ck0001683471-20210831

PROSPECTUS
Overlay Shares Large Cap Equity ETF (OVL)
Overlay Shares Small Cap Equity ETF (OVS)
Overlay Shares Foreign Equity ETF (OVF)
Overlay Shares Hedged Large Cap Equity ETF (OVLH)
Overlay Shares Core Bond ETF (OVB)
Overlay Shares Short Term Bond ETF (OVT)
Overlay Shares Municipal Bond ETF (OVM)

Listed on NYSE Arca, Inc.

December 31, 2021















The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) has not approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the accuracy or adequacy of this Prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.



TABLE OF CONTENTS
Overlay Shares Hedged Large Cap Equity ETF
Overlay Shares Short Term Bond ETF
Investments by Registered Investment Companies



OVERLAY SHARES LARGE CAP EQUITY ETF
Investment Objective
The Overlay Shares Large Cap Equity ETF (the “Fund” or “Large Cap ETF”) seeks total return.
Fees and Expenses of the Fund
This table describes the fees and expenses that you may pay if you buy, hold, and sell shares of the Fund (“Shares”). You may pay other fees, such as brokerage commissions and other fees to financial intermediaries, which are not reflected in the table and Example below.
Shareholder Fees (fees paid directly from your investment)
None
Annual Fund Operating Expenses (expenses that you pay each year as a percentage of the value of your investment)
Management Fees 0.75%
Distribution and/or Service (12b-1) Fees 0.00%
Other Expenses 0.02%
Acquired Fund Fees and Expenses*
0.03%
Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses 0.80%
* Acquired Fund Fees and Expenses (“AFFE”) are the indirect costs of investing in other investment companies. Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses do not correlate to the expense ratios in the Fund’s Financial Highlights because the Financial Highlights include only the direct operating expenses incurred by the Fund and exclude AFFE.
Example
This Example is intended to help you compare the cost of investing in the Fund with the cost of investing in other funds. The Example assumes that you invest $10,000 in the Fund for the time periods indicated and then redeem all of your Shares at the end of those periods. The Example also assumes that your investment has a 5% return each year and that the Fund’s operating expenses remain the same. The Example does not take into account brokerage commissions that you may pay on your purchases and sales of Shares. Although your actual costs may be higher or lower, based on these assumptions your costs would be:
1 Year: $82 3 Years: $255 5 Years: $444 10 Years: $990
Portfolio Turnover
The Fund pays transaction costs, such as commissions, when it buys and sells securities (or “turns over” its portfolio). A higher portfolio turnover rate may indicate higher transaction costs and may result in higher taxes when Shares are held in a taxable account. These costs, which are not reflected in the Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses or in the Example, affect the Fund’s performance. For the fiscal year ended August 31, 2021, the Fund’s portfolio turnover rate was 6% of the average value of its portfolio.
Principal Investment Strategies
The Fund is an actively-managed exchange-traded fund (“ETF”) that seeks to achieve its objective by (i) investing in one or more other ETFs that seek to obtain exposure to the performance of U.S. large cap equity securities or directly in the securities held by such ETFs (collectively, the “Underlying Investments”) and (ii) selling and purchasing listed short-term put options to generate income to the Fund (the “Overlay Strategy”).
The Fund’s Overlay Strategy seeks to generate income for the Fund by utilizing a “put spread” consisting of the sale of exchange-listed short-term put options (“Short Puts”) with a notional value (strike price times the value of the shares) up to 100% of the Fund’s net assets and the purchase of an identical number of short-term put options (“Long Puts”) with a lower strike price. The Fund seeks to generate income from the sale and purchase of put options with a lower strike price to hedge against a decline in the options’ underlying asset, the S&P 500 Index, which consists of approximately 500 leading U.S.-listed companies representing approximately 80% of the U.S. equity market capitalization.
A put option gives the purchaser of the option, in exchange for the premium paid, the right to sell the underlying asset at a specified price (“strike price”) at a specified date (“expiration date”). In contrast, the seller of a put option, in exchange for the premium received, is obligated to sell the underlying asset at the strike price on the expiration date. In the event the underlying asset declines in value, the value of a put option will generally increase. In the event the underlying asset appreciates in value, the value of a put option will generally decrease. The options sold by the Fund are expected to have an expiration date within one to two weeks of their purchase date. The strike price of the Short Puts will typically be less than the value of the S&P 500 Index at the time such options are sold, and the strike price of the Long Puts will be less than the strike price of the Short Puts. The difference between such strike prices
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is based on Liquid Strategies, LLC’s (the “Adviser”) judgment as to the level of expected volatility in the market prior to the options’ expiration. Because the Long Puts will have a lower strike price than the Short Puts, the Long Puts are not expected to completely protect the Fund from a decline in the value of the S&P 500 Index.
The Fund’s Overlay Strategy is designed to seek to generate a positive return in rising and flat equity markets, and may generate a positive return in equity markets that are modestly declining, assuming the net premium collected from the options sold and purchased exceeds the net cost to close the positions. In an effort to limit losses in declining equity markets, the Fund may reduce its sale of Short Puts and/or purchase of Long Puts with strike prices closer to the strike prices of the Short Puts.
The Fund focuses primarily on equity index options which offer both European settlement (i.e., options can only be exercised at their expiration date) and cash settlement (i.e., options carry an obligation by their seller to pay the difference between their strike price and their settlement value instead of allowing the seller to take delivery of securities).
The potential returns of the Fund are generally limited to the amount of cash (premiums) the Fund receives when selling Short Puts, net of any cash (premiums) paid by the Fund to purchase Long Puts, plus the returns of the Underlying Investments in which the Fund invests. The Fund’s sale and purchase of put options may result in the generation of positive returns for the Fund; however, the loss potential if the strategy is not effective may be greater than the profit potential. The Fund may lose significantly more than the premiums it receives in highly volatile market conditions.
The Fund will segregate cash and/or other liquid assets in an amount equal to the Fund’s obligations under each Short Put so that each option sold will be secured, or “covered.” The Adviser intends to limit the use of leverage by ensuring that the Fund’s potential obligations from the Short Puts will not exceed the Fund’s total net assets.
The Adviser employs a disciplined portfolio construction process that relies on guidelines to govern capital allocations based on a quantitative methodology designed by the Adviser to measure the perceived risk of the broad U.S. equity market. In making this determination, the Adviser considers various factors including but not limited to the overall volatility (rate of change) in the markets. The Adviser bases allocation decisions on a combination of quantitative risk metrics and a qualitative assessment of potential risk/reward scenarios, with the ultimate goals of mitigating the effects of volatility in the Fund’s portfolio and maintaining adequate portfolio diversification while seeking to achieve the Fund’s targeted return. The Adviser evaluates the metrics associated with the valuation of options, including volatility, time to expiration and the relationship of the exercise price to the prevailing market price of the reference asset. There can be no guarantee that the Adviser will be successful in implementing the Fund’s strategy. During market conditions in which market volatility rises, the price of options could rise, which, in turn, could have a detrimental effect on the Fund’s performance and achieving its targeted return.
Principal Investment Risks
The principal risks of investing in the Fund are summarized below. The principal risks are presented in alphabetical order to facilitate finding particular risks and comparing them with those of other funds. Each risk summarized below is considered a “principal risk” of investing in the Fund, regardless of the order in which it appears. As with any investment, there is a risk that you could lose all or a portion of your investment in the Fund. Some or all of these risks may adversely affect the Fund’s net asset value (“NAV”), trading price, yield, total return and/or ability to meet its objective. The following risks could affect the value of your investment in the Fund:
Derivatives Securities Risk. The Fund invests in options that derive their performance from the performance of the S&P 500 Index. Derivatives, such as the options in which the Fund invests, can be volatile and involve various types and degrees of risks, depending upon the characteristics of a particular derivative. Derivatives may entail investment exposures that are greater than their cost would suggest, meaning that a small investment in a derivative could have a substantial impact on the performance of the Fund. The Fund could experience a loss if its derivatives do not perform as anticipated, or are not correlated with the performance of their underlying asset or if the Fund is unable to purchase or liquidate a position because of an illiquid secondary market. The market for many derivatives is, or suddenly can become, illiquid. Changes in liquidity may result in significant, rapid, and unpredictable changes in the prices for derivatives.
Equity Market Risk. The trading prices of equity securities and other instruments fluctuate in response to a variety of factors. The Fund’s NAV and market price may fluctuate significantly in response to these and other factors. As a result, an investor could lose money over short or long periods of time.
ETF Risks. The Fund is an ETF and invests in other ETFs, and, as a result of this structure, is exposed directly or indirectly to the following risks:
Authorized Participants, Market Makers, and Liquidity Providers Concentration Risk. The Fund has a limited number of financial institutions that may act as Authorized Participants (“APs”). In addition, there may be a limited number of market makers and/or liquidity providers in the marketplace. To the extent either of the following events occur, Shares may trade at a material discount to NAV and possibly face delisting: (i) APs exit the business or otherwise become unable to process creation and/or redemption orders and no other APs step forward to perform these services, or (ii) market makers and/or
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liquidity providers exit the business or significantly reduce their business activities and no other entities step forward to perform their functions.
Cash Redemption Risk. The Fund’s investment strategy may require it to redeem Shares for cash or to otherwise include cash as part of its redemption proceeds. For example, the Fund may not be able to redeem in-kind certain securities held by the Fund (e.g., short positions and derivative instruments). In such a case, the Fund may be required to sell or unwind portfolio investments to obtain the cash needed to distribute redemption proceeds. This may cause the Fund to recognize a capital gain that it might not have recognized if it had made a redemption in-kind. As a result, the Fund may pay out higher annual capital gain distributions than if the in-kind redemption process was used.
Costs of Buying or Selling Shares. Due to the costs of buying or selling Shares, including brokerage commissions imposed by brokers and bid/ask spreads, frequent trading of Shares may significantly reduce investment results and an investment in Shares may not be advisable for investors who anticipate regularly making small investments.
Shares May Trade at Prices Other Than NAV. As with all ETFs, Shares may be bought and sold in the secondary market at market prices. Although it is expected that the market price of Shares will approximate the Fund’s NAV, there may be times when the market price of Shares is more than the NAV intra-day (premium) or less than the NAV intra-day (discount) due to supply and demand of Shares or during periods of market volatility. This risk is heightened in times of market volatility, periods of steep market declines, and periods when there is limited trading activity for Shares in the secondary market, in which case such premiums or discounts may be significant.
Trading. Although Shares are listed for trading on the NYSE Arca, Inc. (the “Exchange”) and may be traded on U.S. exchanges other than the Exchange, there can be no assurance that Shares will trade with any volume, or at all, on any stock exchange. In stressed market conditions, the liquidity of Shares may begin to mirror the liquidity of the Fund’s underlying portfolio holdings, which can be significantly less liquid than Shares.
Implied Volatility Risk. When the Fund sells an option, it gains the amount of the premium it receives, but also incurs a liability representing the value of the option it has sold until the option is either exercised and finishes “in the money,” meaning it has value and can be sold, or the option expires worthless, or the expiration of the option is “rolled,” or extended forward. The value of the options in which the Fund invests is based partly on the volatility used by market participants to price such options (i.e., implied volatility). Accordingly, increases in the implied volatility of such options will cause the value of such options to increase (even if the prices of the options’ underlying stocks do not change), which will result in a corresponding increase in the liabilities of the Fund under such options and thus decrease the Fund’s NAV.
Limited Operating History. The Fund is a recently organized investment company with a limited operating history. As a result, prospective investors have a limited track record or history on which to base their investment decision.
Market Capitalization Risk.
Large-Capitalization Investing. The securities of large-capitalization companies may be relatively mature compared to smaller companies and therefore subject to slower growth during times of economic expansion. Large-capitalization companies may also be unable to respond quickly to new competitive challenges, such as changes in technology and consumer tastes.
Market Risk. The trading prices of securities and other instruments fluctuate in response to a variety of factors. These factors include events impacting the entire market or specific market segments, such as political, market and economic developments, as well as events that impact specific issuers. The Fund’s NAV and market price, like security and commodity prices generally, may fluctuate significantly in response to these and other factors. As a result, an investor could lose money over short or long periods of time. U.S. and international markets have experienced significant periods of volatility in recent years due to a number of these factors, including the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and related public health issues, growth concerns in the U.S. and overseas, uncertainties regarding interest rates, trade tensions and the threat of tariffs imposed by the U.S. and other countries. These developments as well as other events could result in further market volatility and negatively affect financial asset prices, the liquidity of certain securities and the normal operations of securities exchanges and other markets. It is unknown how long circumstances related to the pandemic will persist, whether they will reoccur in the future, whether efforts to support the economy and financial markets will be successful, and what additional implications may follow from the pandemic. The impact of these events and other epidemics or pandemics in the future could adversely affect Fund performance.
Options Risk. Selling (writing) and buying options are speculative activities and entail greater than ordinary investment risks. The Fund’s use of put options can lead to losses because of adverse movements in the price or value of the underlying asset, which may be magnified by certain features of the options. When selling a put option, the Fund will receive a premium; however, this premium may not be enough to offset a loss incurred by the Fund if the price of the underlying asset is below the strike price by an amount equal to or greater than the premium. Purchasing of put options involves the payment of premiums, which may adversely affect the Fund’s performance. Purchasing a put option gives the purchaser of the option the right to sell a specified
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quantity of an underlying asset at a fixed exercise price over a defined period of time. Purchased put options may expire worthless resulting in the Fund’s loss of the premium it paid for the option.
The value of an option may be adversely affected if the market for the option becomes less liquid or smaller, and will be affected by changes in the value or yield of the option’s underlying asset, an increase in interest rates, a change in the actual or perceived volatility of the stock market or the underlying asset and the remaining time to expiration. Additionally, the value of an option does not increase or decrease at the same rate as the underlying asset. The Fund’s use of options may reduce the Fund’s ability to profit from increases in the value of the underlying asset. If the price of the underlying asset of an option is above the strike price of a written put option, the value of the option, and consequently of the Fund, may decline significantly more than if the Fund invested directly in the underlying asset instead of using options. While the Fund will segregate liquid assets at least equal in value to the maximum potential loss for the Fund, the Fund could still lose a significant amount or nearly all of its value if the price of an underlying asset changes significantly enough.
Tax Risk. If positions held by the Fund were treated as “straddles” for federal income tax purposes, or the Fund’s risk of loss with respect to a position was otherwise diminished as set forth in Treasury regulations, dividends on stocks that are a part of such positions would not constitute qualified dividend income subject to such favorable income tax treatment in the hands of non-corporate shareholders or eligible for the dividends received deduction for corporate shareholders. In addition, generally, straddles are subject to certain rules that may affect the amount, character and timing of the Fund’s gains and losses with respect to straddle positions.
Performance
The following performance information indicates some of the risks of investing in the Fund. The bar chart shows the Fund’s performance for the calendar year ended December 31. The table illustrates how the Fund’s average annual returns for the 1-year and since inception periods compared with those of a broad measure of market performance. The Fund’s past performance, before and after taxes, does not necessarily indicate how it will perform in the future. Updated performance information is also available on the Fund’s website at www.overlayshares.com or by calling the Fund at 1-866-704-6857.
Calendar Year Total Return
ck0001683471-20210831_g1.jpg
The calendar year-to-date total return of the Fund as of September 30, 2021 was 17.91%. During the period of time shown in the bar chart, the highest quarterly return was 22.04% for the quarter ended June 30, 2020, and the lowest quarterly return was -21.35% for the quarter ended March 31, 2020.
Average Annual Total Returns
(for periods ended December 31, 2020)
Overlay Shares Large Cap Equity ETF
1-Year
Since Inception
(9/30/2019)
Return Before Taxes 19.65% 24.67%
Return After Taxes on Distributions 18.84% 23.87%
Return After Taxes on Distributions and Sale of Shares 12.02% 18.78%
S&P 500 TR Index
(reflects no deduction for fees, expenses, or taxes)
18.40% 22.66%
After-tax returns are calculated using the historical highest individual federal marginal income tax rates during the period covered by the table above and do not reflect the impact of state and local taxes. Actual after-tax returns depend on an investor’s tax situation and may differ from those shown. After-tax returns shown are not relevant to investors who hold their shares through tax-deferred arrangements such as an individual retirement account (“IRA”) or other tax-advantaged accounts.
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Portfolio Management
Adviser
Liquid Strategies, LLC
Portfolio Managers
Bradley Ball, Adam Stewart, CFA, Shawn Gibson and Justin Boller, CFA, have been portfolio managers of the Fund since its inception in 2019.
Purchase and Sale of Shares
The Fund issues and redeems Shares at NAV only in large blocks known as “Creation Units,” which only APs (typically, broker-dealers) may purchase or redeem. The Fund generally issues and redeems Creation Units in exchange for a portfolio of securities (the “Deposit Securities”) and/or a designated amount of U.S. cash.
Shares are listed on the Exchange, and individual Shares may only be bought and sold in the secondary market through a broker or dealer at market prices, rather than NAV. Because Shares trade at market prices rather than NAV, Shares may trade at a price greater than NAV (premium) or less than NAV (discount).
An investor may incur costs attributable to the difference between the highest price a buyer is willing to pay to purchase Shares (the “bid” price) and the lowest price a seller is willing to accept for Shares (the “ask” price) when buying or selling Shares in the secondary market. The difference in the bid and ask prices is referred to as the “bid-ask spread.”
Recent information regarding the Fund’s NAV, market price, how often Shares traded on the Exchange at a premium or discount, and bid-ask spreads can be found on the Fund’s website at www.overlayshares.com.
Tax Information
Fund distributions are generally taxable as ordinary income, qualified dividend income, or capital gains (or a combination), unless your investment is in an IRA or other tax-advantaged account. Distributions on investments made through tax-deferred arrangements may be taxed later upon withdrawal of assets from those accounts.
Financial Intermediary Compensation
If you purchase Shares through a broker-dealer or other financial intermediary (such as a bank) (an “Intermediary”), the Adviser or its affiliates may pay Intermediaries for certain activities related to the Fund, including participation in activities that are designed to make Intermediaries more knowledgeable about exchange-traded products, including the Fund, or for other activities, such as marketing, educational training or other initiatives related to the sale or promotion of Shares. These payments may create a conflict of interest by influencing the Intermediary and your salesperson to recommend the Fund over another investment. Any such arrangements do not result in increased Fund expenses. Ask your salesperson or visit the Intermediary’s website for more information.
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OVERLAY SHARES SMALL CAP EQUITY ETF
Investment Objective
The Overlay Shares Small Cap Equity ETF (the “Fund” or “Small Cap ETF”) seeks total return.
Fees and Expenses of the Fund
This table describes the fees and expenses that you may pay if you buy, hold, and sell shares of the Fund (“Shares”). You may pay other fees, such as brokerage commissions and other fees to financial intermediaries, which are not reflected in the table and Example below.
Shareholder Fees (fees paid directly from your investment)
None
Annual Fund Operating Expenses (expenses that you pay each year as a percentage of the value of your investment)
Management Fees 0.75%
Distribution and/or Service (12b-1) Fees 0.00%
Other Expenses 0.02%
Acquired Fund Fees and Expenses*
0.06%
Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses 0.83%
* Acquired Fund Fees and Expenses (“AFFE”) are the indirect costs of investing in other investment companies. Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses do not correlate to the expense ratios in the Fund’s Financial Highlights because the Financial Highlights include only the direct operating expenses incurred by the Fund and exclude AFFE.
Example
This Example is intended to help you compare the cost of investing in the Fund with the cost of investing in other funds. The Example assumes that you invest $10,000 in the Fund for the time periods indicated and then redeem all of your Shares at the end of those periods. The Example also assumes that your investment has a 5% return each year and that the Fund’s operating expenses remain the same. The Example does not take into account brokerage commissions that you may pay on your purchases and sales of Shares. Although your actual costs may be higher or lower, based on these assumptions your costs would be:
1 Year: $85 3 Years: $265 5 Years: $460 10 Years: $1,025
Portfolio Turnover
The Fund pays transaction costs, such as commissions, when it buys and sells securities (or “turns over” its portfolio). A higher portfolio turnover rate may indicate higher transaction costs and may result in higher taxes when Shares are held in a taxable account. These costs, which are not reflected in the Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses or in the Example, affect the Fund’s performance. For the fiscal year ended August 31, 2021, the Fund’s portfolio turnover rate was 6% of the average value of its portfolio.
Principal Investment Strategies
The Fund is an actively-managed exchange-traded fund (“ETF”) that seeks to achieve its objective by (i) investing in one or more other ETFs that seek to obtain exposure to the performance of U.S. small cap equity securities or directly in the securities held by such ETFs (collectively, the “Underlying Investments”) and (ii) selling and purchasing listed short-term put options to generate income to the Fund (the “Overlay Strategy”).
The Overlay Strategy seeks to generate income for the Fund by utilizing a “put spread” consisting of the sale of exchange-listed short-term put options (“Short Puts”) with a notional value (strike price times the value of the shares) up to 100% of the Fund’s net assets and the purchase of an identical number of short-term put options (“Long Puts”) with a lower strike price. The Fund seeks to generate income from the sale and purchase of put options with a lower strike price to hedge against a decline in the options’ underlying asset, the S&P 500 Index, which consists of approximately 500 leading U.S.-listed companies representing approximately 80% of the U.S. equity market capitalization.
A put option gives the purchaser of the option, in exchange for the premium paid, the right to sell the underlying asset at a specified price (“strike price”) at a specified date (“expiration date”). In contrast, the seller of a put option, in exchange for the premium received, is obligated to sell the underlying asset at the strike price on the expiration date. In the event the underlying asset declines in value, the value of a put option will generally increase. In the event the underlying asset appreciates in value, the value of a put option will generally decrease. The options sold by the Fund are expected to have an expiration date within one to two weeks of their purchase date. The strike price of the Short Puts will typically be less than the value of the S&P 500 Index at the time such options are sold, and the strike price of the Long Puts will be less than the strike price of the Short Puts. The difference between such strike prices
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is based on Liquid Strategies, LLC’s (the “Adviser”) judgment as to the level of expected volatility in the market prior to the options’ expiration. Because the Long Puts will have a lower strike price than the Short Puts, the Long Puts are not expected to completely protect the Fund from a decline in the S&P 500 Index.
The Fund’s Overlay Strategy is designed to seek to generate a positive return in rising and flat equity markets, and may generate a positive return in equity markets that are modestly declining, assuming the net premium collected from the options sold and purchased exceeds the net cost to close the option positions. In an effort to limit losses in declining equity markets, the Fund may reduce its sale of Short Puts and/or purchase of Long Puts with strike prices closer to the strike prices of the Short Puts.
The Fund focuses primarily on equity index options which offer both European settlement (i.e., options can only be exercised at their expiration date) and cash settlement (i.e., options carry an obligation by their seller to pay the difference between their strike price and their settlement value instead of allowing the seller to take delivery of securities).
The potential returns of the Fund are generally limited to the amount of cash (premiums) the Fund receives when selling Short Puts, net of any cash (premiums) paid by the Fund to purchase Long Puts, plus the returns of the Underlying Investments in which the Fund invests. The Fund’s sale and purchase of put options may result in the generation of positive returns for the Fund; however, the loss potential if the strategy is not effective may be greater than the profit potential. The Fund may lose significantly more than the premiums it receives in highly volatile market conditions.
The Fund will segregate cash and/or other liquid assets in an amount equal to the Fund’s obligations under each Short Put so that each option sold will be secured, or “covered.” The Adviser intends to limit the use of leverage by ensuring that the Fund’s potential obligations from the Short Puts will not exceed the Fund’s total net assets.
The Adviser employs a disciplined portfolio construction process that relies on guidelines to govern capital allocations based on a quantitative methodology designed by the Adviser to measure the perceived risk of the broad U.S. equity market. In making this determination, the Adviser considers various factors including but not limited to the overall volatility (rate of change) in the markets. The Adviser bases allocation decisions on a combination of quantitative risk metrics and a qualitative assessment of potential risk/reward scenarios, with the ultimate goals of mitigating the effects of volatility in the Fund’s portfolio and maintaining adequate portfolio diversification while seeking to achieve the Fund’s targeted return. The Adviser evaluates the metrics associated with the valuation of options, including volatility, time to expiration and the relationship of the exercise price to the prevailing market price of the underlying instrument. There can be no guarantee that the Adviser will be successful in implementing the Fund’s strategy. During market conditions in which market volatility rises, the price of options could rise, which, in turn, could have a detrimental effect on the Fund’s performance and achieving its targeted return.
Principal Investment Risks
The principal risks of investing in the Fund are summarized below. The principal risks are presented in alphabetical order to facilitate finding particular risks and comparing them with those of other funds. Each risk summarized below is considered a “principal risk” of investing in the Fund, regardless of the order in which it appears. As with any investment, there is a risk that you could lose all or a portion of your investment in the Fund. Some or all of these risks may adversely affect the Fund’s net asset value (“NAV”), trading price, yield, total return and/or ability to meet its objective. The following risks could affect the value of your investment in the Fund:
Derivatives Securities Risk. The Fund invests in options that derive their performance from the performance of the S&P 500 Index. Derivatives, such as the options in which the Fund invests, can be volatile and involve various types and degrees of risks, depending upon the characteristics of a particular derivative. Derivatives may entail investment exposures that are greater than their cost would suggest, meaning that a small investment in a derivative could have a substantial impact on the performance of the Fund. The Fund could experience a loss if its derivatives do not perform as anticipated, or are not correlated with the performance of their underlying asset or if the Fund is unable to purchase or liquidate a position because of an illiquid secondary market. The market for many derivatives is, or suddenly can become, illiquid. Changes in liquidity may result in significant, rapid, and unpredictable changes in the prices for derivatives.
Equity Market Risk. The trading prices of equity securities and other instruments fluctuate in response to a variety of factors. The Fund’s NAV and market price may fluctuate significantly in response to these and other factors. As a result, an investor could lose money over short or long periods of time.
ETF Risks. The Fund is an ETF and invests in other ETFs, and, as a result of this structure, is exposed directly or indirectly to the following risks:
Authorized Participants, Market Makers, and Liquidity Providers Concentration Risk. The Fund has a limited number of financial institutions that may act as Authorized Participants (“APs”). In addition, there may be a limited number of market makers and/or liquidity providers in the marketplace. To the extent either of the following events occur, Shares may trade at a material discount to NAV and possibly face delisting: (i) APs exit the business or otherwise become unable to process creation and/or redemption orders and no other APs step forward to perform these services, or (ii) market makers and/or
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liquidity providers exit the business or significantly reduce their business activities and no other entities step forward to perform their functions.
Cash Redemption Risk. The Fund’s investment strategy may require it to redeem Shares for cash or to otherwise include cash as part of its redemption proceeds. For example, the Fund may not be able to redeem in-kind certain securities held by the Fund (e.g., short positions and derivative instruments). In such a case, the Fund may be required to sell or unwind portfolio investments to obtain the cash needed to distribute redemption proceeds. This may cause the Fund to recognize a capital gain that it might not have recognized if it had made a redemption in-kind. As a result, the Fund may pay out higher annual capital gain distributions than if the in-kind redemption process was used.
Costs of Buying or Selling Shares. Due to the costs of buying or selling Shares, including brokerage commissions imposed by brokers and bid/ask spreads, frequent trading of Shares may significantly reduce investment results and an investment in Shares may not be advisable for investors who anticipate regularly making small investments.
Shares May Trade at Prices Other Than NAV. As with all ETFs, Shares may be bought and sold in the secondary market at market prices. Although it is expected that the market price of Shares will approximate the Fund’s NAV, there may be times when the market price of Shares is more than the NAV intra-day (premium) or less than the NAV intra-day (discount) due to supply and demand of Shares or during periods of market volatility. This risk is heightened in times of market volatility, periods of steep market declines, and periods when there is limited trading activity for Shares in the secondary market, in which case such premiums or discounts may be significant.
Trading. Although Shares are listed for trading on the NYSE Arca, Inc. (the “Exchange”) and may be traded on U.S. exchanges other than the Exchange, there can be no assurance that Shares will trade with any volume, or at all, on any stock exchange. In stressed market conditions, the liquidity of Shares may begin to mirror the liquidity of the Fund’s underlying portfolio holdings, which can be significantly less liquid than Shares.
Implied Volatility Risk. When the Fund sells an option, it gains the amount of the premium it receives, but also incurs a liability representing the value of the option it has sold until the option is either exercised and finishes “in the money,” meaning it has value and can be sold, or the option expires worthless, or the expiration of the option is “rolled,” or extended forward. The value of the options in which the Fund invests is based partly on the volatility used by market participants to price such options (i.e., implied volatility). Accordingly, increases in the implied volatility of such options will cause the value of such options to increase (even if the prices of the options’ underlying stocks do not change), which will result in a corresponding increase in the liabilities of the Fund under such options and thus decrease the Fund’s NAV.
Limited Operating History. The Fund is a recently organized investment company with a limited operating history. As a result, prospective investors have a limited track record or history on which to base their investment decision.
Market Capitalization Risk.
Small-Capitalization Investing. The securities of small-capitalization companies may be more vulnerable to adverse issuer, market, political, or economic developments than securities of large- or mid-capitalization companies. The securities of small-capitalization companies generally trade in lower volumes and are subject to greater and more unpredictable price changes than large- or mid-capitalization stocks or the stock market as a whole. There is typically less publicly available information concerning smaller-capitalization companies than for larger, more established companies.
Market Risk. The trading prices of securities and other instruments fluctuate in response to a variety of factors. These factors include events impacting the entire market or specific market segments, such as political, market and economic developments, as well as events that impact specific issuers. The Fund’s NAV and market price, like security and commodity prices generally, may fluctuate significantly in response to these and other factors. As a result, an investor could lose money over short or long periods of time. U.S. and international markets have experienced significant periods of volatility in recent years due to a number of these factors, including the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and related public health issues, growth concerns in the U.S. and overseas, uncertainties regarding interest rates, trade tensions and the threat of tariffs imposed by the U.S. and other countries. These developments as well as other events could result in further market volatility and negatively affect financial asset prices, the liquidity of certain securities and the normal operations of securities exchanges and other markets. It is unknown how long circumstances related to the pandemic will persist, whether they will reoccur in the future, whether efforts to support the economy and financial markets will be successful, and what additional implications may follow from the pandemic. The impact of these events and other epidemics or pandemics in the future could adversely affect Fund performance.
Options Risk. Selling (writing) and buying options are speculative activities and entail greater than ordinary investment risks. The Fund’s use of put options can lead to losses because of adverse movements in the price or value of the underlying asset, which may be magnified by certain features of the options. When selling a put option, the Fund will receive a premium; however, this premium may not be enough to offset a loss incurred by the Fund if the price of the underlying asset is below the strike price by an amount equal to or greater than the premium. Purchasing of put options involves the payment of premiums, which may
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adversely affect the Fund’s performance. Purchasing a put option gives the purchaser of the option the right to sell a specified quantity of an underlying asset at a fixed exercise price over a defined period of time. Purchased put options may expire worthless resulting in the Fund’s loss of the premium it paid for the option.
The value of an option may be adversely affected if the market for the option becomes less liquid or smaller, and will be affected by changes in the value or yield of the option’s underlying asset, an increase in interest rates, a change in the actual or perceived volatility of the stock market or the underlying asset and the remaining time to expiration. Additionally, the value of an option does not increase or decrease at the same rate as the underlying asset. The Fund’s use of options may reduce the Fund’s ability to profit from increases in the value of the underlying asset. If the price of the underlying asset of an option is above the strike price of a written put option, the value of the option, and consequently of the Fund, may decline significantly more than if the Fund invested directly in the underlying asset instead of using options. While the Fund will segregate liquid assets at least equal in value to the maximum potential loss for the Fund, the Fund could still lose a significant amount or nearly all of its value if the price of an underlying asset changes significantly enough.
Tax Risk. If positions held by the Fund were treated as “straddles” for federal income tax purposes, or the Fund’s risk of loss with respect to a position was otherwise diminished as set forth in Treasury regulations, dividends on stocks that are a part of such positions would not constitute qualified dividend income subject to such favorable income tax treatment in the hands of non-corporate shareholders or eligible for the dividends received deduction for corporate shareholders. In addition, generally, straddles are subject to certain rules that may affect the amount, character and timing of the Fund’s gains and losses with respect to straddle positions.
Performance
The following performance information indicates some of the risks of investing in the Fund. The bar chart shows the Fund’s performance for the calendar year ended December 31. The table illustrates how the Fund’s average annual returns for the 1-year and since inception periods compared with those of a broad measure of market performance. The Fund’s past performance, before and after taxes, does not necessarily indicate how it will perform in the future. Updated performance information is also available on the Fund’s website at www.overlayshares.com or by calling the Fund at 1-866-704-6857.
Calendar Year Total Return
ck0001683471-20210831_g2.jpg
The calendar year-to-date total return of the Fund as of September 30, 2021 was 22.01%. During the period of time shown in the bar chart, the highest quarterly return was 31.99% for the quarter ended December 31, 2020, and the lowest quarterly return was -34.12% for the quarter ended March 31, 2020.
Average Annual Total Returns
(for periods ended December 31, 2020)
Overlay Shares Small Cap Equity ETF
1-Year
Since Inception
(9/30/2019)
Return Before Taxes 12.40% 17.92%
Return After Taxes on Distributions 11.83% 17.31%
Return After Taxes on Distributions and Sale of Shares 7.62% 13.59%
S&P SmallCap 600 TR Index
(reflects no deduction for fees, expenses, or taxes)
11.29% 16.00%
After-tax returns are calculated using the historical highest individual federal marginal income tax rates during the period covered by the table above and do not reflect the impact of state and local taxes. Actual after-tax returns depend on an investor’s tax situation and may differ from those shown. After-tax returns shown are not relevant to investors who hold their shares through tax-deferred arrangements such as an individual retirement account (“IRA”) or other tax-advantaged accounts.
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Portfolio Management
Adviser
Liquid Strategies, LLC
Portfolio Managers
Bradley Ball, Adam Stewart, CFA, Shawn Gibson and Justin Boller, CFA, have been portfolio managers of the Fund since its inception in 2019.
Purchase and Sale of Shares
The Fund issues and redeems Shares at NAV only in large blocks known as “Creation Units,” which only APs (typically, broker-dealers) may purchase or redeem. The Fund generally issues and redeems Creation Units in exchange for a portfolio of securities (the “Deposit Securities”) and/or a designated amount of U.S. cash.
Shares are listed on the Exchange, and individual Shares may only be bought and sold in the secondary market through a broker or dealer at market prices, rather than NAV. Because Shares trade at market prices rather than NAV, Shares may trade at a price greater than NAV (premium) or less than NAV (discount).
An investor may incur costs attributable to the difference between the highest price a buyer is willing to pay to purchase Shares (the “bid” price) and the lowest price a seller is willing to accept for Shares (the “ask” price) when buying or selling Shares in the secondary market. The difference in the bid and ask prices is referred to as the “bid-ask spread.”
Recent information regarding the Fund’s NAV, market price, how often Shares traded on the Exchange at a premium or discount, and bid-ask spreads can be found on the Fund’s website at www.overlayshares.com.
Tax Information
Fund distributions are generally taxable as ordinary income, qualified dividend income, or capital gains (or a combination), unless your investment is in an IRA or other tax-advantaged account. Distributions on investments made through tax-deferred arrangements may be taxed later upon withdrawal of assets from those accounts.
Financial Intermediary Compensation
If you purchase Shares through a broker-dealer or other financial intermediary (such as a bank) (an “Intermediary”), the Adviser or its affiliates may pay Intermediaries for certain activities related to the Fund, including participation in activities that are designed to make Intermediaries more knowledgeable about exchange-traded products, including the Fund, or for other activities, such as marketing, educational training or other initiatives related to the sale or promotion of Shares. These payments may create a conflict of interest by influencing the Intermediary and your salesperson to recommend the Fund over another investment. Any such arrangements do not result in increased Fund expenses. Ask your salesperson or visit the Intermediary’s website for more information.
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OVERLAY SHARES FOREIGN EQUITY ETF
Investment Objective
The Overlay Shares Foreign Equity ETF (the “Fund” or “Foreign Equity ETF”) seeks total return.
Fees and Expenses of the Fund
This table describes the fees and expenses that you may pay if you buy, hold, and sell shares of the Fund (“Shares”). You may pay other fees, such as brokerage commissions and other fees to financial intermediaries, which are not reflected in the table and Example below.
Shareholder Fees (fees paid directly from your investment)
None
Annual Fund Operating Expenses (expenses that you pay each year as a percentage of the value of your investment)
Management Fees 0.75%
Distribution and/or Service (12b-1) Fees 0.00%
Other Expenses 0.02%
Acquired Fund Fees and Expenses*
0.21%
Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses 0.98%
* Acquired Fund Fees and Expenses (“AFFE”) are the indirect costs of investing in other investment companies. Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses do not correlate to the expense ratios in the Fund’s Financial Highlights because the Financial Highlights include only the direct operating expenses incurred by the Fund and exclude AFFE.
Example
This Example is intended to help you compare the cost of investing in the Fund with the cost of investing in other funds. The Example assumes that you invest $10,000 in the Fund for the time periods indicated and then redeem all of your Shares at the end of those periods. The Example also assumes that your investment has a 5% return each year and that the Fund’s operating expenses remain the same. The Example does not take into account brokerage commissions that you may pay on your purchases and sales of Shares. Although your actual costs may be higher or lower, based on these assumptions your costs would be:
1 Year: $100 3 Years: $312 5 Years: $542 10 Years: $1,201
Portfolio Turnover
The Fund pays transaction costs, such as commissions, when it buys and sells securities (or “turns over” its portfolio). A higher portfolio turnover rate may indicate higher transaction costs and may result in higher taxes when Shares are held in a taxable account. These costs, which are not reflected in the Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses or in the Example, affect the Fund’s performance. For the fiscal year ended August 31, 2021, the Fund’s portfolio turnover rate was 10% of the average value of its portfolio.
Principal Investment Strategies
The Fund is an actively-managed exchange-traded fund (“ETF”) that seeks to achieve its objective by (i) investing in one or more other ETFs that seek exposure to the performance of non-U.S. equity securities (from both developed and emerging markets) or directly in the securities held by such ETFs (collectively, the “Underlying Investments”) and (ii) selling and purchasing listed short-term put options to generate income to the Fund (the “Overlay Strategy”).
The Fund’s Overlay Strategy seeks to generate income for the Fund by utilizing a “put spread” consisting of the sale of exchange-listed short-term put options (“Short Puts”) with a notional value (strike price times the value of the shares) up to 100% of the Fund’s net assets and the purchase of an identical number of short-term put options (“Long Puts”) with a lower strike price. The Fund seeks to generate income from the sale and purchase of put options with a lower strike price to hedge against a decline in the options’ underlying asset, the S&P 500 Index, which consists of approximately 500 leading U.S.-listed companies representing approximately 80% of the U.S. equity market capitalization.
A put option gives the purchaser of the option, in exchange for the premium paid, the right to sell the underlying asset at a specified price (“strike price”) at a specified date (“expiration date”). In contrast, the seller of a put option, in exchange for the premium received, is obligated to sell the underlying asset at the strike price on the expiration date. In the event the underlying asset declines in value, the value of a put option will generally increase. In the event the underlying asset appreciates in value, the value of a put option will generally decrease. The options sold by the Fund are expected to have an expiration date within one to two weeks of their purchase date. The strike price of the Short Puts will typically be less than the value of the S&P 500 Index at the time such options are sold, and the strike price of the Long Puts will be less than the strike price of the Short Puts. The difference between such strike prices
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is based on Liquid Strategies, LLC’s (the “Adviser”) judgment as to the level of expected volatility in the market prior to the options’ expiration. Because the Long Puts will have a lower strike price than the Short Puts, the Long Puts are not expected to completely protect the Fund from a decline in the S&P 500 Index.
The Fund’s Overlay Strategy is designed to seek to generate a positive return in rising and flat equity markets, and may generate a positive return in equity markets that are modestly declining, assuming the net premiums collected from the options sold and purchased exceeds the net cost to close the positions. In an effort to limit losses in declining equity markets, the Fund may reduce its sale of Short Puts and/or purchase Long Puts with strike prices closer to the strike prices of the Short Puts. The Fund focuses primarily on equity index options which offer both European settlement (i.e., options can only be exercised at their expiration date) and cash settlement (i.e., options carry an obligation by their seller to pay the difference between their strike price and their settlement value instead of allowing the seller to take delivery of securities).
The potential returns of the Fund are generally limited to the amount of cash (premiums) the Fund receives when selling Short Puts, net of any cash (premiums) paid by the Fund to purchase Long Puts, plus the returns of the Underlying Investments in which the Fund invests. The Fund’s sale and purchase of put options may result in the generation of positive returns for the Fund; however, the loss potential if the strategy is not effective may be greater than the profit potential. The Fund may lose significantly more than the premiums it receives in highly volatile market conditions.
The Fund will segregate cash and/or other liquid assets in an amount equal to the Fund’s obligations under each Short Put so that each option sold will be secured, or “covered.” The Adviser intends to limit the use of leverage by ensuring that the Fund’s potential obligations from the Short Puts will not exceed the Fund’s total net assets.
The Adviser employs a disciplined portfolio construction process that relies on guidelines to govern capital allocations based on a quantitative methodology designed by the Adviser to measure the perceived risk of the broad U.S. equity market. In making this determination, the Adviser considers various factors including but not limited to the overall volatility (rate of change) in the markets. The Adviser bases allocation decisions on a combination of quantitative risk metrics and a qualitative assessment of potential risk/reward scenarios, with the ultimate goals of mitigating the effects of volatility in the Fund’s portfolio and maintaining adequate portfolio diversification while seeking to achieve the Fund’s targeted return. The Adviser evaluates the metrics associated with the valuation of options, including volatility, time to expiration and the relationship of the exercise price to the prevailing market price of the underlying instrument. There can be no guarantee that the Adviser will be successful in implementing the Fund’s strategy. During market conditions in which market volatility rises, the price of options could rise, which, in turn, could have a detrimental effect on the Fund’s performance and achieving its targeted return.
Principal Investment Risks
The principal risks of investing in the Fund are summarized below. The principal risks are presented in alphabetical order to facilitate finding particular risks and comparing them with those of other funds. Each risk summarized below is considered a “principal risk” of investing in the Fund, regardless of the order in which it appears. As with any investment, there is a risk that you could lose all or a portion of your investment in the Fund. Some or all of these risks may adversely affect the Fund’s net asset value (“NAV”), trading price, yield, total return and/or ability to meet its objective. The following risks could affect the value of your investment in the Fund:
Currency Exchange Rate Risk. The Fund invests, directly or indirectly, in investments denominated in non-U.S. currencies or in securities that provide exposure to such currencies. Changes in currency exchange rates and the relative value of non-U.S. currencies will affect the value of the Fund’s investment and the value of your Shares. Currency exchange rates can be very volatile and can change quickly and unpredictably. As a result, the value of an investment in the Fund may change quickly and without warning and you may lose money.
Derivatives Securities Risk. The Fund invests in options that derive their performance from the performance of the S&P 500 Index. Derivatives, such as the options in which the Fund invests, can be volatile and involve various types and degrees of risks, depending upon the characteristics of a particular derivative. Derivatives may entail investment exposures that are greater than their cost would suggest, meaning that a small investment in a derivative could have a substantial impact on the performance of the Fund. The Fund could experience a loss if its derivatives do not perform as anticipated, or are not correlated with the performance of their underlying asset or if the Fund is unable to purchase or liquidate a position because of an illiquid secondary market. The market for many derivatives is, or suddenly can become, illiquid. Changes in liquidity may result in significant, rapid, and unpredictable changes in the prices for derivatives.
Emerging Markets Risk. The Fund’s direct or indirect investments in securities of issuers in emerging market countries are subject to all of the risks of foreign investing generally, and have additional heightened risks due to a lack of established legal, political, business, and social frameworks to support securities markets, including: delays in settling portfolio securities transactions; currency and capital controls; greater sensitivity to interest rate changes; pervasiveness of corruption and crime; currency exchange rate volatility; and inflation, deflation, or currency devaluation.
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Equity Market Risk. The trading prices of equity securities and other instruments fluctuate in response to a variety of factors. The Fund’s NAV and market price may fluctuate significantly in response to these and other factors. As a result, an investor could lose money over short or long periods of time.
ETF Risks. The Fund is an ETF and invests in other ETFs, and, as a result of this structure, is exposed directly or indirectly to the following risks:
Authorized Participants, Market Makers, and Liquidity Providers Concentration Risk. The Fund has a limited number of financial institutions that may act as Authorized Participants (“APs”). In addition, there may be a limited number of market makers and/or liquidity providers in the marketplace. To the extent either of the following events occur, Shares may trade at a material discount to NAV and possibly face delisting: (i) APs exit the business or otherwise become unable to process creation and/or redemption orders and no other APs step forward to perform these services, or (ii) market makers and/or liquidity providers exit the business or significantly reduce their business activities and no other entities step forward to perform their functions.
Cash Redemption Risk. The Fund’s investment strategy may require it to redeem Shares for cash or to otherwise include cash as part of its redemption proceeds. For example, the Fund may not be able to redeem in-kind certain securities held by the Fund (e.g., short positions and derivative instruments). In such a case, the Fund may be required to sell or unwind portfolio investments to obtain the cash needed to distribute redemption proceeds. This may cause the Fund to recognize a capital gain that it might not have recognized if it had made a redemption in-kind. As a result, the Fund may pay out higher annual capital gain distributions than if the in-kind redemption process was used.
Costs of Buying or Selling Shares. Due to the costs of buying or selling Shares, including brokerage commissions imposed by brokers and bid/ask spreads, frequent trading of Shares may significantly reduce investment results and an investment in Shares may not be advisable for investors who anticipate regularly making small investments.
Shares May Trade at Prices Other Than NAV. As with all ETFs, Shares may be bought and sold in the secondary market at market prices. Although it is expected that the market price of Shares will approximate the Fund’s NAV, there may be times when the market price of Shares is more than the NAV intra-day (premium) or less than the NAV intra-day (discount) due to supply and demand of Shares or during periods of market volatility. This risk is heightened in times of market volatility, periods of steep market declines, and periods when there is limited trading activity for Shares in the secondary market, in which case such premiums or discounts may be significant. Because securities held by the Fund may trade on foreign exchanges that are closed when the Fund’s primary listing exchange is open, the Fund is likely to experience premiums or discounts greater than those of domestic ETFs.
Trading. Although Shares are listed for trading on the NYSE Arca, Inc. (the “Exchange”) and may be traded on U.S. exchanges other than the Exchange, there can be no assurance that Shares will trade with any volume, or at all, on any stock exchange. In stressed market conditions, the liquidity of Shares may begin to mirror the liquidity of the Fund’s underlying portfolio holdings, which can be significantly less liquid than Shares.
Foreign Securities Risk. Investments in non-U.S. securities involve certain risks that may not be present with investments in U.S. securities. These include risks of adverse changes in foreign economic, political, regulatory and other conditions; changes in currency exchange rates or exchange control regulations (including limitations on currency movements and exchanges); differing accounting, auditing, financial reporting, and legal standards and practices; differing securities market structures; and higher transaction costs. In addition, the securities of some foreign companies may be less liquid and, at times, more volatile than securities of comparable U.S. companies.
Geographic Investment Risk. To the extent the Fund invests, directly or indirectly, a significant portion of its assets in the securities of companies of a single country or region, it is more likely to be impacted by events or conditions affecting that country or region.
Risks Related to Investing in China. The Chinese economy is generally considered an emerging market and can be significantly affected by economic and political conditions and policy in China and surrounding Asian countries. A relatively small number of Chinese companies represent a large portion of China’s total market and thus may be more sensitive to adverse political or economic circumstances and market movements. The economy of China differs, often unfavorably, from the U.S. economy in such respects as structure, general development, government involvement, wealth distribution, rate of inflation, growth rate, allocation of resources and capital reinvestment, among others. Under China’s political and economic system, the central government has historically exercised substantial control over virtually every sector of the Chinese economy through administrative regulation and/or state ownership. In addition, expropriation, including nationalization, confiscatory taxation, political, economic or social instability or other developments could adversely affect and significantly diminish the values of the Chinese companies in which the fund invests. Additionally, from time to time, China has experienced outbreaks of infectious illnesses, including the COVID-19 pandemic, and the country may be subject to other public health threats, diseases or similar issues in the future. The Fund may invest in shares of Chinese companies traded on
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stock markets in Mainland China or Hong Kong. These stock markets have recently experienced high levels of volatility, which may continue in the future. The Hong Kong stock market may behave differently from the Mainland China stock market and there may be little to no correlation between the performance of the Hong Kong stock market and the Mainland China stock market.
Risks of Investing in India. Investments in Indian issuers involve risks that are specific to India, including legal, regulatory, political and economic risks. Political and legal uncertainty, greater government control over the economy, currency fluctuations or blockage and the risk of nationalization or expropriation of assets may result in higher potential for losses. The securities markets in India are relatively underdeveloped and may subject the Fund to higher transaction costs or greater uncertainty than investments in more developed securities markets.
Risks Related to Investing in Japan. The Japanese economy may be subject to considerable degrees of economic, political and social instability, which could have a negative impact on Japanese securities. Japan’s economic growth rate has remained relatively low for an extended period of time and it may remain low in the future. In addition, Japan is subject to the risk of natural disasters, such as earthquakes, volcanoes, typhoons and tsunamis. Additionally, decreasing U.S. imports, new trade regulations, changes in the U.S. dollar exchange rates, a recession in the United States or continued increases in foreclosure rates may have an adverse impact on the economy of Japan. Japan also has few natural resources, and any fluctuation or shortage in the commodity markets could have a negative impact on Japanese securities.
Risks of Investing in Taiwan. Investments in Taiwanese issuers may subject the Fund to risks specific to Taiwan. Taiwan is a small island state with few raw material resources and limited land area and is reliant on imports for its commodity needs. Any fluctuations or shortages in the commodity markets could have a negative impact on the Taiwanese economy. Also, continued labor outsourcing may adversely affect the Taiwanese economy. Taiwan’s economy is intricately linked with economies of Asian countries that have experienced over-extensions of credit, frequent and pronounced currency fluctuations, currency devaluations, currency repatriation, rising unemployment and fluctuations in inflation. The Taiwanese economy is dependent on the economies of Japan and China, as well as the United States, and negative changes in their economies or a reduction in purchases by any of them of Taiwanese products and services would likely have an adverse impact on the Taiwanese economy. Taiwan’s geographic proximity to China and Taiwan’s history of political contention with China have resulted in ongoing tensions with China, including the risk of war with China. These tensions may materially affect the Taiwanese economy and securities markets.
Risks Related to Investing in Western Europe. Most developed countries in Western Europe are members of the European Union (EU), and many are also members of the European Monetary Union (EMU), which requires compliance with restrictions on inflation rates, deficits, and debt levels. Unemployment in certain European nations is historically high and several countries face significant debt problems. These conditions can significantly affect every country in Europe. The euro is the official currency of the EU. Funds that invest in Europe may have significant exposure to the euro and events affecting the euro. Recent market events affecting several of the EU member countries have adversely affected the sovereign debt issued by those countries, and ultimately may lead to a decline in the value of the euro. A significant decline in the value of the euro may produce unpredictable effects on trade and commerce generally and could lead to increased volatility in financial markets worldwide.
In addition, on January 31, 2020, the U.K. formally withdrew from the EU (commonly referred to as “Brexit”) and entered an 11-month transition period, which concluded on December 31, 2020, with the U.K. leaving the EU single market and customs union under the terms of a new trade agreement. The agreement governs the new relationship between the United Kingdom (UK) and EU with respect to trading goods and services, but critical aspects of the relationship remain unresolved and subject to further negotiation and agreement. There is still considerable uncertainty relating to the potential consequences associated with the exit and whether the UK’s exit will increase the likelihood of other countries also departing the EU. Any exits from the EU, or the possibility of such exits, may have a significant impact on the UK, Europe, and global economies, which may result in increased volatility and illiquidity, new legal and regulatory uncertainties and potentially lower economic growth for these economies that could potentially have an adverse effect on the value of the Fund’s investments.
Geopolitical Risk. Some countries and regions in which the Fund invests have experienced security concerns, war or threats of war and aggression, terrorism, economic uncertainty, natural and environmental disasters and/or systemic market dislocations that have led, and in the future may lead, to increased short-term market volatility and may have adverse long-term effects on the U.S. and world economies and markets generally.
Implied Volatility Risk. When the Fund sells an option, it gains the amount of the premium it receives, but also incurs a liability representing the value of the option it has sold until the option is either exercised and finishes “in the money,” meaning it has value and can be sold, or the option expires worthless, or the expiration of the option is “rolled,” or extended forward. The value of the options in which the Fund invests is based partly on the volatility used by market participants to price such options (i.e., implied volatility). Accordingly, increases in the implied volatility of such options will cause the value of such options to increase
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(even if the prices of the options’ underlying stocks do not change), which will result in a corresponding increase in the liabilities of the Fund under such options and thus decrease the Fund’s NAV.
Limited Operating History. The Fund is a recently organized investment company with a limited operating history. As a result, prospective investors have a limited track record or history on which to base their investment decision.
Market Capitalization Risk.
Large-Capitalization Investing. The securities of large-capitalization companies may be relatively mature compared to smaller companies and therefore subject to slower growth during times of economic expansion. Large-capitalization companies may also be unable to respond quickly to new competitive challenges, such as changes in technology and consumer tastes.
Mid-Capitalization Investing. The securities of mid-capitalization companies may be more vulnerable to adverse issuer, market, political, or economic developments than securities of large-capitalization companies. The securities of mid-capitalization companies generally trade in lower volumes and are subject to greater and more unpredictable price changes than large capitalization stocks or the stock market as a whole.
Market Risk. The trading prices of securities and other instruments fluctuate in response to a variety of factors. These factors include events impacting the entire market or specific market segments, such as political, market and economic developments, as well as events that impact specific issuers. The Fund’s NAV and market price, like security and commodity prices generally, may fluctuate significantly in response to these and other factors. As a result, an investor could lose money over short or long periods of time. U.S. and international markets have experienced significant periods of volatility in recent years due to a number of these factors, including the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and related public health issues, growth concerns in the U.S. and overseas, uncertainties regarding interest rates, trade tensions and the threat of tariffs imposed by the U.S. and other countries. These developments as well as other events could result in further market volatility and negatively affect financial asset prices, the liquidity of certain securities and the normal operations of securities exchanges and other markets. It is unknown how long circumstances related to the pandemic will persist, whether they will reoccur in the future, whether efforts to support the economy and financial markets will be successful, and what additional implications may follow from the pandemic. The impact of these events and other epidemics or pandemics in the future could adversely affect Fund performance.
Options Risk. Selling (writing) and buying options are speculative activities and entail greater than ordinary investment risks. The Fund’s use of put options can lead to losses because of adverse movements in the price or value of the underlying asset, which may be magnified by certain features of the options. When selling a put option, the Fund will receive a premium; however, this premium may not be enough to offset a loss incurred by the Fund if the price of the underlying asset is below the strike price by an amount equal to or greater than the premium. Purchasing of put options involves the payment of premiums, which may adversely affect the Fund’s performance. Purchasing a put option gives the purchaser of the option the right to sell a specified quantity of an underlying asset at a fixed exercise price over a defined period of time. Purchased put options may expire worthless resulting in the Fund’s loss of the premium it paid for the option.
The value of an option may be adversely affected if the market for the option becomes less liquid or smaller, and will be affected by changes in the value or yield of the option’s underlying asset, an increase in interest rates, a change in the actual or perceived volatility of the stock market or the underlying asset and the remaining time to expiration. Additionally, the value of an option does not increase or decrease at the same rate as the underlying asset. The Fund’s use of options may reduce the Fund’s ability to profit from increases in the value of the underlying asset. If the price of the underlying asset of an option is above the strike price of a written put option, the value of the option, and consequently of the Fund, may decline significantly more than if the Fund invested directly in the underlying asset instead of using options. While the Fund will segregate liquid assets at least equal in value to the maximum potential loss for the Fund, the Fund could still lose a significant amount or nearly all of its value if the price of an underlying asset changes significantly enough.
Tax Risk. If positions held by the Fund were treated as “straddles” for federal income tax purposes, or the Fund’s risk of loss with respect to a position was otherwise diminished as set forth in Treasury regulations, dividends on stocks that are a part of such positions would not constitute qualified dividend income subject to such favorable income tax treatment in the hands of non-corporate shareholders or eligible for the dividends received deduction for corporate shareholders. In addition, generally, straddles are subject to certain rules that may affect the amount, character and timing of the Fund’s gains and losses with respect to straddle positions.
Performance
The following performance information indicates some of the risks of investing in the Fund. The bar chart shows the Fund’s performance for the calendar year ended December 31. The table illustrates how the Fund’s average annual returns for the 1-year and since inception periods compared with those of a broad measure of market performance. The Fund’s past performance, before and
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after taxes, does not necessarily indicate how it will perform in the future. Updated performance information is also available on the Fund’s website at www.overlayshares.com or by calling the Fund at 1-866-704-6857.
Calendar Year Total Return
ck0001683471-20210831_g3.jpg
The calendar year-to-date total return of the Fund as of September 30, 2021 was 5.90%. During the period of time shown in the bar chart, the highest quarterly return was 10.58% for the quarter ended June 30, 2020, and the lowest quarterly return was -19.21% for the quarter ended March 31, 2020.
Average Annual Total Returns
(for periods ended December 31, 2020)
Overlay Shares Foreign Equity ETF
1-Year
Since Inception
(9/30/2019)
Return Before Taxes 2.59% 6.28%
Return After Taxes on Distributions 1.85% 5.18%
Return After Taxes on Distributions and Sale of Shares 1.84% 4.59%
MSCI AC World Index ex USA Index
(reflects no deduction for fees, expenses, or taxes)
10.65% 16.08%
After-tax returns are calculated using the historical highest individual federal marginal income tax rates during the period covered by the table above and do not reflect the impact of state and local taxes. Actual after-tax returns depend on an investor’s tax situation and may differ from those shown. After-tax returns shown are not relevant to investors who hold their shares through tax-deferred arrangements such as an individual retirement account (“IRA”) or other tax-advantaged accounts.
Portfolio Management
Adviser
Liquid Strategies, LLC
Portfolio Managers
Bradley Ball, Adam Stewart, CFA, Shawn Gibson and Justin Boller, CFA, have been portfolio managers of the Fund since its inception in 2019.
Purchase and Sale of Shares
The Fund issues and redeems Shares at NAV only in large blocks known as “Creation Units,” which only APs (typically, broker-dealers) may purchase or redeem. The Fund generally issues and redeems Creation Units in exchange for a portfolio of securities (the “Deposit Securities”) and/or a designated amount of U.S. cash.
Shares are listed on the Exchange, and individual Shares may only be bought and sold in the secondary market through a broker or dealer at market prices, rather than NAV. Because Shares trade at market prices rather than NAV, Shares may trade at a price greater than NAV (premium) or less than NAV (discount).
An investor may incur costs attributable to the difference between the highest price a buyer is willing to pay to purchase Shares (the “bid” price) and the lowest price a seller is willing to accept for Shares (the “ask” price) when buying or selling Shares in the secondary market. The difference in the bid and ask prices is referred to as the “bid-ask spread.”
Recent information regarding the Fund’s NAV, market price, how often Shares traded on the Exchange at a premium or discount, and bid-ask spreads can be found on the Fund’s website at www.overlayshares.com.
Tax Information
Fund distributions are generally taxable as ordinary income, qualified dividend income, or capital gains (or a combination), unless your investment is in an IRA or other tax-advantaged account. Distributions on investments made through tax-deferred arrangements may be taxed later upon withdrawal of assets from those accounts.
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Financial Intermediary Compensation
If you purchase Shares through a broker-dealer or other financial intermediary (such as a bank) (an “Intermediary”), the Adviser or its affiliates may pay Intermediaries for certain activities related to the Fund, including participation in activities that are designed to make Intermediaries more knowledgeable about exchange-traded products, including the Fund, or for other activities, such as marketing, educational training or other initiatives related to the sale or promotion of Shares. These payments may create a conflict of interest by influencing the Intermediary and your salesperson to recommend the Fund over another investment. Any such arrangements do not result in increased Fund expenses. Ask your salesperson or visit the Intermediary’s website for more information.
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OVERLAY SHARES HEDGED LARGE CAP EQUITY ETF
Investment Objective
The Overlay Shares Hedged Large Cap Equity ETF (the “Fund” or “Hedged Large Cap Equity ETF”) seeks total return.
Fees and Expenses of the Fund
This table describes the fees and expenses that you may pay if you buy, hold, and sell shares of the Fund (“Shares”). You may pay other fees, such as brokerage commissions and other fees to financial intermediaries, which are not reflected in the table and Example below.
Shareholder Fees (fees paid directly from your investment)
None
Annual Fund Operating Expenses (expenses that you pay each year as a percentage of the value of your investment)
Management Fee 0.75%
Distribution and/or Service (12b-1) Fees 0.00%
Other Expenses 0.06%
Acquired Fund Fees and Expenses*
0.02%
Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses 0.83%
* Acquired Fund Fees and Expenses (“AFFE”) are the indirect costs of investing in other investment companies. Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses do not correlate to the expense ratios in the Fund’s Financial Highlights because the Financial Highlights include only the direct operating expenses incurred by the Fund and exclude AFFE.
Example
This Example is intended to help you compare the cost of investing in the Fund with the cost of investing in other funds. The Example assumes that you invest $10,000 in the Fund for the time periods indicated and then redeem all of your Shares at the end of those periods. The Example also assumes that your investment has a 5% return each year and that the Fund’s operating expenses remain the same. The Example does not take into account brokerage commissions that you may pay on your purchases and sales of Shares. Although your actual costs may be higher or lower, based on these assumptions your costs would be:
1 Year: $85 3 Years: $265 5 Years: $460 10 Years: $1,025
Portfolio Turnover
The Fund pays transaction costs, such as commissions, when it buys and sells securities (or “turns over” its portfolio). A higher portfolio turnover rate may indicate higher transaction costs and may result in higher taxes when Shares are held in a taxable account. These costs, which are not reflected in the Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses or in the Example, affect the Fund’s performance. This rate excludes the value of portfolio securities received or delivered as a result of in-kind creations or redemptions of the Fund’s Shares and securities, including options, whose maturities or expiration dates at the time of acquisition were one year or less. For the fiscal period January 14, 2021 (commencement of operations) through August 31, 2021, the Fund’s portfolio turnover rate was 13% of the average value of its portfolio.
Principal Investment Strategies
The Fund is an actively-managed exchange-traded fund (“ETF”) that seeks to achieve its objective by (i) investing in one or more other ETFs that seek to obtain exposure to the performance of U.S. large-cap equity securities or directly in the securities held by such ETFs (collectively, the “Underlying Investments”), (ii) selling and purchasing listed short-term put options (“put spreads”) to generate income to the Fund (the “Overlay Strategy”), and (iii) purchasing long-term out-of-the-money put options (i.e., put options with a strike price below the current price of the reference asset) to seek to hedge against significant declines in U.S. large-cap equities. Under normal circumstances, at least 80% of the Fund’s net assets, plus borrowings for investment purposes, will be invested, directly or indirectly through ETFs, in equity securities of large-cap companies.
The Fund’s Overlay Strategy seeks to generate income for the Fund by utilizing a “put spread” consisting of the sale of exchange-listed short-term put options (“Short Puts”) with a notional value (strike price times the value of the shares) up to 100% of the Fund’s net assets and the purchase of an identical number of short-term put options (“Long Puts”) with a lower strike price. The Fund seeks to generate income from the sale and purchase of put options with a lower strike price to hedge against a decline in the options’ underlying asset, the S&P 500 Index, which consists of approximately 500 leading U.S.-listed companies representing approximately 80% of the U.S. equity market capitalization.
In addition to the Fund’s Overlay Strategy, the Fund seeks to mitigate the risks of significant declines in U.S. large-cap equities by purchasing a series of long-term out-of-the-money put options on the S&P 500 Index with a notional value generally approximating the Fund’s net asset value.
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A put option gives the purchaser of the option, in exchange for the premium paid, the right to sell the underlying asset at a specified price (“strike price”) at a specified date (“expiration date”). In contrast, the seller of a put option, in exchange for the premium received, is obligated to sell the underlying asset at the strike price on the expiration date. In the event the underlying asset declines in value, the value of a put option will generally increase. In the event the underlying asset appreciates in value, the value of a put option will generally decrease. The options sold by the Fund are expected to have an expiration date within one to two weeks of their purchase date. The strike price of the Short Puts will typically be less than the value of the S&P 500 Index at the time such options are sold, and the strike price of the Long Puts will be less than the strike price of the Short Puts. The difference between such strike prices is based on the Adviser’s judgment as to the level of expected volatility in the market prior to the options’ expiration. Because the Long Puts used in the Fund’s put spreads will have a lower strike price than the Short Puts, the Long Puts are not expected to completely protect the Fund from a decline in the value of large-cap equities.
The Fund’s Overlay Strategy is designed to seek to generate a positive return in rising and flat equity markets, and may generate a positive return in equity markets that are modestly declining, assuming the net premium collected from the options sold and purchased exceeds the net cost to close the positions and the cost of purchasing Long Puts as part of the Fund’s hedging strategy. In an effort to limit losses in declining equity markets, the Fund may reduce its sale of Short Puts and/or purchase of Long Puts with strike prices closer to the strike prices of the Short Puts.
The Fund focuses primarily on equity index options which offer both European settlement (i.e., options can only be exercised at their expiration date) and cash settlement (i.e., options carry an obligation by their seller to pay the difference between their strike price and their settlement value instead of allowing the seller to take delivery of securities).
The potential returns of the Fund are generally limited to the amount of cash (premiums) the Fund receives when selling Short Puts, net of any cash (premiums) paid by the Fund to purchase Long Puts, plus the returns of the Underlying Investments in which the Fund invests. The Fund’s sale and purchase of put options may result in the generation of positive returns for the Fund; however, the loss potential if the strategy is not effective may be greater than the profit potential. The Fund may lose significantly more than the premiums it receives in highly volatile market conditions.
The Fund will segregate cash and/or other liquid assets in an amount equal to the Fund’s obligations under each Short Put so that each option sold will be secured, or “covered.” The Adviser intends to limit the use of leverage by ensuring that the Fund’s potential obligations from the Short Puts will not exceed the Fund’s total net assets.
The Adviser employs a disciplined portfolio construction process that relies on guidelines to govern capital allocations based on a quantitative methodology designed by the Adviser to measure the perceived risk of the broad U.S. equity market. In making this determination, the Adviser considers various factors including but not limited to the overall volatility (rate of change) in the markets. The Adviser bases allocation decisions on a combination of quantitative risk metrics and a qualitative assessment of potential risk/reward scenarios, with the ultimate goals of mitigating the effects of volatility in the Fund’s portfolio and maintaining adequate portfolio diversification while seeking to achieve the Fund’s targeted return. The Adviser evaluates the metrics associated with the valuation of options, including volatility, time to expiration and the relationship of the exercise price to the prevailing market price of the reference asset. There can be no guarantee that the Adviser will be successful in implementing the Fund’s strategy. During market conditions in which market volatility rises, the price of options could rise, which, in turn, could have a detrimental effect on written options and a positive effect on purchased options, thus affecting the Fund’s performance and ability to achieve its targeted return.
Principal Investment Risks
The principal risks of investing in the Fund are summarized below. The principal risks are presented in alphabetical order to facilitate finding particular risks and comparing them with those of other funds. Each risk summarized below is considered a “principal risk” of investing in the Fund, regardless of the order in which it appears. As with any investment, there is a risk that you could lose all or a portion of your investment in the Fund. Some or all of these risks may adversely affect the Fund’s net asset value (“NAV”), trading price, yield, total return and/or ability to meet its objective. The following risks could affect the value of your investment in the Fund:
Derivatives Securities Risk. The Fund invests in options that derive their performance from the performance of the S&P 500 Index. Derivatives, such as the options in which the Fund invests, can be volatile and involve various types and degrees of risks, depending upon the characteristics of a particular derivative. Derivatives may entail investment exposures that are greater than their cost would suggest, meaning that a small investment in a derivative could have a substantial impact on the performance of the Fund. The Fund could experience a loss if its derivatives do not perform as anticipated, or are not correlated with the performance of their underlying asset or if the Fund is unable to purchase or liquidate a position because of an illiquid secondary market. The market for many derivatives is, or suddenly can become, illiquid. Changes in liquidity may result in significant, rapid, and unpredictable changes in the prices for derivatives.
Equity Market Risk. The trading prices of equity securities and other instruments fluctuate in response to a variety of factors. The Fund’s NAV and market price may fluctuate significantly in response to these and other factors. As a result, an investor could lose money over short or long periods of time.
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ETF Risks. The Fund is an ETF and invests in other ETFs, and, as a result of this structure, is exposed directly or indirectly to the following risks:
Authorized Participants, Market Makers, and Liquidity Providers Concentration Risk. The Fund has a limited number of financial institutions that may act as Authorized Participants (“APs”). In addition, there may be a limited number of market makers and/or liquidity providers in the marketplace. To the extent either of the following events occur, Shares may trade at a material discount to NAV and possibly face delisting: (i) APs exit the business or otherwise become unable to process creation and/or redemption orders and no other APs step forward to perform these services, or (ii) market makers and/or liquidity providers exit the business or significantly reduce their business activities and no other entities step forward to perform their functions.
Cash Redemption Risk. The Fund’s investment strategy may require it to redeem Shares for cash or to otherwise include cash as part of its redemption proceeds. For example, the Fund may not be able to redeem in-kind certain securities held by the Fund (e.g., short positions and derivative instruments). In such a case, the Fund may be required to sell or unwind portfolio investments to obtain the cash needed to distribute redemption proceeds. This may cause the Fund to recognize a capital gain that it might not have recognized if it had made a redemption in-kind. As a result, the Fund may pay out higher annual capital gain distributions than if the in-kind redemption process was used.
Costs of Buying or Selling Shares. Due to the costs of buying or selling Shares, including brokerage commissions imposed by brokers and bid/ask spreads, frequent trading of Shares may significantly reduce investment results and an investment in Shares may not be advisable for investors who anticipate regularly making small investments.
Shares May Trade at Prices Other Than NAV. As with all ETFs, Shares may be bought and sold in the secondary market at market prices. Although it is expected that the market price of Shares will approximate the Fund’s NAV, there may be times when the market price of Shares is more than the NAV intra-day (premium) or less than the NAV intra-day (discount) due to supply and demand of Shares or during periods of market volatility. This risk is heightened in times of market volatility, periods of steep market declines, and periods when there is limited trading activity for Shares in the secondary market, in which case such premiums or discounts may be significant.
Trading. Although Shares are listed for trading on the NYSE Arca, Inc. (the “Exchange”) and may be traded on U.S. exchanges other than the Exchange, there can be no assurance that Shares will trade with any volume, or at all, on any stock exchange. In stressed market conditions, the liquidity of Shares may begin to mirror the liquidity of the Fund’s underlying portfolio holdings, which can be significantly less liquid than Shares.
Implied Volatility Risk. When the Fund sells an option, it gains the amount of the premium it receives, but also incurs a liability representing the value of the option it has sold until the option is either exercised and finishes “in the money,” meaning it has value and can be sold, or the option expires worthless, or the expiration of the option is “rolled,” or extended forward. The value of the options in which the Fund invests is based partly on the volatility used by market participants to price such options (i.e., implied volatility). Accordingly, increases in the implied volatility of such options will cause the value of such options to increase (even if the prices of the options’ underlying stocks do not change), which will result in a corresponding increase in the liabilities of the Fund under such options and thus decrease the Fund’s NAV.
Limited Operating History. The Fund is a recently organized investment company with a limited operating history. As a result, prospective investors have a limited track record or history on which to base their investment decision.
Market Capitalization Risk.
Large-Capitalization Investing. The securities of large-capitalization companies may be relatively mature compared to smaller companies and therefore subject to slower growth during times of economic expansion. Large-capitalization companies may also be unable to respond quickly to new competitive challenges, such as changes in technology and consumer tastes.
Market Risk. The trading prices of securities and other instruments fluctuate in response to a variety of factors. These factors include events impacting the entire market or specific market segments, such as political, market and economic developments, as well as events that impact specific issuers. The Fund’s NAV and market price, like security and commodity prices generally, may fluctuate significantly in response to these and other factors. As a result, an investor could lose money over short or long periods of time. U.S. and international markets have experienced significant periods of volatility in recent years due to a number of these factors, including the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and related public health issues, growth concerns in the U.S. and overseas, uncertainties regarding interest rates, trade tensions and the threat of tariffs imposed by the U.S. and other countries. These developments as well as other events could result in further market volatility and negatively affect financial asset prices, the liquidity of certain securities and the normal operations of securities exchanges and other markets. It is unknown how long circumstances related to the pandemic will persist, whether they will reoccur in the future, whether efforts to support the economy and financial markets will be successful, and what additional implications may follow from the pandemic. The impact of these events and other epidemics or pandemics in the future could adversely affect Fund performance.
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Options Risk. Selling (writing) and buying options are speculative activities and entail greater than ordinary investment risks. The Fund’s use of put options can lead to losses because of adverse movements in the price or value of the underlying asset, which may be magnified by certain features of the options. When selling a put option, the Fund will receive a premium; however, this premium may not be enough to offset a loss incurred by the Fund if the price of the underlying asset is below the strike price by an amount equal to or greater than the premium. Purchasing of put options involves the payment of premiums, which may adversely affect the Fund’s performance. Purchasing a put option gives the purchaser of the option the right to sell a specified quantity of an underlying asset at a fixed exercise price over a defined period of time. Purchased put options may expire worthless resulting in the Fund’s loss of the premium it paid for the option.
The value of an option may be adversely affected if the market for the option becomes less liquid or smaller, and will be affected by changes in the value or yield of the option’s underlying asset, an increase in interest rates, a change in the actual or perceived volatility of the stock market or the underlying asset and the remaining time to expiration. Additionally, the value of an option does not increase or decrease at the same rate as the underlying asset. The Fund’s use of options may reduce the Fund’s ability to profit from increases in the value of the underlying asset. If the price of the underlying asset of an option is above the strike price of a written put option, the value of the option, and consequently of the Fund, may decline significantly more than if the Fund invested directly in the underlying asset instead of using options. While the Fund will segregate liquid assets at least equal in value to the maximum potential loss for the Fund, the Fund could still lose a significant amount or nearly all of its value if the price of an underlying asset changes significantly enough.
Tax Risk. If positions held by the Fund were treated as “straddles” for federal income tax purposes, or the Fund’s risk of loss with respect to a position was otherwise diminished as set forth in Treasury regulations, dividends on stocks that are a part of such positions would not constitute qualified dividend income subject to such favorable income tax treatment in the hands of non-corporate shareholders or eligible for the dividends received deduction for corporate shareholders. In addition, generally, straddles are subject to certain rules that may affect the amount, character and timing of the Fund’s gains and losses with respect to straddle positions.
Performance
Performance information for the Fund is not included because the Fund did not have a full calendar year of performance prior to the date of this Prospectus. In the future, performance information for the Fund will be presented in this section. Updated performance information is available on the Fund’s website at www.overlayshares.com or by calling the Fund toll-free at 1-866-704-6857.
Portfolio Management
Adviser
Liquid Strategies, LLC
Portfolio Managers
Bradley Ball, Adam Stewart, CFA, Shawn Gibson and Justin Boller, CFA, have been portfolio managers of the Fund since its inception in January 2021.
Purchase and Sale of Shares
The Fund issues and redeems Shares at NAV only in large blocks known as “Creation Units,” which only APs (typically, broker-dealers) may purchase or redeem. The Fund generally issues and redeems Creation Units in exchange for a portfolio of securities (the “Deposit Securities”) and/or a designated amount of U.S. cash.
Shares are listed on the Exchange, and individual Shares may only be bought and sold in the secondary market through a broker or dealer at market prices, rather than NAV. Because Shares trade at market prices rather than NAV, Shares may trade at a price greater than NAV (premium) or less than NAV (discount).
An investor may incur costs attributable to the difference between the highest price a buyer is willing to pay to purchase Shares (the “bid” price) and the lowest price a seller is willing to accept for Shares (the “ask” price) when buying or selling Shares in the secondary market. The difference in the bid and ask prices is referred to as the “bid-ask spread.”
Recent information regarding the Fund’s NAV, market price, how often Shares traded on the Exchange at a premium or discount, and bid-ask spreads can be found on the Fund’s website at www.overlayshares.com.
Tax Information
Fund distributions are generally taxable as ordinary income, qualified dividend income, or capital gains (or a combination), unless your investment is in an individual retirement account (“IRA”) or other tax-advantaged account. Distributions on investments made through tax-deferred arrangements may be taxed later upon withdrawal of assets from those accounts.
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Financial Intermediary Compensation
If you purchase Shares through a broker-dealer or other financial intermediary (such as a bank) (an “Intermediary”), the Adviser or its affiliates may pay Intermediaries for certain activities related to the Fund, including participation in activities that are designed to make Intermediaries more knowledgeable about exchange-traded products, including the Fund, or for other activities, such as marketing, educational training or other initiatives related to the sale or promotion of Shares. These payments may create a conflict of interest by influencing the Intermediary and your salesperson to recommend the Fund over another investment. Any such arrangements do not result in increased Fund expenses. Ask your salesperson or visit the Intermediary’s website for more information.
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OVERLAY SHARES CORE BOND ETF
Investment Objective
The Overlay Shares Core Bond ETF (the “Fund” or “Core Bond ETF”) seeks total return.
Fees and Expenses of the Fund
This table describes the fees and expenses that you may pay if you buy, hold, and sell shares of the Fund (“Shares”). You may pay other fees, such as brokerage commissions and other fees to financial intermediaries, which are not reflected in the table and Example below.
Shareholder Fees (fees paid directly from your investment)
None
Annual Fund Operating Expenses (expenses that you pay each year as a percentage of the value of your investment)
Management Fees 0.75%
Distribution and/or Service (12b-1) Fees 0.00%
Other Expenses 0.02%
Acquired Fund Fees and Expenses*
0.03%
Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses 0.80%
* Acquired Fund Fees and Expenses (“AFFE”) are the indirect costs of investing in other investment companies. Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses do not correlate to the expense ratios in the Fund’s Financial Highlights because the Financial Highlights include only the direct operating expenses incurred by the Fund and exclude AFFE.
Example
This Example is intended to help you compare the cost of investing in the Fund with the cost of investing in other funds. The Example assumes that you invest $10,000 in the Fund for the time periods indicated and then redeem all of your Shares at the end of those periods. The Example also assumes that your investment has a 5% return each year and that the Fund’s operating expenses remain the same. The Example does not take into account brokerage commissions that you may pay on your purchases and sales of Shares. Although your actual costs may be higher or lower, based on these assumptions your costs would be:
1 Year: $82 3 Years: $255 5 Years: $444 10 Years: $990
Portfolio Turnover
The Fund pays transaction costs, such as commissions, when it buys and sells securities (or “turns over” its portfolio). A higher portfolio turnover rate may indicate higher transaction costs and may result in higher taxes when Shares are held in a taxable account. These costs, which are not reflected in the Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses or in the Example, affect the Fund’s performance. For the fiscal year ended August 31, 2021, the Fund’s portfolio turnover rate was 7% of the average value of its portfolio.
Principal Investment Strategies
The Fund is an actively-managed exchange-traded fund (“ETF”) that seeks to achieve its objective by (i) investing in one or more other ETFs that seek to obtain exposure to the performance of investment grade, U.S. dollar-denominated, fixed-rate taxable bonds or directly in the securities held by such ETFs (collectively, the “Underlying Investments”) and (ii) selling and purchasing listed short-term put options to generate income to the Fund (the “Overlay Strategy”).
The Fund’s Overlay Strategy seeks to generate income for the Fund by utilizing a “put spread” consisting of the sale of exchange-listed short-term put options (“Short Puts”) with a notional value (strike price times the value of the shares) up to 100% of the Fund’s net assets and the purchase of an identical number of short-term put options (“Long Puts”) with a lower strike price. The Fund seeks to generate income from the sale and purchase of put options with a lower strike price to hedge against a decline in the options’ underlying asset, the S&P 500 Index, which consists of approximately 500 leading U.S.-listed companies representing approximately 80% of the U.S. equity market capitalization.
A put option gives the purchaser of the option, in exchange for the premium paid, the right to sell the underlying asset at a specified price (“strike price”) at a specified date (“expiration date”). In contrast, the seller of a put option, in exchange for the premium received, is obligated to sell the underlying asset at the strike price on the expiration date. In the event the underlying asset declines in value, the value of a put option will generally increase. In the event the underlying asset appreciates in value, the value of a put option will generally decrease. The options sold by the Fund are expected to have an expiration date within one to two weeks of their purchase date. The strike price of the Short Puts will typically be less than the value of the S&P 500 Index at the time such options are sold, and the strike price of the Long Puts will be less than the strike price of the Short Puts. The difference between such strike prices is based on Liquid Strategies, LLC’s (the “Adviser”) judgment as to the level of expected volatility in the market prior to the options’
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expiration. Because the Long Puts will have a lower strike price than the Short Puts, the Long Puts are not expected to completely protect the Fund from a decline in the value of the S&P 500 Index.
The Fund’s Overlay Strategy is designed to seek to generate a positive return in rising and flat equity markets, and may generate a positive return in equity markets that are modestly declining, assuming the net premium collected from the options sold and purchased exceeds the net cost to close the positions. In an effort to limit losses in declining equity markets, the Fund may reduce its sale of Short Puts and/or purchase of Long Puts with strike prices closer to the strike prices of the Short Puts.
The Fund focuses primarily on equity index options which offer both European settlement (i.e., options can only be exercised at their expiration date) and cash settlement (i.e., options carry an obligation by their seller to pay the difference between their strike price and their settlement value instead of allowing the seller to take delivery of securities).
The potential returns of the Fund are generally limited to the amount of cash (premiums) the Fund receives when selling Short Puts, net of any cash (premiums) paid by the Fund to purchase Long Puts, plus the returns of the Underlying Investments in which the Fund invests. The Fund’s sale and purchase of put options may result in the generation of positive returns for the Fund; however, the loss potential if the strategy is not effective may be greater than the profit potential. The Fund may lose significantly more than the premiums it receives in highly volatile market conditions.
The Fund will segregate cash and/or other liquid assets in an amount equal to the Fund’s obligations under each Short Put so that each option sold will be secured, or “covered.” The Adviser intends to limit the use of leverage by ensuring that the Fund’s potential obligations from the Short Puts will not exceed the Fund’s total net assets.
The Adviser employs a disciplined portfolio construction process that relies on guidelines to govern capital allocations based on a quantitative methodology designed by the Adviser to measure the perceived risk of the broad U.S. equity market. In making this determination, the Adviser considers various factors including but not limited to the overall volatility (rate of change) in the markets. The Adviser bases allocation decisions on a combination of quantitative risk metrics and a qualitative assessment of potential risk/reward scenarios, with the ultimate goals of mitigating the effects of volatility in the Fund’s portfolio and maintaining adequate portfolio diversification while seeking to achieve the Fund’s targeted return. The Adviser evaluates the metrics associated with the valuation of options, including volatility, time to expiration and the relationship of the exercise price to the prevailing market price of the reference asset. There can be no guarantee that the Adviser will be successful in implementing the Fund’s strategy. During market conditions in which market volatility rises, the price of options could rise, which, in turn, could have a detrimental effect on the Fund’s performance and achieving its targeted return.
Principal Investment Risks
The principal risks of investing in the Fund are summarized below. The principal risks are presented in alphabetical order to facilitate finding particular risks and comparing them with those of other funds. Each risk summarized below is considered a “principal risk” of investing in the Fund, regardless of the order in which it appears. As with any investment, there is a risk that you could lose all or a portion of your investment in the Fund. Some or all of these risks may adversely affect the Fund’s net asset value (“NAV”), trading price, yield, total return and/or ability to meet its objective. The following risks could affect the value of your investment in the Fund:
Derivatives Securities Risk. The Fund invests in options that derive their performance from the performance of the S&P 500 Index. Derivatives, such as the options in which the Fund invests, can be volatile and involve various types and degrees of risks, depending upon the characteristics of a particular derivative. Derivatives may entail investment exposures that are greater than their cost would suggest, meaning that a small investment in a derivative could have a substantial impact on the performance of the Fund. The Fund could experience a loss if its derivatives do not perform as anticipated, or are not correlated with the performance of their underlying asset or if the Fund is unable to purchase or liquidate a position because of an illiquid secondary market. The market for many derivatives is, or suddenly can become, illiquid. Changes in liquidity may result in significant, rapid, and unpredictable changes in the prices for derivatives.
ETF Risks. The Fund is an ETF and invests in other ETFs, and, as a result of this structure, is exposed directly or indirectly to the following risks:
Authorized Participants, Market Makers, and Liquidity Providers Concentration Risk. The Fund has a limited number of financial institutions that may act as Authorized Participants (“APs”). In addition, there may be a limited number of market makers and/or liquidity providers in the marketplace. To the extent either of the following events occur, Shares may trade at a material discount to NAV and possibly face delisting: (i) APs exit the business or otherwise become unable to process creation and/or redemption orders and no other APs step forward to perform these services, or (ii) market makers and/or liquidity providers exit the business or significantly reduce their business activities and no other entities step forward to perform their functions.
Cash Redemption Risk. The Fund’s investment strategy may require it to redeem Shares for cash or to otherwise include cash as part of its redemption proceeds. For example, the Fund may not be able to redeem in-kind certain securities held by the Fund (e.g., short positions, derivative instruments, and bonds that cannot be broken up beyond certain minimum sizes needed
24


for transfer and settlement). In such a case, the Fund may be required to sell or unwind portfolio investments to obtain the cash needed to distribute redemption proceeds. This may cause the Fund to recognize a capital gain that it might not have recognized if it had made a redemption in-kind. As a result, the Fund may pay out higher annual capital gain distributions than if the in-kind redemption process was used.
Costs of Buying or Selling Shares. Due to the costs of buying or selling Shares, including brokerage commissions imposed by brokers and bid/ask spreads, frequent trading of Shares may significantly reduce investment results and an investment in Shares may not be advisable for investors who anticipate regularly making small investments.
Shares May Trade at Prices Other Than NAV. As with all ETFs, Shares may be bought and sold in the secondary market at market prices. Although it is expected that the market price of Shares will approximate the Fund’s NAV, there may be times when the market price of Shares is more than the NAV intra-day (premium) or less than the NAV intra-day (discount) due to supply and demand of Shares or during periods of market volatility. This risk is heightened in times of market volatility, periods of steep market declines, and periods when there is limited trading activity for Shares in the secondary market, in which case such premiums or discounts may be significant.
Trading. Although Shares are listed for trading on the NYSE Arca, Inc. (the “Exchange”) and may be traded on U.S. exchanges other than the Exchange, there can be no assurance that Shares will trade with any volume, or at all, on any stock exchange. In stressed market conditions, the liquidity of Shares may begin to mirror the liquidity of the Fund’s underlying portfolio holdings, which can be significantly less liquid than Shares.
Fixed Income Risk. Current market conditions and the actions of governmental authorities and regulators in response to COVID-19 and its far-reaching effects present heightened risks to the fixed income market generally. Such risks could be further heightened if such market conditions become more volatile or the governmental and regulatory actions are unexpectedly or suddenly reversed or are ineffective in achieving their desired outcomes. In addition, the current environment is exposing fixed-income and debt markets to significant volatility and reduced liquidity for Fund investments.
Call Risk. During periods of falling interest rates, an issuer of a callable bond held by the Fund may “call” or repay the security before its stated maturity, and the Fund may have to reinvest the proceeds at lower interest rates, resulting in a decline in the Fund’s income.
Credit Risk. Debt issuers and other counterparties may not honor their obligations or may have their debt downgraded by ratings agencies.
Extension Risk. During periods of rising interest rates, certain debt obligations will be paid off substantially more slowly than originally anticipated and the value of those securities may fall sharply, resulting in a decline in the Fund’s income and potentially in the value of the Fund’s investments.
Interest Rate Risk. An increase in interest rates may cause the value of fixed-income securities held by the Fund to decline. The Fund may be subject to a greater risk of rising interest rates due to the current period of historically low rates and the effect of potential government fiscal policy initiatives and resulting market reaction to those initiatives.
Government Obligations Risk. U.S. government securities are subject to price fluctuations and to default in the event that an agency or instrumentality defaults on an obligation not backed by the full faith and credit of the United States.
Implied Volatility Risk. When the Fund sells an option, it gains the amount of the premium it receives, but also incurs a liability representing the value of the option it has sold until the option is either exercised and finishes “in the money,” meaning it has value and can be sold, or the option expires worthless, or the expiration of the option is “rolled,” or extended forward. The value of the options in which the Fund invests is based partly on the volatility used by market participants to price such options (i.e., implied volatility). Accordingly, increases in the implied volatility of such options will cause the value of such options to increase (even if the prices of the options’ underlying stocks do not change), which will result in a corresponding increase in the liabilities of the Fund under such options and thus decrease the Fund’s NAV.
Limited Operating History. The Fund is a recently organized investment company with a limited operating history. As a result, prospective investors have a limited track record or history on which to base their investment decision.
Market Risk. The trading prices of securities and other instruments fluctuate in response to a variety of factors. These factors include events impacting the entire market or specific market segments, such as political, market and economic developments, as well as events that impact specific issuers. The Fund’s NAV and market price, like security and commodity prices generally, may fluctuate significantly in response to these and other factors. As a result, an investor could lose money over short or long periods of time. U.S. and international markets have experienced significant periods of volatility in recent years due to a number of these factors, including the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and related public health issues, growth concerns in the U.S. and overseas, uncertainties regarding interest rates, trade tensions and the threat of tariffs imposed by the U.S. and other countries. These developments as well as other events could result in further market volatility and negatively affect financial asset prices, the
25


liquidity of certain securities and the normal operations of securities exchanges and other markets. It is unknown how long circumstances related to the pandemic will persist, whether they will reoccur in the future, whether efforts to support the economy and financial markets will be successful, and what additional implications may follow from the pandemic. The impact of these events and other epidemics or pandemics in the future could adversely affect Fund performance.
Mortgage- and Asset-Backed Securities Risk. The Fund may invest in U.S. government agency-backed mortgage- and asset-backed securities. Mortgage- and asset-backed securities are subject to interest rate risk. Modest movements in interest rates (both increases and decreases) may quickly and significantly reduce the value of certain types of these securities. When interest rates fall, mortgage- and asset-backed securities may be subject to prepayment risk. When interest rates rise, certain types of mortgage- and asset-backed securities are subject to extension risk. Mortgage- and asset-backed securities can also be subject to the risk of default on the underlying residential or commercial mortgage(s) or other assets.
Options Risk. Selling (writing) and buying options are speculative activities and entail greater than ordinary investment risks. The Fund’s use of put options can lead to losses because of adverse movements in the price or value of the underlying asset, which may be magnified by certain features of the options. When selling a put option, the Fund will receive a premium; however, this premium may not be enough to offset a loss incurred by the Fund if the price of the underlying asset is below the strike price by an amount equal to or greater than the premium. Purchasing of put options involves the payment of premiums, which may adversely affect the Fund’s performance. Purchasing a put option gives the purchaser of the option the right to sell a specified quantity of an underlying asset at a fixed exercise price over a defined period of time. Purchased put options may expire worthless resulting in the Fund’s loss of the premium it paid for the option.
The value of an option may be adversely affected if the market for the option becomes less liquid or smaller, and will be affected by changes in the value or yield of the option’s underlying asset, an increase in interest rates, a change in the actual or perceived volatility of the stock market or the underlying asset and the remaining time to expiration. Additionally, the value of an option does not increase or decrease at the same rate as the underlying asset. The Fund’s use of options may reduce the Fund’s ability to profit from increases in the value of the underlying asset. If the price of the underlying asset of an option is above the strike price of a written put option, the value of the option, and consequently of the Fund, may decline significantly more than if the Fund invested directly in the underlying asset instead of using options. While the Fund will segregate liquid assets at least equal in value to the maximum potential loss for the Fund, the Fund could still lose a significant amount or nearly all of its value if the price of an underlying asset changes significantly enough.
Tax Risk. If positions held by the Fund were treated as “straddles” for federal income tax purposes, or the Fund’s risk of loss with respect to a position was otherwise diminished as set forth in Treasury regulations, dividends on stocks that are a part of such positions would not constitute qualified dividend income subject to such favorable income tax treatment in the hands of non-corporate shareholders or eligible for the dividends received deduction for corporate shareholders. In addition, generally, straddles are subject to certain rules that may affect the amount, character and timing of the Fund’s gains and losses with respect to straddle positions.
Performance
The following performance information indicates some of the risks of investing in the Fund. The bar chart shows the Fund’s performance for the calendar year ended December 31. The table illustrates how the Fund’s average annual returns for the 1-year and since inception periods compared with those of a broad measure of market performance. The Fund’s past performance, before and after taxes, does not necessarily indicate how it will perform in the future. Updated performance information is also available on the Fund’s website at www.overlayshares.com or by calling the Fund at 1-866-704-6857.
Calendar Year Total Return
ck0001683471-20210831_g4.jpg
The calendar year-to-date total return of the Fund as of September 30, 2021 was 0.12%. During the period of time shown in the bar chart, the highest quarterly return was 4.74% for the quarter ended June 30, 2020, and the lowest quarterly return was 0.86% for the quarter ended March 31, 2020.
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Average Annual Total Returns
(for periods ended December 31, 2020)
Overlay Shares Core Bond ETF
1-Year
Since Inception
(9/30/2019)
Return Before Taxes 9.04% 8.22%
Return After Taxes on Distributions 7.49% 6.80%
Return After Taxes on Distributions and Sale of Shares 5.50% 5.75%
Bloomberg U.S. Aggregate Bond Index
(reflects no deduction for fees, expenses, or taxes)
7.51% 6.10%
After-tax returns are calculated using the historical highest individual federal marginal income tax rates during the period covered by the table above and do not reflect the impact of state and local taxes. Actual after-tax returns depend on an investor’s tax situation and may differ from those shown. After-tax returns shown are not relevant to investors who hold their shares through tax-deferred arrangements such as an individual retirement account (“IRA”) or other tax-advantaged accounts.
Portfolio Management
Adviser
Liquid Strategies, LLC
Portfolio Managers
Bradley Ball, Adam Stewart, CFA, Shawn Gibson and Justin Boller, CFA, have been portfolio managers of the Fund since its inception in 2019.
Purchase and Sale of Shares
The Fund issues and redeems Shares at NAV only in large blocks known as “Creation Units,” which only APs (typically, broker-dealers) may purchase or redeem. The Fund generally issues and redeems Creation Units in exchange for a portfolio of securities (the “Deposit Securities”) and/or a designated amount of U.S. cash.
Shares are listed on the Exchange, and individual Shares may only be bought and sold in the secondary market through a broker or dealer at market prices, rather than NAV. Because Shares trade at market prices rather than NAV, Shares may trade at a price greater than NAV (premium) or less than NAV (discount).
An investor may incur costs attributable to the difference between the highest price a buyer is willing to pay to purchase Shares (the “bid” price) and the lowest price a seller is willing to accept for Shares (the “ask” price) when buying or selling Shares in the secondary market. The difference in the bid and ask prices is referred to as the “bid-ask spread.”
Recent information regarding the Fund’s NAV, market price, how often Shares traded on the Exchange at a premium or discount, and bid-ask spreads can be found on the Fund’s website at www.overlayshares.com.
Tax Information
Fund distributions are generally taxable as ordinary income, qualified dividend income, or capital gains (or a combination), unless your investment is in an IRA or other tax-advantaged account. Distributions on investments made through tax-deferred arrangements may be taxed later upon withdrawal of assets from those accounts.
Financial Intermediary Compensation
If you purchase Shares through a broker-dealer or other financial intermediary (such as a bank) (an “Intermediary”), the Adviser or its affiliates may pay Intermediaries for certain activities related to the Fund, including participation in activities that are designed to make Intermediaries more knowledgeable about exchange-traded products, including the Fund, or for other activities, such as marketing, educational training or other initiatives related to the sale or promotion of Shares. These payments may create a conflict of interest by influencing the Intermediary and your salesperson to recommend the Fund over another investment. Any such arrangements do not result in increased Fund expenses. Ask your salesperson or visit the Intermediary’s website for more information.
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OVERLAY SHARES SHORT TERM BOND ETF
Investment Objective
The Overlay Shares Short Term Bond ETF (the “Fund” or “Short Term Bond ETF”) seeks total return.
Fees and Expenses of the Fund
This table describes the fees and expenses that you may pay if you buy, hold, and sell shares of the Fund (“Shares”). You may pay other fees, such as brokerage commissions and other fees to financial intermediaries, which are not reflected in the table and Example below.
Shareholder Fees (fees paid directly from your investment)
None
Annual Fund Operating Expenses (expenses that you pay each year as a percentage of the value of your investment)
Management Fee 0.75%
Distribution and/or Service (12b-1) Fees 0.00%
Other Expenses 0.02%
Acquired Fund Fees and Expenses*
0.02%
Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses 0.79%
* Acquired Fund Fees and Expenses (“AFFE”) are the indirect costs of investing in other investment companies. Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses do not correlate to the expense ratios in the Fund’s Financial Highlights because the Financial Highlights include only the direct operating expenses incurred by the Fund and exclude AFFE.
Example
This Example is intended to help you compare the cost of investing in the Fund with the cost of investing in other funds. The Example assumes that you invest $10,000 in the Fund for the time periods indicated and then redeem all of your Shares at the end of those periods. The Example also assumes that your investment has a 5% return each year and that the Fund’s operating expenses remain the same. The Example does not take into account brokerage commissions that you may pay on your purchases and sales of Shares. Although your actual costs may be higher or lower, based on these assumptions your costs would be:
1 Year: $81 3 Years: $252 5 Years: $439 10 Years: $978
Portfolio Turnover
The Fund pays transaction costs, such as commissions, when it buys and sells securities (or “turns over” its portfolio). A higher portfolio turnover rate may indicate higher transaction costs and may result in higher taxes when Shares are held in a taxable account. These costs, which are not reflected in the Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses or in the Example, affect the Fund’s performance. This rate excludes the value of portfolio securities received or delivered as a result of in-kind creations or redemptions of the Fund’s Shares and securities, including options, whose maturities or expiration dates at the time of acquisition were one year or less. For the fiscal period January 14, 2021 (commencement of operations) through August 31, 2021, the Fund’s portfolio turnover rate was 3% of the average value of its portfolio.
Principal Investment Strategies
The Fund is an actively-managed exchange-traded fund (“ETF”) that seeks to achieve its objective by (i) investing in one or more other ETFs that seek to obtain exposure to the performance of short-term, investment grade, U.S. dollar-denominated, fixed-rate taxable bonds with a dollar-weighted average maturity of no more than three years with a maximum maturity of five years or directly in the securities held by such ETFs (collectively, the “Underlying Investments”) and (ii) selling and purchasing listed short-term put options (“put spreads”) to generate income to the Fund (the “Overlay Strategy”). Under normal circumstances, at least 80% of the Fund’s net assets, plus borrowings for investment purposes, will be invested, directly or indirectly through ETFs, in bonds.
The Fund’s Overlay Strategy seeks to generate income for the Fund by utilizing a “put spread” consisting of the sale of exchange-listed short-term put options (“Short Puts”) with a notional value (strike price times the value of the shares) up to 100% of the Fund’s net assets and the purchase of an identical number of short-term put options (“Long Puts”) with a lower strike price. The Fund seeks to generate income from the sale and purchase of put options with a lower strike price to hedge against a decline in the options’ underlying asset, the S&P 500 Index, which consists of approximately 500 leading U.S.-listed companies representing approximately 80% of the U.S. equity market capitalization.
A put option gives the purchaser of the option, in exchange for the premium paid, the right to sell the underlying asset at a specified price (“strike price”) at a specified date (“expiration date”). In contrast, the seller of a put option, in exchange for the premium received, is obligated to sell the underlying asset at the strike price on the expiration date. In the event the underlying asset declines in value, the value of a put option will generally increase. In the event the underlying asset appreciates in value, the value of a put option will generally decrease. The options sold by the Fund are expected to have an expiration date within one to two weeks of their
28


purchase date. The strike price of the Short Puts will typically be less than the value of the S&P 500 Index at the time such options are sold, and the strike price of the Long Puts will be less than the strike price of the Short Puts. The difference between such strike prices is based on the Adviser’s judgment as to the level of expected volatility in the market prior to the options’ expiration. Because the Long Puts will have a lower strike price than the Short Puts, the Long Puts are not expected to completely protect the Fund from a decline in the value of the S&P 500 Index.
The Fund’s Overlay Strategy is designed to seek to generate a positive return in rising and flat equity markets, and may generate a positive return in equity markets that are modestly declining, assuming the net premium collected from the options sold and purchased exceeds the net cost to close the positions. In an effort to limit losses in declining equity markets, the Fund may reduce its sale of Short Puts and/or purchase of Long Puts with strike prices closer to the strike prices of the Short Puts.
The Fund focuses primarily on equity index options which offer both European settlement (i.e., options can only be exercised at their expiration date) and cash settlement (i.e., options carry an obligation by their seller to pay the difference between their strike price and their settlement value instead of allowing the seller to take delivery of securities).
The potential returns of the Fund are generally limited to the amount of cash (premiums) the Fund receives when selling Short Puts, net of any cash (premiums) paid by the Fund to purchase Long Puts, plus the returns of the Underlying Investments in which the Fund invests. The Fund’s sale and purchase of put options may result in the generation of positive returns for the Fund; however, the loss potential if the strategy is not effective may be greater than the profit potential. The Fund may lose significantly more than the premiums it receives in highly volatile market conditions.
The Fund will segregate cash and/or other liquid assets in an amount equal to the Fund’s obligations under each Short Put so that each option sold will be secured, or “covered.” The Adviser intends to limit the use of leverage by ensuring that the Fund’s potential obligations from the Short Puts will not exceed the Fund’s total net assets.
The Adviser employs a disciplined portfolio construction process that relies on guidelines to govern capital allocations based on a quantitative methodology designed by the Adviser to measure the perceived risk of the broad U.S. equity market. In making this determination, the Adviser considers various factors including but not limited to the overall volatility (rate of change) in the markets. The Adviser bases allocation decisions on a combination of quantitative risk metrics and a qualitative assessment of potential risk/reward scenarios, with the ultimate goals of mitigating the effects of volatility in the Fund’s portfolio and maintaining adequate portfolio diversification while seeking to achieve the Fund’s targeted return. The Adviser evaluates the metrics associated with the valuation of options, including volatility, time to expiration and the relationship of the exercise price to the prevailing market price of the reference asset. There can be no guarantee that the Adviser will be successful in implementing the Fund’s strategy. During market conditions in which market volatility rises, the price of options could rise, which, in turn, could have a detrimental effect on the Fund’s performance and achieving its targeted return.
Principal Investment Risks
The principal risks of investing in the Fund are summarized below. The principal risks are presented in alphabetical order to facilitate finding particular risks and comparing them with those of other funds. Each risk summarized below is considered a “principal risk” of investing in the Fund, regardless of the order in which it appears. As with any investment, there is a risk that you could lose all or a portion of your investment in the Fund. Some or all of these risks may adversely affect the Fund’s net asset value (“NAV”), trading price, yield, total return and/or ability to meet its objective. The following risks could affect the value of your investment in the Fund:
Derivatives Securities Risk. The Fund invests in options that derive their performance from the performance of the S&P 500 Index. Derivatives, such as the options in which the Fund invests, can be volatile and involve various types and degrees of risks, depending upon the characteristics of a particular derivative. Derivatives may entail investment exposures that are greater than their cost would suggest, meaning that a small investment in a derivative could have a substantial impact on the performance of the Fund. The Fund could experience a loss if its derivatives do not perform as anticipated, or are not correlated with the performance of their underlying asset or if the Fund is unable to purchase or liquidate a position because of an illiquid secondary market. The market for many derivatives is, or suddenly can become, illiquid. Changes in liquidity may result in significant, rapid, and unpredictable changes in the prices for derivatives.
ETF Risks. The Fund is an ETF and invests in other ETFs, and, as a result of this structure, is exposed directly or indirectly to the following risks:
Authorized Participants, Market Makers, and Liquidity Providers Concentration Risk. The Fund has a limited number of financial institutions that may act as Authorized Participants (“APs”). In addition, there may be a limited number of market makers and/or liquidity providers in the marketplace. To the extent either of the following events occur, Shares may trade at a material discount to NAV and possibly face delisting: (i) APs exit the business or otherwise become unable to process creation and/or redemption orders and no other APs step forward to perform these services, or (ii) market makers and/or liquidity providers exit the business or significantly reduce their business activities and no other entities step forward to perform their functions.
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Cash Redemption Risk. The Fund’s investment strategy may require it to redeem Shares for cash or to otherwise include cash as part of its redemption proceeds. For example, the Fund may not be able to redeem in-kind certain securities held by the Fund (e.g., short positions, derivative instruments, and bonds that cannot be broken up beyond certain minimum sizes needed for transfer and settlement). In such a case, the Fund may be required to sell or unwind portfolio investments to obtain the cash needed to distribute redemption proceeds. This may cause the Fund to recognize a capital gain that it might not have recognized if it had made a redemption in-kind. As a result, the Fund may pay out higher annual capital gain distributions than if the in-kind redemption process was used.
Costs of Buying or Selling Shares. Due to the costs of buying or selling Shares, including brokerage commissions imposed by brokers and bid/ask spreads, frequent trading of Shares may significantly reduce investment results and an investment in Shares may not be advisable for investors who anticipate regularly making small investments.
Shares May Trade at Prices Other Than NAV. As with all ETFs, Shares may be bought and sold in the secondary market at market prices. Although it is expected that the market price of Shares will approximate the Fund’s NAV, there may be times when the market price of Shares is more than the NAV intra-day (premium) or less than the NAV intra-day (discount) due to supply and demand of Shares or during periods of market volatility. This risk is heightened in times of market volatility, periods of steep market declines, and periods when there is limited trading activity for Shares in the secondary market, in which case such premiums or discounts may be significant.
Trading. Although Shares are listed for trading on the NYSE Arca, Inc. (the “Exchange”) and may be traded on U.S. exchanges other than the Exchange, there can be no assurance that Shares will trade with any volume, or at all, on any stock exchange. In stressed market conditions, the liquidity of Shares may begin to mirror the liquidity of the Fund’s underlying portfolio holdings, which can be significantly less liquid than Shares.
Fixed Income Risk. Current market conditions and the actions of governmental authorities and regulators in response to COVID-19 and its far-reaching effects present heightened risks to the fixed income market generally. Such risks could be further heightened if such market conditions become more volatile or the governmental and regulatory actions are unexpectedly or suddenly reversed or are ineffective in achieving their desired outcomes. In addition, the current environment is exposing fixed-income and debt markets to significant volatility and reduced liquidity for Fund investments.
Call Risk. During periods of falling interest rates, an issuer of a callable bond held by the Fund may “call” or repay the security before its stated maturity, and the Fund may have to reinvest the proceeds at lower interest rates, resulting in a decline in the Fund’s income.
Credit Risk. Debt issuers and other counterparties may not honor their obligations or may have their debt downgraded by ratings agencies.
Extension Risk. During periods of rising interest rates, certain debt obligations will be paid off substantially more slowly than originally anticipated and the value of those securities may fall sharply, resulting in a decline in the Fund’s income and potentially in the value of the Fund’s investments.
Interest Rate Risk. An increase in interest rates may cause the value of fixed-income securities held by the Fund to decline. The Fund may be subject to a greater risk of rising interest rates due to the current period of historically low rates and the effect of potential government fiscal policy initiatives and resulting market reaction to those initiatives.
Government Obligations Risk. U.S. government securities are subject to price fluctuations and to default in the event that an agency or instrumentality defaults on an obligation not backed by the full faith and credit of the United States.
Implied Volatility Risk. When the Fund sells an option, it gains the amount of the premium it receives, but also incurs a liability representing the value of the option it has sold until the option is either exercised and finishes “in the money,” meaning it has value and can be sold, or the option expires worthless, or the expiration of the option is “rolled,” or extended forward. The value of the options in which the Fund invests is based partly on the volatility used by market participants to price such options (i.e., implied volatility). Accordingly, increases in the implied volatility of such options will cause the value of such options to increase (even if the prices of the options’ underlying stocks do not change), which will result in a corresponding increase in the liabilities of the Fund under such options and thus decrease the Fund’s NAV.
Limited Operating History. The Fund is a recently organized investment company with a limited operating history. As a result, prospective investors have a limited track record or history on which to base their investment decision.
Market Risk. The trading prices of securities and other instruments fluctuate in response to a variety of factors. These factors include events impacting the entire market or specific market segments, such as political, market and economic developments, as well as events that impact specific issuers. The Fund’s NAV and market price, like security and commodity prices generally, may fluctuate significantly in response to these and other factors. As a result, an investor could lose money over short or long periods of time. U.S. and international markets have experienced significant periods of volatility in recent years due to a number of these factors, including the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and related public health issues, growth concerns in the U.S. and overseas, uncertainties regarding interest rates, trade tensions and the threat of tariffs imposed by the U.S. and other countries.
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These developments as well as other events could result in further market volatility and negatively affect financial asset prices, the liquidity of certain securities and the normal operations of securities exchanges and other markets. It is unknown how long circumstances related to the pandemic will persist, whether they will reoccur in the future, whether efforts to support the economy and financial markets will be successful, and what additional implications may follow from the pandemic. The impact of these events and other epidemics or pandemics in the future could adversely affect Fund performance.
Mortgage- and Asset-Backed Securities Risk. The Fund may invest in U.S. government agency-backed mortgage- and asset-backed securities. Mortgage- and asset-backed securities are subject to interest rate risk. Modest movements in interest rates (both increases and decreases) may quickly and significantly reduce the value of certain types of these securities. When interest rates fall, mortgage- and asset-backed securities may be subject to prepayment risk. When interest rates rise, certain types of mortgage- and asset-backed securities are subject to extension risk. Mortgage- and asset-backed securities can also be subject to the risk of default on the underlying residential or commercial mortgage(s) or other assets.
Options Risk. Selling (writing) and buying options are speculative activities and entail greater than ordinary investment risks. The Fund’s use of put options can lead to losses because of adverse movements in the price or value of the underlying asset, which may be magnified by certain features of the options. When selling a put option, the Fund will receive a premium; however, this premium may not be enough to offset a loss incurred by the Fund if the price of the underlying asset is below the strike price by an amount equal to or greater than the premium. Purchasing of put options involves the payment of premiums, which may adversely affect the Fund’s performance. Purchasing a put option gives the purchaser of the option the right to sell a specified quantity of an underlying asset at a fixed exercise price over a defined period of time. Purchased put options may expire worthless resulting in the Fund’s loss of the premium it paid for the option.
The value of an option may be adversely affected if the market for the option becomes less liquid or smaller, and will be affected by changes in the value or yield of the option’s underlying asset, an increase in interest rates, a change in the actual or perceived volatility of the stock market or the underlying asset and the remaining time to expiration. Additionally, the value of an option does not increase or decrease at the same rate as the underlying asset. The Fund’s use of options may reduce the Fund’s ability to profit from increases in the value of the underlying asset. If the price of the underlying asset of an option is above the strike price of a written put option, the value of the option, and consequently of the Fund, may decline significantly more than if the Fund invested directly in the underlying asset instead of using options. While the Fund will segregate liquid assets at least equal in value to the maximum potential loss for the Fund, the Fund could still lose a significant amount or nearly all of its value if the price of an underlying asset changes significantly enough.
Tax Risk. If positions held by the Fund were treated as “straddles” for federal income tax purposes, or the Fund’s risk of loss with respect to a position was otherwise diminished as set forth in Treasury regulations, dividends on stocks that are a part of such positions would not constitute qualified dividend income subject to such favorable income tax treatment in the hands of non-corporate shareholders or eligible for the dividends received deduction for corporate shareholders. In addition, generally, straddles are subject to certain rules that may affect the amount, character and timing of the Fund’s gains and losses with respect to straddle positions.
Performance
Performance information for the Fund is not included because the Fund did not have a full calendar year of performance prior to the date of this Prospectus. In the future, performance information for the Fund will be presented in this section. Updated performance information is available on the Fund’s website at www.overlayshares.com or by calling the Fund toll-free at 1-866-704-6857.
Portfolio Management
Adviser
Liquid Strategies, LLC
Portfolio Managers
Bradley Ball, Adam Stewart, CFA, Shawn Gibson and Justin Boller, CFA, have been portfolio managers of the Fund since its inception in January 2021.
Purchase and Sale of Shares
The Fund issues and redeems Shares at NAV only in large blocks known as “Creation Units,” which only APs (typically, broker-dealers) may purchase or redeem. The Fund generally issues and redeems Creation Units in exchange for a portfolio of securities (the “Deposit Securities”) and/or a designated amount of U.S. cash.
Shares are listed on the Exchange, and individual Shares may only be bought and sold in the secondary market through a broker or dealer at market prices, rather than NAV. Because Shares trade at market prices rather than NAV, Shares may trade at a price greater than NAV (premium) or less than NAV (discount).
An investor may incur costs attributable to the difference between the highest price a buyer is willing to pay to purchase Shares (the “bid” price) and the lowest price a seller is willing to accept for Shares (the “ask” price) when buying or selling Shares in the secondary market. The difference in the bid and ask prices is referred to as the “bid-ask spread.”
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Recent information regarding the Fund’s NAV, market price, how often Shares traded on the Exchange at a premium or discount, and bid-ask spreads can be found on the Fund’s website at www.overlayshares.com.
Tax Information
Fund distributions are generally taxable as ordinary income, qualified dividend income, or capital gains (or a combination), unless your investment is in an individual retirement account (“IRA”) or other tax-advantaged account. Distributions on investments made through tax-deferred arrangements may be taxed later upon withdrawal of assets from those accounts.
Financial Intermediary Compensation
If you purchase Shares through a broker-dealer or other financial intermediary (such as a bank) (an “Intermediary”), the Adviser or its affiliates may pay Intermediaries for certain activities related to the Fund, including participation in activities that are designed to make Intermediaries more knowledgeable about exchange-traded products, including the Fund, or for other activities, such as marketing, educational training or other initiatives related to the sale or promotion of Shares. These payments may create a conflict of interest by influencing the Intermediary and your salesperson to recommend the Fund over another investment. Any such arrangements do not result in increased Fund expenses. Ask your salesperson or visit the Intermediary’s website for more information.
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OVERLAY SHARES MUNICIPAL BOND ETF
Investment Objective
The Overlay Shares Municipal Bond ETF (the “Fund” or “Municipal Bond ETF”) seeks total return.
Fees and Expenses of the Fund
This table describes the fees and expenses that you may pay if you buy, hold, and sell shares of the Fund (“Shares”). You may pay other fees, such as brokerage commissions and other fees to financial intermediaries, which are not reflected in the table and Example below.
Shareholder Fees (fees paid directly from your investment)
None
Annual Fund Operating Expenses (expenses that you pay each year as a percentage of the value of your investment)
Management Fees 0.75%
Distribution and/or Service (12b-1) Fees 0.00%
Other Expenses 0.02%
Acquired Fund Fees and Expenses*
0.07%
Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses 0.84%
* Acquired Fund Fees and Expenses (“AFFE”) are the indirect costs of investing in other investment companies. Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses do not correlate to the expense ratios in the Fund’s Financial Highlights because the Financial Highlights include only the direct operating expenses incurred by the Fund and exclude AFFE.
Example
This Example is intended to help you compare the cost of investing in the Fund with the cost of investing in other funds. The Example assumes that you invest $10,000 in the Fund for the time periods indicated and then redeem all of your Shares at the end of those periods. The Example also assumes that your investment has a 5% return each year and that the Fund’s operating expenses remain the same. The Example does not take into account brokerage commissions that you may pay on your purchases and sales of Shares. Although your actual costs may be higher or lower, based on these assumptions your costs would be:
1 Year: $86 3 Years: $268 5 Years: $466 10 Years: $1,037
Portfolio Turnover
The Fund pays transaction costs, such as commissions, when it buys and sells securities (or “turns over” its portfolio). A higher portfolio turnover rate may indicate higher transaction costs and may result in higher taxes when Shares are held in a taxable account. These costs, which are not reflected in the Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses or in the Example, affect the Fund’s performance. For the fiscal year ended August 31, 2021, the Fund’s portfolio turnover rate was 7% of the average value of its portfolio.
Principal Investment Strategies
The Fund is an actively-managed exchange-traded fund (“ETF”) that seeks to achieve its objective by (i) investing in one or more other ETFs that seek to obtain exposure to the performance of investment grade municipal bonds and below investment grade municipal bonds or directly in the securities held by such ETFs (collectively, the “Underlying Investments”) and (ii) selling and purchasing listed short-term put options to generate income to the Fund (the “Overlay Strategy”).
The Fund’s Overlay Strategy seeks to generate income for the Fund by utilizing a “put spread” consisting of the sale of exchange-listed short-term put options (“Short Puts”) with a notional value (strike price times the value of the shares) up to 100% of the Fund’s net assets and the purchase of an identical number of short-term put options (“Long Puts”) with a lower strike price. The Fund seeks to generate income from the sale and purchase of put options with a lower strike price to hedge against a decline in the options’ underlying asset, the S&P 500 Index, which consists of approximately 500 leading U.S.-listed companies representing approximately 80% of the U.S. equity market capitalization.
A put option gives the purchaser of the option, in exchange for the premium paid, the right to sell the underlying asset at a specified price (“strike price”) at a specified date (“expiration date”). In contrast, the seller of a put option, in exchange for the premium received, is obligated to sell the underlying asset at the strike price on the expiration date. In the event the underlying asset declines in value, the value of a put option will generally increase. In the event the underlying asset appreciates in value, the value of a put option will generally decrease. The options sold by the Fund are expected to have an expiration date within one to two weeks of their purchase date. The strike price of the Short Puts will typically be less than the value of the S&P 500 Index at the time such options are sold, and the strike price of the Long Puts will be less than the strike price of the Short Puts. The difference between such strike prices is based on Liquid Strategies, LLC’s (the “Adviser”) judgment as to the level of expected volatility in the market prior to the options’
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expiration. Because the Long Puts will have a lower strike price than the Short Puts, the Long Puts are not expected to completely protect the Fund from a decline in the value of the S&P 500 Index.
The Fund’s Overlay Strategy is designed to seek to generate a positive return in rising and flat equity markets, and may generate a positive return in equity markets that are modestly declining, assuming the net premium collected from the options sold and purchased exceeds the net cost to close the positions. In an effort to limit losses in declining equity markets, the Fund may reduce its sale of Short Puts and/or purchase of Long Puts with strike prices closer to the strike prices of the Short Puts.
The Fund focuses primarily on equity index options which offer both European settlement (i.e., options can only be exercised at their expiration date) and cash settlement (i.e., options carry an obligation by their seller to pay the difference between their strike price and their settlement value instead of allowing the seller to take delivery of securities).
The potential returns of the Fund are generally limited to the amount of cash (premiums) the Fund receives when selling Short Puts, net of any cash (premiums) paid by the Fund to purchase Long Puts, plus the returns of the ETFs in which the Fund invests. The Fund’s sale and purchase of put options may result in the generation of positive returns for the Fund; however, the loss potential if the strategy is not effective may be greater than the profit potential. The Fund may lose significantly more than the premiums it receives in highly volatile market conditions.
The Fund will segregate cash and/or other liquid assets in an amount equal to the Fund’s obligations under each Short Put so that each option sold will be secured, or “covered.” The Adviser intends to limit the use of leverage by ensuring that the Fund’s potential obligations from the Short Puts will not exceed the Fund’s total net assets.
The Adviser employs a disciplined portfolio construction process that relies on guidelines to govern capital allocations based on a quantitative methodology designed by the Adviser to measure the perceived risk of the broad U.S. equity market. In making this determination, the Adviser considers various factors including but not limited to the overall volatility (rate of change) in the markets. The Adviser bases allocation decisions on a combination of quantitative risk metrics and a qualitative assessment of potential risk/reward scenarios, with the ultimate goals of mitigating the effects of volatility in the Fund’s portfolio and maintaining adequate portfolio diversification while seeking to achieve the Fund’s targeted return. The Adviser evaluates the metrics associated with the valuation of options, including volatility, time to expiration and the relationship of the exercise price to the prevailing market price of the reference asset. There can be no guarantee that the Adviser will be successful in implementing the Fund’s strategy. During market conditions in which market volatility rises, the price of options could rise, which, in turn, could have a detrimental effect on the Fund’s performance and achieving its targeted return.
Principal Investment Risks
The principal risks of investing in the Fund are summarized below. The principal risks are presented in alphabetical order to facilitate finding particular risks and comparing them with those of other funds. Each risk summarized below is considered a “principal risk” of investing in the Fund, regardless of the order in which it appears. As with any investment, there is a risk that you could lose all or a portion of your investment in the Fund. Some or all of these risks may adversely affect the Fund’s net asset value (“NAV”), trading price, yield, total return and/or ability to meet its objective. The following risks could affect the value of your investment in the Fund:
Below Investment Grade Bonds Risk. The Fund’s investments in below investment grade bonds are subject to a greater risk of loss of income and principal than higher grade debt securities. The Fund’s investments in below investment grade bonds also subject the Fund to greater levels of interest rate, credit and liquidity risk than funds that do not invest in such securities. Issuers of below investment grade bonds are often highly leveraged and are more vulnerable to changes in the economy. These securities are considered predominately speculative with respect to the issuer’s continuing ability to make principal and interest payments.
California and New York Municipal Securities Risk. Because the Fund invests substantially in California and New York municipal instruments, it is more exposed to the impact of negative political, economic and statutory factors within California and New York than a fund that invests more widely.
Derivatives Securities Risk. The Fund invests in options that derive their performance from the performance of the S&P 500 Index. Derivatives, such as the options in which the Fund invests, can be volatile and involve various types and degrees of risks, depending upon the characteristics of a particular derivative. Derivatives may entail investment exposures that are greater than their cost would suggest, meaning that a small investment in a derivative could have a substantial impact on the performance of the Fund. The Fund could experience a loss if its derivatives do not perform as anticipated, or are not correlated with the performance of their underlying asset or if the Fund is unable to purchase or liquidate a position because of an illiquid secondary market. The market for many derivatives is, or suddenly can become, illiquid. Changes in liquidity may result in significant, rapid, and unpredictable changes in the prices for derivatives.
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ETF Risks. The Fund is an ETF and invests in other ETFs, and, as a result of this structure, is exposed directly or indirectly to the following risks:
Authorized Participants, Market Makers, and Liquidity Providers Concentration Risk. The Fund has a limited number of financial institutions that may act as Authorized Participants (“APs”). In addition, there may be a limited number of market makers and/or liquidity providers in the marketplace. To the extent either of the following events occur, Shares may trade at a material discount to NAV and possibly face delisting: (i) APs exit the business or otherwise become unable to process creation and/or redemption orders and no other APs step forward to perform these services, or (ii) market makers and/or liquidity providers exit the business or significantly reduce their business activities and no other entities step forward to perform their functions.
Cash Redemption Risk. The Fund’s investment strategy may require it to redeem Shares for cash or to otherwise include cash as part of its redemption proceeds. For example, the Fund may not be able to redeem in-kind certain securities held by the Fund (e.g., short positions, derivative instruments, and bonds that cannot be broken up beyond certain minimum sizes needed for transfer and settlement). In such a case, the Fund may be required to sell or unwind portfolio investments to obtain the cash needed to distribute redemption proceeds. This may cause the Fund to recognize a capital gain that it might not have recognized if it had made a redemption in-kind. As a result, the Fund may pay out higher annual capital gain distributions than if the in-kind redemption process was used.
Costs of Buying or Selling Shares. Due to the costs of buying or selling Shares, including brokerage commissions imposed by brokers and bid/ask spreads, frequent trading of Shares may significantly reduce investment results and an investment in Shares may not be advisable for investors who anticipate regularly making small investments.
Shares May Trade at Prices Other Than NAV. As with all ETFs, Shares may be bought and sold in the secondary market at market prices. Although it is expected that the market price of Shares will approximate the Fund’s NAV, there may be times when the market price of Shares is more than the NAV intra-day (premium) or less than the NAV intra-day (discount) due to supply and demand of Shares or during periods of market volatility. This risk is heightened in times of market volatility, periods of steep market declines, and periods when there is limited trading activity for Shares in the secondary market, in which case such premiums or discounts may be significant.
Trading. Although Shares are listed for trading on the NYSE Arca, Inc. (the “Exchange”) and may be traded on U.S. exchanges other than the Exchange, there can be no assurance that Shares will trade with any volume, or at all, on any stock exchange. In stressed market conditions, the liquidity of Shares may begin to mirror the liquidity of the Fund’s underlying portfolio holdings, which can be significantly less liquid than Shares.
Fixed Income Risk. Current market conditions and the actions of governmental authorities and regulators in response to COVID-19 and its far-reaching effects present heightened risks to the fixed income market generally. Such risks could be further heightened if such market conditions become more volatile or the governmental and regulatory actions are unexpectedly or suddenly reversed or are ineffective in achieving their desired outcomes. In addition, the current environment is exposing fixed-income and debt markets to significant volatility and reduced liquidity for Fund investments.
Call Risk. During periods of falling interest rates, an issuer of a callable bond held by the Fund may “call” or repay the security before its stated maturity, and the Fund may have to reinvest the proceeds at lower interest rates, resulting in a decline in the Fund’s income.
Credit Risk. Debt issuers and other counterparties may not honor their obligations or may have their debt downgraded by ratings agencies.
Extension Risk. During periods of rising interest rates, certain debt obligations will be paid off substantially more slowly than originally anticipated and the value of those securities may fall sharply, resulting in a decline in the Fund’s income and potentially in the value of the Fund’s investments.
Interest Rate Risk. An increase in interest rates may cause the value of fixed-income securities held by the Fund to decline. The Fund may be subject to a greater risk of rising interest rates due to the current period of historically low rates and the effect of potential government fiscal policy initiatives and resulting market reaction to those initiatives.
Implied Volatility Risk. When the Fund sells an option, it gains the amount of the premium it receives, but also incurs a liability representing the value of the option it has sold until the option is either exercised and finishes “in the money,” meaning it has value and can be sold, or the option expires worthless, or the expiration of the option is “rolled,” or extended forward. The value of the options in which the Fund invests is based partly on the volatility used by market participants to price such options (i.e., implied volatility). Accordingly, increases in the implied volatility of such options will cause the value of such options to increase (even if the prices of the options’ underlying stocks do not change), which will result in a corresponding increase in the liabilities of the Fund under such options and thus decrease the Fund’s NAV.
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Limited Operating History. The Fund is a recently organized investment company with a limited operating history. As a result, prospective investors have a limited track record or history on which to base their investment decision.
Market Risk. The trading prices of securities and other instruments fluctuate in response to a variety of factors. These factors include events impacting the entire market or specific market segments, such as political, market and economic developments, as well as events that impact specific issuers. The Fund’s NAV and market price, like security and commodity prices generally, may fluctuate significantly in response to these and other factors. As a result, an investor could lose money over short or long periods of time. U.S. and international markets have experienced significant periods of volatility in recent years due to a number of these factors, including the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and related public health issues, growth concerns in the U.S. and overseas, uncertainties regarding interest rates, trade tensions and the threat of tariffs imposed by the U.S. and other countries. These developments as well as other events could result in further market volatility and negatively affect financial asset prices, the liquidity of certain securities and the normal operations of securities exchanges and other markets. It is unknown how long circumstances related to the pandemic will persist, whether they will reoccur in the future, whether efforts to support the economy and financial markets will be successful, and what additional implications may follow from the pandemic. The impact of these events and other epidemics or pandemics in the future could adversely affect Fund performance.
Municipal Securities Risk. Municipal securities can be significantly affected by political or economic changes, including changes made in the law after issuance of the securities, as well as uncertainties in the municipal market related to taxation, legislative changes or the rights of municipal security holders, including in connection with an issuer insolvency. Municipal securities backed by current or anticipated revenues from a specific project or specific assets can be negatively affected by the inability to collect revenues from the project or the assets.
Options Risk. Selling (writing) and buying options are speculative activities and entail greater than ordinary investment risks. The Fund’s use of put options can lead to losses because of adverse movements in the price or value of the underlying asset, which may be magnified by certain features of the options. When selling a put option, the Fund will receive a premium; however, this premium may not be enough to offset a loss incurred by the Fund if the price of the underlying asset is below the strike price by an amount equal to or greater than the premium. Purchasing of put options involves the payment of premiums, which may adversely affect the Fund’s performance. Purchasing a put option gives the purchaser of the option the right to sell a specified quantity of an underlying asset at a fixed exercise price over a defined period of time. Purchased put options may expire worthless resulting in the Fund’s loss of the premium it paid for the option.
The value of an option may be adversely affected if the market for the option becomes less liquid or smaller, and will be affected by changes in the value or yield of the option’s underlying asset, an increase in interest rates, a change in the actual or perceived volatility of the stock market or the underlying asset and the remaining time to expiration. Additionally, the value of an option does not increase or decrease at the same rate as the underlying asset. The Fund’s use of options may reduce the Fund’s ability to profit from increases in the value of the underlying asset. If the price of the underlying asset of an option is above the strike price of a written put option, the value of the option, and consequently of the Fund, may decline significantly more than if the Fund invested directly in the underlying asset instead of using options. While the Fund will segregate liquid assets at least equal in value to the maximum potential loss for the Fund, the Fund could still lose a significant amount or nearly all of its value if the price of an underlying asset changes significantly enough.
Tax Risk. If positions held by the Fund were treated as “straddles” for federal income tax purposes, or the Fund’s risk of loss with respect to a position was otherwise diminished as set forth in Treasury regulations, dividends on stocks that are a part of such positions would not constitute qualified dividend income subject to such favorable income tax treatment in the hands of non-corporate shareholders or eligible for the dividends received deduction for corporate shareholders. In addition, generally, straddles are subject to certain rules that may affect the amount, character and timing of the Fund’s gains and losses with respect to straddle positions.
Because the Fund intends to be treated as a “qualified fund of funds” (i.e., at the close of each quarter of the taxable year at least 50 percent of the value of its total assets is represented by interests in other regulated investment companies (“RICs”)), the Fund will generally be eligible to distribute “exempt-interest dividends” to its shareholders. The Fund may distribute exempt-interest dividends to the extent of its tax-exempt interest income, if any, which may include both exempt-interest dividends received from underlying funds taxable as RICs and interest income received directly by the Fund on any investments in tax-exempt obligations (i.e., obligations that pay interest excluded from gross income under Section 103(a) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Internal Revenue Code”)), reduced by certain expenses. An underlying fund taxable as a RIC will generally be eligible to distribute exempt-interest dividends if at least 50% of its total assets at the close of each quarter of its taxable year consist of tax-exempt obligations. The Fund may not be a suitable investment for individual retirement accounts (“IRAs”), for other tax-exempt or tax-deferred accounts or for investors who are not sensitive to the federal income tax consequences of their investments. The Underlying Investments may invest in bonds subject to the federal alternative minimum tax (“AMT”) applicable to non-corporate shareholders. Shareholders subject to the federal AMT will be required to report the portion of the Fund’s
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distributions attributable to income from the bonds as a tax preference item in determining their amounts due under the federal AMT.
Performance
The following performance information indicates some of the risks of investing in the Fund. The bar chart shows the Fund’s performance for the calendar year ended December 31. The table illustrates how the Fund’s average annual returns for the 1-year and since inception periods compared with those of a broad measure of market performance. The Fund’s past performance, before and after taxes, does not necessarily indicate how it will perform in the future. Updated performance information is also available on the Fund’s website at www.overlayshares.com or by calling the Fund at 1-866-704-6857.
Calendar Year Total Return
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The calendar year-to-date total return of the Fund as of September 30, 2021 was 2.10%. During the period of time shown in the bar chart, the highest quarterly return was 4.34% for the quarter ended June 30, 2020, and the lowest quarterly return was -2.60% for the quarter ended March 31, 2020.
Average Annual Total Returns
(for periods ended December 31, 2020)
Overlay Shares Municipal Bond ETF
1-Year
Since Inception
(9/30/2019)
Return Before Taxes 6.58% 6.65%
Return After Taxes on Distributions 5.99% 6.13%
Return After Taxes on Distributions and Sale of Shares 4.98% 5.44%
Bloomberg 1-15 Year Municipal Bond Index
(reflects no deduction for fees, expenses, or taxes)
4.73% 4.43%
Bloomberg Municipal Bond Index
(reflects no deduction for fees, expenses, or taxes)
5.21% 4.75%
After-tax returns are calculated using the historical highest individual federal marginal income tax rates during the period covered by the table above and do not reflect the impact of state and local taxes. Actual after-tax returns depend on an investor’s tax situation and may differ from those shown. After-tax returns shown are not relevant to investors who hold their shares through tax-deferred arrangements such as an IRA or other tax-advantaged accounts.
Portfolio Management
Adviser
Liquid Strategies, LLC
Portfolio Managers
Bradley Ball, Adam Stewart, CFA, Shawn Gibson and Justin Boller, CFA, have been portfolio managers of the Fund since its inception in 2019.
Purchase and Sale of Shares
The Fund issues and redeems Shares at NAV only in large blocks known as “Creation Units,” which only APs (typically, broker-dealers) may purchase or redeem. The Fund generally issues and redeems Creation Units in exchange for a portfolio of securities (the “Deposit Securities”) and/or a designated amount of U.S. cash.
Shares are listed on the Exchange, and individual Shares may only be bought and sold in the secondary market through a broker or dealer at market prices, rather than NAV. Because Shares trade at market prices rather than NAV, Shares may trade at a price greater than NAV (premium) or less than NAV (discount).
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An investor may incur costs attributable to the difference between the highest price a buyer is willing to pay to purchase Shares (the “bid” price) and the lowest price a seller is willing to accept for Shares (the “ask” price) when buying or selling Shares in the secondary market. The difference in the bid and ask prices is referred to as the “bid-ask spread.”
Recent information regarding the Fund’s NAV, market price, how often Shares traded on the Exchange at a premium or discount, and bid-ask spreads can be found on the Fund’s website at www.overlayshares.com.
Tax Information
Fund distributions are generally exempt-interest dividends, or are taxable as ordinary income, qualified dividend income, or capital gains (or a combination), unless your investment is in an IRA or other tax-advantaged account. Distributions on investments made through tax-deferred arrangements may be taxed later upon withdrawal of assets from those accounts.
Financial Intermediary Compensation
If you purchase Shares through a broker-dealer or other financial intermediary (such as a bank) (an “Intermediary”), the Adviser or its affiliates may pay Intermediaries for certain activities related to the Fund, including participation in activities that are designed to make Intermediaries more knowledgeable about exchange-traded products, including the Fund, or for other activities, such as marketing, educational training or other initiatives related to the sale or promotion of Shares. These payments may create a conflict of interest by influencing the Intermediary and your salesperson to recommend the Fund over another investment. Any such arrangements do not result in increased Fund expenses. Ask your salesperson or visit the Intermediary’s website for more information.
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ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ABOUT THE FUNDS
Investment Objectives
Each Fund’s investment objective has been adopted as a non-fundamental investment policy and may be changed without shareholder approval upon written notice to shareholders.
Principal Investment Strategies
Each Fund has adopted a policy to comply with Rule 35d-1 under the Investment Company Act of 1940. Such policies have been adopted as non-fundamental investment policies and may be changed without shareholder approval upon 60 days’ written notice to shareholders. With respect to the relevant policies below, a Fund defines “equity securities” to mean common and preferred stocks, rights, warrants, depositary receipts, equity interests in real estate investment trusts, and master limited partnerships.
Under normal circumstances, at least 80% of the Large Cap Equity ETF’s net assets, plus borrowings for investment purposes, will be invested, directly or indirectly, in equity securities of large-cap companies. For purposes of the foregoing policy, the Overlay Shares Large Cap Equity ETF defines “large-cap companies” as those within the range of capitalizations of the S&P 500 Index.
Under normal circumstances, at least 80% of the Small Cap Equity ETF’s net assets, plus borrowings for investment purposes, will be invested, directly or indirectly, in equity securities of small-cap companies. For purposes of the foregoing policy, the Overlay Shares Small Cap Equity ETF defines “small-cap companies” as those within the range of capitalizations of the Russell 2000 Index.
Under normal circumstances, at least 80% of the Foreign Equity ETF’s net assets, plus borrowings for investment purposes, will be invested, directly or indirectly, in equity securities of non-U.S. companies. For purposes of the foregoing policy, the Foreign Equity ETF defines “securities of non-U.S. companies” as those that are principally traded on a non-U.S. stock exchange, are issued by companies incorporated in a non-U.S. country, or depositary receipts representing such securities.
Under normal circumstances, at least 80% of the Hedged Large Cap Equity ETF’s net assets, plus borrowings for investment purposes, will be invested, directly or indirectly through ETFs, in equity securities of large-cap companies. For purposes of the foregoing policy, the Hedged Large Cap Equity ETF defines “large-cap companies” as those within the range of capitalizations of the S&P 500 Index.
Under normal circumstances, at least 80% of the Core Bond ETF’s net assets, plus borrowings for investment purposes, will be invested, directly or indirectly, in bonds.
Under normal circumstances, at least 80% of the Short Term Bond ETF’s net assets, plus borrowings for investment purposes, will be invested, directly or indirectly through ETFs, in bonds.
Under normal circumstances, at least 80% of the Municipal Bond ETF’s net assets, plus borrowings for investment purposes, will be invested, directly or indirectly, in municipal bonds.
Principal Investment Risks
An investment in a Fund entails risks. A Fund could lose money, or its performance could trail that of other investment alternatives. The following provides additional information about the Funds’ principal risks. It is important that investors closely review and understand these risks before making an investment decision. Each risk applies to each Fund unless otherwise specified. Just as in each Fund’s summary section above, the principal risks below are presented in alphabetical order to facilitate finding particular risks and comparing them with those of other funds. Each risk summarized below is considered a “principal risk” of investing in the applicable Fund, regardless of the order in which it appears.
Below Investment Grade Bonds Risk (Municipal Bond ETF only). Securities rated “BB” or below by S&P or “Ba” or below by Moody’s are known as high yield securities and are commonly referred to as “junk bonds.” Such securities entail greater price volatility and credit and interest rate risk than investment-grade securities. Analysis of the creditworthiness of high yield issuers is more complex than for higher-rated securities, making it more difficult for the Adviser to accurately predict risk. There is a greater risk with high yield fixed income securities that an issuer will not be able to make principal and interest payments when due. If the Fund pursues missed payments, there is a risk that Fund expenses could increase. In addition, lower-rated securities may not trade as often and may be less liquid than higher-rated securities, especially during periods of economic uncertainty or change. As a result of all of these factors, these securities are generally considered to be speculative.
California Municipal Securities Risk (Municipal Bond ETF only). The Fund will invest in municipal securities issued by or on behalf of California. As a result, the Fund is more exposed to risks affecting issuers of California municipal securities than is a municipal securities fund that invests more widely. Such risks include, but are not limited to, the strength of the housing market and the growth in construction spending; constitutional limitations affecting the ability of the State of California and municipalities to address financial downturns, including limitations on the ability of the State of California or municipalities to raise taxes, fees or charges without voter approval; the impact of federal tax law changes; the performance of the national and California economies; the impact of international events on consumer confidence, oil supplies and oil prices; the impact of
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behavioral changes in reaction to income and sales tax increases; shifts in monetary policy affecting interest rates and the financial markets; the magnitude of pension and post-retirement health care commitments, and the impact on the funding of such benefits of lower than expected returns; the impact of consumer spending on tax collections; increased demand in entitlement-based and claims-based programs such as Medicaid, public assistance and general public health; access to the capital markets in light of disruptions in the market; litigation against the State of California; the risk of earthquakes or other natural catastrophes upon the State of California or localities; actions taken by the federal government, including audits, disallowances, changes in aid levels, and changes to Medicaid rules; and any reduction in the creditworthiness of issuers of California municipal securities.
Credit Risk (Core Bond ETF, Short Term Bond ETF, and Municipal Bond ETF only). Credit risk is the risk that an issuer or guarantor of debt instruments or the counterparty to a derivatives contract, repurchase agreement or loan of portfolio securities will be unable or unwilling to make its timely interest and/or principal payments or to otherwise honor its obligations. Debt instruments are subject to varying degrees of credit risk, which may be reflected in their credit ratings. There is the chance that a Fund’s portfolio holdings will have their credit ratings downgraded or will default (i.e., fail to make scheduled interest or principal payments), potentially reducing the Fund’s income level or share price.
Currency Exchange Rate Risk (Foreign Equity ETF only). Changes in currency exchange rates and the relative value of non-U.S. currencies will affect the value of the Fund’s investments and the value of your Shares. Because the Fund’s NAV is determined on the basis of U.S. dollars, the U.S. dollar value of your investment in the Fund may go down if the value of the local currency of the non-U.S. markets in which the Fund invests depreciates against the U.S. dollar. This is true even if the local currency value of securities in the Fund’s holdings goes up. Conversely, the dollar value of your investment in the Fund may go up if the value of the local currency appreciates against the U.S. dollar. The value of the U.S. dollar measured against other currencies is influenced by a variety of factors. These factors include: national debt levels and trade deficits, changes in balances of payments and trade, domestic and foreign interest and inflation rates, global or regional political, economic or financial events, monetary policies of governments, actual or potential government intervention, and global energy prices. Political instability, the possibility of government intervention and restrictive or opaque business and investment policies may also reduce the value of a country’s currency. Government monetary policies and the buying or selling of currency by a country’s government may also influence exchange rates. Currency exchange rates can be very volatile and can change quickly and unpredictably. As a result, the value of an investment in the Fund may change quickly and without warning, and you may lose money.
Derivatives Securities Risk. The Fund invests in options that derive their performance from the performance of the S&P 500 Index. Derivatives, such as the options in which the Fund invests, can be volatile and involve various types and degrees of risks, depending upon the characteristics of a particular derivative. Derivatives may entail investment exposures that are greater than their cost would suggest, meaning that a small investment in a derivative could have a substantial impact on the performance of the Fund. The Fund could experience a loss if its derivatives do not perform as anticipated, or are not correlated with the performance of their underlying asset or if the Fund is unable to purchase or liquidate a position because of an illiquid secondary market. The market for many derivatives is, or suddenly can become, illiquid. Changes in liquidity may result in significant, rapid, and unpredictable changes in the prices for derivatives.
Emerging Markets Risk (Foreign Equity ETF only). The Fund’s direct or indirect investments in securities of issuers in emerging market countries are subject to all of the risks of foreign investing generally, and have additional heightened risks due to a lack of established legal, political, business, and social frameworks to support securities markets, including: delays in settling portfolio securities transactions; currency and capital controls; greater sensitivity to interest rate changes; pervasiveness of corruption and crime; currency exchange rate volatility; and inflation, deflation, or currency devaluation.
Equity Market Risk (Large Cap ETF, Small Cap ETF, Foreign Equity ETF, and Hedged Large Cap Equity ETF only). The trading prices of equity securities and other instruments fluctuate in response to a variety of factors. The Fund’s NAV and market price may fluctuate significantly in response to these and other factors. As a result, an investor could lose money over short or long periods of time.
ETF Risks. The Fund is an ETF and invests in other ETFs, and, as a result of this structure, is exposed directly or indirectly to the following risks:
Authorized Participants, Market Makers, and Liquidity Providers Concentration Risk. The Fund has a limited number of financial institutions that may act as APs. In addition, there may be a limited number of market makers and/or liquidity providers in the marketplace. To the extent either of the following events occur, Shares may trade at a material discount to NAV and possibly face delisting: (i) APs exit the business or otherwise become unable to process creation and/or redemption orders and no other APs step forward to perform these services, or (ii) market makers and/or liquidity providers exit the business or significantly reduce their business activities and no other entities step forward to perform their functions.
Cash Redemption Risk. The Fund’s investment strategy may at times require it to redeem Shares for cash or to otherwise include cash as part of its redemption proceeds. For example, the Fund may not be able to redeem in-kind certain securities held by the Fund (e.g., TBA transactions, short positions, derivative instruments, and bonds that cannot be broken up beyond
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certain minimum sizes needed for transfer and settlement). In such a case, the Fund may be required to sell or unwind portfolio investments to obtain the cash needed to distribute redemption proceeds. This may cause the Fund to recognize a capital gain that it might not have recognized if it had made a redemption in-kind. As a result, the Fund may pay out higher annual capital gain distributions than if the in-kind redemption process was used.
Costs of Buying or Selling Shares. Investors buying or selling Shares in the secondary market will pay brokerage commissions or other charges imposed by brokers, as determined by that broker. Brokerage commissions are often a fixed amount and may be a significant proportional cost for investors seeking to buy or sell relatively small amounts of Shares. In addition, secondary market investors will also incur the cost of the difference between the price at which an investor is willing to buy Shares (the “bid” price) and the price at which an investor is willing to sell Shares (the “ask” price). This difference in bid and ask prices is often referred to as the “spread” or “bid/ask spread.” The bid/ask spread varies over time for Shares based on trading volume and market liquidity, and is generally lower if Shares have more trading volume and market liquidity and higher if Shares have little trading volume and market liquidity. Further, a relatively small investor base in the Fund, asset swings in the Fund and/or increased market volatility may cause increased bid/ask spreads. Due to the costs of buying or selling Shares, including bid/ask spreads, frequent trading of Shares may significantly reduce investment results and an investment in Shares may not be advisable for investors who anticipate regularly making small investments.
Shares May Trade at Prices Other Than NAV. As with all ETFs, Shares may be bought and sold in the secondary market at market prices. Although it is expected that the market price of Shares will approximate the Fund’s NAV, there may be times when the market price of Shares is more than the NAV intra-day (premium) or less than the NAV intra-day (discount) due to supply and demand of Shares or during periods of market volatility. This risk is heightened in times of market volatility or periods of steep market declines and periods when there is limited trading activity for Shares in the secondary market, in which case such premiums or discounts may be significant. The market price of Shares during the trading day, like the price of any exchange-traded security, includes a “bid/ask” spread charged by the exchange specialist, market makers or other participants that trade Shares. In times of severe market disruption, the bid/ask spread can increase significantly. At those times, Shares are most likely to be traded at a discount to NAV, and the discount is likely to be greatest when the price of Shares is falling fastest, which may be the time that you most want to sell your Shares. The Adviser believes that, under normal market conditions, large market price discounts or premiums to NAV will not be sustained because of arbitrage opportunities. To the extent a Fund holds securities that trade on foreign exchanges that are closed when such Fund’s primary listing exchange is open, such Fund is likely to experience premiums and discounts greater than those of domestic ETFs.
Trading. Although Shares are listed for trading on the Exchange and may be listed or traded on U.S. and non-U.S. stock exchanges other than the Exchange, there can be no assurance that an active trading market for such Shares will develop or be maintained. Trading in Shares may be halted due to market conditions or for reasons that, in the view of the Exchange, make trading in Shares inadvisable. In addition, trading in Shares on the Exchange is subject to trading halts caused by extraordinary market volatility pursuant to Exchange “circuit breaker” rules, which temporarily halt trading on the Exchange when a decline in the S&P 500 Index during a single day reaches certain thresholds (e.g., 7%, 13%, and 20%). Additional rules applicable to the Exchange may halt trading in Shares when extraordinary volatility causes sudden, significant swings in the market price of Shares. There can be no assurance that Shares will trade with any volume, or at all, on any stock exchange. In stressed market conditions, the liquidity of Shares may begin to mirror the liquidity of the Fund’s underlying portfolio holdings, which can be significantly less liquid than Shares.
Fixed Income Risk (Core Bond ETF, Short Term Bond ETF, and Municipal Bond ETF only). Current market conditions and the actions of governmental authorities and regulators in response to COVID-19 and its far-reaching effects present heightened risks to the fixed income market generally. Such risks could be further heightened if such market conditions become more volatile or the governmental and regulatory actions are unexpectedly or suddenly reversed or are ineffective in achieving their desired outcomes. In addition, the current environment is exposing fixed-income and debt markets to significant volatility and reduced liquidity for Fund investments.
Call Risk. During periods of falling interest rates, an issuer of a callable bond held by a Fund may “call” or repay the security before its stated maturity, and a Fund may have to reinvest the proceeds at lower interest rates, resulting in a decline in the Fund’s income.
Credit Risk. Debt issuers and other counterparties may not honor their obligations or may have their debt downgraded by ratings agencies.
Extension Risk. During periods of rising interest rates, certain debt obligations will be paid off substantially more slowly than originally anticipated and the value of those securities may fall sharply, resulting in a decline in a Fund’s income and potentially in the value of the Fund’s investments.
Interest Rate Risk. An increase in interest rates may cause the value of fixed-income securities held by a Fund to decline. A Fund may be subject to a greater risk of rising interest rates due to the current period of historically low rates and the effect of
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potential government fiscal policy initiatives and resulting market reaction to those initiatives. Variable and floating rate securities may increase or decrease in value in response to changes in interest rates, although generally to a lesser degree than fixed-income securities.
Foreign Securities Risk (Foreign Equity ETF only). Investments in non-U.S. securities involve certain risks that may not be present with investments in U.S. securities. These include risks of adverse changes in foreign economic, political, regulatory and other conditions, or changes in currency exchange rates or exchange control regulations (including limitations on currency movements and exchanges). The securities of some foreign companies may be less liquid and, at times, more volatile than securities of comparable U.S. companies. There may be less information publicly available about a non-U.S. issuer than a U.S. issuer. Non-U.S. issuers may be subject to different accounting, auditing, financial reporting and investor protection standards than U.S. issuers. Investments in non-U.S. securities may be subject to withholding or other taxes and may be subject to additional trading, settlement, custodial, and operational risks. With respect to certain countries, there is the possibility of government intervention and expropriation or nationalization of assets. Because legal systems differ, there is also the possibility that it will be difficult to obtain or enforce legal judgments in certain countries. Since foreign exchanges may be open on days when the Fund does not price its shares, the value of the securities in the Fund’s portfolio may change on days when shareholders will not be able to purchase or sell the Fund’s shares. Conversely, Shares may trade on days when foreign exchanges are close. Each of these factors can make investments in the Fund more volatile and potentially less liquid than other types of investments.
Geographic Investment Risk (Foreign Equity ETF only). To the extent the Fund invests a significant portion of its assets in the securities of companies of a single country or region, it is more likely to be impacted by events or conditions affecting that country or region.
Risks Related to Investing in China. The economy of China differs, often unfavorably, from the U.S. economy in such respects as structure, general development, government involvement, wealth distribution, rate of inflation, growth rate, allocation of resources and capital reinvestment, among others. Under China’s political and economic system, the central government has historically exercised substantial control over virtually every sector of the Chinese economy through administrative regulation and/or state ownership. Since 1978, the Chinese government has been, and is expected to continue, reforming its economic policies, which has resulted in less direct central and local government control over the business and production activities of Chinese enterprises and companies. Notwithstanding the economic reforms instituted by the Chinese government and the Chinese Communist Party, actions of the Chinese central and local government authorities continue to have a substantial effect on economic conditions in China, which could affect the public and private sector companies in which the Fund may invest. In the past, the Chinese government has from time to time taken actions that influence the prices at which certain goods may be sold, encourage companies to invest or concentrate in particular industries, induce mergers between companies in certain industries and induce private companies to publicly offer their securities to increase or continue the rate of economic growth, and control the rate of inflation or otherwise regulate economic expansion and it may take such actions in the future as well. Such actions and a variety of other centrally planned or determined activities by the Chinese government could have a significant adverse effect on economic conditions in China and the economic prospects for, and the market prices and liquidity of, the securities of Chinese companies and the payments of dividends and interest by Chinese companies. In addition, expropriation, including nationalization, confiscatory taxation, political, economic or social instability or other developments could adversely affect and significantly diminish the values of the Chinese companies in which the Fund may invest. Additionally, from time to time, China has experienced outbreaks of infectious illnesses, including COVID-19, and the country may be subject to other public health threats, diseases or similar issues in the future. The Fund may invest in shares of Chinese companies traded on stock markets in Mainland China or Hong Kong. These stock markets have recently experienced high levels of volatility, which may continue in the future. The Hong Kong stock market may behave differently from the Mainland China stock market and there may be little to no correlation between the performance of the Hong Kong stock market and the Mainland China stock market.  From time to time, certain of the companies comprising the Index may operate in, or have dealings with, countries subject to sanctions or embargoes imposed by the U.S. government and the United Nations and/or in countries identified by the U.S. government as state sponsors of terrorism. One or more of these companies may be subject to constraints under U.S. law or regulations which could negatively affect the company’s performance.  Additionally, one or more of these companies may suffer damage to its reputation if it is identified as a company which invests or deals with countries which are identified by the U.S. government as state sponsors of terrorism or subject to sanctions. As an investor in such companies, an investing fund will be indirectly subject to these risks.
Risks of Investing in India. India is an emerging market and exhibits significantly greater market volatility from time to time in comparison to more developed markets. Political and legal uncertainty, greater government control over the economy, currency fluctuations or blockage and the risk of nationalization or expropriation of assets may result in higher potential for losses. Moreover, governmental actions can have a significant effect on the economic conditions in India, which could adversely affect the value and liquidity of the Fund’s investments. The securities markets in India are comparatively underdeveloped, and stockbrokers and other intermediaries may not perform as well as their counterparts in the United States
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and other more developed securities markets. The limited liquidity of the Indian securities markets may also affect the Fund’s ability to acquire or dispose of securities at the price and time that it desires.
Global factors and foreign actions may inhibit the flow of foreign capital on which India is dependent to sustain its growth. In addition, the Reserve Bank of India (“RBI”) has imposed limits on foreign ownership of Indian securities, which may decrease the liquidity of the Fund’s portfolio and result in extreme volatility in the prices of Indian securities. These factors, coupled with the lack of extensive accounting, auditing and financial reporting standards and practices, as compared to the United States, may increase the Fund’s risk of loss. Further, certain Indian regulatory approvals, including approvals from the Securities and Exchange Board of India, the RBI, the central government and the tax authorities (to the extent that tax benefits need to be utilized), may be required before the Fund can make investments in the securities of Indian companies.
Risks Related to Investing in Japan. The Japanese economy may be subject to considerable degrees of economic, political and social instability, which could have a negative impact on Japanese securities. Japan’s economic growth rate has remained relatively low for an extended period of time and it may remain low in the future. In addition, Japan is subject to the risk of natural disasters, such as earthquakes, volcanoes, typhoons and tsunamis. Additionally, decreasing U.S. imports, new trade regulations, changes in the U.S. dollar exchange rates, a recession in the United States or continued increases in foreclosure rates may have an adverse impact on the economy of Japan. Japan also has few natural resources, and any fluctuation or shortage in the commodity markets could have a negative impact on Japanese securities.
Risks of Investing in Taiwan. Investments in Taiwanese issuers may subject the Fund to risks specific to Taiwan. Taiwan is a small island state with few raw material resources and limited land area and is reliant on imports for its commodity needs. Any fluctuations or shortages in the commodity markets could have a negative impact on the Taiwanese economy. Also, continued labor outsourcing may adversely affect the Taiwanese economy. Taiwan’s economy is intricately linked with economies of Asian countries that have experienced over-extensions of credit, frequent and pronounced currency fluctuations, currency devaluations, currency repatriation, rising unemployment and fluctuations in inflation. The Taiwanese economy is dependent on the economies of Japan and China, as well as the United States, and negative changes in their economies or a reduction in purchases by any of them of Taiwanese products and services would likely have an adverse impact on the Taiwanese economy. Taiwan’s geographic proximity to China and Taiwan’s history of political contention with China have resulted in ongoing tensions with China, including the risk of war with China. These tensions may materially affect the Taiwanese economy and securities markets.
Risks Related to Investing in Western Europe. Most developed countries in Western Europe are members of the European Union (EU), and many are also members of the European Monetary Union (EMU), which requires compliance with restrictions on inflation rates, deficits, and debt levels. Unemployment in certain European nations is historically high and several countries face significant debt problems. These conditions can significantly affect every country in Europe. The euro is the official currency of the EU. Funds that invest in Europe may have significant exposure to the euro and events affecting the euro. Recent market events affecting several of the EU member countries have adversely affected the sovereign debt issued by those countries, and ultimately may lead to a decline in the value of the euro. A significant decline in the value of the euro may produce unpredictable effects on trade and commerce generally and could lead to increased volatility in financial markets worldwide.
In addition, on January 31, 2020, the U.K. formally withdrew from the EU (commonly referred to as “Brexit”) and entered an 11-month transition period, which concluded on December 31, 2020, with the U.K. leaving the EU single market and customs union under the terms of a new trade agreement. The agreement governs the new relationship between the United Kingdom (UK) and EU with respect to trading goods and services, but critical aspects of the relationship remain unresolved and subject to further negotiation and agreement. There is still considerable uncertainty relating to the potential consequences associated with the exit and whether the UK’s exit will increase the likelihood of other countries also departing the EU. Any exits from the EU, or the possibility of such exits, may have a significant impact on the UK, Europe, and global economies, which may result in increased volatility and illiquidity, new legal and regulatory uncertainties and potentially lower economic growth for these economies that could potentially have an adverse effect on the value of the Fund’s investments. In addition, the UK has been a target of terrorism in the past. Acts of terrorism in Europe or the UK or against such countries’ interests abroad may cause uncertainty in the European or UK financial markets and adversely affect the performance of the issuers to which the Fund has exposure.
Geopolitical Risk (Foreign Equity ETF only). Some countries and regions in which the Fund invests have experienced security concerns, war or threats of war and aggression, terrorism, economic uncertainty, natural and environmental disasters and/or systemic market dislocations that have led, and in the future may lead, to increased short-term market volatility and may have adverse long-term effects on the U.S. and world economies and markets generally. Such geopolitical and other events may also disrupt securities markets and, during such market disruptions, the Fund’s exposure to the other risks described herein will likely increase. Each of the foregoing may negatively impact the Fund’s investments.
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Government Obligations Risk (Core Bond ETF and Short Term Bond ETF only). Obligations issued or guaranteed by the U.S. government, its agencies, authorities and instrumentalities and backed by the full faith and credit of the United States only guarantee principal and interest will be timely paid to holders of the securities. The entities do not guarantee that the value of the securities will increase and, in fact, the market values of such obligations may fluctuate. In addition, not all U.S. government securities are backed by the full faith and credit of the United States; some are the obligation solely of the entity through which they are issued. There is no guarantee that the U.S. government would provide financial support to its agencies and instrumentalities if not required to do so by law.
Implied Volatility Risk. When the Fund sells an option, it gains the amount of the premium it receives, but also incurs a liability representing the value of the option it has sold until the option is either exercised and finishes “in the money,” meaning it has value and can be sold, or the option expires worthless, or the expiration of the option is “rolled,” or extended forward. The value of the options in which the Fund invests is based partly on the volatility used by market participants to price such options (i.e., implied volatility). Accordingly, increases in the implied volatility of such options will cause the value of such options to increase (even if the prices of the options’ underlying stocks do not change), which will result in a corresponding increase in the liabilities of the Fund under such options and thus decrease the Fund’s NAV.
Limited Operating History. The Fund is a recently organized investment company with a limited operating history. As a result, prospective investors have a limited track record or history on which to base their investment decision.
Market Capitalization Risk.
Large-Capitalization Investing (Large Cap ETF, Foreign Equity ETF, and Hedged Large Cap Equity ETF only). The securities of large-capitalization companies may be relatively mature compared to smaller companies and therefore subject to slower growth during times of economic expansion. Large-capitalization companies may also be unable to respond quickly to new competitive challenges, such as changes in technology and consumer tastes.
Mid-Capitalization Investing (Foreign Equity ETF only). The securities of mid-capitalization companies may be more vulnerable to adverse issuer, market, political, or economic developments than securities of large-capitalization companies. The securities of mid-capitalization companies generally trade in lower volumes and are subject to greater and more unpredictable price changes than large capitalization stocks or the stock market as a whole. Some medium capitalization companies have limited product lines, markets, financial resources, and management personnel and tend to concentrate on fewer geographical markets relative to large-capitalization companies.
Small-Capitalization Investing (Small Cap ETF only). The securities of small-capitalization companies may be more vulnerable to adverse issuer, market, political, or economic developments than securities of larger-capitalization companies. The securities of small-capitalization companies generally trade in lower volumes and are subject to greater and more unpredictable price changes than larger capitalization stocks or the stock market as a whole. Some small capitalization companies have limited product lines, markets, and financial and managerial resources and tend to concentrate on fewer geographical markets relative to larger capitalization companies. There is typically less publicly available information concerning smaller-capitalization companies than for larger, more established companies. Small-capitalization companies also may be particularly sensitive to changes in interest rates, government regulation, borrowing costs and earnings.
Market Risk. The trading prices of securities and other instruments fluctuate in response to a variety of factors. These factors include events impacting the entire market or specific market segments, such as political, market and economic developments, as well as events that impact specific issuers. The Fund’s NAV and market price, like security and commodity prices generally, may fluctuate significantly in response to these and other factors. As a result, an investor could lose money over short or long periods of time. U.S. and international markets have experienced significant periods of volatility in recent years due to a number of economic, political and global macro factors, including public health issues, growth concerns in the U.S. and overseas, uncertainties regarding interest rates, trade tensions and the threat of tariffs imposed by the U.S. and other countries. These developments as well as other events could result in further market volatility and negatively affect financial asset prices, the liquidity of certain securities and the normal operations of securities exchanges and other markets, which could have an adverse effect on the Fund.
COVID-19 has resulted in a pandemic and major disruption to economies and markets around the world, including the United States. The pandemic has resulted in a wide range of social and economic disruptions, including closed borders, voluntary or compelled quarantines of large populations, stressed healthcare systems, reduced or prohibited domestic or international travel, supply chain disruptions, and so-called “stay-at-home” orders throughout much of the United States and many other countries. Financial markets have experienced extreme volatility and severe losses, and trading in many instruments has been disrupted. Some sectors of the economy and individual issuers have experienced particularly large losses. Such disruptions may continue for an extended period of time or reoccur in the future to a similar or greater extent. Liquidity for many instruments has been greatly reduced for periods of time. Some interest rates are very low and in some cases yields are negative. In response to these disruptions, the U.S. government and the Federal Reserve have taken extraordinary actions to support the domestic economy and
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financial markets, resulting in very low interest rates and in some cases negative yields. It is unknown how long circumstances related to the pandemic will persist, whether they will reoccur in the future, whether efforts to support the economy and financial markets will be successful, and what additional implications may follow from the pandemic. The impact of these events and other epidemics or pandemics in the future could adversely affect Fund performance.
Mortgage- and Asset-Backed Securities Risk (Core Bond ETF and Short Term Bond ETF only). The Fund may invest in U.S. government agency-backed mortgage- and asset-backed securities. Mortgage- and asset-backed securities are subject to interest rate risk. Modest movements in interest rates (both increases and decreases) may quickly and significantly reduce the value of certain types of these securities. When interest rates fall, mortgage- and asset-backed securities may be subject to prepayment risk. When interest rates rise, certain types of mortgage- and asset-backed securities are subject to extension risk. Mortgage- and asset-backed securities can also be subject to the risk of default on the underlying residential or commercial mortgage(s) or other assets.
Municipal Securities Risk (Municipal Bond ETF only). Municipal securities can be significantly affected by political or economic changes, including changes made in the law after issuance of the securities, as well as uncertainties in the municipal market related to taxation, legislative changes or the rights of municipal security holders, including in connection with an issuer insolvency. Municipal securities backed by current or anticipated revenues from a specific project or specific assets can be negatively affected by the inability to collect revenues from the project or the assets.
New York Municipal Securities Risk (Municipal Bond ETF only). The Fund will invest in municipal securities issued by or on behalf of the State of New York and The City of New York. As a result, the Fund is more exposed to risks affecting issuers of New York municipal securities than is a municipal securities fund that invests more widely. Such risks include, but are not limited to, the condition of the New York and national economies, and the collection of economically sensitive tax receipts in the amounts projected; the impact of national and international events; ongoing financial risks in the Euro-zone; changes in consumer confidence, oil supplies and oil prices; major terrorist events, hostilities or war; climate change and extreme weather events; federal statutory and regulatory changes concerning financial sector activities, federal tax law and other programmatic purposes; changes concerning financial sector bonus payouts, as well as any future legislation governing the structure of compensation; shifts in monetary policy affecting interest rates and the financial markets; the impact of financial and real estate market developments which may adversely affect bonus income and capital gains realizations; the impact of the effect of household debt on consumer spending and New York State tax collections; and the outcomes of litigation and other claims affecting the State of New York.
Options Risk. Selling (writing) and buying options are speculative activities and entail greater than ordinary investment risks. The Fund’s use of put options can lead to losses because of adverse movements in the price or value of the underlying asset, which may be magnified by certain features of the options. When selling a put option, the Fund will receive a premium; however, this premium may not be enough to offset a loss incurred by the Fund if the price of the underlying asset is below the strike price by an amount equal to or greater than the premium. Purchasing of put options involves the payment of premiums, which may adversely affect the Fund’s performance. Purchasing a put option gives the purchaser of the option the right to sell a specified quantity of an underlying asset at a fixed exercise price over a defined period of time. Purchased put options may expire worthless resulting in the Fund’s loss of the premium it paid for the option.
The value of an option may be adversely affected if the market for the option becomes less liquid or smaller, and will be affected by changes in the value or yield of the option’s underlying asset, an increase in interest rates, a change in the actual or perceived volatility of the stock market or the underlying asset and the remaining time to expiration. Additionally, the value of an option does not increase or decrease at the same rate as the underlying asset. The Fund’s use of options may reduce the Fund’s ability to profit from increases in the value of the underlying asset. If the price of the underlying asset of an option is above the strike price of a written put option, the value of the option, and consequently of the Fund, may decline significantly more than if the Fund invested directly in the underlying asset instead of using options. While the Fund will segregate liquid assets at least equal in value to the maximum potential loss for the Fund, the Fund could still lose a significant amount or nearly all of its value if the price of an underlying asset changes significantly enough.
Tax Risk. If positions held by the Fund were treated as “straddles” for federal income tax purposes, or the Fund’s risk of loss with respect to a position was otherwise diminished as set forth in Treasury regulations, dividends on stocks that are a part of such positions would not constitute qualified dividend income subject to such favorable income tax treatment in the hands of non-corporate shareholders or eligible for the dividends received deduction for corporate shareholders. In addition, generally, straddles are subject to certain rules that may affect the amount, character and timing of the Fund’s gains and losses with respect to straddle positions by requiring, among other things, that: (1) any loss realized on disposition of one position of a straddle may not be recognized to the extent that the Fund has unrealized gains with respect to the other position in such straddle; (2) the Fund’s holding period in straddle positions be suspended while the straddle exists (possibly resulting in a gain being treated as short-term capital gain rather than long-term capital gain); (3) the losses recognized with respect to certain straddle positions that are part of a mixed straddle and that are not subject to Section 1256 of the Internal Revenue Code be treated as 60% long-term and 40% short-term capital loss; (4) losses recognized with respect to certain straddle positions that would otherwise constitute short-term capital
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losses be treated as long-term capital losses; and (5) the deduction of interest and carrying charges attributable to certain straddle positions may be deferred.
Because the Municipal Bond ETF intends to be treated as a “qualified fund of funds” (i.e., at the close of each quarter of the taxable year at least 50 percent of the value of its total assets is represented by interests in other RICs), the Fund will generally be eligible to distribute “exempt-interest dividends” to its shareholders. The Municipal Bond ETF may distribute exempt-interest dividends to the extent of its tax-exempt interest income, if any, which may include both exempt-interest dividends received from underlying funds taxable as RICs and interest income received directly by the Fund on any investments in tax-exempt obligations (i.e., obligations that pay interest excluded from gross income under Section 103(a) of the Internal Revenue Code), reduced by certain expenses. An underlying fund taxable as a RIC will generally be eligible to distribute exempt-interest dividends if at least 50% of its total assets at the close of each quarter of its taxable year consist of tax-exempt obligations. The Municipal Bond ETF may not be a suitable investment for IRAs, for other tax-exempt or tax-deferred accounts or for investors who are not sensitive to the federal income tax consequences of their investments. The Underlying Investments may invest in bonds subject to the federal AMT applicable to non-corporate shareholders. Shareholders subject to the federal AMT will be required to report the portion of the Fund’s distributions attributable to income from the bonds as a tax preference item in determining their amounts due under the federal AMT.
PORTFOLIO HOLDINGS INFORMATION
Information about each Fund’s daily portfolio holdings is available at www.overlayshares.com. A complete description of the Funds’ policies and procedures with respect to the disclosure of the Funds’ portfolio holdings is available in the Funds’ Statement of Additional Information (the “SAI”).
MANAGEMENT
Investment Adviser
Liquid Strategies, LLC, a Delaware limited liability company located at 3550 Lenox Road, Suite 2550, Atlanta, Georgia 30326, serves as the investment adviser for each Fund. The Adviser, subject to the oversight of the Board of Trustees (the “Board”) for Listed Funds Trust (the “Trust”), provides an investment program for each Fund and manages the day-to-day investment of each Fund’s assets. The Adviser also arranges for transfer agency, custody, fund administration, distribution and all other services necessary for each Fund to operate. The Adviser is an SEC-registered investment adviser. As of November 30, 2021, the Adviser had approximately $692.6 million in assets under management.
For the services it provides to the Funds, the Adviser is entitled to a unified management fee, which is calculated daily and paid monthly, at an annual rate based on each Fund’s average daily net assets as set forth in the table below.
Fund Management Fee
Overlay Shares Large Cap Equity ETF 0.75%
Overlay Shares Small Cap Equity ETF 0.75%
Overlay Shares Foreign Equity ETF 0.75%
Overlay Shares Hedged Large Cap Equity ETF 0.75%
Overlay Shares Core Bond ETF 0.75%
Overlay Shares Short Term Bond ETF 0.75%
Overlay Shares Municipal Bond ETF 0.75%
Pursuant to an investment advisory agreement between the Trust, on behalf of each Fund, and the Adviser (the “Advisory Agreement”), the Adviser has agreed to pay all expenses of the Funds except the fee payable to the Adviser under the Advisory Agreement, interest charges on any borrowings, dividends, and other expenses on securities sold short, taxes, brokerage commissions and other expenses incurred in placing orders for the purchase and sale of securities and other investment instruments, acquired fund fees and expenses, accrued deferred tax liability, extraordinary expenses, and distribution (12b-1) fees and expenses (if any).
The basis for the Board’s approval of the Advisory Agreement for the Funds, except the Hedged Large Cap Equity ETF and Short Term Bond ETF, is available in the Funds’ Annual Report to Shareholders for the fiscal period ended August 31, 2021. The basis for the Board’s approval of the Advisory Agreement for the Hedged Large Cap Equity ETF and Short Term Bond ETF is available in the Funds’ Semi-Annual Report to Shareholders for the fiscal period ended February 28, 2021.
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Portfolio Managers
The individual members below are jointly and primarily responsible for the day to day management of the Funds’ portfolios.
Bradley Ball. Mr. Ball has more than 35 years of investment industry experience. Mr. Ball co-founded the Adviser in 2013 and serves as Chief Executive Officer, Managing Member and Portfolio Manager on the firm’s investment team. Prior to forming the Adviser, Mr. Ball was a founding partner and CEO of Perimeter Capital Management. During that time, he also was Vice President of Concourse Capital Management, LLC, an affiliated investment adviser to a long/short equity private fund. Previously, he served as Executive Vice President of Trusco Capital Management and served on the firm’s Executive Committee. Mr. Ball has been in the investment industry since 1985, has served on numerous industry boards and is a frequent conference speaker. He is a graduate of Oklahoma State University where he received a degree in Finance. Mr. Ball has served on numerous non-profit boards and currently serves as a board member of the Sandy Springs Perimeter Chamber of Commerce.
Adam Stewart, CFA. Mr. Stewart has more than 22 years of investment industry experience and co-founded the Adviser in 2013. He is a Portfolio Manager and Director of Trading on the firm’s investment team, which is responsible for setting portfolio allocations based on the risk profile of the markets. Mr. Stewart began his career at Franklin Templeton in 1997 and later served as Head of Equity Trading at Trusco Capital Management along with managing equity trading operations. Most recently, Mr. Stewart was a founding partner and Director of Trading for Perimeter Capital Management. Mr. Stewart received his Chartered Financial Analyst (CFA) designation in 2001 and earned his B.A. from Auburn University.
Shawn Gibson. Mr. Gibson co-Founded the Adviser in 2013 and serves as the Chief Investment Officer and Portfolio Manager on the firm’s investment team, and is a member of the firm’s Executive Management Committee. He brings more than 24 years of investment experience primarily in the area of options trading and options portfolio management. Mr. Gibson started trading options in 1997 with the Timber Hill Group, one of the world’s largest options market making firms. While at Timber Hill, Mr. Gibson was an options market maker on the floor of the Pacific Exchange and was later promoted to join a small team in Greenwich, CT that was responsible for overseeing the firm’s multi-billion dollar options trading portfolio. He subsequently served as Head of Options Strategy and Director of Alternative Investments at BB&T, where he worked with advisors and their clients to develop options-based hedging and yield enhancing strategies. Mr. Gibson was voted as one of the Top 40 leaders under 40 while living in Richmond after being nominated by his peers due to his professional accomplishments and community involvement. Mr. Gibson earned his B.S. in Commerce from the University of Virginia.
Justin Boller, CFA. Mr. Boller has been in the investment management industry for over 20 years. He serves as a Portfolio Manager and Director of Portfolio Strategies on the Adviser’s investment team. Mr. Boller began his career at Invesco in 1999 where he served as a Client Portfolio Manager, working on the company’s Global Equity investment team. While at Invesco, he also served as Director of Strategic Planning. Most recently, Mr. Boller has worked as Chief Investment Officer for Advocacy Wealth Management, LLC. He is a graduate of Wake Forest University, where he earned a bachelor's in business with a focus in finance.
Other Service Providers
Foreside Fund Services, LLC (the “Distributor”) is the principal underwriter and distributor of each Fund’s shares. The Distributor’s principal address is Three Canal Plaza, Suite 100, Portland, ME 04101. The Distributor will not distribute Shares in less than a whole Creation Unit, and it does not maintain a secondary market in the shares. The Distributor is a broker-dealer registered under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and a member of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (“FINRA”). The Distributor has no role in determining the policies of the Funds or the securities that are purchased or sold by the Funds and is not affiliated with the Adviser or any of its affiliates.
U.S. Bancorp Fund Services, LLC, doing business as U.S. Bank Global Fund Services, located at 615 East Michigan Street, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53202, serves as the administrator and transfer agent for the Funds.
U.S. Bank National Association, located at 1555 N. Rivercenter Drive, Suite 302, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53212, serves as the custodian for the Funds.
Morgan, Lewis & Bockius LLP, located at 1111 Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20004, serves as legal counsel to the Trust.
Cohen & Company, Ltd., located at 1350 Euclid Avenue, Suite 800, Cleveland, Ohio 44115, serves as the Funds’ independent registered public accounting firm. The independent registered public accounting firm is responsible for auditing the annual financial statements of the Funds.
HOW TO BUY AND SELL SHARES
Each Fund issues and redeems Shares only in Creation Units at the NAV per share next determined after receipt of an order from an AP. Only APs may acquire Shares directly from a Fund, and only APs may tender their Shares for redemption directly to a Fund, at NAV. APs must be a member or participant of a clearing agency registered with the SEC and must execute a Participant Agreement
47


that has been agreed to by the Distributor, and that has been accepted by the Funds’ transfer agent, with respect to purchases and redemptions of Creation Units. Once created, Shares trade in the secondary market in quantities less than a Creation Unit.
Most investors buy and sell Shares in secondary market transactions through brokers. Individual Shares are listed for trading on the secondary market on the Exchange and can be bought and sold throughout the trading day like other publicly traded securities.
When buying or selling Shares through a broker, you will incur customary brokerage commissions and charges, and you may pay some or all of the spread between the bid and the offer price in the secondary market on each leg of a round trip (purchase and sale) transaction. In addition, because secondary market transactions occur at market prices, you may pay more than NAV when you buy Shares, and receive less than NAV when you sell those Shares.
Book Entry
Shares are held in book-entry form, which means that no stock certificates are issued. The Depository Trust Company (“DTC”) or its nominee is the record owner of all outstanding Shares.
Investors owning Shares are beneficial owners as shown on the records of DTC or its participants. DTC serves as the securities depository for all Shares. DTC’s participants include securities brokers and dealers, banks, trust companies, clearing corporations and other institutions that directly or indirectly maintain a custodial relationship with DTC. As a beneficial owner of Shares, you are not entitled to receive physical delivery of stock certificates or to have Shares registered in your name, and you are not considered a registered owner of Shares. Therefore, to exercise any right as an owner of Shares, you must rely upon the procedures of DTC and its participants. These procedures are the same as those that apply to any other securities that you hold in book entry or “street name” through your brokerage account.
Frequent Purchases and Redemptions of Shares
The Funds impose no restrictions on the frequency of purchases and redemptions of Shares. In determining not to approve a written, established policy, the Board evaluated the risks of market timing activities by Fund shareholders. Purchases and redemptions by APs, who are the only parties that may purchase or redeem Shares directly with the Funds, are an essential part of the ETF process and help keep Share trading prices in line with NAV. As such, the Funds accommodate frequent purchases and redemptions by APs. However, frequent purchases and redemptions for cash may increase tracking error and portfolio transaction costs and may lead to the realization of capital gains. To minimize these potential consequences of frequent purchases and redemptions, the Funds employ fair value pricing and impose transaction fees on purchases and redemptions of Creation Units to cover the custodial and other costs incurred by the Funds in effecting trades. In addition, the Funds reserve the right to reject any purchase order at any time.
Determination of Net Asset Value
Each Fund’s NAV is calculated as of the scheduled close of regular trading on the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”), generally 4:00 p.m. Eastern time, each day the NYSE is open for business. The NAV for a Fund is calculated by dividing the applicable Fund’s net assets by its Shares outstanding.
In calculating its NAV, each Fund generally values its assets on the basis of market quotations, last sale prices, or estimates of value furnished by a pricing service or brokers who make markets in such instruments. The values of non-U.S. dollar denominated securities are converted to U.S. dollars using foreign currency exchange rates generally determined as of 4:00 p.m., London time. If such information is not available for a security held by a Fund or is determined to be unreliable, the security will be valued at fair value estimates under guidelines established by the Board (as described below).
Fair Value Pricing
The Board has adopted procedures and methodologies to fair value Fund securities whose market prices are not “readily available” or are deemed to be unreliable. For example, such circumstances may arise when: (i) a security has been de-listed or has had its trading halted or suspended; (ii) a security’s primary pricing source is unable or unwilling to provide a price; (iii) a security’s primary trading market is closed during regular market hours; or (iv) a security’s value is materially affected by events occurring after the close of the security’s primary trading market. Generally, when fair valuing a security, the Funds will take into account all reasonably available information that may be relevant to a particular valuation including, but not limited to, fundamental analytical data regarding the issuer, information relating to the issuer’s business, recent trades or offers of the security, general and/or specific market conditions and the specific facts giving rise to the need to fair value the security. Fair value determinations are made in good faith and in accordance with the fair value methodologies included in the Board-adopted valuation procedures. Due to the subjective and variable nature of fair value pricing, there can be no assurance that the Adviser will be able to obtain the fair value assigned to the security upon the sale of such security.
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Investments by Registered Investment Companies
Section 12(d)(1) of the 1940 Act restricts investments by registered investment companies in the securities of other investment companies. Registered investment companies are permitted to invest in each Fund beyond the limits set forth in section 12(d)(1), subject to certain terms and conditions, including that such investment companies enter into an agreement with the Fund.
DIVIDENDS, DISTRIBUTIONS, AND TAXES
Dividends and Distributions
Each Fund intends to pay out dividends, if any, and distribute any net realized capital gains to its shareholders at least annually. Each Fund will declare and pay capital gain distributions, if any, in cash. Distributions in cash may be reinvested automatically in additional whole Shares only if the broker through whom you purchased Shares makes such option available. Your broker is responsible for distributing the income and capital gain distributions to you.
Taxes
The following discussion is a summary of some important U.S. federal income tax considerations generally applicable to investments in the Funds. Your investment in a Fund may have other tax implications. Please consult your tax advisor about the tax consequences of an investment in Shares, including the possible application of foreign, state, and local tax laws.
Each Fund has elected or intends to elect and intends to qualify each year for treatment as a RIC. If it meets certain minimum distribution requirements, a RIC is not subject to tax at the fund level on income and gains from investments that are timely distributed to shareholders. However, a Fund’s failure to qualify as a RIC or to meet minimum distribution requirements would result (if certain relief provisions were not available) in fund-level taxation and, consequently, a reduction in income available for distribution to shareholders.
Unless your investment in Shares is made through a tax-exempt entity or tax-advantaged account, such as an IRA plan, you need to be aware of the possible tax consequences when a Fund makes distributions, when you sell your Shares listed on the Exchange, and when you purchase or redeem Creation Units (APs only).
Taxes on Distributions
Each Fund intends to distribute, at least annually, substantially all of its net investment income and net capital gains income. For federal income tax purposes, distributions of investment income are generally taxable as ordinary income or qualified dividend income. Taxes on distributions of capital gains (if any) are determined by how long a Fund owned the investments that generated them, rather than how long a shareholder has owned his or her Shares. Sales of assets held by a Fund for more than one year generally result in long-term capital gains and losses, and sales of assets held by a Fund for one year or less generally result in short-term capital gains and losses. Distributions of a Fund’s net capital gain (the excess of net long-term capital gains over net short-term capital losses) that are reported by such Fund as capital gain dividends (“Capital Gain Dividends”) will be taxable as long-term capital gains, which for non-corporate shareholders are subject to tax at reduced rates of up to 20% (lower rates apply to individuals in lower tax brackets). Distributions of short-term capital gain will generally be taxable as ordinary income. Dividends and distributions are generally taxable to you whether you receive them in cash or reinvest them in additional Shares.
Distributions reported by a Fund as “qualified dividend income” are generally taxed to non-corporate shareholders at rates applicable to long-term capital gains, provided holding period and other requirements are met. “Qualified dividend income” generally is income derived from dividends paid by U.S. corporations or certain foreign corporations that are either incorporated in a U.S. possession or eligible for tax benefits under certain U.S. income tax treaties. In addition, dividends that the Fund receives in respect of stock of certain foreign corporations may be qualified dividend income if that stock is readily tradable on an established U.S. securities market. The investment strategies of the Core Bond ETF, Short Term Bond ETF, and Municipal Bond ETF will significantly limit their ability to distribute dividends eligible to be treated as qualified dividend income.
Corporate shareholders may be entitled to a dividends received deduction for the portion of dividends they receive from a Fund that are attributable to dividends received by the Fund from U.S. corporations, subject to certain limitations. The investment strategies of the Foreign Equity ETF, Core Bond ETF, Short Term Bond ETF, and Municipal Bond ETF will significantly limit their ability to distribute dividends eligible for the dividends received deduction applicable to corporate shareholders.
Under recently issued final Treasury Regulations, a RIC that receives business interest income may pass through its net business interest income for purposes of the tax rules applicable to the interest expense limitations under Section 163(j) of the Internal Revenue Code. A RIC’s total “Section 163(j) Interest Dividend” for a tax year is limited to the excess of the RIC’s business interest income over the sum of its business interest expense and its other deductions properly allocable to its business interest income. A RIC may, in its discretion, designate all or a portion of ordinary dividends as Section 163(j) Interest Dividends, which would allow the recipient shareholder to treat the designated portion of such dividends as interest income for purposes of determining such shareholder’s interest expense deduction limitation under Section 163(j). This can potentially increase the amount of a shareholder’s interest expense deductible under Section 163(j). In general, to be eligible to treat a Section 163(j) Interest Dividend as interest income, you must have
49


held your shares in a Fund for more than 180 days during the 361-day period beginning on the date that is 180 days before the date on which the share becomes ex-dividend with respect to such dividend. Section 163(j) Interest Dividends, if so designated by a Fund, will be reported to your financial intermediary or otherwise in accordance with the requirements specified by the Internal Revenue Service.
Shortly after the close of each calendar year, you will be informed of the amount and character of any distributions received from a Fund.
In general, your distributions are subject to federal income tax for the year in which they are paid. Certain distributions paid in January, however, may be treated as paid on December 31 of the prior year. Distributions are generally taxable even if they are paid from income or gains earned by a Fund before your investment (and thus were included in the Shares’ NAV when you purchased your Shares).
You may wish to avoid investing in a Fund shortly before a dividend or other distribution, because such a distribution will generally be taxable even though it may economically represent a return of a portion of your investment.
If you are neither a resident nor a citizen of the United States or if you are a foreign entity, distributions (other than Capital Gain Dividends) paid to you by a Fund will generally be subject to a U.S. withholding tax at the rate of 30%, unless a lower treaty rate applies. Gains from the sale or other disposition of your Shares from non-U.S. shareholders generally are not subject to U.S. taxation, unless you are a nonresident alien individual who is physically present in the U.S. for 183 days or more per year. A Fund may, under certain circumstances, report all or a portion of a dividend as an “interest-related dividend” or a “short-term capital gain dividend,” which would generally be exempt from this 30% U.S. withholding tax, provided certain other requirements are met. Different tax consequences may result if you are a foreign shareholder engaged in a trade or business within the United States or if a tax treaty applies.
Under legislation generally known as “FATCA” (the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act), a Fund is required to withhold 30% of certain ordinary dividends it pays to shareholders that are foreign entities and that fail to meet prescribed information reporting or certification requirements.
Each Fund (or a financial intermediary, such as a broker, through which a shareholder owns Shares) generally is required to withhold and remit to the U.S. Treasury a percentage of the taxable distributions and sale or redemption proceeds paid to any shareholder who fails to properly furnish a correct taxpayer identification number, who has underreported dividend or interest income, or who fails to certify that he, she or it is not subject to such withholding.
Taxes When Shares are Sold on the Exchange
Any capital gain or loss realized upon a sale of Shares generally is treated as a long-term capital gain or loss if Shares have been held for more than one year and as a short-term capital gain or loss if Shares have been held for one year or less. However, any capital loss on a sale of Shares held for six months or less is treated as long-term capital loss to the extent of Capital Gain Dividends paid with respect to such Shares. Any loss realized on a sale will be disallowed to the extent Shares of a Fund are acquired, including through reinvestment of dividends, within a 61-day period beginning 30 days before and ending 30 days after the disposition of Shares. The ability to deduct capital losses may be limited.
The cost basis of Shares of a Fund acquired by purchase will generally be based on the amount paid for the Shares and then may be subsequently adjusted for other applicable transactions as required by the Internal Revenue Code. The difference between the selling price and the cost basis of Shares generally determines the amount of the capital gain or loss realized on the sale or exchange of Shares. Contact the broker through whom you purchased your Shares to obtain information with respect to the available cost basis reporting methods and elections for your account.
Taxes on Purchases and Redemptions of Creation Units
An AP having the U.S. dollar as its functional currency for U.S. federal income tax purposes who exchanges securities for Creation Units generally recognizes a gain or a loss. The gain or loss will be equal to the difference between the value of the Creation Units at the time of the exchange and the exchanging AP’s aggregate basis in the securities delivered plus the amount of any cash paid for the Creation Units. An AP who exchanges Creation Units for securities will generally recognize a gain or loss equal to the difference between the exchanging AP’s basis in the Creation Units and the aggregate U.S. dollar market value of the securities received, plus any cash received for such Creation Units. The Internal Revenue Service may assert, however, that a loss that is realized upon an exchange of securities for Creation Units may not be currently deducted under the rules governing “wash sales” (for an AP who does not mark-to-market their holdings) or on the basis that there has been no significant change in economic position. APs exchanging securities should consult their own tax advisor with respect to whether wash sale rules apply and when a loss might be deductible.
A Fund may include a payment of cash in addition to, or in place of, the delivery of a basket of securities upon the redemption of Creation Units. A Fund may sell portfolio securities to obtain the cash needed to distribute redemption proceeds. This may cause a Fund to recognize investment income and/or capital gains or losses that it might not have recognized if it had completely satisfied the
50


redemption in-kind. As a result, a Fund may be less tax efficient if it includes such a cash payment in the proceeds paid upon the redemption of Creation Units.
Taxation of Fund Investments
If positions held by a Fund were treated as “straddles” for federal income tax purposes, or the Fund’s risk of loss with respect to a position was otherwise diminished as set forth in Treasury Regulations, dividends on stocks that are a part of such positions would not constitute qualified dividend income subject to such favorable income tax treatment and would not be eligible for the dividends-dividends received deduction for corporate shareholders. In addition, generally, straddles are subject to certain rules that may affect the amount, character and timing of a Fund’s gains and losses with respect to straddle positions by requiring, among other things, that: (1) any loss realized on disposition of one position of a straddle may not be recognized to the extent that the Fund has unrealized gains with respect to the other position in such straddle; (2) the Fund’s holding period in straddle positions be suspended while the straddle exists (possibly resulting in a gain being treated as short-term capital gain rather than long-term capital gain); (3) the losses recognized with respect to certain straddle positions that are part of a mixed straddle and that are not subject to Code Section 1256 be treated as 60% long-term and 40% short-term capital loss; (4) losses recognized with respect to certain straddle positions that would otherwise constitute short-term capital losses be treated as long-term capital losses; and (5) the deduction of interest and carrying charges attributable to certain straddle positions may be deferred.
Net Investment Income Tax
U.S. individuals with income exceeding specified thresholds are subject to a 3.8% tax on all or a portion of their “net investment income,” which includes interest, dividends, and certain capital gains (generally including capital gains distributions and capital gains realized on the sale of Shares). This 3.8% tax also applies to all or a portion of the undistributed net investment income of certain shareholders that are estates and trusts.
Foreign Investments by a Fund
Interest and other income received by a Fund with respect to foreign securities may give rise to withholding and other taxes imposed by foreign countries. Tax conventions between certain countries and the United States may reduce or eliminate such taxes. If as of the close of a taxable year more than 50% of the value of a Fund’s assets consists of certain foreign stock or securities, each such Fund will be eligible to elect to “pass through” to investors the amount of foreign income and similar taxes (including withholding taxes) paid by such Fund during that taxable year. This means that investors would be considered to have received as additional income their respective shares of such foreign taxes, but may be entitled to either a corresponding tax deduction in calculating taxable income, or, subject to certain limitations, a credit in calculating federal income tax. If a Fund does not so elect, each such Fund will be entitled to claim a deduction for certain foreign taxes incurred by such Fund. A Fund (or a financial intermediary, such as a broker, through which a shareholder owns Shares) will notify you if it makes such an election and provide you with the information necessary to reflect foreign taxes paid on your income tax return.
Foreign tax credits, if any, received by a Fund as a result of an investment in another RIC (including an ETF which is taxable as a RIC) will not be passed through to you unless the Fund qualifies as a “qualified fund of funds” under the Internal Revenue Code. If a Fund is a “qualified fund of funds” it will be eligible to file an election with the Internal Revenue Service that will enable the Fund to pass along these foreign tax credits to its shareholders. A Fund will be treated as a “qualified fund of funds” under the Internal Revenue Code if at least 50% of the value of the Fund’s total assets (at the close of each quarter of the Fund’s taxable year) is represented by interests in other RICs.
Tax Considerations Applicable to the Municipal Bond ETF
Because the Municipal Bond ETF intends to be treated as a “qualified fund of funds” (i.e., at the close of each quarter of the taxable year at least 50 percent of the value of its total assets is represented by interests in other RICs), the Municipal Bond ETF will generally be eligible to distribute “exempt-interest dividends” to its shareholders. The Municipal Bond ETF may distribute exempt-interest dividends to the extent of its tax-exempt interest income, if any, which may include both exempt-interest dividends received from underlying funds taxable as RICs and interest income received directly by the Municipal Bond ETF on any investments in tax-exempt obligations (i.e., obligations that pay interest excluded from gross income under Section 103(a) of the Internal Revenue Code), reduced by certain expenses. An underlying fund taxable as a RIC will generally be eligible to distribute exempt-interest dividends if at least 50% of its total assets at the close of each quarter of its taxable year consist of tax-exempt obligations. A shareholder treats an exempt-interest dividend as interest on state and local bonds exempt from regular federal income tax.
Distributions from the Municipal Bond ETF of exempt-interest dividends may be tax preference items for purposes of the federal AMT applicable to non-corporate taxpayers. Distributions of the Municipal Bond ETF’s income other than exempt-interest dividends generally will be taxable to shareholders. Gains realized by the Municipal Bond ETF on the sale or exchange of investments that generate exempt-interest income will also be taxable to shareholders.
The exemption from federal income tax for exempt-interest dividends does not necessarily result in exemption for such dividends under the income or other tax laws of any state or local taxing authority. Some states exempt from state income tax that portion of any
51


exempt-interest dividend that is derived from interest received by a RIC on its holdings of securities of that state and its political subdivisions and instrumentalities. Therefore, the Municipal Bond ETF will report annually to its shareholders the percentage of interest income earned by the Municipal Bond ETF during the preceding year on tax-exempt obligations indicating, on a state-by-state basis, the source of such income. Shareholders of the Municipal Bond ETF are advised to consult with their own tax advisers about state and local tax matters.
Shares of the Municipal Bond ETF may not be suitable for tax-exempt shareholders since such shareholders generally would not benefit from the tax-exempt status of distributions from the Municipal Bond ETF. Tax-exempt shareholders should contact their tax advisers and financial planners regarding the tax consequences to them of an investment in the Municipal Bond ETF.
The foregoing discussion summarizes some of the possible consequences under current federal tax law of an investment in each Fund. It is not a substitute for personal tax advice. You also may be subject to state and local tax on Fund distributions and sales of Shares. Consult your personal tax advisor about the potential tax consequences of an investment in Shares under all applicable tax laws. For more information, please see the section entitled “Federal Income Taxes” in the SAI.
DISTRIBUTION PLAN
The Board has adopted a Distribution and Service Plan (the “Plan”) pursuant to Rule 12b-1 under the 1940 Act. In accordance with the Plan, each Fund is authorized to pay an amount up to 0.25% of its average daily net assets each year for certain distribution-related activities and shareholder services.
No Rule 12b-1 fees are currently paid by the Funds, and there are no plans to impose these fees. However, in the event Rule 12b-1 fees are charged in the future, because the fees are paid out of Fund assets, over time these fees will increase the cost of your investment and may cost you more than certain other types of sales charges.
PREMIUM/DISCOUNT INFORMATION
Information regarding how often each Fund’s Shares traded on the Exchange at a price above (i.e., at a premium) or below (i.e., at a discount) its NAV is available on the Funds’ website at www.overlayshares.com.
ADDITIONAL NOTICES
Shares are not sponsored, endorsed, or promoted by the Exchange. The Exchange is not responsible for, nor has it participated in the determination of, the timing, prices, or quantities of Shares to be issued, nor in the determination or calculation of the equation by which Shares are redeemable. The Exchange has no obligation or liability to owners of Shares in connection with the administration, marketing, or trading of Shares.
Without limiting any of the foregoing, in no event shall the Exchange have any liability for any lost profits or indirect, punitive, special, or consequential damages even if notified of the possibility thereof.
The Adviser and the Funds make no representation or warranty, express or implied, to the owners of Shares or any member of the public regarding the advisability of investing in securities generally or in the Funds particularly.
FINANCIAL HIGHLIGHTS
The financial highlights table is intended to help you understand the Funds’ financial performance since each Fund commenced operations. Certain information reflects financial results for a single Fund share. The total returns in each Fund’s table represent the rate that an investor would have earned or lost on an investment in the Fund (assuming reinvestment of all dividends and distributions). This information has been audited by Cohen & Company, Ltd., the Funds’ independent registered public accounting firm, whose report, along with the Funds’ financial statements, is included in the Funds’ annual report, which is available upon request.
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Overlay Shares ETFs
Financial Highlights
Per Share Operating Performance
(For a share outstanding throughout each period)
Income (Loss) from Investment Operations: Less Distributions Paid:
Net Asset
Value, Beginning of Period
Net
investment income (loss)(1)
Net realized and unrealized gain (loss) on investments Total from investment operations From Net investment income From Net realized gains
Overlay Shares Large Cap Equity ETF
For the period 09/01/2020 — 08/31/2021 $ 30.08  0.22  10.16  10.38  (0.87) (0.38)
For the period 09/30/2019(11) — 08/31/2020
$ 25.00  0.20  5.15  5.35  (0.23) (0.04)
Overlay Shares Small Cap Equity ETF
For the period 09/01/2020 — 08/31/2021 $ 24.27  0.08  13.83  13.91  (0.89) (0.09)
For the period 09/30/2019(11) — 08/31/2020
$ 25.00  0.19  (0.68)
(12)
(0.49) (0.18) (0.06)
Overlay Shares Foreign Equity ETF
For the period 09/01/2020 — 08/31/2021 $ 24.13  0.33  4.39  4.71  (1.01) — 
For the period 09/30/2019(11) — 08/31/2020
$ 25.00  0.73  (0.73)
(12)
0.00  (0.80) (0.05)
Overlay Shares Hedged Large Cap Equity ETF
For the period 1/14/2021(11) — 08/31/2021
$ 25.00  0.04  3.93  3.97  —  — 
Overlay Shares Core Bond ETF
For the period 09/01/2020 — 08/31/2021 $ 26.61  0.27  0.52  0.79  (0.83) (0.17)
For the period 09/30/2019(11) — 08/31/2020
$ 25.00  0.35  1.92  2.27  (0.62) (0.04)
Overlay Shares Short Term Bond ETF
For the period 1/14/2021(11) — 08/31/2021
$ 25.00  0.11  0.62  0.73  (0.43) — 
Overlay Shares Municipal Bond ETF
For the period 09/01/2020 — 08/31/2021 $ 25.80  0.31  1.28  1.59  (0.87) (0.15)
For the period 09/30/2019(11) — 08/31/2020
$ 25.00  0.32  1.14  1.46  (0.61) (0.05)
(1) Per share net investment income (loss) was calculated using average shares outstanding.
(2) Annualized for periods less than one year.
(3) Does not include income and expenses of investment companies in which the Fund invests.
(4) Total return in the table represents the rate that the investor would have earned or lost on an investment in the Fund, assuming reinvestment of dividends.
(5) Not annualized for periods less than one year.
(6) Excludes in-kind transactions associated with creations and redemptions of the Fund.
(7) The returns reflect the actual performance for the period and do not include the impact of trades executed on the last business day of the period that were recorded on the first business day of the next period.

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Overlay Shares ETFs
Financial Highlights
Per Share Operating Performance
(For a share outstanding throughout each period)
Ratios/Supplemental Data
Less Distributions Paid:
Ratios to Average
Net Assets of:(2)(3)
From Return of capital Total distributions paid Net Asset Value, End of Period
Total return, at NAV(4)(5)
Total return, at Market(4)(5)
Net assets,
end of period (000’s)
Expenses Net investment income (loss)
Portfolio turnover rate(5)(6)
—  (1.25) $ 39.21  35.36  % 34.77  % $ 200,959  0.77  %
(9)
0.66  % %
—  (0.27) $ 30.08  21.62  % 22.22  % $ 97,768  0.76  %
(8)
0.85  % %
—  (0.98) $ 37.20  58.12  % 58.46  % $ 6,510  0.77  %
(9)
0.25  % %
—  (0.24) $ 24.27  (1.93) % (1.87) % $ 3,034  0.76  %
(8)
0.90  % %
—  (1.01) $ 27.84  19.82  % 20.24  % $ 6,960  0.77  %
(9)
1.28  % 10  %
(0.02) (0.87) $ 24.13  (0.03) % (0.41) % $ 4,223  0.76  %
(8)
3.42  % %
—  —  $ 28.97  15.89  %
(7)
16.05  %
(7)
$ 12,313  0.81  %
(10)
0.26  % 13  %