and any ongoing arrangements to make available information about the Fund’s portfolio securities for the Legg Mason Funds. The Manager believes the policy is in the best interests of the Fund and its shareholders and that it strikes an appropriate balance between the desire of investors for information about fund portfolio holdings and the need to protect the Fund from potentially harmful disclosures.

General Rules/Website Disclosure

The policy provides that information regarding the Fund’s portfolio holdings may be shared at any time with employees of the Manager, the Subadviser and other affiliated parties involved in the management, administration or operations of the Fund (referred to as fund-affiliated personnel). Under the policy, the Fund’s complete list of holdings (including the size of each position) and certain other information is disclosed as of the last business day of the month no later than five business days after month-end on the Fund’s public website. The Fund may disclose its complete portfolio holdings earlier, provided such information has been made available on the Fund’s public website in accordance with the policy.

 

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The Fund currently discloses its complete portfolio holdings as of the last business day of each month no later than five business days after month-end on www.franklintempleton.com/moneymarketfunds (click on the name of the Fund).

Ongoing Arrangements

Under the policy, the Fund may release portfolio holdings information on a regular basis to a custodian, sub-custodian, Fund accounting agent, proxy voting provider, rating agency or other vendor or service provider for a legitimate business purpose, where the party receiving the information is under a duty of confidentiality, including a duty to prohibit the sharing of non-public information with unauthorized sources and trading upon non-public information. The Fund may enter into other ongoing arrangements for the release of portfolio holdings information, but only if such arrangements serve a legitimate business purpose and are with a party who is subject to a confidentiality agreement and restrictions on trading upon non-public information. None of the Fund, Legg Mason or any other affiliated party may receive compensation or any other consideration in connection with such arrangements. Ongoing arrangements to make available information about the Fund’s portfolio securities will be reviewed at least annually by the Fund’s Board.

Set forth below is a list, as of December 31, 2021, of those parties with whom the Manager, on behalf of the Fund, has authorized ongoing arrangements that include the release of portfolio holdings information in accordance with the policy, as well as the maximum frequency of the release under such arrangements, and the minimum length of the lag, if any, between the date of the information and the date on which the information is disclosed. The ongoing arrangements may vary for each party, and it is possible that not every party will receive information for the Fund. The parties identified below as recipients are service providers, fund rating agencies, consultants and analysts.

 

Recipient

 

Frequency

 

Delay Before Dissemination

Bank of New York Mellon

(Fund Custodian and Accounting Agent)

  Daily   None
Best Alternatives Outsourcing Services, LLP   Daily   None
Charles River   Daily   None
Institutional Shareholder Services (Proxy Voting Services)   Daily   None
Middle Office Solutions, LLC   Daily   None
NaviSite, Inc.   Daily   None
Thomson   Semi-annually   None

Portfolio holdings information for the Fund may also be released from time to time pursuant to ongoing arrangements with the following parties:

 

Recipient

 

Frequency

 

Delay Before Dissemination

Fidelity   Quarterly   5 Business Days
Fitch (Rating Agency)   Monthly   Sent 6-7 Business Days
Interactive Data Corp.   Weekly   None
Liberty Hampshire   Weekly and Month-End   None
Moody’s Investor Service, Inc. (Rating Agency)   Monthly   Sent 6-7 Business Days
S&P Global (Rating Agency)   Monthly   Sent 6-7 Business Days
SunTrust   Weekly and Month-End   None

 

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Excluded from the lists of ongoing arrangements set forth above are ongoing arrangements where either (i) the disclosure of portfolio holdings information occurs concurrently with or after the time at which the portfolio holdings information is included in a public filing with the SEC that is required to include the information, or (ii) the Fund’s portfolio holdings information is made available no earlier than the day next following the day on which the Fund makes the information available on its website, as disclosed in the Fund’s Prospectus. The approval of the Fund’s Chief Compliance Officer, or designee, must be obtained before entering into any new ongoing arrangement or altering any existing ongoing arrangement to make available portfolio holdings information, or with respect to any exceptions from the policy.

Release of Limited Portfolio Holdings Information

In addition to the ongoing arrangements described above, the Fund’s complete or partial list of holdings (including size of positions) may be released to another party on a one-time basis, provided the party receiving the information has executed a non-disclosure and confidentiality agreement and provided that the specific release of information has been approved by the Fund’s Chief Compliance Officer or designee as consistent with the policy. By way of illustration and not of limitation, release of non-public information about the Fund’s portfolio holdings may be made (i) to a proposed or potential adviser or Subadviser(s) or other investment manager asked to provide investment management services to the Fund, or (ii) to a third party in connection with a program or similar trade.

In addition, the policy permits the release to investors, potential investors, third parties and Franklin Templeton personnel that are not fund-affiliated personnel of limited portfolio holdings information in other circumstances, including:

 

  1.

The Fund’s top ten securities positions (including the aggregate but not individual size of such positions) may be released at any time with simultaneous public disclosure.

 

  2.

A list of securities (that may include Fund holdings together with other securities) followed by an investment professional (without position sizes or identification of particular funds) may be disclosed to sell-side brokers at any time for the purpose of obtaining research and/or market information from such brokers.

 

  3.

A trade in process may be discussed only with counterparties, potential counterparties and others involved in the transaction (i.e., brokers and custodians).

 

  4.

The Fund’s sector weightings, yield and duration (for fixed income and money market funds), performance attribution (e.g., analysis of the Fund’s out-performance or underperformance of its benchmark based on its portfolio holdings) and other summary and statistical information that does not include identification of specific portfolio holdings may be released, even if non-public, if such release is otherwise in accordance with the policy’s general principles.

 

  5.

A small number of the Fund’s portfolio holdings (including information that the Fund no longer holds a particular holding) may be released, but only if the release of the information could not reasonably be seen to interfere with current or future purchase or sales activities of the Fund and is not contrary to law.

 

  6.

The Fund’s portfolio holdings may be released on an as-needed basis to its legal counsel, counsel to its independent trustees and its independent public accounting firm, in required regulatory filings or otherwise to governmental agencies and authorities.

Exceptions to the Policy

The Fund’s Chief Compliance Officer, or designee, may as is deemed appropriate, approve exceptions from the policy. Exceptions are granted only after a thorough examination and consultation with the Manager’s legal department, as necessary. Exceptions from the policy are reported annually to the Fund’s Board.

Limitations of Policy

The Fund’s portfolio holdings policy is designed to prevent sharing of portfolio information with third parties that have no legitimate business purpose for accessing the information. The policy may not be effective to limit access to portfolio holdings information in all circumstances, however. For example, the Manager or the Subadviser may manage accounts other than the Fund that have investment objectives and strategies similar to those of the Fund. Because these accounts, including the Fund, may be similarly managed, portfolio holdings may be similar across the accounts. In that case, an investor in another account managed by the Manager or the Subadviser may be able to infer the portfolio holdings of the Fund from the portfolio holdings in that investor’s account.

 

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THE TRUST

References in this section to the “Trust” include Legg Mason Partners Money Market Trust and Legg Mason Partners Institutional Trust unless otherwise specified. The certificate of trust to establish the Trust was filed with the State Department of Assessments and Taxation of Maryland on October 4, 2006. The Fund is a series of the applicable Trust.

As of April 16, 2007, Institutional Liquid Reserves, Institutional U.S. Treasury Reserves, Institutional Government Reserves and Select Tax Free Reserves were redomiciled as a series of Legg Mason Partners Institutional Trust. Immediately prior to such redomiciliation, Institutional Government Reserves was reorganized on April 16, 2007 as a series of CitiFunds Institutional Trust, a Massachusetts business trust. Prior to reorganization of Institutional Government Reserves as series of CitiFunds Institutional Trust, such fund was a series of Smith Barney Institutional Cash Management Fund Inc., a Maryland corporation.

Prior to the reorganization of Institutional Liquid Reserves, Institutional U.S. Treasury Reserves and Institutional Government Reserves as series of the Trust, the funds were series of CitiFunds Institutional Trust. Prior to January 1, 2001, Institutional Liquid Reserves, Institutional U.S. Treasury Reserves and Select Tax Free Reserves were called CitiFunds Institutional Liquid Reserves, CitiFunds Institutional U.S. Treasury Reserves and CitiFunds Institutional Tax Free Reserves, respectively. Prior to January 2, 1998, Institutional Liquid Reserves, Institutional U.S. Treasury Reserves and Select Tax Free Reserves were called Landmark Institutional Liquid Reserves, Landmark Institutional U.S. Treasury Reserves and Landmark Institutional Tax Free Reserves, respectively. Prior to May 31, 2010, Institutional Liquid Reserves, Institutional U.S. Treasury Reserves, Institutional Government Reserves and Select Tax Free Reserves were known as Western Asset / CitiSM Institutional Liquid Reserves, Western Asset / CitiSM Institutional U.S. Treasury Reserves, Western Asset Institutional Government Money Market Fund and Western Asset / CitiSM Institutional Tax Free Reserves, respectively. Prior to August 26, 2016, Select Tax Free Reserves was called Western Asset Institutional Tax Free Reserves.

As of April 16, 2007, Government Reserves was redomiciled as a series of Legg Mason Partners Money Market Trust. With respect to Government Reserves, prior to reorganization of each such fund as a series of Legg Mason Partners Money Market Trust, such funds were series of CitiFunds Trust III, a business trust organized under the laws of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Prior to reorganization as a series of CitiFunds Trust III, Government Reserves was a series of Smith Barney Money Funds, Inc., a Maryland corporation. Prior to September 1, 2012, Government Reserves was known as Western Asset Government Money Market Fund.

The Trust is a Maryland statutory trust. A Maryland statutory trust is an unincorporated business association that is established under, and governed by, Maryland law. Maryland law provides a statutory framework for the powers, duties, rights and obligations of the Trustees and shareholders of a statutory trust, while the more specific powers, duties, rights and obligations of the Trustees and the shareholders are determined by the trustees as set forth in a trust’s declaration of trust. The Trust’s Declaration of Trust (the “Declaration”) provides that by becoming a shareholder of the Fund, each shareholder shall be expressly held to have agreed to be bound by the provisions of the Declaration and any other governing instrument of the Trust, such as the by-laws of the Trust, which contain additional rules governing the conduct of the business of the Trust.

Some of the more significant provisions of the Declaration are summarized below. The following summary is qualified in its entirety by reference to the applicable provisions of the Declaration.

Shareholder Voting

Under the Declaration, the Trustees have broad authority to direct the business and affairs of the Trust. The Declaration provides for shareholder voting as required by the 1940 Act or other applicable laws but otherwise permits, consistent with Maryland law, actions by the Trustees without seeking the consent of shareholders. For example, the Trustees are empowered to amend the Declaration or authorize the merger or consolidation of the Trust into another trust or entity, reorganize the Trust or any series or class into another trust or entity or a series or class of another entity, sell all or substantially all of the assets of the Trust or any series or class to another entity, or a series or class of another entity, terminate the Trust or any series or class, or adopt or amend the by-laws of the Trust, in each case without shareholder approval if the 1940 Act would not require such approval.

 

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The Fund is not required to hold an annual meeting of shareholders, but the Fund will call special meetings of shareholders whenever required by the 1940 Act or by the terms of the Declaration. The Declaration provides for “dollar-weighted voting” which means that a shareholder’s voting power is determined, not by the number of shares he or she owns, but by the dollar value of those shares determined on the record date. All shareholders of record of all series and classes of the Trust vote together, except where required by the 1940 Act to vote separately by series or by class, or when the Trustees have determined that a matter affects only the interests of one or more series or classes of shares. There is no cumulative voting on any matter submitted to a vote of the shareholders.

Election and Removal of Trustees

The Declaration provides that the Trustees may establish the number of Trustees and that vacancies on the Board may be filled by the remaining Trustees, except when election of Trustees by the shareholders is required under the 1940 Act. When a vote of shareholders is required to elect Trustees, the Declaration provides that such Trustees shall be elected by a plurality of votes cast by shareholders at a meeting at which a quorum is present. The Declaration also provides that a mandatory retirement age may be set by action of two-thirds of the Trustees and that Trustees may be removed, with or without cause, by a vote of shareholders holding two-thirds of the voting power of the Trust, or by a vote of two-thirds of the remaining Trustees. The provisions of the Declaration relating to the election and removal of Trustees may not be amended without the approval of two-thirds of the Trustees.

Amendments to the Declaration

The Trustees are authorized to amend the Declaration without the vote of shareholders, but no amendment may be made that impairs the exemption from personal liability granted in the Declaration to persons who are or have been shareholders, Trustees, officers or, employees of the Trust or that limits the rights to indemnification, advancement of expenses or insurance provided in the Declaration with respect to actions or omissions of persons entitled to indemnification, advancement of expenses or insurance under the Declaration prior to the amendment.

Issuance and Redemption of Shares

The Fund may issue an unlimited number of shares for such consideration and on such terms as the Trustees may determine. All shares offered pursuant to the Prospectus of the Fund, when issued, will be fully paid and non-assessable. Shareholders are not entitled to any appraisal rights with respect to their shares and, except as the Trustees may determine, shall have no preemptive, conversion, exchange or similar rights. The Fund may involuntarily redeem a shareholder’s shares upon certain conditions as may be determined by the Trustees, including, for example, if the shareholder fails to provide the Fund with identification required by law, or if the Fund is unable to verify the information received from the shareholder. Additionally, as discussed below, shares may be redeemed in connection with the closing of small accounts.

Disclosure of Shareholder Holdings

The Declaration specifically requires shareholders, upon demand, to disclose to the Fund such information with respect to their ownership of shares of the Fund, whether direct or indirect, as the Trustees may deem necessary in order to comply with various laws or regulations or for such other purpose as the Trustees may decide. The Fund may disclose such ownership information if required by law or regulation, or as the Trustees otherwise decide.

Small Accounts

The Declaration provides that the Fund may close out a shareholder’s account by redeeming all of the shares in the account if the account falls below a minimum account size (which may vary by class) that may be set by the Trustees from time to time. Alternately, the Declaration permits the Fund to assess a fee for small accounts (which may vary by class) and redeem shares in the account to cover such fees, or convert the shares into another share class that is geared to smaller accounts.

Series and Classes

The Declaration provides that the Trustees may establish series and classes in addition to those currently established and that the Trustees may determine the rights and preferences, limitations and restrictions, including qualifications for ownership, conversion and exchange features, minimum purchase and account size, expenses and charges, and other features of the series and classes. The Trustees may change any of those features, terminate any series or class, combine series with other

 

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series in the Trust, combine one or more classes of a series with another class in that series or convert the shares of one class into shares of another class.

Each share of the Fund, as a series of the Trust, represents an interest in the Fund only and not in the assets of any other series of the Trust.

Shareholder, Trustee and Officer Liability

The Declaration provides that shareholders are not personally liable for the obligations of the Fund and requires the Fund to indemnify a shareholder against any loss or expense claimed solely because of the shareholder’s being or having been a shareholder. The Fund will assume the defense of any claim against a shareholder for personal liability at the request of the shareholder. The Declaration further provides that a Trustee acting in his or her capacity as a Trustee is not personally liable to any person, other than the Trust or its shareholders, in connection with the affairs of the Trust. Each Trustee is required to perform his or her duties in good faith and in a manner he or she believes to be in the best interests of the Trust. All actions and omissions of Trustees are presumed to be in accordance with the foregoing standard of performance, and any person alleging the contrary has the burden of proving that allegation.

The Declaration limits a Trustee’s liability to the Trust or any shareholder to the fullest extent permitted under current Maryland law by providing that a Trustee is liable to the Trust or its shareholders for monetary damages only (a) to the extent that it is proved that he or she actually received an improper benefit or profit in money, property, or services or (b) to the extent that a judgment or other final adjudication adverse to the Trustee is entered in a proceeding based on a finding in the proceeding that the Trustee’s action, or failure to act, was the result of active and deliberate dishonesty and was material to the cause of action adjudicated in the proceeding. The Declaration requires the Trust to indemnify any persons who are or who have been Trustees, officers or employees of the Trust to the fullest extent permitted by law against liability and expenses in connection with any claim or proceeding in which he or she is involved by virtue of having been a Trustee, officer or employee. Subject to applicable federal law, expenses related to the defense against any claim to which indemnification may apply shall be advanced by the Trust upon receipt of an undertaking by or on behalf of the recipient of those expenses to repay the advanced amount if it is ultimately found that he or she is not entitled to indemnification. In making any determination as to whether a person has engaged in conduct for which indemnification is not available, or as to whether there is reason to believe that such person ultimately will be found entitled to indemnification, such person shall be afforded a rebuttable presumption that he or she did not engage in conduct for which indemnification is not available.

The Declaration provides that any Trustee who serves as chair of the Board, a member or chair of a committee of the Board, lead independent Trustee, audit committee financial expert, or in any other similar capacity will not be subject to any greater standard of care or liability because of such position.

Derivative Actions

The Declaration provides a detailed process for the bringing of derivative actions by shareholders in order to permit legitimate inquiries and claims while avoiding the time, expense, distraction, and other harm that can be caused to the Fund or its shareholders as a result of spurious shareholder demands and derivative actions. Prior to bringing a derivative action, a demand by no fewer than three unrelated shareholders must be made on the Trustees. The Declaration details information, certifications, undertakings and acknowledgements that must be included in the demand. The Trustees are not required to consider a demand that is not submitted in accordance with the requirements contained in the Declaration. The Declaration also requires that, in order to bring a derivative action, the complaining shareholders must be joined in the action by shareholders owning, at the time of the alleged wrongdoing, at the time of demand, and at the time the action is commenced, shares representing at least 5% of the voting power of the affected funds. The Trustees have a period of 90 days, which may be extended for an additional period not to exceed 60 days, to consider the demand. If a majority of the Trustees who are considered independent for the purposes of considering the demand determine that a suit should be maintained, then the Trust will commence the suit and the suit will proceed directly and not derivatively. If a majority of the independent Trustees determines that maintaining the suit would not be in the best interests of the Fund, the Trustees are required to reject the demand and the complaining shareholders may not proceed with the derivative action unless the shareholders are able to sustain the burden of proof to a court that the decision of the Trustees not to pursue the requested action was not consistent with the standard of performance required of the Trustees in performing their duties. If a demand is rejected, the complaining shareholders will be responsible for the costs and expenses (including attorneys’ fees) incurred by the Trust in connection with

 

80


the consideration of the demand, if, in the judgment of the independent Trustees, the demand was made without reasonable cause or for an improper purpose. If a derivative action is brought in violation of the Declaration, the shareholders bringing the action may be responsible for the Fund’s costs, including attorneys’ fees.

The Declaration further provides that the Fund shall be responsible for payment of attorneys’ fees and legal expenses incurred by a complaining shareholder only if required by law, and any attorneys’ fees that the Fund is obligated to pay shall be calculated using reasonable hourly rates. The Declaration also requires that actions by shareholders against the Trust or the Fund be brought only in the U.S. District Court for the District of Maryland (Baltimore Division), or if such action may not be brought in that court, then such action shall be brought in the Circuit Court for Baltimore City and that the right to jury trial be waived to the fullest extent permitted by law.

The Declaration further provides that no provision of the Declaration will be effective to require a waiver of compliance with any provision of the 1933 Act, the 1934 Act or the 1940 Act, or of any valid rule, regulation or order of the Commission thereunder.

The Portfolio in which the Fund invests is a series of Master Portfolio Trust, a Maryland statutory trust, and is also governed by a declaration of trust similar to the Declaration. Whenever a vote is submitted to the Portfolio’s investors, the Fund will generally call a meeting of its own shareholders. To the extent it does not receive instructions from its shareholders, the Fund will vote its shares in the portfolio in the same proportion as the vote of shareholders who do give voting instructions. Alternatively, without seeking instructions from its shareholders, the Fund could vote its shares in the Portfolio in proportion to the vote of all the other investors in the Portfolio.

TAXES

The following is a summary of certain material U.S. federal (and, where noted, state and local) income tax considerations affecting the Fund and its shareholders. This discussion is very general and does not address all the potential U.S. federal income tax consequences that may be applicable to the Fund or to all categories of investors, some of which may be subject to special tax rules. This summary is based upon the Code, its legislative history, Treasury regulations (including temporary and proposed regulations), published rulings, and court decisions, each as of the date of this SAI and all of which are subject to change, possibly with retroactive effect, which could affect the continuing accuracy of this discussion. This discussion assumes that each shareholder holds its shares of the Fund as capital assets for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Current and prospective shareholders are urged to consult their own tax professionals with respect to the specific federal, state, local, and foreign tax consequences of investing in the Fund.

Tax Treatment of the Fund

The Fund has elected to be treated, and intends to qualify each year, as a “regulated investment company” under Subchapter M of the Code. To qualify as such, the Fund must, among other things: (a) derive at least 90% of its gross income in each taxable year from dividends, interest, payments with respect to certain securities loans, gains from the sale or other disposition of stock, securities or foreign currencies, other income (including, but not limited to, gains from options, futures, or forward contracts) derived with respect to its business of investing in such stock, securities or currencies, and net income derived from interests in “qualified publicly traded partnerships” (i.e., partnerships (x) the interests in which are traded on an established securities market or are readily tradable on a secondary market or the substantial equivalent thereof, and (y) that derive less than 90% of their income from sources described in this subparagraph (a) other than qualified publicly traded partnerships); and (b) diversify its holdings so that, at the end of each quarter of the Fund’s taxable year, (i) at least 50% of the market value of the Fund’s assets consists of cash, securities of other regulated investment companies, U.S. government securities, and other securities, with such other securities limited, in respect of any one issuer, to an amount not greater than 5% of the value of the Fund’s assets and not more than 10% of the outstanding voting securities of such issuer and (ii) not more than 25% of the value of the Fund’s assets is invested, including through corporations in which the Fund owns a 20% or larger voting stock interest, (x) in the securities (other than U.S. government securities or securities of other regulated investment companies) of any one issuer, (y) in the securities (other than the securities of other regulated investment companies) of any two or more issuers that the Fund controls and that are treated as engaged in the same, similar, or related trades or businesses, or (z) in the securities of one or more “qualified publicly traded partnerships,” which generally include master limited partnerships.

 

81


In general, for purposes of the 90% gross income test described above, income derived from a partnership will be treated as qualifying income only to the extent such income is attributable to items of income of the partnership which would be qualifying income if realized directly by the Fund. However, 100% of the net income derived from an interest in a qualified publicly traded partnership will be treated as qualifying income. In general, qualified publicly traded partnerships will be treated as partnerships for U.S. federal income tax purposes because they meet a passive income requirement under the Code. In addition, although in general the passive loss rules of the Code do not apply to regulated investment companies, such rules do apply to a regulated investment company with respect to items attributable to interests in qualified publicly traded partnerships. The Fund’s investments in partnerships, if any, including in qualified publicly traded partnerships, may result in the Fund being subject to state, local, or foreign income, franchise, or withholding tax liabilities.

For purposes of the diversification test described above, the term “outstanding voting securities of such issuer” will include the equity securities of a qualified publicly traded partnership. Also, for purposes of the diversification test, the identification of the issuer (or, in some cases, issuers) of a particular Fund investment can depend on the terms and conditions of that investment. In some cases, identification of the issuer (or issuers) is uncertain under current law, and an adverse determination or future guidance by the IRS with respect to issuer identification for a particular type of investment may adversely affect the Fund’s ability to meet the diversification test.

As a regulated investment company, the Fund will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax on the portion of its taxable investment income and capital gains that it distributes, provided that it satisfies a minimum distribution requirement. To satisfy the minimum distribution requirement, the Fund must distribute at least the sum of (i) 90% of its “investment company taxable income” (i.e., generally, its taxable income other than the excess of its net long-term capital gain over its net short-term capital loss, plus or minus certain other adjustments, and calculated without regard to the deduction for dividends paid), and (ii) 90% of its net tax-exempt income for the taxable year. The Fund will be subject to income tax at the regular corporate tax rate on any taxable income or gains that it does not distribute.

If, for any taxable year, the Fund were to fail to qualify as a regulated investment company under the Code or were to fail to meet the distribution requirement, it would be taxed in the same manner as an ordinary corporation, and distributions would not be deductible by the Fund in computing its taxable income. In addition, in the event of a failure to qualify, the Fund’s distributions, including any distributions of net tax-exempt income and net long-term capital gains, would be taxable to shareholders as ordinary dividend income for U.S. federal income tax purposes to the extent of the Fund’s current and accumulated earnings and profits. However, such dividends would be eligible, subject to any generally applicable limitations, (i) to be treated as qualified dividend income in the case of shareholders taxed as individuals and (ii) for the dividends-received deduction in the case of corporate shareholders. Moreover, if the Fund were to fail to qualify as a regulated investment company in any year, it would be required to pay out its earnings and profits accumulated in that year in order to qualify again as a regulated investment company. If the Fund were to fail to meet the income, diversification, or distribution test described above, the Fund could in some cases cure such failure, including by paying a Fund-level tax, paying interest, making additional distributions, or disposing of certain assets. In particular, if in the first instance, the Fund does not satisfy the diversification test as of a particular quarter end, it will have up to 30 days after that quarter end to adjust its holdings in order to comply with the test retroactively. Portfolio transactions executed by the Fund in order to comply with the diversification test will increase the Fund’s portfolio turnover and trading costs and may increase the amount of taxes payable by shareholders to the extent any capital gains are realized as a result of such transactions. If the Fund were to fail to qualify as a regulated investment company for a period greater than two taxable years, the Fund would generally be required to recognize any net built-in gains with respect to certain of its assets upon a disposition of such assets within five years of qualifying as a regulated investment company in a subsequent year.

If the Fund were to fail to distribute in a calendar year at least the sum of (i) 98% of its ordinary income for that year and (ii) 98.2% of its capital gain net income (i.e., the excess of all gains from sales or exchanges of capital assets over the losses from such sales or exchanges) for the one-year period ending October 31 of that year (or November 30 or December 31 of that year if the Fund is permitted to elect and so elects) it would be subject to a 4% nondeductible excise tax. For this purpose, however, any ordinary income or capital gain net income that is retained by the Fund and subject to corporate income tax will be considered to have been distributed by year end. In addition, the minimum amounts that must be distributed in any year to avoid the excise tax will be increased or decreased to reflect any underdistribution or overdistribution, as the case may be, from the previous year. For purposes of the required excise tax distribution, a regulated investment company’s ordinary gains and losses from the sale, exchange or other taxable disposition of property that would otherwise be taken into account after October 31 of a

 

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calendar year (or November 30 of that year if the regulated investment company makes the election described above) generally are treated as arising on January 1 of the following calendar year; in the case of a fund with a December 31 year end that makes the election described above, no such gains or losses will be so treated. The Fund anticipates that it will pay such dividends and will make such distributions as are necessary to avoid the application of this excise tax, but there can be no assurance that it will be able to do so. In determining its net capital gain (i.e., net realized long-term capital gains in excess of net realized short-term capital losses, including any capital loss carryforwards), its taxable income, and its earnings and profits, a regulated investment company generally is permitted to elect to treat part or all of any post-October capital loss (defined as any net capital loss attributable to the portion of the taxable year after October 31, or if there is no such loss, the net long-term capital loss or net short-term capital loss attributable to such portion of the taxable year), or late-year ordinary loss (generally, the sum of its (i) net ordinary loss from the sale, exchange or other taxable disposition of property, attributable to the portion of the taxable year after October 31 and its (ii) other net ordinary loss attributable to the portion of the taxable year after December 31) as if incurred in the succeeding taxable year.

Tax Treatment of the Fund’s Investments

The Fund’s transactions in zero coupon securities, foreign currencies, forward contracts, options, and futures contracts (including options and futures contracts on foreign currencies), if any, will be subject to special provisions of the Code (including provisions relating to “hedging transactions” and “straddles”) that, among other things, may affect the character of gains and losses realized by the Fund (i.e., may affect whether gains or losses are ordinary or capital), accelerate recognition of income to the Fund, and defer Fund losses. These rules could therefore affect the character, amount, and timing of distributions to shareholders. These provisions also (a) will require the Fund to “mark to market” certain types of the positions in its portfolio (i.e., require the Fund to treat all unrealized gains and losses with respect to those positions as though they were realized at the end of each year) and (b) may cause the Fund to recognize income prior to or without receiving cash with which to pay dividends or make distributions in amounts necessary to satisfy the distribution requirements for avoiding income and excise taxes. In order to distribute this income and avoid a tax at the Fund level, the Fund might be required to sell portfolio securities that it might otherwise have continued to hold, potentially resulting in additional taxable gain or loss.

As a result of entering into swap contracts, if any, the Fund may make or receive periodic net payments. The Fund may also make or receive a payment when a swap is terminated prior to maturity through an assignment of the swap or other closing transaction. Periodic net payments will generally constitute ordinary income or deductions, while termination of a swap will generally result in capital gain or loss (which will be a long-term capital gain or loss if the Fund has been a party to the swap for more than one year). With respect to certain types of swaps, the Fund may be required to recognize currently income or loss with respect to future payments on such swaps or may elect under certain circumstances to mark such swaps to market annually for tax purposes as ordinary income or loss.

Any investments by the Fund in so-called “section 1256 contracts,” such as regulated futures contracts, most foreign currency forward contracts traded in the interbank market, and options on most stock indexes, are subject to special tax rules. Any section 1256 contracts held by the Fund at the end of its taxable year (and, for purposes of the 4% excise tax, on certain later dates as prescribed under the Code) are required to be marked to their market value, and any unrealized gain or loss on those positions will be included in the Fund’s income as if each position had been sold for its fair market value at the end of the taxable year. The resulting gain or loss will be combined with any gain or loss realized by the Fund from positions in section 1256 contracts closed during the taxable year. Provided such positions were held as capital assets and were neither part of a “hedging transaction” nor part of a “straddle,” 60% of the resulting net gain or loss will be treated as long-term capital gain or loss, and 40% of such net gain or loss will be treated as short-term capital gain or loss, regardless of the period of time the positions were actually held by the Fund.

In general, option premiums received by the Fund are not immediately included in the income of the Fund. Instead, the premiums are recognized when the option contract expires, the option is exercised by the holder, or the Fund transfers or otherwise terminates the option (e.g., through a closing transaction). If a call option written by the Fund is exercised and the Fund sells or delivers the underlying security, the Fund generally will recognize capital gain or loss equal to (a) sum of the strike price and the option premium received by the Fund minus (b) the Fund’s basis in the security. Such gain or loss generally will be short-term or long-term depending upon the holding period of the underlying security. If securities are purchased by the Fund pursuant to the exercise of a put option written by it, the Fund generally will subtract the premium received for purposes of computing its cost basis in the securities purchased. Gain or loss arising in respect of a termination of the Fund’s obligation under an option

 

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other than through the exercise of the option will be short-term gain or loss depending on whether the premium income received by the Fund is greater or less than the amount paid by the Fund (if any) in terminating the transaction. Thus, for example, if an option written by the Fund expires unexercised, the Fund generally will recognize short-term gain equal to the premium received.

In general, gain or loss on a short sale is recognized when the Fund closes the sale by delivering the borrowed property to the lender, not when the borrowed property is sold. Gain or loss from a short sale is generally considered as capital gain or loss to the extent that the property used to close the short sale constitutes a capital asset in the Fund’s hands. Except with respect to certain situations where the property used by the Fund to close a short sale has a long-term holding period on the date of the short sale, special rules generally treat the gains on short sales as short-term capital gains. These rules may also terminate the running of the holding period of “substantially identical property” held by the Fund. Moreover, a loss on a short sale will be treated as a long-term capital loss if, on the date of the short sale, “substantially identical property” has been held by the Fund for more than one year.

The Fund may purchase debt obligations with original issue discount (“OID”), market discount, or acquisition discount. Some debt obligations with a fixed maturity date of more than one year from the date of issuance (and all zero-coupon debt obligations with a fixed maturity date of more than one year from the date of issuance) will be treated as debt obligations that are issued with OID. Generally, the amount of the OID is treated as interest income and is included in taxable income (and is accordingly required to be distributed by the Fund) over the term of the debt security, even though payment of that amount is not received until a later time, usually when the debt security matures. Periodic adjustments for inflation in the principal value of inflation-indexed bonds also may be treated as OID that is includible in the Fund’s gross income on a current basis.

Some debt obligations with a fixed maturity date of more than one year from the date of issuance that are acquired in the secondary market may be treated as having “market discount.” Very generally, market discount is the excess of the stated redemption price of a debt obligation (or in the case of an obligation issued with OID, its “revised issue price”) over the purchase price of such obligation. Under the Code, (i) generally, any gain recognized on the disposition of, and any partial payment of principal on, a debt security having market discount is treated as ordinary income to the extent the gain, or principal payment, does not exceed the “accrued market discount” on such debt security, (ii) alternatively, the Fund may elect to accrue market discount currently, in which case the Fund will be required to include the accrued market discount in the Fund’s income (as ordinary income) and thus distribute it over the term of the debt security, even though payment of that amount is not received until a later time, upon partial of full repayment or disposition of the debt security, and (iii) the rate at which the market discount accrues, and thus is included in the Fund’s income, will depend upon which of the permitted accrual methods the Fund elects.

Some debt obligations with a fixed maturity date of one year or less from the date of issuance that are acquired by the Fund may be treated as having OID or, in certain cases, “acquisition discount” (very generally, the excess of the stated redemption price over the purchase price). The Fund will be required to include the OID or acquisition discount in income (as ordinary income) and thus distribute it over the term of the debt security, even though payment of that amount is not received until a later time, upon partial or full repayment or disposition of the debt security. The rate at which OID or acquisition discount accrues, and thus is included in the Fund’s income, will depend upon which of the permitted accrual methods the Fund elects.

Because the OID, market discount, or acquisition discount earned by the Fund in a taxable year may exceed the total amount of cash interest the Fund receives from the relevant debt obligations, the Fund may have to dispose of one or more of its investments, including at a time when it is not advantageous to do so, and use the proceeds thereof to make distributions in amounts necessary to satisfy the distribution requirements. The Fund may realize capital gains or losses from such dispositions, which would increase or decrease the Fund’s investment company taxable income and/or net capital gain.

In addition, payment-in-kind securities held by the Fund, if any, will give rise to income which is required to be distributed and is taxable even though the Fund receives no interest payment in cash on the security during the year.

Very generally, where the Fund purchases a bond at a price that exceeds the redemption price at maturity (i.e., a premium), the premium is amortizable over the remaining term of the bond. In the case of a taxable bond, if the Fund makes an election applicable to all such bonds it purchases, which election is irrevocable without consent of the IRS, the Fund reduces the current taxable income from the bond by the amortized premium and reduces its tax basis in the bond by the amount of such offset; upon the disposition or maturity of such bonds acquired on or after January 4, 2013, the Fund is permitted to deduct any remaining premium allocable to a prior period. In the case of a tax-exempt bond, tax rules require the Fund to reduce its tax basis by the amount of amortized premium.

 

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The Fund may invest in debt obligations that are in the lowest rating categories or are unrated, including debt obligations of issuers not currently paying interest or that are in default. Investments in debt obligations that are at risk of or in default present special tax issues for the Fund. Tax rules are not entirely clear about issues such as when the Fund may cease to accrue interest, OID or market discount, when and to what extent deductions may be taken for bad debts or worthless securities, and how payments received on obligations in default should be allocated between principal and income. These and other related issues will be addressed by the Fund when, as, and if it invests in such securities, in order to seek to ensure that it distributes sufficient income to preserve its eligibility for treatment as a regulated investment company and does not become subject to U.S. federal income or excise tax.

A portion of the interest paid or accrued on high yield obligations may not (and interest paid on debt obligations, if any, that are considered for tax purposes to be payable in the equity of the issuer or a related party will not) be deductible to the issuer. If a portion of the interest paid or accrued on certain high yield discount obligations is not deductible by the issuer, that portion will be treated as a dividend for purposes of the corporate dividends-received deduction. In such cases, if the issuer of the high yield discount obligations is a domestic corporation, dividend payments by the Fund may be eligible for the dividends-received deduction to the extent of the deemed dividend portion of such accrued interest.

The Fund may be required to treat amounts as taxable income or gain, subject to the distribution requirements referred to above, even though no corresponding amounts of cash are received concurrently, as a result of (1) mark-to-market rules, constructive sale rules or rules applicable to passive foreign investment companies (“PFICs”), to partnerships or trusts in which the Fund invests or to certain options, futures, or forward contracts, or “appreciated financial positions,” (2) the inability to obtain cash distributions or other amounts due to currency controls or restrictions on repatriation imposed by a foreign country with respect to the Fund’s investments (including through depositary receipts) in issuers in such country, or (3) tax rules applicable to debt obligations acquired with OID, including zero-coupon or deferred payment bonds and pay-in-kind debt obligations, or to market discount if the Fund elects to accrue such market discount currently. In order to distribute this income and avoid a tax on the Fund, the Fund might be required to liquidate portfolio securities that it might otherwise have continued to hold, potentially resulting in additional taxable gain or loss. The Fund might also meet the distribution requirements by borrowing the necessary cash, thereby incurring interest expenses.

Foreign Investments

Dividends, interest or other income (including, in some cases, capital gains) received by the Fund from investments in foreign securities may be subject to withholding and other taxes imposed by foreign countries. Even if the Fund is entitled to seek a refund in respect of such taxes, it may choose not to. Tax conventions between certain countries and the United States may reduce or eliminate such taxes in some cases. If more than 50% of the value of the Fund’s assets at the close of any taxable year consists of stock or securities of foreign corporations, which for this purpose may include obligations of foreign governmental issuers, the Fund may elect, for U.S. federal income tax purposes, to treat foreign income taxes paid by the Fund, if any, as paid by its shareholders. For any year that the Fund is eligible for and makes such an election, each shareholder of the Fund will be required to include in income an amount equal to his or her allocable share of qualified foreign income taxes paid by the Fund, and shareholders will be entitled, subject to certain holding period requirements and other limitations, to credit their portions of these amounts against their United States federal income tax due, if any, or to deduct their portions from their United States taxable income, if any. No deductions for foreign taxes paid by the Fund may be claimed, however, by non-corporate shareholders who do not itemize deductions and no deductions for foreign taxes will be permitted to individuals in computing their alternative minimum tax liability. Even if the Fund qualifies to make this election, it may choose not to do so; in that case, foreign taxes that the Fund pays will nonetheless reduce the Fund’s taxable income. Foreign taxes paid by the Fund may reduce the return from the Fund’s investments.

Under certain circumstances, if the Fund receives a refund of foreign taxes paid in respect of a prior year, the value of Fund shares could be affected or any foreign tax credits or deductions passed through to shareholders in respect of the Fund’s foreign taxes for the current year could be reduced.

Under Section 988 of the Code, gains or losses attributable to fluctuations in exchange rates between the time the Fund accrues income or receivables or expenses or other liabilities denominated in a foreign currency and the time the Fund actually collects such income or pays such liabilities are generally treated as ordinary income or ordinary loss. Similarly, gains or losses on foreign currency, foreign currency forward contracts, certain foreign currency options or futures contracts and the disposition of debt securities denominated in foreign currency, to the extent attributable to fluctuations in exchange rates

 

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between the acquisition and disposition dates, are also treated as ordinary income or loss unless the Fund were to elect otherwise.

Passive Foreign Investment Companies. If the Fund purchases equity interests (including certain interests treated as equity interests) in foreign entities treated as “passive foreign investment companies” (“PFICs”) for U.S. federal income tax purposes, and does not timely make certain elections, it may be subject to U.S. federal income tax on a portion of any “excess distribution” or gain from the disposition of such shares even if such income is distributed as a taxable dividend by the Fund to its shareholders. Additional charges in the nature of interest may be imposed on the Fund in respect of deferred taxes arising from such distributions or gains.

In general, a PFIC is any foreign corporation in which (i) 75% or more of the gross income for the taxable year is passive income, or (ii) the average percentage of the assets (generally by value, but by adjusted tax basis in certain cases) that produce, or are held for the production of, passive income is at least 50%. Generally, passive income for this purpose means dividends, interest (including income equivalent to interest), royalties, rents, annuities, the excess of gains over losses from certain property transactions and commodities transactions, income from certain notional principal contracts, and foreign currency gains. Passive income for this purpose does not include certain types of passive income excepted by the Code and other guidance.

If the Fund were to invest in a PFIC and timely elect to treat the PFIC as a “qualified electing fund” under the Code for the first year of its holding period in the PFIC stock, in lieu of the foregoing requirements, the Fund would generally be required to include in income each year a portion of the ordinary earnings and net capital gains of the qualified electing fund, even if not distributed to the Fund, and such amounts would be subject to the 90% and excise tax distribution requirements described above. In order to distribute this income and avoid a tax at the Fund level, the Fund might be required to liquidate portfolio securities that it might otherwise have continued to hold, potentially resulting in additional taxable gain or loss. In order to make the “qualified electing fund” election, the Fund would be required to obtain certain annual information from the PFICs in which it invests, which may be difficult or impossible to obtain. Dividends paid by PFICs will not be eligible to be treated as “qualified dividend income.”

If the Fund were to invest in a PFIC and make a mark-to-market election, the Fund would be treated as if it had sold and repurchased its stock in that PFIC at the end of each year. In such case, the Fund would report any such gains as ordinary income and would deduct any such losses as ordinary losses to the extent of previously recognized gains. Such an election must be made separately for each PFIC owned by the Fund and, once made, would be effective for all subsequent taxable years of the Fund, unless revoked with the consent of the IRS. By making the election, the Fund could potentially ameliorate the adverse tax consequences with respect to its ownership of shares in a PFIC, but in any particular year might be required to recognize income in excess of the distributions it receives from PFICs and its proceeds from dispositions of PFIC stock. The Fund might have to distribute such excess income and gain to satisfy the 90% distribution requirement and to avoid imposition of the 4% excise tax. In order to distribute this income and avoid a tax at the Fund level, the Fund might be required to liquidate portfolio securities that it might otherwise have continued to hold, potentially resulting in additional taxable gain or loss.

Investments in Municipal or Other Tax-Exempt Funds (Select Tax Free Reserves)

The Fund intends to satisfy conditions that will enable it to pay “exempt-interest dividends” to its shareholders. Exempt-interest dividends are dividends attributable to interest income received from municipal obligations and are generally not subject to regular U.S. federal income taxes, although they may be considered taxable for certain state and local income tax purposes and may be subject to the federal alternative minimum tax. Repurchase agreements on municipal obligations generally give rise to taxable interest income, which will not be included in exempt-interest dividends when distributed by the Fund.

Interest on indebtedness incurred by shareholders, directly or indirectly, to purchase or carry shares is not deductible for U.S. federal income tax purposes in proportion to the percentage that the Fund’s distributions of exempt-interest dividends bears to all of the Fund’s distributions, excluding capital gain dividends. Investors receiving social security or railroad retirement benefits should be aware that exempt-interest dividends received from the Fund may, under certain circumstances, cause a portion of such benefits to be subject to U.S. federal income tax. Furthermore, a portion of any exempt-interest dividend paid by the Fund that represents income derived from certain revenue or “private activity bonds” held by the Fund may not retain its federal tax-exempt status in the hands of a shareholder who is a “substantial user” of a facility financed by such bonds or a “related person” thereof. Moreover, some or all of the exempt-interest dividends distributed by the Fund may be a specific preference item, or a component of an adjustment item, for purposes of the federal alternative minimum tax. Shareholders

 

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should consult their own tax professionals to determine whether they are (a) “substantial users” with respect to a facility or “related” to such users within the meaning of the Code or (b) subject to the federal alternative minimum tax or the federal “excess net passive income” tax. Corporate shareholders are not subject to the federal alternative minimum tax.

The treatment under state and local tax law of Fund dividends may differ from the U.S. federal income tax treatment of such dividends under the Code.

Capital Loss Carryforwards

As of August 31, 2022, as set forth below, the Fund had capital losses that may be carried forward indefinitely to offset future taxable capital gains. These capital losses have been deferred as either short-term or long-term losses and will be deemed to occur on the first day of the next taxable year in the same character as they were originally deferred.

 

Fund

   Amount of Capital
Loss Carryforward ($)

Government Reserves

   699,131

Institutional Government Reserves

   5,391,990

Institutional Liquid Reserves

   289,326
Institutional U.S. Treasury Obligations Money Market Fund    47

Institutional U.S. Treasury Reserves

   1,281,662

Premier Institutional Government Reserves

   394,679

Premier Institutional Liquid Reserves

   42,962

Premier Institutional U.S. Treasury Reserves

   64,840

Select Tax Free Reserves

   18,458

Taxation of U.S. Shareholders

Dividends and Distributions. Dividends and other distributions by the Fund are generally treated under the Code as received by the shareholders at the time the dividend or distribution is made. However, if any dividend or distribution is declared by the Fund in October, November, or December of any calendar year and payable to shareholders of record on a specified date in such a month but is actually paid during the following January, such dividend or distribution will be deemed to have been received by each shareholder on December 31 of the year in which the dividend was declared.

The Fund intends to distribute annually substantially all of its investment company taxable income (determined without regard to the dividends-paid deduction), and any net capital gain. However, if the Fund retains for investment an amount equal to all or a portion of its net capital gain, it will be subject to a corporate tax on the amount retained. In that event, the Fund may designate such retained amounts as undistributed capital gains in a notice to its shareholders who (a) will be required to include in income for U.S. federal income tax purposes, as long-term capital gains, their proportionate shares of the undistributed amount, (b) will be entitled to credit their proportionate shares of the income tax paid by the Fund on the undistributed amount against their U.S. federal income tax liabilities, if any, and to claim refunds to the extent their credits exceed their liabilities, if any, and (c) will be entitled to increase their tax basis, for U.S. federal income tax purposes, in their shares by an amount equal to their share of the excess of the amount of undistributed net capital gain included in their income over the income paid by the Fund on the undistributed amount. Organizations or persons not subject to U.S. federal income tax on such capital gains will be entitled to a refund of their pro rata share of such taxes paid by the Fund upon timely filing appropriate returns or claims for refund with the IRS.

 

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Exempt-interest dividends paid by the Fund are exempt from regular U.S. federal income taxes. Other distributions from the Fund’s net investment income and of net realized short-term capital gains, whether paid in cash or in shares, are taxable to a U.S. shareholder as ordinary income or, if certain conditions are met, as “qualified dividend income,” taxable to individual and certain other non-corporate shareholders at the rates applicable to long-term capital gain. Distributions of net capital gain, if any, that the Fund reports as capital gain dividends are taxable as long-term capital gains, whether paid in cash or in shares, and regardless of how long a shareholder has held shares of the Fund. The IRS and the Department of the Treasury have issued regulations that impose special reporting of capital gain dividends by the Fund in order to allow capital gain dividends to be taxable at reduced rates in the hands of certain noncorporate taxpayers who hold shares of the Fund through entities treated as partnerships.

In general, dividends may be reported by the Fund as qualified dividend income if they are attributable to qualified dividend income received by the Fund. Qualified dividend income generally means dividend income received from the Fund’s investments in common and preferred stock of U.S. corporations and stock of certain qualified foreign corporations, provided that certain holding period and other requirements are met by both the Fund and the shareholders. If 95% or more of the Fund’s gross income (calculated without taking into account net capital gain derived from sales or other dispositions of stock or securities) consists of qualified dividend income, the Fund may report all distributions of such income as qualified dividend income.

A foreign corporation is treated as a qualified foreign corporation for this purpose if it is incorporated in a possession of the United States or it is eligible for the benefits of certain income tax treaties with the United States and meets certain additional requirements. Certain foreign corporations that are not otherwise qualified foreign corporations will be treated as qualified foreign corporations with respect to dividends paid by them if the stock with respect to which the dividends are paid is readily tradable on an established securities market in the United States. PFICs are not qualified foreign corporations for this purpose.

A dividend that is attributable to qualified dividend income of the Fund that is paid by the Fund to a shareholder will not be taxable as qualified dividend income to such shareholder (1) if the dividend is received with respect to any share of the Fund held for fewer than 61 days during the 121-day period beginning on the date which is 60 days before the date on which such share became ex-dividend with respect to such dividend, (2) to the extent that the shareholder is under an obligation (whether pursuant to a short sale or otherwise) to make related payments with respect to positions in substantially similar or related property, or (3) if the shareholder elects to have the dividend treated as investment income for purposes of the limitation on deductibility of investment interest. The “ex-dividend” date is the date on which the owner of the share at the commencement of such date is entitled to receive the next issued dividend payment for such share even if the share is sold by the owner on that date or thereafter.

Certain dividends received by the Fund from U.S. corporations (generally, dividends received by the Fund in respect of any share of stock (1) with a tax holding period of at least 46 days during the 91-day period beginning on the date that is 45 days before the date on which the stock becomes ex-dividend as to that dividend and (2) that is held in an unleveraged position) and distributed and appropriately so reported by the Fund may be eligible for the dividends-received deduction generally available to corporations under the Code. Certain preferred stock must have a holding period of at least 91 days during the 181-day period beginning on the date that is 90 days before the date on which the stock becomes ex-dividend as to that dividend in order to be eligible. In order to qualify for the deduction, corporate shareholders must meet the minimum holding period requirement stated above with respect to their Fund shares, taking into account any holding period reductions from certain hedging or other transactions or positions that diminish their risk of loss with respect to their Fund shares, and, if they borrow to acquire or otherwise incur debt attributable to Fund shares, they may be denied a portion of the dividends-received deduction with respect to those shares. Any corporate shareholder should consult its tax professional regarding the possibility that its tax basis in its shares may be reduced, for U.S. federal income tax purposes, by reason of “extraordinary dividends” received with respect to the shares and, to the extent such basis would be reduced below zero, current recognition of income may be required.

The Fund does not anticipate that any of its dividends paid will qualify for the dividends-received deduction or be treated as qualified dividend income. The Fund expects that it generally will not earn or distribute any long-term capital gains.

Under Section 163(j) of the Code, a taxpayer’s business interest expense is generally deductible to the extent of the taxpayer’s business interest income plus certain other amounts. If the Fund earns business interest income, it may report a portion of its dividends as “Section 163(j) interest dividends,” which its shareholders may be able to treat as business interest income for purposes of Section 163(j) of the Code. The Fund’s “Section 163(j) interest dividend” for a tax year will be limited to

 

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the excess of its business interest income over the sum of its business interest expense and other deductions properly allocable to its business interest income. In general, the Fund’s shareholders may treat a distribution reported as a Section 163(j) interest dividend as interest income only to the extent the distribution exceeds the sum of the portions of the distribution reported as other types of tax-favored income. To be eligible to treat a Section 163(j) interest dividend as interest income, a shareholder may need to meet certain holding period requirements in respect of the Fund shares and must not have hedged its position in the Fund shares in certain ways.

The Code generally imposes a 3.8% Medicare contribution tax on the net investment income of U.S. individuals to the extent their income exceeds certain threshold amounts. The 3.8% tax also applies to all or a portion of the undistributed net investment income of certain shareholders that are estates and trusts. For these purposes, “net investment income” generally includes, among other things, (i) distributions paid by the Fund of net investment income (excluding exempt-interest dividends) and capital gains as described above, and (ii) any net gain from the sale, exchange or other taxable disposition of Fund shares.

Certain tax-exempt educational institutions will be subject to a 1.4% tax on net investment income. For these purposes, certain dividends (excluding exempt-interest dividends) and capital gain distributions, and certain gains from the disposition of Fund shares (among other categories of income), are generally taken into account in computing a shareholder’s net investment income.

Distributions in excess of the Fund’s current and accumulated earnings and profits will, as to each shareholder, be treated as a tax-free return of capital to the extent of the shareholder’s basis in his or her shares of the Fund, and as a capital gain thereafter (if the shareholder holds his or her shares of the Fund as capital assets). One or more of the Fund’s distributions during the year may include such a return of capital distribution. Each shareholder who receives distributions in the form of additional shares will be treated for U.S. federal income tax purposes as if receiving a distribution in an amount equal to the amount of money that the shareholder would have received if he or she had instead elected to receive cash distributions. The shareholder’s aggregate tax basis in shares of the Fund will be increased by such amount.

Investors considering buying shares just prior to a capital gain distribution should be aware that, although the price of shares purchased at that time may reflect the amount of the forthcoming distribution, such distribution may nevertheless be taxable to them.

If Fund shares are held through a qualified retirement plan entitled to tax-advantaged treatment for federal income tax purposes, distributions will generally not be taxable currently. Special tax rules apply to such retirement plans. You should consult your tax professional regarding the tax treatment of distributions (which may include amounts attributable to Fund distributions) which may be taxable when distributed from the retirement plan.

Sale, Exchange, or Redemption of Shares. Upon the sale or exchange of his or her shares, a shareholder will generally recognize a taxable gain or loss equal to the difference between the amount realized and his or her basis in those shares. A redemption of shares will be treated as a sale for this purpose. However, for a Fund that attempts to maintain a stable NAV of $1.00 per share, a shareholder will generally not have any gain or loss on the sale or exchange so long as such Fund maintains such stable net asset value of $1.00 per share and does not impose a liquidity fee.

There is uncertainty with respect to the tax treatment of liquidity fees received by the Fund. The tax treatment of liquidity fees may be the subject of future guidance issued by the IRS. If a Fund maintains a stable net asset value of $1.00 per share, the imposition of a liquidity fee on a shareholder’s redemption of shares is generally expected to cause the shareholder to recognize a loss. If a Fund does not maintain a stable net asset value of $1.00 per share, the imposition of a liquidity fee on a redemption of Fund shares could cause the shareholder to recognize a loss or could decrease the gain or increase the loss the shareholder would otherwise recognize. Although there is no definitive guidance, any liquidity fees received by the Fund may result in distributions or gains that would be taxable to the Fund’s shareholders. Any gain or loss recognized on a redemption of Fund shares will be treated as capital gain or loss if the shares are capital assets in the shareholder’s hands.

For shareholders not electing the “NAV method” described below, any capital gain or loss will generally be long-term capital gain or loss if the shareholder held such shares for more than one year and short-term capital gain or loss if the shareholder held such shares for one year or less. For shareholders in a fund that attempts to maintain a stable NAV of $1.00 per share who have not elected the NAV method, any loss realized on a sale or exchange will be disallowed to the extent the shares are replaced, including replacement through the reinvesting of dividends and capital gains distributions in the fund, within a

 

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61-day period beginning 30 days before and ending 30 days after the disposition of the shares. In such a case, the basis of the shares acquired will be increased to reflect the disallowed loss.

A shareholder may elect the “NAV method” for computing gains and losses from redemptions and exchanges. Under the NAV method, rather than computing gain or loss separately for each taxable disposition of Fund shares, an electing shareholder determines gain or loss on an aggregate basis for each “computation period” (which could be a taxable year or certain shorter periods within a taxable year). Gain or loss under the NAV method is based on the change in the aggregate value of the electing shareholder’s shares during the applicable period (or, for the first period in which the NAV method applies, the difference between the aggregate value at the end of the period and the adjusted tax basis at the beginning of the period), reduced by the shareholder’s purchases of Fund shares (including purchases through reinvestment of dividends) and increased by the proceeds of redemptions of Fund shares during that period. If a shareholder holds shares as a capital asset, any resulting net gain or loss is treated as short-term capital gain or loss. The NAV method election is generally made by a shareholder on a fund-by-fund basis. Additionally, if a shareholder holds the Fund’s shares in more than one account, the shareholder is required to treat each account as a separate fund for purposes of these rules. For shares in a fund that maintains a stable net asset value of $1.00 per share and that does not impose a liquidity fee, it is possible that there will not be a benefit to the shareholder to electing the NAV method. Shareholders should consult their tax advisers about the NAV method.

Any loss realized by a shareholder on the sale of Fund shares held by the shareholder for six months or less will be treated for U.S. federal income tax purposes as a long-term capital loss to the extent of any distributions or deemed distributions of long-term capital gains received by the shareholder (including amounts credited to the shareholder as undistributed capital gains) with respect to such shares.

If a shareholder recognizes a loss with respect to the Fund’s shares of $2 million or more for an individual shareholder or $10 million or more for a corporate shareholder (or certain greater amounts over a combination of years), the shareholder must file with the IRS a disclosure statement on IRS Form 8886. Direct shareholders of portfolio securities are in many cases excepted from this reporting requirement, but under current guidance, shareholders of a regulated investment company are not excepted. The fact that a loss is so reportable does not affect the legal determination of whether the taxpayer’s treatment of the loss is proper.

If a shareholder’s shares are redeemed to pay a fee because the shareholder’s account balance is less than a certain threshold, the redemption will be treated as a taxable sale or exchange of shares, as described above. Such a fee generally will not be deductible by a shareholder that is an individual for any taxable year beginning before January 1, 2026, and, for other taxable years, the deductibility of such a fee by a shareholder that is an individual may be subject to generally applicable limitations on miscellaneous itemized deductions.

Backup Withholding. The Fund may be required in certain circumstances to apply backup withholding on dividends (including exempt-interest dividends) and other distributions payable to non-corporate shareholders who fail to provide the Fund with their correct taxpayer identification numbers or to make required certifications, or who have been notified by the IRS that they are subject to backup withholding. Certain shareholders are exempt from backup withholding. Backup withholding is not an additional tax and any amount withheld may be credited against a shareholder’s U.S. federal income tax liability.

Notices. Shareholders will receive, if appropriate, various written notices after the close of the Fund’s taxable year regarding the U.S. federal income tax status of certain dividends, distributions and redemption proceeds that were paid (or that are treated as having been paid) by the Fund during the preceding taxable year. In certain cases, the Fund may be required to amend the tax information reported to you with respect to a particular year. In this event, you may be required to file amended U.S. federal income or other tax returns with respect to such amended information and, if applicable, to pay additional taxes (including potentially interest and penalties) or to seek a tax refund and may incur other related costs.

Other Taxes

Dividends, distributions and redemption proceeds may also be subject to additional state, local and foreign taxes depending on each shareholder’s particular situation. Generally, shareholders will have to pay state or local taxes on Fund dividends and other distributions, although distributions derived from interest on U.S. government obligations (but not distributions of gain from the sale of such obligations) may be exempt from certain state and local taxes.

 

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Taxation of Non-U.S. Shareholders

Ordinary dividends and certain other payments made by the Fund to shareholders that are not “United States persons” within the meaning of the Code (“non-U.S. shareholders”) are generally subject to withholding tax at a 30% rate (or a reduced rate under an applicable treaty). In order to obtain a reduced rate of withholding under a treaty, a non-U.S. shareholder will be required to provide an IRS Form W-8BEN or similar form certifying its entitlement to benefits under the treaty. A non-U.S. shareholder who fails to provide an IRS Form W-8BEN or other applicable form may be subject to backup withholding at the appropriate rate. Backup withholding will not be applied to payments that have already been subject to the 30% withholding tax.

The 30% withholding tax described in the preceding paragraph generally will not apply to redemption proceeds or to distributions to non-U.S. shareholders that are properly reported by the Fund as exempt interest dividends, capital gain dividends, short-term capital gain dividends, and interest-related dividends, each as defined and subject to certain conditions described below.

In general, (1) “short-term capital gain dividends” are distributions of net short-term capital gains in excess of net long-term capital losses and (2) “interest-related dividends” are distributions derived from U.S.-source interest income of types similar to those not subject to U.S. federal income tax if earned directly by an individual non-U.S. shareholder, in each case to the extent such distributions are properly reported as such by the Fund in a written notice to shareholders. The exceptions to withholding for capital gain dividends and short-term capital gain dividends do not apply to (A) distributions to an individual non-U.S. shareholder who is present in the United States for a period or periods aggregating 183 days or more during the year of the distribution and (B) distributions attributable to gain that is treated as effectively connected with the conduct by the non-U.S. shareholder of a trade or business within the United States, under special rules regarding the disposition of “United States real property interests” (“USRPIs”) as described below. The exception to withholding for interest-related dividends does not apply to distributions to a non-U.S. shareholder (A) that has not provided a satisfactory statement that the beneficial owner is not a U.S. person, (B) to the extent that the dividend is attributable to certain interest on an obligation if the non-U.S. shareholder is the issuer or is a 10% shareholder of the issuer, (C) that is within certain foreign countries that have inadequate information exchange with the United States, or (D) to the extent the dividend is attributable to interest paid by a person that is a related person of the non-U.S. shareholder and the non-U.S. shareholder is a controlled foreign corporation.

If income from the Fund is effectively connected with a trade or business conducted within the United States by a non-U.S. shareholder, the non-U.S. shareholder will in general be subject to U.S. federal income tax on the income at the rates