printPrint
printPrint View

 


PRINCIPAL FUNDS, INC. (“PFI” or "the Fund")
Statement of Additional Information
dated March 1, 2014 as amended and restated _______________, 2014
This Statement of Additional Information (SAI) is not a prospectus. It contains information in addition to the information in the Fund's prospectuses. These prospectuses, which we may amend from time to time, contain the basic information you should know before investing in the Fund. You should read this SAI for the A, B, C, J, P, Institutional, R-1, R-2, R-3, R-4, and R-5 share classes together with the Fund's prospectuses dated March 1, 2014 for the A, B, C, J, P, Institutional, R-1, R-2, R-3, R-4, and R-5 share classes and ______________, 2014 for the Classes A and P shares of the International I, MidCap Value III and SmallCap Value Funds and Class P shares of the LargeCap Growth, LargeCap Value and SmallCap Blend Funds.
Incorporation by Reference:
to be be filed by amendment.
For a free copy of the current prospectus, semiannual or annual report, call 1-800-222-5852 or write:
Principal Funds
P.O. Box 8024
Boston, MA 02266-8024
The prospectuses for A, B, C, J, and P share classes may be viewed at www.principalfunds.com/prospectus.
The prospectuses for Institutional, R-1, R-2, R-3, R-4, and R-5 share classes may be viewed at www.principalfunds.com./prospectuses.
The ticker symbols for series and share classes are on the next page.





Ticker Symbols by Share Class
Fund
A
B
C
J
P
Institutional
R-1
R-2
R-3
R-4
R-5
Bond & Mortgage Securities
PRBDX
PROBX
PBMCX
PBMJX
 
PMSIX
PBOMX
PBMNX
PBMMX
PBMSX
PBMPX
California Municipal
SRCMX
SQCMX
SRCCX
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Core Plus Bond I
 
 
 
 
 
PCBZX
PCBRX
PCBBX
PCIRX
PCBDX
PCBEX
Diversified International
PRWLX
PRBWX
PDNCX
PIIJX
PDIPX
PIIIX
PDVIX
PINNX
PINRX
PINLX
PINPX
Equity Income
PQIAX
PQUBX
PEUCX
 
PEQPX
PEIIX
PIEMX
PEINX
PEIOX
PEIPX
PEIQX
Global Diversified Income
PGBAX
 
PGDCX
 
PGDPX
PGDIX
 
 
 
 
 
Global Real Estate Securities
POSAX
 
POSCX
 
POSPX
POSIX
 
 
 
 
 
Government & High Quality Bond
CMPGX
CBUGX
CCUGX
PMRJX
PGSPX
PMRIX
PMGRX
PFMRX
PRCMX
PMRDX
PMREX
High Yield
CPHYX
CBHYX
CCHIX
 
PYHPX
PHYTX
 
 
 
 
 
High Yield I
PYHAX
 
 
 
 
PYHIX
 
 
 
 
 
Income
CMPIX
CMIBX
CNMCX
PIOJX
PIMPX
PIOIX
PIOMX
PIONX
PIOOX
PIOPX
PIOQX
Inflation Protection
PITAX
 
PPOCX
PIPJX
 
PIPIX
PISPX
PBSAX
PIFPX
PIFSX
PBPPX
International Emerging Markets
PRIAX
PIEBX
PMKCX
PIEJX
PIEPX
PIEIX
PIXEX
PEASX
PEAPX
PESSX
PEPSX
International I
[pending]
 
 
 
[pending]
PINIX
PPISX
PSPPX
PRPPX
PUPPX
PTPPX
LargeCap Blend II
 
 
 
PLBJX
 
PLBIX
PLBSX
PPZNX
PPZMX
PPZSX
PPZPX
LargeCap Growth
PRGWX
PRGBX
PLGCX
PGLJX
PGLPX
PGLIX
PLSGX
PCPPX
PLGPX
PEPPX
PDPPX
LargeCap Growth I
PLGAX
 
 
PLGJX
[pending]
PLGIX
PCRSX
PPUNX
PPUMX
PPUSX
PPUPX
LargeCap Growth II
 
 
 
PPLJX
 
PPIIX
PDASX
PPTNX
PPTMX
PPTSX
PPTPX
LargeCap S&P 500 Index
PLSAX
 
PLICX
PSPJX
 
PLFIX
PLPIX
PLFNX
PLFMX
PLFSX
PLFPX
LargeCap Value
PCACX
PCCBX
PLUCX
PVLJX
[pending]
PVLIX
PLSVX
PLVNX
PLVMX
PLVSX
PLVPX
LargeCap Value I
 
 
 
 
 
PVPIX
PVUAX
PABEX
PABDX
PAGBX
PAFBX
LargeCap Value III
 
 
 
PLVJX
 
PLVIX
PESAX
PPSNX
PPSFX
PPSSX
PPSRX
MidCap
PEMGX
PRMBX
PMBCX
PMBJX
PMCPX
PCBIX
PMSBX
PMBNX
PMBMX
PMBSX
PMBPX
MidCap Growth
 
 
 
PMGJX
 
PGWIX
PMSGX
PGPPX
PFPPX
PIPPX
PHPPX
MidCap Growth III
 
 
 
PPQJX
 
PPIMX
PHASX
PPQNX
PPQMX
PPQSX
PPQPX
MidCap S&P 400 Index
 
 
 
PMFJX
 
MPSIX
PMSSX
PMFNX
PMFMX
PMFSX
PMFPX
MidCap Value I
 
 
 
PVEJX
 
PVMIX
PLASX
PABUX
PMPRX
PABWX
PABVX
MidCap Value III
[pending]
 
 
PMCJX
[pending]
PVUIX
PMSVX
PKPPX
PJPPX
PMPPX
PLPPX
Money Market
PCSXX
PMBXX
PPCXX
PMJXX
 
PVMXX
 
 
 
 
 
Overseas
 
 
 
 
 
PINZX
PINQX
PINSX
PINTX
PINUX
PINGX
Principal Capital Appreciation
CMNWX
CMNBX
CMNCX
 
PCFPX
PWCIX
PCAMX
PCANX
PCAOX
PCAPX
PCAQX
Principal LifeTime Strategic Income
PALTX
PLTSX
 
PLSJX
 
PLSIX
PLAIX
PLSNX
PLSMX
PLSSX
PLSPX
Principal LifeTime 2010
PENAX
 
 
PTAJX
 
PTTIX
PVASX
PTANX
PTAMX
PTASX
PTAPX
Principal LifeTime 2015
 
 
 
 
 
LTINX
LTSGX
LTASX
LTAPX
LTSLX
LTPFX
Principal LifeTime 2020
PTBAX
PLIBX
 
PLFJX
 
PLWIX
PWASX
PTBNX
PTBMX
PTBSX
PTBPX
Principal LifeTime 2025
 
 
 
 
 
LTSTX
LTSNX
LTADX
LTVPX
LTEEX
LTPDX
Principal LifeTime 2030
PTCAX
PTCBX
 
PLTJX
 
PMTIX
PXASX
PTCNX
PTCMX
PTCSX
PTCPX
Principal LifeTime 2035
 
 
 
 
 
LTIUX
LTANX
LTVIX
LTAOX
LTSEX
LTPEX
Principal LifeTime 2040
PTDAX
PTDBX
 
PTDJX
 
PTDIX
PYASX
PTDNX
PTDMX
PTDSX
PTDPX
Principal LifeTime 2045
 
 
 
 
 
LTRIX
LTRGX
LTRSX
LTRVX
LTRLX
LTRDX
Principal LifeTime 2050
PPEAX
PLTFX
 
PFLJX
 
PPLIX
PZASX
PTENX
PTERX
PTESX
PTEFX
Principal LifeTime 2055
 
 
 
 
 
LTFIX
LTFGX
LTFSX
LTFDX
LTFLX
LTFPX
Principal LifeTime 2060
 
 
 
PLTAX
 
PLTZX
PLTRX
PLTBX
PLTCX
PLTMX
PLTOX
Real Estate Securities
PRRAX
PRLEX
PRCEX
PREJX
PIRPX
PIREX
PRAEX
PRENX
PRERX
PRETX
PREPX
Short-Term Income
SRHQX
 
STCCX
PSJIX
PSTPX
PSHIX
PSIMX
PSINX
PSIOX
PSIPX
PSIQX
SmallCap Blend
PLLAX
PLLBX
PSMCX
PSBJX
[pending]
PSLIX
PSABX
PSBNX
PSBMX
PSBSX
PSBPX
SmallCap Growth I
 
 
 
PSIJX
 
PGRTX
PNASX
PPNNX
PPNMX
PPNSX
PPNPX
SmallCap Growth II
 
 
 
PPMIX
 
PSIIX
PPASX
PPMNX
PPMMX
PPMSX
PPMPX
SmallCap S&P 600 Index
 
 
 
PSSJX
 
PSSIX
PSAPX
PSSNX
PSSMX
PSSSX
PSSPX
SmallCap Value II
[pending]
 
 
PSMJX
[pending]
PPVIX
PCPTX
PKARX
PJARX
PSTWX
PLARX
SAM Balanced
SABPX
SBBPX
SCBPX
PSAJX
 
PSBIX
PSBGX
PSBVX
PBAPX
PSBLX
PSBFX
SAM Conservative Balanced
SAIPX
SBIPX
SCIPX
PCBJX
 
PCCIX
PCSSX
PCNSX
PCBPX
PCBLX
PCBFX
SAM Conservative Growth
SAGPX
SBGPX
SCGPX
PCGJX
 
PCWIX
PCGGX
PCGVX
PCGPX
PCWSX
PCWPX
SAM Flexible Income
SAUPX
SBUPX
SCUPX
PFIJX
 
PIFIX
PFIGX
PFIVX
PFIPX
PFILX
PFIFX
SAM Strategic Growth
SACAX
SBCAX
SWHCX
PSWJX
 
PSWIX
PSGGX
PSGVX
PSGPX
PSGLX
PSGFX
Tax-Exempt Bond
PTEAX
PTBBX
PTBCX
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

2



TABLE OF CONTENTS
FUND HISTORY
DESCRIPTION OF THE FUNDS’ INVESTMENTS AND RISKS
LEADERSHIP STRUCTURE AND BOARD OF DIRECTORS
INVESTMENT ADVISORY AND OTHER SERVICES
MULTIPLE CLASS STRUCTURE
INTERMEDIARY COMPENSATION
BROKERAGE ALLOCATION AND OTHER PRACTICES
PURCHASE AND REDEMPTION OF SHARES
PRICING OF FUND SHARES
TAX CONSIDERATIONS
PORTFOLIO HOLDINGS DISCLOSURE
PROXY VOTING POLICIES AND PROCEDURES
FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM
GENERAL INFORMATION
CONTROL PERSONS AND PRINCIPAL HOLDERS OF SECURITIES
PORTFOLIO MANAGER DISCLOSURE
APPENDIX A – DESCRIPTION OF BOND RATINGS
APPENDIX B – PROXY VOTING POLICIES




3



FUND HISTORY
Principal Funds, Inc. (“PFI” or "the Fund") was organized as Principal Special Markets Fund, Inc. on January 28, 1993 as a Maryland corporation. The Fund changed its name to Principal Investors Fund, Inc. effective September 14, 2000. The Fund changed its name to Principal Funds, Inc. effective June 13, 2008.
On January 12, 2007, the Fund acquired WM Trust I, WM Trust II, and WM Strategic Asset Management Portfolios, LLC.
Classes offered by each Fund are shown in the table below.
 
Share Class
Fund/Portfolio
A
B
C
J
P
Institutional
R-1
R-2
R-3
R-4
R-5
Bond & Mortgage Securities
X
X
X
X
 
X
X
X
X
X
X
California Municipal
X
X
X
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Core Plus Bond I
 
 
 
 
 
X
X
X
X
X
X
Diversified International
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Equity Income
X
X
X
 
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Global Diversified Income
X
 
X
 
X
X
 
 
 
 
 
Global Real Estate Securities
X
 
X
 
X
X
 
 
 
 
 
Government & High Quality Bond
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
High Yield
X
X
X
 
X
X
 
 
 
 
 
High Yield I
X
 
 
 
 
X
 
 
 
 
 
Income
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Inflation Protection
X
 
X
X
 
X
X
X
X
X
X
International Emerging Markets
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
International I
X
 
 
 
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
LargeCap Blend II
 
 
 
X
 
X
X
X
X
X
X
LargeCap Growth
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
LargeCap Growth I
X
 
 
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
LargeCap Growth II
 
 
 
X
 
X
X
X
X
X
X
LargeCap S&P 500 Index
X
 
X
X
 
X
X
X
X
X
X
LargeCap Value
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
LargeCap Value I
 
 
 
 
 
X
X
X
X
X
X
LargeCap Value III
 
 
 
X
 
X
X
X
X
X
X
MidCap
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
MidCap Growth
 
 
 
X
 
X
X
X
X
X
X
MidCap Growth III
 
 
 
X
 
X
X
X
X
X
X
MidCap S&P 400 Index
 
 
 
X
 
X
X
X
X
X
X
MidCap Value I
 
 
 
X
 
X
X
X
X
X
X
MidCap Value III
X
 
 
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Money Market
X
X
X
X
 
X
 
 
 
 
 
Overseas
 
 
 
 
 
X
X
X
X
X
X
Principal Capital Appreciation
X
X
X
 
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Principal LifeTime 2010
X
 
 
X
 
X
X
X
X
X
X
Principal LifeTime 2015
 
 
 
 
 
X
X
X
X
X
X
Principal LifeTime 2020
X
X
 
X
 
X
X
X
X
X
X
Principal LifeTime 2025
 
 
 
 
 
X
X
X
X
X
X
Principal LifeTime 2030
X
X
 
X
 
X
X
X
X
X
X
Principal LifeTime 2035
 
 
 
 
 
X
X
X
X
X
X
Principal LifeTime 2040
X
X
 
X
 
X
X
X
X
X
X
Principal LifeTime 2045
 
 
 
 
 
X
X
X
X
X
X
Principal LifeTime 2050
X
X
 
X
 
X
X
X
X
X
X
Principal LifeTime 2055
 
 
 
 
 
X
X
X
X
X
X
Principal LifeTime 2060
 
 
 
X
 
X
X
X
X
X
X
Principal LifeTime Strategic Income
X
X
 
X
 
X
X
X
X
X
X
Real Estate Securities
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
SAM Balanced
X
X
X
X
 
X
X
X
X
X
X
SAM Conservative Balanced
X
X
X
X
 
X
X
X
X
X
X
SAM Conservative Growth
X
X
X
X
 
X
X
X
X
X
X
SAM Flexible Income
X
X
X
X
 
X
X
X
X
X
X
SAM Strategic Growth
X
X
X
X
 
X
X
X
X
X
X
Short-Term Income
X
 
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
SmallCap Blend
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
SmallCap Growth I
 
 
 
X
 
X
X
X
X
X
X
SmallCap Growth II
 
 
 
X
 
X
X
X
X
X
X
SmallCap S&P 600 Index
 
 
 
X
 
X
X
X
X
X
X
SmallCap Value II
X
 
 
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Tax-Exempt Bond
X
X
X
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

4



Each class has different expenses. Because of these different expenses, the investment performance of the classes will vary. For more information, including your eligibility to purchase certain classes of shares, call Principal Funds at 1-800-222-5852.
Principal Management Corporation ("PMC" or “Principal” or the "Manager") may recommend to the Board, and the Board may elect, to close certain funds to new investors or close certain funds to new and existing investors. Principal may make such a recommendation when a fund approaches a size where additional investments in the fund have the potential to adversely impact fund performance and make it increasingly difficult to keep the fund fully invested in a manner consistent with its investment objective. Principal may also recommend to the Board, and the Board may elect, to close certain share classes to new or new and existing investors.
DESCRIPTION OF THE FUNDS’ INVESTMENTS AND RISKS
The Fund is a registered, open-end management investment company, commonly called a mutual fund. The Fund consists of multiple investment portfolios which are referred to as "Funds." Each portfolio operates for many purposes as if it were an independent mutual fund. Each portfolio has its own investment objective, strategy, and management team. Each of the Funds is diversified except the Global Real Estate Securities and Real Estate Securities Funds which are non-diversified.
Fund Policies
The investment objectives, investment strategies and the principal risks of each Fund are described in the Prospectus. This Statement of Additional Information contains supplemental information about those strategies and risks and the types of securities the Sub-Advisor can select for each Fund. Additional information is also provided about the strategies that the Fund may use to try to achieve its objective.
The composition of each Fund and the techniques and strategies that the Sub-Advisor may use in selecting securities will vary over time. A Fund is not required to use all of the investment techniques and strategies available to it in seeking its goals.
Unless otherwise indicated, with the exception of the percentage limitations on borrowing, the restrictions apply at the time transactions are entered into. Accordingly, any later increase or decrease beyond the specified limitation, resulting from market fluctuations or in a rating by a rating service, does not require elimination of any security from the portfolio.
The investment objective of each Fund and, except as described below as "Fundamental Restrictions," the investment strategies described in this Statement of Additional Information and the prospectuses are not fundamental and may be changed by the Board of Directors without shareholder approval. The Fundamental Restrictions may not be changed without a vote of a majority of the outstanding voting securities of the affected Fund. The Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended, ("1940 Act") provides that "a vote of a majority of the outstanding voting securities" of a Fund means the affirmative vote of the lesser of 1) more than 50% of the outstanding shares or 2) 67% or more of the shares present at a meeting if more than 50% of the outstanding Fund shares are represented at the meeting in person or by proxy. Each share has one vote, with fractional shares voting proportionately. Shares of all classes of a Fund will vote together as a single class except when otherwise required by law or as determined by the Board of Directors.
With the exception of the diversification test required by the Internal Revenue Code, the Funds will not consider collateral held in connection with securities lending activities when applying any of the following fundamental restrictions or any other investment restriction set forth in each Fund's prospectus or Statement of Additional Information.
Bond & Mortgage Securities, California Municipal, Core Plus Bond I, Diversified International, Equity Income, Global Diversified Income, Global Real Estate Securities, Government & High Quality Bond, High Yield, High Yield I, Income, Inflation Protection, International Emerging Markets, LargeCap Blend II, LargeCap Growth, LargeCap Growth I, LargeCap Growth II, LargeCap S&P 500 Index, LargeCap Value, LargeCap Value I, LargeCap Value III, MidCap, MidCap Growth, MidCap Growth III, MidCap S&P 400 Index, MidCap Value I, MidCap Value III, Money Market, Overseas, Principal Capital Appreciation, Real Estate Securities, Short-Term Income, SmallCap Blend, SmallCap Growth I, SmallCap Growth II, SmallCap S&P 600 Index, SmallCap Value II, and Tax-Exempt Bond Funds

5



Fundamental Restrictions
Each of the following numbered restrictions for the above-listed Funds is a matter of fundamental policy and may not be changed without shareholder approval. Each:
1)
Fund may not issue senior securities, except as permitted under the 1940 Act, as amended, and as interpreted, modified or otherwise permitted by regulatory authority having jurisdiction, from time to time.
2)
Fund may not purchase or sell commodities, except as permitted under the 1940 Act, as amended, and as interpreted, modified or otherwise permitted by regulatory authority having jurisdiction, from time to time.
3)
Fund may not purchase or sell real estate, which term does not include securities of companies which deal in real estate or mortgages or investments secured by real estate or interests therein, except that each Fund reserves freedom of action to hold and to sell real estate acquired as a result of the Fund’s ownership of securities.
4)
Fund may not borrow money, except as permitted under the 1940 Act, as amended, and as interpreted, modified or otherwise permitted by regulatory authority having jurisdiction, from time to time.
5)
Fund may not make loans except as permitted under the 1940 Act, as amended, and as interpreted, modified or otherwise permitted by regulatory authority having jurisdiction, from time to time.
6)
Fund, except Global Real Estate Securities and Real Estate Securities Funds, has elected to be treated as a “diversified” investment company, as that term is used in the 1940 Act, as amended, and as interpreted, modified or otherwise permitted by regulatory authority having jurisdiction, from time to time. This restriction does not apply to the California Municipal Fund.
7)
Fund may not invest more than 5% of its total assets in the securities of any one issuer (other than obligations issued or guaranteed by the U.S. government or its agencies or instrumentalities) or purchase more than 10% of the outstanding voting securities of any one issuer, except that this limitation shall apply only with respect to 75% of the total assets of the Fund. This restriction applies only to the California Municipal Fund.
8)
Fund may not concentrate, as that term is used in the 1940 Act, its investments in a particular industry, except as permitted under the 1940 Act, as amended, and as interpreted, modified or otherwise permitted by regulatory authority having jurisdiction, from time to time.  This restriction does not apply to the Global Real Estate Securities and Real Estate Securities Funds (the restriction applies to the LargeCap S&P 500 Index, MidCap S&P 400 Index, and SmallCap S&P 600 Index Funds except to the extent that the related Index is also so concentrated).
The Global Real Estate Securities and Real Estate Securities Funds will concentrate their investments in a particular industry or group of industries as described in the prospectus.
9)
Fund may not act as an underwriter of securities, except to the extent that the Fund may be deemed to be an underwriter in connection with the sale of securities held in its portfolio.
Non-Fundamental Restrictions
Each of these Funds has also adopted the following restrictions that are not fundamental policies and may be changed without shareholder approval. It is contrary to each Fund's present policy to:
1)
Invest more than 15% (5% in the case of the Money Market Fund) of its net assets in illiquid securities and in repurchase agreements maturing in more than seven days except to the extent permitted by applicable law.
2)
Pledge, mortgage, or hypothecate its assets, except to secure permitted borrowings. The deposit of underlying securities and other assets in escrow and other collateral arrangements in connection with transactions in put or call options, futures contracts, options on futures contracts, and over-the-counter swap contracts are not deemed to be pledges or other encumbrances.
3)
Invest in companies for the purpose of exercising control or management.
4)
Invest more than 25% (35% for High Yield Fund and 50% for the Core Plus Bond Fund I) of its assets in foreign securities, except that the Diversified International, Global Diversified Income, Global Real Estate Securities, International Emerging Markets, Money Market, and Overseas Funds each may invest up to 100% of its assets in foreign securities, the LargeCap S&P 500 Index, MidCap S&P 400 Index, and SmallCap S&P 600 Index Funds each may invest in foreign securities to the extent that the relevant index is so invested, and the California Municipal, Government & High Quality Bond, and Tax-Exempt Bond Funds may not invest in foreign securities.
5)
Invest more than 5% of its total assets in real estate limited partnership interests (except the Global Diversified Income, Global Real Estate Securities, and Real Estate Securities Funds).

6



6)
Acquire securities of other investment companies in reliance on Section 12(d)(1)(F) or (G) of the 1940 Act, invest more than 10% of its total assets in securities of other investment companies, invest more than 5% of its total assets in the securities of any one investment company, or acquire more than 3% of the outstanding voting securities of any one investment company except in connection with a merger, consolidation, or plan of reorganization and except as permitted by the 1940 Act, SEC rules adopted under the 1940 Act or exemptions granted by the Securities and Exchange Commission. The Fund may purchase securities of closed-end investment companies in the open market where no underwriter or dealer’s commission or profit, other than a customary broker’s commission, is involved.
Each of the above-listed Funds (except the California Municipal, Diversified International, Global Diversified Income, Income, Inflation Protection, Principal Capital Appreciation, Short-Term Income and Tax-Exempt Bond Funds) has also adopted the non-fundamental policy, pursuant to SEC Rule 35d-1, which requires it, under normal circumstances, to invest at least 80% of its net assets, plus any borrowings for investment purposes, in the type of securities, industry or geographic region (as described in the prospectus) as suggested by the name of the Fund. This policy applies at the time of purchase. The Fund will provide 60 days’ notice to shareholders prior to implementing a change in this policy for the Fund. For purposes of this non-fundamental restriction, the Fund tests market capitalization ranges monthly.
The Tax-Exempt Bond Fund has also adopted a fundamental policy which requires it, under normal circumstances, to invest at least 80% of its net assets in investments, the income from which is exempt from federal income tax or so that at least 80% of the income the Fund distributes will be exempt from federal income tax.
The California Municipal Fund has adopted a fundamental policy that requires it, under normal circumstances, to invest at least 80% of its net assets in investments the income from which is exempt from federal income tax and California state personal income tax or so that at least 80% of the income the Fund distributes will be exempt from federal income tax and California state personal income tax. The Fund also has adopted a non-fundamental policy that requires it, under normal circumstances, to invest at least 80% of its net assets in municipal obligations.
International Fund I
Fundamental Restrictions
Each of the following numbered restrictions for the above-listed Fund is a matter of fundamental policy and may not be changed without shareholder approval. The Fund:
1)
May not issue senior securities, except as permitted under the 1940 Act, as amended, and as interpreted, modified or otherwise permitted by regulatory authority having jurisdiction, from time to time.
2)
May not purchase or sell commodities, except as permitted under the 1940 Act, as amended, and as interpreted, modified or otherwise permitted by regulatory authority having jurisdiction, from time to time.
3)
May not purchase or sell real estate, which term does not include securities of companies which deal in real estate or mortgages or investments secured by real estate or interests therein, except that the Fund reserves freedom of action to hold and to sell real estate acquired as a result of the Fund’s ownership of securities.
4)
May not borrow money, except as permitted under the 1940 Act, as amended, and as interpreted, modified or otherwise permitted by regulatory authority having jurisdiction, from time to time.
5)
May not make loans except as permitted under the 1940 Act, as amended, and as interpreted, modified or otherwise permitted by regulatory authority having jurisdiction, from time to time.
6)
Has elected to be treated as a “diversified” investment company, as that term is used in the 1940 Act, as amended, and as interpreted, modified or otherwise permitted by regulatory authority having jurisdiction, from time to time.
7)
May not concentrate, as that term is used in the 1940 Act, its investments in a particular industry, except as permitted under the 1940 Act, as amended, and as interpreted, modified or otherwise permitted by regulatory authority having jurisdiction, from time to time.
8)
May not act as an underwriter of securities, except to the extent that the Fund may be deemed to be an underwriter in connection with the sale of securities held in its portfolio.

7



Non-Fundamental Restrictions
The above-listed Fund has also adopted the following restrictions that are not fundamental policies and may be changed without shareholder approval. It is contrary to the Fund's present policy to:
1)
Purchase securities on margin, except that the Fund may obtain such short-term credits as are necessary for the clearance of transactions, and provided that margin payments in connection with futures contracts and options on futures contracts shall not constitute purchasing securities on margin.
2)
Purchase any security if, as a result, more than 15% of its net assets would be invested in securities that are deemed to be illiquid because they are subject to legal or contractual restrictions on resale or because they cannot be sold or disposed of in the ordinary course of business at approximately the prices at which they are valued.
3)
Acquire securities of other investment companies in reliance on Section 12(d)(1)(F) or (G) of the 1940 Act, invest more than 10% of its total assets in securities of other investment companies, invest more than 5% of its total assets in the securities of any one investment company, or acquire more than 3% of the outstanding voting securities of any one investment company except in connection with a merger, consolidation, or plan of reorganization and except as permitted by the 1940 Act, SEC rules adopted under the 1940 Act or exemptions granted by the Securities and Exchange Commission. The Fund may purchase securities of closed-end investment companies in the open market where no underwriter or dealer’s commission or profit, other than a customary broker’s commission, is involved.
Principal LifeTime 2010, Principal LifeTime 2015, Principal LifeTime 2020, Principal LifeTime 2025, Principal LifeTime 2030, Principal LifeTime 2035, Principal LifeTime 2040, Principal LifeTime 2045, Principal LifeTime 2050, Principal LifeTime 2055, Principal LifeTime 2060, and Principal LifeTime Strategic Income Funds and the Strategic Asset Management Portfolios (Balanced, Conservative Balanced, Conservative Growth, Flexible Income, and Strategic Growth Portfolios)
Fundamental Restrictions
Each of the following numbered restrictions for the above-listed Funds is a matter of fundamental policy and may not be changed without shareholder approval. Each Fund:
1)
May not issue senior securities, except as permitted under the 1940 Act, as amended, and as interpreted, modified or otherwise permitted by regulatory authority having jurisdiction, from time to time.
2)
May not purchase or sell commodities, except as permitted under the 1940 Act, as amended, and as interpreted, modified or otherwise permitted by regulatory authority having jurisdiction, from time to time.
3)
May not purchase or sell real estate, which term does not include securities of companies which deal in real estate or mortgages or investments secured by real estate or interests therein, except that each Fund reserves freedom of action to hold and to sell real estate acquired as a result of the Fund’s ownership of securities.
4)
May not borrow money, except as permitted under the 1940 Act, as amended, and as interpreted, modified or otherwise permitted by regulatory authority having jurisdiction, from time to time.
5)
May not make loans except as permitted under the 1940 Act, as amended, and as interpreted, modified or otherwise permitted by regulatory authority having jurisdiction, from time to time.
6)
Has elected to be treated as a “diversified” investment company, as that term is used in the 1940 Act, as amended, and as interpreted, modified or otherwise permitted by regulatory authority having jurisdiction, from time to time.
7)
May not concentrate, as that term is used in the 1940 Act, its investments in a particular industry, except as permitted under the 1940 Act, as amended, and as interpreted, modified or otherwise permitted by regulatory authority having jurisdiction, from time to time.
8)
May not act as an underwriter of securities, except to the extent that the Fund may be deemed to be an underwriter in connection with the sale of securities held in its portfolio.

8



Non-Fundamental Restrictions
Each of these above-listed Funds has also adopted the following restrictions that are not fundamental policies and may be changed without shareholder approval. It is contrary to each Fund's present policy to:
1)
Pledge, mortgage, or hypothecate its assets, except to secure permitted borrowings. For the purpose of this restriction, collateral arrangements with respect to the writing of options by the underlying funds and collateral arrangements with respect to initial or variation margin for futures by the underlying funds are not deemed to be pledges of assets.
2)
Invest in companies for the purpose of exercising control or management.
Investment Strategies and Risks
Senior Securities
Under the 1940 Act, a fund that borrows money is required to maintain continuous asset coverage (that is, total assets including borrowings, less liabilities exclusive of borrowings) of 300% of the amount borrowed, with an exception for borrowings not in excess of 5% of the fund’s total assets made for temporary or emergency purposes.   Pursuant to SEC staff interpretations of the Act, a fund that purchases securities or makes other investments that have a leveraging effect on the fund (for example, reverse repurchase agreements) must segregate assets to render them not available for sale or other disposition in an amount equal to the amount the fund owes pursuant to the terms of the security or other investment.
Commodities
Under the 1940 Act, a fund's registration statement must recite the fund's policy with regard to investing in commodities. Pursuant to a claim for exclusion filed with the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (“CFTC”) on behalf of the Funds, neither PFI nor any of its individual Funds is deemed to be a “commodity pool” or “commodity pool operator” under the Commodity Exchange Act (“CEA”), and they are therefore not subject to registration or regulation under the CEA. The Commodity Futures Trading Commission recently amended rule 4.5 “Exclusion for certain otherwise regulated persons from the definition of the term “commodity pool operator.” Rule 4.5 provides that a mutual fund does not meet the definition of “commodity pool operator” if its use of futures contracts, options on futures contracts and swaps is sufficiently limited that the fund can fall within one of two exclusions set out in rule 4.5. The Funds intend to limit their use of futures contracts, options on futures contracts and swaps to the degree necessary to fall within one of the two exclusions. If any Fund is unable to do so, it may incur expenses that are necessary to comply with the Commodity Exchange Act and rules the Commodity Futures Trading Commission has adopted under it.
Borrowing
If a Fund invests the proceeds of borrowing, borrowing will tend to exaggerate the effect on net asset value of any increase or decrease in the market value of a fund’s portfolio. If a Fund invests the proceeds of borrowing, money borrowed will be subject to interest costs that may or may not be recovered by earnings on the securities purchased. A fund also may be required to maintain minimum average balances in connection with a borrowing or to pay a commitment or other fee to maintain a line of credit; either of these requirements would increase the cost of borrowing over the stated interest rate.
The 1940 Act limits a fund’s ability to borrow money. For example, a fund may not borrow money, except that a fund may borrow for temporary or emergency purposes (not for leveraging or investment) in an amount not exceeding 33⅓% of the fund’s total assets (including the amount borrowed) less liabilities (other than borrowings).
Industry Concentration
"Concentration" means a fund invests more than 25% of its net assets in a particular industry or group of industries. To monitor compliance with the policy regarding industry concentration, the Funds may use the industry classifications provided by Bloomberg, L.P., the Morgan Stanley Capital International/Standard & Poor's Global Industry Classification Standard (GICS), the Directory of Companies Filing Annual Reports with the Securities and Exchange Commission or any other reasonable industry classification system. The Funds interpret their policy with respect to concentration in a particular industry to apply only to direct investments in the securities of issuers in a particular industry. For purposes of this restriction, government securities such as treasury securities or mortgage-backed securities that are issued or guaranteed by the U.S. government, its agencies or instrumentalities are not subject to the Funds' industry concentration restrictions. The Funds view their investments in privately issued mortgage-related securities, asset-backed securities or tax-exempt municipal securities as not representing interests in any particular industry or group of industries. For information about municipal securities, see the Municipal Obligations section.

9



Restricted Securities
Generally, restricted securities are not readily marketable because they are subject to legal or contractual restrictions upon resale. They may be sold only in a public offering for which a registration statement has been filed and declared effective or in a transaction that is exempt from the registration requirements of the Securities Act of 1933. When registration is required, a Fund that owns restricted securities may be obligated to pay all or part of the registration expenses and a considerable period may elapse between the time of the decision to sell and the time the Fund may be permitted to sell a restricted security. If adverse market conditions were to develop during such a period, the Fund might obtain a less favorable price than existed when it decided to sell. Restricted securities and other securities not readily marketable are priced at fair value as determined in good faith by or under the direction of the Directors.
Each of the Funds has adopted investment restrictions that limit its investments in restricted securities or other illiquid securities to no more than 15% of its net assets (or, in the case of the Money Market Fund, 5%). The Directors have adopted procedures to determine the liquidity of Rule 4(2) short-term paper and of restricted securities that may be resold under Rule 144A. Securities determined to be liquid under these procedures are excluded from the preceding investment restriction.
Foreign Securities
Foreign companies may not be subject to the same uniform accounting, auditing, and financial reporting practices as are required of U.S. companies. In addition, there may be less publicly available information about a foreign company than about a U.S. company. Securities of many foreign companies are less liquid and more volatile than securities of comparable U.S. companies. Commissions on foreign securities exchanges may be generally higher than those on U.S. exchanges.
Foreign markets also have different clearance and settlement procedures than those in U.S. markets. In certain markets there have been times when settlements have been unable to keep pace with the volume of securities transactions, making it difficult to conduct these transactions. Delays in settlement could result in temporary periods when a portion of a Fund's assets is not invested and is earning no return. If a Fund is unable to make intended security purchases due to settlement problems, the Fund may miss attractive investment opportunities. In addition, a Fund may incur a loss as a result of a decline in the value of its portfolio if it is unable to sell a security.
With respect to certain foreign countries, there is the possibility of expropriation or confiscatory taxation, political, or social instability, or diplomatic developments that could affect a Fund's investments in those countries. In addition, a Fund may also suffer losses due to nationalization, expropriation, or differing accounting practices and treatments. Investments in foreign securities are subject to laws of the foreign country that may limit the amount and types of foreign investments. Changes of governments or of economic or monetary policies, in the U.S. or abroad, changes in dealings between nations, currency convertibility, or exchange rates could result in investment losses for a Fund. Finally, even though certain currencies may be convertible into U.S. dollars, the conversion rates may be artificial relative to the actual market values and may be unfavorable to a Fund's investors.
Foreign securities are often traded with less frequency and volume, and therefore may have greater price volatility, than is the case with many U.S. securities. Brokerage commissions, custodial services, and other costs relating to investment in foreign countries are generally more expensive than in the U.S. Though the Funds intend to acquire the securities of foreign issuers where there are public trading markets, economic or political turmoil in a country in which a Fund has a significant portion of its assets or deterioration of the relationship between the U.S. and a foreign country may negatively impact the liquidity of a Fund's portfolio. The Fund may have difficulty meeting a large number of redemption requests. Furthermore, there may be difficulties in obtaining or enforcing judgments against foreign issuers.
Investments in companies of developing (also called “emerging”) countries are subject to higher risks than investments in companies in more developed countries. These risks include:
increased social, political, and economic instability;
a smaller market for these securities and low or nonexistent volume of trading that results in a lack of liquidity and in greater price volatility;
lack of publicly available information, including reports of payments of dividends or interest on outstanding securities;
foreign government policies that may restrict opportunities, including restrictions on investment in issuers or industries deemed sensitive to national interests;
relatively new capital market structure or market-oriented economy;
the possibility that recent favorable economic developments may be slowed or reversed by unanticipated political or social events in these countries;

10



restrictions that may make it difficult or impossible for the fund to vote proxies, exercise shareholder rights, pursue legal remedies, and obtain judgments in foreign courts; and
possible losses through the holding of securities in domestic and foreign custodial banks and depositories.
In addition, many developing countries have experienced substantial and, in some periods, extremely high rates of inflation for many years. Inflation and rapid fluctuations in inflation rates have had and may continue to have negative effects on the economies and securities markets of those countries.
Repatriation of investment income, capital and proceeds of sales by foreign investors may require governmental registration and/or approval in some developing countries. A Fund could be adversely affected by delays in or a refusal to grant any required governmental registration or approval for repatriation.
Further, the economies of developing countries generally are heavily dependent upon international trade and, accordingly, have been and may continue to be adversely affected by trade barriers, exchange controls, managed adjustments in relative currency values and other protectionist measures imposed or negotiated by the countries with which they trade.
Depositary Receipts
Depositary Receipts are generally subject to the same sort of risks as direct investments in a foreign country, such as, currency risk, political and economic risk, and market risk, because their values depend on the performance of a foreign security denominated in its home currency.
The Funds that may invest in foreign securities may invest in:
American Depositary Receipts ("ADRs") - receipts issued by an American bank or trust company evidencing ownership of underlying securities issued by a foreign issuer. They are designed for use in U.S. securities markets.
European Depositary Receipts ("EDRs") and Global Depositary Receipts ("GDRs") - receipts typically issued by a foreign financial institution to evidence an arrangement similar to that of ADRs.
Depositary Receipts may be issued by sponsored or unsponsored programs. In sponsored programs, an issuer has made arrangements to have its securities traded in the form of Depositary Receipts. In unsponsored programs, the issuer may not be directly involved in the creation of the program. Although regulatory requirements with respect to sponsored and unsponsored programs are generally similar, in some cases it may be easier to obtain financial information from an issuer that has participated in the creation of a sponsored program. Accordingly, there may be less information available regarding issuers of securities of underlying unsponsored programs, and there may not be a correlation between the availability of such information and the market value of the Depositary Receipts.
Securities of Smaller Companies
The Funds may invest in securities of companies with small- or mid-sized market capitalizations. Market capitalization is defined as total current market value of a company's outstanding common stock. Investments in companies with smaller market capitalizations may involve greater risks and price volatility (wide, rapid fluctuations) than investments in larger, more mature companies. Smaller companies may be less mature than older companies. At this earlier stage of development, the companies may have limited product lines, reduced market liquidity for their shares, limited financial resources or less depth in management than larger or more established companies. Small companies also may be less significant within their industries and may be at a competitive disadvantage relative to their larger competitors. While smaller companies may be subject to these additional risks, they may also realize more substantial growth than larger or more established companies. Small company stocks may decline in price as large company stocks rise, or rise in price while larger company stocks decline. Investors should therefore expect the net asset value of the Fund that invests a substantial portion of its assets in small company stocks may be more volatile than the shares of a Fund that invests solely in larger company stocks.
Unseasoned Issuers
The Funds may invest in the securities of unseasoned issuers. Unseasoned issuers are companies with a record of less than three years continuous operation, including the operation of predecessors and parents. Unseasoned issuers by their nature have only a limited operating history that can be used for evaluating the companies' growth prospects. As a result, investment decisions for these securities may place a greater emphasis on current or planned product lines and the reputation and experience of the company's management and less emphasis on fundamental valuation factors than would be the case for more mature growth companies. In addition, many unseasoned issuers also may be small companies and involve the risks and price volatility associated with smaller companies.

11



Convertible Securities
A convertible security is a bond, debenture, note, preferred stock, or other security that entitles the holder to acquire common stock or other equity securities of the same or a different issuer. A convertible security generally entitles the holder to receive interest paid or accrued until the convertible security matures or is redeemed, converted or exchanged. Before conversion, convertible securities have characteristics similar to non-convertible debt or preferred securities, as applicable. Convertible securities rank senior to common stock in a corporation’s capital structure and, therefore, generally entail less risk than the corporation’s common stock, although the extent to which such risk is reduced depends in large measure upon the degree to which the convertible security sells above its value as a fixed income security. Convertible securities are subordinate in rank to any senior debt obligations of the issuer, and, therefore, an issuer’s convertible securities entail more risk than its debt obligations. Convertible securities generally offer lower interest or dividend yields than non-convertible debt securities of similar credit quality because of the potential for capital appreciation. In addition, convertible securities are often lower-rated securities.
Because of the conversion feature, the price of the convertible security will normally fluctuate in some proportion to changes in the price of the underlying asset, and as such is subject to risks relating to the activities of the issuer and/or general market and economic conditions. The income component of a convertible security may tend to cushion the security against declines in the price of the underlying asset. However, the income component of convertible securities causes fluctuations based upon changes in interest rates and the credit quality of the issuer.
If the "conversion value" of a convertible security increases to a point that approximates or exceeds its "investment value," the value of the security will be principally influenced by its conversion value. If the conversion value of a convertible security increases to a point that approximates or exceeds its investment value, the value of the security will be principally influenced by its conversion value. A convertible security will sell at a premium over its conversion value to the extent investors place value on the right to acquire the underlying common stock while holding an income-producing security.
A convertible security may be subject to redemption at the option of the issuer at a predetermined price. If a convertible security held by a fund is called for redemption, the fund would be required to permit the issuer to redeem the security and convert it to underlying common stock, or would sell the convertible security to a third party, which may have an adverse effect on the fund’s ability to achieve its investment objective.
Synthetic Convertibles
A “synthetic” convertible security may be created by combining separate securities that possess the two principal characteristics of a traditional convertible security, i.e., an income-producing security (“income-producing component”) and the right to acquire an equity security (“convertible component”). The income-producing component is achieved by investing in non-convertible, income-producing securities such as bonds, preferred stocks and money market instruments, which may be represented by derivative instruments. The convertible component is achieved by investing in securities or instruments such as warrants or options to buy common stock at a certain exercise price, or options on a stock index. Unlike a traditional convertible security, which is a single security having a single market value, a synthetic convertible comprises two or more separate securities, each with its own market value. Therefore, the “market value” of a synthetic convertible security is the sum of the values of its income-producing component and its convertible component. For this reason, the values of a synthetic convertible security and a traditional convertible security may respond differently to market fluctuations.
More flexibility is possible in the assembly of a synthetic convertible security than in the purchase of a convertible security. Although synthetic convertible securities may be selected where the two components are issued by a single issuer, thus making the synthetic convertible security similar to the traditional convertible security, the character of a synthetic convertible security allows the combination of components representing distinct issuers, when such a combination may better achieve a fund’s investment objective. A synthetic convertible security also is a more flexible investment in that its two components may be purchased separately. For example, a fund may purchase a warrant for inclusion in a synthetic convertible security but temporarily hold short-term investments while postponing the purchase of a corresponding bond pending development of more favorable market conditions.
A holder of a synthetic convertible security faces the risk of a decline in the price of the security or the level of the index involved in the convertible component, causing a decline in the value of the security or instrument, such as a call option or warrant, purchased to create the synthetic convertible security. Should the price of the stock fall below the exercise price and remain there throughout the exercise period, the entire amount paid for the call option or warrant would be lost. Because a synthetic convertible security includes the income-producing component as well, the holder of a synthetic convertible security also faces the risk that interest rates will rise, causing a decline in the value of the income-producing instrument.

12



A fund also may purchase synthetic convertible securities created by other parties, including convertible structured notes. Convertible structured notes are income-producing debentures linked to equity, and are typically issued by investment banks. Convertible structured notes have the attributes of a convertible security; however, the investment bank that issues the convertible note, rather than the issuer of the underlying common stock into which the note is convertible, assumes credit risk associated with the underlying investment, and the fund in turn assumes credit risk associated with the convertible note.
Spread Transactions, Options on Securities and Securities Indices, and Futures Contracts and Options on Futures Contracts
The Funds (except the Principal LifeTime Funds and SAM Portfolios) may each engage in the practices described under this heading.
Spread Transactions. Each Fund may engage in spread trades, which typically represent a simultaneous purchase and sale of two different contracts designed to capture the change in the relationship in price between the two contracts. Spread transactions are typically accompanied by lower margin requirements and lower volatility than an outright purchase. Each Fund may purchase spread options. The purchase of a covered spread option gives the Fund the right to put, or sell, a security that it owns at a fixed dollar spread or fixed yield spread in relationship to another security that the Fund does not own, but which is used as a benchmark. The risk to the Fund in purchasing covered spread options is the cost of the premium paid for the spread option and any transaction costs. In addition, there is no assurance that closing transactions will be available. The security covering the spread option is maintained in segregated accounts either with the Fund's custodian or on the Fund's records. The Funds do not consider a security covered by a spread option to be "pledged" as that term is used in the Fund's policy limiting the pledging or mortgaging of assets. The purchase of spread options can be used to protect each Fund against adverse changes in prevailing credit quality spreads, i.e., the yield spread between high quality and lower quality securities.
Options on Securities and Securities Indices. Each Fund may write (sell) and purchase call and put options on securities in which it invests and on securities indices based on securities in which the Fund invests. The Funds may engage in these transactions to hedge against a decline in the value of securities owned or an increase in the price of securities which the Fund plans to purchase, or to generate additional revenue.
The Funds may purchase or write both exchange-traded and over-the-counter (“OTC”) options. OTC options differ from exchange-traded options in that they are two-party contracts, with price and other terms negotiated between buyer and seller, and generally do not have as much market liquidity as exchange-traded options. An OTC option (an option not traded on an established exchange) may be closed out only by agreement with the other party to the original option transaction. With OTC options, a Fund is at risk that the other party to the transaction will default on its obligations or will not permit the Fund to terminate the transaction before its scheduled maturity. While a Fund will seek to enter into OTC options only with dealers who agree to or are expected to be capable of entering into closing transactions with a Fund, there can be no assurance that a Fund will be able to liquidate an OTC option at a favorable price at any time prior to its expiration. OTC options are not subject to the protections afforded purchasers of listed options by the Options Clearing Corporation or other clearing organizations. An exchange-traded option may be closed out only on an exchange that generally provides a liquid secondary market for an option of the same series. If a liquid secondary market for an exchange-traded option does not exist, it might not be possible to effect a closing transaction with respect to a particular option, with the result that a Fund would have to exercise the option in order to consummate the transaction.
Writing Covered Call and Put Options. When a Fund writes a call option, it gives the purchaser of the option the right to buy a specific security at a specified price at any time before the option expires. When a Fund writes a put option, it gives the purchaser of the option the right to sell to the Fund a specific security at a specified price at any time before the option expires. In both situations, the Fund receives a premium from the purchaser of the option.
The premium received by a Fund reflects, among other factors, the current market price of the underlying security, the relationship of the exercise price to the market price, the time period until the expiration of the option and interest rates. The premium generates additional income for the Fund if the option expires unexercised or is closed out at a profit. By writing a call, a Fund limits its opportunity to profit from any increase in the market value of the underlying security above the exercise price of the option, but it retains the risk of loss if the price of the security should decline. By writing a put, a Fund assumes the risk that it may have to purchase the underlying security at a price that may be higher than its market value at time of exercise.

13



The Funds write only covered options and comply with applicable regulatory and exchange cover requirements. The Funds usually own the underlying security covered by any outstanding call option. With respect to an outstanding put option, each Fund deposits and maintains with its custodian or segregates on the Fund's records, cash, or other liquid assets with a value at least equal to the market value of the option that was written.
Once a Fund has written an option, it may terminate its obligation before the option is exercised. The Fund executes a closing transaction by purchasing an option of the same series as the option previously written. The Fund has a gain or loss depending on whether the premium received when the option was written exceeds the closing purchase price plus related transaction costs.
Purchasing Call and Put Options. When a Fund purchases a call option, it receives, in return for the premium it pays, the right to buy from the writer of the option the underlying security at a specified price at any time before the option expires. A Fund purchases call options in anticipation of an increase in the market value of securities that it intends ultimately to buy. During the life of the call option, the Fund is able to buy the underlying security at the exercise price regardless of any increase in the market price of the underlying security. In order for a call option to result in a gain, the market price of the underlying security must exceed the sum of the exercise price, the premium paid, and transaction costs.
When a Fund purchases a put option, it receives, in return for the premium it pays, the right to sell to the writer of the option the underlying security at a specified price at any time before the option expires. A Fund purchases put options in anticipation of a decline in the market value of the underlying security. During the life of the put option, the Fund is able to sell the underlying security at the exercise price regardless of any decline in the market price of the underlying security. In order for a put option to result in a gain, the market price of the underlying security must decline, during the option period, below the exercise price enough to cover the premium and transaction costs.
Once a Fund purchases an option, it may close out its position by selling an option of the same series as the option previously purchased. The Fund has a gain or loss depending on whether the closing sale price exceeds the initial purchase price plus related transaction costs.
Options on Securities Indices. Each Fund may purchase and sell put and call options on any securities index based on securities in which the Fund may invest. Securities index options are designed to reflect price fluctuations in a group of securities or segment of the securities market rather than price fluctuations in a single security. Options on securities indices are similar to options on securities, except that the exercise of securities index options requires cash payments and does not involve the actual purchase or sale of securities. The Funds engage in transactions in put and call options on securities indices for the same purposes as they engage in transactions in options on securities. When a Fund writes call options on securities indices, it holds in its portfolio underlying securities which, in the judgment of the Sub-Advisor, correlate closely with the securities index and which have a value at least equal to the aggregate amount of the securities index options.
Index Warrants. Funds may purchase put warrants and call warrants whose values vary depending on the change in the value of one or more specified securities indices (“index warrants”). Index warrants are generally issued by banks or other financial institutions and give the holder the right, at any time during the term of the warrant, to receive upon exercise of the warrant a cash payment from the issuer based on the value of the underlying index at the time of exercise. In general, if the value of the underlying index rises above the exercise price of the index warrant, the holder of a call warrant will be entitled to receive a cash payment from the issuer upon exercise based on the difference between the value of the index and the exercise price of the warrant; if the value of the underlying index falls, the holder of a put warrant will be entitled to receive a cash payment from the issuer upon exercise based on the difference between the exercise price of the warrant and the value of the index. The holder of a warrant would not be entitled to any payments from the issuer at a time when, in the case of a call warrant, the exercise price is more than the value of the underlying index, or in the case of a put warrant, the exercise price is less than the value of the underlying index. If a Fund were not to exercise an index warrant prior to its expiration, then a Fund would lose the amount of the purchase price paid by it for the warrant. A Fund will normally use index warrants in a manner similar to its use of options on securities indices.
Risks Associated with Option Transactions. An option position may be closed out only on an exchange that provides a secondary market for an option of the same series. The Funds generally purchase or write only those options for which there appears to be an active secondary market. However, there is no assurance that a liquid secondary market on an exchange exists for any particular option, or at any particular time. If a Fund is unable to effect closing sale transactions in options it has purchased, it has to exercise its options in order to realize any profit and may incur transaction costs upon the purchase or sale of underlying securities. If a Fund is unable to

14



effect a closing purchase transaction for a covered option that it has written, it is not able to sell the underlying securities, or dispose of the assets held in a segregated account, until the option expires or is exercised. A Fund's ability to terminate option positions established in the over-the-counter market may be more limited than for exchange-traded options and may also involve the risk that broker-dealers participating in such transactions might fail to meet their obligations.
Futures Contracts and Options on Futures Contracts. Each Fund may purchase and sell futures contracts of many types, including for example, futures contracts covering indexes, financial instruments, and foreign currencies. Each Fund may purchase and sell financial futures contracts and options on those contracts. Financial futures contracts are commodities contracts based on financial instruments such as U.S. Treasury bonds or bills or on securities indices such as the S&P 500 Index. Futures contracts, options on futures contracts, and the commodity exchanges on which they are traded are regulated by the Commodity Futures Trading Commission. Through the purchase and sale of futures contracts and related options, a Fund may seek to hedge against a decline in the value of securities owned by the Fund or an increase in the price of securities that the Fund plans to purchase. Each Fund may also purchase and sell futures contracts and related options to maintain cash reserves while simulating full investment in securities and to keep substantially all of its assets exposed to the market. Each Fund may enter into futures contracts and related options transactions both for hedging and non-hedging purposes.
Futures Contracts. A Fund may purchase or sell a futures contract to gain exposure to a particular market asset without directly purchasing that asset. When a Fund sells a futures contract based on a financial instrument, the Fund is obligated to deliver that kind of instrument at a specified future time for a specified price. When a Fund purchases that kind of contract, it is obligated to take delivery of the instrument at a specified time and to pay the specified price. In most instances, these contracts are closed out by entering into an offsetting transaction before the settlement date. The Fund realizes a gain or loss depending on whether the price of an offsetting purchase plus transaction costs are less or more than the price of the initial sale or on whether the price of an offsetting sale is more or less than the price of the initial purchase plus transaction costs. Although the Funds usually liquidate futures contracts on financial instruments, by entering into an offsetting transaction before the settlement date, they may make or take delivery of the underlying securities when it appears economically advantageous to do so.
A futures contract based on a securities index provides for the purchase or sale of a group of securities at a specified future time for a specified price. These contracts do not require actual delivery of securities but result in a cash settlement. The amount of the settlement is based on the difference in value of the index between the time the contract was entered into and the time it is liquidated (at its expiration or earlier if it is closed out by entering into an offsetting transaction).
When a Fund purchases or sells a futures contract, it pays a commission to the futures commission merchant through which the Fund executes the transaction. When entering into a futures transaction, the Fund does not pay the execution price, as it does when it purchases a security, or a premium, as it does when it purchases an option. Instead, the Fund deposits an amount of cash or other liquid assets (generally about 5% of the futures contract amount) with its futures commission merchant. This amount is known as "initial margin." In contrast to the use of margin account to purchase securities, the Fund's deposit of initial margin does not constitute the borrowing of money to finance the transaction in the futures contract. The initial margin represents a good faith deposit that helps assure the Fund's performance of the transaction. The futures commission merchant returns the initial margin to the Fund upon termination of the futures contract if the Fund has satisfied all its contractual obligations.
Subsequent payments to and from the futures commission merchant, known as "variation margin," are required to be made on a daily basis as the price of the futures contract fluctuates, a process known as "marking to market." The fluctuations make the long or short positions in the futures contract more or less valuable. If the position is closed out by taking an opposite position prior to the settlement date of the futures contract, a final determination of variation margin is made. Any additional cash is required to be paid to or released by the broker and the Fund realizes a loss or gain.
In using futures contracts, the Fund may seek to establish with more certainty than would otherwise be possible the effective price of or rate of return on portfolio securities or securities that the Fund proposes to acquire. A Fund, for example, sells futures contracts in anticipation of a rise in interest rates that would cause a decline in the value of its debt investments. When this kind of hedging is successful, the futures contract increases in value when the Fund's debt securities decline in value and thereby keeps the Fund's net asset value from declining as much as it otherwise would. A Fund may also sell futures contracts on securities indices in anticipation of or during a stock market decline in an endeavor to offset a decrease in the market value of its equity investments. When a Fund is not fully invested and anticipates an increase in the cost of securities it intends to purchase, it

15



may purchase financial futures contracts. When increases in the prices of equities are expected, a Fund may purchase futures contracts on securities indices in order to gain rapid market exposure that may partially or entirely offset increases in the cost of the equity securities it intends to purchase.
Options on Futures Contracts. The Funds may also purchase and write call and put options on futures contracts. A call option on a futures contract gives the purchaser the right, in return for the premium paid, to purchase a futures contract (assume a long position) at a specified exercise price at any time before the option expires. A put option gives the purchaser the right, in return for the premium paid, to sell a futures contract (assume a short position), for a specified exercise price, at any time before the option expires.
Upon the exercise of a call, the writer of the option is obligated to sell the futures contract (to deliver a long position to the option holder) at the option exercise price, which will presumably be lower than the current market price of the contract in the futures market. Upon exercise of a put, the writer of the option is obligated to purchase the futures contract (deliver a short position to the option holder) at the option exercise price, which will presumably be higher than the current market price of the contract in the futures market. However, as with the trading of futures, most options are closed out prior to their expiration by the purchase or sale of an offsetting option at a market price that reflects an increase or a decrease from the premium originally paid. Options on futures can be used to hedge substantially the same risks addressed by the direct purchase or sale of the underlying futures contracts. For example, if a Fund anticipates a rise in interest rates and a decline in the market value of the debt securities in its portfolio, it might purchase put options or write call options on futures contracts instead of selling futures contracts.
If a Fund purchases an option on a futures contract, it may obtain benefits similar to those that would result if it held the futures position itself. But in contrast to a futures transaction, the purchase of an option involves the payment of a premium in addition to transaction costs. In the event of an adverse market movement, however, the Fund is not subject to a risk of loss on the option transaction beyond the price of the premium it paid plus its transaction costs.
When a Fund writes an option on a futures contract, the premium paid by the purchaser is deposited with the Fund's custodian. The Fund must maintain with its futures commission merchant all or a portion of the initial margin requirement on the underlying futures contract. It assumes a risk of adverse movement in the price of the underlying futures contract comparable to that involved in holding a futures position. Subsequent payments to and from the futures commission merchant, similar to variation margin payments, are made as the premium and the initial margin requirements are marked to market daily. The premium may partially offset an unfavorable change in the value of portfolio securities, if the option is not exercised, or it may reduce the amount of any loss incurred by the Fund if the option is exercised.
Risks Associated with Futures Transactions. There are a number of risks associated with transactions in futures contracts and related options. The value of the assets that are the subject of the futures contract may not move in the anticipated direction. A Fund's successful use of futures contracts is subject to the ability of the Sub-Advisor to predict correctly the factors affecting the market values of the Fund's portfolio securities. For example, if a Fund is hedged against the possibility of an increase in interest rates which would adversely affect debt securities held by the Fund and the prices of those debt securities instead increases, the Fund loses part or all of the benefit of the increased value of its securities it hedged because it has offsetting losses in its futures positions. Other risks include imperfect correlation between price movements in the financial instrument or securities index underlying the futures contract, on the one hand, and the price movements of either the futures contract itself or the securities held by the Fund, on the other hand. If the prices do not move in the same direction or to the same extent, the transaction may result in trading losses.
Prior to exercise or expiration, a position in futures may be terminated only by entering into a closing purchase or sale transaction. This requires a secondary market on the relevant contract market. The Fund enters into a futures contract or related option only if there appears to be a liquid secondary market. There can be no assurance, however, that such a liquid secondary market exists for any particular futures contract or related option at any specific time. Thus, it may not be possible to close out a futures position once it has been established. Under such circumstances, the Fund continues to be required to make daily cash payments of variation margin in the event of adverse price movements. In such situations, if the Fund has insufficient cash, it may be required to sell portfolio securities to meet daily variation margin requirements at a time when it may be disadvantageous to do so. In addition, the Fund may be required to perform under the terms of the futures contracts it holds. The inability to close out futures positions also could have an adverse impact on the Fund's ability effectively to hedge its portfolio.

16



Most United States futures exchanges limit the amount of fluctuation permitted in futures contract prices during a single trading day. This daily limit establishes the maximum amount that the price of a futures contract may vary either up or down from the previous day's settlement price at the end of a trading session. Once the daily limit has been reached in a particular type of contract, no more trades may be made on that day at a price beyond that limit. The daily limit governs only price movements during a particular trading day and therefore does not limit potential losses because the limit may prevent the liquidation of unfavorable positions. Futures contract prices have occasionally moved to the daily limit for several consecutive trading days with little or no trading, thereby preventing prompt liquidation of futures positions and subjecting some futures traders to substantial losses.
Limitations on the Use of Futures, Options on Futures Contracts, and Swaps. Each Fund that utilizes futures contracts, options on futures contracts or swaps has claimed an exclusion from the definition of a “commodity pool operator” under the Commodity Exchange Act and is not subject to registration or regulation as a commodity pool operator under the Commodity Exchange Act. The Commodity Futures Trading Commission recently amended rule 4.5 “Exclusion for certain otherwise regulated persons from the definition of the term “commodity pool operator.” Rule 4.5 provides that a mutual fund does not meet the definition of “commodity pool operator” if its use of futures contracts, options on futures contracts and swaps is sufficiently limited that the fund can fall within one of two exclusions set out in rule 4.5. The Funds intend to limit their use of futures contracts, options on futures contracts and swaps to the degree necessary to fall within one of the two exclusions. If any Fund is unable to do so, it may incur expenses that are necessary to comply with the Commodity Exchange Act and rules the Commodity Futures Trading Commission has adopted under it.
Each Fund may enter into futures contracts and related options transactions, for hedging purposes and for other appropriate risk management purposes, and to modify the Fund's exposure to various currency, equity, or fixed-income markets. Each Fund may engage in speculative futures trading. When using futures contracts and options on futures contracts for hedging or risk management purposes, each Fund determines that the price fluctuations in the contracts and options are substantially related to price fluctuations in securities held by the Fund or which it expects to purchase. In pursuing traditional hedging activities, each Fund may sell futures contracts or acquire puts to protect against a decline in the price of securities that the Fund owns. Each Fund may purchase futures contracts or calls on futures contracts to protect the Fund against an increase in the price of securities the Fund intends to purchase before it is in a position to do so.
When a Fund purchases a futures contract, or writes a call option on a futures contract, it segregates portfolio assets, which must be liquid and marked to the market daily, in a segregated account. The amount so segregated equals the net amount due on the contract, minus any margin on deposit.
With respect to futures contracts that are not legally required to “cash settle,” a Fund may cover the open position by setting aside or “earmarking” liquid assets in an amount equal to the market value of the futures contract. With respect to futures that are required to “cash settle,” however, a Fund is permitted to set aside or “earmark” liquid assets in an amount equal to the Fund’s daily marked to market (net) obligation, if any (in other words, the Fund’s daily net liability, if any) rather than the market value of the futures contract. By setting aside or “earmarking” assets equal to only its net obligation under cash-settled futures, a Fund will have the ability to utilize these contracts to a greater extent than if the Fund were required to segregate or “earmark” assets equal to the full market value of the futures contract.
High Yield Bonds (“Junk Bonds”)
Some funds invest a portion of their assets in bonds that are rated below investment grade (sometimes called “high yield bonds” or "junk bonds") which are rated at the time of purchase Ba1 or lower by Moody's and BB+ or lower by S&P (if the bond has been rated by only one of those agencies, that rating will determine whether the bond is below investment grade; if the bond has not been rated by either of those agencies, the Sub-Advisor will determine whether the bond is of a quality comparable to those rated below investment grade). Lower rated bonds involve a higher degree of credit risk, which is the risk that the issuer will not make interest or principal payments when due. In the event of an unanticipated default, a fund would experience a reduction in its income and could expect a decline in the market value of the bonds so affected. Issuers of high yield securities may be involved in restructurings or bankruptcy proceedings that may not be successful.  If an issuer defaults, it may not be able to pay all or a portion of interest and principal owed to the fund, it may exchange the high yield securities owned by the fund for other securities, including equities, and/or the fund may incur additional expenses while seeking recovery of its investment. Some funds may also invest in unrated bonds of foreign and domestic issuers. Unrated bonds, while not necessarily of lower quality than rated bonds, may not have as broad a market. Because of the size and perceived demand of the issue, among other factors, certain municipalities may not incur the expense of obtaining a rating. The Sub-Advisor will analyze the creditworthiness of the issuer, as well as any financial institution or other party responsible for payments on the bond, in determining whether to purchase unrated bonds. Unrated bonds will be included in the limitation each fund has with

17



regard to high yield bonds unless the Sub-Advisor deems such securities to be the equivalent of investment grade bonds. Some of the high yield securities consist of Rule 144A securities. High yield securities may contain any type of interest rate payment or reset terms, including fixed rate, adjustable rate, zero coupon, contingent, deferred, payment-in-kind and those with auction rate features.
Mortgage- and Asset-Backed Securities
The yield characteristics of the mortgage- and asset-backed securities in which the Funds may invest differ from those of traditional debt securities. Among the major differences are that the interest and principal payments are made more frequently on mortgage- and asset-backed securities (usually monthly) and that principal may be prepaid at any time because the underlying mortgage loans or other assets generally may be prepaid at any time. As a result, if the Fund purchases those securities at a premium, a prepayment rate that is faster than expected will reduce their yield, while a prepayment rate that is slower than expected will have the opposite effect of increasing yield. If the Fund purchases these securities at a discount, faster than expected prepayments will increase their yield, while slower than expected prepayments will reduce their yield. Amounts available for reinvestment by the Fund are likely to be greater during a period of declining interest rates and, as a result, are likely to be reinvested at lower interest rates than during a period of rising interest rates.
In general, the prepayment rate for mortgage-backed securities decreases as interest rates rise and increases as interest rates fall. However, rising interest rates will tend to decrease the value of these securities. In addition, an increase in interest rates may affect the volatility of these securities by effectively changing a security that was considered a short-term security at the time of purchase into a long-term security. Long-term securities generally fluctuate more widely in response to changes in interest rates than short- or medium-term securities.
The market for privately issued mortgage- and asset-backed securities is smaller and less liquid than the market for U.S. government mortgage-backed securities. A collateralized mortgage obligation (“CMO”) may be structured in a manner that provides a wide variety of investment characteristics (yield, effective maturity, and interest rate sensitivity). As market conditions change, and especially during periods of rapid market interest rate changes, the ability of a CMO to provide the anticipated investment characteristics may be greatly diminished. Increased market volatility and/or reduced liquidity may result.
The Funds may invest in each of collateralized bond obligations (“CBOs”), collateralized loan obligations (“CLOs”), other collateralized debt obligations (“CDOs”) and other similarly structured securities. CBOs, CLOs and other CDOs are types of asset-backed securities. A CBO is a trust which is often backed by a diversified pool of high risk, below investment grade fixed income securities. The collateral can be from many different types of fixed income securities such as high yield debt, residential privately issued mortgage-related securities, commercial privately issued mortgage-related securities, trust preferred securities and emerging market debt. A CLO is a trust typically collateralized by a pool of loans, which may include, among others, domestic and foreign senior secured loans, senior unsecured loans, and subordinate corporate loans, including loans that may be rated below investment grade or equivalent unrated loans. Other CDOs are trusts backed by other types of assets representing obligations of various parties. CBOs, CLOs and other CDOs may charge management fees and administrative expenses.
Inflation-Indexed Bonds
The Funds may invest in inflation-indexed bonds or inflation protected debt securities, which are fixed income securities whose value is periodically adjusted according to the rate of inflation. Two structures are common. The U.S. Treasury and some other issuers utilize a structure that accrues inflation into the principal value of the bond. Most other issuers pay out the Consumer Price Index accruals as part of a semi-annual coupon. Inflation-indexed securities issued by the U.S. Treasury (Treasury Inflation Protected Securities or TIPS) have maturities of approximately five, ten or thirty years, although it is possible that securities with other maturities will be issued in the future. The U.S. Treasury securities pay interest on a semi-annual basis equal to a fixed percentage of the inflation-adjusted principal amount. If the periodic adjustment rate measuring inflation falls, the principal value of inflation-indexed bonds will be adjusted downward, and consequently the interest payable on these securities (calculated with respect to a smaller principal amount) will be reduced. The value of inflation-indexed bonds is expected to change in response to changes in real interest rates. Real interest rates in turn are tied to the relationship between nominal interest rates and the rate of inflation. Therefore, if the rate of inflation rises at a faster rate than nominal interest rates, real interest rates might decline, leading to an increase in value of inflation-indexed bonds. In contrast, if nominal interest rates increase at a faster rate than inflation, real interest rates might rise, leading to a decrease in value of inflation-indexed bonds. While these securities are expected to be protected from long-term inflationary trends, short-term increases in inflation may lead to a decline in value. If interest rates rise due to reasons other than inflation (for example, due to changes in currency exchange rates), investors in these securities may not be protected to the extent that the increase is not reflected in the bond's inflation measure.

18



The periodic adjustment of U.S. inflation-indexed bonds is tied to the Consumer Price Index for Urban Consumers (CPI-U), which is calculated monthly by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. The CPI-U is a measurement of changes in the cost of living, made up of components such as housing, food, transportation and energy. Inflation-indexed bonds issued by a foreign government are generally adjusted to reflect a comparable inflation index calculated by that government. Any increase in the principal amount of an inflation-indexed bond will be considered taxable ordinary income, even though investors do not receive their principal until maturity.
Real Estate Investment Trusts (“REITs”)
REITs are pooled investment vehicles that invest in income producing real estate, real estate related loans, or other types of real estate interests. U.S. REITs are allowed to eliminate corporate level federal tax so long as they meet certain requirements of the Internal Revenue Code. Foreign REITs ("REIT-like") entities may have similar tax treatment in their respective countries. Equity real estate investment trusts own real estate properties, while mortgage real estate investment trusts make construction, development, and long-term mortgage loans. Their value may be affected by changes in the underlying property of the trusts, the creditworthiness of the issuer, property taxes, interest rates, and tax and regulatory requirements, such as those relating to the environment. Both types of trusts are not diversified, are dependent upon management skill, are subject to heavy cash flow dependency, defaults by borrowers, self-liquidation, and the possibility of failing to qualify for tax-free status of income under the Internal Revenue Code and failing to maintain exemption from the 1940 Act. In addition, foreign REIT-like entities will be subject to foreign securities risks. (See "Foreign Securities")
Zero-Coupon Securities
The Funds may invest in zero-coupon securities. Zero-coupon securities have no stated interest rate and pay only the principal portion at a stated date in the future. They usually trade at a substantial discount from their face (par) value. Zero-coupon securities are subject to greater market value fluctuations in response to changing interest rates than debt obligations of comparable maturities that make distributions of interest in cash.
Master Limited Partnerships (“MLPs”)
An MLP is an entity that is generally taxed as a partnership for federal income tax purposes and that derives each year at least 90% of its gross income from “Qualifying Income”. Qualifying Income includes interest, dividends, real estate rents, gain from the sale or disposition of real property, income and gain from commodities or commodity futures, and income and gain from mineral or natural resources activities that generate Qualifying Income. MLP interests (known as units) are traded on securities exchanges or over-the-counter. An MLP's organization as a partnership and compliance with the Qualifying Income rules generally eliminates federal tax at the entity level.
An MLP has one or more general partners (who may be individuals, corporations, or other partnerships) which manage the partnership, and limited partners, which provide capital to the partnership but have no role in its management. Typically, the general partner is owned by company management or another publicly traded sponsoring corporation. When an investor buys units in an MLP, the investor becomes a limited partner.
The business of MLPs is affected by supply and demand for energy commodities because most MLPs derive revenue and income based upon the volume of the underlying commodity produced, transported, processed, distributed, and/or marketed. Pipeline MLPs have indirect commodity exposure to oil and gas price volatility because, although they do not own the underlying energy commodity, the general level of commodity prices may affect the volume of the commodity the MLP delivers to its customers and the cost of providing services such as distributing natural gas liquids. The MLP industry in general could be hurt by market perception that MLP's performance and valuation are directly tied to commodity prices.
Pipeline MLPs are common carrier transporters of natural gas, natural gas liquids (primarily propane, ethane, butane and natural gasoline), crude oil or refined petroleum products (gasoline, diesel fuel and jet fuel). Pipeline MLPs also may operate ancillary businesses such as storage and marketing of such products. Pipeline MLPs derive revenue from capacity and transportation fees. Historically, pipeline output has been less exposed to cyclical economic forces due to its low cost structure and government-regulated nature. In addition, most pipeline MLPs have limited direct commodity price exposure because they do not own the product being shipped.
Processing MLPs are gatherers and processors of natural gas as well as providers of transportation, fractionation and storage of natural gas liquids (“NGLs”). Processing MLPs derive revenue from providing services to natural gas producers, which require treatment or processing before their natural gas commodity can be marketed to utilities and other end user markets. Revenue for the processor is fee based, although it is not uncommon to have some participation in the prices of the natural gas and NGL commodities for a portion of revenue.

19



Propane MLPs are distributors of propane to homeowners for space and water heating. Propane MLPs derive revenue from the resale of the commodity on a margin over wholesale cost. The ability to maintain margin is a key to profitability. Propane serves approximately 3% of the household energy needs in the United States, largely for homes beyond the geographic reach of natural gas distribution pipelines. Approximately 70% of annual cash flow is earned during the winter heating season (October through March). Accordingly, volumes are weather dependent, but have utility type functions similar to electricity and natural gas.
MLPs operating interstate pipelines and storage facilities are subject to substantial regulation by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (“FERC”), which regulates interstate transportation rates, services and other matters regarding natural gas pipelines including: the establishment of rates for service; regulation of pipeline storage and liquified natural gas facility construction; issuing certificates of need for companies intending to provide energy services or constructing and operating interstate pipeline and storage facilities; and certain other matters. FERC also regulates the interstate transportation of crude oil, including: regulation of rates and practices of oil pipeline companies; establishing equal service conditions to provide shippers with equal access to pipeline transportation; and establishment of reasonable rates for transporting petroleum and petroleum products by pipeline.
MLPs are subject to various federal, state and local environmental laws and health and safety laws as well as laws and regulations specific to their particular activities. These laws and regulations address: health and safety standards for the operation of facilities, transportation systems and the handling of materials; air and water pollution requirements and standards; solid waste disposal requirements; land reclamation requirements; and requirements relating to the handling and disposition of hazardous materials. MLPs are subject to the costs of compliance with such laws applicable to them, and changes in such laws and regulations may adversely affect their results of operations.
MLPs may be subject to liability relating to the release of substances into the environment, including liability under federal “Superfund” and similar state laws for investigation and remediation of releases and threatened releases of hazardous materials, as well as liability for injury and property damage for accidental events, such as explosions or discharges of materials causing personal injury and damage to property. Such potential liabilities could have a material adverse effect upon the financial condition and results of operations of MLPs.
MLPs are subject to numerous business related risks, including: deterioration of business fundamentals reducing profitability due to development of alternative energy sources, consumer sentiment with respect to global warming, changing demographics in the markets served, unexpectedly prolonged and precipitous changes in commodity prices and increased competition that reduces the MLP’s market share; the lack of growth of markets requiring growth through acquisitions; disruptions in transportation systems; the dependence of certain MLPs upon the energy exploration and development activities of unrelated third parties; availability of capital for expansion and construction of needed facilities; a significant decrease in natural gas production due to depressed commodity prices or otherwise; the inability of MLPs to successfully integrate recent or future acquisitions; and the general level of the economy.
Securities Lending
All Funds may lend their portfolio securities. None of the Funds will lend its portfolio securities if as a result the aggregate of such loans made by the Fund would exceed the limits established by the 1940 Act (in general, a fund may not lend more than 33 1/3% of total fund assets). Portfolio securities may be lent to unaffiliated broker-dealers and other unaffiliated qualified financial institutions provided that such loans are callable at any time on not more than five business days' notice and that cash or other liquid assets equal to at least 100% of the market value of the securities loaned, determined daily, is deposited by the borrower with the Fund and is maintained each business day. While such securities are on loan, the borrower pays the Fund any income accruing thereon. The Fund may invest any cash collateral, thereby earning additional income, and may receive an agreed-upon fee from the borrower. Borrowed securities must be returned when the loan terminates. Any gain or loss in the market value of the borrowed securities that occurs during the term of the loan belongs to the Fund and its shareholders. A Fund pays reasonable administrative, custodial, and other fees in connection with such loans and may pay a negotiated portion of the interest earned on the cash or government securities pledged as collateral to the borrower or placing broker. A Fund does not normally retain voting rights attendant to securities it has lent, but it may call a loan of securities in anticipation of an important vote.

20



Short Sales
A short sale involves the sale by the fund of a security that it does not own with the expectation of covering settlement by purchasing the same security at a later date at a lower price. The fund may also enter into a short position by using a derivative instrument, such as a future, forward, or swap agreement. If the price of the security or derivative increases prior to the time the fund is required to replace the borrowed security, then the fund will incur a loss equal to the increase in price from the time that the short sale was entered into plus any premiums and interest paid to the broker. Therefore, short sales involve the risk that losses may be exaggerated, potentially losing more money than the value of the investment.
A “short sale against the box” is a technique that involves selling either a security owned by the fund, or a security equivalent in kind and amount to the security sold short that the fund has the right to obtain, at no additional cost, for delivery at a specified date in the future. A fund may enter into a short sale against the box to hedge against anticipated declines in the market price of portfolio securities. If the value of the securities sold short against the box increases prior to the scheduled delivery date, a fund will lose money.
Foreign Currency Transactions
Funds may engage in foreign currency transactions for both hedging and investment purposes. In addition, certain of a fund’s investments will be denominated in foreign currencies or traded in securities markets in which settlements are made in foreign currencies. Any income on such investments is generally paid to a fund in foreign currencies. The value of these foreign currencies relative to the U.S. dollar varies continually, causing changes in the dollar value of a fund’s portfolio investments (even if the local market price of the investments is unchanged) and changes in the dollar value of a fund’s income available for distribution to its shareholders. The effect of changes in the dollar value of a foreign currency on the dollar value of a fund’s assets and on the net investment income available for distribution may be favorable or unfavorable. The funds may also use foreign currency transactions to increase exposure to a foreign currency or to shift exposure to foreign currency fluctuations from one country to another.
A fund may incur costs in connection with conversions between various currencies. In addition, a fund may be required to liquidate portfolio assets, or may incur increased currency conversion costs, to compensate for a decline in the dollar value of a foreign currency occurring between the time when a fund declares and pays a dividend, or between the time when a fund accrues and pays an operating expense in U.S. dollars.
To protect against a change in the foreign currency exchange rate between the date on which a fund contracts to purchase or sell a security and the settlement date for the purchase or sale, to gain exposure to one or more foreign currencies or to “lock in” the equivalent of a dividend or interest payment in another currency, a fund might purchase or sell a foreign currency on a spot (i.e., cash) basis at the prevailing spot rate.
Options on Foreign Currencies. In addition, a Fund may buy and write options on foreign currencies in a manner similar to that in which futures or forward contracts on foreign currencies will be utilized. A Fund may use options on foreign currencies to hedge against adverse changes in foreign currency conversion rates. For example, a decline in the U.S. dollar value of a foreign currency in which portfolio securities are denominated will reduce the U.S. dollar value of such securities, even if their value in the foreign currency remains constant. In order to protect against such diminutions in the value of the portfolio securities, a Fund may buy put options on the foreign currency. If the value of the currency declines, a Fund will have the right to sell such currency for a fixed amount in U.S. dollars, thereby offsetting, in whole or in part, the adverse effect on its portfolio. Conversely, when a rise in the U.S. dollar value of a currency in which securities to be acquired are denominated is projected, thereby increasing the cost of such securities, a Fund may buy call options on the foreign currency. The purchase of such options could offset, at least partially, the effects of the adverse movements in exchange rates. As in the case of other types of options, however, the benefit to a Fund from purchases of foreign currency options will be reduced by the amount of the premium and related transaction costs. In addition, if currency exchange rates do not move in the direction or to the extent desired, a Fund could sustain losses or lesser gains on transactions in foreign currency options that would require a Fund to forgo a portion or all of the benefits of advantageous changes in those rates.
A Fund also may write options on foreign currencies. For example, to hedge against a potential decline in the U.S. dollar due to adverse fluctuations in exchange rates, a Fund could, instead of purchasing a put option, write a call option on the relevant currency. If the decline expected by a Fund occurs, the option will most likely not be exercised and the diminution in value of portfolio securities will be offset at least in part by the amount of the premium received. Similarly, instead of purchasing a call option to hedge against a potential increase in the U.S. dollar cost of securities to be acquired, a Fund could write a put option on the relevant currency which, if rates move in the manner projected by a Fund, will expire unexercised and allow a Fund to hedge the increased cost up to the amount of the premium. If exchange rates do not move in the expected direction, the option may be exercised and a Fund would be required

21



to buy or sell the underlying currency at a loss, which may not be fully offset by the amount of the premium. Through the writing of options on foreign currencies, a Fund also may lose all or a portion of the benefits that might otherwise have been obtained from favorable movements in exchange rates.
Transactions in foreign currencies, foreign currency denominated debt and certain foreign currency options, futures contracts and forward contracts (and similar instruments) may give rise to ordinary income or loss to the extent such income or loss results from fluctuations in the value of the foreign currency concerned. Transactions in non-U.S. currencies are also subject to many of the risks of investing in non-U.S. securities. Because a Fund may invest in foreign securities and foreign currencies, changes in foreign economies and political climates are more likely to affect a Fund than a mutual fund that invests exclusively in U.S. companies. There also may be less government supervision of foreign markets, resulting in non-uniform accounting practices and less publicly available information. If a Fund’s portfolio is over-weighted in a certain geographic region, any negative development affecting that region will have a greater impact on a Fund than a fund that is not over-weighted in that region.
Futures on Currency. A foreign currency future provides for the future sale by one party and purchase by another party of a specified quantity of foreign currency at a specified price and time. A public market exists in futures contracts covering a number of foreign currencies. Currency futures contracts are exchange-traded and change in value to reflect movements of a currency or a basket of currencies. Settlement must be made in a designated currency.
Forward Foreign Currency Exchange Contracts. The Funds may, but are not obligated to, enter into forward foreign currency exchange contracts. Currency transactions include forward currency contracts and exchange listed or over-the-counter options on currencies. A forward currency contract involves a privately negotiated obligation to purchase or sell a specific currency at a specified future date at a price set at the time of the contract.
The typical use of a forward contract is to "lock in" the price of a security in U.S. dollars or some other foreign currency which a Fund is holding in its portfolio. By entering into a forward contract for the purchase or sale, for a fixed amount of dollars or other currency, of the amount of foreign currency involved in the underlying security transactions, a Fund may be able to protect itself against a possible loss resulting from an adverse change in the relationship between the U.S. dollar or other currency which is being used for the security purchase and the foreign currency in which the security is denominated in or exposed to during the period between the date on which the security is purchased or sold and the date on which payment is made or received.
The Sub-Advisor also may from time to time utilize forward contracts for other purposes. For example, they may be used to hedge a foreign security held in the portfolio or a security which pays out principal tied to an exchange rate between the U.S. dollar and a foreign currency, against a decline in value of the applicable foreign currency. They also may be used to lock in the current exchange rate of the currency in which those securities anticipated to be purchased are denominated in or exposed to. At times, a Fund may enter into "cross-currency" hedging transactions involving currencies other than those in which securities are held or proposed to be purchased are denominated.
A Fund segregates liquid assets in an amount equal to (1) at least its daily marked-to-market (net) obligation (i.e., its daily net liability, if any) with respect to forward currency contracts that are cash settled and (2) the net notional value with respect to forward currency contracts that are not cash settled. It should be noted that the use of forward foreign currency exchange contracts does not eliminate fluctuations in the underlying prices of the securities. It simply establishes a rate of exchange between the currencies that can be achieved at some future point in time. Additionally, although such contracts tend to minimize the risk of loss due to a decline in the value of the hedged currency, they also tend to limit any potential gain that might result if the value of the currency increases.
Currency hedging involves some of the same risks and considerations as other transactions with similar instruments. Currency transactions can result in losses to a Fund if the currency being hedged fluctuates in value to a degree or in a direction that is not anticipated. Further, the risk exists that the perceived linkage between various currencies may not be present or may not be present during the particular time that a Fund is engaging in currency hedging. Currency transactions are also subject to risks different from those of other portfolio transactions. Because currency control is of great importance to the issuing governments and influences economic planning and policy, purchases and sales of currency and related instruments can be adversely affected by government exchange controls, limitations or restrictions on repatriation of currency, and manipulations or exchange restrictions imposed by governments. These forms of governmental actions can result in losses to a Fund if it is unable to deliver or receive currency or monies in settlement of obligations. They could also cause hedges the Fund has entered into to be rendered useless, resulting in full currency exposure as well as incurring transaction costs. Currency exchange rates may also fluctuate based on factors extrinsic to a country's economy.

22



Buyers and sellers of currency forward contracts are subject to the same risks that apply to the use of forward contracts generally. Further, settlement of a currency forward contract for the purchase of most currencies must occur at a bank based in the issuing nation. The ability to establish and close out positions on trading options on currency futures contracts is subject to the maintenance of a liquid market that may not always be available.
Moreover, a Fund bears the risk of loss of the amount expected to be received under a forward contract in the event of the default or bankruptcy of a forward counterparty.
Repurchase and Reverse Repurchase Agreements, Mortgage Dollar Rolls and Sale-Buybacks
The Funds may invest in repurchase and reverse repurchase agreements. In a repurchase agreement, a Fund purchases a security and simultaneously commits to resell that security to the seller at an agreed upon price on an agreed upon date within a number of days (usually not more than seven) from the date of purchase. The resale price consists of the purchase price plus an amount that is unrelated to the coupon rate or maturity of the purchased security. A repurchase agreement involves the obligation of the seller to pay the agreed upon price, which obligation is in effect secured by the value (at least equal to the amount of the agreed upon resale price and marked-to-market daily) of the underlying security or "collateral." A risk associated with repurchase agreements is the failure of the seller to repurchase the securities as agreed, which may cause a Fund to suffer a loss if the market value of such securities declines before they can be liquidated on the open market. In the event of bankruptcy or insolvency of the seller, a Fund may encounter delays and incur costs in liquidating the underlying security. Repurchase agreements that mature in more than seven days are subject to each Fund's limit on illiquid investments. While it is not possible to eliminate all risks from these transactions, it is the policy of the Fund to limit repurchase agreements to those parties whose creditworthiness has been reviewed and found satisfactory by the Sub-Advisor.
A Fund may use reverse repurchase agreements, mortgage dollar rolls, and economically similar transactions to obtain cash to satisfy unusually heavy redemption requests or for other temporary or emergency purposes without the necessity of selling portfolio securities, or to earn additional income on portfolio securities, such as Treasury bills or notes. In a reverse repurchase agreement, a Fund sells a portfolio security to another party, such as a bank or broker-dealer, in return for cash and agrees to repurchase the instrument at a particular price and time. While a reverse repurchase agreement is outstanding, a Fund will maintain cash or appropriate liquid assets to cover its obligation under the agreement. The Fund will enter into reverse repurchase agreements only with parties that the Sub-Advisor deems creditworthy. Using reverse repurchase agreements to earn additional income involves the risk that the interest earned on the invested proceeds is less than the expense of the reverse repurchase agreement transaction. This technique may also have a leveraging effect on the Fund, although the Fund's intent to segregate assets in the amount of the reverse repurchase obligation minimizes this effect.
A "mortgage dollar roll" is similar to a reverse repurchase agreement in certain respects. In a "dollar roll" transaction a Fund sells a mortgage-related security, such as a security issued by the Government National Mortgage Association, to a dealer and simultaneously agrees to repurchase a similar security (but not the same security) in the future at a pre-determined price. A dollar roll can be viewed, like a reverse repurchase agreement, as a collateralized borrowing in which a Fund pledges a mortgage-related security to a dealer to obtain cash. Unlike in the case of reverse repurchase agreements, the dealer with which a Fund enters into a dollar roll transaction is not obligated to return the same securities as those originally sold by the Fund, but only securities which are "substantially identical." To be considered "substantially identical," the securities returned to a Fund generally must: 1) be collateralized by the same types of underlying mortgages; 2) be issued by the same agency and be part of the same program; 3) have a similar original stated maturity; 4) have identical net coupon rates; 5) have similar market yields (and therefore price); and 6) satisfy "good delivery" requirements, meaning that the aggregate principal amounts of the securities delivered and received back must be within 0.01% of the initial amount delivered.
A Fund's obligations under a dollar roll agreement must be covered by segregated liquid assets equal in value to the securities subject to repurchase by the Fund.
A Fund also may effect simultaneous purchase and sale transactions that are known as "sale-buybacks." A sale-buyback is similar to a reverse repurchase agreement, except that in a sale-buyback, the counterparty who purchases the security is entitled to receive any principal or interest payments made on the underlying security pending settlement of the Fund's repurchase of the underlying security. A Fund's obligations under a sale-buyback typically would be offset by liquid assets equal in value to the amount of the Fund's forward commitment to repurchase the subject security.

23



Structured Notes
Funds may invest in a broad category of instruments known as “structured notes.” These instruments are debt obligations issued by industrial corporations, financial institutions or governmental or international agencies. Traditional debt obligations typically obligate the issuer to repay the principal plus a specified rate of interest. Structured notes, by contrast, obligate the issuer to pay amounts of principal or interest that are determined by reference to changes in some external factor or factors, or the principal and interest rate may vary from the stated rate because of changes in these factors. For example, the issuer’s obligations could be determined by reference to changes in the value of a foreign currency, an index of securities (such as the S&P 500 Index) or an interest rate (such as the U.S. Treasury bill rate). In some cases, the issuer’s obligations are determined by reference to changes over time in the difference (or “spread”) between two or more external factors (such as the U.S. prime lending rate and the total return of the stock market in a particular country, as measured by a stock index). In some cases, the issuer’s obligations may fluctuate inversely with changes in an external factor or factors (for example, if the U.S. prime lending rate goes up, the issuer’s interest payment obligations are reduced). In some cases, the issuer’s obligations may be determined by some multiple of the change in an external factor or factors (for example, three times the change in the U.S. Treasury bill rate). In some cases, the issuer’s obligations remain fixed (as with a traditional debt instrument) so long as an external factor or factors do not change by more than the specified amount (for example, if the value of a stock index does not exceed some specified maximum), but if the external factor or factors change by more than the specified amount, the issuer’s obligations may be sharply reduced.
Structured notes can serve many different purposes in the management of a fund. For example, they can be used to increase a fund’s exposure to changes in the value of assets that a fund would not ordinarily purchase directly (such as stocks traded in a market that is not open to U.S. investors). They also can be used to hedge the risks associated with other investments a fund holds. For example, if a structured note has an interest rate that fluctuates inversely with general changes in a country’s stock market index, the value of the structured note would generally move in the opposite direction to the value of holdings of stocks in that market, thus moderating the effect of stock market movements on the value of a fund’s portfolio as a whole. The cash flow on the underlying instruments may be apportioned among the newly issued structured notes to create securities with different investment characteristics such as varying maturities, payment priorities or interest rate provisions; the extent of the payments made with respect to structured notes is dependent on the extent of the cash flow on the underlying instruments. 
Structured notes involve special risks. As with any debt obligation, structured notes involve the risk that the issuer will become insolvent or otherwise default on its payment obligations. This risk is in addition to the risk that the issuer’s obligations (and thus the value of a fund’s investment) will be reduced because of adverse changes in the external factor or factors to which the obligations are linked. The value of structured notes will in many cases be more volatile (that is, will change more rapidly or severely) than the value of traditional debt instruments. Volatility will be especially high if the issuer’s obligations are determined by reference to some multiple of the change in the external factor or factors. Structured notes also may be more difficult to accurately price than less complex securities and instruments or more traditional debt securities. Many structured notes have limited or no liquidity, so that a fund would be unable to dispose of the investment prior to maturity. As with all investments, successful use of structured notes depends in significant part on the accuracy of the Sub-Advisor’s analysis of the issuer’s creditworthiness and financial prospects, and of the Sub-Advisor’s forecast as to changes in relevant economic and financial market conditions and factors. In instances where the issuer of a structured note is a foreign entity, the usual risks associated with investments in foreign securities apply. Structured notes may be considered derivative securities.
Debt-Linked and Equity-Linked Securities
The Funds may invest in debt-linked and equity-linked securities. The investment results of such instruments are intended to correspond generally to the performance of one or more specified equity or debt securities, or of a specific index or analogous “basket” of equity or debt securities. Therefore, investing in these instruments involves risks similar to the risks of investing in the underlying stocks or bonds directly. In addition, a Fund bears the risk that the issuer of an equity- or debt-linked security may default on its obligations under the instrument. Equity- and debt-linked securities are often used for many of the same purposes as, and share many of the same risks with, other derivative instruments as well as structured notes. Like many derivatives and structured notes, equity- and debt-linked securities may be considered illiquid, potentially limiting a Fund’s ability to dispose of them.
Commodity Index-Linked Notes
A commodity index-linked note is a type of structured note that is a derivative instrument. The prices of commodity-linked derivative instruments such as commodity index-linked notes may move in different directions than investments in traditional equity and debt securities when the value of those traditional securities is declining due to adverse economic conditions. As an example, during periods of rising inflation, debt securities have historically tended to decline in value. Conversely, during those same periods of rising inflation, the prices of certain commodities, such as

24



oil and metals, have historically tended to increase. There can be no assurance, however, that derivative instruments will perform in that manner in the future, and, at certain times in the past, the price movements of commodity-linked investments have been parallel to debt and equity securities.
During the period 1970 through 2001, the correlation between the quarterly investment returns of commodities and the quarterly investment returns of traditional financial assets such as stocks and bonds generally was negative. This inverse relationship occurred generally because commodities have historically tended to increase and decrease in value during different parts of the business cycle than have financial assets. Nevertheless, at various times, commodities prices may move in tandem with the prices of financial assets and thus may not provide overall portfolio diversification benefits.
The reverse may be true during "bull markets," when the value of traditional securities such as stocks and bonds is increasing. Under such favorable economic conditions, a fund's investments in commodity index-linked notes may be expected not to perform as well as an investment in traditional securities. Over the long term, the returns on a fund's investments in commodity index-linked notes are expected to exhibit low or negative correlation with stocks and bonds.
Hybrid Instruments
A hybrid instrument is a type of derivative that combines a traditional stock or bond with an option or forward contract. Generally, the principal amount, amount payable upon maturity or redemption, or interest rate of a hybrid is tied (positively or negatively) to the price of some currency or securities index or another interest rate or some other economic factor (each a “benchmark”). The interest rate or (unlike most fixed income securities) the principal amount payable at maturity of a hybrid security may be increased or decreased, depending on changes in the value of the benchmark. An example of a hybrid could be a bond issued by an oil company that pays a small base level of interest with additional interest that accrues in correlation to the extent to which oil prices exceed a certain predetermined level. Such a hybrid instrument would be economically similar to a combination of a bond and a call option on oil.
Hybrids can be used as an efficient means of pursuing a variety of investment goals, including currency hedging, duration management and increased total return. Hybrids may not bear interest or pay dividends. The value of a hybrid or its interest rate may be a multiple of a benchmark and, as a result, may be leveraged and move (up or down) more steeply and rapidly than the benchmark. These benchmarks may be sensitive to economic and political events, such as currency devaluations, which cannot be readily foreseen by the purchaser of a hybrid. Under certain conditions, the redemption value of a hybrid could be zero. Thus, an investment in a hybrid may entail significant market risks that are not associated with a similar investment in a traditional, U.S. dollar-denominated bond that has a fixed principal amount and pays a fixed rate or floating rate of interest. The purchase of hybrids also exposes the Fund to the credit risk of the issuer of the hybrids. These risks may cause significant fluctuations in the NAV of a Fund.
Certain hybrid instruments may provide exposure to the commodities markets. These are derivative securities with one or more commodity-linked components that have payment features similar to commodity futures contracts, commodity options or similar instruments. Commodity-linked hybrid instruments may be either equity or debt securities, leveraged or unleveraged, and are considered hybrid instruments because they have both security and commodity-like characteristics. A portion of the value of these instruments may be derived from the value of a commodity, futures contract, index or other economic variable and therefore are subject to many of the same risks as investments in those underlying securities, instruments or commodities.
Certain issuers of structured products such as hybrid instruments may be deemed to be investment companies as defined in the 1940 Act. As a result, a Fund’s investments in these products may be subject to limits applicable to investments in investment companies and may be subject to restrictions contained in the 1940 Act.
Swap Agreements and Options on Swap Agreements
Each Fund (except Money Market Fund) may engage in swap transactions, including, but not limited to, swap agreements on interest rates, security or commodity indexes, specific securities and commodities, and credit and event-linked swaps, to the extent permitted by its investment restrictions. To the extent a Fund may invest in foreign currency-denominated securities, it may also invest in currency swap agreements and currency exchange rate swap agreements. A Fund may also enter into options on swap agreements ("swap options").

25



A Fund may enter into swap transactions for any legal purpose consistent with its investment objectives and policies, such as for the purpose of attempting to obtain or preserve a particular return or spread at a lower cost than obtaining a return or spread through purchases and/or sales of instruments in other markets, to protect against currency fluctuations, as a duration management technique, to protect against any increase in the price of securities a Fund anticipates purchasing at a later date; to gain exposure to one or more securities, currencies, or interest rates; to take advantage of perceived mispricing in the securities markets; or to gain exposure to certain markets in the most economical way possible.
Swap agreements are two party contracts entered into primarily by institutional investors for periods ranging from a few weeks to more than one year. In a standard "swap" transaction, two parties agree to exchange the returns (or differentials in rates of return) earned or realized on particular predetermined investments or instruments, which may be adjusted for an interest factor. The gross returns to be exchanged or "swapped" between the parties are generally calculated with respect to a "notional amount," i.e., the return on or increase in value of a particular dollar amount invested at a particular interest rate, in a particular foreign currency, or in a "basket" of securities or commodities representing a particular index.
Interest rate swaps involve the exchange by a Fund with another party of their respective commitments to pay or receive interest (for example, an exchange of floating rate payments for fixed rate payments with respect to a notional amount of principal). Forms of swap agreements also include interest rate caps, under which, in return for a premium, one party agrees to make payments to the other to the extent that interest rates exceed a specified rate, or "cap"; interest rate floors, under which, in return for a premium, one party agrees to make payments to the other to the extent that interest rates fall below a specified rate, or "floor"; and interest rate collars, under which a party sells a cap and purchases a floor or vice versa in an attempt to protect itself against interest rate movements exceeding given minimum or maximum levels. A currency swap is an agreement to exchange cash flows on a notional amount based on changes in the relative values of the specified currencies. An index swap is an agreement to make or receive payments based on the different returns that would be achieved if a notional amount were invested in a specified basket of securities (such as the S&P 500 Index) or in some other investment (such as U.S. Treasury Securities). A total return swap is an agreement to make payments of the total return from a specified asset or instrument (or a basket of such instruments) during the specified period, in return for payments equal to a fixed or floating rate of interest or the total return from another specified asset or instrument. Alternatively, a total return swap can be structured so that one party will make payments to the other party if the value of the relevant asset or instrument increases, but receive payments from the other party if the value of that asset or instrument decreases. Consistent with a Fund's investment objectives and general investment policies, certain of the Funds may invest in commodity swap agreements. For example, an investment in a commodity swap agreement may involve the exchange of floating-rate interest payments for the total return on a commodity index. In a total return commodity swap, a Fund will receive the price appreciation of a commodity index, a portion of the index, or a single commodity in exchange for paying an agreed-upon fee. If the commodity swap is for one period, a Fund may pay a fixed fee, established at the outset of the swap. However, if the term of the commodity swap is for more than one period, with interim swap payments, a Fund may pay an adjustable or floating fee. With a "floating" rate, the fee may be pegged to a base rate, such as the London Interbank Offered Rate, and is adjusted each period. Therefore, if interest rates increase over the term of the swap contract, a Fund may be required to pay a higher fee at each swap reset date.
A Fund may enter into credit default swap agreements. The "buyer" in a credit default contract is obligated to pay the "seller" a periodic stream of payments over the term of the contract provided that no event of default on an underlying reference obligation has occurred. If an event of default occurs, the seller must pay the buyer the full notional value, or "par value," of the reference obligation in exchange for the reference obligation. A Fund may be either the buyer or seller in a credit default swap transaction. If a Fund is a buyer and no event of default occurs, the Fund will lose its investment and recover nothing. However, if an event of default occurs, the Fund (if the buyer) will receive the full notional value of the reference obligation that may have little or no value. As a seller, a Fund receives a fixed rate of income throughout the term of the contract, which typically is between six months and three years, provided that there is no default event. If an event of default occurs, the seller must pay the buyer the full notional value of the reference obligation. In addition, collateral posting requirements are individually negotiated and there is no regulatory requirement that a counterparty post collateral to secure its obligations or a specified amount of cash, depending upon the terms of the swap, under a credit default swap. Furthermore, there is no requirement that a party be informed in advance when a credit default swap agreement is sold. Accordingly, a Fund may have difficulty identifying the party responsible for payment of its claims. The notional value of credit default swaps with respect to a particular investment is often larger than the total par value of such investment outstanding and, in event of a default, there may be difficulties in making the required deliveries of the reference investments, possibly delaying payments.

26



The Funds may invest in derivative instruments that provide exposure to one or more credit default swaps. For example, a Fund may invest in a derivative instrument known as the Loan-Only Credit Default Swap Index (“LCDX”), a tradable index with 100 equally-weighted underlying single-name loan-only credit default swaps (“LCDS”). Each underlying LCDS references an issuer whose loans trade in the secondary leveraged loan market. A Fund can either buy the index (take on credit exposure) or sell the index (pass credit exposure to a counterparty). While investing in these types of derivatives will increase the universe of debt securities to which a Fund is exposed, such investments
entail additional risks that are not typically associated with investments in other debt securities. Credit default swaps and other derivative instruments related to loans are subject to the risks associated with loans generally, as well as the risks of derivative transactions.
The Funds may invest in publicly or privately issued interests in investment pools whose underlying assets are credit default, credit-linked, interest rate, currency exchange, equity-linked or other types of swap contracts and related underlying securities or securities loan agreements. The pools’ investment results may be designed to correspond generally to the performance of a specified securities index or “basket” of securities, or sometimes a single security. These types of pools are often used to gain exposure to multiple securities with a smaller investment than would be required to invest directly in the individual securities. They also may be used to gain exposure to foreign securities markets without investing in the foreign securities themselves and/or the relevant foreign market. To the extent that a Fund invests in pools of swaps and related underlying securities or securities loan agreements whose return corresponds to the performance of a foreign securities index or one or more foreign securities, investing in such pools will involve risks similar to the risks of investing in foreign securities. In addition to the risks associated with investing in swaps generally, a Fund bears the risks and costs generally associated with investing in pooled investment vehicles, such as paying the fees and expenses of the pool and the risk that the pool or the operator of the pool may default on its obligations to the holder of interests in the pool, such as a Fund. Interests in privately offered investment pools of swaps may be considered illiquid.
The Funds may enter into contracts for differences. “Contracts for differences” are swap arrangements in which a Fund may agree with a counterparty that its return (or loss) will be based on the relative performance of two different groups or “baskets” of securities. For example, as to one of the baskets, a Fund’s return is based on theoretical long futures positions in the securities comprising that basket, and as to the other basket, a Fund’s return is based on theoretical short futures positions in the securities comprising that other basket. The notional sizes of the baskets will not necessarily be the same, which can give rise to investment leverage. A Fund may also use actual long and short futures positions to achieve the market exposure(s) as contracts for differences. A Fund may enter into swaps and contracts for differences for investment return, hedging, risk management and for investment leverage.
A swap option (also known as “swaptions”) is a contract that gives a counterparty the right (but not the obligation) in return for payment of a premium, to enter into a new swap agreement or to shorten, extend, cancel, or otherwise modify an existing swap agreement, at some designated future time on specified terms. The buyer and seller of the swap option agree on the strike price, length of the option period, the term of the swap, notional amount, amortization and frequency of settlement. A Fund may engage in swap options for hedging purposes or in an attempt to manage and mitigate credit and interest rate risk. Each Fund (except Money Market Fund) may write (sell) and purchase put and call swap options. The use of swap options involves risks, including, among others, imperfect correlation between movements of the price of the swap options and the price of the securities, indices or other assets serving as reference instruments for the swap option, reducing the effectiveness of the instrument for hedging or investment purposes.
The swap agreements the Funds enter into settle in cash and, therefore, provide for calculation of the obligations of the parties to the agreement on a “net basis.” Consequently, a Fund's current obligations (or rights) under such a swap agreement will generally be equal only to the net amount to be paid or received under the agreement based on the relative values of the positions held by each party to the agreement (the “net amount”). A Fund's current obligations under such a swap agreement will be accrued daily (offset against any amounts owed to the Fund) and any accrued but unpaid net amounts owed to a swap counterparty will be covered by the segregation of assets determined to be liquid by the Manager or Sub-Advisor in accordance with procedures established by the Board of Directors, to avoid any potential leveraging of the Fund's portfolio. Obligations under swap agreements for which the Fund segregates assets will not be construed to be “senior securities” for purposes of the Fund's investment restriction concerning senior securities.
Swaps can be highly volatile and may have a considerable impact on a Fund’s performance, as the potential gain or loss on any swap transaction is not subject to any fixed limit. Whether a Fund's use of swap agreements or swap options will be successful in furthering its investment objective of total return will depend on the ability of the Fund's Manager or Sub-Advisor to predict correctly whether certain types of investments are likely to produce greater returns

27



than other investments. Because they are two party contracts and because they may have terms of greater than seven days, swap agreements may be considered to be illiquid. Moreover, a Fund bears the risk of loss of the amount expected to be received under a swap agreement in the event of the default or bankruptcy of a swap agreement counterparty. The Funds will enter into swap agreements only with counterparties that present minimal credit risks, as determined by the Fund's Manager or Sub-Advisor. Certain restrictions imposed on the Funds by the Internal Revenue Code may limit the Funds' ability to use swap agreements.
Depending on the terms of the particular option agreement, a Fund will generally incur a greater degree of risk when it writes a swap option than it will incur when it purchases a swap option. When a Fund purchases a swap option, it risks losing only the amount of the premium it has paid should it decide to let the option expire unexercised. However, when a Fund writes a swap option, upon exercise of the option the Fund will become obligated according to the terms of the underlying agreement.
Liquidity. Some swap markets have grown substantially in recent years with a large number of banks and investment banking firms acting both as principals and as agents utilizing standardized swap documentation. As a result, these swap markets have become relatively liquid.
The liquidity of swap agreements will be determined by the Manager or Sub-Advisor based on various factors, including:
the frequency of trades and quotations,
the number of dealers and prospective purchasers in the marketplace,
dealer undertakings to make a market,
the nature of the security (including any demand or tender features), and
the nature of the marketplace for trades (including the ability to assign or offset a portfolio's rights and obligations relating to the investment).
Such determination will govern whether a swap will be deemed to be within each Fund's restriction on investments in illiquid securities.
For purposes of applying the funds’ investment policies and restrictions (as stated in the Prospectuses and this Statement of Additional Information) swap agreements are generally valued by the funds at market value. In the case of a credit default swap, however, in applying certain of the funds’ investment policies and restrictions the fund will value the credit default swap at its notional value or its full exposure value (i.e., the sum of the notional amount for the contract plus the market value), but may value the credit default swap at market value for purposes of applying certain of the funds’ other investment policies and restrictions. For example, a fund may value credit default swaps at full exposure value for purposes of the fund’s credit quality guidelines because such value reflects the fund’s actual economic exposure during the term of the credit default swap agreement. In this context, both the notional amount and the market value may be positive or negative depending on whether the fund is selling or buying protection through the credit default swap. The manner in which certain securities or other instruments are valued by the funds for purposes of applying investment policies and restrictions may differ from the manner in which those investments are valued by other types of investors.
When-Issued, Delayed Delivery, and Forward Commitment Transactions
Each of the Funds may purchase or sell securities on a when-issued, delayed delivery, or forward commitment basis. When such purchases are outstanding, the Fund will segregate until the settlement date assets determined to be liquid by the Sub-Advisor in accordance with procedures established by the Board of Directors, in an amount sufficient to meet the purchase price. Typically, no income accrues on securities a Fund has committed to purchase prior to the time delivery of the securities is made, although a Fund may earn income on securities it has segregated.
When purchasing a security on a when-issued, delayed delivery, or forward commitment basis, the Fund assumes the rights and risks of ownership of the security, including the risk of price and yield fluctuations, and takes such fluctuations into account when determining its net asset value. Because the Fund is not required to pay for the security until the delivery date, these risks are in addition to the risks associated with the Fund's other investments. If the Fund remains substantially fully invested at a time when when-issued, delayed delivery, or forward commitment purchases are outstanding, the purchases may result in a form of leverage.

28



When the Fund has sold a security on a when-issued, delayed delivery, or forward commitment basis, the Fund does not participate in future gains or losses with respect to the security. If the other party to a transaction fails to deliver or pay for the securities, the Fund could miss a favorable price or yield opportunity or could suffer a loss. A Fund may dispose of or renegotiate a transaction after it is entered into, and may sell when-issued, delayed delivery, or forward commitment securities before they are delivered, which may result in a capital gain or loss. There is no percentage limitation on the extent to which the Funds may purchase or sell securities on a when-issued, delayed delivery, or forward commitment basis.
Money Market Instruments/Temporary Defensive Position
The Money Market Fund invests all of its available assets in money market instruments maturing in 397 days or less. In addition, all of the Funds may make money market investments (cash equivalents), without limit, pending other investment or settlement, for liquidity, or in adverse market conditions. Following are descriptions of the types of money market instruments that the Funds may purchase:
U.S. Government Securities - Securities issued or guaranteed by the U.S. government, including treasury bills, notes, and bonds.
U.S. Government Agency Securities - Obligations issued or guaranteed by agencies or instrumentalities of the U.S. government.
U.S. agency obligations include, but are not limited to, the Bank for Cooperatives, Federal Home Loan Banks, and Federal Intermediate Credit Banks.
U.S. instrumentality obligations include, but are not limited to, the Export-Import Bank, Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation, and Federal National Mortgage Association.
Some obligations issued or guaranteed by U.S. government agencies and instrumentalities are supported by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Treasury. Others, such as those issued by the Federal National Mortgage Association, are supported by discretionary authority of the U.S. government to purchase certain obligations of the agency or instrumentality. Still others, such as those issued by the Student Loan Marketing Association, are supported only by the credit of the agency or instrumentality.
Bank Obligations - Certificates of deposit, time deposits and bankers' acceptances of U.S. commercial banks having total assets of at least one billion dollars and overseas branches of U.S. commercial banks and foreign banks, which in the opinion of the Sub-Advisor, are of comparable quality. The Fund may acquire obligations of U.S. banks that are not members of the Federal Reserve System or of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation.
Certificates of deposit are negotiable certificates issued against funds deposited in a commercial bank for a definite period of time and earning a specified return. Bankers’ acceptances are negotiable drafts or bills of exchange, normally drawn by an importer or exporter to pay for specific merchandise, which are “accepted” by a bank, meaning, in effect, that the bank unconditionally agrees to pay the face value of the instrument on maturity. Fixed time deposits are bank obligations payable at a stated maturity date and bearing interest at a fixed rate. Fixed time deposits may be withdrawn on demand by the investor, but may be subject to early withdrawal penalties which vary depending upon market conditions and the remaining maturity of the obligation. There are no contractual restrictions on the right to transfer a beneficial interest in a fixed time deposit to a third party, although there is no market for such deposits.
Obligations of foreign banks and obligations of overseas branches of U.S. banks are subject to somewhat different regulations and risks than those of U.S. domestic banks. For example, an issuing bank may be able to maintain that the liability for an investment is solely that of the overseas branch which could expose a Fund to a greater risk of loss. In addition, obligations of foreign banks or of overseas branches of U.S. banks may be affected by governmental action in the country of domicile of the branch or parent bank. Examples of adverse foreign governmental actions include the imposition of currency controls, the imposition of withholding taxes on interest income payable on such obligations, interest limitations, seizure or nationalization of assets, or the declaration of a moratorium. Deposits in foreign banks or foreign branches of U.S. banks are not covered by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation and that the selection of those obligations may be more difficult because there may be less publicly available information concerning foreign banks or the accounting, auditing and financial reporting standards, practices and requirements applicable to foreign banks may differ from those applicable to United States banks. Foreign banks are not generally subject to examination by any United States Government agency or instrumentality. A Fund only buys short-term instruments where the risks of adverse governmental action are believed by the Sub-Advisor to be minimal. A Fund considers these factors, along with other appropriate factors, in making an investment decision to acquire such obligations. It only acquires those which, in the opinion of management, are of an investment quality comparable to other debt securities bought by the Fund.

29



A certificate of deposit is issued against funds deposited in a bank or savings and loan association for a definite period of time, at a specified rate of return. Normally they are negotiable. However, a Fund occasionally may invest in certificates of deposit which are not negotiable. Such certificates may provide for interest penalties in the event of withdrawal prior to their maturity. A bankers' acceptance is a short-term credit instrument issued by corporations to finance the import, export, transfer, or storage of goods. They are termed "accepted" when a bank guarantees their payment at maturity and reflect the obligation of both the bank and drawer to pay the face amount of the instrument at maturity.
Commercial Paper - Short-term promissory notes issued by U.S. or foreign corporations.
Short-term Corporate Debt - Corporate notes, bonds, and debentures that at the time of purchase have 397 days or less remaining to maturity.
Repurchase Agreements - Instruments under which securities are purchased from a bank or securities dealer with an agreement by the seller to repurchase the securities at the same price plus interest at a specified rate.
Taxable Municipal Obligations - Short-term obligations issued or guaranteed by state and municipal issuers which generate taxable income.
The ratings of nationally recognized statistical rating organization ("NRSRO"), such as Moody's Investor Services, Inc. ("Moody's") and Standard & Poor's ("S&P"), which are described in Appendix A, represent their opinions as to the quality of the money market instruments which they undertake to rate. It should be emphasized, however, that ratings are general and are not absolute standards of quality. These ratings, including ratings of NRSROs other than Moody's and S&P, are the initial criteria for selection of portfolio investments, but the Sub-Advisor further evaluates these securities.
Funding Agreements
Funds may invest in Guaranteed Investment Contracts (“GICs”) and similar funding agreements. In connection with these investments, a Fund makes cash contributions to a deposit fund of an insurance company’s general account. The insurance company then credits to a Fund on a monthly basis guaranteed interest, which is based on an index (such as LIBOR). The funding agreements provide that this guaranteed interest will not be less than a certain minimum rate. The purchase price paid for a funding agreement becomes part of the general assets of the insurance company. GICs are considered illiquid securities and will be subject to any limitations on such investments, unless there is an active and substantial secondary market for the particular instrument and market quotations are readily available. Generally, funding agreements are not assignable or transferable without the permission of the issuing company, and an active secondary market in some funding agreements does not currently exist. Investments in GICs are subject to the risks associated with fixed-income instruments generally, and are specifically subject to the credit risk associated with an investment in the issuing insurance company.
Municipal Obligations
Municipal Obligations are obligations issued by or on behalf of states, territories, and possessions of the United States and the District of Columbia and their political subdivisions, agencies and instrumentalities, including municipal utilities, or multi-state agencies or authorities. The interest on Municipal Obligations is exempt from federal income tax in the opinion of bond counsel to the issuer. Three major classifications of Municipal Obligations are: Municipal Bonds, that generally have a maturity at the time of issue of one year or more; Municipal Notes, that generally have a maturity at the time of issue of six months to three years; and Municipal Commercial Paper, that generally has a maturity at the time of issue of 30 to 270 days.
The term "Municipal Obligations" includes debt obligations issued to obtain funds for various public purposes, including the construction of a wide range of public facilities such as airports, bridges, highways, housing, hospitals, mass transportation, schools, streets, water and sewer works, and electric utilities. Other public purposes for which Municipal Obligations are issued include refunding outstanding obligations, obtaining funds for general operating expenses, and lending such funds to other public institutions and facilities. To the extent that a fund invests a significant portion of its assets in municipal obligations issued in connection with a single project, the fund likely will be affected by the economic, business or political environment of the project.
AMT-Subject Bonds. Industrial development bonds are issued by or on behalf of public authorities to obtain funds to provide for the construction, equipment, repair or improvement of privately operated housing facilities, sports facilities, convention or trade show facilities, airport, mass transit, industrial, port or parking facilities, air or water pollution control facilities, and certain local facilities for water supply, gas, electricity, or sewage or solid waste disposal. They are considered to be Municipal Obligations if the interest paid thereon qualifies as exempt from federal income tax in the opinion of bond counsel to the issuer, even though the interest may be subject to the federal alternative minimum tax.

30



Municipal Bonds. Municipal Bonds may be either "general obligation" or "revenue" issues. General obligation bonds are secured by the issuer's pledge of its faith, credit, and taxing power for the payment of principal and interest. Revenue bonds are payable from the revenues derived from a particular facility or class of facilities or, in some cases, from the proceeds of a special excise tax or other specific revenue source (e.g., the user of the facilities being financed), but not from the general taxing power. Industrial development bonds and pollution control bonds in most cases are revenue bonds and generally do not carry the pledge of the credit of the issuing municipality. The payment of the principal and interest on industrial revenue bonds depends solely on the ability of the user of the facilities financed by the bonds to meet its financial obligations and the pledge, if any, of real and personal property so financed as security for such payment. Funds may also invest in "moral obligation" bonds that are normally issued by special purpose public authorities. If an issuer of moral obligation bonds is unable to meet its obligations, the repayment of the bonds becomes a moral commitment but not a legal obligation of the state or municipality in question.
Municipal Notes. Municipal Notes usually are general obligations of the issuer and are sold in anticipation of a bond sale, collection of taxes, or receipt of other revenues. Payment of these notes is primarily dependent upon the issuer's receipt of the anticipated revenues. Other notes include "Construction Loan Notes" issued to provide construction financing for specific projects, and "Bank Notes" issued by local governmental bodies and agencies to commercial banks as evidence of borrowings. Some notes ("Project Notes") are issued by local agencies under a program administered by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. Project Notes are secured by the full faith and credit of the United States.
Bond Anticipation Notes ("BANs") are usually general obligations of state and local governmental issuers which are sold to obtain interim financing for projects that will eventually be funded through the sale of long-term debt obligations or bonds. The ability of an issuer to meet its obligations on its BANs is primarily dependent on the issuer's access to the long-term municipal bond market and the likelihood that the proceeds of such bond sales will be used to pay the principal and interest on the BANs.
Tax Anticipation Notes ("TANs") are issued by state and local governments to finance the current operations of such governments. Repayment is generally to be derived from specific future tax revenues. TANs are usually general obligations of the issuer. A weakness in an issuer's capacity to raise taxes due to, among other things, a decline in its tax base or a rise in delinquencies, could adversely affect the issuer's ability to meet its obligations on outstanding TANs.
Revenue Anticipation Notes ("RANs") are issued by governments or governmental bodies with the expectation that future revenues from a designated source will be used to repay the notes. In general they also constitute general obligations of the issuer. A decline in the receipt of projected revenues, such as anticipated revenues from another level of government, could adversely affect an issuer's ability to meet its obligations on outstanding RANs. In addition, the possibility that the revenues would, when received, be used to meet other obligations could affect the ability of the issuer to pay the principal and interest on RANs.
Construction Loan Notes are issued to provide construction financing for specific projects. Permanent financing, the proceeds of which are applied to the payment of construction loan notes, is sometimes provided by a commitment by the Government National Mortgage Association ("GNMA") to purchase the loan, accompanied by a commitment by the Federal Housing Administration to insure mortgage advances thereunder. In other instances, permanent financing is provided by commitments of banks to purchase the loan. The California Municipal and Tax-Exempt Bond Funds will only purchase construction loan notes that are subject to GNMA or bank purchase commitments.
Bank Notes are notes issued by local governmental bodies and agencies such as those described above to commercial banks as evidence of borrowings. The purposes for which the notes are issued are varied but they are frequently issued to meet short-term working-capital or capital-project needs. These notes may have risks similar to the risks associated with TANs and RANs.
Municipal Commercial Paper. Municipal Commercial Paper refers to short-term obligations of municipalities that may be issued at a discount and may be referred to as Short-Term Discount Notes. Municipal Commercial Paper is likely to be used to meet seasonal working capital needs of a municipality or interim construction financing. Generally they are repaid from general revenues of the municipality or refinanced with long-term debt. In most cases Municipal Commercial Paper is backed by letters of credit, lending agreements, note repurchase agreements or other credit facility agreements offered by banks or other institutions.

31



Variable and Floating Rate Obligations. Certain Municipal Obligations, obligations issued or guaranteed by the U.S. Government or its agencies or instrumentalities, and debt instruments issued by domestic banks or corporations may carry variable or floating rates of interest. Such instruments bear interest at rates which are not fixed, but which vary with changes in specified market rates or indices, such as a bank prime rate or tax-exempt money market index. Variable rate notes are adjusted to current interest rate levels at certain specified times, such as every 30 days. A floating rate note adjusts automatically whenever there is a change in its base interest rate adjustor, e.g., a change in the prime lending rate or specified interest rate indices. Typically such instruments carry demand features permitting the fund to redeem at par.
The fund's right to obtain payment at par on a demand instrument upon demand could be affected by events occurring between the date the fund elects to redeem the instrument and the date redemption proceeds are due which affects the ability of the issuer to pay the instrument at par value. The Sub-Advisor monitors on an ongoing basis the pricing, quality, and liquidity of such instruments and similarly monitors the ability of an issuer of a demand instrument, including those supported by bank letters of credit or guarantees, to pay principal and interest on demand. Although the ultimate maturity of such variable rate obligations may exceed one year, the fund treats the maturity of each variable rate demand obligation as the longer of a) the notice period required before the fund is entitled to payment of the principal amount through demand or b) the period remaining until the next interest rate adjustment. Floating rate instruments with demand features are deemed to have a maturity equal to the period remaining until the principal amount can be recovered through demand.
Funds may purchase participation interests in variable rate Municipal Obligations (such as industrial development bonds). A participation interest gives the purchaser an undivided interest in the Municipal Obligation in the proportion that its participation interest bears to the total principal amount of the Municipal Obligation. A fund has the right to demand payment on seven days' notice, for all or any part of the fund's participation interest in the Municipal Obligation, plus accrued interest. Each participation interest is backed by an irrevocable letter of credit or guarantee of a bank. Banks will retain a service and letter of credit fee and a fee for issuing repurchase commitments in an amount equal to the excess of the interest paid on the Municipal Obligations over the negotiated yield at which the instruments were purchased by the fund.
Stand-By Commitments. Funds may acquire stand-by commitments with respect to municipal obligations held in their respective portfolios. Under a stand-by commitment, a broker-dealer, dealer, or bank would agree to purchase, at the relevant funds' option, a specified municipal security at a specified price. Thus, a stand-by commitment may be viewed as the equivalent of a put option acquired by a fund with respect to a particular municipal security held in the fund's portfolio.
The amount payable to a fund upon its exercise of a stand-by commitment normally would be 1) the acquisition cost of the municipal security (excluding any accrued interest that the fund paid on the acquisition), less any amortized market premium or plus any amortized market or original issue discount during the period the fund owned the security, plus, 2) all interest accrued on the security since the last interest payment date during the period the security was owned by the fund. Absent unusual circumstances, the fund would value the underlying municipal security at amortized cost. As a result, the amount payable by the broker-dealer, dealer or bank during the time a stand-by commitment is exercisable would be substantially the same as the value of the underlying municipal obligation.
A fund's right to exercise a stand-by commitment would be unconditional and unqualified. Although a fund could not transfer a stand-by commitment, it could sell the underlying municipal security to a third party at any time. It is expected that stand-by commitments generally will be available to the funds without the payment of any direct or indirect consideration. The funds may, however, pay for stand-by commitments if such action is deemed necessary. In any event, the total amount paid for outstanding stand-by commitments held in a fund's portfolio would not exceed 0.50% of the value of a fund's total assets calculated immediately after each stand-by commitment is acquired.
The funds intend to enter into stand-by commitments only with broker-dealers, dealers, or banks that their Sub-Advisors believe present minimum credit risks. A fund's ability to exercise a stand-by commitment will depend upon the ability of the issuing institution to pay for the underlying securities at the time the stand-by commitment is exercised. The credit of each institution issuing a stand-by commitment to a fund will be evaluated on an ongoing basis by the Sub-Advisor.
A fund intends to acquire stand-by commitments solely to facilitate portfolio liquidity and does not intend to exercise its right thereunder for trading purposes. The acquisition of a stand-by commitment would not affect the valuation of the underlying municipal security. Each stand-by commitment will be valued at zero in determining net asset value. Should a fund pay directly or indirectly for a stand-by commitment, its costs will

32



be reflected in realized gain or loss when the commitment is exercised or expires. The maturity of a municipal security purchased by a fund will not be considered shortened by any stand-by commitment to which the obligation is subject. Thus, stand-by commitments will not affect the dollar-weighted average maturity of a fund's portfolio.
Other Municipal Obligations. Other kinds of Municipal Obligations are occasionally available in the marketplace, and the fund may invest in such other kinds of obligations to the extent consistent with its investment objective and limitations. Such obligations may be issued for different purposes and with different security than those mentioned above.
Risks of Municipal Obligations. The yields on Municipal Obligations are dependent on a variety of factors, including general economic and monetary conditions, money market factors, conditions in the Municipal Obligations market, size of a particular offering, maturity of the obligation, and rating of the issue. The fund's ability to achieve its investment objective also depends on the continuing ability of the issuers of the Municipal Obligations in which it invests to meet their obligation for the payment of interest and principal when due.
Municipal Obligations are subject to the provisions of bankruptcy, insolvency, and other laws affecting the rights and remedies of creditors, such as the Federal Bankruptcy Act. They are also subject to federal or state laws, if any, which extend the time for payment of principal or interest, or both, or impose other constraints upon enforcement of such obligations or upon municipalities to levy taxes. The power or ability of issuers to pay, when due, principal of and interest on Municipal Obligations may also be materially affected by the results of litigation or other conditions.
From time to time, proposals have been introduced before Congress for the purpose of restricting or eliminating the federal income tax exemption for interest on Municipal Obligations. It may be expected that similar proposals will be introduced in the future. If such a proposal was enacted, the ability of the fund to pay "exempt interest" dividends may be adversely affected. The fund would reevaluate its investment objective and policies and consider changes in its structure.
Special Considerations Relating to California Municipal Obligations
The California Municipal Fund concentrates its investments in California municipal obligations, and therefore may be significantly impacted by political, economic, or regulatory developments that affect issuers in California and their ability to pay principal and interest on their obligations. The ability of issuers to pay interest on, and repay principal of, California municipal obligations may be affected by 1) amendments to the California Constitution and related statutes that limit the taxing and spending authority of California government entities, 2) voter initiatives, 3) a wide variety of California laws and regulations, including laws related to the operation of health care institutions and laws related to secured interests in real property, and 4) the general financial condition of the State of California and the California economy. The Tax-Exempt Bond Fund also invests in California municipal obligations.
Insurance
The insured municipal obligations in which the California Municipal and Tax-Exempt Bond Funds may invest are insured under insurance policies that relate to the specific municipal obligation in question. This insurance is generally non-cancelable and will continue in force so long as the municipal obligations are outstanding and the insurer remains in business.
The insured municipal obligations are generally insured as to the scheduled payment of all installments of principal and interest as they fall due. The insurance covers only credit risk and therefore does not guarantee the market value of the obligations in a Fund's investment portfolio or a Fund's NAV. The Fund's NAV will continue to fluctuate in response to fluctuations in interest rates. A Fund's investment policy requiring investment in insured municipal obligations will not affect the Fund's ability to hold its assets in cash or to invest in escrow-secured and defeased bonds or in certain short-term tax-exempt obligations, or affect its ability to invest in uninsured taxable obligations for temporary or liquidity purposes or on a defensive basis.
Taxable Investments of the California Municipal and Tax-Exempt Bond Funds
The California Municipal and Tax-Exempt Bond Funds may invest a portion of their assets, as described in the prospectus, in taxable short-term investments consisting of: Obligations issued or guaranteed by the U.S. Government or its agencies or instrumentalities, domestic bank certificates of deposit and bankers' acceptances, short-term corporate debt securities such as commercial paper, and repurchase agreements ("Taxable Investments"). These investments must have a stated maturity of one year or less at the time of purchase and must meet the following standards: banks must have assets of at least $1 billion; commercial paper must be rated at least "A" by S&P or "Prime" by Moody's or, if not rated, must be issued by companies having an outstanding debt issue rated at least "A" by S&P or Moody's; corporate bonds and debentures must be rated at least "A" by S&P or Moody's. Interest

33



earned from Taxable Investments is taxable to investors. When, in the opinion of the Fund's Manager, it is advisable to maintain a temporary "defensive" posture, the California Municipal and Tax-Exempt Bond Funds may invest without limitation in Taxable Investments. At other times, Taxable Investments, Municipal Obligations that do not meet the quality standards required for the 80% portion of the portfolio and Municipal Obligations the interest on which is treated as a tax preference item for purposes of the federal alternative minimum tax will not exceed 20% of the Fund's total assets.
Other Investment Companies
Each Fund may invest in the securities of investment companies, subject to its fundamental and non-fundamental investment restrictions. Securities of other investment companies, including shares of closed-end investment companies, unit investment trusts, various exchange-traded funds ("ETFs"), and other open-end investment companies, represent interests in professionally managed portfolios that may invest in a variety of instruments. Certain types of investment companies, such as closed-end investment companies, issue a fixed number of shares that trade on a stock exchange or over-the-counter at a premium or a discount to their net asset value. Others are continuously offered at net asset value, but may also be traded in the secondary market. ETFs are often structured to perform in a similar fashion to a broad-based securities index. Investing in ETFs involves generally the same risks as investing directly in the underlying instruments. Investing in ETFs involves the risk that they will not perform in exactly the same fashion, or in response to the same factors, as the index or underlying instruments. Shares of ETFs may trade at prices other than NAV.
As a shareholder in an investment company, a Fund would bear its ratable share of that entity's expenses, including its advisory and administrative fees. The Fund would also continue to pay its own advisory fees and other expenses. Consequently, the Fund and its shareholders would, in effect, absorb two levels of fees with respect to investments in other investment companies.
Bank Loans (also known as Senior Floating Rate Interests)
Bank loans typically hold the most senior position in the capital structure of a business entity (the “Borrower”), are typically secured by specific collateral, and have a claim on the assets and/or stock of the Borrower that is senior to that held by unsecured subordinated debtholders and stockholders of the Borrower. Bank loans are typically structured and administered by a financial institution that acts as the agent of the lenders participating in the bank loan. Bank loans are typically rated below-investment-grade, which means they are more likely to default than investment-grade loans (they could also be unrated but of comparable quality). A default could lead to non-payment of income which would result in a reduction of income to the fund and there can be no assurance that the liquidation of any collateral would satisfy the Borrower’s obligation in the event of non-payment of scheduled interest or principal payments, or that such collateral could be readily liquidated.
The secondary market for loans may be subject to irregular trading activity, wide bid/ask spreads and extended trade settlement periods, which may cause the fund to be unable to realize full value and thus cause a material decline in the fund's net asset value.
Bank loans pay interest at rates which are periodically reset by reference to a base lending rate plus a spread. These base lending rates are generally the prime rate offered by a designated U.S. bank or the London InterBank Offered Rate (LIBOR) or the prime rate offered by one or more major United States banks.
Bank loans generally are subject to mandatory and/or optional prepayment. Because of these mandatory prepayment conditions and because there may be significant economic incentives for the Borrower to repay, prepayments of senior floating rate interests may occur.
Variable and Floating Rate Instruments
The Funds may purchase variable and floating rate instruments. These instruments may include variable amount master demand notes that permit the indebtedness thereunder to vary in addition to providing for periodic adjustments in the interest rate. These instruments may also include leveraged inverse floating rate debt instruments, or “inverse floaters”. The interest rate of an inverse floater resets in the opposite direction from the market rate of interest on a security or interest to which it is related. An inverse floater may be considered to be leveraged to the extent that its interest rate varies by a magnitude that exceeds the magnitude of the change in the index rate of interest, and is subject to many of the same risks as derivatives. The higher degree of leverage inherent in inverse floaters is associated with greater volatility in their market values. Certain of these investments may be illiquid. The absence of an active secondary market with respect to these investments could make it difficult for a Fund to dispose of a variable or floating rate note if the issuer defaulted on its payment obligation or during periods that a Fund is not entitled to exercise its demand rights, and a Fund could, for these or other reasons, suffer a loss with respect to such instruments.

34



Warrants and Rights
The Funds may invest in warrants and rights. A warrant is an instrument that gives the holder a right to purchase a given number of shares of a particular security at a specified price until a stated expiration date. Buying a warrant generally can provide a greater potential for profit or loss than an investment of equivalent amounts in the underlying common stock. The market value of a warrant does not necessarily move with the value of the underlying securities. If a holder does not sell the warrant, it risks the loss of its entire investment if the market price of the underlying security does not, before the expiration date, exceed the exercise price of the warrant. Investment in warrants is a speculative activity. Warrants pay no dividends and confer no rights (other than the right to purchase the underlying securities) with respect to the assets of the issuer. A right is a privilege granted to existing shareholders of a corporation to subscribe for shares of a new issue of common stock before it is issued. Rights normally have a short life, usually two to four weeks, are freely transferable and entitle the holder to buy the new common stock at a lower price than the public offering price.
Pay-in-Kind Securities
The Funds may invest in pay-in-kind securities. Pay-in-kind securities pay dividends or interest in the form of additional securities of the issuer, rather than in cash. These securities are usually issued and traded at a discount from their face amounts. The amount of the discount varies depending on various factors, such as the time remaining until maturity of the securities, prevailing interest rates, the liquidity of the security and the perceived credit quality of the issuer. The market prices of pay-in-kind securities generally are more volatile than the market prices of securities that pay interest periodically and are likely to respond to changes in interest rates to a greater degree than are other types of securities having similar maturities and credit quality.
      
Preferred Securities
There are two basic types of preferred securities, traditional preferred securities and hybrid or trust preferred securities.
Traditional Preferred Securities. Traditional preferred securities may be issued by an entity taxable as a corporation and pay fixed or floating rate dividends. However, these claims are subordinated to more senior creditors, including senior debt holders. “Preference” means that a company must pay dividends on its preferred securities before paying any dividends on its common stock, and the claims of preferred securities holders are ahead of common stockholders’ claims on assets in a corporate liquidation. Holders of preferred securities usually have no right to vote for corporate directors or on other matters. Preferred securities share many investment characteristics with both common stock and bonds.
Hybrid or Trust Preferred Securities. Hybrid-preferred securities are debt instruments that have characteristics similar to those of traditional preferred securities (characteristics of both subordinated debt and preferred stock). Hybrid preferred securities may be issued by corporations, generally in the form of interest-bearing instruments with preferred securities characteristics, or by an affiliated trust or partnership of the corporation, generally in the form of preferred interests in subordinated business trusts or similarly structured securities. The hybrid-preferred securities market consists of both fixed and adjustable coupon rate securities that are either perpetual in nature or have stated maturity dates. Hybrid preferred holders generally have claims to assets in a corporate liquidation that are senior to those of traditional preferred securities but subordinate to those of senior debt holders. Certain subordinated debt and senior debt issues that have preferred characteristics are also considered to be part of the broader preferred securities market.
Preferred securities may be issued by trusts (likely one that is wholly-owned by a financial institution or other corporate entity, typically a bank holding company) or other special purpose entities established by operating companies, and are therefore not direct obligations of operating companies. The financial institution creates the trust and owns the trust’s common securities. The trust uses the sale proceeds of its preferred securities to purchase, for example, subordinated debt issued by the financial institution. The financial institution uses the proceeds from the subordinated debt sale to increase its capital while the trust receives periodic interest payments from the financial institution for holding the subordinated debt. The trust uses the funds received to make dividend payments to the holders of the trust preferred securities. The primary advantage of this structure may be that the trust preferred securities are treated by the financial institution as debt securities for tax purposes and as equity for the calculation of capital requirements.
Trust preferred securities typically bear a market rate coupon comparable to interest rates available on debt of a similarly rated issuer. Typical characteristics include long-term maturities, early redemption by the issuer, periodic fixed or variable interest payments, and maturities at face value. Holders of trust preferred securities have limited voting rights to control the activities of the trust and no voting rights with respect to the financial institution. The market value of trust preferred securities may be more volatile than those of conventional debt

35



securities. Trust preferred securities may be issued in reliance on Rule 144A under the 1933 Act and subject to restrictions on resale. There can be no assurance as to the liquidity of trust preferred securities and the ability of holders, such as a fund, to sell their holdings. The condition of the financial institution can be looked to identify the risks of trust preferred securities as the trust typically has no business operations other than to issue the trust preferred securities. If the financial institution defaults on interest payments to the trust, the trust will not be able to make dividend payments to holders of its securities, such as a fund.
Preferred Securities - Generally. Preferred securities include: traditional preferred securities, hybrid-preferred securities, $25 hybrid preferred securities, U.S. dividend received deduction (“DRD”) preferred stock, fixed rate and floating rate adjustable preferred securities, step-up preferred securities, public and 144A $1000 par capital securities including U.S. agency subordinated debt issues, upper tier 2 fixed and floating rate capital securities, contingent convertible instruments, trust originated preferred securities, monthly income preferred securities, quarterly income bond securities, quarterly income debt securities, quarterly income preferred securities, corporate trust securities, public income notes, and other trust preferred securities.
Floating rate preferred securities provide for a periodic adjustment in the interest rate paid on the securities. The terms of such securities provide that interest rates are adjusted periodically based upon an interest rate adjustment index. The adjustment intervals may be regular, and range from daily up to annually, or may be event-based, such as a change in the short-term interest rate. Because of the interest rate reset feature, floating rate securities provide the Fund with a certain degree of protection against rising interest rates, although the interest rates of floating rate securities will participate in any declines in interest rates as well.
If a portion of a fund’s income consists of dividends paid by U.S. corporations, a portion of the dividends paid by the fund may be eligible for the corporate dividends-received deduction for corporate shareholders. In addition, distributions reported by a fund as derived from qualified dividend income (“QDI”) will be taxed in the hands of individuals at the reduced rates applicable to net capital gains, provided certain holding period and other requirements are met by both the shareholder and the fund. Dividend income that a fund receives from REITs, if any, will generally not be treated as QDI and will not qualify for the corporate dividends-received deduction. It is unclear the extent to which distributions a fund receives from investments in certain preferred securities will be eligible for treatment as QDI or for the corporate dividends-received deduction. A fund cannot predict at this time what portion, if any, of its dividends will qualify for the corporate dividends-received deduction or be eligible for the reduced rates of taxation applicable to QDI.
Corporate Reorganizations
Funds may invest in securities for which a tender or exchange offer has been made or announced and in securities of companies for which a merger, consolidation, liquidation or reorganization proposal has been announced if, in the judgment of the Sub-Advisor, there is a reasonable prospect of capital appreciation significantly greater than the brokerage and other transaction expenses involved. The primary risk of such investments is that if the contemplated transaction is abandoned, revised, delayed or becomes subject to unanticipated uncertainties, the market price of the securities may decline below the purchase price paid by a fund.
In general, securities which are the subject of such an offer or proposal sell at a premium to their historic market price immediately prior to the announcement of the offer or proposal. However, the increased market price of such securities may discount what the stated or appraised value of the security would be if the contemplated transaction were approved or consummated. Such investments may be advantageous when the discount significantly overstates the risk of the contingencies involved; significantly undervalues the securities, assets or cash to be received by shareholders of the prospective company as a result of the contemplated transaction; or fails adequately to recognize the possibility that the offer or proposal may be replaced or superseded by an offer or proposal of greater value. The evaluation of such contingencies requires unusually broad knowledge and experience on the part of the Sub-Advisor, which must appraise not only the value of the issuer and its component businesses, but also the financial resources and business motivation of the offer or proposal as well as the dynamics of the business climate when the offer or proposal is in process.
Step-Coupon Securities
The Funds may invest in step-coupon securities. Step-coupon securities trade at a discount from their face value and pay coupon interest. The coupon rate is low for an initial period and then increases to a higher coupon rate thereafter. Market values of these types of securities generally fluctuate in response to changes in interest rates to a greater degree than conventional interest-paying securities of comparable term and quality. Under many market conditions, investments in such securities may be illiquid, making it difficult for a Fund to dispose of them or determine their current value.

36



“Stripped” Securities
The Funds may invest in stripped securities, which are usually structured with two or more classes that receive different proportions of the interest and principal distribution on a pool of U.S. government or foreign government securities or mortgage assets. In some cases, one class will receive all of the interest (the interest-only or “IO” class), while the other class will receive all of the principal (the principal-only or “PO” class). Stripped securities commonly have greater market volatility than other types of fixed-income securities. In the case of stripped mortgage securities, if the underlying mortgage assets experience greater than anticipated payments of principal, a Fund may fail to recoup fully its investments in IOs. Stripped securities may be illiquid. Stripped securities may be considered derivative securities.
Supranational Entities
The Funds may invest in obligations of supranational entities. A supranational entity is an entity designated or supported by national governments to promote economic reconstruction, development or trade amongst nations. Examples of supranational entities include the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (also known as the World Bank) and the European Investment Bank. Obligations of supranational entities are subject to the risk that the governments on whose support the entity depends for its financial backing or repayment may be unable or unwilling to provide that support. Obligations of a supranational entity that are denominated in foreign currencies will also be subject to the risks associated with investments in foreign currencies.
Synthetic Securities
Incidental to other transactions in fixed income securities and/or for investment purposes, a Fund also may combine options on securities with cash, cash equivalent investments or other fixed income securities in order to create “synthetic” securities which approximate desired risk and return profiles. This may be done where a “non-synthetic” security having the desired risk/return profile either is unavailable (e.g., short-term securities of certain non-U.S. governments) or possesses undesirable characteristics (e.g., interest payments on the security would be subject to non-U.S. withholding taxes). A Fund also may purchase forward non-U.S. exchange contracts in conjunction with U.S. dollar-denominated securities in order to create a synthetic non-U.S. currency denominated security which approximates desired risk and return characteristics where the non-synthetic securities either are not available in non-U.S. markets or possess undesirable characteristics. The use of synthetic bonds and other synthetic securities may involve risks different from, or potentially greater than, risks associated with direct investments in securities and other assets. Synthetic securities may increase other Fund risks, including market risk, liquidity risk, and credit risk, and their value may or may not correlate with the value of the relevant underlying asset.
Interfund Lending and Borrowing
The SEC has granted an exemption permitting Principal Funds to borrow money from and lend money to each other for temporary or emergency purposes.  The loans are subject to a number of conditions designed to ensure fair and equitable treatment of all participating funds, including the following: (1) no fund may borrow money through the program unless it receives a more favorable interest rate than a rate approximating the lowest interest rate at which bank loans would be available to any of the participating funds under a loan agreement; and (2) no fund may lend money through the program unless it receives a more favorable return than that available from an investment in overnight repurchase agreements. In addition, a fund may participate in the program only if and to the extent that such participation is consistent with a fund's investment objectives and policies. Interfund loans and borrowings have a maximum duration of seven days. Loans may be called on one day's notice. A fund may have to borrow from a bank at a higher interest rate if an interfund loan is called or not renewed. Any delay in repayment to a lending fund could result in a lost investment opportunity or additional costs. The Board is responsible for overseeing and periodically reviewing the interfund lending program.
Portfolio Turnover
Portfolio turnover is a measure of how frequently a portfolio's securities are bought and sold. The portfolio turnover rate is generally calculated as the dollar value of the lesser of a portfolio's purchases or sales of shares of securities during a given year, divided by the monthly average value of the portfolio securities during that year (excluding securities whose maturity or expiration at the time of acquisition were less than one year). For example, a portfolio reporting a 100% portfolio turnover rate would have purchased and sold securities worth as much as the monthly average value of its portfolio securities during the year.
It is not possible to predict future turnover rates with accuracy. Many variable factors are outside the control of a portfolio manager. The investment outlook for the securities in which a portfolio may invest may change as a result of unexpected developments in securities markets, economic or monetary policies, or political relationships. High market volatility may result in a portfolio manager using a more active trading strategy than might otherwise be employed. Each portfolio manager considers the economic effects of portfolio turnover but generally does not treat the portfolio turnover rate as a limiting factor in making investment decisions.

37



Sale of shares by investors may require the liquidation of portfolio securities to meet cash flow needs. In addition, changes in a particular portfolio's holdings may be made whenever the portfolio manager considers that a security is no longer appropriate for the portfolio or that another security represents a relatively greater opportunity. Such changes may be made without regard to the length of time that a security has been held.
Higher portfolio turnover rates generally increase transaction costs that are expenses of the Account. Active trading may generate short-term gains (losses) for taxable shareholders.
The following Funds had significant variation in portfolio turnover rates over the two most recently completed fiscal years:
Fund
2013
Turnover
2012
Turnover
Comments
Principal LifeTime 2040
30.1%
12.5%
The portfolio management team for the Principal LifeTime Funds changed several underlying equity funds in 2013 which resulted in higher turnover than in 2012.
Principal LifeTime 2045
23.3%
8.1%
The portfolio management team for the Principal LifeTime Funds changed several underlying equity funds in 2013 which resulted in higher turnover than in 2012.
Principal LifeTime 2050
29.5%
10.5%
The portfolio management team for the Principal LifeTime Funds changed several underlying equity funds in 2013 which resulted in higher turnover than in 2012.
Principal LifeTime 2055
29.1%
15.1%
The portfolio management team for the Principal LifeTime Funds changed several underlying equity funds in 2013 which resulted in higher turnover than in 2012.
Principal LifeTime Strategic Income
14.6%
31.1%
The portfolio management team for the Principal LifeTime Funds made changes to several underlying funds in 2012 which resulted in higher turnover in 2012 than in 2013.
LEADERSHIP STRUCTURE AND BOARD OF DIRECTORS
Overall responsibility for directing the business and affairs of PFI rests with the Board of Directors, who are elected by PFI's shareholders. In addition to serving on the Board of PFI, each Director serves on the Board of Principal Variable Contracts Funds, Inc. (“PVC”). The Board is responsible for overseeing the operations of PFI in accordance with the provisions of the 1940 Act, other applicable laws and PFI’s charter. The Board elects the officers of PFI to supervise its day-to-day operations. The Board meets in regularly scheduled meetings eight times throughout the year. Board meetings may occur in-person or by telephone. In addition, the Board holds special in-person or telephonic meetings or informal conference calls to discuss specific matters that may arise or require action between regular meetings. Board members who are Independent Directors meet annually to consider renewal of PFI's advisory contracts. The Board is currently composed of ten members, eight of whom are Independent Directors. Each Director has significant prior senior management and/or board experience.
The Chairman of the Board is an interested person of PFI. The Independent Directors of PFI have appointed a lead Independent Director whose role is to review and approve, with the Chairman, the agenda for each Board meeting and facilitate communication among PFI's Independent Directors as well as communication among the Independent Directors, management of PFI and the full Board. PFI has determined that the Board's leadership structure is appropriate given the characteristics and circumstances of PFI, including such items as the number of series or portfolios that comprise PFI, the variety of asset classes those series reflect, the net assets of PFI, the committee structure of the Board and the distribution arrangements of PFI. The appropriateness of this structure is enhanced by PFI’s Board Committees, which are described below, and the allocation of responsibilities among them.
The Directors were selected to serve and continue on the Board based upon their skills, experience, judgment, analytical ability, diligence and ability to work effectively with other Board members, a commitment to the interests of shareholders and, for each Independent Director, a demonstrated willingness to take an independent and questioning view of management. In addition to these general qualifications, the Board seeks members who will build upon the diversity of the Board. In addition to those qualifications, the following is a brief discussion of the specific education, experience, qualifications, or skills that led to the conclusion that each person identified below should serve as a Director for PFI. As required by rules the SEC has adopted under the 1940 Act, PFI's Independent Directors select and nominate all candidates for Independent Director positions.
Independent Directors
Elizabeth Ballantine. Ms. Ballantine has served as a Director of PFI and PVC since 2004. Through her professional training and experience as an attorney and her experience as a director of Principal Funds, investment consultant and a director, Ms. Ballantine is experienced in financial, investment and regulatory matters.

38



Leroy T. Barnes. Mr. Barnes has served as a Director of PFI and PVC since 2012. From 2001-2005, Mr. Barnes served as Vice President and Treasurer of PG&E Corporation. From 1997-2001, Mr. Barnes served as Vice President and Treasurer of Gap, Inc. Through his education and employment experience and experience as a director, Mr. Barnes is experienced with financial, accounting, regulatory and investment matters.
Craig Damos. Mr. Damos has served as a Director of PFI and PVC since 2008. Since 2011, Mr. Damos has served as the President of The Damos Company (consulting services). Mr. Damos served as President and Chief Executive Officer of Weitz Company from 2006-2010 and Vertical Growth Officer from 2004-2006. From 2000-2004, he served as the Chief Financial Officer of Weitz Company. From 2005-2008, Mr. Damos served as a director of West Bank. Through his education, experience as a director of Principal Funds and employment experience, Mr. Damos is experienced with financial, accounting, regulatory and investment matters.
Mark A. Grimmett. Mr. Grimmett has served as a Director of PFI and PVC since 2004. He is a Certified Public Accountant. Since 1996, Mr. Grimmett has served as the Chief Financial Officer for Merle Norman Cosmetics, Inc. Through his service as a director of Principal Funds, his education and his employment experience, Mr. Grimmett is experienced with financial, accounting, regulatory and investment matters.
Fritz Hirsch. Mr. Hirsch has served as a Director of PFI and PVC since 2005. From 1983-1985, he served as Chief Financial Officer of Sassy, Inc. From 1986-2009, Mr. Hirsch served as President and Chief Executive Officer of Sassy, Inc. Since 2011, Mr. Hirsch serves as CEO of MAM USA. Through his experience as a director of the Principal Funds and employment experience, Mr. Hirsch is experienced with financial, accounting, regulatory and investment matters.
Tao Huang. Mr. Huang has served as a Director of PFI and PVC since 2012. From 1996-2000, Mr. Huang served as Chief Technology Officer of Morningstar, Inc. and from 1998-2000 as President of the International Division of Morningstar. From 2000-2011, Mr. Huang served as Chief Operating Officer of Morningstar. Through his education and employment experience, Mr. Huang is experienced with technology, financial, regulatory and investment matters.
William Kimball. Mr. Kimball has served as a Director of PFI and PVC since 2000. From 1998-2004, Mr. Kimball served as Chairman and CEO of Medicap Pharmacies, Inc. Prior to 1998, he served as President and CEO of Medicap. Since 2004, Mr. Kimball has served as director of Casey's General Stores, Inc. Through his experience as a director of the Principal Funds and his employment experience, Mr. Kimball is experienced with financial, regulatory and investment matters.
Daniel Pavelich. Mr. Pavelich has served as a Director of PFI and PVC since 2007. From 1998-2007, Mr. Pavelich served as a Trustee of the WM Group of Funds. From 1996-1999, he served as Chairman and CEO of BDO and as its Chairman from 1994-1996. Through his education, experience as a director of mutual funds and his employment experience, Mr. Pavelich is experienced with financial, accounting, regulatory and investment matters.
Interested Directors
Michael J. Beer. Mr. Beer has served as a Director of PFI and PVC since 2012. Mr. Beer has served as Executive Vice President of PFI and PVC since 2001 and as Executive Vice President (since 2002), Chief Operating Officer (since 2006) and a director of PMC. Since 2007, Mr. Beer has served as the President and a director of Princor and PSS since 2007. Prior to working for Principal, Mr. Beer worked for Wells Fargo and Deloitte Touche. Through his education and employment experience, Mr. Beer is experienced with financial, accounting, regulatory and investment matters.
Nora M. Everett. Ms. Everett has served as a Director of PFI and PVC since 2008. From 2004-2008, Ms. Everett was Senior Vice President and Deputy General Counsel at Principal Financial Group, Inc. From 2001-2004, she was Vice President and Counsel at Principal Financial Group. Through her professional training, experience as an attorney, her service as a director of Principal Funds and her employment experience, Ms. Everett is experienced with financial, regulatory and investment matters.
Risk oversight forms part of the Board's general oversight of PFI and is addressed as part of various Board and Committee activities. As part of its regular oversight of PFI, the Board, directly or through a Committee, interacts with and reviews reports from, among others, Fund management, sub-advisors, PFI's Chief Compliance Officer, the independent registered public accounting firm for PFI, and internal auditors for PMC or its affiliates, as appropriate, regarding risks faced by PFI. The Board, with the assistance of Fund management and PMC, reviews investment policies and risks in connection with its review of PFI's performance. The Board has appointed a Chief Compliance Officer who oversees the implementation and testing of PFI's compliance program and reports to the Board regarding compliance matters for PFI and its principal service providers. In addition, as part of the Board's periodic review of PFI's advisory, sub-advisory and other service provider agreements, the Board may consider risk management aspects of their operations and the functions for which they are responsible. With respect to valuation, the Board oversees a PMC valuation committee comprised of PFI officers and officers of PMC and has approved and periodically reviews valuation policies applicable to valuing PFI's shares.

39



The Board has established the following committees and the membership of each committee to assist in its oversight functions, including its oversight of the risks PFI faces.
Committee membership is identified on the following pages. Each committee must report its activities to the Board on a regular basis. As used in this SAI, the “Fund Complex” refers to all series of Principal Funds, Inc. (including those not contained in this SAI) and Principal Variable Contracts Funds, Inc.
15(c) Committee
The Committee’s primary purpose is to assist the Board in performing the annual review of the Fund’s advisory and sub-advisory agreements pursuant to Section 15(c) of the 1940 Act. The Committee responsibilities include requesting and reviewing materials. Because the 15(c) Committee is new, it held no meetings during the last fiscal year.
Audit Committee
The primary purpose of the Committee is to assist the Board in fulfilling certain of its responsibilities. The Audit Committee serves as an independent and objective party to monitor the Fund Complex's accounting policies, financial reporting and internal control system, as well as the work of the independent registered public accountants. The Audit Committee assists Board oversight of 1) the integrity of the Fund Complex's financial statements; 2) the Fund Complex's compliance with certain legal and regulatory requirements; 3) the independent registered public accountants' qualifications and independence; and 4) the performance of the Fund Complex's independent registered public accountants. The Audit Committee also provides an open avenue of communication among the independent registered public accountants, the Manager's internal auditors, Fund Complex management, and the Board. The Audit Committee held five meetings during the last fiscal year.
Executive Committee
The Committee's primary purpose is to exercise certain powers of the Board when the Board is not in session. When the Board is not in session, the Committee may exercise all powers of the Board in the management of the business of the Fund Complex except the power to 1) authorize dividends or distributions on stock; 2) issue stock, except as permitted by law 3) recommend to the stockholders any action which requires stockholder approval; 4) amend the bylaws; or 5) approve any merger or share exchange which does not require stockholder approval. The Executive Committee held four meetings during the last fiscal year.
Nominating and Governance Committee
The Committee's primary purpose is to oversee the structure and efficiency of the Board and the committees established by the Board. The Committee responsibilities include evaluating Board membership and functions, committee membership and functions, insurance coverage, and legal matters.
The nominating functions of the Nominating and Governance Committee include selecting and nominating all candidates who are not "interested persons" of the Fund Complex for election to the Board. Generally, the Committee requests director nominee suggestions from the committee members and management. In addition, the Committee will consider Director candidates recommended by shareholders of the Fund Complex. Recommendations should be submitted in writing to Principal Funds, Inc. at 655 9th Street, Des Moines, IA 50392. When evaluating a person as a potential nominee to serve as an Independent Director, the Committee will generally consider, among other factors: age; education; relevant business experience; geographical factors; whether the person is "independent" and otherwise qualified under applicable laws and regulations to serve as a director; and whether the person is willing to serve, and willing and able to commit the time necessary for attendance at meetings and the performance of the duties of an independent director. The Committee also meets personally with the nominees and conducts a reference check. The final decision is based on a combination of factors, including the strengths and the experience an individual may bring to the Board. The Committee believes the Board generally benefits from diversity of background, experience and views among its members, and considers these factors in evaluating the composition of the Board. The Board does not use regularly the services of any professional search firms to identify or evaluate or assist in identifying or evaluating potential candidates or nominees. The Nominating and Governance Committee held five meetings during the last fiscal year.
Operations Committee
The Committee's primary purpose is to oversee the provision of administrative and distribution services to the Fund Complex, communications with the Fund Complex's shareholders, and review and oversight of the Fund Complex's operations. The Operations Committee held four meetings during the last fiscal year.
Management Information
The following table presents certain information regarding the Directors of PFI, including their principal occupations which, unless specific dates are shown, are of more than five years duration. In addition, the table includes information concerning other directorships held by each Director in reporting companies under the Securities

40



Exchange Act of 1934 or registered investment companies under the 1940 Act. Information is listed separately for those Directors who are “interested persons” (as defined in the 1940 Act) of PFI (the “Interested Directors”) and those Directors who are Independent Directors. All Directors serve as directors for each of the two investment companies sponsored by Principal Life Insurance Company (“Principal Life”): PFI and Principal Variable Contracts Funds, Inc.
The following directors are considered to be Independent Directors.




Name, Address,
and Year of Birth




Position(s) Held
with Fund


Length
of Time
Served as
Director




Principal Occupation(s)
During Past 5 Years
Number of
Portfolios
in Fund
Complex
Overseen
by Director



Other Directorships
Held by Director During Past 5 Years
Elizabeth Ballantine
655 9th Street
Des Moines, IA 50392
1948
Director
Member Nominating and Governance Committee
Since 2004
Principal, EBA Associates
(consulting and investments)
105
Durango Herald, Inc.;
McClatchy Newspapers, Inc.
Leroy T. Barnes, Jr.
655 9th Street
Des Moines, IA 50392
1951
Director
Member Audit Committee
Since 2012
Retired

105
McClatchy Newspapers, Inc.; Herbalife Ltd.; Frontier Communications, Inc.;
Longs Drug Stores
Craig Damos
655 9th Street
Des Moines, IA 50392
1954
Director
Member 15(c) Committee
Member Audit Committee

Since 2008
President, The Damos Company (consulting services). Formerly Chairman/CEO/ President and Vertical Growth Officer, and The Weitz Company (general construction)
105
Hardin Construction
Mark A. Grimmett
655 9th Street
Des Moines, IA 50392
1960
Director
Member 15(c) Committee
Member Executive Committee
Member Nominating and Governance Committee
Since 2004
Executive Vice President and CFO, Merle Norman Cosmetics, Inc. (cosmetics manufacturing)
105
None
Fritz S. Hirsch
655 9th Street
Des Moines, IA 50392
1951
Director
Member 15(c) Committee
Member Operations Committee
Since 2005
CEO, MAM USA (manufacturer of infant and juvenile products). Formerly President, Sassy, Inc.
(manufacturer of infant and juvenile products)
105
Focus Products Group (housewares)
Tao Huang
655 9th Street
Des Moines, IA 50392
1962
Director
Member 15(c) Committee
Member Operations Committee
Since 2012
Formerly, Chief Operating Officer, Morningstar, Inc. (investment research)
105
Armstrong World Industries, Inc. (manufacturing)
William C. Kimball
655 9th Street
Des Moines, IA 50392
1947
Director
Member Nominating and Governance Committee
Since 2000
Partner, Kimball – Porter Investments L.L.C.
105
Casey's General Stores
Daniel Pavelich
655 9th Street
Des Moines, IA 50392
1944
Director
Member Audit Committee
Since 2007
Retired
105
None

41



The following directors are considered to be Interested Directors because they are affiliated persons of Principal Management Corporation ("PMC," “Principal” or the “Manager”), Principal Funds Distributor, Inc. (“PFD” or “the “Distributor”) and/or the Fund’s principal underwriter, or Princor Financial Services Corporation (“Princor”), the Fund’s former principal underwriter.




Name, Address,
and Year of Birth



Position(s)
Held
with Fund



Length of
Time
Served

Positions with the Manager
and its affiliates;
Principal Occupation(s)
During Past 5 Years**
(unless noted otherwise)
Number of
Portfolios
in Fund
Complex
Overseen
by Director
Other
Directorships
Held by
Director During Past
5 Years
Michael J. Beer
Des Moines, IA 50392
1961

Director
Executive Vice President
Member Executive Committee
Since 2012
Since 2001
Executive Vice President, PFD
VP/Mutual Funds & Broker Dealer, PLIC
Director, PMC
EVP/Chief Operating Officer, PMC
Director, Princor
President, Princor
Director, PSS, (since 2011)
President, PSS, (since 2011)
105
None
Nora M. Everett
Des Moines, IA 50392
1959
Chair
Chief Executive Officer
President
Director
Member Executive
Committee

Since 2012
Since 2010
Since 2008
Since 2008



Director, Edge (2008-2011)
Director, Finisterre, (since 2011)
Chairman, PFA, (since 2010)
Chairman, PFD, (since 2011)
Senior Vice President/RIS, PLIC
Chairman, PMC, (since 2011)
President, PMC, (since 2008)
Chairman, Princor, (since 2011)
Chief Executive Officer, Princor, (since 2009)
Chairman, PSS, (since 2011)
105
None
**   Abbreviations used in this table:
Columbus Circle Investors (CCI)
Edge Asset Management, Inc. (Edge)
Finisterre Capital LLP (Finisterre)
Principal Financial Advisors, Inc. (PFA)
Princor Financial Services Corporation (Princor)
Principal Funds Distributor, Inc. (PFD)
Principal Global Investors, LLC (PGI)
Principal Life Insurance Company (PLIC)
Principal Management Corporation (PMC)
Principal Real Estate Investors, LLC (Principal-REI)
Principal Shareholder Services, Inc. (PSS)
Spectrum Asset Management, Inc. (Spectrum)
Officers of the Fund
The following table presents certain information regarding the officers of the Fund, including their principal occupations which, unless specific dates are shown, are of more than five years duration. Officers serve at the pleasure of the Board of Directors. Each officer of the Fund has the same position with Principal Variable Contracts Funds, Inc. Information about Michael J. Beer and Nora M. Everett is included in the table for Interested Directors.

Name, Address
and Year of Birth
Position(s) Held
with Fund and
Length of Time Served
Positions with the Manager and its Affiliates;
Principal Occupations During Past 5 Years**
(unless noted otherwise)
Randy L. Bergstrom
Des Moines, IA 50392
1955
Assistant Tax Counsel
(since 2005)
Counsel, PGI
Counsel, PLIC
David J. Brown
Des Moines, IA 50392
1960
Chief Compliance Officer
(since 2004)
Senior Vice President, PFD
Vice President/Compliance, PLIC
Senior Vice President, PMC
Senior Vice President, Princor
Senior Vice President, PSS
Jill R. Brown
1100 Investment Boulevard
El Dorado Hills, CA 95762-5710
1967
Senior Vice President
(since 2007)
Director, PFD
President, PFD, (since 2010)
Director, PMC, (since 2011)
Senior Vice President, PMC, (2010-2013)
Senior Vice President, Princor, (2010-2013)
Director, PSS, (since 2011)
Senior Vice President, PSS

42




Name, Address
and Year of Birth
Position(s) Held
with Fund and
Length of Time Served
Positions with the Manager and its Affiliates;
Principal Occupations During Past 5 Years**
(unless noted otherwise)
Teresa M. Button
Des Moines, IA 50392
1963
Treasurer
(since 2011)
Vice President/Treasurer, Edge, (since 2011)
Vice President/Treasurer, PFA, (since 2011)
Vice President/Treasurer, PFD, (since 2011)
Vice President/Treasurer, PGI, (since 2011)
Vice President/Treasurer, PLIC, (since 2011)
Vice President/Treasurer, PMC, (since 2011)
Vice President/Treasurer, Post, (since 2011)
Vice President/Treasurer, Principal-REI, (since 2011)
Vice President/Treasurer, Princor, (since 2011)
Vice President/Treasurer, PSS, (since 2011)
Treasurer, Spectrum, (since 2011)
Cary Fuchs
1100 Investment Boulevard
El Dorado Hills, CA 95762-5710
1957
Senior Vice President of Distribution (since 2007)
Senior Vice President, PFD, (since 2011)
Director-Transfer Agent & Administrative Services, PLIC
Senior Vice President, PSS, (since 2009)
Ernest H. Gillum
Des Moines, IA 50392
1955
Vice President (since 2000)
Assistant Secretary
(since 1993)
Vice President/Chief Compliance Officer, PMC
Vice President/Chief Compliance Officer, PSS
Patrick A. Kirchner
Des Moines, IA 50392
1960
Assistant Counsel
(since 2002)
Assistant General Counsel, PFA
Assistant General Counsel, PLIC
Assistant General Counsel, PMC
Assistant General Counsel, Princor
Carolyn F. Kolks
Des Moines, IA 50392
1962
Assistant Tax Counsel
(since 2005)
Counsel, PGI
Counsel, PLIC
Jennifer A. Mills
Des Moines, IA 50392
1973
Assistant Counsel
(since 2010)
Counsel, PFD, (2009-2013)
Counsel, PLIC
Counsel, PMC, (2009-2013)
Counsel, Princor, (2009-2013)
Counsel, PSS, (2009-2013)
Layne A. Rasmussen
Des Moines, IA 50392
1958
Chief Financial Officer (since 2008)
Vice President (since 2005)
Controller (since 2000)
Vice President/Controller-Principal Funds, PMC
Michael D. Roughton
Des Moines, IA 50392
1951
Counsel
(since 1990)
Senior Vice President/Counsel, PFA
Senior Vice President/Counsel, PFD
Vice President & Associate General Counsel, PLIC
Senior Vice President/Counsel, PMC
Senior Vice President/Counsel, Princor, (2009-2013)
Senior Vice President/Counsel, PSS
Adam U. Shaikh
Des Moines, IA 50392
1972
Assistant Counsel
(since 2006)
Counsel, PFD (2006-2013)
Counsel, PLIC
Counsel, PMC (2007-2013)
Counsel, Princor (2007-2013)
Counsel, PSS (2007-2013)
Dan L. Westholm
Des Moines, IA 50392
1966
Assistant Treasurer
(since 2006)
Assistant Vice President/Treasury, PFA (since 2013)
Director-Treasury, PFA (2011-2013)
Assistant Vice President/Treasury, PFD (since 2013)
Director-Treasury, PFD (2011-2013)
Assistant Vice President/Treasury, PLIC
Assistant Vice President/Treasury, PMC
Assistant Vice President/Treasury, Princor (since 2013)
Director-Treasury, Princor (2008-2009, 2011-2013)
Assistant Vice President/Treasury, PSS
Beth C. Wilson
Des Moines, IA 50392
1956
Vice President and Secretary (since 2007)
Vice President, PMC (2007-2013)
Vice President, Princor (2007-2009)

43



**   Abbreviations used in this table:
         Columbus Circle Investors (CCI)
         Edge Asset Management, Inc. (Edge)
•    Principal Financial Advisors, Inc. (PFA)
         Princor Financial Services Corporation (Princor)
         Principal Funds Distributor, Inc. (PFD)
         Principal Global Investors, LLC (PGI)
         Principal Life Insurance Company (PLIC)
         Principal Management Corporation (PMC)
         Principal Real Estate Investors, LLC (Principal-REI)
         Principal Shareholder Services, Inc. (PSS)
         Spectrum Asset Management, Inc. (Spectrum)
The following tables set forth the aggregate dollar range of the equity securities of the mutual funds within the Fund Complex which were beneficially owned by the Directors as of December 31, 2013. As of that date, Directors did not own shares of Funds not listed.
For the purpose of these tables, beneficial ownership means a direct or indirect pecuniary interest. Only the Directors who are “interested persons” are eligible to participate in an employee benefit program which invests in Principal Funds, Inc. Directors who beneficially owned shares of the series of the Principal Variable Contracts Funds, Inc. did so through variable life insurance and variable annuity contracts. Please note that exact dollar amounts of securities held are not listed. Rather, ownership is listed based on the following dollar ranges:
A    $0
B    $1 up to and including $10,000
C    $10,001 up to and including $50,000
D    $50,001 up to and including $100,000
E    $100,001 or more
Independent Directors (not Considered to be "Interested Persons")
Fund
Ballantine
Barnes
Damos
Grimmett
Hirsch
Huang
Kimball
Pavelich
Bond & Mortgage Securities
A
A
A
D
A
A
A
A
Diversified International
C
A
A
A
A
A
E
A
Diversified Real Asset
A
A
C
D
D
A
D
A
Equity Income
A
A
C
A
A
D
E
E
Global Diversified Income
A
E
D
A
D
A
E
A
Global Multi-Strategy
A
A
A
A
A
A
D
A
Govt & High Quality Bond
A
A
D
D
A
A
A
A
High Yield
A
A
D
A
D
A
E
A
Income
A
A
C
D
C
A
A
A
Inflation Protection
A
A
A
D
A
A
A
A
International Emerging Markets
C
A
A
A
A
A
E
A
LargeCap Growth
A
A
A
A
A
A
D
A
LargeCap S&P 500 Index
A
A
A
C
A
A
A
A
MidCap
A
A
E
D
A
A
E
A
Money Market
A
A
A
D
A
A
C
A
Preferred Securities
A
A
C
A
C
A
E
A
Principal Capital Appreciation
C
A
A
A
A
A
E
C
Principal LifeTime 2010
A
A
A
E
A
A
A
A
Real Estate Securities
C
A
C
A
C
C
E
A
SAM Balanced
A
A
A
A
C
A
A
A
SAM Flexible Income
A
A
D
E
E
A
A
A
SAM Strategic Growth
A
A
A
A
A
A
E
A
Short-Term Income
A
A
A
D
A
A
E
A
SmallCap Blend
A
A
A
D
A
C
A
A
Tax-Exempt Bond
A
A
A
A
A
A
D
A
Total Fund Complex
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E

44



Directors Considered to be "Interested Persons"
Fund
Beer
Everett
Global Multi-Strategy
C
A
MidCap
C
A
Principal Funds, Inc.
(through participation in an
Employee benefit plan)
Beer
Everett
Diversified International
A
E
Equity Income
C
E
International Emerging Markets
C
C
LargeCap Growth
A
D
LargeCap Growth I
B
A
LargeCap S&P 500 Index
C
A
MidCap
C
E
MidCap Growth III
B
A
Money Market
B
A
Total Fund Complex
E
E
Compensation. The Fund does not pay any remuneration to its Directors who are employed by the Manager or its affiliates or to its officers who are furnished to the Fund by the Manager and its affiliates pursuant to the Management Agreement. Each Director who is not an “interested person” received compensation for service as a member of the Boards of all investment companies sponsored by Principal Life based on a schedule that takes into account an annual retainer amount, the number of meetings attended, and expenses incurred. Director compensation and related expenses are allocated to each of the Funds based on the net assets of each relative to combined net assets of all of the investment companies sponsored by Principal Life.
The following table provides information regarding the compensation received by the Independent Directors from the Funds included in this SAI and from the Fund Complex during the fiscal year ended October 31, 2013. On that date, there were 2 Funds (with a total of 105 portfolios in the Fund Complex). The Fund does not provide retirement benefits to any of the Directors.

Director
The Funds
In this SAI
Fund
Complex
Elizabeth Ballantine
$151,062
$181,000
Leroy T. Barnes, Jr.
$155,236
$186,000
Craig Damos
$157,322
$188,500
Mark A. Grimmett
$179,856
$215,500
Fritz Hirsch
$156,069
$187,000
Tao Huang
$152,317
$182,500
William C. Kimball
$156,905
$188,000
Daniel Pavelich
$170,674
$204,500

45



INVESTMENT ADVISORY AND OTHER SERVICES
Investment Advisors
The Manager of the Fund is Principal Management Corporation (“Principal”), a wholly owned subsidiary of Principal Financial Services, Inc. Principal is an affiliate of Principal Life. The address of Principal is 655 9th Street, Des Moines, IA 50392.
Principal was organized on January 10, 1969, and since that time has managed various mutual funds sponsored by Principal Life.
Principal provides investment advisory services with respect to 10-35% of the assets of the following Funds: LargeCap Blend Fund II, LargeCap Growth Fund I, LargeCap Growth Fund II, LargeCap Value Fund I, LargeCap Value Fund III, MidCap Growth Fund III, MidCap Value Fund I, MidCap Value Fund III, Overseas Fund, SmallCap Growth Fund I, SmallCap Growth Fund II, and SmallCap Value Fund II.
Principal also provides investment advisory services to each of the Principal LifeTime Funds directly, while engaging a Sub-Advisor to assist in managing those Funds.
The following Funds have adopted a special cash management program, described below: International Fund I, LargeCap Blend II, LargeCap Growth I, LargeCap Growth II, LargeCap Value I, LargeCap Value III, MidCap Growth III, MidCap Value I, MidCap Value III, Overseas, SmallCap Growth I, SmallCap Growth II, and SmallCap Value II.
Each Fund invests its cash in money market investments and in stock index futures contracts reflecting the Fund’s market capitalization to gain exposure to the market.
Principal has executed agreements with various Sub-Advisors. Under those Sub-Advisory agreements, the Sub-Advisor agrees to assume the obligations of Principal to provide investment advisory services for a specific Fund. For these services, Principal pays each Sub-Advisor a fee.
Sub-Advisor:
AllianceBernstein L.P. ("AllianceBernstein") provides investment advisory services. AXA, AXA Financial, Inc., AXA Equitable Life Insurance Company ("AXA Equitable"), and certain subsidiaries of AXA Equitable directly and indirectly represent a controlling economic interest in AllianceBernstein.
Fund(s):
a portion of the assets of SmallCap Growth I
Sub-Advisor:
American Century Investment Management, Inc. ("American Century") provides investment advisory services and was founded in 1958. American Century is a direct, wholly-owned subsidiary of American Century Companies, Inc. ("ACC").The Stowers Institute for Medical Research ("SIMR") controls ACC by virtue of its beneficial ownership of more than 25% of the voting securities of ACC. SIMR is part of a not-for-profit biomedical research organization dedicated to finding the keys to the causes, treatments and prevention of disease.
Fund(s):
a portion of the assets of LargeCap Growth II
Sub-Advisor:
Barrow, Hanley, Mewhinney & Strauss, LLC ("BHMS") is an investment advisory firm that was founded in 1979 and is a subsidiary of Old Mutual Asset Management (US) LLC, which is a subsidiary of Old Mutual plc, based in London, England.
Fund(s):
a portion of the assets of LargeCap Value III, a portion of the assets of MidCap Value III, and a portion of the assets of Overseas
Sub-Advisor:
BlackRock Financial Management, Inc. (“BlackRock”) is a wholly owned subsidiary of BlackRock Holdco 2, Inc., which is a wholly owned subsidiary of BlackRock, Inc. BlackRock and its affiliates manage investment company and other portfolio assets.
Fund(s):
Inflation Protection
Sub-Advisor:
Brown Advisory, LLC (“Brown”) is a registered investment adviser and wholly-owned subsidiary of Brown Advisory Management, LLC.
Fund(s):
a portion of the assets of LargeCap Growth I and a portion of the assets of SmallCap Growth I

46



Sub-Advisor:
Causeway Capital Management LLC (“Causeway”) provides investment advisory services to institutional clients and funds. Causeway’s controlling owners are Sarah Ketterer and Harry Hartford.
Fund(s):
a portion of the assets of Overseas
Sub-Advisor:
ClearBridge Investments, LLC (“ClearBridge”) is registered as an investment adviser under the Advisers Act. ClearBridge Investments, LLC is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Legg Mason, Inc., a diversified group of global asset management firms as well as a provider of distribution and client-service.  Legg Mason, Inc. was founded in 1899 as a brokerage firm and has grown substantially since then.
Fund(s):
a portion of the assets of LargeCap Blend II
Sub-Advisor:
Colonial First State Asset Management (Australia) Limited is 100% owned by Colonial First State Group Limited, which is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Commonwealth Bank of Australia (CBA). CBA was founded in 1911 and is Australia's largest bank by market capitalization and provides integrated financial services.
Fund(s):    a portion of the assets of Global Diversified Income
Sub-Advisor:
Columbus Circle Investors (“CCI”) is an affiliate of PGI, which is a member of the Principal Financial Group. CCI provides investment advisory services and was founded in 1975.
Fund(s):
LargeCap Growth, MidCap Growth and a portion of the assets of SmallCap Growth I
Sub-Advisor:
DDJ Capital Management, LLC (“DDJ”) a privately-owned Massachusetts limited liability company, was founded in 1996. David Breazzano, the firm’s co-founder, President and Chief Investment Officer, is the largest equity owner and has voting control.  In addition, Mr. Breazzano serves as the sole manager of the LLC.  Anthony Ranaldi, the firm’s Executive Vice President and senior portfolio manager, is the second largest equity owner and may also be deemed a control person under applicable law.
Fund(s):
a portion of the assets of Global Diversified Income
Sub-Advisor:
Dimensional Fund Advisors LP (“Dimensional”) is a registered investment advisor. Dimensional is controlled and operated by its general partner, Dimensional Holdings Inc., a Delaware corporation.
Fund(s):
a portion of the assets of SmallCap Value II
Sub-Advisor:
Edge Asset Management, Inc. ("Edge") is an affiliate of Principal and a member of the Principal Financial Group. Edge has been in the business of investment management since 1944.
Fund(s):
Equity Income, Government & High Quality Bond, Income, Principal Capital Appreciation, Short-Term Income, SAM Balanced Portfolio, SAM Conservative Balanced Portfolio, SAM Conservative Growth Portfolio, SAM Flexible Income Portfolio, and SAM Strategic Growth Portfolio
Sub-Advisor:
Emerald Advisers, Inc. (“Emerald”) is a wholly owned subsidiary of Emerald Asset Management. Emerald provides professional investment advisory services to institutional investors and the general public.
Fund(s):
a portion of the assets of SmallCap Growth II
Sub-Advisor:
Goldman Sachs Asset Management, L.P. ("GSAM") has been registered as an investment adviser with the SEC since 1990 and is a subsidiary of The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. and an affiliate of Goldman Sachs & Co. The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc., founded in 1869, is a global financial services company that serves a variety of clients.
Fund(s):    a portion of the assets of MidCap Value I

47



Sub-Advisor:
Guggenheim Partners Investment Management, LLC (“GPIM” or “Guggenheim”) was founded in 2012.  GPIM was formed by the consolidation of Guggenheim Investment Management, LLC (“GIM”), founded in 2001, with its SEC registered investment adviser affiliate Guggenheim Partners Asset Management, LLC (“GPAM”), founded in 2005.  The legal entity consolidation and name change was completed on June 30, 2012.  GPIM is controlled by Guggenheim Capital, LLC, a privately held financial services firm that was founded in 1999.
Fund(s):
a portion of the assets of Global Diversified Income
Sub-Advisor:
Herndon Capital Management, LLC provides investment advisory services. Atlanta Life Financial Group, a privately owned financial services company, owns 55% of Herndon Capital Management, LLC.
Fund(s):
a portion of the assets of LargeCap Value I
Sub-Advisor:
J.P. Morgan Investment Management Inc. ("J.P. Morgan") is an indirect wholly owned subsidiary of JPMorgan Chase & Co. ("J.P. Morgan"), a bank holding company. J.P. Morgan offers a wide range of services to governmental, institutional, corporate, and individual customers and acts as investment advisor to individual and institutional clients.
Fund(s):
a portion of the assets of High Yield I
Sub-Advisor:
Los Angeles Capital Management and Equity Research, Inc. ("Los Angeles Capital"), a registered investment adviser, is a California Subchapter S corporation founded in 2002 and is wholly-owned by its working principals. Los Angeles Capital offers risk-controlled, active equity management services to a broad range of institutional investors. Thomas D. Stevens, Chairman and President, and Hal W. Reynolds, Chief Investment Officer, hold the controlling equity interest in the firm.
Fund(s):
a portion of the assets of MidCap Value I and a portion of the assets of SmallCap Value II
Sub-Advisor:
Montag & Caldwell, LLC (“M&C”) is an employee owned registered investment adviser which on September 24, 2010 succeeded the business of Montag & Caldwell, Inc., a registered investment adviser founded in 1945.
Fund(s):
a portion of the assets of LargeCap Growth II
Sub-Advisor:
Neuberger Berman Fixed Income LLC (“Neuberger Berman”) is an investment adviser registered with the SEC. Neuberger Berman is a direct subsidiary of Neuberger Berman Fixed Income Holdings LLC, and an indirect wholly owned subsidiary of Neuberger Berman Group LLC (“NBG”).
Fund(s):    a portion of the assets of High Yield I
Sub-Advisor:
Origin Asset Management LLP (“Origin”) is an indirect majority-owned subsidiary of Principal Life, an affiliate of Principal, and a member of the Principal Financial Group.
Fund(s):
International Fund I
Sub-Advisor:
Pacific Investment Management Company LLC (“PIMCO”) is a majority-owned subsidiary of Allianz Asset Management with a minority interest held by PIMCO Partners, LLC, a California limited liability company. Prior to December 31, 2011, Allianz Asset Management was named Allianz Global Investors of America L.P. PIMCO Partners, LLC is owned by the current managing directors and executive management of PIMCO. Through various holding company structures, Allianz Asset Management is majority owned by Allianz SE.
Fund(s):
Core Plus Bond I

48



Sub-Advisor:
Post Advisory Group, LLC (“Post”) is an indirect wholly owned subsidiary of Principal Life, an affiliate of Principal, and a member of the Principal Financial Group.
Fund(s):
a portion of the assets of Global Diversified Income
Sub-Advisor:
Principal Global Investors, LLC (“PGI”) is an indirect wholly owned subsidiary of Principal Life Insurance Company, an affiliate of Principal, and a member of the Principal Financial Group. PGI manages equity, fixed-income, and real estate investments primarily for institutional investors, including Principal Life. PGI’s headquarters is in Des Moines, IA. Its other primary asset management office is in New York, with asset management offices of affiliate advisors in several non-U.S. locations including London, Sydney and Singapore.
Fund(s):
Bond & Mortgage Securities, California Municipal, Diversified International, High Yield, International Emerging Markets, LargeCap S&P 500 Index, LargeCap Value, MidCap, MidCap S&P 400 Index, Money Market, Principal LifeTime Strategic Income, Principal LifeTime 2010, Principal LifeTime 2015, Principal LifeTime 2020, Principal LifeTime 2025, Principal LifeTime 2030, Principal LifeTime 2035, Principal LifeTime 2040, Principal LifeTime 2045, Principal LifeTime 2050, Principal LifeTime 2055, Principal LifeTime 2060, SmallCap Blend, SmallCap S&P 600 Index, Tax-Exempt Bond, a portion of the assets of Global Diversified Income, and a portion of the assets of MidCap Value III
Sub-Advisor:
Principal Real Estate Investors, LLC ("Principal - REI"), an indirect wholly owned subsidiary of Principal Life, an affiliate of Principal, and a member of the Principal Financial Group, was founded in 2000. It manages investments for institutional investors, including Principal Life.
Fund(s):
Global Real Estate Securities, Real Estate Securities, and a portion of the assets of Global Diversified Income
                      
Sub-Advisor:
Robert W. Baird & Co. Incorporated (“Baird”) provides investment advisory services. Baird is owned directly by Baird Financial Corporation (“BFC”). BFC is, in turn, owned by Baird Holding Company (“BHC”). BHC is owned by Baird Financial Group, Inc. (“BFG”), which is the ultimate parent company of Baird. Employees of Baird own substantially all of the outstanding stock of BFG.
Fund(s):    a portion of the assets of MidCap Growth III
Sub-Advisor:
Spectrum Asset Management, Inc. ("Spectrum") is an indirect subsidiary of Principal Life, an affiliate of PGI and a member of the Principal Financial Group. Spectrum provides investment advisory services and was founded in 1987.
Fund(s):    a portion of the assets of Global Diversified Income
Sub-Advisor:
Stone Harbor Investment Partners LP (“Stone Harbor”) provides investment advisory services and is 100% employee owned. Stone Harbor Investment Partners GP LLC, Ship Capital Partners LP, and Peter John Wilby are control persons of Stone Harbor.
Fund(s):
a portion of the assets of Global Diversified Income
Sub-Advisor:
T. Rowe Price Associates, Inc. ("T. Rowe Price"), a wholly owned subsidiary of T. Rowe Price Group, Inc., a financial services holding company, has over 75 years of investment management experience.
Fund(s):
a portion of the assets of LargeCap Blend II and a portion of the assets of LargeCap Growth I
Sub-Advisor:
Thompson, Siegel & Walmsley LLC (“TS&W”) is a limited liability company and a SEC registered investment advisor founded in 1969. TS&W offers investment advisory services to governmental, institutional, corporate and individual clients. TS&W is a majority owned subsidiary of Old Mutual (US) Holdings Inc., a subsidiary of Old Mutual plc, a financial service company.
Fund(s):
a portion of the assets of LargeCap Value I

49



Sub-Advisor:
Tortoise Capital Advisors, L.L.C. (“Tortoise”) was formed in October 2002. Tortoise provides energy infrastructure investment management services to individual and institutional investors. Tortoise is managed by its five founding managing directors and is wholly-owned by Tortoise Holdings, LLC. Montage Investments, LLC (“Montage”), a registered investment adviser, owns a majority interest in Tortoise Holdings, LLC. Montage is wholly-owned by Mariner Holdings, LLC, a global financial services firm with affiliates focused on wealth and asset management. The remaining interests in Tortoise Holdings, LLC are held by Tortoise's five founding managing directors and certain other senior Tortoise employees.
Fund(s):
a portion of the assets of Global Diversified Income
Sub-Advisor:
Vaughan Nelson Investment Management, LP ("Vaughan Nelson") provides investment advisory services. Founded in 1970, Vaughan Nelson is a subsidiary of Natixis Global Asset Management, L.P.
Fund(s):
a portion of the assets of SmallCap Value II
Sub-Advisor:
W. H. Reaves & Co., Inc. (doing business as Reaves Asset Management) is a professional investment management firm registered with the SEC. The firm was established in 1961 and offers investment management services for institutions including corporations, foundations, endowments, government entities and high net worth individuals.
Fund(s):
a portion of the assets of Global Diversified Income
Sub-Advisor:
Westwood Management Corp. ("Westwood"), a New York corporation formed in 1983, is a wholly owned subsidiary of Westwood Holdings Group, Inc., an institutional asset management company.
Fund(s):    a portion of the assets of LargeCap Value III
Sub-Advisor:
William Blair & Company, L.L.C. (“William Blair”) is a limited liability company that is 100% owned by WBC Holdings, L.P., a limited partnership. The affairs of William Blair are controlled by the general partner of WBC Holdings, L.P., WBC GP, L.L.C., which in turn, is controlled by the Executive Committee. The Executive Committee is comprised of John R. Ettelson, Brent W. Gledhill, W. George Greig, Richard P. Kiphart, John C. Moore, Michelle R. Seitz and Arthur J. Simon.
Fund(s):    a portion of the assets of MidCap Growth III
                                         
Affiliated Persons of the Fund Who are Affiliated Persons of the Advisor
For information about affiliated persons of the Fund who are also affiliated persons of Principal or affiliated advisors, see the Interested Director and Officer tables in the “Leadership Structure and Board of Directors” section.
Codes of Ethics
The Fund, Principal, each of the Sub-Advisors, and PFD have adopted Codes of Ethics (“Codes”) under Rule 17j-1 of the 1940 Act. Principal and each Sub-Advisor has also adopted such a Code under Rule 204A-1 of the Investment Advisers Act of 1940. These Codes are designed to prevent, among other things, persons with access to information regarding the portfolio trading activity of a Fund from using that information for their personal benefit. In certain circumstances, the Codes permit personnel subject to the Codes to invest in securities, including securities that may be purchased or held by the Funds. The Fund's Board of Directors reviews reports at least annually regarding the operation of the Code of Ethics of the Fund, Principal, PFD, and each of the Sub-Advisors. The Codes are on file with, and available from, the SEC. A copy of the Fund's Code will also be provided upon request, which may be made by contacting the Fund.
Management Agreement
For providing the investment advisory services, and specified other services, Principal, under the terms of the Management Agreement for the Fund, is entitled to receive a fee computed and accrued daily and payable monthly, at the following annual rates. The management fee schedules for the Funds are as follows (expressed as a percentage of average net assets):

50




Fund
First $500
Million
Next $500
Million
Next $500
Million
Over $1.5
Billion
Global Real Estate Securities
0.90%
0.88%
0.86%
0.85%
Inflation Protection
0.40
0.38
0.36
0.35
LargeCap Blend II
0.75
0.73
0.71
0.70
MidCap Growth
0.65
0.63
0.61
0.60
MidCap Growth III
1.00
0.96
0.94
0.92
MidCap Value III
0.65
0.63
0.61
0.60
SmallCap Blend
0.75
0.73
0.71
0.70
SmallCap Growth II
1.00
0.98
0.96
0.95
SmallCap Value II
1.00
0.98
0.96
0.95
Tax-Exempt Bond
0.45
0.43
0.41
0.40
Fund
All Assets
Principal LifeTime Strategic Income
0.03%
Principal LifeTime 2010
0.03
Principal LifeTime 2015
0.03
Principal LifeTime 2020
0.03
Principal LifeTime 2025
0.03
Principal LifeTime 2030
0.03
Principal LifeTime 2035
0.03
Principal LifeTime 2040