|Vanguard FTSE All-World ex-US ETF|
|February 26, 2019|
|Exchange-traded fund shares that are not individually redeemable and are listed|
|on NYSE Arca|
|Vanguard FTSE All-World ex-US Index Fund ETF Shares (VEU)|
|This prospectus contains financial data for the Fund through the fiscal year ended October 31, 2018.|
|The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) has not approved or disapproved these securities or|
|passed upon the adequacy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.|
|Vanguard ETF Summary||1||More on the Fund and ETF Shares||10|
|Investing in Vanguard ETF Shares||7||The Fund and Vanguard||19|
|Investing in Index Funds||9||Investment Advisor||19|
|Dividends, Capital Gains, and Taxes||20|
|Share Price and Market Price||23|
|Glossary of Investment Terms||27|
The Fund seeks to track the performance of a benchmark index that measures the investment return of stocks of companies located in developed and emerging markets outside of the United States.
Fees and Expenses
The following table describes the fees and expenses you may pay if you buy and hold ETF Shares of the Fund.
|(Fees paid directly from your investment)|
|Transaction Fee on Purchases and Sales||None through Vanguard|
|(Broker fees vary)|
|Transaction Fee on Reinvested Dividends||None through Vanguard|
|(Broker fees vary)|
|Transaction Fee on Conversion to ETF Shares||None through Vanguard|
|(Broker fees vary)|
|Annual Fund Operating Expenses|
|(Expenses that you pay each year as a percentage of the value of your investment)|
|12b-1 Distribution Fee||None|
|Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses||0.09%|
The following example is intended to help you compare the cost of investing in the Fund’s ETF Shares with the cost of investing in other funds. It illustrates the hypothetical expenses that you would incur over various periods if you were to invest $10,000 in the Fund’s shares. This example assumes that the shares provide a return of 5% each year and that total annual fund operating expenses remain as stated in the preceding table. You would incur these hypothetical expenses whether or not you were to sell your shares at the end of the given period. Although your actual costs may be higher or lower, based on these assumptions your costs would be:
|1 Year||3 Years||5 Years||10 Years|
This example does not include the brokerage commissions that you may pay to buy and sell ETF Shares of the Fund.
The Fund pays transaction costs, such as commissions, when it buys and sells securities (or “turns over” its portfolio). A higher portfolio turnover rate may indicate higher transaction costs and may result in more taxes when Fund shares are held in a taxable account. These costs, which are not reflected in annual fund operating expenses or in the previous expense example, reduce the Fund’s performance. During the most recent fiscal year, the Fund’s portfolio turnover rate was 6% of the average value of its portfolio.
Principal Investment Strategies
The Fund employs an indexing investment approach designed to track the performance of the FTSE All-World ex US Index, a float-adjusted, market-capitalization-weighted index designed to measure equity market performance of international markets, excluding the United States. As of October 31, 2018, the Index included 2,582 stocks of companies located in 47 markets, including both developed and emerging markets. As of October 31, 2018, the largest markets covered in the index were Japan, the United Kingdom, France, and China (which made up approximately 18.1%, 12.5%, 7.2%, and 6.7%, respectively, of the Index’s market capitalization). The Fund attempts to replicate the target index by investing all, or substantially all, of its assets in the stocks that make up the Index, holding each stock in approximately the same proportion as its weighting in the Index.
An investment in the Fund could lose money over short or long periods of time. You should expect the Fund’s share price and total return to fluctuate within a wide range. The Fund is subject to the following risks, which could affect the Fund’s performance:
• Stock market risk, which is the chance that stock prices overall will decline. Stock markets tend to move in cycles, with periods of rising prices and periods of falling prices. The Fund’s investments in foreign stocks can be riskier than U.S. stock investments. Foreign stocks may be more volatile and less liquid than U.S. stocks. The prices of foreign stocks and the prices of U.S. stocks may move in opposite directions. In addition, the Fund’s target index may, at times, become focused in stocks of a particular market sector, which would subject the Fund to proportionately higher exposure to the risks of that sector.
• Country/regional risk, which is the chance that world events—such as political upheaval, financial troubles, or natural disasters—will adversely affect the value of securities issued by companies in foreign countries or regions. Because the Fund may invest a large portion of its assets in securities of companies located in any one country or region, the Fund’s performance may be hurt disproportionately by the poor performance of its investments in that area. Country/regional risk is especially high in emerging markets.
• Emerging markets risk, which is the chance that the stocks of companies located in emerging markets will be substantially more volatile, and substantially less liquid, than the stocks of companies located in more developed foreign markets because, among other factors, emerging markets can have greater custodial and operational risks; less developed legal, tax, regulatory, and accounting systems; and greater political, social, and economic instability than developed markets.
• Currency risk, which is the chance that the value of a foreign investment, measured in U.S. dollars, will decrease because of unfavorable changes in currency exchange rates.
Currency risk is especially high in emerging markets.
Because ETF Shares are traded on an exchange, they are subject to additional risks:
• The Fund’s ETF Shares are listed for trading on NYSE Arca and are bought and sold on the secondary market at market prices. Although it is expected that the market price of an ETF Share typically will approximate its net asset value (NAV), there may be times when the market price and the NAV differ significantly. Thus, you may pay more or less than NAV when you buy ETF Shares on the secondary market, and you may receive more or less than NAV when you sell those shares.
• Although the Fund’s ETF Shares are listed for trading on NYSE Arca, it is possible that an active trading market may not be maintained.
• Trading of the Fund’s ETF Shares may be halted by the activation of individual or marketwide trading halts (which halt trading for a specific period of time when the price of a particular security or overall market prices decline by a specified
percentage). Trading of the Fund’s ETF Shares may also be halted if (1) the shares are delisted from NYSE Arca without first being listed on another exchange or (2) NYSE Arca officials determine that such action is appropriate in the interest of a fair and orderly market or for the protection of investors.
An investment in the Fund is not a deposit of a bank and is not insured or guaranteed by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation or any other government agency.
Annual Total Returns
The following bar chart and table are intended to help you understand the risks of investing in the Fund. The bar chart shows how the performance of the Fund‘s ETF Shares (based on NAV) has varied from one calendar year to another over the periods shown. The table shows how the average annual total returns of the ETF Shares compare with those of the Fund‘s target index and a comparative index, which have investment characteristics similar to those of the Fund. Returns for the FTSE Indexes shown are adjusted for withholding taxes applicable to U.S.-based mutual funds organized as Delaware statutory trusts. Keep in mind that the Fund’s past performance (before and after taxes) does not indicate how the Fund will perform in the future. Updated performance information is available on our website at vanguard.com/performance or by calling Vanguard toll-free at 800-662-7447.
Annual Total Returns — Vanguard FTSE All-World ex-US Index Fund ETF Shares
During the periods shown in the bar chart, the highest return for a calendar quarter was 28.11% (quarter ended June 30, 2009), and the lowest return for a quarter was –21.20% (quarter ended September 30, 2011).
|Average Annual Total Returns for Periods Ended December 31, 2018|
|1 Year||5 Years||10 Years|
|Vanguard FTSE All-World ex-US Index Fund ETF Shares|
|Based on NAV|
|Return Before Taxes||–13.97%||0.97%||6.61%|
|Return After Taxes on Distributions||–14.53||0.23||5.97|
|Return After Taxes on Distributions and Sale of Fund Shares||–7.73||0.71||5.35|
|Based on Market Price|
|Return Before Taxes||–14.19||0.83||6.47|
|(reflect no deduction for fees or expenses)|
|FTSE All-World ex US Index||–14.13%||1.05%||6.99%|
|FTSE All-World ex US Fair Value Index||–14.05||—||—|
Actual after-tax returns depend on your tax situation and may differ from those shown in the preceding table. When after-tax returns are calculated, it is assumed that the shareholder was in the highest individual federal marginal income tax bracket at the time of each distribution of income or capital gains or upon redemption. State and local income taxes are not reflected in the calculations. Please note that after-tax returns are not relevant for a shareholder who holds fund shares in a tax-deferred account, such as an individual retirement account or a 401(k) plan. Also, figures captioned Return After Taxes on Distributions and Sale of Fund Shares may be higher than other figures for the same period if a capital loss occurs upon redemption and results in an assumed tax deduction for the shareholder.
The Vanguard Group, Inc. (Vanguard)
Christine D. Franquin, Principal of Vanguard. She has co-managed the Fund since 2016.
Justin E. Hales, CFA, CFP, Portfolio Manager at Vanguard. He has co-managed the Fund since 2016.
Purchase and Sale of Fund Shares
You can buy and sell ETF Shares of the Fund through a brokerage firm. The price you pay or receive for ETF Shares will be the prevailing market price, which may be more or less than the NAV of the shares. The brokerage firm may charge you a commission to execute the transaction. Unless imposed by your brokerage firm, there is no minimum dollar amount you must invest and no minimum number of shares you must buy. ETF Shares of the Fund cannot be directly purchased from or redeemed with the Fund, except by certain authorized broker-dealers. These broker-dealers may purchase and redeem ETF Shares only in large blocks (Creation Units) worth $1 million or more, typically in exchange for baskets of securities. For this Fund, the number of ETF Shares in a Creation Unit is 300,000.
The Fund’s distributions may be taxable as ordinary income or capital gain. If you are investing through a tax-advantaged account, such as an IRA or an employer-sponsored retirement or savings plan, special tax rules apply.
Payments to Financial Intermediaries
The Fund and its investment advisor do not pay financial intermediaries for sales of Fund shares.
What Are Vanguard ETF Shares?
Vanguard ETF Shares are an exchange-traded class of shares issued by certain Vanguard funds. ETF Shares represent an interest in the portfolio of stocks or bonds held by the issuing fund. This prospectus describes Vanguard FTSE All-World ex-US ETF, a class of shares issued by Vanguard FTSE All-World ex-US Index Fund. In addition to ETF Shares, the Fund offers four conventional (not exchange-traded) classes of shares. This prospectus, however, relates only to ETF Shares.
How Are Vanguard ETF Shares Different From Conventional Mutual Fund Shares?
Conventional mutual fund shares can be directly purchased from and redeemed with the issuing fund for cash at the net asset value (NAV), typically calculated once a day. ETF Shares, by contrast, cannot be purchased directly from or redeemed directly with the issuing fund by an individual investor. Rather, ETF Shares can only be purchased or redeemed directly from the issuing fund by certain authorized broker-dealers. These broker-dealers may purchase and redeem ETF Shares only in large blocks (Creation Units) worth $1 million or more, usually in exchange for baskets of securities and not for cash (although some funds issue and redeem Creation Units in exchange for cash or a combination of cash and securities).
An organized secondary trading market is expected to exist for ETF Shares, unlike conventional mutual fund shares, because ETF Shares are listed for trading on a national securities exchange. Individual investors can purchase and sell ETF Shares on the secondary market through a broker. Secondary-market transactions occur not at NAV, but at market prices that are subject to change throughout the day based on the supply of and demand for ETF Shares, changes in the prices of the fund’s portfolio holdings, and other factors.
The market price of a fund’s ETF Shares typically will differ somewhat from the NAV of those shares. The difference between market price and NAV is expected to be small most of the time, but in times of market disruption or extreme market volatility, the difference may become significant.
How Do I Buy and Sell Vanguard ETF Shares?
ETF Shares of the Fund are listed for trading on NYSE Arca. You can buy and sell ETF Shares on the secondary market in the same way you buy and sell any other exchange-traded security—through a broker. Your broker may charge a commission to execute a transaction. You will also incur the cost of the “bid-ask spread,” which is the difference between the price a dealer will pay for a security and the somewhat higher price at which the dealer will sell the same security. Because secondary-market transactions occur at market prices, you may pay more (premium) or less (discount) than NAV when you buy ETF Shares and receive more or less than NAV when you sell those shares. In times of severe market disruption, the bid-ask spread and premiums/ discounts can increase significantly. Unless imposed by your broker, there is no minimum dollar amount you must invest and no minimum number of ETF Shares you must buy.
Your ownership of ETF Shares will be shown on the records of the broker through which you hold the shares. Vanguard will not have any record of your ownership. Your account information will be maintained by your broker, which will provide you with account statements, confirmations of your purchases and sales of ETF Shares, and tax information. Your broker also will be responsible for ensuring that you receive income and capital gains distributions, as well as shareholder reports and other communications from the fund whose ETF Shares you own. You will receive other services (e.g., dividend reinvestment and average cost information) only if your broker offers these services.
What Is Indexing?
Indexing is an investment strategy for tracking the performance of a specified market benchmark, or “index.” An index is a group of securities whose overall performance is used as a standard to measure the investment performance of a particular market. There are many types of indexes. Some represent entire markets—such as the U.S. stock market or the U.S. bond market. Other indexes cover market segments—such as small-capitalization stocks or short-term bonds. One cannot invest directly in an index.
The index sponsor determines the securities to include in the index, the weighting of each security in the index, and the appropriate time to make changes to the composition of the index. Generally, the index sponsor does not provide any warranty, or accept any liability, with respect to the quality, accuracy, or completeness of either the target index or its related data. Errors made by the index sponsor may occur from time to time and Vanguard does not provide any warranty or guarantee against such errors. Therefore, the gains, losses, or costs associated with the index sponsor’s errors will generally be borne by the index fund and its shareholders.
An index fund seeks to hold all, or a representative sample, of the securities that make up its target index. Index funds attempt to mirror the performance of the target index, for better or worse. However, an index fund generally does not perform exactly like its target index. For example, index funds have operating expenses and transaction costs. Market indexes do not, and therefore they will usually have a slight performance advantage over funds that track them.
Index funds typically have the following characteristics:
• Variety of investments. Index funds generally invest in the securities of a variety of companies and industries.
• Relative performance consistency. Because they seek to track market benchmarks, index funds usually do not perform dramatically better or worse than their benchmarks.
• Low cost. Index funds are generally inexpensive to run compared with actively managed funds. They have low or no research costs and typically keep trading activity—and thus brokerage commissions and other transaction costs—to a minimum compared with actively managed funds.
This prospectus describes the principal risks you would face as a Fund shareholder. It is important to keep in mind one of the main principles of investing: generally, the higher the risk of losing money, the higher the potential reward. The reverse, also, is generally true: the lower the risk, the lower the potential reward. As you consider an investment in any fund, you should take into account your personal tolerance for fluctuations in the securities markets. Look for this symbol throughout the prospectus. It is used to mark detailed information about the more significant risks that you would confront as a Fund shareholder. To highlight terms and concepts important to fund investors, we have provided Plain Talk® explanations along the way. Reading the prospectus will help you decide whether the Fund is the right investment for you. We suggest that you keep this prospectus for future reference.
Share Class Overview
This prospectus offers the Fund‘s ETF Shares, an exchange-traded class of shares. A separate prospectus offers the Fund‘s Investor Shares and AdmiralTM Shares, which generally have investment minimums of $3,000. Another prospectus offers the Fund‘s Institutional Shares and Institutional Plus Shares, which are generally for investors who invest a minimum of $5 million and $100 million, respectively.
All share classes offered by the Fund have the same investment objective, strategies, and policies. However, different share classes have different expenses; as a result, their investment returns will differ.
A Note to Investors
Vanguard ETF Shares can be purchased directly from the issuing Fund only by certain authorized broker-dealers in exchange for a basket of securities (or, in some cases, for cash or a combination of cash and securities) that is expected to be worth $1 million or more. Most individual investors, therefore, will not be able to purchase ETF Shares directly from the Fund. Instead, these investors will purchase ETF Shares on the secondary market through a broker.
|Plain Talk About Fund Expenses|
|All funds have operating expenses. These expenses, which are deducted from a|
|fund’s gross income, are expressed as a percentage of the net assets of the|
|fund. Assuming that operating expenses remain as stated in the Fees and|
|Expenses section, Vanguard FTSE All-World ex-US Index Fund ETF Shares’|
|expense ratio would be 0.09%, or $0.90 per $1,000 of average net assets. The|
|average expense ratio for international stock funds in 2017 was 1.31%, or $13.10|
|per $1,000 of average net assets (derived from data provided by Lipper, a|
|Thomson Reuters Company, which reports on the fund industry).|
|Plain Talk About Costs of Investing|
|Costs are an important consideration in choosing an ETF. That is because you, as|
|a shareholder, pay a proportionate share of the costs of operating a fund and any|
|transaction costs incurred when the fund buys or sells securities. These costs|
|can erode a substantial portion of the gross income or the capital appreciation a|
|fund achieves. Even seemingly small differences in expenses can, over time,|
|have a dramatic effect on a fund‘s performance.|
The following sections explain the principal investment strategies and policies that the Fund uses in pursuit of its objective. The Fund‘s board of trustees, which oversees the Fund’s management, may change investment strategies or policies in the interest of shareholders without a shareholder vote, unless those strategies or policies are designated as fundamental. Note that the Fund‘s investment objective is not fundamental and may be changed without a shareholder vote. Under normal circumstances, the Fund will invest at least 80% of its assets in the stocks that make up its target index. The Fund may change its 80% policy only upon 60 days’ notice to shareholders.
The Fund invests mainly in common stocks of companies located in developed and emerging markets around the world, excluding the United States. In seeking to track its index, the Fund invests in stocks that are predominantly large-cap and, to a lesser extent, mid- and small-cap. Historically, small- and mid-cap stocks have been more volatile in price than—and at times have performed quite differently from—large-cap stocks. The stock prices of small and mid-size companies tend to experience greater
volatility because, among other things, these companies tend to be more sensitive to changing economic conditions.
Plain Talk About International Investing
U.S. investors who invest in foreign securities will encounter risks not typically associated with U.S. companies because foreign stock and bond markets operate differently from the U.S. markets. For instance, foreign companies and governments may not be subject to the same or similar accounting, auditing, legal, tax, and financial reporting standards and practices as U.S. companies and the U.S. government, and their stocks and bonds may not be as liquid as those of similar U.S. entities. In addition, foreign stock exchanges, brokers, companies, bond markets, and dealers may be subject to less government supervision and regulation than their counterparts in the United States. These factors, among others, could negatively affect the returns U.S. investors receive from foreign investments.
The Fund is subject to stock market risk, which is the chance that stock prices overall will decline. Stock markets tend to move in cycles, with periods of rising prices and periods of falling prices. The Fund’s investments in foreign stocks can be riskier than U.S. stock investments. Foreign stocks may be more volatile and less liquid than U.S. stocks. The prices of foreign stocks and the prices of U.S. stocks may move in opposite directions. In addition, the Fund’s target index may, at times, become focused in stocks of a particular market sector, which would subject the Fund to proportionately higher exposure to the risks of that sector.
The Fund is subject to country/regional risk and currency risk. Country/regional risk is the chance that world events—such as political upheaval, financial troubles, or natural disasters—will adversely affect the value of securities issued by companies in foreign countries or regions. Because the Fund may invest a large portion of its assets in securities of companies located in any one country or region, the Fund‘s performance may be hurt disproportionately by the poor performance of its investments in that area. Currency risk is the chance that the value of a foreign investment, measured in U.S. dollars, will decrease because of unfavorable changes in currency exchange rates. Country/regional risk and currency risk are especially high in emerging markets.
The Fund is subject to emerging markets risk, which is the chance that the stocks of companies located in emerging markets will be substantially more volatile, and substantially less liquid, than the stocks of companies located in more developed foreign markets because, among other factors, emerging markets can have greater custodial and operational risks; less developed legal, tax, regulatory, and accounting systems; and greater political, social, and economic instability than developed markets.
The Fund attempts to track the investment performance of a benchmark index consisting of common stocks of companies located in developed and emerging markets around the world, excluding the United States. The companies in which the Fund invests will be within the capitalization range of the companies included in the FTSE All-World ex US Index ($60 million to $365 billion as of October 31, 2018). In the future, the Index’s market capitalization range may be higher or lower, and the Fund’s investments may track a different index. Such changes may occur at any time and without notice to Fund shareholders.
Indexing Strategy. The Fund attempts to replicate the target index by investing all, or substantially all, of its assets in the stocks that make up the Index, holding each stock in approximately the same proportion as its weighting in the Index.
Depositary receipts. The Fund, in most cases, will obtain economic exposure to stocks of its target index (component securities) by investing directly in the component securities. However, the Fund reserves the right to obtain economic exposure to component securities indirectly by purchasing depositary receipts (also sold as participatory notes) of the component securities. Depositary receipts are securities that are listed on exchanges or quoted in over-the-counter markets in one country but represent shares of issuers domiciled in another country. Generally, the Fund will hold depositary receipts only when the advisor believes that the Fund would benefit from holding the depositary receipt, rather than the underlying component security. The Fund might opt to hold depositary receipts if the foreign market in which a stock trades does not provide adequate protection to the rights of foreign investors or if government regulators place restrictions on the free flow of capital or currency. The Fund treats depositary receipts that represent interests in component securities as component securities for purposes of any requirements related to the percentage of component securities held in the Fund’s portfolio.
The FTSE All-World ex US Index. The FTSE All-World ex US Index is maintained by FTSE Group (FTSE), a widely known global index provider that currently manages and calculates more than 120,000 indexes daily.
Other Investment Policies and Risks
The Fund reserves the right to substitute a different index for the index it currently tracks if the current index is discontinued, if the Fund‘s agreement with the sponsor of its target index is terminated, or for any other reason determined in good faith by the Fund’s board of trustees. In any such instance, the substitute index would represent the same market segment as the current index.
The Fund may invest, to a limited extent, in equity futures and options contracts, warrants, convertible securities, and swap agreements, all of which are types of derivatives. Generally speaking, a derivative is a financial contract whose value is based on the value of a financial asset (such as a stock, a bond, or a currency), a physical asset (such as gold, oil, or wheat), a market index, or a reference rate. Investments in derivatives may subject the Fund to risks different from, and possibly greater than, those of investments directly in the underlying securities or assets. The Fund will not use derivatives for speculation or for the purpose of leveraging (magnifying) investment returns.
The Fund may enter into foreign currency exchange forward contracts, which are a type of derivative, in order to maintain the same currency exposure as its index. A foreign currency exchange forward contract is an agreement to buy or sell a currency at a specific price on a specific date, usually 30, 60, or 90 days in the future. In other words, the contract guarantees an exchange rate on a given date. These contracts, however, would not prevent the Fund’s securities from falling in value as a result of risks other than unfavorable currency exchange movements. The Fund may use these contracts to gain currency exposure when investing in equity futures and to settle trades in a foreign currency.
The Fund‘s daily cash balance may be invested in Vanguard Market Liquidity Fund and/or Vanguard Municipal Cash Management Fund (each, a CMT Fund), which are low-cost money market funds. When investing in a CMT Fund, the Fund bears its proportionate share of the expenses of the CMT Fund in which it invests. Vanguard receives no additional revenue from Fund assets invested in a CMT Fund.
Methods Used to Meet Redemption Requests
Redemptions of ETF Shares are typically met through a combination of cash and securities held by the Fund; see “How Are Vanguard ETF Shares Different From Conventional Mutual Fund Shares?” If cash is used to meet redemptions, the Fund typically obtains such cash through positive cash flows or the sale of Fund holdings consistent with the Fund’s investment objective and strategy. Please consult the Fund‘s Statement of Additional Information for further information on redemptions of ETF Shares.
Under certain circumstances, the Fund may borrow money (subject to certain regulatory conditions and if available under board-approved procedures) through an interfund lending facility or through a bank line-of-credit, including a joint committed credit facility, in order to meet redemption requests.
Temporary Investment Measures
The Fund may temporarily depart from its normal investment policies and strategies when the advisor believes that doing so is in the Fund‘s best interest, so long as the strategy or policy employed is consistent with the Fund‘s investment objective. For instance, the Fund may invest beyond its normal limits in derivatives or exchange-traded funds that are consistent with the Fund‘s investment objective when those instruments are more favorably priced or provide needed liquidity, as might be the case when the Fund receives large cash flows that it cannot prudently invest immediately.
Special Risks of Exchange-Traded Shares
ETF Shares are not individually redeemable. They can be redeemed with the issuing Fund at NAV only by certain authorized broker-dealers and only in large blocks known as Creation Units, which would cost $1 million or more to assemble. Consequently, if you want to liquidate some or all of your ETF Shares, you must sell them on the secondary market at prevailing market prices.
The market price of ETF Shares may differ from NAV. Although it is expected that the market price of an ETF Share typically will approximate its NAV, there may be times when the market price and the NAV differ significantly. Thus, you may pay more (premium) or less (discount) than NAV when you buy ETF Shares on the secondary market, and you may receive more or less than NAV when you sell those shares. These discounts and premiums are likely to be greatest during times of market disruption or extreme market volatility.
Vanguard’s website at vanguard.com shows the previous day’s closing NAV and closing market price for the Fund’s ETF Shares. The website also discloses, in the Premium/Discount Analysis section of the ETF Shares’ Price & Performance page, how frequently the Fund’s ETF Shares traded at a premium or discount to NAV (based on closing NAVs and market prices) and the magnitudes of such premiums and discounts.
An active trading market may not exist. Although Vanguard ETF Shares are listed on a national securities exchange, it is possible that an active trading market may not be maintained. Although this could happen at any time, it is more likely to occur during times of severe market disruption. If you attempt to sell your ETF Shares when an active trading market is not functioning, you may have to sell at a significant discount to NAV. In extreme cases, you may not be able to sell your shares at all.
Trading may be halted. Trading of Vanguard ETF Shares on an exchange may be halted by the activation of individual or marketwide trading halts (which halt trading for a specific period of time when the price of a particular security or overall market prices decline by a specified percentage). Trading of ETF Shares may also be halted if (1) the shares are delisted from the listing exchange without first being listed on another exchange or (2) exchange officials determine that such action is appropriate in the interest of a fair and orderly market or for the protection of investors.
Owners of conventional shares issued by the Fund may convert those shares to ETF Shares of equivalent value of the same fund. Please note that investors who own conventional shares through a 401(k) plan or other employer-sponsored retirement or benefit plan generally may not convert those shares to ETF Shares and should check with their plan sponsor or recordkeeper. ETF Shares, whether acquired through a conversion or purchased on the secondary market, cannot be converted to conventional shares by a shareholder. Also, ETF Shares of one fund cannot be exchanged for ETF Shares of another fund.
You must hold ETF Shares in a brokerage account. Thus, before converting conventional shares to ETF Shares, you must have an existing, or open a new, brokerage account. This account may be with Vanguard Brokerage Services® or with any other brokerage firm. To initiate a conversion of conventional shares to ETF Shares, please contact your broker.
Vanguard Brokerage Services does not impose a fee on conversions from Vanguard conventional shares to Vanguard ETF Shares. However, other brokerage firms may charge a fee to process a conversion. Vanguard reserves the right, in the future, to impose a transaction fee on conversions or to limit, temporarily suspend, or terminate the conversion privilege.
Converting conventional shares to ETF Shares is generally accomplished as follows. First, after your broker notifies Vanguard of your request to convert, Vanguard will transfer your conventional shares from your account to the broker’s omnibus account with Vanguard (an account maintained by the broker on behalf of all its customers who hold conventional Vanguard fund shares through the broker). After the transfer,
Vanguard’s records will reflect your broker, not you, as the owner of the shares. Next, your broker will instruct Vanguard to convert the appropriate number or dollar amount of conventional shares in its omnibus account to ETF Shares of equivalent value, based on the respective NAVs of the two share classes.
Your Fund’s transfer agent will reflect ownership of all ETF Shares in the name of the Depository Trust Company (DTC). The DTC will keep track of which ETF Shares belong to your broker, and your broker, in turn, will keep track of which ETF Shares belong to you.
Because the DTC is unable to handle fractional shares, only whole shares can be converted. For example, if you owned 300.25 conventional shares, and this was equivalent in value to 90.75 ETF Shares, the DTC account would receive 90 ETF Shares. Conventional shares with a value equal to 0.75 ETF Shares (in this example, that would be 2.481 conventional shares) would remain in the broker’s omnibus account with Vanguard. Your broker then could either (1) credit your account with 0.75 ETF Shares or (2) redeem the 2.481 conventional shares for cash at NAV and deliver that cash to your account. If your broker chose to redeem your conventional shares, you would realize a gain or loss on the redemption that must be reported on your tax return (unless you hold the shares in an IRA or other tax-deferred account). Please consult your broker for information on how it will handle the conversion process, including whether it will impose a fee to process a conversion.
If you convert your conventional shares to ETF Shares through Vanguard Brokerage Services, all conventional shares for which you request conversion will be converted to ETF Shares of equivalent value. Because no fractional shares will have to be sold, the transaction will not be taxable.
Here are some important points to keep in mind when converting conventional shares of a Vanguard fund to ETF Shares:
• The conversion process can take anywhere from several days to several weeks, depending on your broker. Vanguard generally will process conversion requests either on the day they are received or on the next business day. Vanguard imposes conversion blackout windows around the dates when a fund with ETF Shares declares dividends. This is necessary to prevent a shareholder from collecting a dividend from both the conventional share class currently held and also from the ETF share class to which the shares will be converted.
• Until the conversion process is complete, you will remain fully invested in a fund’s conventional shares, and your investment will increase or decrease in value in tandem with the NAV of those shares.
• The conversion transaction is nontaxable except, if applicable, to the very limited extent previously described.
A precautionary note to investment companies: Vanguard ETF Shares are issued by registered investment companies, and therefore the acquisition of such shares by other investment companies is subject to the restrictions of Section 12(d)(1) of the Investment Company Act of 1940. Vanguard has obtained an SEC exemptive order that allows registered investment companies to invest in the issuing funds beyond the limits of Section 12(d)(1), subject to certain terms and conditions, including the requirement to enter into a participation agreement with Vanguard.
Frequent Trading and Market-Timing
Unlike frequent trading of a Vanguard fund’s conventional (i.e., not exchange-traded) classes of shares, frequent trading of ETF Shares does not disrupt portfolio management or otherwise harm fund shareholders. The vast majority of trading in ETF Shares occurs on the secondary market. Because these trades do not involve the issuing fund, they do not harm the fund or its shareholders. Certain broker-dealers are authorized to purchase and redeem ETF Shares directly with the issuing fund. Because these trades typically are effected in kind (i.e., for securities and not for cash), or are assessed a transaction fee when effected in cash, they do not cause any of the harmful effects to the issuing fund (as previously noted) that may result from frequent trading. For these reasons, the board of trustees of each fund that issues ETF Shares has determined that it is not necessary to adopt policies and procedures to detect and deter frequent trading and market-timing of ETF Shares.
Please consult the Fund‘s Statement of Additional Information or our website for a description of the policies and procedures that govern disclosure of the Fund’s portfolio holdings.
Although the Fund generally seeks to invest for the long term, it may sell securities regardless of how long they have been held. Generally, an index fund sells securities in response to redemption requests from shareholders of conventional (not exchange-traded) shares or to changes in the composition of its target index. The Financial Highlights section of this prospectus shows historical turnover rates for the Fund. A turnover rate of 100%, for example, would mean that the Fund had sold and replaced securities valued at 100% of its net assets within a one-year period.
|Plain Talk About Turnover Rate|
|Before investing in an ETF, you should review its turnover rate. This rate gives an|
|indication of how transaction costs, which are not included in the fund’s expense|
|ratio, could affect the fund’s future returns. In general, the greater the volume of|
|buying and selling by the fund, the greater the impact that brokerage|
|commissions and other transaction costs will have on its return. Also, funds with|
|high turnover rates may be more likely to generate capital gains, including short-|
|term capital gains, that must be distributed to shareholders and will be taxable to|
|shareholders investing through a taxable account.|
The Fund is a member of The Vanguard Group, a family of over 200 funds holding assets of approximately $4.7 trillion. All of the funds that are members of The Vanguard Group (other than funds of funds) share in the expenses associated with administrative services and business operations, such as personnel, office space, and equipment.
Vanguard Marketing Corporation provides marketing services to the funds. Although fund shareholders do not pay sales commissions or 12b-1 distribution fees, each fund (other than a fund of funds) or each share class of a fund (in the case of a fund with multiple share classes) pays its allocated share of the Vanguard funds’ marketing costs.
|Plain Talk About Vanguard’s Unique Corporate Structure|
|The Vanguard Group is owned jointly by the funds it oversees and thus indirectly|
|by the shareholders in those funds. Most other mutual funds are operated by|
|management companies that are owned by third parties—either public or private|
|stockholders—and not by the funds they serve.|
The Vanguard Group, Inc., P.O. Box 2600, Valley Forge, PA 19482, which began operations in 1975, serves as advisor to the Fund through its Equity Index Group. As of October 31, 2018, Vanguard served as advisor for approximately $4 trillion in assets. Vanguard provides investment advisory services to the Fund pursuant to the Funds’ Service Agreement and subject to the supervision and oversight of the trustees and officers of the Fund.
For the fiscal year ended October 31, 2018, the advisory expenses represented an effective annual rate of 0.01% of the Fund’s average net assets.
Under the terms of an SEC exemption, the Fund’s board of trustees may, without prior approval from shareholders, change the terms of an advisory agreement with a third-party investment advisor or hire a new third-party investment advisor—either as a replacement for an existing advisor or as an additional advisor. Any significant change in the Fund’s advisory arrangements will be communicated to shareholders in writing. As the Fund’s sponsor and overall manager, Vanguard may provide investment advisory services to the Fund at any time. Vanguard may also recommend to the board of trustees that an advisor be hired, terminated, or replaced or that the terms of an existing advisory agreement be revised. The Fund has filed an application seeking a similar SEC exemption with respect to investment advisors that are wholly owned subsidiaries of Vanguard. If the exemption is granted, the Fund may rely on the new SEC relief.
For a discussion of why the board of trustees approved the Fund’s investment advisory arrangement, see the most recent semiannual report to shareholders covering the fiscal period ended April 30.
The managers primarily responsible for the day-to-day management of the Fund are:
Christine D. Franquin, Principal of Vanguard. She has managed investment portfolios since joining Vanguard in 2000 and has co-managed the Fund since 2016. Education: B.A., Universitaire Faculteiten Sint-Ignatuis Antwerpen, Belgium; J.D., University of Liege, Belgium; M.S., Clark University.
Justin E. Hales, CFA, CFP, Portfolio Manager at Vanguard. He has been with Vanguard since 2004, has worked in investment management since 2006, has managed investment portfolios since 2014, and has co-managed the Fund since 2016. Education: B.A., University of Maryland.
The Statement of Additional Information provides information about each portfolio manager’s compensation, other accounts under management, and ownership of shares of the Fund.
The Fund distributes to shareholders virtually all of its net income (interest and dividends, less expenses) as well as any net short-term or long-term capital gains realized from the sale of its holdings. Income dividends generally are distributed quarterly in March, June, September, and December; capital gains distributions, if any,
generally occur annually in December. In addition, the Fund may occasionally make a supplemental distribution at some other time during the year.
From time to time, the Fund may pay out higher-than-expected distributions. As an index fund, the Fund must adjust its holdings to reflect changes in its target index. In some cases, such changes may force an index fund to sell securities that have appreciated in value, thereby realizing a capital gain that must be distributed to shareholders. A security may move out of an index for a number of reasons, including a merger or acquisition, a substantial change in the market capitalization of the issuer, or the movement of a country from emerging market to developed market status.
|Plain Talk About Distributions|
|As a shareholder, you are entitled to your portion of a fund’s income from interest|
|and dividends as well as capital gains from the fund’s sale of investments.|
|Income consists of both the dividends that the fund earns from any stock|
|holdings and the interest it receives from any money market and bond|
|investments. Capital gains are realized whenever the fund sells securities for|
|higher prices than it paid for them. These capital gains are either short-term or|
|long-term, depending on whether the fund held the securities for one year or less|
|or for more than one year.|
Reinvestment of Distributions
In order to reinvest dividend and capital gains distributions, investors in the Fund’s ETF Shares must hold their shares at a broker that offers a reinvestment service. This can be the broker’s own service or a service made available by a third party, such as the broker’s outside clearing firm or the Depository Trust Company (DTC). If a reinvestment service is available, distributions of income and capital gains can automatically be reinvested in additional whole and fractional ETF Shares of the Fund. If a reinvestment service is not available, investors will receive their distributions in cash. To determine whether a reinvestment service is available and whether there is a commission or other charge for using this service, consult your broker.
As with all exchange-traded funds, reinvestment of dividend and capital gains distributions in additional ETF Shares will occur four business days or more after the ex-dividend date (the date when a distribution of dividends or capital gains is deducted from the price of the Fund’s shares). The exact number of days depends on your broker. During that time, the amount of your distribution will not be invested in the Fund and therefore will not share in the Fund’s income, gains, and losses.
Basic Tax Points
Investors in taxable accounts should be aware of the following basic federal income tax points:
• Distributions are taxable to you whether or not you reinvest these amounts in additional ETF Shares.
• Distributions declared in December—if paid to you by the end of January—are taxable as if received in December.
• Any dividend distribution or short-term capital gains distribution that you receive is taxable to you as ordinary income. If you are an individual and meet certain holding-period requirements with respect to your ETF Shares, you may be eligible for reduced tax rates on “qualified dividend income,” if any, distributed by the Fund.
• Any distribution of net long-term capital gains is taxable to you as long-term capital gains, no matter how long you have owned ETF Shares.
• Capital gains distributions may vary considerably from year to year as a result of the Fund‘s normal investment activities and cash flows.
• A sale of ETF Shares is a taxable event. This means that you may have a capital gain to report as income, or a capital loss to report as a deduction, when you complete your tax return.
Individuals, trusts, and estates whose income exceeds certain threshold amounts are subject to a 3.8% Medicare contribution tax on “net investment income.” Net investment income takes into account distributions paid by the Fund and capital gains from any sale of ETF Shares.
Dividend distributions and capital gains distributions that you receive, as well as your gains or losses from any sale of ETF Shares, may be subject to state and local income taxes.
The Fund may be subject to foreign taxes or foreign tax withholding on dividends, interest, and some capital gains that it receives on foreign securities. You may qualify for an offsetting credit or deduction under U.S. tax laws for any amount designated as your portion of the Fund’s foreign tax obligations, provided that you meet certain requirements. See your tax advisor or IRS publications for more information.
This prospectus provides general tax information only. If you are investing through a tax-advantaged account, such as an IRA or an employer-sponsored retirement or savings plan, special tax rules apply. Please consult your tax advisor for detailed information about any tax consequences for you.
Share price, also known as net asset value (NAV), is calculated each business day as of the close of regular trading on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), generally 4 p.m., Eastern time. In the rare event the NYSE experiences unanticipated disruptions and is unavailable at the close of the trading day, NAVs will be calculated as of the close of regular trading on the Nasdaq (or another alternate exchange if the Nasdaq is unavailable, as determined at Vanguard’s discretion), generally 4 p.m., Eastern time. Each share class has its own NAV, which is computed by dividing the total assets, minus liabilities, allocated to the share class by the number of Fund shares outstanding for that class. On U.S. holidays or other days when the NYSE is closed, the NAV is not calculated, and the Fund does not sell or redeem shares. However, on those days the value of the Fund’s assets may be affected to the extent that the Fund holds securities that change in value on those days (such as foreign securities that trade on foreign markets that are open).
Remember: If you buy or sell ETF Shares on the secondary market, you will pay or receive the market price, which may be higher or lower than NAV. Your transaction will be priced at NAV only if you purchase or redeem your ETF Shares in Creation Unit blocks (an option available only to certain authorized broker-dealers) or if you convert your conventional fund shares to ETF Shares.
Stocks held by a Vanguard fund are valued at their market value when reliable market quotations are readily available from the principal exchange or market on which they are traded. Such securities are generally valued at their official closing price, the last reported sales price, or if there were no sales that day, the mean between the closing bid and asking prices. When a fund determines that market quotations either are not readily available or do not accurately reflect the value of a security, the security is priced at its fair value (the amount that the owner might reasonably expect to receive upon the current sale of the security).
The values of any foreign securities held by a fund are converted into U.S. dollars using an exchange rate obtained from an independent third party as of the close of regular trading on the NYSE. The values of any mutual fund shares, including institutional money market fund shares, held by a fund are based on the NAVs of the shares. The values of any ETF shares or closed-end fund shares held by a fund are based on the market value of the shares.
A fund also will use fair-value pricing if the value of a security it holds has been materially affected by events occurring before the fund’s pricing time but after the close of the principal exchange or market on which the security is traded. This most commonly occurs with foreign securities, which may trade on foreign exchanges that close many hours before the fund’s pricing time. Intervening events might be company-specific (e.g., earnings report, merger announcement) or country-specific or
regional/global (e.g., natural disaster, economic or political news, act of terrorism, interest rate change). Intervening events include price movements in U.S. markets that exceed a specified threshold or that are otherwise deemed to affect the value of foreign securities.
Fair-value pricing may be used for domestic securities—for example, if (1) trading in a security is halted and does not resume before the fund’s pricing time or a security does not trade in the course of a day and (2) the fund holds enough of the security that its price could affect the NAV.
Fair-value prices are determined by Vanguard according to procedures adopted by the board of trustees. When fair-value pricing is employed, the prices of securities used by a fund to calculate the NAV may differ from quoted or published prices for the same securities.
Vanguard’s website will show the previous day’s closing NAV and closing market price for the Fund’s ETF Shares.
|FTSE All-World ex-US Index Fund|
Certain affiliates of the Fund and the advisor may purchase and resell ETF Shares pursuant to the prospectus.
The following financial highlights table is intended to help you understand the ETF Shares‘ financial performance for the periods shown, and certain information reflects financial results for a single ETF Share. The total returns in the table represent the rate that an investor would have earned or lost each period on an investment in the ETF Shares (assuming reinvestment of all distributions). This information has been obtained from the financial statements audited by PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, whose report—along with the Fund’s financial statements—is included in the Fund’s most recent annual report to shareholders. You may obtain a free copy of the latest annual or semiannual report by visiting vanguard.com or by contacting Vanguard by telephone or mail.
|FTSE All-World ex-US Index Fund ETF Shares|
|Year Ended October 31,|
|For a Share Outstanding Throughout Each Period||2018||2017||2016||2015||2014|
|Net Asset Value, Beginning of Period||$53.65||$44.60||$45.41||$49.17||$50.20|
|Net Investment Income||1.5571||1.3791||1.304||1.335||1.6652|
|Net Realized and Unrealized Gain (Loss) on|
|Total from Investment Operations||(4.354)||10.417||.458||(2.434)||.629|
|Dividends from Net Investment Income||(1.506)||(1.367)||(1.268)||(1.326)||(1.659)|
|Distributions from Realized Capital Gains||—||—||—||—||—|
|Net Asset Value, End of Period||$47.79||$53.65||$44.60||$45.41||$49.17|
|Net Assets, End of Period (Millions)||$21,348||$21,640||$13,983||$13,525||$12,453|
|Ratio of Total Expenses to Average Net Assets||0.09%||0.11%||0.11%||0.13%||0.14%|
|Ratio of Net Investment Income to|
|Average Net Assets||2.91%||2.82%||3.01%||2.83%||3.33%2|
|Portfolio Turnover Rate3||6%||4%||5%||3%||4%|
1 Calculated based on average shares outstanding.
2 Net investment income per share and the ratio of net investment income to average net assets include $0.224 and 0.44%, respectively, resulting from income received from Vodafone Group plc in the form of cash and shares in Verizon Communications Inc. in February 2014.
3 Excludes the value of portfolio securities received or delivered as a result of in-kind purchases or redemptions of the Fund’s capital shares, including ETF Creation Units.
CFA® is a registered trademark owned by CFA Institute.
London Stock Exchange Group companies include FTSE International Limited (“FTSE”), Frank Russell Company (“Russell”), MTS Next Limited (“MTS”), and FTSE TMX Global Debt Capital Markets Inc. (“FTSE TMX”). All rights reserved. “FTSE®”, “Russell®”, “MTS®", “FTSE TMX®” and “FTSE Russell” and other service marks and trademarks related to the FTSE or Russell indexes are trademarks of the London Stock Exchange Group companies and are used by FTSE, MTS, FTSE TMX and Russell under licence. All information is provided for information purposes only. Every effort is made to ensure that all information given in this publication is accurate, but no responsibility or liability can be accepted by the London Stock Exchange Group companies nor its licensors for any errors or for any loss from use of this publication. Neither the London Stock Exchange Group companies nor any of their licensors make any claim, prediction, warranty or representation whatsoever, expressly or impliedly, either as to the results to be obtained from the use of the Indices or the fitness or suitability of the Indices for any particular purpose to which they might be put. The London Stock Exchange Group companies do not provide investment advice and nothing in this document should be taken as constituting financial or investment advice. The London Stock Exchange Group companies make no representation regarding the advisability of investing in any asset. A decision to invest in any such asset should not be made in reliance on any information herein. Indexes cannot be invested in directly. Inclusion of an asset in an index is not a recommendation to buy, sell or hold that asset. The general information contained in this publication should not be acted upon without obtaining specific legal, tax, and investment advice from a licensed professional. No part of this information may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior written permission of the London Stock Exchange Group companies. Distribution of the London Stock Exchange Group companies’ index values and the use of their indexes to create financial products require a licence with FTSE, FTSE TMX, MTS and/or Russell and/or its licensors.
Active Management. An investment approach that seeks to exceed the average returns of a particular financial market or market segment. In selecting securities to buy and sell, active managers may rely on, among other things, research, market forecasts, quantitative models, and their own judgment and experience.
Authorized Participant. Institutional investors that are permitted to purchase Creation Units directly from, and redeem Creation Units directly with, the issuing fund. To be an Authorized Participant, an entity must be a participant in the Depository Trust Company and must enter into an agreement with the fund’s Distributor.
Bid-Ask Spread. The difference between the price a dealer is willing to pay for a security (the bid price) and the somewhat higher price at which the dealer is willing to sell the same security (the ask price).
Capital Gains Distributions. Payments to fund shareholders of gains realized on securities that a fund has sold at a profit, minus any realized losses.
Common Stock. A security representing ownership rights in a corporation.
Creation Unit. A large block of a specified number of ETF Shares. Certain broker-dealers known as “Authorized Participants” may purchase and redeem ETF Shares from the issuing fund in Creation Unit size blocks.
Dividend Distributions. Payments to fund shareholders of income from interest or dividends generated by a fund’s investments.
Ex-Dividend Date. The date when a distribution of dividends and/or capital gains is deducted from the share price of a mutual fund, ETF, or stock. On the ex-dividend date, the share price drops by the amount of the distribution per share (plus or minus any market activity).
Expense Ratio. A fund’s total annual operating expenses expressed as a percentage of the fund’s average net assets. The expense ratio includes management and administrative expenses, but it does not include the transaction costs of buying and selling portfolio securities.
FTSE All-World ex US Fair Value Index. An index that measures returns of the FTSE All-World ex US Index, adjusted to reflect price changes for index securities in markets that have closed prior to the close of the U.S. stock market. Fair value prices and foreign exchange rates as of 4 p.m., Eastern time, are used in the calculation. The FTSE All-World ex US Fair Value Index uses tax rates based on the withholding tax rates applicable to dividends received by a regulated investment company (mutual fund) domiciled in the United States.
Inception Date. The date on which the assets of a fund (or one of its share classes) are first invested in accordance with the fund’s investment objective. For funds with a subscription period, the inception date is the day after that period ends. Investment performance is generally measured from the inception date.
Indexing. A low-cost investment strategy in which a fund attempts to track—rather than outperform—a specified market benchmark, or “index.”
Joint Committed Credit Facility. The Fund participates, along with other funds managed by Vanguard, in a committed credit facility provided by a syndicate of lenders pursuant to a credit agreement that may be renewed annually; each Vanguard fund is individually liable for its borrowings, if any, under the credit facility. The amount and terms of the committed credit facility are subject to approval by the Fund‘s board of trustees and renegotiation with the lender syndicate on an annual basis.
Mutual Fund. An investment company that pools the money of many people and invests it in a variety of securities in an effort to achieve a specific objective over time.
New York Stock Exchange (NYSE). A stock exchange based in New York City that is open for regular trading on business days, Monday through Friday, from 9:30 a.m. to 4 p.m., Eastern time.
Securities. Stocks, bonds, money market instruments, and other investments.
Total Return. A percentage change, over a specified time period, in a fund’s net asset value, assuming the reinvestment of all distributions of dividends and capital gains.
Volatility. The fluctuations in value of a mutual fund or other security. The greater a fund’s volatility, the wider the fluctuations in its returns.
Yield. Income (interest or dividends) earned by an investment, expressed as a percentage of the investment’s price.
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|P.O. Box 2900|
|Valley Forge, PA 19482-2900|
|Connect with Vanguard® > vanguard.com|
|For More Information||Information Provided by the Securities and|
|If you would like more information about Vanguard||Exchange Commission (SEC)|
|FTSE All-World ex-US ETF, the following documents||Reports and other information about the Fund are|
|are available free upon request:||available in the EDGAR database on the SEC’s website|
|at www.sec.gov, or you can receive copies of this|
|Annual/Semiannual Reports to Shareholders||information, for a fee, by electronic request at the|
|Additional information about the Fund’s investments is||following email address: firstname.lastname@example.org.|
|available in the Fund’s annual and semiannual reports|
|Fund’s Investment Company Act file number: 811-05972|
|to shareholders. In the annual report, you will find a|
|discussion of the market conditions and investment|
|strategies that significantly affected the Fund’s|
|performance during its last fiscal year.|
|Statement of Additional Information (SAI)|
|The SAI provides more detailed information about the|
|Fund’s ETF Shares and is incorporated by reference|
|into (and thus legally a part of) this prospectus.|
|To receive a free copy of the latest annual or|
|semiannual report to the SAI, or to request additional|
|information about Vanguard ETF Shares, please visit|
|vanguard.com or contact us as follows:|
|The Vanguard Group|
|Institutional Investor Information|
|P.O. Box 2900|
|Valley Forge, PA 19482-2900|
|© 2019 The Vanguard Group, Inc. All rights reserved.|
|U.S. Patent Nos. 6,879,964; 7,337,138; 7,720,749; 7,925,573; 8,090,646;|
|Vanguard Marketing Corporation, Distributor.|
|P 991 022019|