EDGAR HTML
Vanguard Real Estate ETF
Prospectus
May 28, 2021
Exchange-traded fund shares that are not individually redeemable and are listed on NYSE Arca
Vanguard Real Estate Index Fund ETF Shares (VNQ)
 This prospectus contains financial data for the Fund through the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021.
The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) has not approved or disapproved these securities or passed upon the adequacy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is
a criminal offense.
     

Contents

ETF Summary
Investment Objective
The Fund seeks to provide a high level of income and moderate long-term capital appreciation by tracking the performance of a benchmark index that measures the performance of publicly traded equity REITs and other real estate-related investments.
Fees and Expenses
The following table describes the fees and expenses you may pay if you buy, hold, and sell ETF Shares of the Fund. You may pay other fees, such as brokerage commissions and other fees to financial intermediaries, which are not reflected in the table and example below.
Shareholder Fees
(Fees paid directly from your investment)
 
Transaction Fee on Purchases and Sales
None through Vanguard (Broker fees vary)
Transaction Fee on Reinvested Dividends
None through Vanguard (Broker fees vary)
Transaction Fee on Conversion to ETF Shares
None through Vanguard (Broker fees vary)
Annual Fund Operating Expenses
(Expenses that you pay each year as a percentage of the value of your investment)
 
Management Fees
0.11%
12b-1 Distribution Fee
None
Other Expenses
0.01%
Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses
0.12%
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Example
The following example is intended to help you compare the cost of investing in the Fund’s ETF Shares with the cost of investing in other funds. It illustrates the hypothetical expenses that you would incur over various periods if you were to invest $10,000 in the Fund's shares. This example assumes that the shares provide a return of 5% each year and that total annual fund operating expenses remain as stated in the preceding table. You would incur these hypothetical expenses whether or not you were to sell your shares at the end of the given period. Although your actual costs may be higher or lower, based on these assumptions your costs would be:
1 Year
3 Years
5 Years
10 Years
$12
$39
$68
$154
This example does not include the brokerage commissions that you may pay to buy and sell ETF Shares of the Fund.
Portfolio Turnover
The Fund pays transaction costs, such as commissions, when it buys and sells securities (or “turns over” its portfolio). A higher portfolio turnover rate may indicate higher transaction costs and may result in more taxes when Fund shares are held in a taxable account. These costs, which are not reflected in annual fund operating expenses or in the previous expense example, reduce the Fund's performance. During the most recent fiscal year, the Fund's portfolio turnover rate was 8% of the average value of its portfolio.
Principal Investment Strategies
The Fund employs an indexing investment approach designed to track the performance of the MSCI US Investable Market Real Estate 25/50 Index, an index that is made up of stocks of large, mid-size, and small U.S. companies within the real estate sector, as classified under the Global Industry Classification Standard (GICS). The GICS real estate sector is composed of equity real estate investment trusts (known as REITs), which include specialized REITs, and real estate management and development companies.
The Fund attempts to track the Index by investing all, or substantially all, of its assets—either directly or indirectly through a wholly owned subsidiary (the underlying fund), which is itself a registered investment company—in the stocks that make up the Index, holding each stock in approximately the same proportion as its weighting in the Index. The Fund may invest a portion of its assets in the underlying fund.
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Principal Risks
An investment in the Fund could lose money over short or long periods of time. You should expect the Fund's share price and total return to fluctuate within a wide range. The Fund is subject to the following risks, which could affect the Fund's performance:
•  Industry concentration risk, which is the chance that the stocks of REITs and other real estate-related investments will decline because of adverse developments affecting the real estate industry and real property values. Because the Fund concentrates its assets in these stocks, industry concentration risk is high.
•  Stock market risk, which is the chance that stock prices overall will decline. Stock markets tend to move in cycles, with periods of rising prices and periods of falling prices. The Fund’s target index may, at times, become focused in stocks of a limited number of companies, which could cause the Fund to underperform the overall stock market.
•  Asset concentration risk, which is the chance that, because the Fund’s target index (and therefore the Fund) tends to be heavily weighted in its ten largest holdings, the Fund’s performance may be hurt disproportionately by the poor performance of relatively few stocks.
•  Interest rate risk, which is the chance that REIT stock prices overall will decline and that the cost of borrowing for REITs will increase because of rising interest rates. Interest rate risk is high for the Fund.
•  Investment style risk, which is the chance that returns from the stocks of REITs and other real estate-related investments—which typically are small- or mid-capitalization stocks—will trail returns from the overall stock market. Historically, these stocks have performed quite differently from the overall market.
•  Nondiversification risk, which is the chance that the Fund may invest a greater percentage of its assets in a particular issuer or group of issuers or may own larger positions of an issuer’s voting stock than a diversified fund.
Because ETF Shares are traded on an exchange, they are subject to additional risks:
• The Fund’s ETF Shares are listed for trading on NYSE Arca and are bought and sold on the secondary market at market prices. Although it is expected that the market price of an ETF Share typically will approximate its net asset value (NAV), there may be times when the market price and the NAV differ significantly. Thus, you may pay more or less than NAV when you buy ETF Shares on the secondary market, and you may receive more or less than NAV when you sell those shares.
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• Although the Fund’s ETF Shares are listed for trading on NYSE Arca, it is possible that an active trading market may not be maintained.
• Trading of the Fund’s ETF Shares may be halted by the activation of individual or marketwide trading halts (which halt trading for a specific period of time when the price of a particular security or overall market prices decline by a specified percentage). Trading of the Fund’s ETF Shares may also be halted if (1) the shares are delisted from NYSE Arca without first being listed on another exchange or (2) NYSE Arca officials determine that such action is appropriate in the interest of a fair and orderly market or for the protection of investors.
An investment in the Fund is not a deposit of a bank and is not insured or guaranteed by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation or any other government agency.
Annual Total Returns
The following bar chart and table are intended to help you understand the risks of investing in the Fund. The bar chart shows how the performance of the Fund‘s ETF Shares (based on NAV) has varied from one calendar year to another over the periods shown. The table shows how the average annual total returns of the ETF Shares compare with those of the Fund‘s target index and comparative indexes, which have investment characteristics similar to those of the Fund. Effective July 24, 2018, the Fund began tracking the MSCI US Investable Market Real Estate 25/50 Index as its target index. The inception date for the MSCI US Investable Market Real Estate 25/50 Index was September 1, 2016. Index returns are not provided prior to that date. The Real Estate Spliced Index reflects the performance of the MSCI US REIT Index through February 1, 2018; the MSCI US Investable Market Real Estate 25/50 Transition Index through July 24, 2018; and the MSCI US Investable Market Real Estate 25/50 Index thereafter. Keep in mind that the Fund's past performance (before and after taxes) does not indicate how the Fund will perform in the future. Updated performance information is available on our website at vanguard.com/performance or by calling Vanguard toll-free at 800-662-7447.
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Annual Total Returns — Vanguard Real Estate Index Fund ETF Shares1

1 The year-to-date return as of the most recent calendar quarter, which ended on March 31, 2021, was 8.69%.
During the periods shown in the bar chart, the highest and lowest returns for a calendar quarter were:
 
Total Return
Quarter
Highest
17.29%
March 31, 2019
Lowest
%24.11-
March 31, 2020
Average Annual Total Returns for Periods Ended December 31, 2020
 
1 Year
5 Years
10 Years
Vanguard Real Estate Index Fund ETF Shares
 
 
 
Based on NAV
 
 
 
Return Before Taxes
%4.72
%5.64
%8.67
Return After Taxes on Distributions
5.62
4.37
7.46
Return After Taxes on Distributions and Sale of Fund Shares
2.81
3.80
6.44
Based on Market Price
 
 
 
Return Before Taxes
4.64
5.64
8.67
Comparative Indexes
(reflect no deduction for fees, expenses, or taxes)
 
 
 
Real Estate Spliced Index
4.55%
5.75%
8.77%
MSCI US Investable Market Real Estate 25/50 Index
4.55
Dow Jones U.S. Total Stock Market Float Adjusted Index
20.79
15.36
13.74
Actual after-tax returns depend on your tax situation and may differ from those shown in the preceding table. When after-tax returns are calculated, it is assumed that the shareholder was in the highest individual federal marginal income tax bracket at the time of each distribution of income or capital gains or upon redemption. State and local income taxes are not reflected in the calculations. Please note that after-tax returns are not relevant for a shareholder who holds fund shares in a tax-deferred account, such as an individual retirement account or a 401(k) plan. Also, figures captioned Return After Taxes on
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Distributions and Sale of Fund Shares may be higher than other figures for the same period if a capital loss occurs upon redemption and results in an assumed tax deduction for the shareholder.
Investment Advisor
The Vanguard Group, Inc. (Vanguard)
Portfolio Managers
Walter Nejman, Portfolio Manager at Vanguard. He has co-managed the Fund since 2016.
Gerard C. O’Reilly, Principal of Vanguard. He has managed the Fund since its inception in 1996 (co-managed since 2016).
Purchase and Sale of Fund Shares
ETF Shares may only be bought and sold in the secondary market through a brokerage firm. The price you pay or receive for ETF Shares will be the prevailing market price, which may be more (premium) or less (discount) than the NAV of the shares. The brokerage firm may charge you a commission to execute the transaction. Unless imposed by your brokerage firm, there is no minimum dollar amount you must invest and no minimum number of shares you must buy. ETF Shares of the Fund cannot be directly purchased from or redeemed with the Fund, except by certain authorized broker-dealers. These broker-dealers may purchase and redeem ETF Shares only in large blocks (Creation Units), typically in exchange for baskets of securities.

An investor may incur costs attributable to the difference between the highest price a buyer is willing to pay to purchase ETF Shares (bid) and the lowest price a seller is willing to accept for ETF Shares (ask) when buying or selling shares in the secondary market (bid-ask spread). Recent information, including information on the Fund's NAV, market price, premiums and discounts, and bid-ask spreads, is available online at vanguard.com.
Tax Information
The Fund’s distributions may be taxable as ordinary income or capital gain return of capital. If you are investing through a tax-advantaged account, such as an IRA or an employer-sponsored retirement or savings plan, special tax rules apply.
Payments to Financial Intermediaries
The Fund and its investment advisor do not pay financial intermediaries for sales of Fund shares.
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Investing in Vanguard ETF® Shares
What Are Vanguard ETF Shares?
Vanguard ETF Shares are an exchange-traded class of shares issued by certain Vanguard funds. ETF Shares represent an interest in the portfolio of stocks or bonds held by the issuing fund. This prospectus describes Vanguard Real Estate ETF, a class of shares issued by Vanguard Real Estate Index Fund. In addition to ETF Shares, the Fund offers three conventional (not exchange-traded) classes of shares. This prospectus, however, relates only to ETF Shares.
How Are Vanguard ETF Shares Different From Conventional Mutual Fund Shares?
Conventional mutual fund shares can be directly purchased from and redeemed with the issuing fund for cash at the net asset value (NAV), typically calculated once a day. ETF Shares, by contrast, cannot be purchased directly from or redeemed directly with the issuing fund by an individual investor. Rather, ETF Shares can only be purchased or redeemed directly from the issuing fund by certain authorized broker-dealers. These broker-dealers may purchase and redeem ETF Shares only in large blocks (Creation Units), usually in exchange for baskets of securities and not for cash (although some funds issue and redeem Creation Units in exchange for cash or a combination of cash and securities).
An organized secondary trading market is expected to exist for ETF Shares, unlike conventional mutual fund shares, because ETF Shares are listed for trading on a national securities exchange. Individual investors can purchase and sell ETF Shares on the secondary market through a broker. Secondary-market transactions occur not at NAV, but at market prices that are subject to change throughout the day based on the supply of and demand for ETF Shares, changes in the prices of the fund’s portfolio holdings, and other factors.
The market price of a fund's ETF Shares typically will differ somewhat from the NAV of those shares. The difference between market price and NAV is expected to be small most of the time, but in times of market disruption or extreme market volatility, the difference may become significant.
How Do I Buy and Sell Vanguard ETF Shares?
ETF Shares of the Fund are listed for trading on NYSE Arca. You can buy and sell ETF Shares on the secondary market in the same way you buy and sell any other exchange-traded security—through a broker. Your broker may charge a commission to execute a transaction. You will also incur the cost of the “bid-ask spread,” which is the difference between the highest price a buyer is willing to pay to purchase ETF Shares (bid) and the lowest price a seller is willing to accept for ETF Shares (ask) when buying or selling shares in the secondary market. Because secondary-market transactions occur at market prices, you may pay more (premium) or less (discount) than NAV when you buy ETF Shares and
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receive more or less than NAV when you sell those shares. In times of severe market disruption, the bid-ask spread and premiums/discounts can increase significantly. Unless imposed by your broker, there is no minimum dollar amount you must invest and no minimum number of ETF Shares you must buy.
Your ownership of ETF Shares will be shown on the records of the broker through which you hold the shares. Vanguard will not have any record of your ownership. Your account information will be maintained by your broker, which will provide you with account statements, confirmations of your purchases and sales of ETF Shares, and tax information. Your broker also will be responsible for ensuring that you receive income and capital gains distributions, as well as shareholder reports and other communications from the fund whose ETF Shares you own. You will receive other services (e.g., dividend reinvestment and average cost information) only if your broker offers these services.
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Investing in Index Funds
What Is Indexing?
Indexing is an investment strategy for tracking the performance of a specified market benchmark, or “index.” An index is a group of securities whose overall performance is used as a standard to measure the investment performance of a particular market. There are many types of indexes. Some represent entire markets—such as the U.S. stock market or the U.S. bond market. Other indexes cover market segments—such as small-capitalization stocks or short-term bonds. One cannot invest directly in an index.
The index sponsor determines the securities to include in the index and the weighting of each security in the index. Under normal circumstances, the index sponsor will rebalance an index on a regular schedule. An index sponsor may carry out additional ad hoc index rebalances or delay or cancel a scheduled rebalance. Generally, the index sponsor does not provide any warranty, or accept any liability, with respect to the quality, accuracy, or completeness of either the target index or its related data. Errors made by the index sponsor may occur from time to time and may not be identified by the index sponsor for a period of time or at all. Vanguard does not provide any warranty or guarantee against such errors. Therefore, the gains, losses, or costs associated with the index sponsor’s errors will generally be borne by the index fund and its shareholders.
An index fund seeks to hold all, or a representative sample, of the securities that make up its target index. Index funds attempt to mirror the performance of the target index, for better or worse. However, an index fund generally does not perform exactly like its target index. For example, index funds have operating expenses and transaction costs. Market indexes do not, and therefore they will usually have a slight performance advantage over funds that track them. The ability of an index fund to match its performance to that of its target index can also be impacted by, among other things, the timing and size of cash flows and the size of the fund. Market disruptions and regulatory restrictions could also have an adverse effect on a fund’s ability to adjust its exposure to the required levels in order to track the index.
Index funds typically have the following characteristics:
•  Variety of investments. Depending on a fund’s benchmark index, the fund may invest in the securities of a variety of companies, industries, and/or governments or government agencies.
•  Relative performance consistency. Because they seek to track market benchmarks, index funds usually do not perform dramatically better or worse than their benchmarks.
•  Low cost. Index funds are generally inexpensive to run compared with actively managed funds. They have low or no research costs and typically keep trading activity—and thus brokerage commissions and other transaction costs—to a minimum compared with actively managed funds.
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More on the Fund and ETF Shares
This prospectus describes the principal risks you would face as a Fund shareholder. It is important to keep in mind one of the main principles of investing: generally, the higher the risk of losing money, the higher the potential reward. The reverse, also, is generally true: the lower the risk, the lower the potential reward. As you consider an investment in any fund, you should take into account your personal tolerance for fluctuations in the securities markets. Look for this   symbol throughout the prospectus. It is used to mark detailed information about the more significant risks that you would confront as a Fund shareholder. To highlight terms and concepts important to fund investors, we have provided Plain Talk® explanations along the way. Reading the prospectus will help you decide whether the Fund is the right investment for you. We suggest that you keep this prospectus for future reference.
Share Class Overview
This prospectus offers the Fund’s ETF Shares, an exchange-traded class of shares. Separate prospectuses offer the Fund's Admiral™ Shares, which generally have investment minimums of $3,000, and Investor Shares, which are generally available only to Vanguard funds that operate as funds of funds and to certain retirement plan clients that receive recordkeeping services from Vanguard. In addition, another prospectus offers the Fund‘s Institutional Shares, which are generally for investors who invest a minimum of $5 million.

All share classes offered by the Fund have the same investment objective, strategies, and policies. However, different share classes have different expenses; as a result, their investment returns will differ.
A Similar but Different Fund
The Fund offered by this prospectus should not be confused with Vanguard Real Estate II Index Fund, a separate Vanguard fund that also seeks to track the performance of the MSCI US Investable Market Real Estate 25/50 Index and is anticipated to be the underlying fund in which this fund invests. Both funds seek to replicate the stocks that make up the target index. This index replication strategy, combined with differences in the funds’ respective cash flows and expenses, is expected to produce slightly different investment returns by the funds. To obtain a prospectus for Vanguard Real Estate II Index Fund, institutional investors may call Vanguard’s Institutional Division at 888-809-8102 or may call their relationship managers directly.
A Note to Investors
Vanguard ETF Shares can be purchased directly from the issuing Fund only by certain authorized broker-dealers in exchange for a basket of securities (or, in some cases, for cash or a combination of cash and securities). Individual
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investors generally will not be able to purchase ETF Shares directly from the Fund. Instead, these investors will purchase ETF Shares on the secondary market through a broker.
Plain Talk About Fund Expenses
All funds have operating expenses. These expenses, which are deducted
from a fund’s gross income, are expressed as a percentage of the net assets
of the fund. Assuming that operating expenses remain as stated in the Fees
and Expenses section, Vanguard Real Estate Index Fund ETF Shares’
expense ratio would be 0.12%, or $1.20 per $1,000 of average net assets.
The average expense ratio for real estate funds in 2020 was 1.17%, or
$11.70 per $1,000 of average net assets (derived from data provided by
Lipper, a Thomson Reuters Company, which reports on the fund industry).
Plain Talk About Costs of Investing
Costs are an important consideration in choosing an ETF. That is because
you, as a shareholder, pay a proportionate share of the costs of operating a
fund and any transaction costs incurred when the fund buys or sells
securities. These costs can erode a substantial portion of the gross income
or the capital appreciation a fund achieves. Even seemingly small differences
in expenses can, over time, have a dramatic effect on a fund’s performance.
The following sections explain the principal investment strategies and policies that the Fund uses in pursuit of its investment objective. The Fund's board of trustees, which oversees the Fund's management, may change investment strategies or policies in the interest of shareholders without a shareholder vote, unless those strategies or policies are designated as fundamental. Under normal circumstances, the Fund will invest at least 80% of its assets in the stocks that make up its target index. The Fund may change its 80% policy only upon 60 days‘ notice to shareholders.
Market Exposure
The Fund invests in stocks of publicly traded equity real estate investment trusts and other real estate-related investments.
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Plain Talk About REITs
Rather than directly owning properties—which can be costly and difficult to
convert into cash when needed—some investors buy shares in a company
that owns and manages real estate. Such a company is known as a real
estate investment trust, or REIT. Unlike corporations, REITs do not have to
pay income taxes if they meet certain Internal Revenue Code requirements.
To qualify, a REIT must distribute at least 90% of its taxable income to its
shareholders and receive at least 75% of that income from rents,
mortgages, and sales of property. REITs offer investors greater liquidity and
diversification than direct ownership of a handful of properties. REITs also
offer the potential for higher income than an investment in common stocks
would provide. As with any investment in real estate, however, a REIT’s
performance depends on specific factors, such as the company’s ability to
find tenants for its properties, to renew leases, and to finance property
purchases and renovations. That said, returns from REITs may not
correspond to returns from direct property ownership.
The Fund is subject to investment style risk, which is the chance that returns from the stocks of REITs and other real estate-related investments—which typically are small- or mid-capitalization stocks— will trail returns from the overall stock market. Historically, these stocks have performed quite differently from the overall market.
Stocks of publicly traded companies are often classified according to market capitalization, which is the market value of a company’s outstanding shares. These classifications typically include small-cap, mid-cap, and large-cap. It is important to understand that there are no “official” definitions of small-, mid-, and large-cap, even among Vanguard fund advisors, and that market capitalization ranges can change over time. Securities in the MSCI US Investable Market Real Estate 25/50 Index have differing levels of capitalization. The asset-weighted median market capitalization of the Fund’s stock holdings as of January 31, 2021, was $17.2 billion.
Small- and mid-cap stocks tend to have greater volatility than large-cap stocks because, among other things, smaller companies often have fewer customers, financial resources, and products than larger firms. Such characteristics can make small and mid-size companies more sensitive to changing economic conditions. REIT stocks tend to have a significant amount of dividend income, which can reduce the impact of this volatility. However, the Fund is subject to
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additional risk because of the concentration of its investments in the real estate sector. This focus on a single sector may result in more risk than that for a more diversified, multisector portfolio.
Plain Talk About Types of REITs
An equity REIT generally owns properties directly. Equity REITs typically
generate income from rental and lease payments, and they offer the
potential for growth from property appreciation as well as occasional capital
gains from the sale of property. A mortgage REIT makes loans to commercial
real estate developers. Mortgage REITs earn interest income and are subject
to credit risk (i.e., the chance that a developer will fail to repay a loan). A
hybrid REIT holds both properties and mortgages. The Fund invests in equity
REITs and other real estate-related investments.
The Fund is subject to stock market risk, which is the chance that stock prices overall will decline. Stock markets tend to move in cycles, with periods of rising prices and periods of falling prices. The Fund‘s target index may, at times, become focused in stocks of a limited number of companies, which could cause the Fund to underperform the overall stock market.
The Fund is subject to interest rate risk, which is the chance that REIT stock prices overall will decline and that the cost of borrowing for REITs will increase because of rising interest rates. Interest rate risk is high for the Fund.
In general, during periods of high interest rates, REITs may lose some of their appeal for investors who may be able to obtain higher yields from other income-producing investments, such as long-term bonds. Higher interest rates also mean that financing for property purchases and improvements is more costly and difficult to obtain.
The Fund is subject to industry concentration risk, which is the chance that the stocks of REITs and other real estate-related investments will decline because of adverse developments affecting the real estate industry and real property values. Because the Fund concentrates its assets in these stocks, industry concentration risk is high.
Because of its emphasis on REIT stocks, the Fund's performance may at times be linked to the ups and downs of the real estate market. In general, real estate values can be affected by a variety of factors, including, but not limited to, supply and demand for properties, the economic health of the nation as well as different
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regions, and the strength of specific industries that rent properties. Ultimately, an individual REIT’s performance depends on the types and locations of the properties it owns and on how well the REIT manages its properties. For instance, rental income could decline because of extended vacancies, increased competition from nearby properties, tenants’ failure to pay rent, regulatory limitations on rents, fluctuations in rental income, variations in market rental rates, or incompetent management. Property values could decrease because of overbuilding in the area, environmental liabilities, uninsured damages caused by natural disasters, a general decline in the neighborhood, losses because of casualty or condemnation, increases in property taxes, or changes in zoning laws. Loss of IRS status as a qualified REIT may also affect an individual REIT’s performance. In addition, many real estate issuers, including REITs, utilize leverage (and some may be highly leveraged), which increases investment risk and could adversely affect the issuer’s operations and market value in periods of rising interest rates.
Market disruptions can adversely affect local and global markets as well as normal market conditions and operations. Any such disruptions could have an adverse impact on the value of a Fund’s investments and Fund performance.
Security Selection
The Fund attempts to track the investment performance of a benchmark index that measures the performance of publicly traded equity REITs and other real estate-related investments, including but not limited to specialized REITs, and real estate management and development companies.
The Fund attempts to hold each stock contained in the MSCI US Investable Market Real Estate 25/50 Index either directly or indirectly through the underlying fund in roughly the same proportion as represented in the Index itself. For example, if 5% of the MSCI US Investable Market Real Estate 25/50 Index were made up of the stock of a specific REIT, the Fund would seek to invest approximately the same percentage of its assets in that stock.
The MSCI US Investable Market Real Estate 25/50 Index is a float-adjusted market-capitalization-weighted index. It is made up of the stocks of publicly traded equity REITs and other real estate-related investments that meet certain criteria. For example, to be included initially in the Index, a REIT must meet a minimum market capitalization threshold and have enough shares and trading volume to be considered liquid. In line with the Index, the Fund invests in equity REITs and other real estate-related investments, including but not limited to specialized REITs, and real estate management and development companies.
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As of January 31, 2021, 151 equity REITs were included in the Index. On a quarterly basis, the Index is rebalanced and its current stocks are tested for continued compliance with the guidelines of the Index. A REIT may be removed from the Index because of a decline in market capitalization, because it becomes illiquid, or because of other changes in its status.
The Fund is subject to nondiversification risk, which is the chance that the Fund may invest a greater percentage of its assets in a particular issuer or a group of issuers or may own larger positions of an issuer’s voting stock than a diversified fund.
Stocks in the MSCI US Investable Market Real Estate 25/50 Index represent a broadly diversified range of property types. The makeup of the Fund, as of January 31, 2021, was:
Fund Allocation by
REIT Type
Percentage of Fund
Specialized
%38.9
Residential
13.6
Retail
9.3
Health Care
8.8
Office
7.5
Industrial
11.0
Diversified
3.6
Hotel & Resort
3.1
Real Estate Services
3.5
Real Estate Development
0.3
Real Estate Operating Companies
0.2
Diversified Real Estate Activities
0.2
Other Investment Policies and Risks
The Fund reserves the right to substitute a different index for the index it currently tracks if the current index is discontinued, if the Fund's agreement with the sponsor of its target index is terminated, or for any other reason determined in good faith by the Fund’s board of trustees. In any such instance, the substitute index would represent the same market segment as the current index.
The Fund is subject to REIT ownership limitation risk, which is the chance that the Fund may be unable to purchase (or otherwise obtain economic exposure, including through investing in the underlying fund, to) the desired amounts of certain REITs included in its target index.
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The Fund has significant ownership positions in many REITs included in its target index. For tax and other reasons, a REIT imposes limits on how much of its securities investors may own. If an ownership limit is reached, Vanguard may seek to obtain an ownership waiver from the REIT to exceed the limit. If the Fund is unable to obtain a waiver or an existing waiver is terminated, then the Fund may seek to obtain economic exposure to the REIT through alternative means, such as through a total return swap, which may be more costly than owning REIT shares directly. If the Fund is unable to obtain either an ownership waiver or economic exposure to the REIT through alternative means, the Fund may experience increased tracking error. In addition, to maintain its qualification as a regulated investment company for tax purposes, the Fund may be unable to obtain additional economic exposure to certain REITs, which may increase tracking error. Additional measures could be taken in the future in response to REIT ownership limits, including changing the Fund’s investment strategy, limiting additional purchases into the Fund, or any other appropriate action.
The Fund may invest a portion of its assets in the underlying fund. The underlying fund will also employ an indexing investment approach designed to track the performance of the MSCI US Investable Market Real Estate 25/50 Index. The underlying fund’s investments are subject to the same risks as if they were held directly by the Fund. Because the strategy of the underlying fund will be substantially similar to that of the Fund, the principal risks of the Fund’s investment in the underlying fund will not be materially different from the risks associated with the Fund’s other investments. However, the Fund’s investment in the underlying fund is subject to the ongoing existence of the underlying fund and the underlying fund’s ability to provide economic exposure to REITs included in the Fund’s target index.
If the Fund is unable to invest directly or through the underlying fund or to obtain exposure to REITs through alternative means, then the Fund may be unable to own the desired amount of certain REITs, which may increase tracking error.
The Fund may invest in foreign securities to the extent necessary to carry out its investment strategy of holding all, or substantially all, of the stocks that make up the index it tracks.
In addition to investing in common stocks of REITs and other real estate-related investments, the Fund may make other kinds of investments to achieve its investment objective.
Generally speaking, a derivative is a financial contract whose value is based on the value of a financial asset (such as a stock, a bond, or a currency), a physical asset (such as gold, oil, or wheat), a market index, or a reference rate. The Fund may invest in derivatives only if the expected risks and rewards of the derivatives
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are consistent with the investment objective, policies, strategies, and risks of the Fund as disclosed in this prospectus. In particular, derivatives will be used only when they may help the advisor to accomplish one or more of the following:
• Invest in eligible asset classes with greater efficiency and lower cost than is possible through direct investment.
• Obtain economic exposure to a stock, a basket of stocks, or an index when deemed desirable or necessary.
• Add value when these instruments are attractively priced.
The market for many derivatives is, or suddenly can become, illiquid, which may result in significant, rapid, and unpredictable changes in the prices for derivatives. The Fund's use of a derivative subjects it to the risk of nonperformance by the counterparty, potentially resulting in delayed or partial payment or even nonpayment of amounts due under the derivative contract. The Fund attempts to mitigate this risk by requiring the posting of collateral by its counterparty.
The Fund's derivative investments may include total return swaps or other derivatives.
Plain Talk About Derivatives
Derivatives can take many forms. Some forms of derivatives—such as
exchange-traded futures and options on securities, commodities, or
indexes—have been trading on regulated exchanges for decades. These
types of derivatives are standardized contracts that can easily be bought and
sold and whose market values are determined and published daily. On the
other hand, non-exchange-traded derivatives—such as certain swap
agreements—tend to be more specialized or complex and may be more
difficult to accurately value.
Cash Management
The Fund's daily cash balance may be invested in Vanguard Market Liquidity Fund and/or Vanguard Municipal Cash Management Fund (each, a CMT Fund), which are low-cost money market funds. When investing in a CMT Fund, the Fund bears its proportionate share of the expenses of the CMT Fund in which it invests. Vanguard receives no additional revenue from Fund assets invested in a CMT Fund.
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Methods Used to Meet Redemption Requests
Redemptions of ETF Shares are typically met through a combination of cash and securities held by the Fund; see “How Are Vanguard ETF Shares Different From Conventional Mutual Fund Shares?” If cash is used to meet redemptions, the Fund typically obtains such cash through positive cash flows or the sale of Fund holdings consistent with the Fund’s investment objective and strategy. Please consult the Fund's Statement of Additional Information for further information on redemptions of ETF Shares.
Under certain circumstances, the Fund may borrow money (subject to certain regulatory conditions and if available under board-approved procedures) through an interfund lending facility; through a bank line-of-credit, including a joint committed credit facility; or through an uncommitted line-of-credit from Vanguard in order to meet redemption requests.
Temporary Investment Measures
The Fund may temporarily depart from its normal investment policies and strategies when the advisor believes that doing so is in the Fund's best interest, so long as the strategy or policy employed is consistent with the Fund's investment objective. For instance, the Fund may invest beyond its normal limits in derivatives or exchange-traded funds that are consistent with the Fund's investment objective when those instruments are more favorably priced or provide needed liquidity, as might be the case when the Fund receives large cash flows that it cannot prudently invest immediately.
Special Risks of Exchange-Traded Shares
ETF Shares are not individually redeemable. They can be redeemed with the issuing Fund at NAV only by certain authorized broker-dealers and only in large blocks known as Creation Units. Consequently, if you want to liquidate some or all of your ETF Shares, you must sell them on the secondary market at prevailing market prices.
18

The market price of ETF Shares may differ from NAV. Although it is expected that the market price of an ETF Share typically will approximate its NAV, there may be times when the market price and the NAV differ significantly. Thus, you may pay more (premium) or less (discount) than NAV when you buy ETF Shares on the secondary market, and you may receive more or less than NAV when you sell those shares. These discounts and premiums are likely to be greatest during times of market disruption or extreme market volatility.
Vanguard’s website at vanguard.com shows the previous day’s closing NAV and closing market price for the Fund's ETF Shares. The website also discloses, in the Premium/ Discount Analysis section of the ETF Shares' Price & Performance page, how frequently the Fund's ETF Shares traded at a premium or discount to NAV (based on closing NAVs and market prices) and the magnitudes of such premiums and discounts.
An active trading market may not exist. Although Vanguard ETF Shares are listed on a national securities exchange, it is possible that an active trading market may not be maintained. Although this could happen at any time, it is more likely to occur during times of severe market disruption. If you attempt to sell your ETF Shares when an active trading market is not functioning, you may have to sell at a significant discount to NAV. In extreme cases, you may not be able to sell your shares at all.
Trading may be halted. Trading of Vanguard ETF Shares on an exchange may be halted by the activation of individual or marketwide trading halts (which halt trading for a specific period of time when the price of a particular security or overall market prices decline by a specified percentage). Trading of ETF Shares may also be halted if (1) the shares are delisted from the listing exchange without first being listed on another exchange or (2) exchange officials determine that such action is appropriate in the interest of a fair and orderly market or for the protection of investors.
Conversion Privilege
Owners of conventional shares issued by the Fund may convert those shares to ETF Shares of equivalent value of the same fund. Please note that investors who own conventional shares through a 401(k) plan or other employer-sponsored retirement or benefit plan generally may not convert those shares to ETF Shares and should check with their plan sponsor or recordkeeper. ETF Shares, whether acquired through a conversion or purchased on the secondary market, cannot be converted to conventional shares by a shareholder. Also, ETF Shares of one fund cannot be exchanged for ETF Shares of another fund.
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You must hold ETF Shares in a brokerage account. Thus, before converting conventional shares to ETF Shares, you must have an existing, or open a new, brokerage account. This account may be with Vanguard Brokerage Services® or with any other brokerage firm. To initiate a conversion of conventional shares to ETF Shares, please contact your broker.
Vanguard Brokerage Services does not impose a fee on conversions from Vanguard conventional shares to Vanguard ETF Shares. However, other brokerage firms may charge a fee to process a conversion. Vanguard reserves the right, in the future, to impose a transaction fee on conversions or to limit, temporarily suspend, or terminate the conversion privilege.
Converting conventional shares to ETF Shares is generally accomplished as follows. First, after your broker notifies Vanguard of your request to convert, Vanguard will transfer your conventional shares from your account to the broker’s omnibus account with Vanguard (an account maintained by the broker on behalf of all its customers who hold conventional Vanguard fund shares through the broker). After the transfer, Vanguard’s records will reflect your broker, not you, as the owner of the shares. Next, your broker will instruct Vanguard to convert the appropriate number or dollar amount of conventional shares in its omnibus account to ETF Shares of equivalent value, based on the respective NAVs of the two share classes.
Your Fund’s transfer agent will reflect ownership of all ETF Shares in the name of the Depository Trust Company (DTC). The DTC will keep track of which ETF Shares belong to your broker, and your broker, in turn, will keep track of which ETF Shares belong to you.
Because the DTC is unable to handle fractional shares, only whole shares can be converted. For example, if you owned 300.25 conventional shares, and this was equivalent in value to 90.75 ETF Shares, the DTC account would receive 90 ETF Shares. Conventional shares with a value equal to 0.75 ETF Shares (in this example, that would be 2.481 conventional shares) would remain in the broker’s omnibus account with Vanguard. Your broker then could either (1) credit your account with 0.75 ETF Shares or (2) redeem the 2.481 conventional shares for cash at NAV and deliver that cash to your account. If your broker chose to redeem your conventional shares, you would realize a gain or loss on the redemption that must be reported on your tax return (unless you hold the shares in an IRA or other tax-deferred account). Please consult your broker for information on how it will handle the conversion process, including whether it will impose a fee to process a conversion.
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If you convert your conventional shares to ETF Shares through Vanguard Brokerage Services, all conventional shares for which you request conversion will be converted to ETF Shares of equivalent value. Because no fractional shares will have to be sold, the transaction will not be taxable.
Here are some important points to keep in mind when converting conventional shares of a Vanguard fund to ETF Shares:
• The conversion process can take anywhere from several days to several weeks, depending on your broker. Vanguard generally will process conversion requests either on the day they are received or on the next business day. Vanguard imposes conversion blackout windows around the dates when a fund with ETF Shares declares dividends. This is necessary to prevent a shareholder from collecting a dividend from both the conventional share class currently held and also from the ETF share class to which the shares will be converted.
• Until the conversion process is complete, you will remain fully invested in a fund’s conventional shares, and your investment will increase or decrease in value in tandem with the NAV of those shares.
• The conversion transaction is nontaxable except, if applicable, to the very limited extent previously described.
A precautionary note to investment companies: Vanguard ETF Shares are issued by registered investment companies, and therefore the acquisition of such shares by other investment companies is subject to the restrictions of Section 12(d)(1) of the Investment Company Act of 1940. Vanguard has obtained an SEC exemptive order that allows registered investment companies to invest in the issuing funds beyond the limits of Section 12(d)(1), subject to certain terms and conditions, including the requirement to enter into a participation agreement with Vanguard. The exemptive order is not, however, available to the Fund. Accordingly, investment companies seeking to invest in the Fund must adhere to the limits set forth in Section 12(d)(1) of the Investment Company Act of 1940.
Frequent Trading and Market-Timing
Unlike frequent trading of a Vanguard fund’s conventional (i.e., not exchange-traded) classes of shares, frequent trading of ETF Shares does not disrupt portfolio management or otherwise harm fund shareholders. The vast majority of trading in ETF Shares occurs on the secondary market. Because these trades do not involve the issuing fund, they do not harm the fund or its shareholders. Certain broker-dealers are authorized to purchase and redeem ETF Shares directly with the issuing fund. Because these trades typically are effected in kind (i.e., for securities and not for cash), or are assessed a transaction fee when effected in cash, they do not cause any of the harmful effects to the
21

issuing fund (as previously noted) that may result from frequent trading. For these reasons, the board of trustees of each fund that issues ETF Shares has determined that it is not necessary to adopt policies and procedures to detect and deter frequent trading and market-timing of ETF Shares.
Portfolio Holdings
Please consult the Fund's Statement of Additional Information or our website for a description of the policies and procedures that govern disclosure of the Fund’s portfolio holdings.
Turnover Rate
Although the Fund generally seeks to invest for the long term, it may sell securities regardless of how long they have been held. Generally, an index fund sells securities in response to redemption requests from shareholders of conventional (not exchange-traded) shares or to changes in the composition of its target index. The Financial Highlights section of this prospectus shows historical turnover rates for the Fund. A turnover rate of 100%, for example, would mean that the Fund had sold and replaced securities valued at 100% of its net assets within a one-year period. In general, the greater the turnover rate, the greater the impact transaction costs will have on a fund’s return. Also, funds with high turnover rates may be more likely to generate capital gains, including short-term capital gains, that must be distributed to shareholders and will be taxable to shareholders investing through a taxable account.
The Fund and Vanguard
The Fund is a member of The Vanguard Group, a family of over 200 funds. All of the funds that are members of The Vanguard Group (other than funds of funds) share in the expenses associated with administrative services and business operations, such as personnel, office space, and equipment.
Vanguard Marketing Corporation provides marketing services to the funds. Although fund shareholders do not pay sales commissions or 12b-1 distribution fees, each fund (other than a fund of funds) or each share class of a fund (in the case of a fund with multiple share classes) pays its allocated share of the Vanguard funds’ marketing costs.
To the extent that the Fund’s assets are invested in another Vanguard fund, including a wholly owned subsidiary, such assets will be excluded when allocating to the Fund its share of the costs of Vanguard’s operations.
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Plain Talk About Vanguard’s Unique Corporate Structure
The Vanguard Group is owned jointly by the funds it oversees and thus
indirectly by the shareholders in those funds. Most other mutual funds are
operated by management companies that are owned by third parties—either
public or private stockholders—and not by the funds they serve.
Investment Advisor
The Vanguard Group, Inc., P.O. Box 2600, Valley Forge, PA 19482, which began operations in 1975, serves as advisor to the Fund through its Equity Index Group. As of January 31, 2021, Vanguard served as advisor for approximately $x trillion in assets. Vanguard provides investment advisory services to the Fund pursuant to the Funds’ Service Agreement and subject to the supervision and oversight of the trustees and officers of the Fund.
For the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021, the advisory expenses represented an effective annual rate of less than 0.01% of the Fund’s average net assets.
Under the terms of an SEC exemption, the Fund's board of trustees may, without prior approval from shareholders, change the terms of an advisory agreement with a third-party investment advisor or hire a new third-party investment advisor—either as a replacement for an existing advisor or as an additional advisor. Any significant change in the Fund's advisory arrangements will be communicated to shareholders in writing. As the Fund's sponsor and overall manager, Vanguard may provide investment advisory services to the Fund at any time. Vanguard may also recommend to the board of trustees that an advisor be hired, terminated, or replaced or that the terms of an existing advisory agreement be revised. The Fund has filed an application seeking a similar SEC exemption with respect to investment advisors that are wholly owned subsidiaries of Vanguard. If the exemption is granted, the Fund may rely on the new SEC relief.
For a discussion of why the board of trustees approved the Fund's investment advisory arrangement, see the most recent semiannual report to shareholders covering the fiscal period ended July 31.
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The managers primarily responsible for the day-to-day management of the Fund are:
Walter Nejman, Portfolio Manager at Vanguard. He has been with Vanguard since 2005, has worked in investment management since 2008, and has co-managed the Fund since 2016. Education: B.A., Arcadia University; M.B.A., Villanova University.
Gerard C. O’Reilly, Principal of Vanguard. He has been with Vanguard since 1992, has managed investment portfolios since 1994, and has managed the Fund since its inception in 1996 (co-managed since 2016). Education: B.S., Villanova University.
The Fund's Statement of Additional Information provides information about each portfolio manager’s compensation, other accounts under management, and ownership of shares of the Fund.
Dividends, Capital Gains, and Taxes
Fund Distributions
Each March, June, September, and December, the Fund pays out to shareholders virtually all of the distributions it receives from its investments, less expenses. Distributions may include income, return of capital, and capital gains. The Fund may also realize capital gains on the sale of its investments. Distributions of these gains, if any, are included in the December distribution. In addition, the Fund may occasionally make a supplemental distribution at some other time during the year.
Plain Talk About Distributions
As a shareholder, you are entitled to your portion of a fund’s income from
interest and dividends as well as capital gains from the fund’s sale of
investments. Income consists of both the dividends that the fund earns from
any stock holdings and the interest it receives from any money market and
bond investments. Capital gains are realized whenever the fund sells
securities for higher prices than it paid for them.
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Plain Talk About Return of Capital
The Internal Revenue Code requires a REIT to distribute at least 90% of its
taxable income to investors. In many cases, however, because of “noncash”
expenses such as property depreciation, an equity REIT’s cash flow will
exceed its taxable income. The REIT may distribute this excess cash to
investors. Such a distribution is classified as a return of capital.
Reinvestment of Distributions
In order to reinvest dividend and capital gains distributions, investors in the Fund’s ETF Shares must hold their shares at a broker that offers a reinvestment service. This can be the broker’s own service or a service made available by a third party, such as the broker’s outside clearing firm or the Depository Trust Company (DTC). If a reinvestment service is available, distributions of income and capital gains can automatically be reinvested in additional whole and fractional ETF Shares of the Fund. If a reinvestment service is not available, investors will receive their distributions in cash. To determine whether a reinvestment service is available and whether there is a commission or other charge for using this service, consult your broker.
As with all exchange-traded funds, reinvestment of dividend and capital gains distributions in additional ETF Shares will occur four business days or more after the ex-dividend date (the date when a distribution of dividends or capital gains is deducted from the price of the Fund’s shares). The exact number of days depends on your broker. During that time, the amount of your distribution will not be invested in the Fund and therefore will not share in the Fund’s income, gains, and losses.
Basic Tax Points
Investors in taxable accounts should be aware of the following basic federal income tax points:
• Distributions (other than any return of capital) are taxable to you whether or not you reinvest these amounts in additional ETF Shares.
• Distributions declared in December—if paid to you by the end of January—are taxable as if received in December.
• Any dividend distribution or short-term capital gains distribution that you receive is taxable to you as ordinary income. If you are an individual and meet certain holding-period requirements with respect to your ETF Shares, you may
25

be eligible for reduced tax rates on “qualified dividend income,” if any, or a special tax deduction on “qualified REIT dividends,” if any, distributed by the Fund.
• Any distribution of net long-term capital gains is taxable to you as long-term capital gains, no matter how long you have owned ETF Shares.
• Capital gains distributions may vary considerably from year to year as a result of the Fund's normal investment activities and cash flows.
• Your cost basis in the Fund will be decreased by the amount of any return of capital that you receive. This, in turn, will affect the amount of any capital gain or loss that you realize when selling your ETF Shares.
• Return of capital distributions generally are not taxable to you until your cost basis has been reduced to zero. If your cost basis is at zero, return of capital distributions will be treated as capital gains.
• A sale of ETF Shares is a taxable event. This means that you may have a capital gain to report as income, or a capital loss to report as a deduction, when you complete your tax return.
• Dividend distributions attributable to the Fund’s REIT investments are generally not eligible for the corporate dividends-received deduction.
Individuals, trusts, and estates whose income exceeds certain threshold amounts are subject to a 3.8% Medicare contribution tax on “net investment income.” Net investment income takes into account distributions paid by the Fund and capital gains from any sale of ETF Shares.
Dividend distributions and capital gains distributions that you receive, as well as your gains or losses from any sale of ETF Shares, may be subject to state and local income taxes.
This prospectus provides general tax information only. If you are investing through a tax-advantaged account, such as an IRA or an employer-sponsored retirement or savings plan, special tax rules apply. Please consult your tax advisor for detailed information about any tax consequences for you.
Share price, also known as net asset value (NAV), is calculated as of the close of regular trading on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), generally 4 p.m., Eastern time, on each day that the NYSE is open for business (a business day). In the rare event the NYSE experiences unanticipated disruptions and is unavailable at the close of the trading day, NAVs will be calculated as of the close of regular trading on the Nasdaq (or another alternate exchange if the
26

Nasdaq is unavailable, as determined at Vanguard’s discretion), generally 4 p.m., Eastern time. Each share class has its own NAV, which is computed by dividing the total assets, minus liabilities, allocated to the share class by the number of Fund shares outstanding for that class. On U.S. holidays or other days when the NYSE is closed, the NAV is not calculated, and the Fund does not sell or redeem shares. However, on those days the value of the Fund’s assets may be affected to the extent that the Fund holds securities that change in value on those days (such as foreign securities that trade on foreign markets that are open).
Remember: If you buy or sell ETF Shares on the secondary market, you will pay or receive the market price, which may be higher or lower than NAV. Your transaction will be priced at NAV only if you purchase or redeem your ETF Shares in Creation Unit blocks (an option available only to certain authorized broker-dealers) or if you convert your conventional fund shares to ETF Shares.
Stocks held by a Vanguard fund are valued at their market value when reliable market quotations are readily available from the principal exchange or market on which they are traded. Such securities are generally valued at their official closing price, the last reported sales price, or if there were no sales that day, the mean between the closing bid and asking prices. When a fund determines that market quotations either are not readily available or do not accurately reflect the value of a security, the security is priced at its fair value (the amount that the owner might reasonably expect to receive upon the current sale of the security).
The values of any foreign securities held by a fund are converted into U.S. dollars using an exchange rate obtained from an independent third party as of the close of regular trading on the NYSE. The values of any mutual fund shares, including institutional money market fund shares, held by a fund are based on the NAVs of the shares. The values of any ETF shares or closed-end fund shares held by a fund are based on the market value of the shares.
A fund also will use fair-value pricing if the value of a security it holds has been materially affected by events occurring before the fund's pricing time but after the close of the principal exchange or market on which the security is traded. This most commonly occurs with foreign securities, which may trade on foreign exchanges that close many hours before the fund's pricing time. Intervening events might be company-specific (e.g., earnings report, merger announcement) or country-specific or regional/global (e.g., natural disaster, economic or political news, act of terrorism, interest rate change). Intervening events include price movements in U.S. markets that exceed a specified threshold or that are otherwise deemed to affect the value of foreign securities.
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Fair-value pricing may be used for domestic securities—for example, if (1) trading in a security is halted and does not resume before the fund's pricing time or a security does not trade in the course of a day and (2) the fund holds enough of the security that its price could affect the NAV.
Fair-value prices are determined by Vanguard according to procedures adopted by the board of trustees. When fair-value pricing is employed, the prices of securities used by a fund to calculate the NAV may differ from quoted or published prices for the same securities.
Vanguard’s website will show the previous day’s closing NAV and closing market price for the Fund’s ETF Shares.
Additional Information
 
Inception
Date
Vanguard
Fund
Number
CUSIP
Number
Real Estate Index Fund
 
 
 
ETF Shares
9/23/2004
(Investor Shares
5/13/1996)
986
922908553
Certain affiliates of the Fund and the advisor may purchase and resell ETF Shares pursuant to the prospectus.

CGS identifiers have been provided by CUSIP Global Services, managed on behalf of the American Bankers Association by Standard & Poor’s Financial Services, LLC, and are not for use or dissemination in a manner that would serve as a substitute for any CUSIP service. The CUSIP Database, ©2021 American Bankers Association. “CUSIP” is a registered trademark of the American Bankers Association.
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Financial highlights information is intended to help you understand a fund’s performance for the past five years (or, if shorter, its period of operations). Certain information reflects financial results for a single fund share. Total return represents the rate that an investor would have earned or lost each period on an investment in a fund or share class (assuming reinvestment of all distributions). This information has been obtained from the financial statements audited by PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, whose report, along with fund financial statements, is included in a fund’s most recent annual report to shareholders. You may obtain a free copy of a fund’s latest annual or semiannual report, which is available upon request.
Vanguard Real Estate Index Fund ETF Shares
 
Year Ended January 31,
For a Share Outstanding Throughout Each Period
2021
2020
2019
2018
2017
Net Asset Value, Beginning of Period
$93.93
$83.36
$79.47
$82.43
$77.05
Investment Operations
 
 
 
 
 
Net Investment Income
1.8891
2.3351
2.4871
2.4991
2.334
Net Realized and Unrealized Gain (Loss) on
Investments
(7.525)
11.379
4.934
(1.945)
7.022
Total from Investment Operations
(5.636)
13.714
7.421
0.554
9.356
Distributions
 
 
 
 
 
Dividends from Net Investment Income
(1.947)
(2.364)
(2.646)
(2.458)
(2.353)
Distributions from Realized Capital Gains
(0.034)
(0.563)
Return of Capital
(1.387)
(0.780)
(0.885)
(1.022)
(1.060)
Total Distributions
(3.334)
(3.144)
(3.531)
(3.514)
(3.976)
Net Asset Value, End of Period
$84.96
$93.93
$83.36
$79.47
$82.43
Total Return
–5.80%
16.70%
9.70%
0.59%
12.25%
Ratios/Supplemental Data
 
 
 
 
 
Net Assets, End of Period (Millions)
$32,064
$37,682
$30,857
$32,377
$33,527
Ratio of Total Expenses to Average Net Assets
0.12%
0.12%
0.12%
0.12%
0.12%
Ratio of Net Investment Income to Average Net
Assets
2.33%
2.60%
3.15%
3.01%
2.74%
Portfolio Turnover Rate2
8%
6%
24%
6%
7%
1
Calculated based on average shares outstanding.
2
Excludes the value of portfolio securities received or delivered as a result of in-kind purchases or redemptions of the fund’s capital shares, including ETF Creation Units.
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THIS FUND IS NOT SPONSORED, ENDORSED, SOLD OR PROMOTED BY MSCI INC. (“MSCI”), ANY OF ITS AFFILIATES, ANY OF ITS DIRECT OR INDIRECT INFORMATION PROVIDERS OR ANY OTHER THIRD PARTY INVOLVED IN, OR RELATED TO, COMPILING, COMPUTING OR CREATING ANY MSCI INDEX (COLLECTIVELY, THE “MSCI PARTIES”). THE MSCI INDEXES ARE THE EXCLUSIVE PROPERTY OF MSCI. MSCI AND THE MSCI INDEX NAMES ARE SERVICE MARK(S) OF MSCI OR ITS AFFILIATES AND HAVE BEEN LICENSED FOR USE FOR CERTAIN PURPOSES BY VANGUARD. NONE OF THE MSCI PARTIES MAKES ANY REPRESENTATION OR WARRANTY, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, TO THE OWNERS OF THIS FUND OR ANY MEMBER OF THE PUBLIC REGARDING THE ADVISABILITY OF INVESTING IN FUNDS GENERALLY OR IN THIS FUND PARTICULARLY OR THE ABILITY OF ANY MSCI INDEX TO TRACK CORRESPONDING STOCK MARKET PERFORMANCE. MSCI OR ITS AFFILIATES ARE THE LICENSORS OF CERTAIN TRADEMARKS, SERVICE MARKS AND TRADE NAMES AND OF THE MSCI INDEXES WHICH ARE DETERMINED, COMPOSED AND CALCULATED BY MSCI WITHOUT REGARD TO THIS FUND OR THE ISSUER OR OWNER OF THIS FUND. NONE OF THE MSCI PARTIES HAS ANY OBLIGATION TO TAKE THE NEEDS OF THE ISSUERS OR OWNERS OF THIS FUND INTO CONSIDERATION IN DETERMINING, COMPOSING OR CALCULATING THE MSCI INDEXES. NONE OF THE MSCI PARTIES IS RESPONSIBLE FOR OR HAS PARTICIPATED IN THE DETERMINATION OF THE TIMING OF, PRICES AT, OR QUANTITIES OF THIS FUND TO BE ISSUED OR IN THE DETERMINATION OR CALCULATION OF THE CONSIDERATION INTO WHICH THIS FUND IS REDEEMABLE. NONE OF THE MSCI PARTIES HAS ANY OBLIGATION OR LIABILITY TO THE OWNERS OF THIS FUND IN CONNECTION WITH THE ADMINISTRATION, MARKETING OR OFFERING OF THIS FUND.
ALTHOUGH MSCI SHALL OBTAIN INFORMATION FOR INCLUSION IN OR FOR USE IN THE CALCULATION OF THE MSCI INDEXES FROM SOURCES WHICH MSCI CONSIDERS RELIABLE, NONE OF THE MSCI PARTIES WARRANTS OR GUARANTEES THE ORIGINALITY, ACCURACY AND/OR THE COMPLETENESS OF ANY MSCI INDEX OR ANY DATA INCLUDED THEREIN. NONE OF THE MSCI PARTIES MAKES ANY WARRANTY, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, AS TO RESULTS TO BE OBTAINED BY LICENSEE, LICENSEE’S CUSTOMERS OR COUNTERPARTIES, ISSUERS OF THE FUNDS, OWNERS OF THE FUNDS, OR ANY OTHER PERSON OR ENTITY, FROM THE USE OF ANY MSCI INDEX OR ANY DATA INCLUDED THEREIN IN CONNECTION WITH THE RIGHTS LICENSED HEREUNDER OR FOR ANY OTHER USE. NONE OF THE MSCI PARTIES SHALL HAVE ANY LIABILITY FOR ANY ERRORS, OMISSIONS OR INTERRUPTIONS OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH ANY MSCI INDEX OR ANY DATA INCLUDED THEREIN. FURTHER, NONE OF THE MSCI PARTIES MAKES ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND, AND THE MSCI PARTIES HEREBY EXPRESSLY DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, WITH RESPECT TO ANY MSCI INDEX AND ANY DATA INCLUDED THEREIN. WITHOUT LIMITING ANY OF THE FOREGOING, IN NO EVENT SHALL ANY OF THE MSCI PARTIES HAVE ANY LIABILITY FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, SPECIAL, PUNITIVE, CONSEQUENTIAL OR ANY OTHER DAMAGES (INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION LOST PROFITS) EVEN IF NOTIFIED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.
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Glossary of Investment Terms
Authorized Participant. Institutional investors that are permitted to purchase Creation Units directly from, and redeem Creation Units directly with, the issuing fund. To be an Authorized Participant, an entity must be a participant in the Depository Trust Company and must enter into an agreement with the fund’s Distributor.
Bid-Ask Spread. The difference between the highest price a buyer is willing to pay to purchase ETF Shares (bid) and the lowest price a seller is willing to accept for ETF Shares (ask) when buying or selling shares in the secondary market.
Capital Gains Distributions. Payments to fund shareholders of gains realized on securities that a fund has sold at a profit, minus any realized losses.
Common Stock. A security representing ownership rights in a corporation.
Cost Basis. The adjusted cost of an investment, used to determine a capital gain or loss for tax purposes.
Creation Unit. A large block of a specified number of ETF Shares. Certain broker-dealers known as “Authorized Participants” may purchase and redeem ETF Shares from the issuing fund in Creation Unit size blocks.
Distributions. Payments to fund shareholders of dividend income, capital gains, and return of capital generated by the fund's investment activities and distribution policies, after expenses.
Dividend Distributions. Payments to fund shareholders of income from interest or dividends generated by a fund's investments.
Dow Jones U.S. Total Stock Market Float Adjusted Index. An index that represents the entire U.S. stock market and tracks more than 5,000 stocks, excluding shares of securities not available for public trading.
Ex-Dividend Date. The date when a distribution of dividends and/or capital gains is deducted from the share price of a mutual fund, ETF, or stock. On the ex-dividend date, the share price drops by the amount of the distribution per share (plus or minus any market activity).
Expense Ratio. A fund's total annual operating expenses expressed as a percentage of the fund's average net assets. The expense ratio includes management and administrative expenses, but it does not include the transaction costs of buying and selling portfolio securities.
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Inception Date. The date on which the assets of a fund (or one of its share classes) are first invested in accordance with the fund's investment objective. For funds with a subscription period, the inception date is the day after that period ends. Investment performance is generally measured from the inception date.
Indexing. A low-cost investment strategy in which a fund attempts to track—rather than outperform—a specified market benchmark, or “index.”
Joint Committed Credit Facility. The Fund participates, along with other funds managed by Vanguard, in a committed credit facility provided by a syndicate of lenders pursuant to a credit agreement that may be renewed annually; each Vanguard fund is individually liable for its borrowings, if any, under the credit facility. The amount and terms of the committed credit facility are subject to approval by the Fund's board of trustees and renegotiation with the lender syndicate on an annual basis.
Liquidity. The degree of a security’s marketability (i.e., how quickly the security can be sold at a fair price and converted to cash).
Median Market Capitalization. An indicator of the size of companies in which a fund invests; the midpoint of market capitalization (market price x shares outstanding) of a fund's stocks, weighted by the proportion of the fund's assets invested in each stock. Stocks representing half of the fund's assets have market capitalizations above the median, and the rest are below it.
MSCI US REIT Index. An index that is composed of stocks of publicly traded equity real estate investment trusts (known as REITs).
Mutual Fund. An investment company that pools the money of many people and invests it in a variety of securities in an effort to achieve a specific objective over time.
New York Stock Exchange (NYSE). A stock exchange based in New York City that is open for regular trading on business days, Monday through Friday, from 9:30 a.m. to 4 p.m., Eastern time.
Return of Capital. A return of capital occurs when a fund's distributions exceed its earnings in a fiscal year. A return of capital is a return of all or part of your original investment or amounts paid in excess of your original investment in a fund. In general, a return of capital reduces your cost basis in a fund's shares and is not taxable to you until your cost basis has been reduced to zero.
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Securities. Stocks, bonds, money market instruments, and other investments.
Total Return. A percentage change, over a specified time period, in a fund's net asset value, assuming the reinvestment of all distributions of dividends and capital gains.
Tracking Error. A measure of the difference between the performance of a fund or portfolio and that of its benchmark index.
Volatility. The fluctuations in value of a mutual fund or other security. The greater a fund's volatility, the wider the fluctuations in its returns.
Wholly Owned Subsidiary. A company of which 95% or more of the outstanding voting securities are owned by another company, as defined by the Investment Company Act of 1940.
Yield. Income (interest or dividends) earned by an investment, expressed as a percentage of the investment’s price.

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For More Information
If you would like more information about Vanguard Real Estate ETF, the following documents are available free upon request:
Annual/Semiannual Reports to Shareholders
Additional information about the Fund's investments is available in the Fund's annual and semiannual reports to shareholders. In the annual report, you will find a discussion of the market conditions and investment strategies that significantly affected the Fund's performance during its last fiscal year.
Statement of Additional Information (SAI)
The SAI provides more detailed information about the Fund's ETF Shares and is incorporated by reference into (and thus legally a part of) this prospectus.
To receive a free copy of the latest annual or semiannual report or the SAI, or to request additional information about Vanguard ETF Shares, please visit vanguard.com or contact us as follows:
Telephone: 866-499-8473; Text telephone for people with hearing impairment: 800-749-7273
Information Provided by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)
Reports and other information about the Fund are available in the EDGAR database on the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov, or you can receive copies of this information, for a fee, by electronic request at the following email address: publicinfo@sec.gov.
Fund's Investment Company Act file number: 811-03916
© 2021 The Vanguard Group, Inc. All rights reserved.U.S. Patent Nos. 6,879,964; 7,337,138; 7,720,749; 7,925,573; 8,090,646; and 8,417,623.Vanguard Marketing Corporation, Distributor.P 986 052021