ck0001683471-20211231
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PROSPECTUS

Roundhill Video Games ETF (NERD)
(formerly, the Roundhill BITKRAFT Esports & Digital Entertainment ETF)
Roundhill Sports Betting & iGaming ETF (BETZ)
Roundhill Ball Metaverse ETF (METV)
Roundhill IO Digital Infrastructure ETF (BYTE)
Roundhill MEME ETF (MEME)



Principal U.S. Listing Exchange: NYSE Arca, Inc.

April 30, 2022,
as Supplemented September 26, 2022









The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) has not approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the accuracy or adequacy of this Prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.




TABLE OF CONTENTS
ROUNDHILL VIDEO GAMES ETF – FUND SUMMARY
ROUNDHILL SPORTS BETTING & IGAMING ETF - FUND SUMMARY
ROUNDHILL BALL METAVERSE ETF - FUND SUMMARY
ROUNDHILL IO DIGITAL INFRASTRUCTURE ETF - FUND SUMMARY
ROUNDHILL MEME ETF - FUND SUMMARY
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ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ABOUT THE INDEXES
OTHER SERVICE PROVIDERS
NET INVESTMENT INCOME TAX
TAXATION OF REIT INVESTMENTS
DISTRIBUTION PLAN
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ROUNDHILL VIDEO GAMES ETF – FUND SUMMARY
(formerly, Roundhill BITKRAFT Esports & Digital Entertainment ETF)
Investment Objective
The Roundhill Video Games ETF (“Video Games ETF” or the “Fund”) seeks to track the total return performance, before fees and expenses, of the Nasdaq CTA Global Video Games Software IndexTM (the “Index”).
Fees and Expenses of the Fund
This table describes the fees and expenses that you may pay if you buy, hold, and sell shares of the Fund (“Shares”). You may pay other fees, such as brokerage commissions and other fees to financial intermediaries, which are not reflected in the table and Example below.
Shareholder Fees (fees paid directly from your investment)
None
Annual Fund Operating Expenses (expenses that you pay each year as a percentage of the value of your investment)
Management Fee 0.50%
Distribution and/or Service (12b-1) Fees 0.00%
Other Expenses 0.00%
Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses 0.50%
Example
This Example is intended to help you compare the cost of investing in the Fund with the cost of investing in other funds. The Example assumes that you invest $10,000 in the Fund for the time periods indicated and then redeem all of your Shares at the end of those periods. The Example also assumes that your investment has a 5% return each year and that the Fund’s operating expenses remain the same. The Example does not take into account brokerage commissions that you may pay on your purchases and sales of Shares. Although your actual costs may be higher or lower, based on these assumptions your costs would be:
1 Year: $51 3 Years: $160 5 Years: $280 10 Years: $628
Portfolio Turnover
The Fund pays transaction costs, such as commissions, when it buys and sells securities (or “turns over” its portfolio). A higher portfolio turnover rate may indicate higher transaction costs and may result in higher taxes when Shares are held in a taxable account. These costs, which are not reflected in the Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses or in the Example, affect the Fund’s performance. For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021, the Fund’s portfolio turnover rate was 52% of the average value of its portfolio.
Principal Investment Strategies
The Fund uses a “passive management” (or indexing) approach to seek to track the total return performance, before fees and expenses, of the Index.
Nasdaq CTA Global Video Games Software IndexTM
The Index, which was developed and is maintained by both Nasdaq and the Consumer Technology Association (the “CTA”), is a modified theme-adjusted free float market capitalization index designed to track the performance of the common stock (or corresponding depositary receipts) of exchange-listed companies engaged in video game publishing and/or video game development (the “Video Games Industry”). The companies are selected for inclusion in the Index based on a classification scheme developed by the CTA. Specifically, the companies are selected for inclusion in the Index based on (1) their classification within the Developer/Publisher Sector developed by the CTA, which includes companies that design and execute the creation of video games (game developer companies) and companies that finance the development and distribution of video games (game publisher companies), and (2) the fact that they derive at least 50% of their revenue (at least 40% for companies already included in the Index) from such activities. Such companies also must not be classified by the CTA as a Social Casino Gaming company. The Index generally is expected to consist of more than 25 companies. The number of constituents may change depending on the number of companies available for investment that meet the Index criteria.
To be eligible for inclusion in the Index, a company must have a market capitalization of at least $500 million ($300 million at the time of reconstitution for companies already included in the Index) and a three-month average daily traded value of at least $1 million ($500,000 at the time of reconstitution for companies already included in the Index). In addition, at least 20% of a company’s total shares outstanding must be publicly available for trading. Companies domiciled in Russia or China currently are not eligible for inclusion in the Index. Once a company is determined to be eligible for inclusion in the Index, a theme-weighted free float market value is calculated for the company by multiplying the company’s market capitalization by its level of free float and the percentage of
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its revenue from the Video Games Industry. This value is then divided by the aggregate theme-adjusted free float market value for all Index components to arrive at the company’s initial weight in the Index. Each company’s initial weight may be further adjusted to ensure that companies with a weight greater than 5% do not have an aggregate weight greater than 40% of the Index and that no company with a lesser theme-adjusted free float market value has an Index weight greater than a company with a greater theme-adjusted free float market value.
The Index is reconstituted semi-annually in March and September of each year, with “extraordinary additions” made monthly in all other months. Extraordinary additions will be made only for companies that meet the criteria described above, as well as five additional eligibility criteria, including that the company commenced trading on or after the most recent monthly addition and prior to the current monthly addition and has a market capitalization higher than 80% of the existing Index components as of the monthly addition date. The Index is rebalanced quarterly in March, June, September and December, and during any month when an extraordinary addition is made. Component changes resulting from reconstitutions or rebalances become effective at the market open on the trading day following the second Friday in each review month or any month when an extraordinary addition is made.
The Fund’s Investment Strategy
The Fund invests, under normal circumstances, at least 80% of its net assets (plus borrowings for investment purposes) in companies that are economically tied to the Video Games Industry. For purposes of the foregoing policy, a company is considered economically tied to the Video Games Industry if it earns a significant amount of its revenue from video games and is classified by the CTA as a company within the Developer/Publisher Sector.
The Fund will generally use a “replication” strategy to achieve its investment objective, meaning the Fund generally will invest in all of the component securities of the Index in approximately the same proportions as in the Index. However, the Fund may use a “representative sampling” strategy, meaning it may invest in a sample of the securities in the Index whose risk, return, and other characteristics closely resemble the risk, return, and other characteristics of the Index as a whole, when Exchange Traded Concepts, LLC (the “Sub-Adviser”), the Fund’s sub-adviser, believes it is in the best interests of the Fund (e.g., when replicating the Index involves practical difficulties or substantial costs, an Index constituent becomes temporarily illiquid, unavailable, or less liquid, or as a result of legal restrictions or limitations that apply to the Fund but not to the Index).
The Fund generally may invest up to 20% of its total assets (exclusive of any collateral held from securities lending) in securities or other investments not included in the Index, but which the Sub-Adviser believes will help the Fund track the Index. For example, the Fund may invest in securities that are not components of the Index to reflect various corporate actions and other changes to the Index (such as reconstitutions, additions, and deletions).
To the extent the Index concentrates (i.e., holds more than 25% of its total assets) in the securities of a particular industry or group of related industries, the Fund will concentrate its investments to approximately the same extent as the Index. As of September 26, 2022, the Fund was concentrated in securities issued by companies in the Entertainment Industry, a separate industry within the Communication Services Sector. The industries in which the underlying Index components, and thus the Fund’s investments, may be concentrated may vary as the composition of the Index changes over time.
The Fund is classified as a “non-diversified” investment company under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “1940 Act”).
Principal Investment Risks
The principal risks of investing in the Fund are summarized below. The principal risks are presented in alphabetical order to facilitate finding particular risks and comparing them with those of other funds. Each risk summarized below is considered a “principal risk” of investing in the Fund, regardless of the order in which it appears. As with any investment, there is a risk that you could lose all or a portion of your investment in the Fund. Some or all of these risks may adversely affect the Fund’s net asset value (“NAV”), trading price, yield, total return and/or ability to meet its investment objective. The following risks could affect the value of your investment in the Fund:
Associated Risks of Video Game Companies. Video game companies face intense competition, both domestically and internationally, may have limited product lines, markets, financial resources, or personnel, may have products that face rapid obsolescence, and are heavily dependent on the protection of patent and intellectual property rights. Such factors may adversely affect the profitability and value of video game companies. These companies also may be subject to increasing regulatory constraints, particularly with respect to cybersecurity and privacy. In addition to the costs of complying with such constraints, the unintended disclosure of confidential information, whether because of an error or a cybersecurity event, could adversely affect the reputation, profitability and value of these companies.
Communication Services Sector Risk. The Fund’s assets will have significant exposure to the Communication Services Sector, which means the Fund will be more affected by the performance of the Communication Services Sector than a fund that is more diversified. Market or economic factors impacting companies in the Communication Services Sector that rely heavily on technological advances could have a major effect on the value of the Fund’s investments. The value of stocks of communication
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services companies and companies that rely heavily on technology is particularly vulnerable to research and development costs, substantial capital requirements, product and services obsolescence, government regulation, and domestic and international competition, including competition from foreign competitors with lower production costs. Stocks of communication services companies and companies that rely heavily on technology, especially those of smaller, less-seasoned companies, tend to be more volatile than the overall market. Additionally, companies in the Communication Services Sector may face dramatic and often unpredictable changes in growth rates and competition for the services of qualified personnel. While all companies may be susceptible to network security breaches, certain companies in the Communication Services Sector may be particular targets of hacking and potential theft of proprietary or consumer information or disruptions in service, which could have a material adverse effect on their businesses.
Concentration Risk. Because the Fund’s assets will be concentrated in an industry or group of industries to the extent the Index concentrates in a particular industry or group of industries, the Fund is subject to loss due to adverse occurrences that may affect that industry or group of industries. To the extent the Fund does so, the Fund is more vulnerable to adverse market, economic, regulatory, political or other developments affecting that industry or group of related industries than a fund that invests its assets more broadly. As of September 26, 2022, the underlying index components, and thus the Fund’s investments, are concentrated in securities issued by companies in the Entertainment Industry. As a result of the Fund’s concentration in the Entertainment Industry, the Fund is subject to the risks associated with that Industry. The Entertainment Industry is highly competitive and relies on consumer spending and the availability of disposable income for success. The prices of the securities of companies in the Entertainment Industry may fluctuate widely due to competitive pressures, heavy expenses incurred for research and development of products, problems related to bringing products to market, consumer preferences and rapid obsolescence of products. Legislative or regulatory changes and increased government supervision also may affect companies in the Entertainment Industry. The Entertainment Industry is a separate industry within the Communication Services Sector.
Currency Exchange Rate Risk. The Fund may invest in investments denominated in non-U.S. currencies or in securities that provide exposure to such currencies. Changes in currency exchange rates and the relative value of non-U.S. currencies will affect the value of the Fund’s investment and the value of your Shares. Currency exchange rates can be very volatile and can change quickly and unpredictably. As a result, the value of an investment in the Fund may change quickly and without warning and you may lose money.
Cybersecurity Risk. Cybersecurity incidents may allow an unauthorized party to gain access to Fund assets or proprietary information, or cause the Fund, the Adviser, the Sub-Adviser and/or other service providers (including custodians and financial intermediaries) to suffer data breaches or data corruption. Additionally, cybersecurity failures or breaches of the electronic systems of the Fund, the Adviser, the Sub-Adviser or the Fund’s other service providers, market makers, Authorized Participants (“APs”), the Fund’s primary listing exchange, or the issuers of securities in which the Fund invests have the ability to disrupt and negatively affect the Fund’s business operations, including the ability to purchase and sell Fund Shares, potentially resulting in financial losses to the Fund and its shareholders.
Depositary Receipt Risk. Depositary receipts, including ADRs, involve risks similar to those associated with investments in foreign securities, such as changes in political or economic conditions of other countries and changes in the exchange rates of foreign currencies. Depositary receipts listed on U.S. exchanges are issued by banks or trust companies, and entitle the holder to all dividends and capital gains that are paid out on the underlying foreign shares (“Underlying Shares”). When the Fund invests in depositary receipts as a substitute for an investment directly in the Underlying Shares, the Fund is exposed to the risk that the depositary receipts may not provide a return that corresponds precisely with that of the Underlying Shares. Because the Underlying Shares trade on foreign exchanges that may be closed when the Fund’s primary listing exchange is open, the Fund may experience premiums and discounts greater than those of funds without exposure to such Underlying Shares.
Emerging Markets Risk. The Fund may invest in companies organized in emerging market nations. Investments in securities and instruments traded in developing or emerging markets, or that provide exposure to such securities or markets, can involve additional risks relating to political, economic, or regulatory conditions not associated with investments in U.S. securities and instruments or investments in more developed international markets. Such conditions may impact the ability of the Fund to buy, sell or otherwise transfer securities, adversely affect the trading market and price for Fund shares and cause the Fund to decline in value.
Equity Market Risk. The equity securities held in the Fund’s portfolio may experience sudden, unpredictable drops in value or long periods of decline in value. This may occur because of factors that affect securities markets generally or factors affecting specific issuers, industries, sectors or companies in which the Fund invests. Common stocks are generally exposed to greater risk than other types of securities, such as preferred stocks and debt obligations, because common stockholders generally have inferior rights to receive payment from issuers.
ETF Risks. The Fund is an ETF, and, as a result of its structure, it is exposed to the following risks:
Authorized Participants, Market Makers, and Liquidity Providers Concentration Risk. The Fund has a limited number of financial institutions that may act as APs. In addition, there may be a limited number of market makers and/or liquidity
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providers in the marketplace. To the extent either of the following events occur, Shares may trade at a material discount to NAV and possibly face delisting: (i) APs exit the business or otherwise become unable to process creation and/or redemption orders and no other APs step forward to perform these services, or (ii) market makers and/or liquidity providers exit the business or significantly reduce their business activities and no other entities step forward to perform their functions.
Costs of Buying or Selling Shares Risk. Due to the costs of buying or selling Shares, including brokerage commissions imposed by brokers and bid/ask spreads, frequent trading of Shares may significantly reduce investment results and an investment in Shares may not be advisable for investors who anticipate regularly making small investments.
Shares May Trade at Prices Other Than NAV Risk. As with all ETFs, Shares may be bought and sold in the secondary market at market prices. Although it is expected that the market price of Shares will approximate the Fund’s NAV, there may be times when the market price of Shares is more than the NAV intra-day (premium) or less than the NAV intra-day (discount) due to supply and demand of Shares or during periods of market volatility. This risk is heightened in times of market volatility, periods of steep market declines, and periods when there is limited trading activity for Shares in the secondary market, in which case such premiums or discounts may be significant. Because securities held by the Fund may trade on foreign exchanges that are closed when the Fund’s primary listing exchange is open, the Fund is likely to experience premiums or discounts greater than those of domestic ETFs.
Trading Risk. Although Shares are listed for trading on the NYSE Arca, Inc. (the “Exchange”) and may be traded on U.S. exchanges other than the Exchange, there can be no assurance that Shares will trade with any volume, or at all, on any stock exchange. In stressed market conditions, the liquidity of Shares may begin to mirror the liquidity of the Fund’s underlying portfolio holdings, which can be significantly less liquid than Shares.
Foreign Securities Risk. Investments in non-U.S. securities involve certain risks that may not be present with investments in U.S. securities. For example, investments in non-U.S. securities may be subject to risk of loss due to foreign currency fluctuations or to political or economic instability. There may be less information publicly available about a non-U.S. issuer than a U.S. issuer. Non-U.S. issuers may be subject to different accounting, auditing, financial reporting and investor protection standards than U.S. issuers. Investments in non-U.S. securities also may be subject to withholding or other taxes and may be subject to additional trading, settlement, custodial, and operational risks. With respect to certain countries, there is the possibility of government intervention and expropriation or nationalization of assets. Because legal systems differ, there is also the possibility that it will be difficult to obtain or enforce legal judgments in certain countries. Since foreign exchanges may be open on days when the Fund does not price its shares, the value of the securities in the Fund’s portfolio may change on days when shareholders will not be able to purchase or sell the Fund’s shares. Conversely, Shares may trade on days when foreign exchanges are closed. Each of these factors can make investments in the Fund more volatile and potentially less liquid than other types of investments.
Geographic Investment Risk. To the extent the Fund invests a significant portion of its assets in the securities of companies of a single country or region, it is more likely to be impacted by events or conditions affecting that country or region.
Risks Relating to Investing in Asia. Although many Asian economies have experienced growth and development in recent years, there is no assurance that this growth will continue. Other Asian economies, however, have been and continue to be subject, to some extent, to over-extension of credit, currency devaluations and restrictions, high unemployment, high inflation, decreased exports and economic recessions. Economic events in any one country can have a significant economic effect on the entire Asian region as well as on major trading partners outside Asia. Many Asian countries are subject to political risk, including corruption and conflict with neighboring Asian and non-Asian countries. For instance, the historical tensions between North Korea and South Korea, each of which has substantial military capabilities, present the risk of war and any outbreak of hostility between the two countries could adversely affect Asia as a whole. In addition, in recent years, certain Asian nations have developed strained relations with the United States and, if these relations worsen, they could affect international trade. In addition, many Asian countries are prone to natural disasters such as earthquakes and tsunamis, and the Fund’s investments in Asian issuers may be more likely to be affected by such events than its investments in other geographic regions. Any changes or trends in these economic, political and social factors could have a significant impact on Asian economies overall and may negatively affect the Fund’s investments. Moreover, the Fund may be more volatile than a geographically diversified equity fund.
Illiquidity Risk. Illiquidity risk exists when particular investments are difficult to purchase or sell, possibly preventing the Fund from selling these illiquid investments at an advantageous price or at the time desired. A lack of liquidity may also cause the value of investments to decline. Illiquid investments may also be difficult to value.
Index Provider Risk. There is no assurance that the Index Provider, or any agents that act on its behalf, will compile the Index accurately, or that the Index will be determined, constructed, reconstituted, rebalanced, composed, calculated or disseminated accurately. The Adviser relies upon the Index Provider and its agents to compile, determine, construct, reconstitute, rebalance, compose, calculate (or arrange for an agent to calculate), and disseminate the Index accurately. Any losses or costs associated with errors made by the Index Provider or its agents generally will be borne by the Fund and its shareholders.
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Market Risk. The trading prices of securities and other instruments fluctuate in response to a variety of factors. These factors include events impacting the entire market or specific market segments, such as political, market and economic developments, as well as events that impact specific issuers. The Fund’s NAV and market price, like security and commodity prices generally, may fluctuate significantly in response to these and other factors. As a result, an investor could lose money over short or long periods of time. U.S. and international markets have experienced significant periods of volatility in recent years due to a number of these factors, including the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and related public health issues, growth concerns in the U.S. and overseas, uncertainties regarding interest rates, trade tensions and the threat of tariffs imposed by the U.S. and other countries. In addition, local, regional or global events such as war, including Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, acts of terrorism, spread of infectious diseases or other public health issues, recessions, rising inflation, or other events could have a significant negative impact on the Fund and its investments. These developments as well as other events could result in further market volatility and negatively affect financial asset prices, the liquidity of certain securities and the normal operations of securities exchanges and other markets. It is unknown how long circumstances related to the pandemic will persist, whether they will reoccur in the future, whether efforts to support the economy and financial markets will be successful, and what additional implications may follow from the pandemic. The impact of these events and other epidemics or pandemics in the future could adversely affect Fund performance.
Market Capitalization Risk.
Large-Capitalization Investing. The securities of large-capitalization companies may be relatively mature compared to smaller companies and therefore subject to slower growth during times of economic expansion. Large-capitalization companies also may be unable to respond quickly to new competitive challenges, such as changes in technology and consumer tastes.
Mid-Capitalization Investing. The securities of mid-capitalization companies may be more vulnerable to adverse issuer, market, political, or economic developments than securities of large-capitalization companies. The securities of mid-capitalization companies generally trade in lower volumes and are subject to greater and more unpredictable price changes than large capitalization stocks or the stock market as a whole.
Small-Capitalization Investing. The securities of small-capitalization companies may be more vulnerable to adverse issuer, market, political, or economic developments than securities of large- or mid-capitalization companies. The securities of small-capitalization companies generally trade in lower volumes and are subject to greater and more unpredictable price changes than large- or mid-capitalization stocks or the stock market as a whole. There is typically less publicly available information concerning smaller-capitalization companies than for larger, more established companies.
Non-Diversification Risk. Because the Fund is “non-diversified,” it may invest a greater percentage of its assets in the securities of a single issuer or a lesser number of issuers than if it was a diversified fund. As a result, a decline in the value of an investment in a single issuer or a lesser number of issuers could cause the Fund’s overall value to decline to a greater degree than if the Fund held a more diversified portfolio. This may increase the Fund’s volatility and have a greater impact on the Fund’s performance.
Passive Investment Risk. The Fund is not actively managed and its Sub-Adviser would not sell shares of an equity security due to current or projected underperformance of a security industry or sector unless that security is removed from the Index or the selling of shares of that security is otherwise required upon a rebalancing of the Index as addressed in the Index methodology.
Tracking Error Risk. As with all index funds, the performance of the Fund and its Index may differ from each other for a variety of reasons. For example, the Fund incurs operating expenses and portfolio transaction costs not incurred by the Index. In addition, the Fund may not be fully invested in the securities of the Index at all times or may hold securities not included in the Index.
Performance
The following performance information indicates some of the risks of investing in the Fund. The bar chart shows the Fund’s performance for calendar years ended December 31. The table illustrates how the Fund’s average annual returns for the 1-year and since inception periods compare with those of a broad measure of market performance and the Roundhill BITKRAFT Esports Index. The Fund’s past performance, before and after taxes, does not necessarily indicate how it will perform in the future. The Fund’s investment objective and principal investment strategies changed on September 26, 2022. Prior to September 26, 2022, the Fund sought to track the total return performance, before fees and expenses, of the Roundhill BITKRAFT Esports Index. Therefore, the performance and average annual total returns shown for periods prior to September 26, 2022 may have differed had the Fund’s current investment objective and principal investment strategies been in effect during those periods. Updated performance information is available on the Fund’s website at www.roundhillinvestments.com.
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Calendar Year Total Returns
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The calendar year-to-date total return of the Fund as of March 31, 2022 was -13.15%. During the period of time shown in the bar chart, the highest quarterly return was 48.75% for the quarter ended June 30, 2020, and the lowest quarterly return was -18.53% for the quarter ended September 30, 2021.
Average Annual Total Returns
(for periods ended December 31, 2021)
Roundhill Video Games ETF
1-Year
Since Inception
(6/3/2019)
Return Before Taxes -16.93% 23.00%
Return After Taxes on Distributions -16.86% 22.86%
Return After Taxes on Distributions and Sale of Shares -9.94% 18.18%
Roundhill BITKRAFT Esports Index
(reflects no deduction for fees, expenses, or taxes)
-16.75% 23.82%
Solactive GBS Developed Markets Large & Mid Cap USD
(reflects no deduction for fees, expenses, or taxes)
22.29% 21.71%
After-tax returns are calculated using the historical highest individual federal marginal income tax rates during the period covered by the table above and do not reflect the impact of state and local taxes. Actual after-tax returns depend on an investor’s tax situation and may differ from those shown. After-tax returns shown are not relevant to investors who hold their Shares through tax-deferred arrangements such as an individual retirement account (“IRA”) or other tax-advantaged accounts. In certain cases, the figure representing “Return After Taxes on Distributions and Sale of Shares” may be higher than the other return figures for the same period. A higher after-tax return results when a capital loss occurs upon redemption and provides an assumed tax deduction that benefits the investor.
Portfolio Management
Adviser Roundhill Financial Inc.
Sub-Adviser Exchange Traded Concepts, LLC
Portfolio Managers
Andrew Serowik, a portfolio manager for the Sub-Adviser, has been a portfolio manager of the Fund since its inception in June 2019, and Todd Alberico and Gabriel Tan, each a portfolio manager for the Sub-Adviser, have been portfolio managers of the Fund since July 2021
Purchase and Sale of Shares
The Fund issues and redeems Shares at NAV only in large blocks known as “Creation Units,” which only APs (typically, broker-dealers) may purchase or redeem. The Fund generally issues and redeems Creation Units in exchange for a portfolio of securities and/or a designated amount of U.S. cash.
Shares are listed on the Exchange, and individual Shares may only be bought and sold in the secondary market through a broker or dealer at market prices, rather than NAV. Because Shares trade at market prices rather than NAV, Shares may trade at a price greater than NAV (premium) or less than NAV (discount).
An investor may incur costs attributable to the difference between the highest price a buyer is willing to pay to purchase Shares (the “bid” price) and the lowest price a seller is willing to accept for Shares (the “ask” price) when buying or selling Shares in the secondary market. The difference in the bid and ask prices is referred to as the “bid-ask spread.”
Recent information regarding the Fund’s NAV, market price, how often Shares traded on the Exchange at a premium or discount, and bid-ask spreads can be found on the Fund’s website at www.roundhillinvestments.com.
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Tax Information
The Fund’s distributions are generally taxable as ordinary income, qualified dividend income, or capital gains (or a combination), unless your investment is in an IRA or other tax-advantaged account. Distributions on investments made through tax-deferred arrangements may be taxed later upon withdrawal of assets from those accounts.
Financial Intermediary Compensation
If you purchase Shares through a broker-dealer or other financial intermediary (such as a bank) (an “Intermediary”), the Adviser or its affiliates may pay Intermediaries for certain activities related to the Fund, including participation in activities that are designed to make Intermediaries more knowledgeable about exchange-traded products, including the Fund, or for other activities, such as marketing, educational training or other initiatives related to the sale or promotion of Shares. These payments may create a conflict of interest by influencing the Intermediary and your salesperson to recommend the Fund over another investment. Any such arrangements do not result in increased Fund expenses. Ask your salesperson or visit the Intermediary’s website for more information.
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ROUNDHILL SPORTS BETTING & IGAMING ETF – FUND SUMMARY
Investment Objective
The Roundhill Sports Betting & iGaming ETF (“Sports Betting ETF” or the “Fund”) seeks to track the total return performance, before fees and expenses, of the Roundhill Sports Betting & iGaming Index (the “Index”).
Fees and Expenses of the Fund
This table describes the fees and expenses that you may pay if you buy, hold, and sell shares of the Fund (“Shares”). You may pay other fees, such as brokerage commissions and other fees to financial intermediaries, which are not reflected in the table and Example below.

Shareholder Fees (fees paid directly from your investment)
None
Annual Fund Operating Expenses (expenses that you pay each year as a percentage of the value of your investment)
Management Fee 0.75%
Distribution and/or Service (12b-1) Fees 0.00%
Other Expenses 0.00%
Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses 0.75%
Example
This Example is intended to help you compare the cost of investing in the Fund with the cost of investing in other funds. The Example assumes that you invest $10,000 in the Fund for the time periods indicated and then redeem all of your Shares at the end of those periods. The Example also assumes that your investment has a 5% return each year and that the Fund’s operating expenses remain the same. The Example does not take into account brokerage commissions that you may pay on your purchases and sales of Shares. Although your actual costs may be higher or lower, based on these assumptions your costs would be:
1 Year: $77 3 Years: $240 5 Years: $417 10 Years: $930
Portfolio Turnover
The Fund pays transaction costs, such as commissions, when it buys and sells securities (or “turns over” its portfolio). A higher portfolio turnover rate may indicate higher transaction costs and may result in higher taxes when Shares are held in a taxable account. These costs, which are not reflected in the Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses or in the Example, affect the Fund’s performance. For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021, the Fund’s portfolio turnover rate was 52% of the average value of its portfolio.
Principal Investment Strategies
The Fund uses a “passive management” (or indexing) approach to seek to track the total return performance, before fees and expenses, of the Index. The Index was developed by Roundhill Financial Inc., the Fund’s investment adviser and index provider (“Roundhill” or the “Adviser”), which tracks the performance of a tiered-weight portfolio of globally-listed equity securities of companies that are actively involved in the sports betting industry.
Roundhill Sports Betting & iGaming Index
The Index tracks the performance of the common stock (or corresponding American Depositary Receipts (“ADRs”) or Global Depositary Receipts (“GDRs”)) of exchange-listed companies that earn revenue from online gaming (“iGaming”). iGaming is broadly defined as: the wagering of money or some other value on the outcome of an event or a game, using the internet. The Index includes: (i) companies that operate in-person and/or online/internet sports books; (ii) companies that operate online/internet gambling platforms; and (iii) companies that provide infrastructure or technology to such companies. The companies in the Index are segregated into three categories by a committee comprised of staff from Roundhill (the “Committee”), specifically:
(i)“Pure-Play” Companies - iGaming companies whose primary business model and/or growth prospects are directly linked to sports betting. For these companies, continued growth in sports betting is expected to be critical to their economic success going forward.
(ii)“Core” Companies - iGaming companies with substantial operations and/or growth prospects linked to sports betting. These companies have other iGaming (non-sports betting) business units driving their economics, and thus are less affected by the growth of sports betting than pure-play companies.  In time, growth in the industry and/or investments in their sports betting units may lead these companies to become pure-play companies if their sports betting operations become a primary driver of economic performance. In most cases, the sports betting related offerings of these companies are core components of the sports betting industry.
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(iii)“Non-Core” Companies - iGaming companies with some operations and/or growth prospects linked to sports betting. These companies derive the majority of their revenue from other gaming/gambling business lines not directly related to sports betting.  In time, growth in the industry and/or investments in their sports betting units may lead these companies to become “core” companies if their sports betting operations become a relevant driver of economic performance. It is unlikely, based on current information, that the sports betting offerings of non-core companies would become the primary driver of such economic performance going forward.
The composition of the Index is based on the following rules:
When adding new constituents to the Index, an ADR or GDR is included in the Index in lieu of the foreign security if the ADR or GDR has a higher six-month average daily trading value than the foreign security.
The Index has a quarterly review in January, April, July, and October of each year, at which times the Index is reconstituted and rebalanced by Roundhill. Index components are weighted on a tiered weight basis, whereby “pure-play” companies receive 150% the initial weighting of “core” companies, which in turn receive 150% the initial weighting of “non-core” companies. These initial weights are calculated based on the number of companies under each classification in the Index upon each rebalancing, so as to ensure the total combined weight is 100%. Component changes resulting from reconstitutions are made after the market close on the third Friday in each quarterly review month and become effective at the market opening on the next trading day.
The Committee is responsible for overseeing implementation of the Index methodology. In overseeing the implementation of the methodology, the Committee will generally follow criteria for the screening, classification, and weighting process, but may adjust the inputs to or outputs from such criteria in instances in which the Committee determines that due to extenuating circumstances or unusual market conditions the results of the process do not result in an appropriate representation of a company within the Index or would be contrary to investor expectations for the Index. For example, the Committee may determine to adjust a company’s weighting in the Index in the event that the information obtained from a company’s public filing and used as part of the process to in calculate the company’s weighting in the Index was artificially inflated in the calculation period due to an extraordinary event. In addition, the Committee may determine, at a given rebalance, that a company which had previously been classified as “non-core” and thus included in the Index, has since had a material change to its overall business that justifies moving the company to "N/A" and not including the company in the Index at that time. The Committee’s goal in making these decisions is to maintain the Index’s representation of pure-play companies involved in sports betting and/or iGaming. Members of the Committee can recommend changes to the methodology and submit them to the Committee for approval.
As of March 31, 2022, the Index had 44 constituents.
The Fund’s Investment Strategy
The Fund will generally invest all, or substantially all, of its assets in the component securities that make up the Index and depositary receipts representing Index components. Under normal circumstances, at least 80% of the Fund’s net assets (plus borrowings for investment purposes) will be invested in securities issued by Sports Betting and iGaming Companies.
The Fund will generally use a “replication” strategy to achieve its investment objective, meaning the Fund generally will invest in all of the component securities of the Index in approximately the same proportions as in the Index. However, the Fund may use a “representative sampling” strategy, meaning it may invest in a sample of the securities in the Index whose risk, return, and other characteristics closely resemble the risk, return, and other characteristics of the Index as a whole, when Exchange Traded Concepts, LLC (the “Sub-Adviser”), the Fund’s sub-adviser, believes it is in the best interests of the Fund (e.g., when replicating the Index involves practical difficulties or substantial costs, an Index constituent becomes temporarily illiquid, unavailable, or less liquid, or as a result of legal restrictions or limitations that apply to the Fund but not to the Index).
The Fund also may invest in securities or other investments not included in the Index, but which the Sub-Adviser believes will help the Fund track the Index. For example, the Fund may invest in securities that are not components of the Index to reflect various corporate actions and other changes to the Index (such as reconstitutions, additions, and deletions).
To the extent the Index concentrates (i.e., holds more than 25% of its total assets) in the securities of a particular industry or group of related industries, the Fund will concentrate its investments to approximately the same extent as the Index. As of March 31, 2022, the Index was concentrated in the casinos and gaming sub-industry within the consumer discretionary sector.
The Fund is classified as a “non-diversified” investment company under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “1940 Act”).
Principal Investment Risks
The principal risks of investing in the Fund are summarized below. The principal risks are presented in alphabetical order to facilitate finding particular risks and comparing them with those of other funds. Each risk summarized below is considered a “principal risk” of investing in the Fund, regardless of the order in which it appears. As with any investment, there is a risk that you could lose all or a
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portion of your investment in the Fund. Some or all of these risks may adversely affect the Fund’s net asset value (“NAV”), trading price, yield, total return and/or ability to meet its objective. The following risks could affect the value of your investment in the Fund:
iGaming and Sports Betting Companies Risk. The iGaming and sports betting industry is characterized by an increasingly high degree of competition among a large number of participants including from participants performing illegal activities or unregulated companies. Expansion of iGaming and sports betting in other jurisdictions (both regulated and unregulated) could increase competition with traditional betting companies, which could have an adverse impact on their financial condition, operations and cash flows. In a broader sense, iGaming and sports betting companies face competition from all manner of leisure and entertainment activities, including shopping, athletic events, television and movies, concerts and travel. In addition, established jurisdictions could award additional licenses or permit the expansion or relocation of existing sports betting companies. These companies also may be subject to increasing regulatory constraints, particularly with respect to cybersecurity and privacy. In addition to the costs of complying with such constraints, the unintended disclosure of confidential information, whether because of an error or a cybersecurity event, could adversely affect the reputation, profitability and value of these companies.
Beginning in the first quarter of 2020, financial markets in the United States and around the world experienced extreme and in many cases unprecedented volatility and severe losses due to the global pandemic caused by COVID‑19, a novel coronavirus. The pandemic has resulted in a wide range of social and economic disruptions. Some sectors of the economy and individual issuers, including iGaming companies, have experienced particularly large losses. The shutdown of all commercial sporting activity in the United States and other countries has resulted in there being no sports betting online or otherwise. The continued impact of these events or other epidemics or pandemics could have an impact on the Fund.
Concentration Risk. Because the Fund’s assets will be concentrated in an industry or group of industries to the extent the Index concentrates in a particular industry or group of industries, the Fund is subject to loss due to adverse occurrences that may affect that industry or group of industries.
Consumer Discretionary Sector Risk. Consumer discretionary companies are companies that provide non-essential goods and services, such as retailers, media companies and consumer services. These companies manufacture products and provide discretionary services directly to the consumer, and the success of these companies tied closely to the performance of the overall domestic and international economy, interest rates, competition and consumer confidence.
Currency Exchange Rate Risk. The Fund may invest in investments denominated in non-U.S. currencies or in securities that provide exposure to such currencies. Changes in currency exchange rates and the relative value of non-U.S. currencies will affect the value of the Fund’s investment and the value of your Shares. Currency exchange rates can be very volatile and can change quickly and unpredictably. As a result, the value of an investment in the Fund may change quickly and without warning and you may lose money.
Cybersecurity Risk. Cybersecurity incidents may allow an unauthorized party to gain access to Fund assets or proprietary information, or cause the Fund, the Adviser, the Sub-Adviser and/or other service providers (including custodians and financial intermediaries) to suffer data breaches or data corruption. Additionally, cybersecurity failures or breaches of the electronic systems of the Fund, the Adviser, the Sub-Adviser or the Fund’s other service providers, market makers, Authorized Participants (“APs”) or the issuers of securities in which the Fund invests have the ability to cause disruptions and negatively impact the Fund’s business operations, potentially resulting in financial losses to the Fund and its shareholders.
Depositary Receipt Risk. Depositary receipts, including ADRs, involve risks similar to those associated with investments in foreign securities, such as changes in political or economic conditions of other countries and changes in the exchange rates of foreign currencies. Depositary receipts listed on U.S. exchanges are issued by banks or trust companies, and entitle the holder to all dividends and capital gains that are paid out on the underlying foreign shares (“Underlying Shares”). When the Fund invests in depositary receipts as a substitute for an investment directly in the Underlying Shares, the Fund is exposed to the risk that the depositary receipts may not provide a return that corresponds precisely with that of the Underlying Shares.
Equity Market Risk. The equity securities held in the Fund’s portfolio may experience sudden, unpredictable drops in value or long periods of decline in value. This may occur because of factors that affect securities markets generally or factors affecting specific issuers, industries, sectors or companies in which the Fund invests. Common stocks are generally exposed to greater risk than other types of securities, such as preferred stocks and debt obligations, because common stockholders generally have inferior rights to receive payment from issuers.
ETF Risks. The Fund is an ETF, and, as a result of its structure, it is exposed to the following risks:
Authorized Participants, Market Makers, and Liquidity Providers Concentration Risk. The Fund has a limited number of financial institutions that may act as APs. In addition, there may be a limited number of market makers and/or liquidity providers in the marketplace. To the extent either of the following events occur, Shares may trade at a material discount to NAV and possibly face delisting: (i) APs exit the business or otherwise become unable to process creation and/or redemption
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orders and no other APs step forward to perform these services, or (ii) market makers and/or liquidity providers exit the business or significantly reduce their business activities and no other entities step forward to perform their functions.
Costs of Buying or Selling Shares. Due to the costs of buying or selling Shares, including brokerage commissions imposed by brokers and bid/ask spreads, frequent trading of Shares may significantly reduce investment results and an investment in Shares may not be advisable for investors who anticipate regularly making small investments.
Shares May Trade at Prices Other Than NAV. As with all ETFs, Shares may be bought and sold in the secondary market at market prices. Although it is expected that the market price of Shares will approximate the Fund’s NAV, there may be times when the market price of Shares is more than the NAV intra-day (premium) or less than the NAV intra-day (discount) due to supply and demand of Shares or during periods of market volatility. This risk is heightened in times of market volatility, periods of steep market declines, and periods when there is limited trading activity for Shares in the secondary market, in which case such premiums or discounts may be significant. Because securities held by the Fund may trade on foreign exchanges that are closed when the Fund’s primary listing exchange is open, the Fund is likely to experience premiums or discounts greater than those of domestic ETFs.
Trading. Although Shares are listed for trading on the NYSE Arca, Inc. (the “Exchange”) and may be traded on U.S. exchanges other than the Exchange, there can be no assurance that Shares will trade with any volume, or at all, on any stock exchange. In stressed market conditions, the liquidity of Shares may begin to mirror the liquidity of the Fund’s underlying portfolio holdings, which can be significantly less liquid than Shares.
Foreign Securities Risk. Investments in non-U.S. securities involve certain risks that may not be present with investments in U.S. securities. For example, investments in non-U.S. securities may be subject to risk of loss due to foreign currency fluctuations or to political or economic instability. Investments in non-U.S. securities also may be subject to withholding or other taxes and may be subject to additional trading, settlement, custodial, and operational risks. These and other factors can make investments in the Fund more volatile and potentially less liquid than other types of investments.
Geographic Investment Risk. To the extent the Fund invests a significant portion of its assets in the securities of companies of a single country or region, it is more likely to be impacted by events or conditions affecting that country or region.
Illiquidity Risk. Illiquidity risk exists when particular investments are difficult to purchase or sell, possibly preventing the Fund from selling these illiquid investments at an advantageous price or at the time desired. A lack of liquidity may also cause the value of investments to decline. Illiquid investments may also be difficult to value.
Market Risk. The trading prices of securities and other instruments fluctuate in response to a variety of factors. These factors include events impacting the entire market or specific market segments, such as political, market and economic developments, as well as events that impact specific issuers. The Fund’s NAV and market price, like security and commodity prices generally, may fluctuate significantly in response to these and other factors. As a result, an investor could lose money over short or long periods of time. U.S. and international markets have experienced significant periods of volatility in recent years due to a number of these factors, including the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and related public health issues, growth concerns in the U.S. and overseas, uncertainties regarding interest rates, trade tensions and the threat of tariffs imposed by the U.S. and other countries. These developments as well as other events could result in further market volatility and negatively affect financial asset prices, the liquidity of certain securities and the normal operations of securities exchanges and other markets. It is unknown how long circumstances related to the pandemic will persist, whether they will reoccur in the future, whether efforts to support the economy and financial markets will be successful, and what additional implications may follow from the pandemic. The impact of these events and other epidemics or pandemics in the future could adversely affect Fund performance.
Market Capitalization Risk.
Large-Capitalization Investing. The securities of large-capitalization companies may be relatively mature compared to smaller companies and therefore subject to slower growth during times of economic expansion. Large-capitalization companies may also be unable to respond quickly to new competitive challenges, such as changes in technology and consumer tastes.
Mid-Capitalization Investing. The securities of mid-capitalization companies may be more vulnerable to adverse issuer, market, political, or economic developments than securities of large-capitalization companies. The securities of mid-capitalization companies generally trade in lower volumes and are subject to greater and more unpredictable price changes than large capitalization stocks or the stock market as a whole.
Small-Capitalization Investing. The securities of small-capitalization companies may be more vulnerable to adverse issuer, market, political, or economic developments than securities of large- or mid-capitalization companies. The securities of small-capitalization companies generally trade in lower volumes and are subject to greater and more unpredictable price changes than large- or mid-capitalization stocks or the stock market as a whole. There is typically less publicly available information concerning smaller-capitalization companies than for larger, more established companies.
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Non-Diversification Risk. Because the Fund is “non-diversified,” it may invest a greater percentage of its assets in the securities of a single issuer or a lesser number of issuers than if it was a diversified fund. As a result, the Fund may be more exposed to the risks associated with and developments affecting an individual issuer or a lesser number of issuers than a fund that invests more widely. This may increase the Fund’s volatility and cause the performance of a relatively small number of issuers to have a greater impact on the Fund’s performance.
Passive Investment Risk. The Fund is not actively managed and its Sub-Adviser would not sell shares of an equity security due to current or projected underperformance of a security industry or sector unless that security is removed from the Index or the selling of shares of that security is otherwise required upon a rebalancing of the Index as addressed in the Index methodology.
Tracking Error Risk. As with all index funds, the performance of the Fund and its Index may differ from each other for a variety of reasons. For example, the Fund incurs operating expenses and portfolio transaction costs not incurred by the Index. In addition, the Fund may not be fully invested in the securities of the Index at all times or may hold securities not included in the Index.
Performance
The following performance information indicates some of the risks of investing in the Fund. The bar chart shows the Fund’s performance for the most recent calendar year ended December 31. The table illustrates how the Fund’s average annual returns for the 1-year and since inception periods compare with those of a broad measure of market performance and the Index. The Fund’s past performance, before and after taxes, does not necessarily indicate how it will perform in the future. Updated performance information is available on the Fund’s website at www.roundhillinvestments.com.
Calendar Year Total Return
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The calendar year-to-date total return of the Fund as of March 31, 2022 was -19.11%. During the period of time shown in the bar chart, the highest quarterly return was 18.79% for the quarter ended March 31, 2021, and the lowest quarterly return was -18.02% for the quarter ended December 31, 2021.
Average Annual Total Returns
(for periods ended December 31, 2021)
Roundhill Sports Betting & iGaming ETF
1-Year
Since Inception
(6/3/2020)
Return Before Taxes -3.78% 35.71%
Return After Taxes on Distributions -3.78% 35.67%
Return After Taxes on Distributions and Sale of Shares -2.24% 27.77%
Roundhill Sports Betting & iGaming Index
(reflects no deduction for fees, expenses, or taxes)
-3.40% 35.58%
Solactive GBS Developed Markets Large & Mid Cap USD
(reflects no deduction for fees, expenses, or taxes)
22.29% 28.98%
After-tax returns are calculated using the historical highest individual federal marginal income tax rates during the period covered by the table above and do not reflect the impact of state and local taxes. Actual after-tax returns depend on an investor’s tax situation and may differ from those shown. After-tax returns shown are not relevant to investors who hold their Shares through tax-deferred arrangements such as an individual retirement account (“IRA”) or other tax-advantaged accounts. In certain cases, the figure representing “Return After Taxes on Distributions and Sale of Shares” may be higher than the other return figures for the same period. A higher after-tax return results when a capital loss occurs upon redemption and provides an assumed tax deduction that benefits the investor.
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Portfolio Management
Adviser Roundhill Financial Inc.
Sub-Adviser Exchange Traded Concepts, LLC
Portfolio Managers
Andrew Serowik, a portfolio manager for the Sub-Adviser, has been a portfolio manager of the Fund since its inception in June 2020, and Todd Alberico and Gabriel Tan, each a portfolio manager for the Sub-Adviser, have been portfolio managers of the Fund since July 2021
Purchase and Sale of Shares
The Fund issues and redeems Shares at NAV only in large blocks known as “Creation Units,” which only APs (typically, broker-dealers) may purchase or redeem. The Fund generally issues and redeems Creation Units in exchange for a portfolio of securities and/or a designated amount of U.S. cash.
Shares are listed on the Exchange, and individual Shares may only be bought and sold in the secondary market through a broker or dealer at market prices, rather than NAV. Because Shares trade at market prices rather than NAV, Shares may trade at a price greater than NAV (premium) or less than NAV (discount).
An investor may incur costs attributable to the difference between the highest price a buyer is willing to pay to purchase Shares (the “bid” price) and the lowest price a seller is willing to accept for Shares (the “ask” price) when buying or selling Shares in the secondary market. The difference in the bid and ask prices is referred to as the “bid-ask spread.”
Recent information regarding the Fund’s NAV, market price, how often Shares traded on the Exchange at a premium or discount, and bid-ask spreads can be found on the Fund’s website at www.roundhillinvestments.com.
Tax Information
The Fund’s distributions are generally taxable as ordinary income, qualified dividend income, or capital gains (or a combination), unless your investment is in an IRA or other tax-advantaged account. Distributions on investments made through tax-deferred arrangements may be taxed later upon withdrawal of assets from those accounts.
Financial Intermediary Compensation
If you purchase Shares through a broker-dealer or other financial intermediary (such as a bank) (an “Intermediary”), the Adviser or its affiliates may pay Intermediaries for certain activities related to the Fund, including participation in activities that are designed to make Intermediaries more knowledgeable about exchange-traded products, including the Fund, or for other activities, such as marketing, educational training or other initiatives related to the sale or promotion of Shares. These payments may create a conflict of interest by influencing the Intermediary and your salesperson to recommend the Fund over another investment. Any such arrangements do not result in increased Fund expenses. Ask your salesperson or visit the Intermediary’s website for more information.
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ROUNDHILL BALL METAVERSE ETF – FUND SUMMARY
Investment Objective
The Roundhill Ball Metaverse ETF (“Metaverse ETF” or the “Fund”) seeks to track the performance, before fees and expenses, of the Ball Metaverse Index (the “Index”).
Fees and Expenses of the Fund
This table describes the fees and expenses that you may pay if you buy, hold, and sell shares of the Fund (“Shares”). You may pay other fees, such as brokerage commissions and other fees to financial intermediaries, which are not reflected in the table and Example below.

Shareholder Fees (fees paid directly from your investment)
None
Annual Fund Operating Expenses (expenses that you pay each year as a percentage of the value of your investment)
Management Fee* 0.59%
Distribution and/or Service (12b-1) Fees 0.00%
Other Expenses 0.00%
Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses 0.59%
* Restated to reflect current fees. Effective February 4, 2022, the Board of Trustees (the “Board”) of Listed Funds Trust (the “Trust”) approved a reduction in the unified management fee from 0.75% to 0.59% to be paid by the Fund to Roundhill Financial Inc. (the “Adviser”), the Fund’s investment adviser.
Example
This Example is intended to help you compare the cost of investing in the Fund with the cost of investing in other funds. The Example assumes that you invest $10,000 in the Fund for the time periods indicated and then redeem all of your Shares at the end of those periods. The Example also assumes that your investment has a 5% return each year and that the Fund’s operating expenses remain the same. The Example does not take into account brokerage commissions that you may pay on your purchases and sales of Shares. Although your actual costs may be higher or lower, based on these assumptions your costs would be:
1 Year: $60 3 Years: $189 5 Years: $329 10 Years: $738
Portfolio Turnover
The Fund pays transaction costs, such as commissions, when it buys and sells securities (or “turns over” its portfolio). A higher portfolio turnover rate may indicate higher transaction costs and may result in higher taxes when Shares are held in a taxable account. These costs, which are not reflected in the Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses or in the Example, affect the Fund’s performance. For the fiscal period June 29, 2021 (commencement of operations) through December 31, 2021, the Fund’s portfolio turnover rate was 41% of the average value of its portfolio.
Principal Investment Strategies
The Fund uses a “passive management” (or indexing) approach to track the performance, before fees and expenses, of the Index. The Index seeks to track the performance of globally-listed equity securities of companies that engage in activities or provide products, services, technologies, or technological capabilities to enable the Metaverse, and benefit from its generated revenues (“Metaverse Companies”). “Metaverse” is a term used to refer to a future iteration of the Internet. Users will primarily engage with the Metaverse through persistent, simultaneous, and shared three-dimensional virtual simulations and spaces. The Metaverse will also connect to physical spaces, two-dimensional Internet experiences (e.g., standard apps, webpages), and finite simulations (e.g., a game). The Metaverse will be supported by a wide range of technologies, tools, and standards that enable high volumes of concurrent users, a rich virtual-only economy of labor, goods, and services, and wide ranging interoperability of data, digital assets, and content. The Index was developed and is owned by Ball Metaverse Research Partners LLC.
Ball Metaverse Index
The Index includes globally-listed companies with a market capitalization of at least $250 million and with at least $2 million average daily traded value over the trailing 6-month period. If 6-month trading volume is unavailable, volume since initial listing date will be used. Existing Index components must maintain a minimum market capitalization of $200 million. A committee comprised of representatives from Ball Metaverse Research Partners LLC and external subject matter experts (the “Index Committee”) analyzes companies for their current and future potential to experience profits or earn revenue from their activities or provision of products, services, technologies, or technological capabilities to enable the Metaverse, and benefit from its generated revenues. The Metaverse Companies selected for inclusion in the Index are companies engaged in activities that fall into one or more categories identified by
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the Index Committee and described below. These categories, which may change over time as technology and consumer behavior evolves, are determined through analyses by the Index Committee, using information from corporate announcements and filings, patent filings, third-party industry assessments, third-party usage data and metrics, scientific and technology updates, executive presentations and consumer interviews. Currently, the seven categories and their descriptions are as follows:
Hardware The sale and support of physical technologies and devices used to access, interact with or develop the Metaverse. This includes, but is not limited to, consumer-facing hardware, such as virtual reality headsets, mobile phones, and haptic gloves, as well as enterprise hardware such as those used to operate or create virtual or augmented reality-based environments, such as industrial cameras, projection and tracking systems, and scanning sensors. This category does not include compute-specific hardware, such as graphic processing unit chips and servers, or networking-specific hardware, such as fiber optic cabling or wireless chipsets.
Compute The enablement and supply of computing power to support the Metaverse, supporting such diverse and demanding functions as physics calculation, rendering, data reconciliation and synchronization, artificial intelligence, projection, motion capture and translation.
Networking The provision of persistent, real-time connections, high bandwidth, and decentralized data transmission by backbone providers (i.e., companies that provide access to high-speed data transmission networks), the networks, exchange centers, and services that route amongst them, as well as those managing “last mile” (i.e., the function of connecting telecommunication services directly to end-users, both businesses and residential customers, usually in a dense area) data to consumers.
Virtual Platforms The development and operation of immersive digital and often three-dimensional simulations, environments and worlds wherein users and businesses can explore, create, socialize and participate in a wide variety of experiences (e.g., race a car, paint a painting, attend a class, listen to music), and engage in economic activity. These businesses are differentiated from traditional online experiences and multiplayer video games by the existence of a large ecosystem of developers and content creators which generate the majority of content on and/or collect the majority of revenues built on top of the underlying platform.
Interchange Standards The tools, protocols, formats, services, and engines which serve as actual or de facto standards for interoperability, and enable the creation, operation and ongoing improvements to the Metaverse. These standards support activities such as rendering, physics and artificial intelligence, as well as asset formats and their import/export from experience to experience, forward compatibility management and updating, tooling and authoring activities, and information management.
Payments The support of digital payment processes, platforms, and operations, which includes companies that are fiat on-ramps to digital currencies (a form of digital currency exchange) and financial services.
Content, Assets and Identity Services The design/creation, sale, re-sale, storage, secure protection and financial management of digital assets, such as virtual goods and currencies, as connected to user data and identity. This contains all business and services “built on top of” and/or which “service” the Metaverse, and which are not vertically integrated into a virtual platform by the platform owner, including content which is built specifically for the Metaverse, independent of virtual platforms.
Once identified and allocated to one or more categories, Metaverse Companies are further ranked within the category as follows:
“Pure-Play” Companies – Companies whose primary business models and/or growth prospects are directly linked to the Metaverse. For these companies, continued growth in the Metaverse is expected to be critical to their economic success going forward.
“Core” Companies – Companies with substantial operations and/or growth prospects linked to the Metaverse. These companies have other business units driving their economics, and thus are less affected by the growth of Metaverse than pure-play companies. In time, growth in the industry and/or investments in their Metaverse-specific units may lead these companies to become pure-play companies if their Metaverse operations become a primary driver of economic performance. In most cases, the Metaverse-specific offerings of these companies are core components of the Metaverse.
“Non-Core” Companies – Companies with operations and/or growth prospects linked to the Metaverse. These companies derive the majority of their revenue from business lines not directly related to the Metaverse. In time, growth in the industry and/or investments in their Metaverse-specific units may lead these companies to become “core” companies if their Metaverse operations become a relevant driver of economic performance. It is unlikely, based on current information, that the Metaverse-specific offerings of non-core companies would become the primary driver of such economic performance going forward.
Category companies are weighted on a tiered basis whereby “pure-play” companies receive two and a half times the initial weighting of “core” companies or five times the initial weighting of “non-core” companies, while “core” companies” receive two times the initial
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weighting of “non-core” companies. These initial weights are calculated based on the number of companies under each category in the Index upon each rebalancing, so as to ensure the total combined weight of each category totals 100%.
A category may have any number of “pure-play,” “core” or “non-core” companies, or none. Single categories are capped at 25% of the total Index upon rebalance. These initial weights are calculated based on the number of companies under each category in the Index upon each rebalancing, so as to ensure the total combined weight for each category is equal to the category’s initial weighting.
Single company weightings are capped at 8%. Any weighting in excess of 8% from a single company will be pro-rated across the remaining Index components, subject to the 25% category cap.
Index component changes resulting from reconstitutions are made after the market close on the third Friday in March, June, September and December and become effective at the market opening on the next trading day. Depending on eligible Metaverse Companies, the components of the Index, and therefore the holdings of the Fund, may range at times from 25 to 100.
The Fund’s Investment Strategy
Under normal circumstances, at least 80% of the Fund’s net assets (plus any borrowings for investment purposes) will be invested in Metaverse Companies, which may include investments in American Depository Receipts (“ADRs”) or special purpose acquisition companies (“SPACs”). The Fund expects that, over time, the correlation between the Fund’s performance and that of the Index, before fees and expenses, will be 95% or better. The Fund may also have indirect exposure to cryptocurrency, such as bitcoin, through holdings of publicly traded securities of companies engaged in cryptocurrency-related businesses and activities. The Fund will not directly invest in cryptocurrency.
The Fund will generally use a “replication” strategy to achieve its investment objective, meaning it generally will invest in all of the component securities of the Index in approximately the same proportions as in the Index. However, the Fund may use a “representative sampling” strategy, meaning it may invest in a sample of the securities in the Index whose risk, return and other characteristics closely resemble the risk, return and other characteristics of the Index as a whole, when Exchange Traded Concepts, LLC (the “Sub-Adviser”), the Fund’s sub-adviser, believes it is in the best interests of the Fund (e.g., when replicating the Index involves practical difficulties or substantial costs, an Index constituent becomes temporarily illiquid, unavailable, or less liquid, or as a result of legal restrictions or limitations that apply to the Fund but not to the Index).
The Fund also may invest in securities or other investments not included in the Index, but which the Sub-Adviser believes will help the Fund track the Index. For example, the Fund may invest in securities that are not components of the Index to reflect various corporate actions and other changes to the Index (such as reconstitutions, additions, and deletions).
To the extent the Index concentrates (i.e., holds more than 25% of its total assets) in the securities of a particular industry or group of related industries, the Fund will concentrate its investments to approximately the same extent as the Index. As of March 31, 2022, the Index was concentrated in one or more industries in the information technology and communication services sectors.
The Fund is classified as a “non-diversified” investment company under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “1940 Act”).
Principal Investment Risks
The principal risks of investing in the Fund are summarized below. The principal risks are presented in alphabetical order to facilitate finding particular risks and comparing them with those of other funds. Each risk summarized below is considered a “principal risk” of investing in the Fund, regardless of the order in which it appears. As with any investment, there is a risk that you could lose all or a portion of your investment in the Fund. Some or all of these risks may adversely affect the Fund’s net asset value (“NAV”), trading price, yield, total return and/or ability to meet its objective. The following risks could affect the value of your investment in the Fund:
Communication Services Sector Risk. The Fund will be more affected by the performance of the communications sector than a fund with less exposure to such sector. Communication companies are particularly vulnerable to the potential obsolescence of products and services due to technological advancement and the innovation of competitors. Companies in the communications sector may also be affected by other competitive pressures, such as pricing competition, as well as research and development costs, substantial capital requirements and government regulation. Additionally, fluctuating domestic and international demand, shifting demographics and often unpredictable changes in consumer tastes can drastically affect a communication company’s profitability. While all companies may be susceptible to network security breaches, certain companies in the communications sector may be particular targets of hacking and potential theft of proprietary or consumer information or disruptions in service, which could have a material adverse effect on their businesses.
Concentration Risk. Because the Fund’s assets will be concentrated in an industry or group of industries to the extent the Index concentrates in a particular industry or group of industries, the Fund is subject to loss due to adverse occurrences that may affect that industry or group of industries.
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Consumer Discretionary Sector Risk. Consumer discretionary companies are companies that provide non-essential goods and services, such as retailers, media companies and consumer services. These companies manufacture products and provide discretionary services directly to the consumer, and the success of these companies tied closely to the performance of the overall domestic and international economy, interest rates, competition and consumer confidence.
Currency Exchange Rate Risk. The Fund may invest in investments denominated in non-U.S. currencies or in securities that provide exposure to such currencies. Changes in currency exchange rates and the relative value of non-U.S. currencies will affect the value of the Fund’s investment and the value of your Shares. Currency exchange rates can be very volatile and can change quickly and unpredictably. As a result, the value of an investment in the Fund may change quickly and without warning and you may lose money.
Cybersecurity Risk. Cybersecurity incidents may allow an unauthorized party to gain access to Fund assets, customer data (including private shareholder information), or proprietary information, or cause the Fund, the Adviser, the Sub-Adviser and/or other service providers (including custodians, transfer agents and financial intermediaries) to suffer data breaches or data corruption. Additionally, cybersecurity failures or breaches of the electronic systems of the Fund, the Adviser, the Sub-Adviser or the Fund's other service providers, market makers, Authorized Participants or the issuers of securities in which the Fund invests have the ability to cause disruptions and negatively impact the Fund's business operations, potentially resulting in financial losses to the Fund and its shareholders. In an extreme case, a shareholder’s ability to redeem Fund shares may be affected.
Depositary Receipt Risk. Depositary receipts, including ADRs, involve risks similar to those associated with investments in foreign securities, such as changes in political or economic conditions of other countries and changes in the exchange rates of foreign currencies. Depositary receipts listed on U.S. exchanges are issued by banks or trust companies, and entitle the holder to all dividends and capital gains that are paid out on the underlying foreign shares (“Underlying Shares”). When the Fund invests in depositary receipts as a substitute for an investment directly in the Underlying Shares, the Fund is exposed to the risk that the depositary receipts may not provide a return that corresponds precisely with that of the Underlying Shares. Because the Underlying Shares trade on foreign exchanges that may be closed when the Fund’s primary listing exchange is open, the Fund may experience premiums and discounts greater than those of funds without exposure to such Underlying Shares.
Equity Market Risk. The equity securities held in the Fund’s portfolio may experience sudden, unpredictable drops in value or long periods of decline in value. This may occur because of factors that affect securities markets generally or factors affecting specific issuers, industries, sectors or companies in which the Fund invests. Common stocks are generally exposed to greater risk than other types of securities, such as preferred stocks and debt obligations, because common stockholders generally have inferior rights to receive payment from issuers.
ETF Risks. The Fund is an ETF, and, as a result of its structure, it is exposed to the following risks:
Authorized Participants, Market Makers, and Liquidity Providers Concentration Risk. The Fund has a limited number of financial institutions that may act as APs. In addition, there may be a limited number of market makers and/or liquidity providers in the marketplace. To the extent either of the following events occur, Shares may trade at a material discount to NAV and possibly face delisting: (i) APs exit the business or otherwise become unable to process creation and/or redemption orders and no other APs step forward to perform these services, or (ii) market makers and/or liquidity providers exit the business or significantly reduce their business activities and no other entities step forward to perform their functions.
Costs of Buying or Selling Shares. Due to the costs of buying or selling Shares, including brokerage commissions imposed by brokers and bid/ask spreads, frequent trading of Shares may significantly reduce investment results and an investment in Shares may not be advisable for investors who anticipate regularly making small investments.
Shares May Trade at Prices Other Than NAV. As with all ETFs, Shares may be bought and sold in the secondary market at market prices. Although it is expected that the market price of Shares will approximate the Fund’s NAV, there may be times when the market price of Shares is more than the NAV intra-day (premium) or less than the NAV intra-day (discount) due to supply and demand of Shares or during periods of market volatility. This risk is heightened in times of market volatility, periods of steep market declines, and periods when there is limited trading activity for Shares in the secondary market, in which case such premiums or discounts may be significant. Because securities held by the Fund may trade on foreign exchanges that are closed when the Fund’s primary listing exchange is open, the Fund is likely to experience premiums or discounts greater than those of domestic ETFs.
Trading. Although Shares are listed for trading on the NYSE Arca, Inc. (the “Exchange”) and may be traded on U.S. exchanges other than the Exchange, there can be no assurance that Shares will trade with any volume, or at all, on any stock exchange. In stressed market conditions, the liquidity of Shares may begin to mirror the liquidity of the Fund’s underlying portfolio holdings, which can be significantly less liquid than Shares.
Foreign Securities Risk. Investments in non-U.S. securities involve certain risks that may not be present with investments in U.S. securities. For example, investments in non-U.S. securities may be subject to risk of loss due to foreign currency fluctuations or to political or economic instability. Investments in non-U.S. securities also may be subject to withholding or other taxes and may be
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subject to additional trading, settlement, custodial, and operational risks. These and other factors can make investments in the Fund more volatile and potentially less liquid than other types of investments.
Index Provider Risk. There is no assurance that the Index Provider, or any agents that act on its behalf, will compile the Index accurately, or that the Index will be determined, constructed, reconstituted, rebalanced, composed, calculated or disseminated accurately. The Adviser relies upon the Index Provider and its agents to compile, determine, construct, reconstitute, rebalance, compose, calculate (or arrange for an agent to calculate), and disseminate the Index accurately. Any losses or costs associated with errors made by the Index Provider or its agents generally will be borne by the Fund and its shareholders.
Information Technology Sector Risk. The information technology sector includes companies engaged in internet software and services, technology hardware and storage peripherals, electronic equipment instruments and components, and semiconductors and semiconductor equipment. Information technology companies face intense competition, both domestically and internationally, which may have an adverse effect on profit margins. Information technology companies may have limited product lines, markets, financial resources or personnel. The products of information technology companies may face rapid product obsolescence due to technological developments and frequent new product introduction, unpredictable changes in growth rates and competition for the services of qualified personnel. Failure to introduce new products, develop and maintain a loyal customer base, or achieve general market acceptance for their products could have a material adverse effect on a company’s business. Companies in the information technology sector are heavily dependent on intellectual property and the loss of patent, copyright and trademark protections may adversely affect the profitability of these companies.
Internet Company Risk. Many Internet-related companies have incurred large losses since their inception and may continue to incur large losses in the hope of capturing market share and generating future revenues. Accordingly, many such companies expect to incur significant operating losses for the foreseeable future, and may never be profitable. The markets in which many Internet companies compete face rapidly evolving industry standards, frequent new service and product announcements, introductions and enhancements, and changing customer demands. The failure of an Internet company to adapt to such changes could have a material adverse effect on the company’s business. Additionally, the widespread adoption of new Internet, networking, telecommunications technologies, or other technological changes could require substantial expenditures by an Internet company to modify or adapt its services or infrastructure, which could have a material adverse effect on an Internet company’s business.
Semiconductor Company Risk. Competitive pressures may have a significant effect on the financial condition of semiconductor companies and, as product cycles shorten and manufacturing capacity increases, these companies may become increasingly subject to aggressive pricing, which hampers profitability. Reduced demand for end-user products, under-utilization of manufacturing capacity, and other factors could adversely impact the operating results of companies in the semiconductor sector. Semiconductor companies typically face high capital costs and may be heavily dependent on intellectual property rights. The semiconductor sector is highly cyclical, which may cause the operating results of many semiconductor companies to vary significantly. The stock prices of companies in the semiconductor sector have been and likely will continue to be extremely volatile.
Software Industry Risk. The software industry can be significantly affected by intense competition, aggressive pricing, technological innovations, and product obsolescence. Companies in the software industry are subject to significant competitive pressures, such as aggressive pricing, new market entrants, competition for market share, short product cycles due to an accelerated rate of technological developments and the potential for limited earnings and/or falling profit margins. These companies also face the risks that new services, equipment or technologies will not be accepted by consumers and businesses or will become rapidly obsolete. These factors can affect the profitability of these companies and, as a result, the value of their securities. Also, patent protection is integral to the success of many companies in this industry, and profitability can be affected materially by, among other things, the cost of obtaining (or failing to obtain) patent approvals, the cost of litigating patent infringement and the loss of patent protection for products (which significantly increases pricing pressures and can materially reduce profitability with respect to such products). In addition, many software companies have limited operating histories. Prices of these companies’ securities historically have been more volatile than other securities, especially over the short term.
IPO Risk. The Fund may invest in securities issued in initial public offerings. The market value of IPO shares will fluctuate considerably due to factors such as the absence of a prior public market, unseasoned trading, the small number of shares available for trading and limited information about the issuer. The purchase of IPO shares may involve high transaction costs. IPO shares are subject to market risk and liquidity risk.
Issuer Risk. Because the Fund may invest in a limited number of issuers, it is subject to the risk that the value of the Fund’s portfolio may decline due to a decline in value of the equity securities of particular issuers. The value of an issuer’s equity securities may decline for reasons directly related to the issuer, such as management performance and reduced demand for the issuer’s goods or services.
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Limited Operating History Risk. The Fund is a recently organized investment company with a limited operating history. As a result, prospective investors have a limited track record or history on which to base their investment decision.
Market Capitalization Risk.
Large-Capitalization Investing. The securities of large-capitalization companies may be relatively mature compared to smaller companies and therefore subject to slower growth during times of economic expansion. Large-capitalization companies may also be unable to respond quickly to new competitive challenges, such as changes in technology and consumer tastes.
Mid-Capitalization Investing. The securities of mid-capitalization companies may be more vulnerable to adverse issuer, market, political, or economic developments than securities of large-capitalization companies. The securities of mid-capitalization companies generally trade in lower volumes and are subject to greater and more unpredictable price changes than large capitalization stocks or the stock market as a whole.
Small-Capitalization Investing. The securities of small-capitalization companies may be more vulnerable to adverse issuer, market, political, or economic developments than securities of large- or mid-capitalization companies. The securities of small-capitalization companies generally trade in lower volumes and are subject to greater and more unpredictable price changes than large- or mid-capitalization stocks or the stock market as a whole. There is typically less publicly available information concerning smaller-capitalization companies than for larger, more established companies.
Market Risk. The trading prices of securities and other instruments fluctuate in response to a variety of factors. These factors include events impacting the entire market or specific market segments, such as political, market and economic developments, as well as events that impact specific issuers. The Fund’s NAV and market price, like security and commodity prices generally, may fluctuate significantly in response to these and other factors. As a result, an investor could lose money over short or long periods of time. U.S. and international markets have experienced significant periods of volatility in recent years due to a number of these factors, including the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and related public health issues, growth concerns in the U.S. and overseas, uncertainties regarding interest rates, trade tensions and the threat of tariffs imposed by the U.S. and other countries. These developments as well as other events could result in further market volatility and negatively affect financial asset prices, the liquidity of certain securities and the normal operations of securities exchanges and other markets. It is unknown how long circumstances related to the pandemic will persist, whether they will reoccur in the future, whether efforts to support the economy and financial markets will be successful, and what additional implications may follow from the pandemic. The impact of these events and other epidemics or pandemics in the future could adversely affect Fund performance.
Models and Data Risk. The composition of the Index is heavily dependent on proprietary quantitative models as well as information and data supplied by third parties (“Models and Data”). When Models and Data prove to be incorrect or incomplete, any decisions made in reliance thereon may lead to the inclusion or exclusion of securities from the Index universe that would have been excluded or included had the Models and Data been correct and complete. If the composition of the Index reflects such errors, the Fund’s portfolio can be expected to also reflect the errors.
Non-Diversification Risk. Because the Fund is “non-diversified,” it may invest a greater percentage of its assets in the securities of a single issuer or a lesser number of issuers than if it was a diversified fund. As a result, the Fund may be more exposed to the risks associated with and developments affecting an individual issuer or a lesser number of issuers than a fund that invests more widely. This may increase the Fund’s volatility and cause the performance of a relatively small number of issuers to have a greater impact on the Fund’s performance.
Passive Investment Risk. The Fund is not actively managed and its Sub-Adviser would not sell shares of an equity security due to current or projected underperformance of a security industry or sector unless that security is removed from the Index or the selling of shares of that security is otherwise required upon a rebalancing of the Index as addressed in the Index methodology.
SPAC Investment Risk. The Fund invests in equity securities of SPACs, which raise assets to seek potential acquisition opportunities. Unless and until an acquisition is completed, a SPAC generally invests its assets in U.S. government securities, money market securities, and cash. Because SPACs have no operating history or ongoing business other than seeking acquisitions, the value of their securities is particularly dependent on the ability of the entity’s management to identify and complete a profitable acquisition. There is no guarantee that the SPACs in which the Fund invests will complete an acquisition or that any acquisitions that are completed will be profitable. Public stockholders of SPACs may not be afforded a meaningful opportunity to vote on a proposed initial business combination because certain stockholders, including stockholders affiliated with the management of the SPAC, may have sufficient voting power, and a financial incentive, to approve such a transaction without support from public stockholders. As a result, a SPAC may complete a business combination even though a majority of its public stockholders do not support such a combination. Some SPACs may pursue acquisitions only within certain industries or regions, which may increase the volatility of their prices.
Tax Risk. Investment in SPACs introduces complexities beyond typical equity investments and may introduce tax risks to the Fund. In particular, certain non-U.S. SPACs may be treated as a “passive foreign investment company” (“PFIC”) under the
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Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), thereby causing the Fund to be subject to special tax rules. If a SPAC is classified as a PFIC, the Fund may be subject to U.S. federal income tax on a portion of any “excess distribution” or gain from the disposition of shares in the PFIC even if such income is distributed as a taxable dividend by the Fund to its shareholders. Additional charges in the nature of interest may be imposed on the Fund in respect of deferred taxes arising from such distributions or gains unless the Fund makes certain elections. See “Federal Income Taxes—Foreign Investments” in the SAI for additional information.
Tracking Error Risk. As with all index funds, the performance of the Fund and its Index may differ from each other for a variety of reasons. For example, the Fund incurs operating expenses and portfolio transaction costs not incurred by the Index. In addition, the Fund may not be fully invested in the securities of the Index at all times or may hold securities not included in the Index.
Performance
Performance information for the Fund is not included because the Fund did not have a full calendar year of performance prior to the date of this Prospectus. In the future, performance information for the Fund will be presented in this section. Updated performance information is available on the Fund’s website at www.roundhillinvestments.com.
Portfolio Management
Adviser
Roundhill Financial Inc.
Sub-Adviser
Exchange Traded Concepts, LLC
Portfolio Managers
Andrew Serowik, Todd Albrecio, and Gabriel Tan, each a portfolio manager for the Sub-Adviser, have been portfolio managers of the Fund since its inception in June 2021
Purchase and Sale of Shares
The Fund issues and redeems Shares at NAV only in large blocks known as “Creation Units,” which only APs (typically, broker-dealers) may purchase or redeem. The Fund generally issues and redeems Creation Units in exchange for a portfolio of securities and/or a designated amount of U.S. cash.
Shares are listed on the Exchange, and individual Shares may only be bought and sold in the secondary market through a broker or dealer at market prices, rather than NAV. Because Shares trade at market prices rather than NAV, Shares may trade at a price greater than NAV (premium) or less than NAV (discount).
An investor may incur costs attributable to the difference between the highest price a buyer is willing to pay to purchase Shares (the “bid” price) and the lowest price a seller is willing to accept for Shares (the “ask” price) when buying or selling Shares in the secondary market. The difference in the bid and ask prices is referred to as the “bid-ask spread.”
Recent information regarding the Fund’s NAV, market price, how often Shares traded on the Exchange at a premium or discount, and bid-ask spreads can be found on the Fund’s website at www.roundhillinvestments.com.
Tax Information
The Fund’s distributions are generally taxable as ordinary income, qualified dividend income, or capital gains (or a combination), unless your investment is in an individual retirement account (“IRA”) or other tax-advantaged account. Distributions on investments made through tax-deferred arrangements may be taxed later upon withdrawal of assets from those accounts.
Financial Intermediary Compensation
If you purchase Shares through a broker-dealer or other financial intermediary (such as a bank) (an “Intermediary”), the Adviser or its affiliates may pay Intermediaries for certain activities related to the Fund, including participation in activities that are designed to make Intermediaries more knowledgeable about exchange-traded products, including the Fund, or for other activities, such as marketing, educational training or other initiatives related to the sale or promotion of Shares. These payments may create a conflict of interest by influencing the Intermediary and your salesperson to recommend the Fund over another investment. Any such arrangements do not result in increased Fund expenses. Ask your salesperson or visit the Intermediary’s website for more information.
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ROUNDHILL IO DIGITAL INFRASTRUCTURE ETF – FUND SUMMARY
Investment Objective
The Roundhill IO Digital Infrastructure ETF (“Digital Infrastructure ETF” or the “Fund”) seeks to track the performance, before fees and expenses, of the IO Digital Infrastructure Index (the “Index”).
Fees and Expenses of the Fund
This table describes the fees and expenses that you may pay if you buy, hold, and sell shares of the Fund (“Shares”). You may pay other fees, such as brokerage commissions and other fees to financial intermediaries, which are not reflected in the table and Example below.

Shareholder Fees (fees paid directly from your investment)
None
Annual Fund Operating Expenses (expenses that you pay each year as a percentage of the value of your investment)
Management Fee 0.75%
Distribution and/or Service (12b-1) Fees 0.00%
Other Expenses* 0.01%
Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses 0.76%
* Estimated for the current fiscal year.
Example
This Example is intended to help you compare the cost of investing in the Fund with the cost of investing in other funds. The Example assumes that you invest $10,000 in the Fund for the time periods indicated and then redeem all of your Shares at the end of those periods. The Example also assumes that your investment has a 5% return each year and that the Fund’s operating expenses remain the same. The Example does not take into account brokerage commissions that you may pay on your purchases and sales of Shares. Although your actual costs may be higher or lower, based on these assumptions your costs would be:
1 Year: $78 3 Years: $243
Portfolio Turnover
The Fund pays transaction costs, such as commissions, when it buys and sells securities (or “turns over” its portfolio). A higher portfolio turnover rate may indicate higher transaction costs and may result in higher taxes when Shares are held in a taxable account. These costs, which are not reflected in the Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses or in the Example, affect the Fund’s performance. For the fiscal period October 27, 2021 (commencement of operations) through December 31, 2021, the Fund’s portfolio turnover rate was 3% of the average value of its portfolio.
Principal Investment Strategies
The Fund uses a “passive management” (or “indexing”) approach to track the performance, before fees and expenses, of the IO Digital Infrastructure Index, which tracks the performance of digital infrastructure companies. IO Digital Index Partners acts as the Index Provider, and the Index is calculated by Solactive AG.
IO Digital Infrastructure Index
Modern society is built on an omnipresent internet that depends on digital infrastructure to enable and support its presence and functions. Digital infrastructure is comprised of the high-tech physical assets that support the efficient storage and transmission of data, powering the internet. “Digital infrastructure assets” include fixed-line, high-speed data transmission technology and hardware (such as fiberoptic cable and certain “last-mile” technologies that bring data to and from the end-user); data centers; mobile towers and related infrastructure; and other long-lived physical infrastructure assets, which can be characterized as any of the physical resources that are necessary to enable the use of data, computerized devices, methods, systems and processes (e.g., customer premise equipment, such as a cable box; real estate housing or on which digital infrastructure assets are fixed; or TV, radio, and other communication antennas). The Index is designed to track the performance of infrastructure assets.
A committee composed of IO Digital Index Partners (“Index Committee”) is responsible for decisions regarding composition of the Index. The Index is comprised of the common stock of 40 U.S. and foreign exchange-listed companies that earn a majority of their revenues from digital infrastructure assets (“Digital Infrastructure Companies”). To qualify for the Index universe, companies must maintain a minimum market capitalization of $250 million USD and a minimum 1-month trailing average daily traded value of $1 million USD on the Selection Day (defined below). On Selection Day, the Index will be constructed using specific geographic criteria, based on the Index Committee’s assessment of the location of a company’s headquarters or its primary business operations, if located
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in a different region. The respective minimums and maximums may be changed over time at the Index Committee’s discretion, however, initially:
a minimum of 65% of the Index will be comprised of U.S. companies;
a maximum of 15% of the Index will be comprised of emerging markets companies (i.e., those markets designated as either “Emerging” or “Frontier” in the Dow Jones S&P Country Classification, except for Guernsey and Malta, which the Index Provider considers developed markets); and
a maximum of 35% of the Index will be comprised of companies organized and primarily operating in non-U.S. developed market countries, as defined by the S&P Dow Jones Country Classification methodology. Currently, developed market countries are those countries that meet all of the global equity index series eligibility and emerging market criteria and have a nominal Gross Domestic Product per capita, at Purchasing Power Parity (PPP), of greater than US$ 15,000.
In addition, each company is ranked based upon the Index Provider’s proprietary ranking methodology utilizing three fundamental factors: Growth, Value, and Soundness (“GVS”). In assigning a GVS rank, the Index Committee seeks to optimize the Index for a combination of gross revenue and profitability growth (Growth), attractive purchase prices based on fundamental analysis (Value), and businesses with strong financial health (Soundness). When assessing a company’s financial health, the Index Committee may consider a combination of factors, including the company’s scale (measured by its sales during the preceding 12 months), cash generation (cash flow growth), profitability, operating leverage, and indebtedness.
Growth, Value, and Soundness are interrelated and overlapping factors. Each GVS factor is weighted according to the Index’s proprietary ranking methodology, which utilizes specific metrics, including: last twelve months (“LTM”) sales; two-year growth in cash flows from operations per share; two-year percentage change in earnings before interest, tax, depreciation and amortization (“EBITDA”) margin, LTM EBITDA less capital expenditure margin; enterprise value/EBITDA; and net debt/EBITDA. These metrics are interrelated and may be applicable to one or more of the GVS factors. The metrics and their weightings with respect to each GVS factor may be adjusted by the Index Committee over time. However, attributing those metrics to the factor with which they are currently most strongly associated, the Index Committee anticipates the following initial GVS factor weighting: 40% Growth, 10% Value, and 50% Soundness.
The Index is systematically constructed by first selecting eligible U.S. companies until the U.S. geographic threshold (i.e., 65% of the Index) is met. Once the U.S. threshold is achieved, the Index is further constructed by selecting the highest GVS-ranked companies from around the world, with emerging markets and non-U.S. developed markets each subject to its respective geographic maximum threshold. All constituent position sizes are prescribed according to the Index Provider’s proprietary GVS ranking methodology until at least 85% of the Index has been allocated. Once at least 85% has been allocated, the remaining allocation is evenly weighted until a total of 40 constituents have been selected (subject to the geographic maximum thresholds).
The Index will be rebalanced and reconstituted semi-annually on the third Friday of March and September. Selections will be made the Monday prior to the third Friday of March and September (“Selection Day”).
When selecting the Index universe, the Index Committee may also consider factors such as the scale of a company’s business operations (including its total revenue and geographic footprint) and the amount of a company’s revenue generated from the portion of its business operations that the Index Committee considers to be digital infrastructure.
The Fund’s Investment Strategy
Under normal circumstances, at least 80% of the Fund’s net assets (plus any borrowings for investment purposes) will be invested in Digital Infrastructure Companies, which may include investments in common stock, American Depository Receipts (“ADRs”), Global Depository Receipts (“GDRs”), or equity real estate investment trusts (“REITs”). The Fund expects that, over time, the correlation between the Fund’s performance and that of the Index, before fees and expenses, will be 95% or better.
The Fund will generally use a “replication” strategy to achieve its investment objective, meaning it generally will invest in all of the component securities of the Index in approximately the same proportions as in the Index. However, the Fund may use a “representative sampling” strategy, meaning it may invest in a sample of the securities in the Index whose risk, return and other characteristics closely resemble the risk, return and other characteristics of the Index as a whole, when Exchange Traded Concepts, LLC (the “Sub-Adviser”), the Fund’s sub-adviser, believes it is in the best interests of the Fund (e.g., when replicating the Index involves practical difficulties or substantial costs, an Index constituent becomes temporarily illiquid, unavailable, or less liquid, or as a result of legal restrictions or limitations that apply to the Fund but not to the Index).
The Fund also may invest in securities or other investments not included in the Index, but which the Sub-Adviser believes will help the Fund track the Index. For example, the Fund may invest in securities that are not components of the Index to reflect various corporate actions and other changes to the Index (such as reconstitutions, additions, and deletions).
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To the extent the Index concentrates (i.e., holds more than 25% of its total assets) in the securities of a particular industry or group of related industries, the Fund will concentrate its investments to approximately the same extent as the Index. As of March 31, 2022, the Index was concentrated in one or more industries in the communication services sector.
The Fund is classified as a “non-diversified” investment company under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “1940 Act”).
Principal Investment Risks
The principal risks of investing in the Fund are summarized below. The principal risks are presented in alphabetical order to facilitate finding particular risks and comparing them with those of other funds. Each risk summarized below is considered a “principal risk” of investing in the Fund, regardless of the order in which it appears. As with any investment, there is a risk that you could lose all or a portion of your investment in the Fund. Some or all of these risks may adversely affect the Fund’s net asset value (“NAV”), trading price, yield, total return and/or ability to meet its objective. The following risks could affect the value of your investment in the Fund:
Communication Services Sector Risk. The Fund’s assets will have significant exposure to the Communication Services Sector, which means the Fund will be more affected by the performance of the Communication Services Sector than a fund that is more diversified. Market or economic factors impacting companies in the Communication Services Sector that rely heavily on technological advances could have a major effect on the value of the Fund’s investments. The value of stocks of communication services companies and companies that rely heavily on technology is particularly vulnerable to research and development costs, substantial capital requirements, product and services obsolescence, government regulation, and domestic and international competition, including competition from foreign competitors with lower production costs. Stocks of communication services companies and companies that rely heavily on technology, especially those of smaller, less-seasoned companies, tend to be more volatile than the overall market. Additionally, companies in the Communication Services Sector may face dramatic and often unpredictable changes in growth rates and competition for the services of qualified personnel. While all companies may be susceptible to network security breaches, certain companies in the Communication Services Sector may be particular targets of hacking and potential theft of proprietary or consumer information or disruptions in service, which could have a material adverse effect on their businesses.
Media Companies Risk. The Fund invests in companies in the media industry, which includes telecommunications, streaming, publishing (both traditional and online), and entertainment companies and, as a result, the value of the Fund’s shares will be more susceptible to the factors affecting these particular types of companies. Market or economic factors impacting these companies that rely heavily on technological advances could have a major effect on the value of the Fund’s investments and therefore, the Fund. The value of stocks of these companies is particularly vulnerable to research and development costs, substantial capital requirements, product and services obsolescence, government regulation, and domestic and international competition, including competition from foreign competitors with lower production costs.
Concentration Risk. Because the Fund’s assets will be concentrated in an industry or group of industries to the extent the Index concentrates in a particular industry or group of industries, the Fund is subject to loss due to adverse occurrences that may affect that industry or group of industries.
Currency Exchange Rate Risk. The Fund may invest in investments denominated in non-U.S. currencies or in securities that provide exposure to such currencies. Changes in currency exchange rates and the relative value of non-U.S. currencies will affect the value of the Fund’s investment and the value of your Shares. Currency exchange rates can be very volatile and can change quickly and unpredictably. As a result, the value of an investment in the Fund may change quickly and without warning and you may lose money.
Cybersecurity Risk. Cybersecurity incidents may allow an unauthorized party to gain access to Fund assets, customer data (including private shareholder information), or proprietary information, or cause the Fund, the Adviser (defined below), the Sub-Adviser and/or other service providers (including custodians, transfer agents and financial intermediaries) to suffer data breaches or data corruption. Additionally, cybersecurity failures or breaches of the electronic systems of the Fund, the Adviser, the Sub-Adviser or the Fund's other service providers, market makers, Authorized Participants or the issuers of securities in which the Fund invests have the ability to cause disruptions and negatively impact the Fund's business operations, potentially resulting in financial losses to the Fund and its shareholders. In an extreme case, a shareholder’s ability to redeem Fund shares may be affected.
Depositary Receipt Risk. Depositary receipts, including ADRs and GDRs, involve risks similar to those associated with investments in foreign securities, such as changes in political or economic conditions of other countries and changes in the exchange rates of foreign currencies. Depositary receipts listed on U.S. exchanges are issued by banks or trust companies, and entitle the holder to all dividends and capital gains that are paid out on the underlying foreign shares (“Underlying Shares”). When the Fund invests in depositary receipts as a substitute for an investment directly in the Underlying Shares, the Fund is exposed to the risk that the depositary receipts may not provide a return that corresponds precisely with that of the Underlying Shares.
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Because the Underlying Shares trade on foreign exchanges that may be closed when the Fund’s primary listing exchange is open, the Fund may experience premiums and discounts greater than those of funds without exposure to such Underlying Shares.
Digital Infrastructure Companies Risk. Digital Infrastructure Companies are exposed to the risks specific to the real estate market as well as the risks that relate specifically to the way in which Digital Infrastructure Companies are utilized and operated. Digital Infrastructure Companies may be affected by unique supply and demand factors that do not apply to other real estate sectors, such as changes in demand for communications infrastructure, consolidation of tower sites, and new technologies that may affect demand for data centers. Digital Infrastructure Companies are also subject to a variety of factors that may adversely affect their business or operations including high interest costs, costs associated with compliance with and changes in environmental and other regulations, difficulty in raising capital in adequate amounts on reasonable terms in periods of high inflation and unsettled markets, the effects of surplus capacity, increased competition from other providers of services, the effects of energy conservation policies, and other factors. Additionally, Digital Infrastructure Companies may be subject to regulation by various governmental authorities and may also be affected by governmental regulation of rates charged to customers, government budgetary constraints, service interruption due to environmental, operational or other mishaps and the imposition of special tariffs and changes in tax laws, regulatory policies and accounting standards. Other factors that may affect the operations of Digital Infrastructure Companies include innovations in technology that could render the way in which a company delivers a product or service obsolete, significant changes to the number of ultimate end-users of a company’s products, increased susceptibility to terrorist acts, cyber-attacks, or political actions, risks of environmental damage due to a company’s operations or an accident, and general changes in market sentiment towards digital infrastructure assets.
Emerging Markets Risk. Emerging markets are subject to greater market volatility, lower trading volume, political and economic instability, uncertainty regarding the existence of trading markets and more governmental limitations on foreign investment than more developed markets. In addition, securities in emerging markets may be subject to greater price fluctuations than securities in more developed markets. Differences in regulatory, accounting, auditing, and financial reporting and recordkeeping standards could impede the Sub-Adviser’s ability to evaluate local companies and impact the Fund’s performance.
Equity Market Risk. The equity securities held in the Fund’s portfolio may experience sudden, unpredictable drops in value or long periods of decline in value. This may occur because of factors that affect securities markets generally or factors affecting specific issuers, industries, sectors or companies in which the Fund invests. Common stocks are generally exposed to greater risk than other types of securities, such as preferred stocks and debt obligations, because common stockholders generally have inferior rights to receive payment from issuers.
ETF Risks. The Fund is an ETF, and, as a result of its structure, it is exposed to the following risks:
Authorized Participants, Market Makers, and Liquidity Providers Concentration Risk. The Fund has a limited number of financial institutions that may act as APs. In addition, there may be a limited number of market makers and/or liquidity providers in the marketplace. To the extent either of the following events occur, Shares may trade at a material discount to NAV and possibly face delisting: (i) APs exit the business or otherwise become unable to process creation and/or redemption orders and no other APs step forward to perform these services, or (ii) market makers and/or liquidity providers exit the business or significantly reduce their business activities and no other entities step forward to perform their functions.
Costs of Buying or Selling Shares. Due to the costs of buying or selling Shares, including brokerage commissions imposed by brokers and bid/ask spreads, frequent trading of Shares may significantly reduce investment results and an investment in Shares may not be advisable for investors who anticipate regularly making small investments.
Shares May Trade at Prices Other Than NAV. As with all ETFs, Shares may be bought and sold in the secondary market at market prices. Although it is expected that the market price of Shares will approximate the Fund’s NAV, there may be times when the market price of Shares is more than the NAV intra-day (premium) or less than the NAV intra-day (discount) due to supply and demand of Shares or during periods of market volatility. This risk is heightened in times of market volatility, periods of steep market declines, and periods when there is limited trading activity for Shares in the secondary market, in which case such premiums or discounts may be significant. Because securities held by the Fund may trade on foreign exchanges that are closed when the Fund’s primary listing exchange is open, the Fund is likely to experience premiums or discounts greater than those of domestic ETFs.
Trading. Although Shares are listed for trading on the NYSE Arca, Inc. (the “Exchange”) and may be traded on U.S. exchanges other than the Exchange, there can be no assurance that Shares will trade with any volume, or at all, on any stock exchange. In stressed market conditions, the liquidity of Shares may begin to mirror the liquidity of the Fund’s underlying portfolio holdings, which can be significantly less liquid than Shares.
Foreign Securities Risk. Investments in non-U.S. securities involve certain risks that may not be present with investments in U.S. securities. For example, investments in non-U.S. securities may be subject to risk of loss due to foreign currency fluctuations or to political or economic instability. Investments in non-U.S. securities also may be subject to withholding or other taxes and may be
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subject to additional trading, settlement, custodial, and operational risks. These and other factors can make investments in the Fund more volatile and potentially less liquid than other types of investments.
Frontier Markets Risk. Certain foreign markets are only in the earliest stages of development and may be considered “frontier markets.” Frontier financial markets generally are less liquid and more volatile than other markets, including markets in developing and emerging economies. Securities may have limited marketability and be subject to erratic price movements. Frontier markets may be impacted by political instability, war, terrorist activities and religious, ethnic and/or socioeconomic unrest. These and other factors make investing in frontier market countries significantly riskier than investing in developed market or emerging market countries.
Geographic Investment Risk. To the extent the Fund invests a significant portion of its assets in the securities of companies of a single country or region, it is more likely to be impacted by events or conditions affecting that country or region.
Index Provider Risk. There is no assurance that the Index Provider, or any agents that act on its behalf, will compile the Index accurately, or that the Index will be determined, constructed, reconstituted, rebalanced, composed, calculated or disseminated accurately. The Adviser relies upon the Index Provider and its agents to compile, determine, construct, reconstitute, rebalance, compose, calculate (or arrange for an agent to calculate), and disseminate the Index accurately. Any losses or costs associated with errors made by the Index Provider or its agents generally will be borne by the Fund and its shareholders.
Issuer Risk. Because the Fund may invest in a limited number of issuers, it is subject to the risk that the value of the Fund’s portfolio may decline due to a decline in value of the equity securities of particular issuers. The value of an issuer’s equity securities may decline for reasons directly related to the issuer, such as management performance and reduced demand for the issuer’s goods or services.
Limited Operating History Risk. The Fund is a recently organized investment company with a limited operating history. As a result, prospective investors have a limited track record or history on which to base their investment decision.
Market Risk. The trading prices of securities and other instruments fluctuate in response to a variety of factors. These factors include events impacting the entire market or specific market segments, such as political, market and economic developments, as well as events that impact specific issuers. The Fund’s NAV and market price, like security and commodity prices generally, may fluctuate significantly in response to these and other factors. As a result, an investor could lose money over short or long periods of time. U.S. and international markets have experienced significant periods of volatility in recent years due to a number of these factors, including the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and related public health issues, growth concerns in the U.S. and overseas, uncertainties regarding interest rates, trade tensions and the threat of tariffs imposed by the U.S. and other countries. These developments as well as other events could result in further market volatility and negatively affect financial asset prices, the liquidity of certain securities and the normal operations of securities exchanges and other markets. It is unknown how long circumstances related to the pandemic will persist, whether they will reoccur in the future, whether efforts to support the economy and financial markets will be successful, and what additional implications may follow from the pandemic. The impact of these events and other epidemics or pandemics in the future could adversely affect Fund performance.
Market Capitalization Risk.
Large-Capitalization Investing. The securities of large-capitalization companies may be relatively mature compared to smaller companies and therefore subject to slower growth during times of economic expansion. Large-capitalization companies may also be unable to respond quickly to new competitive challenges, such as changes in technology and consumer tastes.
Mid-Capitalization Investing. The securities of mid-capitalization companies may be more vulnerable to adverse issuer, market, political, or economic developments than securities of large-capitalization companies. The securities of mid-capitalization companies generally trade in lower volumes and are subject to greater and more unpredictable price changes than large capitalization stocks or the stock market as a whole.
Micro and Small-Capitalization Investing. The securities of micro small-capitalization companies may be newly formed or have limited product lines, distribution channels and financial and managerial resources. Micro and small-capitalization companies may be more vulnerable to adverse issuer, market, political, or economic developments than securities of large- or mid-capitalization companies. The securities of micro and small-capitalization companies generally trade in lower volumes and are subject to greater and more unpredictable price changes than large- or mid-capitalization stocks or the stock market as a whole. There is typically less publicly available information concerning micro and smaller-capitalization companies than for larger, more established companies.
Models and Data Risk. The composition of the Index is heavily dependent on proprietary quantitative models as well as information and data supplied by third parties (“Models and Data”), over which the Adviser has no or limited ability to oversee. When Models and Data prove to be incorrect or incomplete, any decisions made in reliance thereon may lead to the inclusion or exclusion of securities from the Index universe that would have been excluded or included had the Models and Data been correct
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and complete. If the composition of the Index reflects such errors, the Fund’s portfolio can be expected to also reflect the errors. In addition, data and information on non-U.S. countries may be unreliable or outdated or there may be less publicly available data or information about non-U.S. countries due to differences in registration, accounting, audit and financial record keeping standards which creates the potential for errors in Index data, Index computation and/or Index construction and could have an adverse effect on the Fund’s performance.
Non-Diversification Risk. Because the Fund is “non-diversified,” it may invest a greater percentage of its assets in the securities of a single issuer or a lesser number of issuers than if it was a diversified fund. As a result, the Fund may be more exposed to the risks associated with and developments affecting an individual issuer or a lesser number of issuers than a fund that invests more widely. This may increase the Fund’s volatility and cause the performance of a relatively small number of issuers to have a greater impact on the Fund’s performance.
Passive Investment Risk. The Fund is not actively managed and its Sub-Adviser would not sell shares of an equity security due to current or projected underperformance of a security industry or sector unless that security is removed from the Index or the selling of shares of that security is otherwise required upon a rebalancing of the Index as addressed in the Index methodology.
Real Estate Sector Risk. The Fund invests in real estate companies, including REITs and real estate holdings companies, which will expose investors to the risks of owning real estate directly, as well as to the risks that relate specifically to the way in which such companies are organized and operated. Real estate is highly sensitive to general and local economic conditions and developments. The U.S. real estate market may experience and has, in the past, experienced a decline in value, with certain regions experiencing significant losses in property values. Many real estate companies, including REITs, utilize leverage (and some may be highly leveraged), which increases investment risk and the risk normally associated with debt financing, and could potentially increase the Fund’s volatility and losses. Exposure to such real estate may adversely affect Fund performance.
REIT Risk. REITs are subject to the risks associated with investing in the securities of real property companies. In particular, REITs may be affected by changes in the values of the underlying properties that they own or operate. Residential/diversified REITs and commercial equity REITs may be affected by changes in the value of the underlying property owned by the trusts, while mortgage REITs may be affected by the quality of any credit extended. Further, REITs are dependent upon specialized management skills, and their investments may be concentrated in relatively few properties, or in a small geographic area or a single property type. REITs are also subject to heavy cash flow dependency and, as a result, are particularly reliant on the proper functioning of capital markets. A variety of economic and other factors may adversely affect a lessee's ability to meet its obligations to a REIT. In the event of a default by a lessee, the REIT may experience delays in enforcing its rights as a lessor and may incur substantial costs associated in protecting its investments. In addition, a REIT could fail to qualify for favorable regulatory treatment.
Tracking Error Risk. As with all index funds, the performance of the Fund and its Index may differ from each other for a variety of reasons. For example, the Fund incurs operating expenses and portfolio transaction costs not incurred by the Index. In addition, the Fund may not be fully invested in the securities of the Index at all times or may hold securities not included in the Index.
Performance
Performance information for the Fund is not included because the Fund did not have a full calendar year of performance prior to the date of this Prospectus. In the future, performance information for the Fund will be presented in this section. Updated performance information is available on the Fund’s website at www.roundhillinvestments.com.
Portfolio Management
Adviser
Roundhill Financial Inc. (the “Adviser”)
Sub-Adviser
Exchange Traded Concepts, LLC
Portfolio Managers
Andrew Serowik, Todd Alberico, and Gabriel Tan, each a portfolio manager for the Sub-Adviser, have been portfolio managers of the Fund since its inception in October 2021
Purchase and Sale of Shares
The Fund issues and redeems Shares at NAV only in large blocks known as “Creation Units,” which only APs (typically, broker-dealers) may purchase or redeem. The Fund generally issues and redeems Creation Units in exchange for a portfolio of securities and/or a designated amount of U.S. cash.
Shares are listed on the Exchange, and individual Shares may only be bought and sold in the secondary market through a broker or dealer at market prices, rather than NAV. Because Shares trade at market prices rather than NAV, Shares may trade at a price greater than NAV (premium) or less than NAV (discount).
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An investor may incur costs attributable to the difference between the highest price a buyer is willing to pay to purchase Shares (the “bid” price) and the lowest price a seller is willing to accept for Shares (the “ask” price) when buying or selling Shares in the secondary market. The difference in the bid and ask prices is referred to as the “bid-ask spread.”
Recent information regarding the Fund’s NAV, market price, how often Shares traded on the Exchange at a premium or discount, and bid-ask spreads can be found on the Fund’s website at www.roundhillinvestments.com.
Tax Information
The Fund’s distributions are generally taxable as ordinary income, qualified dividend income, or capital gains (or a combination), unless your investment is in an individual retirement account (“IRA”) or other tax-advantaged account. Distributions on investments made through tax-deferred arrangements may be taxed later upon withdrawal of assets from those accounts.
Financial Intermediary Compensation
If you purchase Shares through a broker-dealer or other financial intermediary (such as a bank) (an “Intermediary”), the Adviser or its affiliates may pay Intermediaries for certain activities related to the Fund, including participation in activities that are designed to make Intermediaries more knowledgeable about exchange-traded products, including the Fund, or for other activities, such as marketing, educational training or other initiatives related to the sale or promotion of Shares. These payments may create a conflict of interest by influencing the Intermediary and your salesperson to recommend the Fund over another investment. Any such arrangements do not result in increased Fund expenses. Ask your salesperson or visit the Intermediary’s website for more information.
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ROUNDHILL MEME ETF – FUND SUMMARY
Investment Objective
The Roundhill MEME ETF (“MEME ETF” or the “Fund”) seeks to track the performance, before fees and expenses, of the Solactive Roundhill Meme Stock Index (the “Index”).
Fees and Expenses of the Fund
This table describes the fees and expenses that you may pay if you buy, hold, and sell shares of the Fund (“Shares”). You may pay other fees, such as brokerage commissions and other fees to financial intermediaries, which are not reflected in the table and Example below.

Shareholder Fees (fees paid directly from your investment)
None
Annual Fund Operating Expenses (expenses that you pay each year as a percentage of the value of your investment)
Management Fee 0.69%
Distribution and/or Service (12b-1) Fees 0.00%
Other Expenses* 0.00%
Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses 0.69%
* Estimated for the current fiscal year.
Example
This Example is intended to help you compare the cost of investing in the Fund with the cost of investing in other funds. The Example assumes that you invest $10,000 in the Fund for the time periods indicated and then redeem all of your Shares at the end of those periods. The Example also assumes that your investment has a 5% return each year and that the Fund’s operating expenses remain the same. The Example does not take into account brokerage commissions that you may pay on your purchases and sales of Shares. Although your actual costs may be higher or lower, based on these assumptions your costs would be:
1 Year: $70 3 Years: $221
Portfolio Turnover
The Fund pays transaction costs, such as commissions, when it buys and sells securities (or “turns over” its portfolio). A higher portfolio turnover rate may indicate higher transaction costs and may result in higher taxes when Shares are held in a taxable account. These costs, which are not reflected in the Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses or in the Example, affect the Fund’s performance. For the fiscal period December 7, 2021 (commencement of operations) through December 31, 2021, the Fund’s portfolio turnover rate was 32% of the average value of its portfolio.
Principal Investment Strategies
The Fund uses a “passive management” (or indexing) approach to seek to track the performance, before fees and expenses, of the Solactive Roundhill Meme Stock Index which, in turn, seeks to track the performance of “meme stocks.” Meme stocks are equity securities, including common stock and American depositary receipts (“ADRs”), of companies that exhibit a combination of elevated social media activity (i.e., the number of times a company or its ticker is mentioned on specific social media platforms) and high short interest (i.e., the percentage of an issuer’s available publicly traded shares which are unrestricted (“free float shares”), that have been sold short but which have not yet been covered or closed out), both of which are indicators of market sentiment. Solactive AG acts as the index provider and calculation agent (the “Index Provider”).
Solactive Roundhill Meme Stock Index
The Index Provider will define the initial investable universe on the last business day of each month, which will become effective on the close of business five Business Days (defined below) later. The initial investable universe will include all U.S. exchange-listed equity securities (including ADRs) that meet minimum initial market capitalization, average and median daily traded value, and stock price criteria. Each issuer in this initial universe with a minimum market capitalization of $1 billion on Selection Day (defined below) will be assigned a “social media activity score.” The social media activity score is based on the number of text-based (as opposed to graphics or other image-based) mentions of a company’s name or its ticker over a trailing 14-day period on specific social media platforms defined in the Index methodology, the primary purpose of which is to facilitate discussion of the performance of the financial industry generally and/or the stock or options markets specifically. The social media activity score is provided by a third-party data provider that also maintains an exclusion list intended to identify computer generated, false positive, and/or otherwise deceptive postings. Companies on the exclusion list will be excluded from the Index on Selection Day.
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Upon each Selection Day, the top 50 issuers by social media activity score are then ranked according to their short interest, which is assigned by an independent third-party data provider. The resulting top 25 issuers by short interest will be selected as the components of, and equally weighted in, the Index.
The Index components will be rebalanced bi-weekly, with selections made on every second Friday (“Selection Day”). If a Selection Day does not fall on a day on which the New York Stock Exchange is open (a “Business Day”), then that Selection Day will be moved to the next Business Day. Any resulting adjustments to reconstitute the Index will be made on the second Business Day after the Selection Day.
The Fund’s Investment Strategy
Under normal circumstances, at least 80% of the Fund’s net assets (plus borrowings for investment purposes) will be invested in meme stocks, which may include common stock and depositary receipts. From time to time, the Fund’s investments may include the common stock of U.S.-listed special purpose acquisition companies (“SPACs”), which are “blank check” companies with no commercial operations that are designed to raise capital via an initial public offering for the purpose of engaging in a merger, acquisition, reorganization, or similar business combination with one or more operating companies. The Fund expects that, over time, the correlation between the Fund’s performance and that of the Index, before fees and expenses, will be 95% or better.
The Fund will generally use a “replication” strategy to achieve its investment objective, meaning it generally will invest in all of the component securities of the Index in approximately the same proportions as in the Index. However, the Fund may use a “representative sampling” strategy, meaning it may invest in a sample of the securities in the Index whose risk, return and other characteristics closely resemble the risk, return and other characteristics of the Index as a whole, when Exchange Traded Concepts, LLC (the “Sub-Adviser”), the Fund’s sub-adviser, believes it is in the best interests of the Fund (e.g., when replicating the Index involves practical difficulties or substantial costs, an Index constituent becomes temporarily illiquid, unavailable, or less liquid, or as a result of legal restrictions or limitations that apply to the Fund but not to the Index).
The Fund also may invest in securities or other investments not included in the Index, but which the Sub-Adviser believes will help the Fund track the Index. For example, the Fund may invest in securities that are not components of the Index to reflect various corporate actions and other changes to the Index (such as reconstitutions, additions, and deletions).
To the extent the Index concentrates (i.e., holds more than 25% of its total assets) in the securities of a particular industry or group of related industries, the Fund will concentrate its investments to approximately the same extent as the Index. Because the Index is rebalanced bi-weekly, Index concentration may change frequently. As of March 31, 2022, the Index was concentrated in one or more industries in the consumer discretionary sector. The Fund may also experience high portfolio turnover.
The Fund is classified as a “non-diversified” investment company under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “1940 Act”).
Principal Investment Risks
The principal risks of investing in the Fund are summarized below. The principal risks are presented in alphabetical order to facilitate finding particular risks and comparing them with those of other funds. Each risk summarized below is considered a “principal risk” of investing in the Fund, regardless of the order in which it appears. As with any investment, there is a risk that you could lose all or a portion of your investment in the Fund. Some or all of these risks may adversely affect the Fund’s net asset value (“NAV”), trading price, yield, total return and/or ability to meet its objective. The following risks could affect the value of your investment in the Fund:
Associated Risks of Meme Stocks. Meme stocks are stocks whose trading volume increases not necessarily because of a company’s performance or fundamentals, but because of social media attention. Social media attention may result from a variety of factors, including the reputation of the issuer, marketing efforts, and the timing of the release of publicly available information, which may be unrelated to the company’s performance, financial position, or other business fundamentals. As a result, meme stocks are prone to high volatility, experiencing spikes of rapid growth in short spaces of time, followed by dramatic drops in price and value, which may be a result of panic selling or loss of general interest or popularity. Because meme stocks are heavily dependent on investor sentiment and opinion, they may be overpriced in comparison to the company’s fundamentals, resulting in losses to the Fund.
Associated Risks of Social Media Analytics. The Fund’s investment strategy relies heavily on social media analytics, which are relatively new and untested. “Social media” is an umbrella term that encompasses various activities that integrate technology, social interaction and content creation. Investing in companies based on social media analytics involves the potential risk of market manipulation because social media posts may be made with an intent to inflate, or otherwise manipulate, the public perception of a company stock or other investment. Although the Index Provider attempts to mitigate the potential risk of such manipulation by employing screens to identify posts which may be computer generated or deceptive and by employing market capitalization and trading volume criteria to remove companies which may be more likely targets for such manipulation, there is no guarantee that such screens will be able to successfully reduce such risk. Furthermore, text and sentiment analysis of social media postings may prove inaccurate in predicting a company’s stock performance (i.e., high positive sentiment may not correlate
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with positive change in the value of a company’s stock and low positive or negative sentiment may not correlate with negative change in the value of a company’s stock). Additionally, social media companies are susceptible to other events and concerns which may disrupt the ability to extract meaningful data from such sites, including permanent cessation of operations, disruption in service caused by hardware or software failure, interruptions or delays in service by third-party data center hosting facilities and maintenance providers, security breaches involving certain private, sensitive, proprietary and confidential information managed and transmitted by social media companies, privacy concerns and laws, and evolving Internet regulation and other foreign or domestic regulations that may limit or otherwise affect the operations of social media companies.
Consumer Discretionary Sector Risk. Consumer discretionary companies are companies that provide non-essential goods and services, such as retailers, media companies and consumer services. These companies manufacture products and provide discretionary services directly to the consumer, and the success of these companies tied closely to the performance of the overall domestic and international economy, interest rates, competition and consumer confidence.
Concentration Risk. Because the Fund’s assets will be concentrated in an industry or group of industries to the extent the Index concentrates in a particular industry or group of industries, the Fund is subject to loss due to adverse occurrences that may affect that industry or group of industries.
Cybersecurity Risk. Cybersecurity incidents may allow an unauthorized party to gain access to Fund assets, customer data (including private shareholder information), or proprietary information, or cause the Fund, the Adviser (defined below), the Sub-Adviser and/or other service providers (including custodians, transfer agents and financial intermediaries) to suffer data breaches or data corruption. Additionally, cybersecurity failures or breaches of the electronic systems of the Fund, the Adviser, the Sub-Adviser or the Fund’s other service providers, market makers, Authorized Participants or the issuers of securities in which the Fund invests have the ability to cause disruptions and negatively impact the Fund’s business operations, potentially resulting in financial losses to the Fund and its shareholders. In an extreme case, a shareholder’s ability to redeem Fund shares may be affected.
Depositary Receipt Risk. Depositary receipts, including ADRs, involve risks similar to those associated with investments in foreign securities, such as changes in political or economic conditions of other countries and changes in the exchange rates of foreign currencies. Depositary receipts listed on U.S. exchanges are issued by banks or trust companies, and entitle the holder to all dividends and capital gains that are paid out on the underlying foreign shares (“Underlying Shares”). When the Fund invests in depositary receipts as a substitute for an investment directly in the Underlying Shares, the Fund is exposed to the risk that the depositary receipts may not provide a return that corresponds precisely with that of the Underlying Shares. Because the Underlying Shares trade on foreign exchanges that may be closed when the Fund’s primary listing exchange is open, the Fund may experience premiums and discounts greater than those of funds without exposure to such Underlying Shares.
Equity Market Risk. The equity securities held in the Fund’s portfolio may experience sudden, unpredictable drops in value or long periods of decline in value. This may occur because of factors that affect securities markets generally or factors affecting specific issuers, industries, sectors or companies in which the Fund invests. Common stocks are generally exposed to greater risk than other types of securities, such as preferred stocks and debt obligations, because common stockholders generally have inferior rights to receive payment from issuers.
ETF Risks. The Fund is an ETF, and, as a result of its structure, it is exposed to the following risks:
Authorized Participants, Market Makers, and Liquidity Providers Concentration Risk. The Fund has a limited number of financial institutions that may act as APs. In addition, there may be a limited number of market makers and/or liquidity providers in the marketplace. To the extent either of the following events occur, Shares may trade at a material discount to NAV and possibly face delisting: (i) APs exit the business or otherwise become unable to process creation and/or redemption orders and no other APs step forward to perform these services, or (ii) market makers and/or liquidity providers exit the business or significantly reduce their business activities and no other entities step forward to perform their functions.
Costs of Buying or Selling Shares. Due to the costs of buying or selling Shares, including brokerage commissions imposed by brokers and bid/ask spreads, frequent trading of Shares may significantly reduce investment results and an investment in Shares may not be advisable for investors who anticipate regularly making small investments.
Shares May Trade at Prices Other Than NAV. As with all ETFs, Shares may be bought and sold in the secondary market at market prices. Although it is expected that the market price of Shares will approximate the Fund’s NAV, there may be times when the market price of Shares is more than the NAV intra-day (premium) or less than the NAV intra-day (discount) due to supply and demand of Shares or during periods of market volatility. This risk is heightened in times of market volatility, periods of steep market declines, and periods when there is limited trading activity for Shares in the secondary market, in which case such premiums or discounts may be significant. Because securities held by the Fund may trade on foreign exchanges that are closed when the Fund’s primary listing exchange is open, the Fund is likely to experience premiums or discounts greater than those of domestic ETFs.
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Trading. Although Shares are listed for trading on the NYSE Arca, Inc. (the “Exchange”) and may be traded on U.S. exchanges other than the Exchange, there can be no assurance that Shares will trade with any volume, or at all, on any stock exchange. In stressed market conditions, the liquidity of Shares may begin to mirror the liquidity of the Fund’s underlying portfolio holdings, which can be significantly less liquid than Shares.
Index Provider Risk. There is no assurance that the Index Provider, or any agents that act on its behalf, will compile the Index accurately, or that the Index will be determined, constructed, reconstituted, rebalanced, composed, calculated or disseminated accurately. The Adviser relies upon the Index Provider and its agents to compile, determine, construct, reconstitute, rebalance, compose, calculate (or arrange for an agent to calculate), and disseminate the Index accurately. Any losses or costs associated with errors made by the Index Provider or its agents generally will be borne by the Fund and its shareholders.
IPO Risk. The Fund may invest in securities issued in initial public offerings. The market value of IPO shares will fluctuate considerably due to factors such as the absence of a prior public market, unseasoned trading, the small number of shares available for trading and limited information about the issuer. The purchase of IPO shares may involve high transaction costs. IPO shares are subject to market risk and liquidity risk.
Issuer Risk. Because the Fund may invest in a limited number of issuers, it is subject to the risk that the value of the Fund’s portfolio may decline due to a decline in value of the equity securities of particular issuers. The value of an issuer’s equity securities may decline for reasons directly related to the issuer, such as management performance and reduced demand for the issuer’s goods or services.
Limited Operating History Risk. The Fund is a recently organized investment company with a limited operating history. As a result, prospective investors have a limited track record or history on which to base their investment decision.
Market Capitalization Risk.
Large-Capitalization Investing. The securities of large-capitalization companies may be relatively mature compared to smaller companies and therefore subject to slower growth during times of economic expansion. Large-capitalization companies may also be unable to respond quickly to new competitive challenges, such as changes in technology and consumer tastes.
Mid-Capitalization Investing. The securities of mid-capitalization companies may be more vulnerable to adverse issuer, market, political, or economic developments than securities of large-capitalization companies. The securities of mid-capitalization companies generally trade in lower volumes and are subject to greater and more unpredictable price changes than large capitalization stocks or the stock market as a whole.
Small-Capitalization Investing. The securities of small-capitalization companies may be more vulnerable to adverse issuer, market, political, or economic developments than securities of large- or mid-capitalization companies. The securities of small-capitalization companies generally trade in lower volumes and are subject to greater and more unpredictable price changes than large- or mid-capitalization stocks or the stock market as a whole. There is typically less publicly available information concerning smaller-capitalization companies than for larger, more established companies.
Market Risk. The trading prices of securities and other instruments fluctuate in response to a variety of factors. These factors include events impacting the entire market or specific market segments, such as political, market and economic developments, as well as events that impact specific issuers. The Fund’s NAV and market price, like security and commodity prices generally, may fluctuate significantly in response to these and other factors. As a result, an investor could lose money over short or long periods of time. U.S. and international markets have experienced significant periods of volatility in recent years due to a number of these factors, including the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and related public health issues, growth concerns in the U.S. and overseas, uncertainties regarding interest rates, trade tensions and the threat of tariffs imposed by the U.S. and other countries. These developments as well as other events could result in further market volatility and negatively affect financial asset prices, the liquidity of certain securities and the normal operations of securities exchanges and other markets. It is unknown how long circumstances related to the pandemic will persist, whether they will reoccur in the future, whether efforts to support the economy and financial markets will be successful, and what additional implications may follow from the pandemic. The impact of these events and other epidemics or pandemics in the future could adversely affect Fund performance.
Non-Diversification Risk. Because the Fund is “non-diversified,” it may invest a greater percentage of its assets in the securities of a single issuer or a lesser number of issuers than if it was a diversified fund. As a result, the Fund may be more exposed to the risks associated with and developments affecting an individual issuer or a lesser number of issuers than a fund that invests more widely. This may increase the Fund’s volatility and cause the performance of a relatively small number of issuers to have a greater impact on the Fund’s performance.
Passive Investment Risk. The Fund is not actively managed and its Sub-Adviser would not sell shares of an equity security due to current or projected underperformance of a security industry or sector unless that security is removed from the Index or the selling of shares of that security is otherwise required upon a rebalancing of the Index as addressed in the Index methodology.
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Portfolio Turnover Risk. Because the Fund may “turn over” some or all of its portfolio frequently, the Fund may incur high levels of transaction costs from commissions or mark-ups in the bid/offer spread. Higher portfolio turnover (e.g., in excess of 100% per year) may result in the Fund paying higher levels of transaction costs and generating greater tax liabilities for shareholders.
Price Volatility Risk. The value of meme stocks may increase or decrease rapidly or unpredictably, causing the NAV of the Fund to also increase or decrease rapidly or unpredictably.
SPAC Investment Risk. The Fund may invest in equity securities of SPACs, which raise assets to seek potential business combination opportunities. Unless and until a business combination is completed, a SPAC generally invests its assets in U.S. government securities, money market securities, and cash. Because SPACs have no operating history or ongoing business other than seeking a business combination, the value of their securities is particularly dependent on the ability of the entity’s management to identify and complete a profitable business combination. There is no guarantee that the SPACs in which the Fund invests will complete a business combination or that any business combination that is completed will be profitable. The market perception of a SPAC’s ability to complete a business combination could materially impact the market value of the SPAC’s securities. Public stockholders of SPACs may not be afforded a meaningful opportunity to vote on a proposed initial business combination because certain stockholders, including stockholders affiliated with the management of the SPAC, may have sufficient voting power, and a financial incentive, to approve such a transaction without support from public stockholders. As a result, a SPAC may complete a business combination even though a majority of its public stockholders do not support such a combination. Some SPACs may pursue a business combination only within certain industries or regions, which may increase the volatility of their prices.
Tax Risk. Investment in SPACs introduces complexities beyond typical equity investments and may introduce tax risks to the Fund. In particular, certain non-U.S. SPACs may be treated as a “passive foreign investment company” (“PFIC”) under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), thereby causing the Fund to be subject to special tax rules. If a SPAC is classified as a PFIC, the Fund may be subject to U.S. federal income tax on a portion of any “excess distribution” or gain from the disposition of shares in the PFIC even if such income is distributed as a taxable dividend by the Fund to its shareholders. Additional charges in the nature of interest may be imposed on the Fund in respect of deferred taxes arising from such distributions or gains unless the Fund makes certain elections. See “Federal Income Taxes—Foreign Investments” in the SAI for additional information.
Tracking Error Risk. As with all index funds, the performance of the Fund and its Index may differ from each other for a variety of reasons. For example, the Fund incurs operating expenses and portfolio transaction costs not incurred by the Index. In addition, the Fund may not be fully invested in the securities of the Index at all times or may hold securities not included in the Index.
Performance
Performance information for the Fund is not included because the Fund did not have a full calendar year of performance prior to the date of this Prospectus. In the future, performance information for the Fund will be presented in this section. Updated performance information is available on the Fund’s website at www.roundhillinvestments.com.
Portfolio Management
Adviser
Roundhill Financial Inc. (the “Adviser”)
Sub-Adviser
Exchange Traded Concepts, LLC
Portfolio Managers
Andrew Serowik, Todd Alberico, and Gabriel Tan, each a portfolio manager for the Sub-Adviser, have been portfolio managers of the Fund since its inception in December 2021
Purchase and Sale of Shares
The Fund issues and redeems Shares at NAV only in large blocks known as “Creation Units,” which only APs (typically, broker-dealers) may purchase or redeem. The Fund generally issues and redeems Creation Units in exchange for a portfolio of securities and/or a designated amount of U.S. cash.
Shares are listed on the Exchange, and individual Shares may only be bought and sold in the secondary market through a broker or dealer at market prices, rather than NAV. Because Shares trade at market prices rather than NAV, Shares may trade at a price greater than NAV (premium) or less than NAV (discount).
An investor may incur costs attributable to the difference between the highest price a buyer is willing to pay to purchase Shares (the “bid” price) and the lowest price a seller is willing to accept for Shares (the “ask” price) when buying or selling Shares in the secondary market. The difference in the bid and ask prices is referred to as the “bid-ask spread.”
Recent information regarding the Fund’s NAV, market price, how often Shares traded on the Exchange at a premium or discount, and bid-ask spreads can be found on the Fund’s website at www.roundhillinvestments.com.
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Tax Information
The Fund’s distributions are generally taxable as ordinary income, qualified dividend income, or capital gains (or a combination), unless your investment is in an individual retirement account (“IRA”) or other tax-advantaged account. Distributions on investments made through tax-deferred arrangements may be taxed later upon withdrawal of assets from those accounts.
Financial Intermediary Compensation
If you purchase Shares through a broker-dealer or other financial intermediary (such as a bank) (an “Intermediary”), the Adviser or its affiliates may pay Intermediaries for certain activities related to the Fund, including participation in activities that are designed to make Intermediaries more knowledgeable about exchange-traded products, including the Fund, or for other activities, such as marketing, educational training or other initiatives related to the sale or promotion of Shares. These payments may create a conflict of interest by influencing the Intermediary and your salesperson to recommend the Fund over another investment. Any such arrangements do not result in increased Fund expenses. Ask your salesperson or visit the Intermediary’s website for more information.
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ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ABOUT THE INDEXES
Nasdaq CTA Global Video Games Software IndexTM – Nasdaq and the CTA act as the Index Provider.
Roundhill Sports Betting & iGaming Index – The Adviser provides the Index to the Sports Betting ETF. The Adviser created and developed the Index and is responsible for maintaining and applying the methodology for the Index.
Ball Metaverse Index – Ball Metaverse Research Partners LLC acts as the Index Provider.
IO Digital Infrastructure Index – IO Digital Index Partners acts as the Index Provider.
Solactive Roundhill Meme Stock Index – Solactive AG acts as the Index Provider.
With respect to the Nasdaq CTA Global Video Games Software IndexTM, the Ball Metaverse Index, the IO Digital Infrastructure Index, and the Solactive Roundhill Meme Stock Index, the Index Provider provides information to the respective Fund about its Index constituents and does not provide investment advice with respect to the desirability of investing in, purchasing, or selling securities. Each Index Provider for such Indexes is an independent third party that is not affiliated with the respective Fund, the Adviser, the Sub-Adviser, the Fund’s distributor, or any of their respective affiliates.
The Roundhill Sports Betting & iGaming Index, the Ball Metaverse Index, the IO Digital Infrastructure Index, and the Solactive Roundhill Meme Stock Index are calculated by Solactive AG, and the Nasdaq CTA Global Video Games Software IndexTM is calculated by Nasdaq, each an independent third party that is not affiliated with the Funds, the Adviser, the Sub-Adviser, the Funds’ distributor, or any of their respective affiliates. The Index calculation agent provides information to the respective Fund about its Index constituents and does not provide investment advice with respect to the desirability of investing in, purchasing, or selling securities.
Each Index is calculated as a gross total return index.
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ABOUT THE FUNDS
Investment Objective
Each Fund’s investment objective has been adopted as a non-fundamental investment policy and may be changed by the Fund’s Board of Trustees (the “Board”) of Listed Funds Trust (the “Trust”) without shareholder approval upon written notice to shareholders.
Principal Investment Strategies
The following information is in addition to, and should be read along with, the description of each Fund’s principal investment strategies in each section titled “Fund Summary—Principal Investment Strategies” above.
Each Fund has adopted a policy to comply with Rule 35d-1 under the 1940 Act. Each such policy has been adopted as a non-fundamental investment policy and may be changed without shareholder approval upon 60 days’ written notice to shareholders.
The Video Games ETF invests, under normal circumstances, at least 80% of its net assets (plus borrowings for investment purposes) in companies that are economically tied to the Video Games Industry. For purposes of the foregoing policy, a company is considered economically tied to the Video Games Industry if it earns a significant amount of its revenue from video games and is classified by CTA as a company within the Developer/Publisher Sector.
The Sports Betting ETF invests, under normal circumstances, at least 80% of its net assets (plus borrowings for investment purposes) in securities issued by Sports Betting and iGaming Companies. Sports Betting and iGaming Companies are companies assigned to the “Casinos & Gaming” sub-industry as defined by the Global Industry Classification Standard®, a widely recognized industry classification methodology developed by MSCI, Inc. and Standard & Poor’s Financial Services LLC, that are actively involved in iGaming as that term is defined above. A proprietary keyword scanning algorithm that screens filings, disclosures and other public information of issuers within the Casinos & Gaming sub-industry for variations of the terms “sports betting” and “iGaming” is used to further identify companies actively involved in iGaming.
The Metaverse ETF invests, under normal circumstances, at least 80% of its net assets (plus any borrowings for investment purposes) in Metaverse Companies. For purposes of this policy, the Fund defines Metaverse Companies as companies that engage in activities or provide products, services, technologies, or technological capabilities to enable the Metaverse, and benefit from its generated revenues.
The Digital Infrastructure ETF invests, under normal circumstances, at least 80% of its net assets (plus any borrowings for investment purposes) in Digital Infrastructure Companies. For purposes of this policy, Digital Infrastructure Companies are companies that earn a majority of their revenue from digital infrastructure assets, which include fixed-line, speed data transmission (such as fiberoptic cable and certain “last-mile” technologies that bring data to the end-user); data centers; mobile towers and related infrastructure; and other long-lived physical infrastructure assets.
The MEME ETF invests, under normal circumstances, at least 80% of its net assets (plus any borrowings for investment purposes) in meme stocks, which may include investments in common stock and depositary receipts.
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Video Games ETF
To be eligible for inclusion in the Index, a company must have a market capitalization of at least $500 million ($300 million at the time of reconstitution for companies already included in the Index) and a three-month average daily traded value of at least $1 million ($500,000 at the time of reconstitution for companies already included in the Index). In addition, at least 20% of a company’s total shares outstanding must be publicly available for trading. Companies domiciled in Russia or China currently are not eligible for inclusion in the Index.
Sports Betting ETF
At each rebalance, the Committee will calculate an “estimate of total assets” in products linked to the Index. If the aggregate dollar position in a given security (equal to percentage weighting in the Index multiplied by the “estimate of total assets”) is greater than 5% of a component’s market capitalization, then the component’s index weighting will be revised downward to ensure that the aggregate dollar position is capped at 5% of market capitalization. The weighting removed from that component will then be allocated on a pro-rata basis across remaining components, subject to the same 5% cap.
Each security in the Index will have a market capitalization of at least $50 million USD.
Metaverse ETF and MEME ETF
The Fund also may invest in SPACs. A SPAC is a company with no commercial operations that is designed to raise capital via an IPO for the purpose of engaging in a merger, acquisition, reorganization, or similar business combination (a “Combination”) with one or more operating companies. Sponsors of SPACs typically pay the SPAC’s offering costs and underwriting fees and contribute all or a portion of its working capital in exchange for participation in the common stock and derivatives (such as warrants) of the SPAC. A SPAC IPO typically involves the sale of units consisting of one share of common stock and a warrant or right (or portion of a warrant or right) to purchase common stock at a fixed price upon or after the consummation of a Combination. The capital raised in the IPO is typically placed into a trust. The proceeds of the IPO may be used only to consummate a Combination and for other limited purposes such as paying taxes owed by the SPAC.
With respect to the Metaverse ETF, if a SPAC held by the Fund does not meet the definition of a Metaverse Company after its business combination, the position will be removed from the Index and the Fund will exit its position in such security.
Principal Investment Risks
An investment in a Fund entails risks. A Fund could lose money, or its performance could trail that of other investment alternatives. The following provides additional information about each Fund’s principal risks. It is important that investors closely review and understand these risks before making an investment in a Fund. Each risk applies to each Fund unless otherwise specified. Just as in each Fund’s summary section above, the principal risks below are presented in alphabetical order to facilitate finding particular risks and comparing them with those of other funds. Each risk summarized below is considered a “principal risk” of investing in a Fund, regardless of the order in which it appears.
Associated Risks of Meme Stocks (MEME ETF only). Meme stocks are stocks whose trading volume increases not necessarily because of a company’s performance or fundamentals, but because of social media attention. Social media attention may result from a variety of factors, including the reputation of the issuer, marketing efforts, and the timing of the release of publicly available information, which may be unrelated to the company’s performance, financial position, or other business fundamentals. As a result, meme stocks are prone to high volatility, experiencing spikes of rapid growth in short spaces of time, followed by dramatic drops in price and value, which may be a result of panic selling or loss of general interest or popularity. Because meme stocks are heavily dependent on investor sentiment and opinion, they may be overpriced in comparison to the company’s fundamentals, resulting in losses to the Fund.
Associated Risks of Social Media Analytics (MEME ETF only). The Fund’s investment strategy relies heavily on social media analytics, which are relatively new and untested. “Social media” is an umbrella term that encompasses various activities that integrate technology, social interaction and content creation. Investing in companies based on social media analytics involves the potential risk of market manipulation because social media posts may be made with an intent to inflate, or otherwise manipulate, the public perception of a company stock or other investment. Although the Index Provider attempts to mitigate the potential risk of such manipulation by employing screens to identify posts which may be computer generated or deceptive and by employing market capitalization and trading volume criteria to remove companies which may be more likely targets for such manipulation, there is no guarantee that such screens will be able to successfully reduce such risk. Furthermore, text and sentiment analysis of social media postings may prove inaccurate in predicting a company’s stock performance (i.e., high positive sentiment may not correlate with positive change in the value of a company’s stock and low positive or negative sentiment may not correlate with negative change in the value of a company’s stock). Additionally, social media companies are susceptible to other events and concerns which may disrupt the ability to extract meaningful data from such sites, including permanent cessation of operations, disruption in service caused by hardware or software failure, interruptions or delays in service by third-party data center hosting facilities and maintenance providers, security breaches involving certain private, sensitive, proprietary and confidential
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information managed and transmitted by social media companies, privacy concerns and laws, and evolving Internet regulation and other foreign or domestic regulations that may limit or otherwise affect the operations of social media companies.
Associated Risks of Video Game Companies (Video Games ETF only). Video game companies face intense competition, both domestically and internationally, may have limited product lines, markets, financial resources, or personnel, may have products that face rapid obsolescence, and are heavily dependent on the protection of patent and intellectual property rights. Pure-play companies may be dependent on one or a small number of product or product franchises for a significant portion of their revenue and profits. They may also be subject to shifting consumer preferences, including preferences with respect to gaming console platforms, and changes in consumer discretionary spending. Such factors may adversely affect the profitability and value of video game companies. Video game companies also may be subject to increasing regulatory constraints, particularly with respect to cybersecurity and privacy. In addition to the costs of complying with such constraints, the unintended disclosure of confidential information, whether because of an error or a cybersecurity event, could adversely affect the reputation, profitability and value of these companies. Video game companies may be subject to sophisticated intellectual property infringement schemes and piracy efforts, particularly in foreign markets, which may limit the revenue potential in such markets, and combating such infringement or piracy schemes may require significant expenses. Such anti-piracy programs may not be effective.
Communication Services Sector Risk (Video Games ETF, Digital Infrastructure ETF, and Metaverse ETF only). Market or economic factors impacting communication services companies and companies that rely heavily on technological advances could have a major effect on the value of the Fund’s investments. Communication services companies are particularly vulnerable to the potential obsolescence of products and services due to technological advancement and the innovation of competitors. Companies in the communication services sector may also be affected by other competitive pressures, such as pricing competition, as well as research and development costs, substantial capital requirements and government regulation. Additionally, fluctuating domestic and international demand, shifting demographics and often unpredictable changes in consumer tastes can drastically affect a communication services company’s profitability. Stocks of communication services companies and companies that rely heavily on technology, especially those of smaller, less-seasoned companies, tend to be more volatile than the overall market. Additionally, companies in the communication services sector may face dramatic and often unpredictable changes in growth rates and competition for the services of qualified personnel. While all companies may be susceptible to network security breaches, certain companies in the communication services sector may be particular targets of hacking and potential theft of proprietary or consumer information or disruptions in service, which could have a material adverse effect on their businesses.
Entertainment Industry Risk (Video Games ETF only). As a result of the Fund’s concentration in the Entertainment Industry, the Fund is subject to the risks associated with that Industry. The Entertainment Industry is highly competitive and relies on consumer spending and the availability of disposable income for success. The prices of the securities of companies in the Entertainment Industry may fluctuate widely due to competitive pressures, heavy expenses incurred for research and development of products, problems related to bringing products to market, consumer preferences and rapid obsolescence of products. Legislative or regulatory changes and increased government supervision also may affect companies in the Entertainment Industry. The Entertainment Industry is a separate industry within the Communication Services Sector.
Media Companies Risk (Digital Infrastructure ETF only). The Fund invests in companies in the media industry, which includes telecommunications, streaming, publishing (both traditional and online), and entertainment companies and, as a result, the value of the Fund’s shares will be more susceptible to the factors affecting these particular types of companies. Market or economic factors impacting these companies that rely heavily on technological advances could have a major effect on the value of the Fund’s investments and therefore, the Fund. The value of stocks of these companies is particularly vulnerable to research and development costs, substantial capital requirements, product and services obsolescence, government regulation, and domestic and international competition, including competition from foreign competitors with lower production costs. Stocks of companies that rely heavily on technology, especially those of smaller, less-seasoned companies, tend to be more volatile than the overall market. Additionally, these companies may face dramatic and often unpredictable changes in growth rates and competition for the services of qualified personnel. While all companies may be susceptible to network security breaches, these companies may be particular targets of hacking and potential theft of proprietary or consumer information or disruptions in service, which could have a material adverse effect on their businesses.
Concentration Risk. Because the Fund’s assets will be concentrated in an industry or group of industries to the extent the Index concentrates in a particular industry or group of industries, the Fund is subject to loss due to adverse occurrences that may affect that industry or group of industries. To the extent the Fund concentrates in the securities of issuers in a particular industry, the Fund may face more risks than if it were diversified more broadly over numerous industries. Such industry-based risks, any of which may adversely affect the Fund may include, but are not limited to, the following: general economic conditions or cyclical market patterns that could negatively affect supply and demand in a particular industry; competition for resources, adverse labor relations, political or world events; obsolescence of technologies; and increased competition or new product introductions that may affect the profitability or viability of companies in an industry. In addition, at times, an industry may be out of favor and underperform other industries or the market as a whole. For information about the industries to which the Fund has concentrated exposure, please see the Fund’s Summary section.
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Consumer Discretionary Sector Risk (Sports Betting ETF, Metaverse ETF, and MEME ETF only). Consumer discretionary companies are companies that provide non-essential goods and services, such as retailers, media companies and consumer services. These companies manufacture products and provide discretionary services directly to the consumer, and the success of these companies is tied closely to the performance of the overall domestic and international economy, interest rates, competition and consumer confidence. Success depends heavily on disposable household income and consumer spending. Changes in demographics and consumer tastes can also affect the demand for, and success of, consumer discretionary products in the marketplace.
Currency Exchange Rate Risk (All Funds except MEME ETF). Changes in currency exchange rates and the relative value of non-U.S. currencies will affect the value of the Fund’s investments and the value of your Shares. Because the Fund’s NAV is determined on the basis of U.S. dollars, the U.S. dollar value of your investment in the Fund may go down if the value of the local currency of the non-U.S. markets in which the Fund invests depreciates against the U.S. dollar. This is true even if the local currency value of securities in the Fund’s holdings goes up. Conversely, the dollar value of your investment in the Fund may go up if the value of the local currency appreciates against the U.S. dollar. The value of the U.S. dollar measured against other currencies is influenced by a variety of factors. These factors include: national debt levels and trade deficits, changes in balances of payments and trade, domestic and foreign interest and inflation rates, global or regional political, economic or financial events, monetary policies of governments, actual or potential government intervention, and global energy prices. Political instability, the possibility of government intervention and restrictive or opaque business and investment policies may also reduce the value of a country’s currency. Government monetary policies and the buying or selling of currency by a country’s government may also influence exchange rates. Currency exchange rates can be very volatile and can change quickly and unpredictably. As a result, the value of an investment in the Fund may change quickly and without warning, and you may lose money.
Cybersecurity Risk. With the increased use of technologies such as the Internet and the dependence on computer systems to perform business and operational functions, funds (such as the Fund) and their service providers may be prone to operational and information security risks resulting from cyber-attacks and/or technological malfunctions. In general, cyber-attacks are deliberate, but unintentional events may have similar effects. Cyber-attacks include, among others, stealing or corrupting data maintained online or digitally, preventing legitimate users from accessing information or services on a website, releasing confidential information without authorization, and causing operational disruption. Cybersecurity incidents may allow an unauthorized party to gain access to Fund assets or proprietary information, or cause the Fund, the Adviser, the Sub-Adviser and/or other service providers (including custodians and financial intermediaries) to suffer data breaches or data corruption. Additionally, cybersecurity failures or breaches of the electronic systems of the Fund, the Adviser, the Sub-Adviser or the Fund’s other service providers, market makers, APs, the Fund’s primary listing exchange, or the issuers of securities in which the Fund invests have the ability to disrupt and negatively affect the Fund’s business operations, including the ability to purchase and sell Fund Shares, potentially resulting in financial losses to the Fund and its shareholders. For instance, cyber-attacks or technical malfunctions may interfere with the processing of shareholder or other transactions, affect the Fund’s ability to calculate its NAV, cause the release of private shareholder information or confidential Fund information, impede trading, cause reputational damage, and subject the Fund to regulatory fines, penalties or financial losses, reimbursement or other compensation costs, and additional compliance costs. Cyber-attacks or technical malfunctions may render records of Fund assets and transactions, shareholder ownership of Fund Shares, and other data integral to the functioning of the Fund inaccessible or inaccurate or incomplete. The Fund may also incur substantial costs for cybersecurity risk management in order to prevent cyber incidents in the future. The Fund and its shareholders could be negatively impacted as a result.
Depositary Receipt Risk. The Fund may hold the securities of non-U.S. companies in the form of depository receipts, including ADRs and GDRs. ADRs are negotiable certificates issued by a U.S. financial institution that represent a specified number of shares in a foreign stock and trade on a U.S. national securities exchange, such as the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”). Sponsored ADRs are issued with the support of the issuer of the foreign stock underlying the ADRs and carry all of the rights of common shares, including voting rights. GDRs are similar to ADRs, but may be issued in bearer form and are typically offered for sale globally and held by a foreign branch of an international bank. The underlying issuers of certain depositary receipts, particularly unsponsored or unregistered depositary receipts, are under no obligation to distribute shareholder communications to the holders of such receipts, or to pass through to them any voting rights with respect to the deposited securities. Issuers of unsponsored depositary receipts are not contractually obligated to disclose material information in the U.S. and, therefore, such information may not correlate to the market value of the unsponsored depositary receipt. The Underlying Shares in the Fund’s portfolio are usually denominated or quoted in currencies other than the U.S. Dollar. As a result, changes in foreign currency exchange rates may affect the value of the Fund’s portfolio. In addition, because the Underlying Shares trade on foreign exchanges at times when the U.S. markets are not open for trading, the value of the Underlying Shares may change materially at times when the U.S. markets are not open for trading, regardless of whether there is an active U.S. market for Shares.
Digital Infrastructure Companies Risk (Digital Infrastructure ETF only). Digital Infrastructure Companies are exposed to the risks specific to the real estate market as well as the risks that relate specifically to the way in which Digital Infrastructure Companies are utilized and operated. Digital Infrastructure Companies may be affected by unique supply and demand factors that do not apply to other real estate sectors, such as changes in demand for communications infrastructure, consolidation of tower
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sites, and new technologies that may affect demand for data centers. Digital Infrastructure Companies are particularly affected by changes in demand for wireless infrastructure and wireless connectivity. Such demand is affected by numerous factors including, but not limited to, consumer demand for wireless connectivity; availability or capacity of wireless infrastructure or associated land interests; location of wireless infrastructure; financial condition of customers; increased use of network sharing, roaming, joint development, or resale agreements by customers; mergers or consolidations by and among customers; governmental regulations, including local or state restrictions on the proliferation of wireless infrastructure; and technological changes, including those affecting the number or type of wireless infrastructure needed to provide wireless connectivity to a given geographic area or resulting in the obsolescence or decommissioning of certain existing wireless networks.
Digital Infrastructure Companies are subject to a variety of factors that may adversely affect their business or operations including high interest costs, costs associated with compliance with and changes in environmental and other regulations, difficulty in raising capital in adequate amounts on reasonable terms in periods of high inflation and unsettled markets, the effects of surplus capacity, increased competition from other providers of services, the effects of energy conservation policies, and other factors. Additionally, Digital Infrastructure Companies also may be subject to regulation by various governmental authorities and may also be affected by governmental regulation of rates charged to customers, government budgetary constraints, service interruption due to environmental, operational or other mishaps and the imposition of special tariffs and changes in tax laws, regulatory policies and accounting standards. Other factors that may affect the operations of Digital Infrastructure Companies include innovations in technology that could render the way in which a company delivers a product or service obsolete, significant changes to the number of ultimate end-users of a company’s products, increased susceptibility to terrorist acts or political actions, risks of environmental damage due to a company’s operations or an accident, and general changes in market sentiment towards infrastructure and utilities assets. Digital Infrastructure Companies may be particularly subject to external risks including, but not limited to, natural disasters and supplier outages. Certain geographical areas may be at higher risk for natural disasters, which can increase the likelihood of power surges and supplier outages. Natural disasters and supplier outages can lead to significant downtime, data loss, and associated expenses. Digital Infrastructure Companies also may be particularly subject to internal risks including, but not limited to, water supply and climate risk and data security risk. Water damage or an imprecise climate may cause extensive damage to critical infrastructure if adequate systems aimed at water penetration and climate control are not installed. Data centers increasingly rely on the use of electronic data, which may make them more vulnerable to data security risk. Data centers are potential targets for cyber-attacks, which may have a materially adverse impact on the performance of these companies. Data centers that do not implement more advanced access control and security monitoring in response to internal and external threats may be at greater risk of potential breaches or damage to data integrity.
Emerging Markets Risk (Video Games ETF and Digital Infrastructure ETF only). The Fund’s investments may expose its portfolio to the risks of investing in emerging markets. Investments in emerging markets are subject to greater risk of loss than investments in developed markets. This is due to, among other things, greater market volatility, lower trading volume, political and economic instability, greater risk of market shutdown and more governmental limitations on foreign investments than typically found in developed markets. In addition, less developed markets are more likely to experience problems with the clearing and settling of trades and the holding of securities by local banks, agents and depositories.
Equity Market Risk. Common stocks are susceptible to general stock market fluctuations and to volatile increases and decreases in value as market confidence in and perceptions of their issuers change. These investor perceptions are based on various and unpredictable factors including: expectations regarding government, economic, monetary and fiscal policies; inflation and interest rates; economic expansion or contraction; and global or regional political, economic and banking crises. If you held common stock, or common stock equivalents, of any given issuer, you would generally be exposed to greater risk than if you held preferred stocks and debt obligations of the issuer because common stockholders, or holders of equivalent interests, generally have inferior rights to receive payments from issuers in comparison with the rights of preferred stockholders, bondholders, and other creditors of such issuers.
The respiratory illness COVID-19 has spread globally for over two years, resulting in a global pandemic and major disruption to economies and markets around the world, including the United States. During this time, financial markets have experienced extreme volatility and severe losses, and trading in many instruments has been disrupted or suspended. Liquidity for many instruments has been greatly reduced for periods of time. Some interest rates are very low and in some cases yields are negative. Some sectors of the economy and individual issuers have experienced particularly large losses. Governments and central banks, including the Federal Reserve in the U.S., have taken extraordinary and unprecedented actions to support local and global economies and the financial markets. The impact of these measures, and whether they will be effective to mitigate the economic and market disruption, will not be known for some time. In recent months, however, the rapid COVID-19 vaccination rollout in the United States and certain other developed countries, coupled with the passage of stimulus programs in the U.S. and abroad, have resulted in the re-opening of businesses, a reduction in quarantine and masking requirements, increased consumer demand, and the resumption of in-person schooling, travel and events. As a result, many global economies, including the U.S. economy, have either re-opened fully or decreased significantly the number of public safety measures in place that are designed to mitigate virus transmission. Despite these positive trends, the prevalence of new COVID-19 variants, a failure to achieve herd immunity, or other unforeseen circumstances may result in the continued spread of the virus throughout unvaccinated populations or a
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resurgence in infections among vaccinated individuals. As a result, it remains unclear if recent positive trends will continue in developed markets and whether such trends will spread world-wide to countries with limited access to effective vaccines that are still experiencing rising COVID-19 hospitalizations and deaths.
ETF Risks. The Fund is an ETF, and, as a result of the structure, is exposed to the following risks:
Authorized Participants, Market Makers, and Liquidity Providers Concentration Risk. The Fund has a limited number of financial institutions that may act as APs. In addition, there may be a limited number of market makers and/or liquidity providers in the marketplace. To the extent either of the following events occur, Shares may trade at a material discount to NAV and possibly face delisting: (i) APs exit the business or otherwise become unable to process creation and/or redemption orders and no other APs step forward to perform these services, or (ii) market makers and/or liquidity providers exit the business or significantly reduce their business activities and no other entities step forward to perform their functions.
Costs of Buying or Selling Shares Risk. Investors buying or selling Shares in the secondary market will pay brokerage commissions or other charges imposed by brokers, as determined by that broker. Brokerage commissions are often a fixed amount and may be a significant proportional cost for investors seeking to buy or sell relatively small amounts of Shares. In addition, secondary market investors also will incur the cost of the difference between the price at which an investor is willing to buy Shares (the “bid” price) and the price at which an investor is willing to sell Shares (the “ask” price). This difference in bid and ask prices is often referred to as the “spread” or “bid/ask spread.” The bid/ask spread varies over time for Shares based on trading volume and market liquidity, and is generally lower if Shares have more trading volume and market liquidity and higher if Shares have little trading volume and market liquidity. Further, a relatively small investor base in the Fund, asset swings in the Fund and/or increased market volatility may cause increased bid/ask spreads. Due to the costs of buying or selling Shares, including bid/ask spreads, frequent trading of Shares may significantly reduce investment results and an investment in Shares may not be advisable for investors who anticipate regularly making small investments.
Shares May Trade at Prices Other Than NAV Risk. As with all ETFs, Shares may be bought and sold in the secondary market at market prices. Although it is expected that the market price of Shares will approximate the Fund’s NAV, there may be times when the market price of Shares is more than the NAV intra-day (premium) or less than the NAV intra-day (discount) due to supply and demand of Shares or during periods of market volatility. This risk is heightened in times of market volatility or periods of steep market declines and periods when there is limited trading activity for Shares in the secondary market, in which case such premiums or discounts may be significant. The market price of Shares during the trading day, like the price of any exchange-traded security, includes a “bid/ask” spread charged by the exchange specialist, market makers or other participants that trade Shares. In times of severe market disruption, the bid/ask spread can increase significantly. At those times, Shares are most likely to be traded at a discount to NAV, and the discount is likely to be greatest when the price of Shares is falling fastest, which may be the time that you most want to sell your Shares. The Adviser believes that, under normal market conditions, large market price discounts or premiums to NAV will not be sustained because of arbitrage opportunities. Because securities held by the Fund may trade on foreign exchanges that are closed when the Fund’s primary listing exchange is open, the Fund is likely to experience premiums or discounts greater than those of domestic ETFs.
Trading Risk. Although Shares are listed for trading on the Exchange and may be listed or traded on U.S. and non-U.S. stock exchanges other than the Exchange, there can be no assurance that an active trading market for such Shares will develop or be maintained. Trading in Shares may be halted due to market conditions or for reasons that, in the view of the Exchange, make trading in Shares inadvisable. In addition, trading in Shares on the Exchange is subject to trading halts caused by extraordinary market volatility pursuant to Exchange “circuit breaker” rules, which temporarily halt trading on the Exchange when a decline in the S&P 500 Index during a single day reaches certain thresholds (e.g., 7%, 13%, and 20%). Additional rules applicable to the Exchange may halt trading in Shares when extraordinary volatility causes sudden, significant swings in the market price of Shares. There can be no assurance that Shares will trade with any volume, or at all, on any stock exchange. In stressed market conditions, the liquidity of Shares may begin to mirror the liquidity of the Fund’s underlying portfolio holdings, which can be significantly less liquid than Shares.
Frontier Markets Risk (Digital Infrastructure ETF only). Certain foreign markets are only in the earliest stages of development and may be considered “frontier markets.” Frontier financial markets generally are less liquid and more volatile than other markets, including markets in developing and emerging economies. Frontier markets have a high concentration of market capitalization and trading volume in a small number of issuers representing a limited number of industries. Securities may have limited marketability and be subject to erratic price movements. Frontier market governments typically exercise substantial influence over many aspects of the private sector. In certain cases, the government owns or controls many companies, including the largest company in the country. Accordingly, governmental actions in the future could have a significant effect on economic conditions in frontier market countries. This could affect private sector companies and the Fund, as well as the value of securities in the Fund’s portfolio. Further, substantial limitations may exist in certain frontier market countries with respect to the Fund’s ability to protect its legal interests and ability to repatriate its investment, investment income or capital gains. The Fund could be adversely affected by delays in, or a refusal to grant, any required governmental approval for repatriation of capital, as well as by the application to the Fund of any restrictions on investment. Procedures concerning transaction settlement and dividend
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collection may be less reliable than in developed markets and larger emerging markets. Frontier markets have been, and may continue to be, impacted by political instability, war, terrorist activities and religious, ethnic and/or socioeconomic unrest. These and other factors make investing in frontier market countries significantly riskier than investing in developed market or emerging market countries.
Foreign Securities Risk (All Funds except the MEME ETF). Investments in non-U.S. securities involve certain risks that may not be present with investments in U.S. securities. For example, investments in non-U.S. securities may be subject to risk of loss due to foreign currency fluctuations or to political or economic instability. There may be less information publicly available about a non-U.S. issuer than a U.S. issuer. Non-U.S. issuers may be subject to different accounting, auditing, financial reporting and investor protection standards than U.S. issuers. Investments in non-U.S. securities may be subject to withholding or other taxes and may be subject to additional trading, settlement, custodial, and operational risks. With respect to certain countries, there is the possibility of government intervention and expropriation or nationalization of assets. Because legal systems differ, there is also the possibility that it will be difficult to obtain or enforce legal judgments in certain countries. Since foreign exchanges may be open on days when the Fund does not price its shares, the value of the securities in the Fund’s portfolio may change on days when shareholders will not be able to purchase or sell the Fund’s shares. Conversely, Shares may trade on days when foreign exchanges are closed. Each of these factors can make investments in the Fund more volatile and potentially less liquid than other types of investments.
Geographic Investment Risk (Video Games ETF, Sports Betting ETF, and Digital Infrastructure ETF only). To the extent that the Fund invests a significant portion of its assets in the securities of companies of a single country or region, it is more likely to be impacted by events or conditions affecting that country or region. For example, political and economic conditions and changes in regulatory, tax, or economic policy in a country could significantly affect the market in that country and in surrounding or related countries and have a negative impact on the Fund’s performance. Currency developments or restrictions, political and social instability, and changing economic conditions have resulted in significant market volatility.
Risks Related to Investing in Asia (Video Games ETF only). Investment in securities of issuers in Asia involves risks and special considerations not typically associated with investment in the US securities markets. Certain Asian economies have experienced over-extension of credit, currency devaluations and restrictions, high unemployment, high inflation, decreased exports and economic recessions. Economic events in any one Asian country can have a significant effect on the entire Asian region as well as on major trading partners outside Asia, and any adverse effect on some or all of the Asian countries and regions in which the Fund invests. The securities markets in some Asian economies are relatively underdeveloped and may subject the Fund to higher action costs or greater uncertainty than investments in more developed securities markets. Such risks may adversely affect the value of the Fund’s investments.
Governments of many Asian countries have implemented significant economic reforms in order to liberalize trade policy, promote foreign investment in their economies, reduce government control of the economy and develop market mechanisms. There can be no assurance these reforms will continue or that they will be effective. Despite recent reform and privatizations, significant regulation of investment and industry is still pervasive in many Asian countries and may restrict foreign ownership of domestic corporations and repatriation of assets, which may adversely affect Fund investments. Governments in some Asian countries are authoritarian in nature, have been installed or removed as a result of military coups or have periodically used force to suppress civil dissent. Disparities of wealth, the pace and success of democratization, and ethnic, religious and racial disaffection have led to social turmoil, violence and labor unrest in some countries. Unanticipated or sudden political or social developments may result in sudden and significant investment losses. Investing in certain Asian countries involves risk of loss due to expropriation, nationalization, or confiscation of assets and property or the imposition of restrictions on foreign investments and on repatriation of capital invested.
Some countries and regions in which the Fund invests have experienced acts of terrorism or strained international relations due to territorial disputes, historical animosities or other defense concerns. For example, North and South Korea each have substantial military capabilities, and historical local tensions between the two countries present the risk of war. Any outbreak of hostilities between the two countries could have a severe adverse effect on the South Korean economy and securities markets. These and other security situations may cause uncertainty in the markets of these geographic areas and may adversely affect the performance of local economies.
iGaming and Sports Betting Companies Risk (Sports Betting ETF only). The iGaming and sports betting industry is characterized by an increasingly high degree of competition among a large number of participants including from participants performing illegal activities or unregulated companies. Expansion of iGaming and sports betting in other jurisdictions (both regulated and unregulated) could increase competition with traditional betting companies, which could have an adverse impact on their financial condition, operations and cash flows. In a broader sense, iGaming and sports betting companies face competition from all manner of leisure and entertainment activities, including shopping, athletic events, television and movies, concerts and travel. In addition, established jurisdictions could award additional licenses or permit the expansion or relocation of existing sports betting companies. These companies also may be subject to increasing regulatory constraints, particularly with respect to cybersecurity and privacy. In addition to the costs of complying with such constraints, the unintended disclosure of confidential
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information, whether because of an error or a cybersecurity event, could adversely affect the reputation, profitability and value of these companies.
Beginning in the first quarter of 2020, financial markets in the United States and around the world experienced extreme and in many cases unprecedented volatility and severe losses due to the global pandemic caused by COVID‑19, a novel coronavirus. The pandemic has resulted in a wide range of social and economic disruptions. Some sectors of the economy and individual issuers, including iGaming companies, have experienced particularly large losses. The shutdown of all commercial sporting activity in the United States and other countries has resulted in there being no sports betting online or otherwise. The continued impact of these events or other epidemics or pandemics could have an impact on the Fund.
Illiquidity Risk (Video Games ETF and Sports Betting ETF only). Illiquidity risk exists when particular investments are difficult to purchase or sell, possibly preventing the Fund from selling these illiquid investments at an advantageous price or at the time desired. A lack of liquidity may also cause the value of investments to decline. Illiquid investments may also be difficult to value.
Index Provider Risk (Video Games ETF, Metaverse ETF, Digital Infrastructure ETF, and MEME ETF only). There is no assurance that the Index Provider, or any agents that act on its behalf, will compile the Index accurately, or that the Index will be determined, constructed, reconstituted, rebalanced, composed, calculated or disseminated accurately. The Adviser relies upon the Index Provider and its agents to compile, determine, construct, reconstitute, rebalance, compose, calculate (or arrange for an agent to calculate), and disseminate the Index accurately. Any losses or costs associated with errors made by the Index Provider or its agents generally will be borne by the Fund and its shareholders. To correct any such error, the Index Provider or its agents may carry out an unscheduled rebalance of the Index or other modification of Index constituents or weightings. When the Fund in turn rebalances its portfolio, any transaction costs and market exposure arising from such portfolio rebalancing will be borne by the Fund and its shareholders. Unscheduled rebalances also expose the Fund to additional tracking error risk. Errors in respect of the quality, accuracy, and completeness of the data used to compile the Index may occur from time to time and may not be identified and corrected by the Index Provider for a period of time or at all, particularly where the Index is less commonly used as a benchmark by funds or advisors. For example, during a period where the Index contains incorrect constituents, the Fund tracking the Index would have market exposure to such constituents and would be underexposed to the Index’s other constituents. Such errors may negatively impact the Fund and its shareholders. The Index Provider and its agents rely on various sources of information to assess the criteria of issuers included in the Index, including information that may be based on assumptions and estimates. Neither the Fund nor the Adviser can offer assurances that the Index’s calculation methodology or sources of information will provide an accurate assessment of included issuers.
Information Technology Sector Risk (Metaverse ETF only). The information technology sector includes companies engaged in internet software and services, technology hardware and storage peripherals, electronic equipment instruments and components, and semiconductors and semiconductor equipment. Information technology companies face intense competition, both domestically and internationally, which may have an adverse effect on profit margins. Information technology companies may have limited product lines, markets, financial resources or personnel. The products of information technology companies may face rapid product obsolescence due to technological developments and frequent new product introduction, unpredictable changes in growth rates and competition for the services of qualified personnel. Failure to introduce new products, develop and maintain a loyal customer base, or achieve general market acceptance for their products could have a material adverse effect on a company’s business. Companies in the information technology sector are heavily dependent on intellectual property and the loss of patent, copyright and trademark protections may adversely affect the profitability of these companies.
Internet Company Risk. Many Internet-related companies have incurred large losses since their inception and may continue to incur large losses in the hope of capturing market share and generating future revenues. Accordingly, many such companies expect to incur significant operating losses for the foreseeable future, and may never be profitable. The markets in which many Internet companies compete face rapidly evolving industry standards, frequent new service and product announcements, introductions and enhancements, and changing customer demands. The failure of an Internet company to adapt to such changes could have a material adverse effect on the company’s business. Additionally, the widespread adoption of new Internet, networking, telecommunications technologies, or other technological changes could require substantial expenditures by an Internet company to modify or adapt its services or infrastructure, which could have a material adverse effect on an Internet company’s business.
Semiconductor Company Risk. Competitive pressures may have a significant effect on the financial condition of semiconductor companies and, as product cycles shorten and manufacturing capacity increases, these companies may become increasingly subject to aggressive pricing, which hampers profitability. Reduced demand for end-user products, under-utilization of manufacturing capacity, and other factors could adversely impact the operating results of companies in the semiconductor sector. Semiconductor companies typically face high capital costs and may be heavily dependent on intellectual property rights. The semiconductor sector is highly cyclical, which may cause the operating results of many semiconductor companies to vary significantly. The stock prices of companies in the semiconductor sector have been and likely will continue to be extremely volatile.
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Software Industry Risk. The software industry can be significantly affected by intense competition, aggressive pricing, technological innovations, and product obsolescence. Companies in the software industry are subject to significant competitive pressures, such as aggressive pricing, new market entrants, competition for market share, short product cycles due to an accelerated rate of technological developments and the potential for limited earnings and/or falling profit margins. These companies also face the risks that new services, equipment or technologies will not be accepted by consumers and businesses or will become rapidly obsolete. These factors can affect the profitability of these companies and, as a result, the value of their securities. Also, patent protection is integral to the success of many companies in this industry, and profitability can be affected materially by, among other things, the cost of obtaining (or failing to obtain) patent approvals, the cost of litigating patent infringement and the loss of patent protection for products (which significantly increases pricing pressures and can materially reduce profitability with respect to such products). In addition, many software companies have limited operating histories. Prices of these companies’ securities historically have been more volatile than other securities, especially over the short term.
IPO Risk (Metaverse ETF and MEME ETF only). The Fund may invest in securities issued in initial public offerings. The market value of IPO shares will fluctuate considerably due to factors such as the absence of a prior public market, unseasoned trading, the small number of shares available for trading and limited information about the issuer. The purchase of IPO shares may involve high transaction costs. IPO shares are subject to market risk and liquidity risk.
Issuer Risk (Metaverse ETF, Digital Infrastructure ETF, and MEME ETF only). Because the Fund may invest in a limited number of issuers, it is subject to the risk that the value of the Fund’s portfolio may decline due to a decline in value of the equity securities of particular issuers. The value of an issuer’s equity securities may decline for reasons directly related to the issuer, such as management performance and reduced demand for the issuer’s goods or services.
Limited Operating History Risk (Metaverse ETF, Digital Infrastructure ETF, and MEME ETF only). The Fund is a recently organized investment company with a limited operating history. As a result, prospective investors have a limited track record or history on which to base their investment decision.
Market Risk. The trading prices of securities and other instruments fluctuate in response to a variety of factors. These factors include events impacting the entire market or specific market segments, such as political, market and economic developments, as well as events that impact specific issuers. The Fund’s NAV and market price, like security and commodity prices generally, may fluctuate significantly in response to these and other factors. As a result, an investor could lose money over short or long periods of time. U.S. and international markets have experienced significant periods of volatility in recent years due to a number of economic, political and global macro factors, including public health issues, growth concerns in the U.S. and overseas, uncertainties regarding interest rates, trade tensions and the threat of tariffs imposed by the U.S. and other countries. In addition, local, regional or global events such as war, including Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, acts of terrorism, spread of infectious diseases or other public health issues, recessions, rising inflation, or other events could have a significant negative impact on the Fund and its investments. These developments as well as other events could result in further market volatility and negatively affect financial asset prices, the liquidity of certain securities and the normal operations of securities exchanges and other markets, which could have an adverse effect on the Fund.
The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly impacted economies and markets around the world, including the United States. The pandemic has resulted in a wide range of social and economic disruptions, including closed borders, voluntary or compelled quarantines of large populations, stressed healthcare systems, reduced or prohibited domestic or international travel, supply chain disruptions, and so-called “stay-at-home” orders throughout much of the United States and many other countries. Financial markets have experienced extreme volatility and severe losses, and trading in many instruments has been disrupted. Some sectors of the economy and individual issuers have experienced particularly large losses. Such disruptions may continue for an extended period of time or reoccur in the future to a similar or greater extent. Liquidity for many instruments has been greatly reduced for periods of time. In response to these disruptions, the U.S. government and the Federal Reserve have taken extraordinary actions to support the domestic economy and financial markets. It is unknown how long circumstances related to the COVID-19 pandemic will persist, whether they will reoccur in the future, whether efforts to support the economy and financial markets will be successful, and what additional implications may follow from the pandemic. The impact of these events and other epidemics or pandemics in the future could adversely affect Fund performance.
Market Capitalization Risk.
Large-Capitalization Investing. The securities of large-capitalization companies may be relatively mature compared to smaller companies and therefore subject to slower growth during times of economic expansion. Large-capitalization companies also may be unable to respond quickly to new competitive challenges, such as changes in technology and consumer tastes.
Mid-Capitalization Investing. The securities of mid-capitalization companies may be more vulnerable to adverse issuer, market, political, or economic developments than securities of large-capitalization companies. The securities of mid-capitalization companies generally trade in lower volumes and are subject to greater and more unpredictable price changes
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than large capitalization stocks or the stock market as a whole. Some medium capitalization companies have limited product lines, markets, financial resources, and management personnel and tend to concentrate on fewer geographical markets relative to large-capitalization companies.
Small-Capitalization Investing. The securities of small-capitalization companies may be more vulnerable to adverse issuer, market, political, or economic developments than securities of larger-capitalization companies. The securities of small-capitalization companies generally trade in lower volumes and are subject to greater and more unpredictable price changes than larger capitalization stocks or the stock market as a whole. Some small capitalization companies have limited product lines, markets, and financial and managerial resources and tend to concentrate on fewer geographical markets relative to larger capitalization companies. There is typically less publicly available information concerning smaller-capitalization companies than for larger, more established companies. Small-capitalization companies also may be particularly sensitive to changes in interest rates, government regulation, borrowing costs and earnings.
Micro-Capitalization Investing (Digital Infrastructure ETF only). In addition to the risk associated with small-capitalization companies, the securities of micro-capitalization companies may be newly formed or have limited product lines, distribution channels and financial and managerial resources.
Models and Data Risk (Metaverse ETF and Digital Infrastructure ETF only). When models and data prove to be incorrect or incomplete, any decisions made in reliance thereon expose the Index and the Fund to potential risks. The model used to construct the Index is predictive in nature. The use of predictive models has inherent risks. For example, such models may incorrectly forecast future behavior, leading to potential losses. In addition, in unforeseen or certain low-probability scenarios (often involving a market disruption of some kind), such models may produce unexpected results, which can result in losses for the Fund. Furthermore, because predictive models are usually constructed based on historical data supplied by third parties, the success of relying on such models may depend heavily on the accuracy and reliability of the supplied historical data. In addition, data and information on non-U.S. countries may be unreliable or outdated or there may be less publicly available data or information about non-U.S. countries due to differences in registration, accounting, audit and financial record keeping standards which creates the potential for errors in Index data, Index computation and/or Index construction and could have an adverse effect on the Fund’s performance.
Non-Diversification Risk. Because the Fund is “non-diversified,” it may invest a greater percentage of its assets in the securities of a single issuer or a lesser number of issuers than if it was a diversified fund. As a result, a decline in the value of an investment in a single issuer or a lesser number of issuers could cause the Fund’s overall value to decline to a greater degree than if the Fund held a more diversified portfolio. This may increase the Fund’s volatility and have a greater impact on the Fund’s performance.
Passive Investment Risk. The Fund invests in the securities included in, or representative of, its Index regardless of its investment merit. The Fund does not attempt to outperform its respective Index or take defensive positions in declining markets. As a result, the Fund’s performance may be adversely affected by a general decline in the market segments relating to its Index. The returns from the types of securities in which the Fund invests may underperform returns from the various general securities markets or different asset classes. This may cause the Fund to underperform other investment vehicles that invest in different asset classes. Different types of securities (for example, large-, mid- and small-capitalization stocks) tend to go through cycles of doing better or worse than the general securities markets. In the past, these periods have lasted for as long as several years.
Portfolio Turnover Risk (MEME ETF only). Because the Fund may “turn over” some or all of its portfolio frequently, the Fund may incur high levels of transaction costs from commissions or mark-ups in the bid/offer spread. Higher portfolio turnover (e.g., in excess of 100% per year) may result in the Fund paying higher levels of transaction costs and generating greater tax liabilities for shareholders. Portfolio turnover risk may cause the Fund’s performance to be less than you expect.
Price Volatility Risk (MEME ETF only). The values of all of the Fund’s investments have the potential to be volatile. Price volatility of an investment refers to the variation of changes in that investment’s value over time. Thus, an investment with higher price volatility is more likely to have greater price swings over shorter time periods than an investment with lower price volatility, and the Fund’s NAV also may increase or decrease rapidly or unpredictably as a result.
Real Estate Sector Risk (Digital Infrastructure ETF only). The Fund invests in real estate companies, including REITs and real estate holdings companies, which will expose investors to the risks of owning real estate directly, as well as to the risks that relate specifically to the way in which such companies are organized and operated. Real estate is highly sensitive to general and local economic conditions and developments. The U.S. real estate market may, in the future, experience and has, in the past, experienced a decline in value, with certain regions experiencing significant losses in property values. Many real estate companies, including REITs, utilize leverage (and some may be highly leveraged), which increases investment risk and the risk normally associated with debt financing, and could potentially increase the Fund’s volatility and losses. Exposure to such real estate may adversely affect Fund performance.
REITs Risk (Digital Infrastructure ETF only). Investments in REITs involve unique risks. REITs may have limited financial resources, may trade less frequently and in limited volume, and may be more volatile than other securities. In addition, to the
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extent the Fund holds interests in REITs, it is expected that investors in the Fund will bear two layers of asset-based management fees and expenses (directly at the Fund level and indirectly at the REIT level). The risks of investing in REITs include certain risks associated with the direct ownership of real estate and the real estate industry in general. These include risks related to general, regional and local economic conditions; fluctuations in interest rates and property tax rates; shifts in zoning laws, environmental regulations and other governmental action such as the exercise of eminent domain; increased operating expenses; lack of availability of mortgage funds or other limits to accessing the credit or capital markets; losses due to natural disasters; overbuilding; losses due to casualty or condemnation; changes in property values and rental rates; and other factors.
In addition to these risks, residential/diversified REITs and commercial equity REITs may be affected by changes in the value of the underlying property owned by the trusts, while mortgage REITs may be affected by the quality of any credit extended. Further, REITs are dependent upon management skills and generally may not be diversified. REITs are also subject to heavy cash flow dependency, defaults by borrowers or lessees and self-liquidation. In addition, U.S. REITs are subject to special U.S. federal tax requirements. A U.S. REIT that fails to comply with such tax requirements may be subject to U.S. federal income taxation, which may affect the value of the REIT and the characterization of the REIT’s distributions. The U.S. federal tax requirement that a REIT distributes substantially all of its net income to its shareholders may result in the REIT having insufficient capital for future expenditures. A REIT that successfully maintains its qualification may still become subject to U.S. federal, state and local taxes, including excise, penalty, franchise, payroll, mortgage recording, and transfer taxes, both directly and indirectly through its subsidiaries. In the event of a default by a borrower or lessee, the REIT may experience delays in enforcing its rights as a mortgagee or lessor and may incur substantial costs associated with protecting investments.
SPAC Investment Risk (Metaverse ETF and MEME ETF only). The Fund may invest in equity securities of SPACs, which raise assets to seek potential business combination opportunities. Unless and until a business combination is completed, a SPAC generally invests its assets in U.S. government securities, money market securities, and cash. Because SPACs have no operating history or ongoing business other than seeking a business combination, the value of their securities is particularly dependent on the ability of the entity’s management to identify and complete a profitable business combination. There is no guarantee that the SPACs in which the Fund invests will complete a business combination or that any business combination that is completed will be profitable. The market perception of a SPAC’s ability to complete a business combination could materially impact the market value of the SPAC’s securities. Public stockholders of SPACs may not be afforded a meaningful opportunity to vote on a proposed initial business combination because certain stockholders, including stockholders affiliated with the management of the SPAC, may have sufficient voting power, and a financial incentive, to approve such a transaction without support from public stockholders. As a result, a SPAC may complete a business combination even though a majority of its public stockholders do not support such a combination. Some SPACs may pursue a business combination only within certain industries or regions, which may increase the volatility of their prices. SPACs may also encounter intense competition from other entities having a similar business objective, such as private investors or investment vehicles and other SPACs, competing for the same acquisition opportunities, which could make completing an attractive business combination more difficult.
Tax Risk (Metaverse ETF and MEME ETF only). Investment in SPACs introduces complexities beyond typical equity investments and may introduce tax risks to the Fund. In particular, certain non-U.S. SPACs may be treated as a PFIC under the Code thereby causing the Fund to be subject to special tax rules. If a SPAC is classified as a PFIC, the Fund may be subject to U.S. federal income tax on a portion of any “excess distribution” or gain from the disposition of shares in the PFIC even if such income is distributed as a taxable dividend by the Fund to its shareholders. Additional charges in the nature of interest may be imposed on the Fund in respect of deferred taxes arising from such distributions or gains unless the Fund makes certain elections. See “Federal Income Taxes—Foreign Investments” in the SAI for additional information.
Tracking Error Risk. As with all index funds, the performance of the Fund and the Index may differ from each other for a variety of reasons. For example, the Fund incurs operating expenses and portfolio transaction costs not incurred by the Index. In addition, the Fund may not be fully invested in the securities of the Index at all times or may hold securities not included in the Index. The use of sampling techniques may affect the Fund’s ability to achieve close correlation with the Index. The Fund may use a representative sampling strategy to achieve its investment objective, if the Sub-Adviser believes it is in the best interest of the Fund, which generally can be expected to produce a greater non-correlation risk.
PORTFOLIO HOLDINGS INFORMATION
Information about each Fund’s daily portfolio holdings is available at www.roundhillinvestments.com. A complete description of the Funds’ policies and procedures with respect to the disclosure of the Funds’ portfolio holdings is available in the Funds’ Statement of Additional Information (the “SAI”).
MANAGEMENT
Investment Adviser
Roundhill Financial Inc., a Delaware corporation located at 154 West 14th Street, 2nd Floor, New York, New York 10011, serves as the investment adviser for the Funds. The Adviser oversees the day-to-day operations of the Funds, subject to the general supervision
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and oversight of the Board. The Adviser also arranges for sub-advisory, transfer agency, custody, fund administration, distribution and all other services necessary for the Funds to operate. The Adviser is an SEC-registered investment adviser.
The Adviser continuously reviews, supervises, and administers each Fund’s investment program. In particular, the Adviser provides investment and operational oversight of the Sub-Adviser (defined below). The Board supervises the Adviser and establishes policies that the Adviser must follow in its day-to-day management activities. 
For the services it provides to the Funds, the Adviser is entitled to a unified management fee, which is calculated daily and paid monthly, at an annual rate based on each Fund’s average daily net assets as set forth in the table below.
Fund Management Fee
Roundhill Video Games ETF
0.50%
Roundhill Sports Betting & iGaming ETF
0.75%
Roundhill Ball Metaverse ETF*
0.59%
Roundhill IO Digital Infrastructure ETF
0.75%
Roundhill MEME ETF
0.69%
* For the period beginning June 29, 2021 (commencement of operations) through February 4, 2022, the Adviser received a unified management fee, which was calculated daily and paid monthly, at an annual rate of 0.75% of the Fund’s average daily net assets. Effective February 4, 2022, the Board approved a reduction in the unified management fee from 0.75% to 0.59% to be paid by the Fund to the Adviser.
Pursuant to an investment advisory agreement between the Trust, on behalf of each Fund, and the Adviser (the “Advisory Agreement”), the Adviser has agreed to pay all expenses of the Funds except the fee paid to the Adviser under the Advisory Agreement, interest charges on any borrowings, dividends, and other expenses on securities sold short, taxes, brokerage commissions and other expenses incurred in placing orders for the purchase and sale of securities and other investment instruments, acquired fund fees and expenses, accrued deferred tax liability, extraordinary expenses, and distribution (12b-1) fees and expenses (if any). The Adviser, in turn, compensates the Sub-Adviser from the management fee it receives.
The basis for the Board’s approval of the continuation of the Advisory Agreement, relating to the Video Games ETF and Sports Betting ETF, is available in the Funds’ Semi-Annual Report to Shareholders for the fiscal period ended June 30, 2022. The basis for the Board’s approval of the Advisory Agreement, relating to the Metaverse ETF, is available in the Fund’s Semi-Annual Report to Shareholders for the fiscal period ended June 30, 2021. The basis for the Board’s approval of the Advisory Agreement, relating to the Digital Infrastructure ETF and MEME ETF, is available in the Funds’ Annual Report to Shareholders for the fiscal period ended December 31, 2021.
Sub-Adviser
Exchange Traded Concepts, LLC, an Oklahoma limited liability company located at 10900 Hefner Pointe Drive, Suite 400, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73120, is responsible for the day-to-day management of the Funds. An SEC-registered investment adviser formed in 2018, the Sub-Adviser is majority owned by Cottonwood ETF Holdings LLC. As of March 31, 2022, the Sub-Adviser had approximately $7.55 billion under management.
Pursuant to a sub-advisory agreement between the Trust, on behalf of the Funds, the Adviser, and the Sub-Adviser (the “Sub-Advisory Agreement”), the Sub-Adviser is responsible for trading portfolio securities for each Fund, including selecting broker-dealers to execute purchase and sale transactions or in connection with any rebalancing or reconstitution of each respective Index, subject to the supervision of the Adviser and the Board. For its services, the Sub-Adviser is entitled to a fee by the Adviser, which fee is calculated daily and paid monthly, at an annual rate based on the accumulative average daily net assets of each fund that Exchange Traded Concepts, LLC sub-advises and for which Roundhill serves as the investment adviser (or the Fund Sponsor), and subject to a minimum annual fee as follows:
Minimum Annual Fee Asset-Based Fee
$15,000 4 bps (0.04%) on the first $200 million
3.5 bps (0.035%) on the next $800 million
3 bps (0.03%) on the next $1 billion
2.5 bps (0.025%) on the balance over $2 billion
The basis for the Board’s approval of the continuation of the Sub-Advisory Agreement, relating to the Video Games ETF and Sports Betting ETF, is available in the Funds’ Semi-Annual Report to Shareholders for the fiscal period ended June 30, 2022. The basis for the Board’s approval of the Sub-Advisory Agreement, relating to the Metaverse ETF, is available in the Fund’s Semi-Annual Report to Shareholders for the fiscal period ended June 30, 2021. The basis for the Board’s approval of the Sub-Advisory Agreement, relating to the Digital Infrastructure ETF and MEME ETF, is available in the Funds’ Annual Report to Shareholders for the fiscal period ended December 31, 2021.
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Portfolio Managers
The individuals identified below are jointly and primarily responsible for the day-to-day management of each Fund’s portfolio.
Mr. Serowik joined the Sub-Adviser from Goldman Sachs. He began his career at Spear, Leeds & Kellogg, continuing with Goldman after its acquisition of SLK. During his career of more than 18 years at the combined companies, he held various roles, including managing the global Quant ETF Strats team and One Delta ETF Strats. He designed and developed systems for portfolio risk calculation, algorithmic ETF trading, and execution monitoring, with experience across all asset classes. He graduated from the University of Michigan with a Bachelor of Business Administration degree in Finance.
Mr. Alberico joined the Sub-Adviser in November 2020, having spent the past 14 years in ETF trading at Goldman Sachs, Cantor Fitzgerald, and, most recently, Virtu Financial. He spent most of that time focused on the Trading and Portfolio Risk Management of ETFs exposed to international and domestic equity. He has worked on several different strategies including lead market-making and electronic trading, to customer facing institutional business developing models for block trading as well as transitional trades. Mr. Alberico graduated from St. John’s University in NY with a Bachelor of Science degree in Finance.
Mr. Tan joined the Sub-Adviser in May 2019 as an Associate Portfolio Manager and was promoted to Portfolio Manager in December 2020. He began his career at UBS and BBR Partners where he worked as a financial planning analyst and a portfolio strategist for over four years. During his time there, he developed comprehensive wealth management solutions focused on portfolio optimization, trust and estate planning, and tax planning.
The Funds’ SAI provides additional information about the Portfolio Managers’ compensation structure, other accounts managed by the Portfolio Managers, and the Portfolio Managers’ ownership of Shares.
Other Service Providers
Foreside Fund Services, LLC (the “Distributor”) is the principal underwriter and distributor of each Fund’s Shares. The Distributor’s principal address is Three Canal Plaza, Suite 100, Portland, Maine 04101. The Distributor will not distribute shares in less than whole Creation Units, and it does not maintain a secondary market in the Shares. The Distributor is a broker-dealer registered under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and a member of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (“FINRA”). The Distributor has no role in determining the policies of the Funds or the securities that are purchased or sold by a Fund and is not affiliated with the Adviser, Sub-Adviser, or any of their respective affiliates.
U.S. Bancorp Fund Services, LLC, doing business as U.S. Bank Global Fund Services, located at 615 East Michigan Street, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53202, serves as the administrator, transfer agent and index receipt agent for the Funds.
U.S. Bank National Association, located at 1555 N. Rivercenter Drive, Suite 302, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53212, serves as the custodian for the Funds.
Morgan, Lewis & Bockius LLP, located at 1111 Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20004, serves as legal counsel to the Trust.
Cohen & Company, Ltd., located at 1350 Euclid Avenue, Suite 800, Cleveland, Ohio 44115, serves as the Funds’ independent registered public accounting firm. The independent registered public accounting firm is responsible for auditing the annual financial statements of the Funds.
HOW TO BUY AND SELL SHARES
Each Fund issues and redeems Shares only in Creation Units at the NAV per share next determined after receipt of an order from an AP. Only APs may acquire Shares directly from a Fund, and only APs may tender their Shares for redemption directly to a Fund, at NAV. APs must be a member or participant of a clearing agency registered with the SEC and must execute a Participant Agreement that has been agreed to by the Distributor, and that has been accepted by the Funds’ transfer agent, with respect to purchases and redemptions of Creation Units. Once created, Shares trade in the secondary market in quantities less than a Creation Unit.
Most investors buy and sell Shares in secondary market transactions through brokers. Individual Shares are listed for trading on the secondary market on the Exchange and can be bought and sold throughout the trading day like other publicly traded securities.
When buying or selling Shares through a broker, you will incur customary brokerage commissions and charges, and you may pay some or all of the spread between the bid and the offer price in the secondary market on each leg of a round trip (purchase and sale) transaction. In addition, because secondary market transactions occur at market prices, you may pay more than NAV when you buy Shares and receive less than NAV when you sell those Shares.
Book Entry
Shares are held in book-entry form, which means that no stock certificates are issued. The Depository Trust Company (the “DTC”) or its nominee is the record owner of all outstanding Shares.
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Investors owning Shares are beneficial owners as shown on the records of DTC or its participants. DTC serves as the securities depository for all Shares. DTC’s participants include securities brokers and dealers, banks, trust companies, clearing corporations and other institutions that directly or indirectly maintain a custodial relationship with DTC. As a beneficial owner of Shares, you are not entitled to receive physical delivery of stock certificates or to have Shares registered in your name, and you are not considered a registered owner of Shares. Therefore, to exercise any right as an owner of Shares, you must rely upon the procedures of DTC and its participants. These procedures are the same as those that apply to any other securities that you hold in book entry or “street name” through your brokerage account.
Frequent Purchases and Redemptions of Shares
The Funds impose no restrictions on the frequency of purchases and redemptions of Shares. In determining not to approve a written, established policy, the Board evaluated the risks of market timing activities by Fund shareholders. Purchases and redemptions by APs, who are the only parties that may purchase or redeem Shares directly with the Funds, are an essential part of the ETF process and help keep Share trading prices in line with NAV. As such, the Funds accommodate frequent purchases and redemptions by APs. However, frequent purchases and redemptions for cash may increase tracking error and portfolio transaction costs and lead to the realization of capital gains. The Funds’ fair valuation of their holdings consistent with the 1940 Act and Rule 2a-5 thereunder and their ability to impose transaction fees on purchases and redemptions of Creation Units to cover the custodial and other costs incurred by the Funds in effecting trades help to minimize the potential adverse consequences of frequent purchases and redemptions. In addition, the Funds and the Adviser reserve the right to reject any purchase order at their discretion.
Determination of Net Asset Value
Each Fund’s NAV is calculated as of the scheduled close of regular trading on the New York Stock Exchange (the “NYSE”), generally 4:00 p.m. Eastern time, each day the NYSE is open for business. The NAV for a Fund is calculated by dividing the applicable Fund’s net assets by its Shares outstanding.
In calculating its NAV, each Fund generally values its assets on the basis of market quotations, last sale prices, or estimates of value furnished by a pricing service or brokers who make markets in such instruments. In particular, a Fund generally values equity securities traded on any recognized U.S. or non-U.S. exchange at the last sale price or official closing price on the exchange or system on which they are principally traded. If such information is not available for a security held by a Fund or is determined to be unreliable, the security will be valued at fair value estimates under guidelines established by the Board (as described below).
Fair Value Pricing
The Board has adopted valuation policies and procedures pursuant to which it has designated the Adviser to determine the fair value of each Fund’s investments, subject to the Board’s oversight, when market prices for those investments are not “readily available,” including when they are determined by the Adviser to be unreliable. Such circumstances may arise when: (i) a security has been de-listed or its trading halted or suspended; (ii) a security’s primary pricing source is unable or unwilling to provide a price; (iii) a security’s primary trading market is closed during regular market hours; or (iv) a security’s value has been materially affected by events occurring after the close of the security’s primary trading market and before a Fund calculates its NAV. Generally, when determining the fair value of a Fund investment, the Adviser will take into account all reasonably available information that may be relevant to a particular valuation including, but not limited to, fundamental analytical data regarding the issuer, information relating to the issuer’s business, recent trades or offers of the security, general and/or specific market conditions and the specific facts giving rise to the need to fair value the security. Fair value determinations are made in good faith and in accordance with the fair value methodologies established by the Adviser. Due to the subjective and variable nature of determining the fair value of a security or other investment, there can be no assurance that the Adviser’s determined fair value will match or closely correlate to any market quotation that subsequently becomes available or the price quoted or published by other sources. In addition, a Fund may not be able to obtain the fair value assigned to an investment if the Fund were to sell such investment at or near the time its fair value is determined.
DIVIDENDS, DISTRIBUTIONS, AND TAXES
Dividends and Distributions
Each Fund intends to pay out dividends, if any, and distribute any net realized capital gains to its shareholders at least annually. Each Fund will declare and pay capital gain distributions in cash, if any. Distributions in cash may be reinvested automatically in additional whole Shares only if the broker through whom you purchased Shares makes such option available. Your broker is responsible for distributing the income and capital gain distributions to you.
Taxes
The following discussion is a summary of some important U.S. federal income tax considerations generally applicable to investments in the Funds. Your investment in a Fund may have other tax implications. Please consult your tax advisor about the tax consequences of an investment in Shares, including the possible application of foreign, state, and local tax laws. This summary does not apply to Shares held in an IRA or other tax-qualified plans, which are generally not subject to current tax. Transactions relating to Shares held in such accounts may, however, be taxable at some time in the future. This summary is based on current tax laws, which may change.
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Each Fund has elected (or intends to elect) and intends to qualify each year for treatment as a regulated investment company (a “RIC”). If it meets certain minimum distribution requirements, a RIC is not subject to tax at the fund level on income and gains from investments that are timely distributed to shareholders. However, a Fund’s failure to qualify as a RIC or to meet minimum distribution requirements would result (if certain relief provisions were not available) in fund-level taxation and, consequently, a reduction in income available for distribution to shareholders.
Unless your investment in Shares is made through a tax-exempt entity or tax-advantaged account, such as an IRA, you need to be aware of the possible tax consequences when a Fund makes distributions, when you sell your Shares listed on the Exchange, and when you purchase or redeem Creation Units (APs only).
Taxes on Distributions
Each Fund intends to distribute, at least annually, substantially all of its net investment income and net capital gains income. For federal income tax purposes, distributions of investment income are generally taxable as ordinary income or qualified dividend income. Taxes on distributions of capital gains (if any) are determined by how long a Fund owned the investments that generated them, rather than how long a shareholder has owned his or her Shares. Sales of assets held by a Fund for more than one year generally result in long-term capital gains and losses, and sales of assets held by a Fund for one year or less generally result in short-term capital gains and losses. Distributions of a Fund’s net capital gain (the excess of net long-term capital gains over net short-term capital losses) that are reported by such Fund as capital gain dividends (“Capital Gain Dividends”) will be taxable as long-term capital gains, which for non-corporate shareholders are subject to tax at reduced rates of up to 20% (lower rates apply to individuals in lower tax brackets). Distributions of short-term capital gain will generally be taxable as ordinary income. Dividends and distributions are generally taxable to you whether you receive them in cash or reinvest them in additional Shares.
Distributions reported by a Fund as “qualified dividend income” are generally taxed to non-corporate shareholders at rates applicable to long-term capital gains, provided holding period and other requirements are met. “Qualified dividend income” generally is income derived from dividends paid by U.S. corporations or certain foreign corporations that are either incorporated in a U.S. possession or eligible for tax benefits under certain U.S. income tax treaties. In addition, dividends that a Fund receives in respect of stock of certain foreign corporations may be qualified dividend income if that stock is readily tradable on an established U.S. securities market. A Fund’s investment strategies may limit its ability to make distributions of qualified dividend income. Corporate shareholders may be entitled to a dividends received deduction for the portion of dividends they receive from a Fund that are attributable to dividends received by the Fund from U.S. corporations, subject to certain limitations. A Fund’s investment strategies may limit its ability to make distributions eligible for the dividends received deduction for corporate shareholders.
Shortly after the close of each calendar year, you will be informed of the amount and character of any distributions received from a Fund.
In general, your distributions are subject to federal income tax for the year in which they are paid. Certain distributions paid in January, however, may be treated as paid on December 31 of the prior year. Distributions are generally taxable even if they are paid from income or gains earned by a Fund before your investment (and thus were included in the Shares’ NAV when you purchased your Shares).
You may wish to avoid investing in a Fund shortly before a dividend or other distribution, because such a distribution will generally be taxable even though it may economically represent a return of a portion of your investment.
If you are neither a resident nor a citizen of the United States or if you are a foreign entity, distributions (other than Capital Gain Dividends) paid to you by a Fund will generally be subject to a U.S. withholding tax at the rate of 30%, unless a lower treaty rate applies. Gains from the sale or other disposition of your Shares from non-U.S. shareholders generally are not subject to U.S. taxation, unless you are a nonresident alien individual who is physically present in the U.S. for 183 days or more per year. A Fund may, under certain circumstances, report all or a portion of a dividend as an “interest-related dividend” or a “short-term capital gain dividend,” which would generally be exempt from this 30% U.S. withholding tax, provided certain other requirements are met. Different tax consequences may result if you are a foreign shareholder engaged in a trade or business within the United States or if a tax treaty applies.
Under legislation generally known as “FATCA” (the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act), a Fund is required to withhold 30% of certain ordinary dividends it pays to shareholders that are foreign entities and that fail to meet prescribed information reporting or certification requirements.
A Fund (or a financial intermediary, such as a broker, through which a shareholder owns Shares) generally is required to withhold and remit to the U.S. Treasury a percentage of the taxable distributions and sale proceeds paid to any shareholder who fails to properly furnish a correct taxpayer identification number, who has underreported dividend or interest income, or who fails to certify that the shareholder is not subject to such withholding.
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Taxes When Shares Are Sold on the Exchange
Any capital gain or loss realized upon a sale of Shares generally is treated as a long-term capital gain or loss if Shares have been held for more than one year and as a short-term capital gain or loss if Shares have been held for one year or less. However, any capital loss on a sale of Shares held for six months or less is treated as long-term capital loss to the extent of Capital Gain Dividends paid with respect to such Shares. Any loss realized on a sale will be disallowed to the extent Shares of a Fund are acquired, including through reinvestment of dividends, within a 61-day period beginning 30 days before and ending 30 days after the disposition of Shares. The ability to deduct capital losses may be limited.
The cost basis of Shares of a Fund acquired by purchase will generally be based on the amount paid for the Shares and then may be subsequently adjusted for other applicable transactions as required by the Code. The difference between the selling price and the cost basis of Shares generally determines the amount of the capital gain or loss realized on the sale or exchange of Shares. Contact the broker through whom you purchased your Shares to obtain information with respect to the available cost basis reporting methods and elections for your account. Any loss realized on a sale will be disallowed to the extent Shares of a Fund are acquired, including through reinvestment of dividends, within a 61-day period beginning 30 days before and ending 30 days after the disposition of Shares.
Taxes on Purchases and Redemptions of Creation Units
An AP having the U.S. dollar as its functional currency for U.S. federal income tax purposes who exchanges securities for Creation Units generally recognizes a gain or a loss. The gain or loss will be equal to the difference between the value of the Creation Units at the time of the exchange and the exchanging AP’s aggregate basis in the securities delivered plus the amount of any cash paid for the Creation Units. An AP who exchanges Creation Units for securities will generally recognize a gain or loss equal to the difference between the exchanging AP’s basis in the Creation Units and the aggregate U.S. dollar market value of the securities received, plus any cash received for such Creation Units. The Internal Revenue Service may assert, however, that a loss that is realized upon an exchange of securities for Creation Units may not be currently deducted under the rules governing “wash sales” (for an AP who does not mark-to-market their holdings) or on the basis that there has been no significant change in economic position. APs exchanging securities should consult their own tax advisor with respect to whether the wash sales rule applies and when a loss might be deductible.
A Fund may include a payment of cash in addition to, or in place of, the delivery of a basket of securities upon the redemption of Creation Units. A Fund may sell portfolio securities to obtain the cash needed to distribute redemption proceeds. This may cause a Fund to recognize investment income and/or capital gains or losses that it might not have recognized if it had completely satisfied the redemption in-kind. As a result, a Fund may be less tax efficient if it includes such a cash payment in the proceeds paid upon the redemption of Creation Units.
Net Investment Income Tax
U.S. individuals with income exceeding specified thresholds are subject to a 3.8% tax on all or a portion of their “net investment income,” which includes interest, dividends, and certain capital gains (generally including capital gains distributions and capital gains realized on the sale of Shares). This 3.8% tax also applies to all or a portion of the undistributed net investment income of certain shareholders that are estates and trusts.
Foreign Investments by a Fund
Interest and other income received by a Fund with respect to foreign securities may give rise to withholding and other taxes imposed by foreign countries. Tax conventions between certain countries and the United States may reduce or eliminate such taxes. If as of the close of a taxable year more than 50% of the value of a Fund’s assets consists of certain foreign stock or securities, each such Fund will be eligible to elect to “pass through” to investors the amount of foreign income and similar taxes (including withholding taxes) paid by such Fund during that taxable year. This means that investors would be considered to have received as additional income their respective shares of such foreign taxes, but may be entitled to either a corresponding tax deduction in calculating taxable income, or, subject to certain limitations, a credit in calculating federal income tax. If a Fund does not so elect, each such Fund will be entitled to claim a deduction for certain foreign taxes incurred by such Fund. A Fund (or a financial intermediary, such as a broker, through which a shareholder owns Shares) will notify you if it makes such an election and provide you with the information necessary to reflect foreign taxes paid on your income tax return.
Taxation of REIT Investments
The Fund invests in REITs. “Qualified REIT dividends” (i.e., ordinary REIT dividends other than capital gain dividends and portions of REIT dividends designated as qualified dividend income eligible for capital gain tax rates) are eligible for a 20% deduction by non-corporate taxpayers. This deduction, if allowed in full, equates to a maximum effective tax rate of 29.6% (37% top rate applied to income after 20% deduction). Distributions by the Fund to its shareholders that are attributable to qualified REIT dividends received by the Fund and which the Fund properly reports as “section 199A dividends,” are treated as “qualified REIT dividends” in the hands of non-corporate shareholders. A section 199A dividend is treated as a qualified REIT dividend only if the shareholder receiving such
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dividend holds the dividend-paying RIC shares for at least 46 days of the 91-day period beginning 45 days before the shares become ex-dividend, and is not under an obligation to make related payments with respect to a position in substantially similar or related property. The Fund is permitted to report such part of its dividends as section 199A dividends as are eligible, but is not required to do so.
REITs in which the Fund invests often do not provide complete and final tax information to the Fund until after the time that the Fund issues a tax reporting statement. As a result, the Fund may at times find it necessary to reclassify the amount and character of its distributions to you after it issues your tax reporting statement. When such reclassification is necessary, the Fund (or a financial intermediary, such as a broker, through which a shareholder owns Shares) will send you a corrected, final Form 1099-DIV to reflect the reclassified information. If you receive a corrected Form 1099-DIV, use the information on this corrected form, and not the information on the previously issued tax reporting statement, in completing your tax returns.
The foregoing discussion summarizes some of the possible consequences under current federal tax law of an investment in the Fund. It is not a substitute for personal tax advice. You also may be subject to state and local tax on Fund distributions and sales of Shares. Consult your personal tax adviser about the potential tax consequences of an investment in Shares under all applicable tax laws. For more information, please see the section entitled “Federal Income Taxes” in the SAI.
DISTRIBUTION PLAN
The Board has adopted a Distribution and Service Plan (the “Plan”) pursuant to Rule 12b-1 under the 1940 Act. In accordance with the Plan, each Fund is authorized to pay an amount up to 0.25% of its average daily net assets each year for certain distribution-related activities and shareholder services.
No Rule 12b-1 fees are currently paid by the Funds, and there are no plans to impose these fees. However, in the event Rule 12b-1 fees are charged in the future, because the fees are paid out of Fund assets, over time these fees will increase the cost of your investment and may cost you more than certain other types of sales charges.
PREMIUM/DISCOUNT INFORMATION
Information regarding how often each Fund’s Shares traded on the Exchange at a price above (i.e., at a premium) or below (i.e., at a discount) its NAV is available on the Funds’ website at www.roundhillinvestments.com.
ADDITIONAL NOTICES
The Video Games ETF is not sponsored, endorsed, sold or promoted by Nasdaq, Inc. or its affiliates (Nasdaq, with its affiliates, are referred to as the “Corporations”). The Corporations have not passed on the legality or suitability of, or the accuracy or adequacy of descriptions and disclosures relating to, the Fund. The Corporations make no representation or warranty, express or implied to the owners of the Fund or any member of the public regarding the advisability of investing in securities generally or in the Fund particularly, or the ability of the Nasdaq CTA Global Video Games Software IndexTM to track general stock market performance. The Corporations’ only relationship to Roundhill (the “Licensee”) is in the licensing of the Nasdaq® and certain trade names of the Corporations and the use of the Nasdaq CTA Global Video Games Software IndexTM which is determined, composed and calculated by Nasdaq without regard to Licensee or the Fund. Nasdaq has no obligation to take the needs of the Licensee or the owners of the Fund into consideration in determining, composing or calculating the Nasdaq CTA Global Video Games Software IndexTM. The Corporations are not responsible for and have not participated in the determination of the timing of, prices at, or quantities of the Fund to be issued or in the determination or calculation of the equation by which the Fund is to be converted into cash. The Corporations have no liability in connection with the administration, marketing or trading of the Fund.
The Corporations do not guarantee the accuracy and/or uninterrupted calculation of the Nasdaq CTA Global Video Games Software IndexTM or any data included therein. The Corporations make no warranty, express or implied, as to results to be obtained by the Licensee, owners of the product(s), or any other person or entity from the use of the Nasdaq CTA Global Video Games Software IndexTM or any data included therein. The Corporations make no express or implied warranties, and expressly disclaim all warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose or use with respect to the Nasdaq CTA Global Video Games Software IndexTM or any data included therein. Without limiting any of the foregoing, in no event shall the Corporations have any liability for any lost profits or special, incidental, punitive, indirect, or consequential damages, even if notified of the possibility of such damages.
Shares are not sponsored, endorsed, or promoted by the Exchange. The Exchange makes no representation or warranty, express or implied, to the owners of Shares or any member of the public regarding the ability of a Fund to track the total return performance of its Index or the ability of the Index identified herein to track the performance of its constituent securities. The Exchange is not responsible for, nor has it participated in, the determination of the compilation or the calculation of the Index, nor in the determination of the timing, prices, or quantities of Shares to be issued, nor in the determination or calculation of the equation by which the Shares are redeemable. The Exchange has no obligation or liability to owners of Shares in connection with the administration, marketing, or trading of Shares.
The Exchange does not guarantee the accuracy and/or the completeness of the Index or the data included therein. The Exchange makes no warranty, express or implied, as to results to be obtained by the Fund, owners of Shares, or any other person or entity from the use
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of the Index or the data included therein. The Exchange makes no express or implied warranties, and hereby expressly disclaims all warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose with respect to the Index or the data included therein. Without limiting any of the foregoing, in no event shall the Exchange have any liability for any lost profits or indirect, punitive, special, or consequential damages even if notified of the possibility thereof.
The Adviser, the Sub-Adviser, the Exchange, and the Funds make no representation or warranty, express or implied, to the owners of Shares or any member of the public regarding the advisability of investing in securities generally or in a Fund particularly or the ability of an Index to track general stock market performance. Each Fund, the Adviser, and the Sub-Adviser do not guarantee the accuracy, completeness, or performance of an Index or the data included therein and shall have no liability in connection with the Index or Index calculation. Each Index calculation agent maintains and calculates the Index used by the respective Fund and shall have no liability for any errors or omissions in calculating such Index.
FINANCIAL HIGHLIGHTS
The following financial highlights table shows the financial performance information for each Fund’s five most recent fiscal years (or the life of a Fund, if shorter). Certain information reflects financial results for a single share of a Fund. The total returns in the table represent the rate that you would have earned or lost on an investment in a Fund (assuming you reinvested all distributions). This information has been audited by Cohen & Company, Ltd., the independent registered public accounting firm of each Fund, whose report, along with each Fund’s financial statements, is included in the Funds’ annual report, which is available upon request.

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Roundhill ETFs
Financial Highlights

Per Share Operating Performance
(For a share outstanding throughout each period)
Income from investment operations: Less Distributions Paid From:
Net Asset
Value, Beginning of Period
Net
investment income (loss)(1)
Net realized and unrealized gain (loss) on investments Total from investment operations Net investment income Net
realized
gains
Return of Capital Total distributions paid
Roundhill Video Games ETF (formerly, Roundhill BITKRAFT Esports & Digital Entertainment ETF)
For the year 01/01/2021 - 12/31/2021 $30.09 0.05 (5.17) (5.12) (0.01) (0.01)
For the year 01/01/2020 - 12/31/2020 $16.01 0.04 14.34 14.38 (0.10) (0.22) (0.32)
For the period 06/03/2019(7) - 12/31/2019
$14.86 0.08 1.11 1.19 (0.05)
(0.00)(8)
(0.05)
Roundhill Sports Betting & iGaming ETF
For the year 01/01/2021 - 12/31/2021 $25.86 0.08 (1.06) (0.98)
For the period 06/03/2020(7) - 12/31/2020
$15.41 0.11 10.41 10.52 (0.07)
(0.00)(8)
(0.07)
Roundhill Ball Metaverse ETF
For the period 06/29/2021(7) - 12/31/2021
$15.07 (0.01) 0.10 0.09
Roundhill IO Digital Infrastructure ETF
For the period 10/27/2021(7) - 12/31/2021
$14.85 0.03 0.23 0.26 (0.04) (0.04)
Roundhill MEME ETF
For the period 12/07/2021(7) - 12/31/2021
$15.64 (0.01) (1.57) (1.58)
(1) Per share net investment income (loss) was calculated using average shares outstanding.
(2) Annualized for periods less than one year.
(3) Total return in the table represents the rate that the investor would have earned or lost on an investment in the Fund, assuming reinvestment of dividends.
(4) Not annualized for periods less than one year.
(5) Excludes in-kind transactions associated with creations and redemptions of the Fund.
(6) The returns reflect the actual performance for the period and do not include the impact of trades executed on the last business day of the period that were recorded on the first business day of the next period.
(7) Commencement of operations.
(8) Less than $0.005.
(9) Includes tax expense of 0.06%.
55


Roundhill ETFs
Financial Highlights
For a Share Outstanding Throughout the Period (Continued)
Per Share Operating Performance
(For a share outstanding throughout each period)
Ratios/Supplemental Data
Capital Share Transactions:
Ratios to Average Net Assets of:(2)
Transaction Fees Net Asset Value, End of Period
Total return, at NAV(3)(4)
Total return at Market(3)(4)
Net assets,
end of period (000’s)
Expenses, before waivers Expenses, after waivers Net investment income (loss), before waivers Net investment income (loss), after waivers
Portfolio turnover rate(4)(5)
0.03 $24.99 -16.93% -17.57% $62,475 0.50% 0.50% 0.16% 0.16% 52%
0.02 $30.09
89.88%(6)
89.62%(6)
$73,717 0.50% 0.44% 0.12% 0.18% 93%
0.01 $16.01
8.11%(6)
8.42%(6)
$10,810 0.50% 0.25% 0.65% 0.90% 34%
0.00(8)
$24.88 -3.78% -3.91% $290,507 0.75% 0.75% 0.26% 0.26% 52%
0.00(8)
$25.86 68.28% 68.15% $206,891 0.75% 0.75% 0.92% 0.92% 43%
0.01 $15.17 0.63% 0.73% $933,059 0.75% 0.75% -0.13% -0.13% 41%
0.00(8)
$15.07 1.76% 2.01% $1,884
0.81%(9)
0.81%(9)
1.16% 1.16% 3%
$14.06 -10.09% -10.10% $2,109 0.69% 0.69% -0.69% -0.69% 32%

56


Roundhill Video Games ETF
Roundhill Sports Betting & iGaming ETF
Roundhill Ball Metaverse ETF
Roundhill IO Digital Infrastructure ETF
Roundhill MEME ETF
Adviser
Roundhill Financial Inc.
154 West 14th Street, 2nd Floor
New York, New York 10011
Transfer Agent, Index Receipt Agent, and Administrator
U.S. Bancorp Fund Services, LLC
d/b/a U.S. Bank Global Fund Services
615 East Michigan Street
Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53202
Sub-Adviser
Exchange Traded Concepts, LLC
10900 Hefner Pointe Drive, Suite 400
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73120
Distributor
Foreside Fund Services, LLC
Three Canal Plaza, Suite 100
Portland, Maine 04101
Custodian
U.S. Bank National Association
1555 North Rivercenter Drive, Suite 302
Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53212
Legal Counsel
Morgan, Lewis & Bockius LLP
1111 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW
Washington, DC 20004-2541
Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
Cohen & Company, Ltd.
1350 Euclid Avenue, Suite 800
Cleveland, Ohio 44115

Investors may find more information about the Funds in the following documents:
Statement of Additional Information: The Funds’ SAI provides additional details about the investments of each Fund and certain other additional information. The SAI is on file with the SEC and is incorporated by reference into this Prospectus. It is legally considered a part of this Prospectus.
Annual/Semi-Annual Reports: Additional information about each Fund’s investments is available in the Funds’ annual and semi-annual reports to shareholders. In the Annual Report, you will find a discussion of the market conditions and investment strategies that significantly affected a Fund’s performance.
You can obtain free copies of these documents, request other information or make general inquiries about the Funds by contacting the Funds at c/o U.S. Bank Global Fund Services, P.O. Box 701, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53201-0701 or by calling 1-800-617-0004.
Shareholder reports and other information about the Funds are also available:
Free of charge from the SEC’s EDGAR database on the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov; or
Free of charge from the Funds’ Internet web site at www.roundhillinvestments.com; or
For a fee, by e-mail request to publicinfo@sec.gov.
(SEC Investment Company Act File No. 811-23226)




















57