PROSPECTUS

October 1, 2020

 
 

T. ROWE PRICE

 

Spectrum Moderate Allocation Fund

TRPBX

TPPAX

Investor Class

I Class

 
 

The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) has not approved or disapproved these securities or passed upon the adequacy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

Beginning on January 1, 2021, as permitted by SEC regulations, paper copies of the T. Rowe Price funds’ annual and semiannual shareholder reports will no longer be mailed, unless you specifically request them. Instead, shareholder reports will be made available on the funds’ website (troweprice.com/prospectus), and you will be notified by mail with a website link to access the reports each time a report is posted to the site.

If you already elected to receive reports electronically, you will not be affected by this change and need not take any action. At any time, shareholders who invest directly in T. Rowe Price funds may generally elect to receive reports or other communications electronically by enrolling at troweprice.com/paperless or, if you are a retirement plan sponsor or invest in the funds through a financial intermediary (such as an investment advisor, broker-dealer, insurance company, or bank), by contacting your representative or your financial intermediary.

You may elect to continue receiving paper copies of future shareholder reports free of charge. To do so, if you invest directly with T. Rowe Price, please call T. Rowe Price as follows: IRA, nonretirement account holders, and institutional investors, 1-800-225-5132; small business retirement accounts, 1-800-492-7670. If you are a retirement plan sponsor or invest in the T. Rowe Price funds through a financial intermediary, please contact your representative or financial intermediary, or follow additional instructions if included with this document. Your election to receive paper copies of reports will apply to all funds held in your account with your financial intermediary or, if you invest directly in the T. Rowe Price funds, with T. Rowe Price. Your election can be changed at any time in the future.

 
   
 


Table of Contents

       

1

SUMMARY

   
 

Spectrum Moderate Allocation Fund   1

2

MORE ABOUT THE FUND

 

Management of the Fund   10

More Information About the Fund’s
Investment Objective(s), Strategies,
and Risks
  12

Portfolio Turnover   31

Financial Highlights   31

Disclosure of Fund Portfolio Information   35

3

INFORMATION ABOUT ACCOUNTS
IN T. ROWE PRICE FUNDS

 

Investing with T. Rowe Price   37

Available Share Classes   37

Distribution and Shareholder
Servicing Fees
  39

Account Service Fee   41

Policies for Opening an Account   42

Pricing of Shares and Transactions   43

Investing Directly with T. Rowe Price   45

Investing Through a Financial
Intermediary
  51

General Policies Relating to Transactions   53

Contacting T. Rowe Price   60

Information on Distributions and Taxes   62

Rights Reserved by the Funds   69


     

SUMMARY

 

1

   

Investment Objective(s)

The fund seeks the highest total return over time consistent with an emphasis on both capital growth and income.

Fees and Expenses

This table describes the fees and expenses that you may pay if you buy, hold, and sell shares of the fund. You may also incur brokerage commissions and other charges when buying or selling shares of the Investor Class or I Class, which are not reflected in the table.

Fees and Expenses of the Fund

         
 

Investor
Class

I
Class

Shareholder fees (fees paid directly from your investment)

Maximum account fee

$20

a

Annual fund operating expenses
(expenses that you pay each year as a
percentage of the value of your investment)

Management fees

0.54

%

0.54

%

     

Distribution and service (12b-1) fees

 

 
     

Other expenses

0.13

 

0.03

 
     

Acquired fund fees and expenses

0.20

 

0.20

 
     

Total annual fund operating expenses

0.87

b

0.77

b

     

Fee waiver/expense reimbursement

(0.14

) c

(0.15

) c

     

Total annual fund operating expenses after fee waiver/expense reimbursement

0.73

b

0.62

b

a   Subject to certain exceptions, accounts with a balance of less than $10,000 are charged an annual $20 fee.

b   The figures shown in the fee table do not match the “Ratios to average net assets” shown in the Financial Highlights table, as those figures do not include acquired fund fees and expenses and exclude expenses permanently waived as a result of investments in other T. Rowe Price Funds.

c   T. Rowe Price Associates, Inc., is required to permanently waive a portion of its management fee charged to the fund in an amount sufficient to fully offset that portion of management fee paid by each underlying T. Rowe Price Fund related to the fund’s investment therein. The amount of the waiver will vary each fiscal year in proportion to the amount invested in other T. Rowe Price Funds. The T. Rowe Price Funds would be required to seek regulatory approval in order to terminate this arrangement.

Example This example is intended to help you compare the cost of investing in the fund with the cost of investing in other mutual funds. The example assumes that you invest $10,000 in the fund for the time periods indicated and then redeem all of your shares at the end of those periods, that your investment has a 5% return each year, and that the fund’s operating expenses


   

T. ROWE PRICE

2

remain the same. Although your actual costs may be higher or lower, based on these assumptions your costs would be:

         
 

1 year

3 years

5 years

10 years

Investor Class

$75

$233

$406

$906

I Class

63

199

346

774

Portfolio Turnover The fund pays transaction costs, such as commissions, when it buys and sells securities (or “turns over” its portfolio). A higher portfolio turnover rate may indicate higher transaction costs and may result in higher taxes when the fund’s shares are held in a taxable account. These costs, which are not reflected in annual fund operating expenses or in the example, affect the fund’s performance. During the most recent fiscal year, the fund’s portfolio turnover rate was 71.0% of the average value of its portfolio.

Investments, Risks, and Performance

Principal Investment Strategies

The fund pursues its objective(s) by investing in a diversified portfolio typically consisting of approximately 60% stocks; 35% bonds, money market securities, and cash reserves; and 5% alternative investments, including through hedge funds, each as a percentage of the fund’s net assets. Domestic stocks are drawn from the overall U.S. market. International stocks are selected primarily from large companies in developed markets but may also include investments in emerging markets. The fund may invest up to 40% of its total assets in foreign stocks and non-U.S. dollar denominated bonds. Bonds, which may be issued by U.S. or foreign issuers and issued with fixed or floating interest rates, are primarily investment grade (i.e., assigned one of the four highest credit ratings by established credit rating agencies) and are chosen across the entire government, corporate, and mortgage-backed securities markets. Maturities generally reflect the manager’s outlook for interest rates. The fund’s investments in alternative investments may include unregistered hedge funds or other private or registered investment companies. The fund may also gain exposure to specific asset classes through the use of options or by investing in other T. Rowe Price Funds that focus their investments in a given asset class.

T. Rowe Price may decide to overweight or underweight a particular asset class based on its outlook for the economy and financial markets. Under normal conditions, the fund’s allocation to the broad asset classes will be within the following ranges, each as a percentage of the fund’s net assets: stocks (50-70%), bonds, money markets securities, and cash reserves (25-45%), and alternative investments (0-10%). When deciding upon allocations within these prescribed limits, T. Rowe Price may favor fixed income securities if the economy is expected to slow sufficiently to hurt corporate profit growth. When strong economic growth is expected, T. Rowe Price may favor stocks. T. Rowe Price may adjust the fund’s portfolio and overall risk profile by making tactical decisions to overweight or underweight particular asset classes or sectors based on its outlook for the global economy and securities markets, as well as by adjusting the fund’s use of options and allocations to alternative investments, including through hedge funds.


   

SUMMARY

3

When selecting particular stocks, T. Rowe Price will examine relative values and prospects among growth- and value-oriented stocks, domestic and international stocks, small- to large- cap stocks, and stocks of companies involved in activities related to commodities and other real assets. This process draws heavily upon T. Rowe Price’s proprietary stock research expertise. While the fund maintains a diversified portfolio, its portfolio manager may, at any particular time, shift stock selection toward markets or market sectors that appear to offer attractive value and appreciation potential.

A similar security selection process applies to bonds. When deciding whether to adjust duration, credit risk exposure, or allocations among the various sectors (for example, high yield “junk” bonds, mortgage- and asset-backed securities, international bonds, and emerging markets bonds), T. Rowe Price weighs such factors as the outlook for inflation and the economy, corporate earnings, expected interest rate movements and currency valuations, and the yield advantage that lower-rated bonds may offer over investment-grade bonds.

The fund may invest in alternative investments, including hedge funds and other private or registered investment companies that, in the opinion of T. Rowe Price, have the potential to produce attractive long-term risk-adjusted returns and exhibit a relatively low correlation of returns to more traditional asset classes. The fund’s alternative investments are expected to be less connected to movements in the major equity and bond markets. This is expected to enhance the fund’s overall diversification and offer potentially greater downside protection for the fund than more typical equity or fixed income investments.

The fund may use options for a variety of purposes, although the fund expects to primarily use these instruments to efficiently access or adjust exposure to certain market segments, in an attempt to manage portfolio volatility, or to benefit from what the adviser believes is a risk premium in the options market (for example, an option’s price reflects a greater degree of volatility than would typically be realized in the market). The fund’s use of options typically involves writing (i.e., selling) call options on a stock index in an effort to enhance risk-adjusted returns, although the fund may buy or sell options for other purposes.

Securities may be sold for a variety of reasons, such as to effect a change in asset allocation, secure a gain, limit a loss, or redeploy assets into more promising opportunities.

Principal Risks

As with any fund, there is no guarantee that the fund will achieve its objective(s).The fund’s share price fluctuates, which means you could lose money by investing in the fund. The principal risks of investing in this fund, which may be even greater during periods of market disruption or volatility, are summarized as follows:

Market conditions The value of the fund’s investments may decrease, sometimes rapidly or unexpectedly, due to factors affecting an issuer held by the fund, particular industries, or the overall securities markets. A variety of factors can increase the volatility of the fund’s holdings and markets generally, including political or regulatory developments, recessions, inflation, rapid interest rate changes, war or acts of terrorism, natural disasters, and outbreaks of infectious illnesses or other widespread public health issues such as the coronavirus pandemic


   

T. ROWE PRICE

4

and related governmental and public responses. Certain events may cause instability across global markets, including reduced liquidity and disruptions in trading markets, while some events may affect certain geographic regions, countries, sectors, and industries more significantly than others. Government intervention in markets may impact interest rates, market volatility, and security pricing. These adverse developments may cause broad declines in market value due to short-term market movements or for significantly longer periods during more prolonged market downturns.

Stock investing Stocks generally fluctuate in value more than bonds and may decline significantly over short time periods. There is a chance that stock prices overall will decline because stock markets tend to move in cycles, with periods of rising and falling prices. The value of stocks held by the fund may decline due to general weakness or volatility in the stock markets in which the fund invests or because of factors that affect a particular company or industry.

Fixed income markets Economic and other market developments can adversely affect the fixed income securities markets. At times, participants in these markets may develop concerns about the ability of certain issuers of debt instruments to make timely principal and interest payments, or they may develop concerns about the ability of financial institutions that make markets in certain debt instruments to facilitate an orderly market. Those concerns could cause increased volatility and reduced liquidity in particular securities or in the overall fixed income markets and the related derivatives markets. A lack of liquidity or other adverse credit market conditions may hamper the fund’s ability to sell the debt instruments in which it invests or to find and purchase suitable debt instruments.

Interest rates The prices of, and the income generated by, debt instruments held by the fund may be affected by changes in interest rates. A rise in interest rates typically causes the price of a fixed rate debt instrument to fall and its yield to rise. Conversely, a decline in interest rates typically causes the price of a fixed rate debt instrument to rise and the yield to fall. Generally, funds with longer weighted average maturities and durations carry greater interest rate risk. Changes in monetary policy made by central banks and/or governments such as the discontinuation and replacement of benchmark rates are likely to affect the level of interest rates.

Prepayments and extensions The fund is subject to prepayment risks because the principal on mortgage-backed securities, other asset-backed securities, or any debt instrument with an embedded call option may be prepaid at any time, which could reduce the security’s yield and market value. The rate of prepayments tends to increase as interest rates fall, which could cause the average maturity of the portfolio to shorten. Extension risk may result from a rise in interest rates, which tends to make mortgage-backed securities, asset-backed securities, and other callable debt instruments more volatile.

International investing Investing in the securities of non-U.S. issuers involves special risks not typically associated with investing in U.S. issuers. Non-U.S. securities tend to be more volatile and have lower overall liquidity than investments in U.S. securities and may lose value because of adverse local, political, social, or economic developments overseas, or due to


   

SUMMARY

5

changes in the exchange rates between foreign currencies and the U.S. dollar. In addition, investments outside the U.S. are subject to settlement practices and regulatory and financial reporting standards that differ from those of the U.S. The risks of investing outside the U.S. are heightened for any investments in emerging markets, which are susceptible to greater volatility than investments in developed markets.

Emerging markets Investments in emerging market countries are subject to greater risk and overall volatility than investments in the U.S. and developed markets. Emerging market countries tend to have economic structures that are less diverse and mature, and political systems that are less stable, than those of developed countries. In addition to the risks associated with investing outside the U.S., emerging markets are more susceptible to governmental interference, political and economic uncertainty, local taxes and restrictions on the fund’s investments, less efficient trading markets with lower overall liquidity, and more volatile currency exchange rates.

Derivatives The use of options potentially exposes the fund to additional volatility and losses not typically associated with direct investments in stocks. The values of the fund’s positions in index options will fluctuate in response to changes in the value of the underlying index and the fund is exposed to the risk that the underlying index will not move in a direction that is favorable to the fund. The fund’s index option overlay strategy could limit the opportunity to profit from a greater increase in the market value of specific holdings within the index. As a result, the fund’s use of options could dampen the fund’s returns during periods of strong equity market performance. Unusual market conditions or the lack of a liquid market for particular options may reduce the fund’s returns. Changes in regulations could significantly impact the fund’s ability to invest in specific types of derivatives, which could limit the fund’s ability to employ certain strategies that use derivatives.

Alternative investments/Hedge funds The fund’s exposure to alternative investments may prove to be more correlated to the broad markets or the remainder of the fund’s portfolio than anticipated and thus may not realize the intended benefits of such investments. A hedge fund is considered an illiquid asset by the fund, is not subject to the same regulatory requirements as mutual funds and other registered investment companies, and could underperform comparable hedge funds with similar alternative strategies. Hedge funds are not required to provide periodic pricing or valuation information to investors, and often engage in leveraging, short-selling, commodities investing, and other speculative investment practices that are not fully disclosed and may increase the risk of investment loss. Their underlying holdings are not as transparent to investors or typically as diversified as those of traditional mutual funds and the redemption rights of an investor, such as the fund, are typically limited. All of these factors make investments in alternative investments and hedge funds more difficult to value and monitor when compared with more traditional investments, and increase the fund’s overall liquidity risks.

Credit quality An issuer of a debt instrument could suffer an adverse change in financial condition that results in a payment default (failure to make scheduled interest or principal payments), rating downgrade, or inability to meet a financial obligation. Securities that are


   

T. ROWE PRICE

6

rated below investment grade carry greater risk of default and should be considered speculative.

Liquidity The fund may not be able to meet requests to redeem shares issued by the fund without significant dilution of the remaining shareholders’ interest in the fund. In addition, the fund may not be able to sell a holding in a timely manner at a desired price. Reduced liquidity in the bond markets can result from a number of events, such as limited trading activity, reductions in bond inventory, and rapid or unexpected changes in interest rates. Markets with lower overall liquidity could lead to greater price volatility and limit the fund’s ability to sell a holding at a suitable price.

Active management The fund’s overall investment program and holdings selected by the fund’s investment adviser may underperform the broad markets, relevant indices, or other funds with similar objectives and investment strategies.

Cybersecurity breaches The fund could be harmed by intentional cyber-attacks and other cybersecurity breaches, including unauthorized access to the fund’s assets, customer data and confidential shareholder information, or other proprietary information. In addition, a cybersecurity breach could cause one of the fund’s service providers or financial intermediaries to suffer unauthorized data access, data corruption, or loss of operational functionality.

Performance

The following performance information provides some indication of the risks of investing in the fund. The fund’s performance information represents only past performance (before and after taxes) and is not necessarily an indication of future results.

The following bar chart illustrates how much returns can differ from year to year by showing calendar year returns and the best and worst calendar quarter returns during those years for the fund’s Investor Class. Returns for other share classes vary since they have different expenses.


   

SUMMARY

7

 

SPECTRUM MODERATE ALLOCATION FUND

Calendar Year Returns

PerformanceBarChartData(2010:13.79,2011:-0.21,2012:15.33,2013:18.09,2014:5.5,2015:0.17,2016:6.89,2017:17.31,2018:-4.5,2019:19.36)

                 
   

Quarter Ended

Total Return

   

Quarter Ended

Total Return

 
 

Best Quarter

3/31/2012

10.21%

 

Worst Quarter

9/30/2011

-11.61%

 
The fund’s return for the six months ended 6/30/20 was -2.05%.

The following table shows the average annual total returns for each class of the fund that has been in operation for at least one full calendar year, and also compares the returns with the returns of a relevant broad-based market index, as well as with the returns of one or more comparative indexes that have investment characteristics similar to those of the fund, if applicable.

In addition, the table shows hypothetical after-tax returns to demonstrate how taxes paid by a shareholder may influence returns.After-tax returns are calculated using the historical highest individual federal marginal income tax rates and do not reflect the impact of state and local taxes.Actual after-tax returns depend on an investor’s tax situation and may differ from those shown. After-tax returns shown are not relevant to investors who hold their fund shares through tax-deferred arrangements, such as a 401(k) account or an IRA.After-tax returns are shown only for the Investor Class and will differ for other share classes.

   

T. ROWE PRICE

8

                                 

Average Annual Total Returns

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Periods ended

 

 

 

 

December 31, 2019

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Since

Inception

 

 

 

 

1 Year 

 

 

5 Years 

 

 

10 Years 

 

 

inception

date

 

 

Investor Class

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

07/29/1994

 

 

 

 

Returns before taxes

19.36

%

 

7.44

%

 

8.85

%

 

%

 

 

 

   

Returns after taxes on distributions

18.09

 

 

5.85

 

 

7.41

 

 

       
   

Returns after taxes on distributions and sale of fund shares

11.92 

 

 

5.42 

 

 

6.79 

 

 

       

 

I Class

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

03/23/2016

 

 

 

 

Returns before taxes

19.52

 

 

 

 

 

 

10.10

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Morningstar Moderate Target Risk Index (reflects no deduction for fees, expenses, or taxes)

 

 

 

 

 

19.03

 

 

6.75

 

 

7.72

 

 

9.25

b

 

 

 

 

Combined Index Portfolio Net (reflects no deduction for fees or expenses) a

 

 

 

   

19.55

 

 

6.90

 

 

7.98

 

 

9.25

b

     

 

Lipper Mixed-Asset Target Allocation Moderate Funds Index

 

 

 

 

 

18.08

 

 

6.07

 

 

7.43

 

 

8.46

b

 

 

 

a   Combined Index Portfolio Net is a blended benchmark composed of 60% stocks (42% Russell 3000 Index and 18% MSCI All-Country World Index ex USA Net), 30% bonds (Bloomberg Barclays U.S. Aggregate Bond Index), and 10% money market securities (FTSE 3-Month Treasury Bill Index) as of 5/31/20. The indices and percentages may vary over time.

b   Return since 3/23/16.

Updated performance information is available through troweprice.com.

Management

Investment Adviser T. Rowe Price Associates, Inc. (T. Rowe Price or Price Associates)

       

Portfolio Manager

Title

Managed
Fund
Since

Joined
Investment
Adviser

Charles M. Shriver

Cochairman of
Investment Advisory Committee

2011

1999

Toby M. Thompson*

Cochairman of
Investment Advisory Committee

2020

1993

* Mr. Thompson originally joined T. Rowe Price in 1993 and returned in 2010.

Purchase and Sale of Fund Shares

The Investor Class generally requires a $2,500 minimum initial investment ($1,000 minimum initial investment if opening an IRA, a custodial account for a minor, or a small business retirement plan account). Additional purchases generally require a $100 minimum. These investment minimums generally are waived for financial intermediaries and certain employer-sponsored retirement plans submitting orders on behalf of their customers.


   

SUMMARY

9

The I Class requires a $1 million minimum initial investment and there is no minimum for additional purchases, although the initial investment minimum generally is waived for financial intermediaries, retirement plans, and certain client accounts for which T. Rowe Price or its affiliate has discretionary investment authority.

For investors holding shares of the fund directly with T. Rowe Price, you may purchase, redeem, or exchange fund shares by mail; by telephone (1-800-225-5132 for IRAs and nonretirement accounts; 1-800-492-7670 for small business retirement plans; and 1-800-638-8790 for institutional investors and financial intermediaries); or, for certain accounts, by accessing your account online through troweprice.com.

If you hold shares through a financial intermediary or retirement plan, you must purchase, redeem, and exchange shares of the fund through your intermediary or retirement plan. You should check with your intermediary or retirement plan to determine the investment minimums that apply to your account.

Tax Information

Any dividends are declared and paid quarterly in March, June, September, and December. Any capital gains are declared and paid annually, usually in December. Redemptions or exchanges of fund shares and distributions by the fund, whether or not you reinvest these amounts in additional fund shares, generally may be taxed as ordinary income or capital gains unless you invest through a tax-deferred account (in which case you will be taxed upon withdrawal from such account).

Payments to Broker-Dealers and Other Financial Intermediaries

If you purchase shares of the fund through a broker-dealer or other financial intermediary (such as a bank), the fund and its related companies may pay the intermediary for the sale of fund shares and related services. These payments may create a conflict of interest by influencing the broker-dealer or other intermediary and your salesperson to recommend the fund over another investment. Ask your salesperson or visit your financial intermediary’s website for more information.


     

MORE ABOUT THE FUND

 

2

   
MANAGEMENT OF THE FUND

Investment Adviser(s)

T. Rowe Price is the fund’s investment adviser and oversees the selection of the fund’s investments and management of the fund’s portfolio pursuant to an investment management agreement between the investment adviser and the fund. T. Rowe Price is the investment adviser for all mutual funds sponsored and managed by T. Rowe Price (T. Rowe Price Funds); is an SEC-registered investment adviser that provides investment management services to individual and institutional investors and sponsors; and serves as adviser and subadviser to registered investment companies, institutional separate accounts, and common trust funds. The address for T. Rowe Price is 100 East Pratt Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21202. As of June 30, 2020, T. Rowe Price and its affiliates (Firm) had approximately $1.22 trillion in assets under management and provided investment management services for more than 6.7 million individual and institutional investor accounts.

Portfolio Management

T. Rowe Price has established an Investment Advisory Committee with respect to the fund. The committee chairmen are ultimately responsible for the day-to-day management of the fund’s portfolio and work with the committee in developing and executing the fund’s investment program. The members of the committee are as follows: Charles M. Shriver and Toby M. Thompson, Cochairmen, Stephen L. Bartolini, Jerome A. Clark, Kimberly E. DeDominicis, David J. Eiswert, Mark S. Finn, Arif Husain, Wyatt A. Lee, Raymond A. Mills, Sebastien Page, Robert A. Panariello, Larry J. Puglia, Robert W. Sharps, Guido F. Stubenrauch, Justin Thomson, and J. David Wagner. The following information provides the year that the chairmen (portfolio managers) first joined the Firm and the chairmen’s specific business experience during the past five years (although the chairmen may have had portfolio management responsibilities for a longer period). Mr. Shriver has been chairman since 2011. He joined the Firm in 1991 and his investment experience dates from 1999. He has served as a portfolio manager with the Firm throughout the past five years. Mr. Thompson has been cochairman since March 1, 2020. He originally joined the Firm in 1993 and returned in 2010. His investment experience dates from 1993. He has served as a portfolio manager within the Firm’s multi-asset division throughout the past five years. The Statement of Additional Information provides additional information about the portfolio managers’ compensation, other accounts managed by the portfolio managers, and the portfolio managers’ ownership of the fund’s shares.

The Management Fee

The management fee consists of two components—an “individual fund fee,” which reflects the fund’s particular characteristics, and a “group fee.” The group fee, which is designed to reflect the benefits of the shared resources of the Firm, is calculated daily based on the combined net


   

MORE ABOUT THE FUND

11

assets of all T. Rowe Price Funds (except the funds-of-funds, TRP Reserve Funds, Multi-Sector Account Portfolios, and any index or private-label mutual funds). The group fee schedule (in the following table) is graduated, declining as the combined assets of the T. Rowe Price Funds rise, so shareholders benefit from the overall growth in mutual fund assets.

Group Fee Schedule

   

  0.334%*

First $50 billion

0.305%

Next $30 billion

0.300%

Next $40 billion

0.295%

Next $40 billion

0.290%

Next $60 billion

0.285%

Next $80 billion

0.280%

Next $100 billion

0.275%

Next $100 billion

0.270%

Next $150 billion

0.265%

Next $195 billion

0.260%

Thereafter

* Represents a blended group fee rate containing various breakpoints.

The fund’s group fee is determined by applying the group fee rate to the fund’s average daily net assets. On May 31, 2020, the annual group fee rate was 0.29%. The individual fund fee, also applied to the fund’s average daily net assets, is 0.25%.

With respect to the I Class, T. Rowe Price has contractually agreed (through September 30, 2022) to pay the operating expenses of the fund’s I Class excluding management fees; interest; expenses related to borrowings, taxes, and brokerage; nonrecurring, extraordinary expenses; and acquired fund fees and expenses (“I Class Operating Expenses”), to the extent the I Class Operating Expenses exceed 0.05% of the class’ average daily net assets. The agreement may only be terminated at any time after September 30, 2022, with approval by the fund’s Board of Directors. Any expenses paid under this agreement (and a previous limitation of 0.05%) are subject to reimbursement to T. Rowe Price by the fund whenever the fund’s I Class Operating Expenses are below 0.05%. However, no reimbursement will be made more than three years from the date such amounts were initially waived or reimbursed. The fund may only make repayments to T. Rowe Price if such repayment does not cause the I Class Operating Expenses (after the repayment is taken into account) to exceed the lesser of: (1) the limitation on I Class Operating Expenses in place at the time such amounts were waived; or (2) the current expense limitation on I Class Operating Expenses.

A discussion about the factors considered by the fund’s Board of Directors (Board) and its conclusions in approving the fund’s investment management agreement (and any subadvisory agreement, if applicable) appear in the fund’s annual report to shareholders for the period ended May 31.


   

T. ROWE PRICE

12

MORE INFORMATION ABOUT THE FUND’S INVESTMENT OBJECTIVE(S), STRATEGIES, AND RISKS

Investment Objective(s)

The fund seeks the highest total return over time consistent with an emphasis on both capital growth and income.

The investment objective is a fundamental policy, and shareholder approval is required to substantially change it. As with any fund, there is no guarantee the fund will achieve its objective.

Principal Investment Strategies

The following information summarizes some of the basic differences between the Spectrum Funds.

The Spectrum Funds offer a professionally managed allocation of investments among a broad range of asset classes. To accommodate a wide range of investor preferences and time horizons, the Spectrum Funds offer different combinations of the growth potential of stocks, the greater income potential of bonds, different degrees of international investing, and the relative stability of money market securities. Certain Spectrum Funds also seek to reduce overall volatility through alternative investments or derivatives. Because the Spectrum Funds invest in a variety of asset classes, including other T. Rowe Price Funds, each Spectrum Fund is expected to benefit from broad diversification.

While there is no guarantee, the concept of diversification helps investors to reduce their overall risk by spreading assets among a variety of investments. Each type of investment tends to follow a cycle of its own and responds differently to changes in the economy and the marketplace. A decline in one investment can be balanced by returns in other investments that are stable or rising. Therefore, a benefit of the Spectrum Funds is the potential for attractive long-term returns with reduced volatility.

For investors who are seeking broad diversification to bonds in an effort to achieve relatively high income, Spectrum Income Fund could be an appropriate part of your overall investment strategy.

For investors who are seeking a relatively balanced approach, with a greater emphasis on bonds than stocks, in an effort to achieve income and some capital appreciation, Spectrum Conservative Allocation Fund could be an appropriate part of your overall investment strategy.

For investors who are seeking a relatively balanced approach, with a greater emphasis on stocks than bonds, in an effort to achieve capital appreciation and income, Spectrum Moderate Allocation Fund could be an appropriate part of your overall investment strategy.

For investors who are seeking broad diversification that emphasizes stocks, with some exposure to bonds, in an effort to achieve capital appreciation and some income, Spectrum


   

MORE ABOUT THE FUND

13

Moderate Growth Allocation Fund could be an appropriate part of your overall investment strategy.

For investors who are seeking broad diversification to stocks in an effort to achieve long-term capital appreciation and some income, Spectrum Growth Fund could be an appropriate part of your overall investment strategy.

For investors who are seeking broad diversification to international stocks in an effort to achieve long-term capital appreciation along with greater potential volatility, Spectrum International Fund could be an appropriate part of your overall investment strategy.

Each Spectrum Fund’s broad diversification is designed to cushion severe losses in any one investment sector and moderate the funds’ overall price swings. However, the funds’ share prices will fluctuate as the prices of the underlying funds and asset classes rise or fall with changing market conditions. The following information describes the investment program for this particular Spectrum Fund. The specific investment program for each Spectrum Fund is described in greater detail in its prospectus.

When adjusting the fund’s allocations among the asset classes and underlying funds, T. Rowe Price considers relative values and prospects for U.S. and international stocks, growth- and value-oriented stocks, and small-, mid-, and large-cap stocks, as well as the outlook for economic growth, interest rates, and inflation.

Under normal conditions, the fund’s allocation to the broad asset classes will be within the following ranges, each as a percentage of the fund’s net assets: stocks (50-70%), bonds, money markets securities, and cash reserves (25-45%), and alternative investments (0-10%).

Stocks of many well-established corporations offer the potential for appreciation and rising dividends. While smaller companies usually reinvest earnings in their own growth and therefore pay little or no dividends, they may offer the possibility of even greater appreciation if their businesses prosper. Historically, stocks have provided higher returns over time than bonds or money market securities and offer a way to invest for long-term growth of capital. Also, stocks have provided greater long-term protection against the erosion of purchasing power caused by inflation than bonds.

The fund offers a way to try to balance the potential capital appreciation of common stocks with the income and relative stability of bonds over the long term. While there is no guarantee, spreading investments across several types of assets could reduce the fund’s overall volatility, since prices of stocks and bonds may respond differently to changes in economic conditions and interest rate levels. A rise in bond prices, for example, could help offset a fall in stock prices. Money market securities should have a stabilizing influence. In addition, the income provided by bonds and money market securities can contribute positively to total return by cushioning the impact of any price declines and enhancing price increases.

The fund may invest up to 40% of its total assets in foreign stocks and non-U.S. dollar denominated bonds. The potential advantages are extra diversification and enhanced returns. Since foreign stock and bond markets may move independently from U.S. securities markets,


   

T. ROWE PRICE

14

they could reduce the fund’s price fluctuations while offering a way to participate in markets that may generate attractive returns. However, if U.S. and foreign markets move in the same direction, the positive or negative effect on the fund’s share price could be magnified.

The fund also seeks to diversify its overall portfolio by allocating a portion of its assets to alternative investments. The fund considers alternative investments to be assets that, in the opinion of the fund’s investment adviser, should achieve a relatively low correlation to the major equity and fixed income markets (for example, stocks of U.S. and international developed market issuers and investment-grade bonds issued in the U.S.) and accordingly a low correlation to the remainder of the fund’s portfolio. Such investments could include a variety of strategies involving less traditional equity and fixed income securities, currencies, commodities, and derivative instruments that are designed to provide attractive long-term risk-adjusted returns along with lower correlation to traditional markets and some downside protection qualities in negative equity markets. The fund expects to gain its exposure to alternative investments through investments in one or more unaffiliated hedge funds, although the fund may achieve such exposure through funds traded on foreign exchanges and other private and registered investment companies that concentrate on certain alternative investments.

The fund will select hedge funds or other alternative funds based on their investment strategies and historical performance and their ability to seek alternative investments that have shown the potential to perform independently of each other and achieve a relatively low correlation to the major equity and fixed income markets. The fund’s allocations to alternative investments are expected to typically comprise approximately 5% of the fund’s net assets.

The fund’s use of options will typically involve writing (i.e., selling) call options on a stock index in an effort to enhance risk-adjusted returns, although the fund may buy or sell options for other purposes. As part of the fund’s index option overlay strategy, the fund writes (i.e., sells) short-term call options in an effort to enhance risk-adjusted returns. The option strategy provides an alternative way of receiving compensation for bearing the downside risk and giving up some of the upside potential of equities. As the seller of a call option, the fund receives a premium from the purchaser, who has the right to any appreciation in the value of the underlying reference asset (i.e., the index) over a fixed price (the “strike price”) on a certain date in the future (the “expiration date”). If the purchaser does not exercise the option, the fund retains the premium and, if the purchaser exercises the option, the fund pays the purchaser the difference between the value of the underlying reference asset and the exercise price of the option. The options written by the fund will typically be rolled over on a monthly basis—for example, by purchasing a previously written option (which closes an existing option position) and writing a new option. In addition to writing call options, the fund’s option overlay strategy could also involve the buying or selling of both put and call options.

Common and Preferred Stocks

Stocks represent shares of ownership in a company. Generally, preferred stocks have a specified dividend rate and rank after bonds and before common stocks in their claim on income for dividend payments and on assets should the company be liquidated. After other claims are


   

MORE ABOUT THE FUND

15

satisfied, common stockholders participate in company profits on a pro-rata basis and profits may be paid out in dividends or reinvested in the company to help it grow. Increases and decreases in earnings are usually reflected in a company’s stock price, so common stocks generally have the greatest appreciation and depreciation potential of all corporate securities. Unlike common stock, preferred stock does not ordinarily carry voting rights. While most preferred stocks pay a dividend, the fund may decide to purchase preferred stock where the issuer has suspended, or is in danger of suspending, payment of its dividend.

Bonds

A bond is an interest-bearing security. The issuer has a contractual obligation to pay interest at a stated rate on specific dates and to repay principal (the bond’s face value) on a specified date. An issuer may have the right to redeem or "call" a bond before maturity, and the investor may have to invest the proceeds at lower market rates. Bonds can be issued by U.S. and foreign governments, states, and municipalities, as well as a wide variety of companies.

A bond’s annual interest income, set by its coupon rate, is usually fixed for the life of the bond. Its yield (income as a percent of current price) will fluctuate to reflect changes in interest rate levels. A bond’s price usually rises when interest rates fall and vice versa, so its yield generally stays consistent with current market conditions.

Conventional fixed rate bonds offer a coupon rate for a fixed maturity with no adjustment for inflation. Real rate of return bonds also offer a fixed coupon but include ongoing inflation adjustments for the life of the bond.

Certain bonds have floating or variable interest rates that are adjusted periodically based on a particular index. These interest rate adjustments tend to minimize fluctuations in the bonds’ principal values. The maturity of certain floating rate securities may be shortened under certain specified conditions.

Bonds, including asset- and mortgage-backed securities, may be secured (backed by specific collateral) or may be unsecured (backed only by the issuer’s general creditworthiness).

Mortgage-Backed Securities

The fund may invest in a variety of mortgage-backed securities. Mortgage lenders pool individual home mortgages with similar characteristics to back a certificate or bond, which is sold to investors such as the fund. Interest and principal payments generated by the underlying mortgages are passed through to the investors. The “big three” issuers are the Government National Mortgage Association, the Federal National Mortgage Association, and the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation. Government National Mortgage Association certificates are backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. government, while others, such as the Federal National Mortgage Association and Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation certificates, are only supported by the ability to borrow from the U.S. Treasury or by the credit of the agency. (The Federal National Mortgage Association and the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation operate under conservatorship of the Federal Housing Finance Agency, an independent federal agency.) Private mortgage bankers and other institutions also issue mortgage-backed securities.


   

T. ROWE PRICE

16

Mortgage-backed securities are subject to scheduled and unscheduled principal payments as homeowners pay down or prepay their mortgages. As these payments are received, they must be reinvested when interest rates may be higher or lower than on the original mortgage security. Therefore, these securities are not an effective means of locking in long-term interest rates. In addition, when interest rates fall, the rate of mortgage prepayments, including refinancings, tends to increase. Refinanced mortgages are paid off at face value or “par,” causing a loss for any investor who may have purchased the security at a price above par. In such an environment, this risk limits the potential price appreciation of these securities and can negatively affect the fund’s net asset value. When interest rates rise, the prices of mortgage-backed securities can be expected to decline. In addition, when interest rates rise and prepayments slow, the effective duration of mortgage-backed securities extends, resulting in increased price volatility. There is no limit on the portion of the fund’s fixed income investments in these securities.

Additional mortgage-backed securities in which the fund may invest include:

Collateralized Mortgage Obligations Collateralized mortgage obligations are debt instruments that are fully collateralized by a portfolio of mortgages or mortgage-backed securities including Government National Mortgage Association, Federal National Mortgage Association, Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation, and non-agency-backed mortgages. All interest and principal payments from the underlying mortgages are passed through to the collateralized mortgage obligations in such a way as to create different classes with varying risk characteristics, payment structures, and maturity dates. Collateralized mortgage obligation classes may pay fixed or variable rates of interest, and certain classes have priority over others with respect to the receipt of prepayments and allocation of defaults.

Stripped Mortgage Securities Stripped mortgage securities are created by separating the interest and principal payments generated by a pool of mortgage-backed securities or a collateralized mortgage obligation to create additional classes of securities. Generally, one class receives interest-only payments and another receives principal-only payments. Unlike other mortgage-backed securities and principal-only strips, the value of interest-only strips tends to move in the same direction as interest rates. The fund can use interest-only strips as a hedge against falling prepayment rates (when interest rates are rising) and/or in an unfavorable market environment. Principal-only strips can be used as a hedge against rising prepayment rates (when interest rates are falling) and/or in a favorable market environment. Interest-only strips and principal-only strips are acutely sensitive to interest rate changes and to the rate of principal prepayments.

A rapid or unexpected increase in prepayments can severely depress the price of interest-only strips, while a rapid or unexpected decrease in prepayments could have the same effect on principal-only strips. Of course, under the opposite conditions these securities may appreciate in value. These securities can be very volatile in price and may have lower overall liquidity than most other mortgage-backed securities. Certain non-stripped collateralized mortgage obligation classes may also exhibit these qualities, especially those that pay variable rates of interest that adjust inversely with, and more rapidly than, short-term interest rates. In addition,


   

MORE ABOUT THE FUND

17

if interest rates rise rapidly and prepayment rates slow more than expected, certain collateralized mortgage obligation classes, in addition to losing value, can exhibit characteristics of long-term securities and become more volatile. There is no guarantee that the fund’s investments in collateralized mortgage obligations, interest-only strips, or principal-only strips will be successful, and the fund’s total return could be adversely affected as a result.

Commercial Mortgage-Backed Securities Commercial mortgage-backed securities are securities created from a pool of commercial mortgage loans, such as loans for hotels, shopping centers, office buildings, and apartment buildings. Interest and principal payments from the loans are passed on to the investor according to a schedule of payments. Credit quality depends primarily on the quality of the loans themselves and on the structure of the particular deal. Generally, deals are structured with senior and subordinate classes. The degree of subordination is determined by the rating agencies that rate the individual classes of the structure. Commercial mortgages are generally structured with prepayment penalties, which greatly reduce prepayment risk to the investor. However, the value of these securities may change because of actual or perceived changes in the creditworthiness of the individual borrowers, their tenants, the servicing agents, or the general state of commercial real estate. There is no limit on the portion of the fund’s fixed income investments in these securities.

Asset-Backed Securities

An underlying pool of assets, such as credit card or automobile trade receivables or corporate loans or bonds, backs these bonds and provides the interest and principal payments to investors. On occasion, the pool of assets may also include a swap obligation, which is used to change the cash flows on the underlying assets. As an example, a swap may be used to allow floating rate assets to back a fixed rate obligation. Credit quality depends primarily on the quality of the underlying assets, the level of any credit support provided by the structure or by a third-party insurance wrap or a line of credit, and the credit quality of the swap counterparty, if any. The underlying assets (i.e., loans) are sometimes subject to prepayments, which can shorten the security’s effective maturity and may lower its return. The value of these securities also may change because of actual or perceived changes in the creditworthiness of the individual borrowers, the originator, the servicing agent, the financial institution providing the credit support, or the swap counterparty. There is no limit on the portion of the fund’s fixed income investments that may be invested in asset-backed securities.

The fund will gain exposure through a pooled vehicle to asset-backed securities, commercial mortgage-backed securities and collateral loan obligations that are pledged as collateral for nonrecourse loans under the Term Asset-Backed Securities Loan Facility (TALF), a joint program of the Federal Reserve and the U.S. Treasury. TALF loans are considered nonrecourse because the lender (Federal Reserve Bank of New York) may generally enforce its rights only against the pledged collateral and not against other fund assets if the fund does not repay the principal and interest on the loans.

Municipal Securities

The fund may invest in municipal notes and bonds, which are interest-bearing securities issued by state and local governments and governmental authorities to pay for public projects and


   

T. ROWE PRICE

18

services. The issuer of a municipal security has a contractual obligation to pay interest at a stated rate and to repay principal (the bond’s face value) on a specified date. An issuer may have the right to redeem or “call” a bond before maturity, which could require reinvestment of the proceeds at lower rates. The fund may purchase insured municipal bonds, which provide a guarantee that the bond’s interest and principal will be paid when due if the issuing entity defaults. Municipal bond insurance does not guarantee the price of the bond.

Income received from most municipal securities is exempt from federal income taxes. As a result, the yield on a municipal bond is typically lower than the yield on a taxable bond of similar quality and maturity. Like a taxable bond, a municipal bond’s price usually rises when interest rates fall and vice versa so its yield generally stays consistent with current market conditions.

Inflation-Linked Securities

Inflation-linked securities are income-generating instruments whose interest and principal payments are adjusted for inflation—a sustained increase in prices of goods and services that erodes the purchasing power of money. Treasury Inflation Protected Securities are inflation-linked securities issued by the U.S. government. Inflation-linked bonds are also issued by corporations, U.S. government agencies, and foreign governments. The inflation adjustment, which is typically applied monthly to the principal of the bond, follows a designated inflation index, such as the Consumer Price Index. A fixed coupon rate is applied to the inflation-adjusted principal so that as inflation rises, both the principal value and the interest payments increase. This can provide investors with a hedge against inflation, as it helps preserve the purchasing power of your investment. Because of this inflation-adjustment feature, inflation protected bonds typically have lower yields than conventional fixed rate bonds.

Inflation protected bonds normally will decline in price when real interest rates rise. (A real interest rate is calculated by subtracting the inflation rate from a nominal interest rate. For example, if a 10-year Treasury note is yielding 5% and inflation expectations for the next 10 years are 2%, the real interest rate is 3%.) If inflation is negative, the principal and income of an inflation protected bond could decline and result in losses for the fund.

Foreign Securities

The fund may invest in foreign securities. Foreign securities could include non-U.S. dollar-denominated securities traded outside the U.S. and U.S. dollar-denominated securities of foreign issuers traded in the U.S. Investing in foreign securities involves special risks that can increase the potential for losses. These include exposure to potentially adverse local, political, social, and economic developments such as war, political instability, hyperinflation, currency devaluations, and overdependence on particular industries; government interference in markets such as nationalization and exchange controls, expropriation of assets, or imposition of punitive taxes; the imposition of international trade and capital barriers and other protectionist or retaliatory measures; potentially lower liquidity and higher volatility; possible problems arising from accounting, disclosure, settlement, and regulatory practices and legal rights that differ from U.S. standards; and the potential for fluctuations in foreign exchange rates to decrease the investment’s value (favorable changes can increase its value). These risks


   

MORE ABOUT THE FUND

19

are heightened for the fund’s investments in emerging markets. The fund may purchase American Depositary Receipts and Global Depositary Receipts, which are certificates evidencing ownership of shares of a foreign issuer. American Depositary Receipts and Global Depositary Receipts trade on established markets and are alternatives to directly purchasing the underlying foreign securities in their local markets and currencies. Such investments are subject to many of the same risks associated with investing directly in foreign securities.

High Yield Bonds

The price and yield of noninvestment-grade (high yield) bonds can be expected to fluctuate more than the price and yield of higher-quality bonds. Because these bonds are rated below BBB (or an equivalent rating) or are in default, they are regarded as predominantly speculative with respect to the issuer’s continuing ability to meet principal and interest payments. Successful investment in lower-medium and low-quality bonds involves greater investment risk and is highly dependent on T. Rowe Price’s credit analysis. A real or perceived economic downturn or higher interest rates could cause a decline in high yield bond prices by lessening the ability of issuers to make principal and interest payments. These bonds are often thinly traded and can be more difficult to sell and value accurately than higher-quality bonds. Because objective pricing data may be less available, judgment may play a greater role in the valuation process. In addition, the entire high yield bond market can experience sudden and sharp price swings due to a variety of factors, including changes in economic forecasts, stock market activity, large or sustained sales by major investors, a high-profile default, or just a change in the market’s psychology.

Zero Coupon Bonds and Pay-in-Kind Bonds

A zero coupon bond does not make cash interest payments during a portion or all of the life of the bond. Instead, it is sold at a deep discount to face value, and the interest consists of the gradual appreciation in price as the bond approaches maturity. Zero coupon bonds can be an attractive financing method for issuers with near-term cash-flow problems or seeking to preserve liquidity. Pay-in-kind bonds pay interest in cash or additional securities, at the issuer’s option, for a specified period. Like zero coupon bonds, they may help a corporation conserve cash flow. Pay-in-kind prices reflect the market value of the underlying debt plus any accrued interest. Zero coupon bonds and pay-in-kinds can be higher- or lower-quality debt, and both are more volatile than coupon bonds.

The fund is required to distribute to shareholders income imputed to any zero coupon bonds or pay-in-kind investments even though such income may not be received by the fund as distributable cash. Such distributions could reduce the fund’s reserve position and require it to sell securities and incur a gain or loss at a time it may not otherwise want to in order to provide the cash necessary for these distributions.

Derivatives

A derivative is a financial instrument whose value is derived from an underlying security, such as a stock or bond, or from a market benchmark, such as an interest rate index. Many types of investments representing a wide range of risks and potential rewards may be considered derivatives, including conventional instruments such as futures and options, as well as other


   

T. ROWE PRICE

20

potentially more complex investments such as swaps and structured notes. The use of derivatives can involve leverage. Leverage has the effect of magnifying returns, positively or negatively. The effect on returns will depend on the extent to which an investment is leveraged. For example, an investment of $1, leveraged at 2 to 1, would have the effect of an investment of $2. Leverage ratios can be higher or lower with a corresponding effect on returns. The fund may use derivatives in a variety of situations, including for the purposes of accomplishing any or all of the following: to hedge against a decline in principal value, to increase yield, to gain exposure to eligible asset classes or securities with greater efficiency and at a lower cost than is possible through a direct investment, or to adjust portfolio duration or credit risk exposures. In accordance with the Investment Company Act of 1940 and various SEC positions, the fund must “set aside” (often referred to as “asset segregation”) liquid assets, or engage in other measures, to “cover” open positions with respect to certain kinds of derivative instruments.

Derivatives that may be used include the following instruments, as well as others that combine the risk characteristics and features of these instruments:

Futures and Options Futures are often used to establish exposures or manage or hedge risk because they enable the investor to buy or sell an asset in the future at an agreed-upon price. Options may be used to generate additional income, to enhance returns, or as a defensive technique to protect against anticipated declines in the value of an asset. Call options give the investor the right to purchase (when the investor purchases the option), or the obligation to sell (when the investor “writes” or sells the option), an asset at a predetermined price in the future. Put options give the purchaser of the option the right to sell, or the seller (or “writer”) of the option the obligation to buy, an asset at a predetermined price in the future. Futures and options contracts may be bought or sold for any number of reasons, including to manage exposure to changes in interest rates, bond prices, foreign currencies, and credit quality; as an efficient means of increasing or decreasing the fund’s exposure to certain markets; in an effort to enhance income; to improve risk-adjusted returns; to protect the value of portfolio securities; and to serve as a cash management tool. Call or put options may be purchased or sold on securities, futures, financial indexes, and foreign currencies. The fund may choose to continue a futures contract by “rolling over” an expiring futures contract into an identical contract with a later maturity date. This could increase the fund’s transaction costs and portfolio turnover rate.

Futures and options contracts may not always be successful investments or hedges; their prices can be highly volatile; using them could lower the fund’s total return; the potential loss from the use of futures can exceed the fund’s initial investment in such contracts; and the losses from certain options written by the fund could be unlimited.


   

MORE ABOUT THE FUND

21

Principal Risks

Some of the principal tools the adviser uses to try to reduce overall risk include intensive research when evaluating a company’s prospects and limiting exposure to certain industries, asset classes, or investment styles when appropriate.

Consistent with the fund’s objective(s), the portfolio manager uses various tools to try to reduce risks and increase total return, including:

·   attempting to reduce the impact of a single holding on the fund’s net asset value;

·   thorough research of stocks, bonds, and other investments by our analysts to find the most favorable investment opportunities;

·   gradual shifts in allocations to stocks, bonds, and other investments to take advantage of market opportunities and changing economic conditions; and

·   adjusting the fund’s duration to try to reduce the drop in its share price when interest rates rise or to benefit from a rise in bond prices when interest rates fall. (For example, when interest rates rise, the portfolio manager may seek to lower the fund’s overall duration in an effort to reduce the adverse impact on the fund’s share price.)

The principal risks associated with the fund’s principal investment strategies include the following:

Market conditions The value of investments held by the fund may decline, sometimes rapidly or unpredictably, due to factors affecting certain issuers, particular industries or sectors, or the overall markets. Rapid or unexpected changes in market conditions could cause the fund to liquidate its holdings at inopportune times or at a loss or depressed value. The value of a particular holding may decrease due to developments related to that issuer, but also due to general market conditions, including real or perceived economic developments such as changes in interest rates, credit quality, inflation, or currency rates, or generally adverse investor sentiment. The value of a holding may also decline due to factors that negatively affect a particular industry or sector, such as labor shortages, increased production costs, or competitive conditions. In addition, local, regional, or global events such as war, acts of terrorism, political and social unrest, regulatory changes, recessions, shifts in monetary or trade policies, natural or environmental disasters, and the spread of infectious diseases or other public health issues could have a significant negative impact on securities markets and the fund’s investments. Unpredictable events such as natural disasters, pandemics, and widespread health crises, including the coronavirus pandemic and related governmental and public responses, may lead to unexpected suspensions or closures of securities exchanges, travel restrictions or quarantines, business disruptions and closures, inability to obtain raw materials, supplies and component parts, reduced or disrupted operations for the fund’s service providers or issuers in which the fund invests, and an extended adverse impact on global market conditions. Government intervention in markets may impact interest rates, market volatility, and security pricing. The occurrence, reoccurrence, and uncertainty of widespread diseases and health crises could adversely affect the economies (including through changes in business activity and increased unemployment) and financial markets of specific countries or worldwide.


   

T. ROWE PRICE

22

Stock investing The fund’s share price can fall because of weakness in the overall stock markets, a particular industry, or specific holdings. Stock markets as a whole can be volatile and decline for many reasons, such as adverse local, political, regulatory, or economic developments; changes in investor psychology; or heavy institutional selling at the same time by major institutional investors in the market, such as mutual funds, pension funds, and banks. The prospects for an industry or company may deteriorate because of a variety of factors, including disappointing earnings or changes in the competitive environment. In addition, the adviser’s assessment of companies whose stocks are held by the fund may prove incorrect, resulting in losses or poor performance, even in rising markets. In the event an issuer is liquidated or declares bankruptcy, the claims of owners of the issuer’s bonds and preferred stock take precedence over the claims of those who own common stock.

Fixed income markets The market price of investments owned by the fund may go up or down, sometimes rapidly or unpredictably. The fund’s investments may decline in value due to factors affecting the overall fixed income markets, or particular industries or sectors. The value of a holding may decline due to developments related to a particular issuer, but also due to general fixed income market conditions, including real or perceived adverse economic developments, such as changes in interest rates, credit quality, inflation, or currency rates, or generally adverse investor sentiment. The value of a holding may also decline due to factors that negatively affect a particular industry, such as labor shortages, increased production costs, or competitive conditions. The fund may experience heavy redemptions that could cause it to liquidate its assets at inopportune times or at a loss or depressed value.

Interest rates The prices of bonds and other fixed income securities typically increase as interest rates fall and prices typically decrease as interest rates rise (bond prices and interest rates usually move in opposite directions). Prices fall because the bonds and notes in the fund’s portfolio become less attractive to other investors when securities with higher yields become available. Generally, securities with longer maturities or durations and funds with longer weighted average maturities or durations have greater interest rate risk. As a result, in a rising interest rate environment, the net asset value of a fund with a longer weighted average maturity or duration typically decreases at a faster rate than the net asset value of a fund with a shorter weighted average maturity or duration. Interest rates have recently been near historically low levels. Extremely low or negative interest rates may increase the fund’s susceptibility to interest rate risk and reduce the fund’s yield. In addition, recent and potential future changes in monetary policy made by central banks and/or governments are likely to affect the level of interest rates. The discontinuation and replacement of a benchmark rate such as LIBOR (an indicative measure of the average interest rate at which major global banks could borrow from one another) may have a significant impact on the financial markets and may adversely impact the fund’s performance. As a result, rapid changes in interest rates may increase the fund’s overall exposure to interest rate risk.

Prepayments and extensions A fund investing in mortgage-backed securities, certain asset-backed securities, and other debt instruments that have embedded call options can be negatively impacted when interest rates fall because borrowers tend to refinance and prepay principal. Receiving increasing prepayments in a falling interest rate environment causes the


   

MORE ABOUT THE FUND

23

average maturity of the portfolio to shorten, reducing its potential for price gains. It also requires the fund to reinvest proceeds at lower interest rates, which reduces the fund’s total return and yield, and could result in a loss if bond prices fall below the level that the fund paid for them. A rise in interest rates or lack of refinancing opportunities can cause the fund’s average maturity to lengthen unexpectedly due to a drop in expected prepayments of mortgage-backed securities, asset-backed securities, and callable debt instruments. This would increase the fund’s sensitivity to rising rates and its potential for price declines.

International investing Investments outside the U.S. may lose value because of declining foreign currencies or adverse political or economic events overseas, among other things. Securities of non-U.S. issuers (including depositary receipts and other instruments that represent interests in a non-U.S. issuer) tend to be more volatile than U.S. securities and are subject to trading markets with lower overall liquidity, governmental interference, and regulatory and accounting standards and settlement practices that differ from the U.S. The fund could experience losses based solely on the weakness of foreign currencies in which the fund’s holdings are denominated versus the U.S. dollar, and changes in the exchange rates between such currencies and the U.S. dollar. Risks can result from differing regulatory environments, less stringent investor protections, uncertain tax laws, and higher transaction costs compared with U.S. markets. Investments outside the U.S. could be subject to governmental actions such as capital or currency controls, nationalization of a company or industry, expropriation of assets, or imposition of high taxes.

A trading market may close for national holidays or without warning for extended time periods, preventing the fund from buying or selling securities in that market. Trading securities in which the fund invests may take place in various foreign markets on certain days when the fund is not open for business and does not calculate its net asset value. For example, the fund may invest in securities that trade in various foreign markets that are open on weekends. As the securities trade, their value may substantially change. As a result, the fund’s net asset value may be significantly affected on days when shareholders cannot make transactions. In addition, market volatility may significantly limit the liquidity of securities of certain issuers in a particular country or geographic region, or of all companies in the country or region. The fund may be unable to liquidate its positions in such securities at any time, or at a favorable price, in order to meet the fund’s obligations.

Emerging markets Investments in emerging markets are subject to the risk of abrupt and severe price declines. The economic and political structures of emerging market countries, in most cases, do not compare favorably with the U.S. or other developed countries in terms of wealth and stability, and their financial markets often lack liquidity. These economies are less developed, can be overly reliant on particular industries, and are more vulnerable to the ebb and flow of international trade, trade barriers, and other protectionist or retaliatory measures. Governments in many emerging market countries participate to a significant degree in their economies and securities markets. As a result, foreign investments may be restricted and subject to greater government control, including repatriation of sales proceeds. Emerging market securities exchanges are more likely to experience problems with the clearing and settling of trades, as well as the custody of holdings by local banks, agents, and depositories. In


   

T. ROWE PRICE

24

addition, the accounting standards in emerging market countries may be unreliable and could present an inaccurate picture of a company’s finances. Some countries have histories of instability and upheaval that could cause their governments to act in a detrimental or hostile manner toward private enterprise or foreign investment. Investments in countries or regions that have recently begun moving away from central planning and state-owned industries toward free markets should be regarded as speculative.

While some countries have made progress in economic growth, liberalization, fiscal discipline, and political and social stability, there is no assurance these trends will continue. Significant risks, such as war and terrorism, currently affect some emerging market countries. The fund’s performance will likely be hurt by exposure to nations in the midst of hyperinflation, currency devaluation, trade disagreements, sudden political upheaval, or interventionist government policies. The volatility of emerging markets may be heightened by the actions (such as significant buying or selling) of a few major investors. For example, substantial increases or decreases in cash flows of mutual funds investing in these markets could significantly affect local securities prices and, therefore, could cause fund share prices to decline.

Derivatives The use of options could expose the fund to additional volatility in comparison to investing directly in stocks. The values of the fund’s positions in index options will fluctuate in response to changes in the value of the underlying index. Writing index call options can help reduce the risk of selecting particular stocks, but it limits the opportunity to profit from an increase in the market value of stocks in exchange for up-front cash at the time of selling the call option. Losses associated with the fund’s index option overlay strategy could exceed the premium received by the fund and writing any call options on securities not owned by the fund exposes the fund to a potentially unlimited risk of loss. The options markets may experience reduced liquidity, which could result in losses to the fund. In addition, the fund’s transaction costs and portfolio turnover rate could be increased by choosing to roll over an expiring options contract. The use of continual index call-writing could dampen returns and cause the fund to underperform funds with similar asset allocation strategies.

Alternative investments/Hedge funds The fund’s exposure to alternative investments through hedge fund investments is considered to be illiquid and the fund will indirectly bear its pro rata share of the hedge fund’s fees and expenses, which are typically higher than a traditional mutual fund. Hedge funds often have advance notice requirements and withdrawal windows which limit investors’ ability to readily redeem shares of a hedge fund. If a hedge fund were to engage in activity deemed inappropriate by the fund, pursue a different strategy than the fund was led to believe the hedge fund would follow, or the strategy is more correlated to the broad markets than desired, the fund may not be able to withdraw its investment in certain hedge funds promptly after a decision has been made to do so, causing the fund to incur a significant loss and adversely affect its total return.

Hedge funds’ holdings and investment strategies are not as transparent as those of traditional mutual funds (and the fund will not look through to the hedge fund’s underlying investments in determining compliance with its investment restrictions). Therefore, the fund relies primarily on the limited pricing and valuation information provided by the hedge fund


   

MORE ABOUT THE FUND

25

managers in order to value its hedge fund investments. Investors should be aware that valuations of illiquid securities involve various judgments and consideration of factors that may be subjective. There is a risk that inaccurate valuations of hedge fund positions could adversely affect the stated value of the fund and the amounts that shareholders receive upon the redemption of fund shares. In addition, should disputes arise between the fund and a hedge fund in which it invests, the fund may not be able to rely on the protections under the Investment Company Act of 1940 that are afforded to investors in registered investment companies, such as mutual funds. Finally, regulatory changes could limit the ability of a hedge fund to properly implement its alternative strategies or prevent the fund from gaining its desired exposure to alternative investments through hedge funds.

Credit quality An issuer of a debt instrument held by the fund could default (fail to make scheduled interest or principal payments), potentially reducing the fund’s income and share price. Credit risk is increased when portfolio holdings are downgraded or the perceived financial condition of an issuer deteriorates. Holdings with an investment-grade rating (AAA through BBB, or an equivalent rating) should have a relatively low risk of encountering financial problems and a relatively high probability of future payments. However, holdings rated BBB (or an equivalent rating) are more susceptible to adverse economic conditions than other investment-grade holdings and may have speculative characteristics. Holdings rated below investment grade should be regarded as speculative because their issuers may be more susceptible to financial setbacks and recession than more creditworthy issuers.

Liquidity The fund may not be able to meet requests to redeem shares issued by the fund without significant dilution of the remaining shareholders’ interest in the fund. In addition, the fund may not be able to sell a holding in a timely manner at a desired price. Sectors of the bond market can experience sudden downturns in trading activity. During periods of reduced market liquidity, the spread between the price at which a security can be bought and the price at which it can be sold can widen, and the fund may not be able to sell a holding readily at a price that reflects what the fund believes it should be worth. Securities with lower overall liquidity can also become more difficult to value. Liquidity risk may be the result of, among other things, the reduced number and capacity of traditional broker-dealers to make a market in fixed income securities or the lack of an active market. The potential for liquidity risk may be magnified by a rising interest rate environment or other circumstances where selling activity from fixed income investors may be higher than normal, potentially causing increased supply in the market.

Active management The investment adviser’s judgments about the attractiveness, value, or potential appreciation of the fund’s investments may prove to be incorrect. The fund could underperform other funds with a similar benchmark or similar investment program if the fund’s investment selections or overall strategies fail to produce the intended results. Regulatory, tax, or other developments may affect the investment strategies available to a portfolio manager, which could adversely affect the ability to implement the fund’s overall investment program and achieve the fund’s investment objective(s).


   

T. ROWE PRICE

26

Cybersecurity breaches The fund may be subject to operational and information security risks resulting from breaches in cybersecurity. Cybersecurity breaches may involve deliberate attacks and unauthorized access to the digital information systems (for example, through “hacking” or malicious software coding) used by the fund or its third-party service providers but may also result from outside attacks such as denial-of-service attacks, which are efforts to make network services unavailable to intended users. These breaches may, among other things, result in financial losses to the fund and its shareholders, cause the fund to lose proprietary information, disrupt business operations, or result in the unauthorized release of confidential information. Further, cybersecurity breaches involving the fund’s third-party service providers, financial intermediaries, trading counterparties, or issuers in which the fund invests could subject the fund to many of the same risks associated with direct breaches.

Additional Strategies, Risks, and Investment Management Practices

In addition to the principal investment strategies and principal risks previously described, the fund may employ other investment strategies and may be subject to other risks, which include the following:

Swaps

The fund may invest in interest rate, index, total return, credit default, and other types of swap agreements, as well as options on swaps, commonly referred to as “swaptions,” and interest rate swap futures, which are instruments that provide a way to obtain swap exposure and the benefits of futures in one contract. All of these agreements are considered derivatives and, in certain cases, high-risk derivatives. Interest rate, index, and total return swaps are two-party contracts under which the fund and a counterparty, such as a broker or dealer, agree to exchange the returns (or differentials in rates of return) earned or realized on particular predetermined investments or indexes. Credit default swaps are agreements where one party (the protection buyer) will make periodic payments to another party (the protection seller) in exchange for protection against specified credit events, such as defaults and bankruptcies related to an issuer or underlying credit instrument. Swap futures are futures contracts on interest rate swaps that enable purchasers to settle in cash at a future date at the price determined by a specific benchmark rate at the end of a fixed period. Swaps, swaptions, and swap futures can be used for a variety of purposes, including to manage the fund’s overall exposure to changes in interest or foreign currency exchange rates and credit quality; as an efficient means of adjusting the fund’s exposure to certain markets; in an effort to enhance income or total return or protect the value of portfolio securities; to serve as a cash management tool; and to adjust portfolio duration or credit risk exposure.

There are risks in the use of swaps and related instruments. Swaps could result in losses if interest or foreign currency exchange rates or credit quality changes are not correctly anticipated by the fund. Total return swaps could result in losses if the reference index, security, or investments do not perform as anticipated. Credit default swaps can increase the fund’s exposure to credit risk and could result in losses if evaluation of the creditworthiness of the counterparty, or of the company or government on which the credit default swap is based, is incorrect. The use of swaps, swaptions, and swap futures may not always be successful. Using


   

MORE ABOUT THE FUND

27

them could lower the fund’s total return, their prices can be highly volatile, and the potential loss from the use of swaps can exceed the fund’s initial investment in such instruments. Also, the other party to a swap agreement could default on its obligations or refuse to cash out the fund’s investment at a reasonable price, which could turn an expected gain into a loss. Although there should be minimal counterparty risk associated with investments in interest rate swap futures, the fund could experience delays and/or losses due to the bankruptcy of a swap dealer through which the fund engaged in the transaction.

Currency Derivatives

A fund that invests in foreign securities may attempt to hedge its exposure to potentially unfavorable currency changes. The primary means of doing this is through the use of forward currency exchange contracts, which are contracts between two counterparties to exchange one currency for another on a future date at a specified exchange rate. The fund may also use these instruments to create a synthetic bond, which is issued in one currency with the currency component transformed into another currency. However, futures, swaps, and options on foreign currencies may also be used. In certain circumstances, the fund may use currency derivatives to substitute a different currency for the currency in which the investment is denominated, a strategy known as proxy hedging. If the fund were to engage in any of these foreign currency transactions, it could serve to protect its foreign securities from adverse currency movements relative to the U.S. dollar, although the fund may also use currency derivatives in an effort to gain exposure to a currency expected to appreciate in value versus other currencies. As a result, the fund could be invested in a currency without holding any securities denominated in that currency. Such transactions involve, among other risks, the risk that anticipated currency movements will not occur, which could reduce the fund’s total return. There are certain markets, including many emerging markets, where it is not possible to engage in effective foreign currency hedging.

Convertible Securities and Warrants

The fund may invest in debt instruments or preferred equity securities that are convertible into, or exchangeable for, equity securities at specified times in the future and according to a certain exchange ratio. Convertible bonds are typically callable by the issuer, which could in effect force conversion before the holder would otherwise choose. Traditionally, convertible securities have paid dividends or interest at rates higher than common stocks but lower than nonconvertible securities. They generally participate in the appreciation or depreciation of the underlying stock into which they are convertible, but to a lesser degree than common stock. Some convertible securities combine higher or lower current income with options and other features. Warrants are options to buy, directly from the issuer, a stated number of shares of common stock at a specified price anytime during the life of the warrants (generally, two or more years). Warrants have no voting rights, pay no dividends, and can be highly volatile. In some cases, the redemption value of a warrant could be zero.

Bank Loans

The fund may make investments in bank loans through the purchase or execution of a privately negotiated loan or note representing the equivalent of a loan, as well as through loan


   

T. ROWE PRICE

28

assignments and participations. Large loans to corporations or governments, including governments of less developed countries, may be shared or syndicated among several lenders, usually banks. The fund could participate in such syndicates or could buy part of a loan, becoming a direct lender. These loans may often be obligations of companies or governments in financial distress or in default. These investments involve special types of risk, including those of being a lender, reduced liquidity, increased credit risk, and volatility.

Bank loans may be acquired directly through an agent acting on behalf of the lenders participating in the loan, as an assignment from another lender who holds a direct interest in the loan, or as a participation interest in another lender’s portion of the loan. An assignment typically results in the purchaser succeeding to all rights and obligations under the loan agreement between the assigning lender and the borrower. However, assignments may be arranged through private negotiations, and the rights and obligations acquired by the purchaser of an assignment may differ from, and be more limited than, those held by the assigning lender.

A participation interest is a fractional interest in a loan, issued by a lender or other financial institution. To the extent the fund invests in loans through participation interests, it will be more difficult for it to enforce its rights against the borrower because it will have established a direct contractual relationship with the seller of the participation interest but not with the borrower. When the fund invests in a loan by participation, it must rely on another party not only for the enforcement of its rights against the borrower, but also for the receipt and processing of payments due under the loan. Investing in a participation interest limits the fund’s ability to file a claim directly as a creditor in the event of the borrower’s bankruptcy.

When-Issued Securities and Forwards

The fund may purchase securities on a when-issued or delayed delivery basis or may purchase or sell securities on a forward commitment basis. There is no limit on the fund’s investments in these securities. The price of these securities is fixed at the time of the commitment to buy, but delivery and payment take place after the customary settlement period for that type of security (often a month or more later). During the interim period, the price and yield of the securities can fluctuate, and typically no interest accrues to the purchaser. At the time of delivery, the market value of the securities may be more or less than the purchase or sale price. To the extent the fund remains fully or almost fully invested (in securities with a remaining maturity of more than one year) at the same time it purchases these securities, there will be greater fluctuations in the fund’s net asset value than if the fund did not purchase them.

Investments in Other Investment Companies

The fund may invest in other investment companies, including open-end funds, closed-end funds, and exchange-traded funds.

The fund may purchase the securities of another investment company to temporarily gain exposure to a portion of the market while awaiting the purchase of securities or as an efficient means of gaining exposure to a particular asset class. The fund might also purchase shares of another investment company, including shares of other T. Rowe Price Funds, to gain exposure


   

MORE ABOUT THE FUND

29

to the securities in the investment company’s portfolio at times when the fund may not be able to buy those securities directly, or as a means of gaining efficient and cost-effective exposure to certain asset classes. Any investment in another investment company would be consistent with the fund’s objective(s) and investment program.

The risks of owning another investment company are generally similar to the risks of investing directly in the securities in which that investment company invests. However, an investment company may not achieve its investment objective or execute its investment strategy effectively, which may adversely affect the fund’s performance. In addition, because closed-end funds and exchange-traded funds trade on a secondary market, their shares may trade at a premium or discount to the actual net asset value of their portfolio securities, and their shares may have greater volatility if an active trading market does not exist.

As a shareholder of another investment company, the fund must pay its pro-rata share of that investment company’s fees and expenses. The fund’s investments in non-T. Rowe Price investment companies are subject to the limits that apply to investments in other funds under the Investment Company Act of 1940 or under any applicable exemptive order.

Investments in other investment companies could allow the fund to obtain the benefits of a more diversified portfolio than might otherwise be available through direct investments in a particular asset class, and will subject the fund to the risks associated with the particular asset class or asset classes in which an underlying fund invests. Examples of asset classes in which other mutual funds (including T. Rowe Price Funds) focus their investments include high yield bonds, inflation-linked securities, floating rate loans, international bonds, emerging market bonds, stocks of companies involved in activities related to real assets, stocks of companies that focus on a particular industry or sector, and emerging market stocks. If the fund invests in another T. Rowe Price Fund, the management fee paid by the fund will be reduced to ensure that the fund does not incur duplicate management fees as a result of its investment.

Illiquid Investments

Some of the fund’s holdings may be considered illiquid because they are subject to legal or contractual restrictions on resale or because they cannot reasonably be expected to be sold or disposed of in current market conditions in seven calendar days or less without the sale or disposition significantly changing the market value of the investment. The determination of liquidity involves a variety of factors. Illiquid investments may include private placements that are sold directly to a small number of investors, usually institutions. Unlike public offerings, such securities are not registered with the SEC. Although certain of these securities may be readily sold (for example, pursuant to Rule 144A under the Securities Act of 1933) and therefore deemed liquid, others may have resale restrictions and be considered illiquid. The sale of illiquid investments may involve substantial delays and additional costs, and the fund may only be able to sell such investments at prices substantially lower than what it believes they are worth. In addition, the fund’s investments in illiquid investments may reduce the returns of the fund because it may be unable to sell such investments at an advantageous time, which could prevent the fund from taking advantage of other investment opportunities.


   

T. ROWE PRICE

30

Reserve Position

A certain portion of the fund’s assets may be held in reserves. The fund’s reserve positions will primarily consist of: (1) shares of a T. Rowe Price internal money market fund or short-term bond fund (which do not charge any management fees and are not available for public purchase); (2) short-term, high-quality U.S. and non-U.S. dollar-denominated money market securities, including repurchase agreements; and (3) U.S. dollar or non-U.S. dollar currencies. In order to respond to adverse market, economic, political, or other conditions, the fund may assume a temporary defensive position that is inconsistent with its principal investment objective(s) and/or strategies and may invest, without limitation, in reserves. If the fund has significant holdings in reserves, it could compromise its ability to achieve its objective(s). The reserve position provides flexibility in meeting redemptions, paying expenses, and managing cash flows into the fund and can serve as a short-term defense during periods of unusual market volatility. Non-U.S. dollar reserves are subject to currency risk.

Borrowing Money and Transferring Assets

The fund may borrow from banks, other persons, and other T. Rowe Price Funds for temporary or emergency purposes, to facilitate redemption requests, or for other purposes consistent with the fund’s policies as set forth in this prospectus and the Statement of Additional Information. Such borrowings may be collateralized with the fund’s assets, subject to certain restrictions.

Borrowings may not exceed 331/3% of the fund’s total assets. This limitation includes any borrowings for temporary or emergency purposes, applies at the time of the transaction, and continues to the extent required by the Investment Company Act of 1940.

Meeting Redemption Requests

We expect that the fund will hold cash or cash equivalents to meet redemption requests. The fund may also use the proceeds from the sale of portfolio securities to meet redemption requests if consistent with the management of the fund. These redemption methods will be used regularly and may also be used in deteriorating or stressed market conditions. The fund reserves the right to pay redemption proceeds with securities from the fund’s portfolio rather than in cash (redemptions in-kind), as described under “Large Redemptions.” Redemptions in-kind are typically used to meet redemption requests that represent a large percentage of the fund’s net assets in order to minimize the effect of large redemptions on the fund and its remaining shareholders. In general, any redemptions in-kind will represent a pro-rata distribution of the fund’s securities, subject to certain limited exceptions. Redemptions in-kind may be used regularly in circumstances as described above (generally if the shareholder is able to accept securities in-kind) and may also be used in stressed market conditions.

The fund, along with other T. Rowe Price Funds, is a party to an interfund lending exemptive order received from the SEC that permits the T. Rowe Price Funds to borrow money from and/or lend money to other T. Rowe Price Funds to help the funds meet short-term redemptions and liquidity needs.


   

MORE ABOUT THE FUND

31

During periods of deteriorating or stressed market conditions, when an increased portion of the fund’s portfolio may be composed of holdings with reduced liquidity or lengthy settlement periods, or during extraordinary or emergency circumstances, the fund may be more likely to pay redemption proceeds with cash obtained through interfund lending or short-term borrowing arrangements (if available) or by redeeming a large redemption request in-kind.

Lending of Portfolio Securities

The fund may lend its securities to broker-dealers, other institutions, or other persons to earn additional income. Risks include the potential insolvency of the broker-dealer or other borrower that could result in delays in recovering securities and capital losses. Additionally, losses could result from the reinvestment of collateral received on loaned securities in investments that decline in value, default, or do not perform as well as expected. Cash collateral from securities lending is invested in the T. Rowe Price Short-Term Fund.

The Statement of Additional Information contains more detailed information about the fund and its investments, operations, and expenses.

PORTFOLIO TURNOVER

Turnover is an indication of frequency of trading. Each time the fund purchases or sells a security, it incurs a cost. This cost is reflected in the fund’s net asset value but not in its operating expenses. The higher the turnover rate, the higher the transaction costs and the greater the impact on the fund’s total return. Higher turnover can also increase the possibility of taxable capital gain distributions. The fund’s portfolio turnover rates are shown in the Financial Highlights tables.

FINANCIAL HIGHLIGHTS

The Financial Highlights tables, which provide information about each class’ financial history, are based on a single share outstanding throughout the periods shown. The tables are part of the fund’s financial statements, which are included in its annual report and are incorporated by reference into the Statement of Additional Information (available upon request). The financial statements in the annual report were audited by the fund’s independent registered public accounting firm, PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP.


   

T. ROWE PRICE

32

   

FINANCIAL HIGHLIGHTS

For a share outstanding throughout each period

                                         

Investor Class

  

   

  

     

  

     

  

     

  

   

    

     

Year

Ended

5/31/20

   

5/31/19

   

5/31/18

   

5/31/17

   

5/31/16

NET ASSET VALUE

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

Beginning of period

 

22.82

   

24.33

   

23.55

   

21.35

   

23.17

 

 

                                       

Investment activities

                                       

Net investment
income(1)(2)

   

0.35

     

0.45

     

0.37

     

0.36

     

0.37

 

Net realized and
unrealized gain/loss

   

0.86

     

(0.04

)

   

1.82

     

2.43

     

(0.79

)

Total from investment
activities

   

1.21

     

0.41

     

2.19

     

2.79

     

(0.42

)

 

                                       

Distributions

                                       

Net investment income

   

(0.38

)

   

(0.48

)

   

(0.37

)

   

(0.38

)

   

(0.39

)

Net realized gain

   

(0.44

)

   

(1.44

)

   

(1.04

)

   

(0.21

)

   

(1.01

)

Total distributions

   

(0.82

)

   

(1.92

)

   

(1.41

)

   

(0.59

)

   

(1.40

)

                                         

NET ASSET VALUE
End of period

 

$

23.21

   

$

22.82

   

$

24.33

   

$

23.55

   

$

21.35

 

   

MORE ABOUT THE FUND

33

   

FINANCIAL HIGHLIGHTS

For a share outstanding throughout each period

                                         

Investor Class

                             
 

  

 

Year
Ended
5/31/20

  

 

5/31/19

  

 

5/31/18

  

 

5/31/17

  

 

5/31/16

Ratios/Supplemental Data

                                 

 

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

Total return(2)(3)

   

5.27

%

   

2.07

%

   

9.45

%

   

13.32

%

   

(1.62

)%

 

                                       

Ratios to average net
assets:(2)

                                       

Gross expenses before
waivers/payments by
Price Associates

   

0.67

%

   

0.68

%

   

0.69

%

   

0.70

%

   

0.71

%

Net expenses after
waivers/payments by
Price Associates

   

0.53

%

   

0.54

%

   

0.55

%

   

0.57

%

   

0.58

%

Net investment income

   

1.50

%

   

1.95

%

   

1.54

%

   

1.62

%

   

1.74

%

 

                                       

Portfolio turnover rate

   

71.0

%

   

62.6

%

   

59.8

%

   

63.1

%

   

75.6

%

Net assets, end of period
(in millions)

 

1,886

 

1,972

 

2,203

 

2,057

 

2,034

(1)   Per share amounts calculated using average shares outstanding method.

(2)   Includes the impact of expense-related arrangements with Price Associates.

(3)   Total return reflects the rate that an investor would have earned on an investment in the fund during each period, assuming reinvestment of all distributions, and payment of no redemption or account fees, if applicable.


   

T. ROWE PRICE

34

   

FINANCIAL HIGHLIGHTS

For a share outstanding throughout each period

                                         

I Class

  

   

  

     

  

     

  

     

  

   

    

     

Year

Ended

5/31/20

   

5/31/19

   

5/31/18

   

5/31/17

   

3/23/16(1)
Through
5/31/16

NET ASSET VALUE

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

Beginning of period

 

22.82

   

24.34

   

23.55

   

21.35

   

20.87

 

 

                                       

Investment activities

                                       

Net investment
income(2)(3)

   

0.37

     

0.49

     

0.41

     

0.38

     

0.07

 

Net realized and
unrealized gain/loss

   

0.87

     

(0.07

)

   

1.82

     

2.44

     

0.47

(4)

Total from investment
activities

   

1.24

     

0.42

     

2.23

     

2.82

     

0.54

 

 

                                       

Distributions

                                       

Net investment income

   

(0.41

)

   

(0.50

)

   

(0.40

)

   

(0.41

)

   

(0.06

)

Net realized gain

   

(0.44

)

   

(1.44

)

   

(1.04

)

   

(0.21

)

   

 

Total distributions

   

(0.85

)

   

(1.94

)

   

(1.44

)

   

(0.62

)

   

(0.06

)

                                         

NET ASSET VALUE
End of period

 

$

23.21

   

$

22.82

   

$

24.34

   

$

23.55

   

$

21.35

 

   

MORE ABOUT THE FUND

35

   

FINANCIAL HIGHLIGHTS

For a share outstanding throughout each period

                                         

I Class

                             
 

  

 

Year
Ended
5/31/20

  

 

5/31/19

  

 

5/31/18

  

 

5/31/17

  

 

3/23/16(1)
Through
5/31/16

Ratios/Supplemental Data

                                 

 

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

Total return(3)(5)

   

5.41

%

   

2.11

%

   

9.63

%

   

13.48

%

   

2.59

%

 

                                       

Ratios to average net
assets:(3)

                                       

Gross expenses before
waivers/payments by
Price Associates

   

0.57

%

   

0.57

%

   

0.57

%

   

0.58

%

   

0.62

%(6)

Net expenses after
waivers/payments by
Price Associates

   

0.42

%

   

0.43

%

   

0.44

%

   

0.45

%

   

0.45

%(6)

Net investment income

   

1.59

%

   

2.09

%

   

1.69

%

   

1.72

%

   

2.20

%(6)

 

                                       

Portfolio turnover rate

   

71.0

%

   

62.6

%

   

59.8

%

   

63.1

%

   

75.6

%

Net assets, end of period
(in thousands)

 

428,391

 

348,307

 

230,047

 

81,718

 

4,123

(1)   Inception date

(2)   Per share amounts calculated using average shares outstanding method.

(3)   Includes the impact of expense-related arrangements with Price Associates.

(4)   The amount presented is inconsistent with the fund's aggregate gains and losses because of the timing of sales and redemptions of fund shares in relation to fluctuating market values for the investment portfolio.

(5)   Total return reflects the rate that an investor would have earned on an investment in the fund during each period, assuming reinvestment of all distributions, and payment of no redemption or account fees, if applicable. Total return is not annualized for periods less than one year.

(6)   Annualized

DISCLOSURE OF FUND PORTFOLIO INFORMATION

Most T. Rowe Price Funds disclose their calendar quarter-end portfolio holdings on troweprice.com 15 calendar days after each quarter. At the discretion of the investment adviser, these holdings reports may exclude the issuer name and other information relating to a holding in order to protect the fund’s interests and to prevent harm to the fund or its shareholders. In addition, most T. Rowe Price Funds disclose their 10 largest holdings, along with the percentage of the relevant fund’s total assets that each of the 10 holdings represents, on troweprice.com on the seventh business day after each month-end. These holdings are listed in numerical order based on such percentages of the fund’s assets. A description of


   

T. ROWE PRICE

36

T. Rowe Price’s policies and procedures with respect to the disclosure of portfolio information is available in the Statement of Additional Information.


     

INFORMATION ABOUT ACCOUNTS IN T. ROWE PRICE FUNDS

 

3

 
   

The following policies and procedures generally apply to Investor Class, I Class, Advisor Class, R Class, and Z Class accounts in the T. Rowe Price Funds. The front cover and Section 1 of this prospectus indicate which share classes are available for the fund.

INVESTING WITH T. ROWE PRICE

This section of the prospectus explains the basics of investing with T. Rowe Price and describes some of the different share classes that may be available. Certain share classes can be held directly with T. Rowe Price, while other share classes must typically be held through a financial intermediary, such as broker-dealers, banks, insurance companies, retirement plan recordkeeper, and registered investment advisors. The Z Class is only available to funds managed by T. Rowe Price and other advisory clients of T. Rowe Price or its affiliates that are subject to a contractual fee for investment management services.

AVAILABLE SHARE CLASSES

Each class of a fund’s shares represents an interest in the same fund with the same investment program and investment policies. However, each class is designed for a different type of investor and has a different cost structure primarily due to shareholder services or distribution arrangements that may apply only to that class. For example, certain classes may make payments to financial intermediaries for various administrative services they provide (commonly referred to as administrative fee payments, or AFP) and/or make payments to certain financial intermediaries for distribution of the fund’s shares (commonly referred to as 12b-1 fee payments). Determining the most appropriate share class depends on many factors, including how much you plan to invest, whether you are investing directly in the fund or through a financial intermediary, and whether you are investing on behalf of a person or an organization.

This section generally describes the differences between Investor Class, I Class, Advisor Class, R Class, and Z Class shares. This section does not describe the policies that apply to accounts in T. Rowe Price institutional funds and certain other types of funds. Policies for these other funds are described in their respective prospectuses, and all available share classes for the T. Rowe Price Funds are described more fully in the funds’ Statement of Additional Information. While many T. Rowe Price Funds are offered in more than one share class, not all funds offer all of the share classes described in this section.

Investor Class

A T. Rowe Price Fund that does not include the term “institutional” or indicate a specific share class as part of its name is considered to be the Investor Class of that fund. The Investor Class is


   

T. ROWE PRICE

38

available to individual investors, institutions, and a wide variety of other types of investors. The Investor Class may be purchased directly from T. Rowe Price or through a retirement plan or financial intermediary. The Investor Class does not impose sales charges and does not make any 12b-1 fee payments to financial intermediaries but may make administrative fee payments at an annual rate of up to 0.15% of the class’ average daily net assets. In addition, you may also incur brokerage commissions and other charges when buying or selling Investor Class shares through a financial intermediary. For investors holding the Investor Class through the T. Rowe Price® ActivePlus Portfolios program, the terms and conditions of the program will be applicable.

I Class

The I Class may be purchased directly from T. Rowe Price or through a financial intermediary. The I Class does not impose sales charges and does not make any administrative fee payments or 12b-1 fee payments to financial intermediaries. However, you may incur brokerage commissions and other charges when buying or selling I Class shares through a financial intermediary.

The I Class requires a $1 million initial investment minimum, although the minimum generally is waived for retirement plans, financial intermediaries, certain client accounts for which T. Rowe Price or its affiliate has discretionary investment authority, and certain other accounts. For investors eligible for the I Class through the T. Rowe Price® ActivePlus Portfolios program, the terms and conditions of the program will be applicable. Accounts that are not eligible for the I Class may be converted to the Investor Class following notice to the financial intermediary or investor.

Advisor Class

The Advisor Class is designed to be sold through various financial intermediaries, such as broker-dealers, banks, insurance companies, retirement plan recordkeepers, and financial advisors. The Advisor Class must be purchased through an eligible financial intermediary (except for certain retirement plans held directly with T. Rowe Price). The Advisor Class does not impose sales charges but may make 12b-1 fee payments at an annual rate of up to 0.25% of the class’ average daily net assets and may also separately make administrative fee payments at an annual rate of up to 0.15% of the class’ average daily net assets. You may also incur other fees or charges when buying or selling Advisor Class shares through a financial intermediary.

The Advisor Class requires an agreement between the financial intermediary and T. Rowe Price to be executed prior to investment. Purchases of Advisor Class shares for which the required agreement with T. Rowe Price has not been executed or that are not made through an eligible financial intermediary are subject to rejection or cancellation without prior notice to the financial intermediary or investor, and accounts that are no longer eligible for the Advisor Class (including any accounts that are no longer serviced by a financial intermediary or for which the financial intermediary does not accept or assess 12b-1 fee payments) may be converted to the Investor Class following notice to the financial intermediary or investor.


   

INFORMATION ABOUT ACCOUNTS IN T. ROWE PRICE FUNDS

39

R Class

The R Class is designed to be sold through financial intermediaries for employer-sponsored defined contribution retirement plans and certain other retirement accounts. The R Class must be purchased through an eligible financial intermediary (except for certain retirement plans held directly with T. Rowe Price). The R Class does not impose sales charges but may make 12b-1 fee payments at an annual rate of up to 0.50% of the class’ average daily net assets and may also separately make administrative fee payments at an annual rate of up to 0.15% of the class’ average daily net assets. You may also incur other fees or charges when buying or selling R Class shares through a financial intermediary.

The R Class requires an agreement between the financial intermediary and T. Rowe Price to be executed prior to investment. Purchases of R Class shares for which the required agreement with T. Rowe Price has not been executed or that are not made through an eligible financial intermediary are subject to rejection or cancellation without prior notice to the financial intermediary or investor, and accounts that are no longer eligible for the R Class (including any accounts that are no longer serviced by a financial intermediary or for which the financial intermediary does not accept or assess 12b-1 fee payments) may be converted to the Investor Class or Advisor Class following notice to the financial intermediary or investor.

Z Class

The Z Class is only available to funds managed by T. Rowe Price and other advisory clients of T. Rowe Price or its affiliates that are subject to a contractual fee for investment management services. There is no minimum initial investment and no minimum for additional purchases. The Z Class does not impose sales charges and does not make any administrative fee payments or 12b-1 fee payments to financial intermediaries.

DISTRIBUTION AND SHAREHOLDER SERVICING FEES

Administrative Fee Payments (Investor Class, Advisor Class, and R Class)

Certain financial intermediaries perform recordkeeping and administrative services for their clients that would otherwise be performed by the funds’ transfer agent. Investor Class, Advisor Class, and R Class shares may make administrative fee payments to retirement plan recordkeepers, broker-dealers, and other financial intermediaries (at an annual rate of up to 0.15% of the class’ average daily net assets) for transfer agency, recordkeeping, and other administrative services that they provide on behalf of the funds. These administrative services may include maintaining account records for each customer; transmitting purchase and redemption orders; delivering shareholder confirmations, statements, and tax forms; and providing support to respond to customers’ questions regarding their accounts. Except for funds that have an all-inclusive management fee, these separate administrative fee payments are reflected in the “Other expenses” line that appears in the table titled “Fees and Expenses of the Fund” in Section 1.


   

T. ROWE PRICE

40

12b-1 Fee Payments (Advisor Class and R Class)

Mutual funds are permitted to adopt a 12b-1 plan to pay certain expenses associated with the distribution of the fund’s shares out of the fund’s assets. Each fund offering Advisor and/or R Class shares has adopted a 12b-1 plan under which those classes may make payments (for the Advisor Class, at an annual rate of up to 0.25% of the class’ average daily net assets, and for the R Class, at an annual rate of up to 0.50% of the class’ average daily net assets) to various financial intermediaries, such as broker-dealers, banks, insurance companies, retirement plan recordkeepers, and registered investment advisers, for distribution and/or shareholder servicing of the Advisor Class and R Class shares. The 12b-1 plans provide for the class to pay such fees to the fund’s distributor and for the distributor to then pay such fees to the financial intermediaries that provide services for the class and/or make the class available to investors.

For the Advisor Class, distribution payments may include payments to financial intermediaries for making the Advisor Class shares available to their customers (for example, providing the fund with “shelf space” or inclusion on a “preferred list” or “supermarket” platform). For the R Class, distribution payments may include payments to financial intermediaries for making the R Class shares available as investment options to retirement plans and retirement plan participants, assisting plan sponsors in conducting searches for investment options, and providing ongoing monitoring of investment options.

Shareholder servicing payments under the plans may include payments to financial intermediaries for providing shareholder support services to existing shareholders of the Advisor Class and R Class. These payments may be more or less than the costs incurred by the financial intermediaries. Because the fees are paid from the Advisor Class or R Class net assets on an ongoing basis, they will increase the cost of your investment over time. In addition, payments of 12b-1 fees may influence your financial advisor’s recommendation of the fund or of any particular share class of the fund. Payments of 12b-1 fees are reflected in the “Distribution and service (12b-1) fees” line that appears in the table titled “Fees and Expenses of the Fund” in Section 1.

Additional Compensation to Financial Intermediaries

In addition to the administrative fee payments made by certain funds and the 12b-1 payments made by the Advisor Class and R Class, T. Rowe Price or the fund’s distributor will, at their own expense, provide compensation to certain financial intermediaries that have sold shares of or provide shareholder or other services to the T. Rowe Price Funds, commonly referred to as revenue sharing. These payments may be in the form of asset-based, transaction-based, or flat payments. These payments are used to compensate third parties for distribution and shareholder servicing activities, including sub-accounting, sub-transfer agency, or other services. Some of these payments may include expense reimbursements and meeting and marketing support payments (out of T. Rowe Price’s or the fund’s distributor’s own resources and not as an expense of the funds) to financial intermediaries, such as broker-dealers, banks, retirement plan recordkeepers, and registered investment advisers, in connection with the sale, distribution, marketing, and/or servicing of the T. Rowe Price Funds. The Statement of Additional Information provides more information about these payment arrangements.


   

INFORMATION ABOUT ACCOUNTS IN T. ROWE PRICE FUNDS

41

The receipt of, or the prospect of receiving, these payments and expense reimbursements from T. Rowe Price or the fund’s distributor may influence financial intermediaries, plan sponsors, and other third parties to offer or recommend T. Rowe Price Funds over other investment options for which an intermediary does not receive additional compensation (or receives lower levels of additional compensation). In addition, financial intermediaries that receive these payments and/or expense reimbursements may elevate the prominence of the T. Rowe Price Funds by, for example, placing the T. Rowe Price Funds on a list of preferred or recommended funds and/or provide preferential or enhanced opportunities to promote the T. Rowe Price Funds in various ways. Since these additional payments are not paid by a fund directly, these arrangements do not increase fund expenses and will not change the price that an investor pays for shares of the T. Rowe Price Funds or the amount that is invested in a T. Rowe Price Fund on behalf of an investor. You may ask your financial intermediary for more information about any payments they receive from T. Rowe Price or the fund’s distributor.

Comparison of Fees

The following table summarizes the distribution and service (12b-1) fee and administrative fee arrangements applicable to each class.

     

Class

12b-1 Fee Payments

Administrative Fee Payments

Investor Class

None

Up to 0.15% per year

I Class

None

None

Advisor Class

Up to 0.25% per year

Up to 0.15% per year

R Class

Up to 0.50% per year

Up to 0.15% per year

Z Class

None

None

ACCOUNT SERVICE FEE

Investor Class

In an effort to help offset the disproportionately high costs incurred by the funds in connection with servicing lower-balance accounts that are held directly with the T. Rowe Price Funds’ transfer agent, an annual $20 account service fee (paid to T. Rowe Price Services, Inc., or one of its affiliates) is charged to certain Investor Class accounts with a balance below $10,000. The determination of whether a fund account is subject to the account service fee is based on account balances and services selected for accounts as of the last business day of August of each calendar year. The fee may be charged to an account with a balance below $10,000 for any reason, including market fluctuation and recent redemptions. The fee, which is automatically deducted from an account by redeeming fund shares, is typically charged to accounts in early September each calendar year. Such redemption may result in a taxable gain or loss to you.

The account service fee generally does not apply to fund accounts that are held through a financial intermediary, participant accounts in employer-sponsored retirement plans for which T. Rowe Price Retirement Plan Services provides recordkeeping services, accounts held through the T. Rowe Price® ActivePlus Portfolios program, or money market funds that are used as a T. Rowe Price brokerage sweep account. Regardless of a particular fund account’s


   

T. ROWE PRICE

42

balance as of the last business day of August, the account service fee is automatically waived for accounts that satisfy any of the following conditions:

·   Any accounts for which the shareholder has elected to receive electronic delivery of all of the following: account statements, transaction confirmations, prospectuses, and shareholder reports (paper copies of fund documents are available, free of charge, upon request, to any shareholder regardless of whether the shareholder has elected electronic delivery);

·   Any accounts of a shareholder with at least $50,000 in total assets with T. Rowe Price (for this purpose, total assets include investments through T. Rowe Price Brokerage and investments in T. Rowe Price Funds, except for those held through a retirement plan for which T. Rowe Price Retirement Plan Services provides recordkeeping services); or

·   Any accounts of a shareholder who is a T. Rowe Price Select Client Services client—visit troweprice.com or call 1-800-332-6161 for more information.

T. Rowe Price reserves the right to authorize additional waivers for other types of accounts or to modify the conditions for assessment of the account service fee. Fund shares held in a T. Rowe Price IRA, Education Savings Account, or small business retirement plan account (including certain 403(b) plan accounts) are subject to the account service fee and may be subject to additional administrative fees when distributing all fund shares from such accounts.

POLICIES FOR OPENING AN ACCOUNT

Investor Class and I Class shares may be purchased directly from T. Rowe Price or through various financial intermediaries. Advisor Class and R Class shares must be purchased through a financial intermediary (except for certain retirement plans held directly at T. Rowe Price). If you are opening an account through an employer-sponsored retirement plan or other financial intermediary, you should contact the retirement plan or financial intermediary for information regarding its policies on opening an account, including the policies relating to purchasing, exchanging, and redeeming shares, and the applicable initial and subsequent investment minimums.

Tax Identification Number

Investors must provide T. Rowe Price with a valid Social Security number or taxpayer identification number on a signed new account form or Form W-9, and financial intermediaries must provide T. Rowe Price with their certified taxpayer identification number. Otherwise, federal law requires the funds to withhold a percentage of dividends, capital gain distributions, and redemptions and may subject you or the financial intermediary to an Internal Revenue Service fine. If this information is not received within 60 days of the account being established, the account may be redeemed at the fund’s then-current net asset value.

Important Information Required to Open a New Account

Pursuant to federal law, all financial institutions must obtain, verify, and record information that identifies each person or entity that opens an account. This information is needed not only


   

INFORMATION ABOUT ACCOUNTS IN T. ROWE PRICE FUNDS

43

for the account owner and any other person who opens the account, but also for any person who has authority to act on behalf of the account.

When you open an account, you will be asked for the name, U.S. street address (post office boxes are not acceptable), date of birth, and Social Security number or taxpayer identification number for each account owner and person(s) opening an account on behalf of others, such as custodians, agents, trustees, or other authorized signers. When opening an entity account, you will be asked to identify and provide personal information for: (i) any individual who, either directly or indirectly, owns 25% or more of the equity interest of the entity and (ii) a single individual who controls, manages, or directs the entity. Corporate and other institutional accounts require documents showing the existence of the entity (such as articles of incorporation or partnership agreements) to open an account. Certain other fiduciary accounts (such as trusts or power of attorney arrangements) require documentation, which may include an original or certified copy of the trust agreement or power of attorney, to open an account.

T. Rowe Price will use this information to verify the identity of the person(s)/entity opening the account. An account cannot be opened until all of this information is received. If the identity of the account holder cannot be verified, T. Rowe Price is authorized to take any action permitted by law, including, but not limited to, restricting additional purchases, freezing the account, or involuntarily redeeming the shares in the account at the net asset value calculated the day the account is redeemed.

Institutional investors and financial intermediaries should call Financial Institution Services at 1-800-638-8790 for more information on these requirements, as well as to be assigned an account number and instructions for opening an account. Other investors should call Investor Services at 1-800-638-5660 for more information about these requirements.

The funds are generally available only to investors residing in the United States. In addition, nongovernment money market funds that operate as “retail money market funds” pursuant to Rule 2a-7 under the Investment Company Act of 1940 are required to limit their beneficial owners to natural persons. An investor in a retail money market fund is required to demonstrate eligibility (for example, by providing a valid Social Security number) before an account can be opened.

PRICING OF SHARES AND TRANSACTIONS

How and When Shares Are Priced

The trade date for your transaction request depends on the day and time that T. Rowe Price receives your request and will normally be executed using the next share price calculated after your order is received in correct form by T. Rowe Price or its agent (or by your financial intermediary if it has the authority to accept transaction orders on behalf of the fund). The share price, also called the net asset value, for each share class of a fund is calculated as of the close of trading on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), which is normally 4 p.m. ET, on


   

T. ROWE PRICE

44

each day that the NYSE is open for business. Net asset values are not calculated for the funds on days when the NYSE is scheduled to be closed for trading (for example, weekends and certain U.S. national holidays). If the NYSE is unexpectedly closed due to weather or other extenuating circumstances on a day it would typically be open for business, or if the NYSE has an unscheduled early closing on a day it has opened for business, the funds reserve the right to treat such day as a business day and accept purchase and redemption orders and calculate their share price as of the normally scheduled close of regular trading on the NYSE for that day.

To calculate the net asset value, a fund’s assets are valued and totaled, liabilities are subtracted, and each class’ proportionate share of the balance, called net assets, is divided by the number of shares outstanding of that class. Market values are used to price portfolio holdings for which market quotations are readily available. Market values generally reflect the prices at which securities actually trade or represent prices that have been adjusted based on evaluations and information provided by the fund’s pricing services. Investments in other mutual funds are valued at the closing net asset value per share of the mutual fund on the day of valuation. If a market value for a portfolio holding is not available or normal valuation procedures are deemed to be inappropriate, the fund will make a good faith effort to assign a fair value to the holding by taking into account various factors and methodologies that have been approved by the fund’s Board. This value may differ from the value the fund receives upon sale of the securities.

Amortized cost is used to price securities held by money market funds and certain short-term debt securities held by other funds. The retail and government money market funds, which seek to maintain a stable net asset value of $1.00, use the amortized cost method of valuation to calculate their net asset value. Amortized cost allows the money market funds to value a holding at the fund’s acquisition cost with adjustments for any premiums or discounts and then round the net asset value per share to the nearest whole cent. The amortized cost method of valuation enables the money market funds to maintain a $1.00 net asset value, but it may also result in periods during which the stated value of a security held by the funds differs from the market-based price the funds would receive if they sold that holding. The current market-based net asset value per share for each business day in the preceding six months is available for the retail and government money market funds through troweprice.com. These market-based net asset values are for informational purposes only and are not used to price transactions.

The funds use various pricing services to provide closing market prices, as well as information used to adjust those prices and to value most fixed income securities. A fund cannot predict how often it will use closing prices or how often it will adjust those prices. As a means of evaluating its fair value process, the fund routinely compares closing market prices, the next day’s opening prices in the same markets, and adjusted prices.

Non-U.S. equity securities are valued on the basis of their most recent closing market prices at 4 p.m. ET, except under the following circumstances. Most foreign markets close before 4 p.m. ET. For example, the most recent closing prices for securities traded in certain Asian markets may be as much as 15 hours old at 4 p.m. ET. If a fund determines that developments between


   

INFORMATION ABOUT ACCOUNTS IN T. ROWE PRICE FUNDS

45

the close of a foreign market and the close of the NYSE will affect the value of some or all of the fund’s securities, the fund will adjust the previous closing prices to reflect what it believes to be the fair value of the securities as of 4 p.m. ET. In deciding whether to make these adjustments, the fund reviews a variety of factors, including developments in foreign markets, the performance of U.S. securities markets, and the performance of instruments trading in U.S. markets that represent foreign securities and baskets of foreign securities.

A fund may also fair value certain securities or a group of securities in other situations—for example, when a particular foreign market is closed but the fund is open. For a fund that has investments in securities that are primarily listed on foreign exchanges that trade on weekends or other days when the fund does not price its shares, the fund’s net asset value may change on days when shareholders will not be able to purchase or redeem the fund’s shares. If an event occurs that affects the value of a security after the close of the market, such as a default of a commercial paper issuer or a significant move in short-term interest rates, a fund may make a price adjustment depending on the nature and significance of the event. The funds also evaluate a variety of factors when assigning fair values to private placements and other restricted securities. Other mutual funds may adjust the prices of their securities by different amounts or assign different fair values than the fair value that the fund assigns to the same security.

The various ways you can purchase, sell, and exchange shares are explained throughout this section. These procedures differ based on whether you hold your account directly with T. Rowe Price or through an employer-sponsored retirement plan or financial intermediary.

INVESTING DIRECTLY WITH T. ROWE PRICE

The following policies apply to accounts that are held directly with T. Rowe Price and not through a financial intermediary.

Options for Opening Your Account

If you own other T. Rowe Price Funds, you should consider registering any new account identically to your existing accounts so you can exchange shares among them easily (the name(s) of the account owner(s) and the account type must be identical).

For joint accounts or other types of accounts owned or controlled by more than one party, either owner/party has complete authority to act on behalf of all and give instructions concerning the account without notice to the other party. T. Rowe Price may, in its sole discretion, require written authorization from all owners/parties to act on the account for certain transactions (for example, to transfer ownership). There are multiple ways to establish a new account directly with T. Rowe Price.

Online You can open a new Investor Class account online. (I Class accounts currently must be opened either by telephone or in writing.) Go to troweprice.com/newaccount to choose the type of account you wish to open.


   

T. ROWE PRICE

46

You can exchange shares online from an existing account in one fund to open a new account in another fund. The new account will have the same registration as the account from which you are exchanging, and any services (other than systematic purchase and systematic distribution arrangements) that you have preauthorized will carry over from the existing account to the new account.

To open an account online for the first time or with a different account registration, you must be a U.S. citizen residing in the U.S. or a resident alien and not subject to Internal Revenue Service backup withholding. Additionally, you must provide consent to receive certain documents electronically. You will have the option of providing your bank account information, which will enable you to make electronic funds transfers to and from your bank account. To set up this banking service online, additional steps will be taken to verify your identity.

By Mail If you are sending a check, please make your check payable to T. Rowe Price Funds (otherwise it may be returned) and send the check, together with the applicable new account form, to the appropriate address. (Please refer to the appropriate address under “Contacting T. Rowe Price” later in this section to avoid a delay in opening your new account.) T. Rowe Price does not accept third-party checks for initial purchases; however, third-party checks are typically accepted for additional purchases to an existing account. In addition, T. Rowe Price does not accept purchases by cash, traveler’s checks, money orders, or credit card checks. For exchanges from an identically registered account, be sure to specify the fund(s) and account number(s) that you are exchanging out of and the fund(s) you wish to exchange into.

By Telephone Direct investors can call Shareholder Services at 1-800-225-5132 (institutional investors should call 1-800-638-8790) to exchange from an existing fund account to open a new identically registered account in another fund. You may also be eligible to open a new account by telephone and provide your bank account information in order to make an initial purchase. To set up the account and banking service by telephone, additional steps will be taken to verify your identity and the authenticity of your bank account. Although the account may be opened and the purchase made, services may not be established and an Internal Revenue Service penalty withholding may occur until we receive the necessary signed form to certify your Social Security number or taxpayer identification number.

How Your Trade Date Is Determined

If you invest directly with T. Rowe Price and your request to purchase, sell, or exchange shares is received by T. Rowe Price or its agent in correct form by the close of the NYSE (normally 4 p.m. ET), your transaction will be priced at that business day’s net asset value. If your request is received by T. Rowe Price or its agent in correct form after the close of the NYSE, your transaction will be priced at the next business day’s net asset value. Systematic transactions that are scheduled to occur on a date the NYSE is closed will normally be processed the next business day (except for certain retirement plan payroll deduction orders generated by T. Rowe Price where the orders are processed the day before the day the NYSE is closed).


   

INFORMATION ABOUT ACCOUNTS IN T. ROWE PRICE FUNDS

47

Note: There may be times when you are unable to contact us by telephone or access your account online due to extreme market activity, the unavailability of the T. Rowe Price website, or other circumstances. Should this occur, your order must still be placed and received in correct form by T. Rowe Price prior to the time the NYSE closes to be priced at that business day’s net asset value. The time at which transactions and shares are priced and the time until which orders are accepted may be changed in case of an emergency or if the NYSE closes at a time other than 4 p.m. ET. The funds reserve the right to not treat an unscheduled intraday disruption or closure in NYSE trading as a closure of the NYSE and still accept transactions and calculate their net asset value as of 4 p.m. ET.

Transaction Confirmations

T. Rowe Price sends immediate confirmations for most of your fund transactions. However, certain transactions, such as systematic purchases and systematic redemptions, dividend reinvestments, checkwriting redemptions from money market funds, and transactions in money market funds used as a brokerage sweep account, do not receive an immediate transaction confirmation but are reported on your account statement. Please review transaction confirmations and account statements as soon as you receive them, and promptly report any discrepancies to Shareholder Services.

Telephone and Online Account Transactions

You may access your accounts and conduct transactions involving Investor Class accounts using the telephone or the T. Rowe Price website at troweprice.com. You can only conduct transactions involving the I Class over the telephone or in writing.

Preventing Unauthorized Transactions

The T. Rowe Price Funds and their agents use reasonably designed procedures to verify that telephone, electronic, and other instructions are genuine. These procedures include, among other things, recording telephone calls; requiring personalized security codes or other information online and certain identifying information for telephone calls; requiring Medallion signature guarantees for certain transactions and account changes; and promptly sending confirmations of transactions and address changes. For transactions conducted online, we recommend the use of a secure internet browser.

T. Rowe Price Account Protection Program Shareholders who invest in the T. Rowe Price Funds directly are eligible for the Account Protection Program. The Account Protection Program restores eligible losses due to unauthorized or fraudulent activity, provided that you follow all security best practices when you access and maintain your account(s). T. Rowe Price reserves the right to modify or withdraw the Account Protection Program at any time. The Account Protection Program security best practices and additional information may be accessed online at https://www.troweprice.com/personal-investing/help/policies-and-security/account-protection-program.html.

If our verification procedures are followed, and the losses are not eligible to be restored under the Account Protection Program, the funds and their agents are not liable for any losses that may occur from acting on unauthorized instructions.


   

T. ROWE PRICE

48

If you suspect any unauthorized account activity, notice errors or discrepancies in your T. Rowe Price account, or are not receiving your T. Rowe Price account statements, please contact T. Rowe Price immediately. Telephone conversations are recorded.

Trusted Contacts Investors who hold shares of a T. Rowe Price Fund directly or through a T. Rowe Price Brokerage account have the option to add one or more trusted contacts to their brokerage and mutual fund accounts. Trusted contacts are intended to be a resource to help protect client assets. Any individuals designated as a trusted contact will be authorized to serve as a primary contact if T. Rowe Price has questions or concerns related to potentially fraudulent account activity, suspected financial exploitation, or to confirm your contact information if we are unable to reach you (but are not authorized to act on your account). For more information or to add trusted contacts to your account, visit troweprice.com or call 1-800-225-5132.

If you are age 65 or older, or if you are age 18 or older and we have reason to believe you have a mental or physical impairment that renders you unable to protect your own interest, we may place a temporary hold on the disbursement of redemption proceeds from your account in an effort to protect you if we reasonably believe that you have been or will be the victim of actual or attempted financial exploitation. You will receive notice of this temporary delay, and it will be for no more than 15 business days while we conduct an internal review of the suspected financial exploitation (including contacting your trusted contact if one is on file). We may delay an additional 10 business days if T. Rowe Price reasonably believes that actual or attempted financial exploitation has occurred or will occur. At the expiration of the hold time, if we have not confirmed that exploitation has occurred, the proceeds will be released to you.

Purchasing Shares

Shares may be purchased in a variety of ways.

By Check Please make your check payable to the T. Rowe Price Funds. Include a new account form if establishing a new account, and include either a fund investment slip or a letter indicating the fund and your account number if adding to an existing account. Your transaction will receive the share price for the business day that the request is received by T. Rowe Price or its agent prior to the close of the NYSE (not the day the request is received at the post office box).

By Electronic Transfer Shares may be purchased using the Automated Clearing House system if you have established the service on your account, which allows T. Rowe Price to request payment for your shares directly from your bank account or other financial institution account. You may also arrange for a wire to be sent to T. Rowe Price (wire transfer instructions can be found at troweprice.com/wireinstructions or by calling Shareholder Services). T. Rowe Price must receive the wire by the close of the NYSE to receive that day’s share price. There is no assurance that you will receive the share price for the same day you initiated the wire from your financial institution.

By Exchange You may purchase shares of a fund using the proceeds from the redemption of shares from another fund. The redemption and purchase will receive the same trade date, and


   

INFORMATION ABOUT ACCOUNTS IN T. ROWE PRICE FUNDS

49

if you are establishing a new account, it will have the same registration as the account from which you are exchanging. The purchase must still generally meet the applicable minimum investment requirement.

Systematic Purchases (Automatic Asset Builder) You can instruct T. Rowe Price to automatically transfer money from your account at your bank or other financial institution at least once per month, or you can instruct your employer to send all or a portion of your paycheck to the fund or funds that you designate. Each systematic purchase must be at least $100 per fund account to be eligible for the Automatic Asset Builder service. To automatically transfer money to your account from a bank account or through payroll deductions, complete the appropriate section of the new account form when opening a new account or complete an Account Services Form to add the service to an existing account. Prior to establishing payroll deductions, you must set up the service with T. Rowe Price so that the appropriate instructions can be provided to your employer.

Initial Investment Minimums

Investor Class accounts, other than the Retirement Income 2020 Fund and Summit Funds, require a $2,500 minimum initial investment ($1,000 minimum initial investment for IRAs; certain small business retirement accounts; and custodial accounts for minors, known as Uniform Gifts to Minors Act or Uniform Transfer to Minors Act accounts). The Retirement Income 2020 Fund and Summit Funds require a $25,000 minimum initial investment. I Class accounts require a $1 million minimum initial investment, although the minimum generally is waived for certain types of accounts. If you request the I Class of a particular fund when you open a new account but the investment amount does not meet the applicable minimum, the purchase will be automatically invested in the Investor Class of the same fund.

Additional Investment Minimums

Investor Class accounts, other than Summit Funds, require a $100 minimum for additional purchases, including those made through Automatic Asset Builder. Summit Funds require a $100 minimum for additional purchases through Automatic Asset Builder and a $1,000 minimum for all other additional purchases. I Class accounts require a $100 minimum for additional purchases through Automatic Asset Builder but do not require a minimum amount for other additional purchases.

Exchanging and Redeeming Shares

Exchanges You can move money from one account to an existing, identically registered account or open a new identically registered account. For taxable accounts, an exchange from one fund to another will be reported to the Internal Revenue Service as a sale for tax purposes. (Institutional investors are restricted from exchanging into a fund that operates as a retail money market fund.) You can set up systematic exchanges so that money is automatically moved from one fund account to another on a regular basis.

Receiving Redemption Proceeds Redemption proceeds can be mailed to your account address by check or sent electronically to your bank account by Automated Clearing House transfer or bank wire. You can set up systematic redemptions and have the proceeds


   

T. ROWE PRICE

50

automatically sent via check or Automated Clearing House on a regular basis. If your request is received in correct form by T. Rowe Price or its agent on a business day prior to the close of the NYSE, proceeds are usually sent on the next business day. However, if you request a redemption from a money market fund on a business day prior to noon ET and request to have proceeds sent via bank wire, proceeds are normally sent later that same day.

Proceeds sent by Automated Clearing House transfer are usually credited to your account the second business day after the sale, and there are typically no fees associated with such payments. Proceeds sent by bank wire are usually credited to your account the next business day after the sale (except for wire redemptions from money market funds received prior to noon ET). A $5 fee will be charged for an outgoing wire of less than $5,000, in addition to any fees your financial institution may charge for an incoming wire.

If for some reason your request to exchange or redeem shares cannot be processed because it is not received in correct form, we will attempt to contact you.

If you request to redeem a specific dollar amount and the market value of your account is less than the amount of your request and we are unable to contact you, your redemption will not be processed and you must submit a new redemption request in correct form.

If you change your address on an account, proceeds may not be mailed to the new address for 15 calendar days after the address change, unless we receive a letter of instruction with a Medallion signature guarantee.

Please note that large purchase and redemption requests initiated through the Automated Clearing House may be rejected, and in such instances, the transaction must be placed by calling Shareholder Services.

Checkwriting You may write an unlimited number of free checks on any money market fund and certain bond funds, with a minimum of $500 per check. Keep in mind, however, that a check results in a sale of fund shares; a check written on a bond fund will create a taxable event that must be reported by T. Rowe Price to the Internal Revenue Service as a redemption.

Converting to Another Share Class

You may convert from one share class of a fund to another share class of the same fund (which may have a higher expense ratio). Although the conversion has no effect on the dollar value of your investment in the fund, the number of shares owned after the conversion may be greater or less than the number of shares owned before the conversion, depending on the net asset values of the two share classes. A conversion between share classes of the same fund is a nontaxable event. The new account will have the same registration as the account from which you are converting.

T. Rowe Price may conduct periodic reviews of account balances. If your account balance in a fund exceeds the minimum amount required for the I Class, T. Rowe Price may, but is not required to, automatically convert your Investor Class shares to I Class shares with advance notice. However, if T. Rowe Price has investment discretion, T. Rowe Price may convert your shares without advance notice.


   

INFORMATION ABOUT ACCOUNTS IN T. ROWE PRICE FUNDS

51

Maintaining Your Account Balance

Investor Class Due to the relatively high cost to a fund of maintaining small accounts, we ask that you maintain an account balance of at least $1,000 ($10,000 for Summit Funds). If, for any reason, your balance is below this amount for three months or longer, we have the right to redeem your account at the then-current net asset value after giving you 60 days to increase your balance.

I Class To keep operating expenses lower, we ask that you maintain an account balance of at least $1 million. If your investment falls below $1 million (even if due to market depreciation), we have the right to redeem your account at the then-current net asset value after giving you 60 days to increase your balance or convert your account to a different share class in the same fund (if available) with a higher expense ratio with advance notice. However, if T. Rowe Price has investment discretion, T. Rowe Price may convert your shares without advance notice.

The redemption of your account could result in a taxable gain or loss.

Investors holding the fund through the T. Rowe Price® ActivePlus Portfolios program will be subject to the minimum account balance requirements of the program, which may differ from the minimum account balance requirements listed above.

INVESTING THROUGH A FINANCIAL INTERMEDIARY

The following policies apply to accounts that are held through a financial intermediary.

Accounts in Investor Class and I Class shares are not required to be held through a financial intermediary, but accounts in Advisor Class and R Class shares must be held through an eligible financial intermediary (except for certain retirement plans held directly with T. Rowe Price). It is important that you contact your retirement plan or financial intermediary to determine the policies, procedures, and transaction deadlines that apply to your account. The financial intermediary may charge a fee, such as transaction fees or brokerage commissions, for its services.

Opening an Account

The financial intermediary must provide T. Rowe Price with its certified taxpayer identification number. Financial intermediaries should call Financial Institution Services for an account number and wire transfer instructions. In order to obtain an account number, the financial intermediary must supply the name, taxpayer identification number, and business street address for the account. (Please refer to “Contacting T. Rowe Price” later in this section for the appropriate telephone number and mailing address.) Financial intermediaries must also enter into a separate agreement with the fund or its agent.

How the Trade Date Is Determined

If you invest through a financial intermediary and your transaction request is received by T. Rowe Price or its agent in correct form by the close of the NYSE, your transaction will be


   

T. ROWE PRICE

52

priced at that business day’s net asset value. If your request is received by T. Rowe Price or its agent in correct form after the close of the NYSE, your transaction will be priced at the next business day’s net asset value unless the fund has an agreement with your financial intermediary for orders to be priced at the net asset value next computed after receipt by the financial intermediary.

The funds have authorized certain financial intermediaries or their designees to accept orders to buy or sell fund shares on their behalf. When authorized financial intermediaries receive an order in correct form, the order is considered as being placed with the fund and shares will be bought or sold at the net asset value next calculated after the order is received by the authorized financial intermediary. The financial intermediary must transmit the order to T. Rowe Price and pay for such shares in accordance with the agreement with T. Rowe Price or the order may be canceled and the financial intermediary could be held liable for the losses. If the fund does not have such an agreement in place with your financial intermediary, T. Rowe Price or its agent must receive the request in correct form from your financial intermediary by the close of the NYSE in order for your transaction to be priced at that business day’s net asset value.

Note: The time at which transactions and shares are priced and the time until which orders are accepted by the fund or a financial intermediary may be changed in case of an emergency or if the NYSE closes at a time other than 4 p.m. ET. The funds reserve the right to not treat an unscheduled intraday disruption or closure in NYSE trading as a closure of the NYSE and still accept transactions and calculate their net asset value as of 4 p.m. ET. Should this occur, your order must still be placed and received in correct form by T. Rowe Price (or by the financial intermediary in accordance with its agreement with T. Rowe Price) prior to the time the NYSE closes to be priced at that business day’s net asset value.

Purchasing Shares

All initial and subsequent investments by financial intermediaries should be made by bank wire or electronic payment. There is no assurance that the share price for the purchase will be the same day the wire was initiated. Purchases by financial intermediaries are typically initiated through the National Securities Clearing Corporation or by calling Financial Institution Services.

Investment Minimums

You should check with your financial intermediary to determine what minimum applies to your initial and additional investments.

The Retirement Income 2020 Fund and Summit Funds require a $25,000 minimum initial investment, and other funds generally require a $2,500 minimum initial investment, although the minimum is generally waived or modified for any retirement plans and financial intermediaries establishing accounts in the Investor Class, Advisor Class, or R Class. I Class accounts require a $1 million minimum initial investment, although the minimum generally is waived for certain types of accounts.

Investments through a financial intermediary generally do not require a minimum amount for additional purchases.


   

INFORMATION ABOUT ACCOUNTS IN T. ROWE PRICE FUNDS

53

Redeeming Shares

Unless otherwise indicated, redemption proceeds will be sent via bank wire to the financial intermediary’s designated bank. Redemptions by financial intermediaries are typically initiated through the National Securities Clearing Corporation or by calling Financial Institution Services. Normally, the fund transmits proceeds to financial intermediaries for redemption orders received in correct form on either the next business day or second business day after receipt of the order, depending on the arrangement with the financial intermediary. Proceeds for redemption orders received prior to 12:00 p.m. ET for a money market fund may be sent via wire the same business day. You must contact your financial intermediary about procedures for receiving your redemption proceeds.

Please note that certain purchase and redemption requests initiated through the National Securities Clearing Corporation may be rejected, and in such instances, the transaction must be placed by contacting Financial Institution Services.

GENERAL POLICIES RELATING TO TRANSACTIONS

The following policies and requirements apply generally to accounts in the T. Rowe Price Funds, regardless of whether the account is held directly or indirectly with T. Rowe Price.

The funds generally do not accept orders that request a particular day or price for a transaction or any other special conditions. However, when authorized by the fund, certain institutions, financial intermediaries, or retirement plans purchasing fund shares directly with T. Rowe Price may place a purchase order unaccompanied by payment. Payment for these shares must be received by the time designated by the fund (not to exceed the period established for settlement under applicable regulations). If payment is not received by this time, the order may be canceled. The institution, financial intermediary, or retirement plan is responsible for any costs or losses incurred by the fund or T. Rowe Price if payment is delayed or not received.

U.S. Dollars All purchases must be paid for in U.S. dollars; checks must be drawn on U.S. banks. In addition, we request that you give us at least three business days’ notice for any purchase of $5 million or more.

Nonpayment If a check or Automated Clearing House transfer does not clear or payment for an order is not received in a timely manner, your purchase may be canceled. You (or the financial intermediary) may be responsible for any losses or expenses incurred by the fund or its transfer agent, and the fund can redeem shares in your account or another identically registered T. Rowe Price account as reimbursement. The funds and their agents have the right to reject or cancel any purchase, exchange, or redemption due to nonpayment.

Retail Money Market Funds The retail money market funds have implemented policies and procedures designed to limit purchases to accounts beneficially owned by a natural person. Purchases of a retail money market fund may be rejected from an investor who has not demonstrated sufficient eligibility to purchase shares of the fund or from a financial


   

T. ROWE PRICE

54

intermediary that has not demonstrated adequate procedures to limit investments to natural persons. In addition, purchases may be prohibited or subject to certain conditions during periods where a liquidity fee or redemption gate is in effect.

Liquidity Fees and Redemption Gates—Retail Money Market Funds

A money market fund that operates as a retail money market fund pursuant to Rule 2a-7 under the Investment Company Act of 1940 has the ability to impose liquidity fees of up to 2% of the value of the shares redeemed if the fund’s weekly liquid assets fall below certain thresholds, as specified in Rule 2a-7. A retail money market fund also has the ability to impose a redemption gate, which enables the fund to temporarily suspend redemptions for up to 10 days within a 90-day period if the fund’s weekly liquid assets fall below a certain threshold, as specified in Rule 2a-7. A money market fund’s Board has ultimate discretion to determine whether or not a liquidity fee or redemption gate would be in the best interests of the fund’s shareholders and should be imposed.

A money market fund that operates as a government money market fund pursuant to Rule 2a-7 is not required to impose a liquidity fee or redemption gate upon the sale of your shares. The Boards of the T. Rowe Price money market funds that operate as government money market funds have determined that the funds do not currently intend to impose liquidity fees and redemption gates. However, the Board of a T. Rowe Price government money market fund reserves the right to impose liquidity fees and redemption gates in the future, at which point shareholders would be provided with at least 60 days’ notice prior to such a change.

If a liquidity fee is in place, all exchanges out of the fund will be subject to the liquidity fee, and if a redemption gate is in place, all exchanges out of the fund will be suspended. When a liquidity fee or redemption gate is in place, the fund may elect to not permit the purchase of shares or to subject the purchase of shares to certain conditions, which may include affirmation of the purchaser’s knowledge that a liquidity fee or a redemption gate is in effect.

Omnibus Accounts If your shares are held through a financial intermediary, T. Rowe Price may rely on the financial intermediary to assess any applicable liquidity fees or impose redemption gates on underlying shareholder accounts. In certain situations, T. Rowe Price enters into agreements with financial intermediaries maintaining omnibus accounts that require the financial intermediary to assess liquidity fees or redemption gates. There are no assurances that T. Rowe Price will be successful in ensuring that all financial intermediaries will properly assess the fees.

Please refer to Sections 1 and 2 of the retail money market fund prospectuses for more information regarding liquidity fees and redemption gates.

Large Redemptions

Large redemptions (for example, $250,000 or more) can adversely affect a portfolio manager’s ability to implement a fund’s investment strategy by causing the premature sale of securities that would otherwise be held longer. Therefore, the fund reserves the right (without prior notice) to redeem in-kind. In general, any redemptions in-kind will represent a pro-rata


   

INFORMATION ABOUT ACCOUNTS IN T. ROWE PRICE FUNDS

55

distribution of a fund’s securities, subject to certain limited exceptions. The redeeming shareholder will be responsible for disposing of the securities, and the shareholder will be subject to the risks that the value of the securities could decline prior to their sale, the securities could be difficult to sell, and brokerage fees could be incurred. If you continue to hold the securities, you may be subject to any ownership restrictions imposed by the issuers. For example, real estate investment trusts (REITs) often impose ownership restrictions on their equity securities. In addition, we request that you give us at least three business days’ notice for any redemption of $5 million or more.

Delays in Sending Redemption Proceeds

The T. Rowe Price Funds typically expect that redemption requests will be paid out to redeeming shareholders by the business day following the receipt of a redemption request that is in correct form, regardless of the method the fund uses to make such payment (for example, check, wire, or Automated Clearing House transfer). Checks are typically mailed on the business day after the redemption, proceeds sent by wire are typically credited to your financial institution the business day after the redemption, and proceeds sent by Automated Clearing House are typically credited to your financial institution on the second business day after the redemption. However, under certain circumstances, and when deemed to be in a fund’s best interests, proceeds may not be sent for up to seven calendar days after receipt of a valid redemption order (for example, during periods of deteriorating or stressed market conditions or during extraordinary or emergency circumstances).

In addition, if shares are sold that were just purchased and paid for by check or Automated Clearing House transfer, the fund will process your redemption but will generally delay sending the proceeds for up to seven calendar days to allow the check or Automated Clearing House transfer to clear. If, during the clearing period, we receive a check drawn against your newly purchased shares, it will be returned and marked “uncollected.” (The seven-day hold does not apply to purchases paid for by bank wire or automatic purchases through payroll deduction.)

The Board of a retail money market fund may temporarily suspend redemptions from the fund for up to 10 business days during any 90-day period (i.e., a “redemption gate”) and elect to temporarily suspend redemptions for up to 10 business days in a 90-day period if the fund’s weekly liquid assets fall below 30% of its total assets and the fund’s Board determines that imposing a redemption gate is in the fund’s best interests. In addition, under certain limited circumstances, the Board of a money market fund may elect to permanently suspend redemptions in order to facilitate an orderly liquidation of the fund (subject to any additional liquidation requirements).

Involuntary Redemptions and Share Class Conversions

Since nongovernment money market funds that operate as retail money market funds are required to limit their beneficial owners to natural persons, shares held directly by an investor or through a financial intermediary in these funds that are not eligible to invest in a retail money market fund are subject to involuntary redemption at any time without prior notice.


   

T. ROWE PRICE

56

Shares held by any investors or financial intermediaries that are no longer eligible to invest in the I Class or who fail to meet or maintain their account(s) at the investment minimum are subject to involuntary redemption or conversion to the Investor Class of the same fund (which may have a higher expense ratio). Investments in Advisor Class shares that are no longer held through an eligible financial intermediary may be automatically converted by T. Rowe Price to the Investor Class of the same fund following notice to the financial intermediary or shareholder. Investments in R Class shares that are no longer held on behalf of an employer-sponsored defined contribution retirement plan or other eligible R Class account or that are not held through an eligible financial intermediary may be automatically converted by T. Rowe Price to the Investor Class or Advisor Class of the same fund following notice to the financial intermediary or shareholder.

Excessive and Short-Term Trading Policy

Excessive transactions and short-term trading can be harmful to fund shareholders in various ways, such as disrupting a fund’s portfolio management strategies, increasing a fund’s trading and other costs, and negatively affecting its performance. Short-term traders in funds that invest in foreign securities may seek to take advantage of developments overseas that could lead to an anticipated difference between the price of the funds’ shares and price movements in foreign markets. While there is no assurance that T. Rowe Price can prevent all excessive and short-term trading, the Boards of the T. Rowe Price Funds have adopted the following trading limits that are designed to deter such activity and protect the funds’ shareholders. The funds may revise their trading limits and procedures at any time as the Boards deem necessary or appropriate to better detect short-term trading that may adversely affect the funds, to comply with applicable regulatory requirements, or to impose additional or alternative restrictions.

Subject to certain exceptions, each T. Rowe Price Fund restricts a shareholder’s purchases (including through exchanges) into a fund account for a period of 30 calendar days after the shareholder has redeemed or exchanged out of that same fund account (the “30-Day Purchase Block”). The calendar day after the date of redemption is considered Day 1 for purposes of computing the period before another purchase may be made.

General Exceptions As of the date of this prospectus, the following types of transactions generally are not subject to the funds’ excessive and short-term trading policy:

·   Shares purchased or redeemed in money market funds and ultra-short-term bond funds;

·   Shares purchased or redeemed through a systematic purchase or withdrawal plan;

·   Checkwriting redemptions from bond funds and money market funds;

·   Shares purchased through the reinvestment of dividends or capital gain distributions;

·   Shares redeemed automatically by a fund to pay fund fees or shareholder account fees;

·   Transfers and changes of account registration within the same fund;

·   Shares purchased by asset transfer or direct rollover;

·   Shares purchased or redeemed through IRA conversions and recharacterizations;

·   Shares redeemed to return an excess contribution from a retirement account;

·   Transactions in Section 529 college savings plans;


   

INFORMATION ABOUT ACCOUNTS IN T. ROWE PRICE FUNDS

57

·   Certain transactions in defined benefit and nonqualified plans, subject to prior approval by T. Rowe Price;

·   Shares converted from one share class to another share class in the same fund;

·   Shares of T. Rowe Price Funds that are purchased by another T. Rowe Price Fund, including shares purchased by T. Rowe Price fund-of-funds products, and shares purchased by discretionary accounts managed by T. Rowe Price or one of its affiliates (please note that shareholders of the investing T. Rowe Price Fund are still subject to the policy);

·   Transactions initiated by the trustee or adviser to a donor-advised charitable gift fund as approved by T. Rowe Price; and

·   Transactions having a value of $5,000 or less (retirement plans, including those for which T. Rowe Price serves as recordkeeper, and other financial intermediaries may apply the excessive and short-term trading policy to transactions of any amount).

Transactions in certain rebalancing, asset allocation, wrap, and other advisory programs (including the T. Rowe Price® ActivePlus Portfolios program), as well as non-T. Rowe Price fund-of-funds products, may also be exempt from the 30-Day Purchase Block, subject to prior written approval by T. Rowe Price.

In addition to restricting transactions in accordance with the 30-Day Purchase Block, T. Rowe Price may, in its discretion, reject (or instruct a financial intermediary to reject) any purchase or exchange into a fund from a person (which includes individuals and entities) whose trading activity could disrupt the management of the fund or dilute the value of the fund’s shares, including trading by persons acting collectively (for example, following the advice of a newsletter). Such persons may be barred, without prior notice, from further purchases of T. Rowe Price Funds for a period longer than 30 calendar days, or permanently.

Financial Intermediary and Retirement Plan Accounts If you invest in T. Rowe Price Funds through a financial intermediary, including a retirement plan, you should review the financial intermediary’s or retirement plan’s materials carefully or consult with the financial intermediary or plan sponsor directly to determine the trading policy that will apply to your trades in the T. Rowe Price Funds as well as any other rules or conditions on transactions that may apply. If T. Rowe Price is unable to identify a transaction placed through a financial intermediary as exempt from the excessive trading policy, the 30-Day Purchase Block may apply.

Financial intermediaries, including retirement plans, may maintain their underlying accounts directly with the fund, although they often establish an omnibus account (one account with the fund that represents multiple underlying shareholder accounts) on behalf of their customers. When financial intermediaries establish omnibus accounts in the T. Rowe Price Funds, T. Rowe Price is not able to monitor the trading activity of the underlying shareholders. However, T. Rowe Price monitors aggregate trading activity at the financial intermediary (omnibus account) level in an attempt to identify activity that indicates potential excessive or short-term trading. If it detects such trading activity, T. Rowe Price may contact the financial intermediary to request personal identifying information and transaction histories for some or all underlying shareholders (including plan participants, if applicable) pursuant to a written


   

T. ROWE PRICE

58

agreement that T. Rowe Price has entered into with each financial intermediary. Any nonpublic personal information provided to the fund (for example, a shareholder’s taxpayer identification number or transaction records) is subject to the fund’s privacy policy. If T. Rowe Price believes that excessive or short-term trading has occurred and there is no exception for such trades under the funds’ Excessive and Short-Term Trading Policy as previously described, it will instruct the financial intermediary to impose restrictions to discourage such practices and take appropriate action with respect to the underlying shareholder, including restricting purchases for 30 calendar days or longer. Each financial intermediary has agreed to execute such instructions pursuant to a written agreement. There is no assurance that T. Rowe Price will be able to properly enforce its excessive trading policies for omnibus accounts. Because T. Rowe Price generally relies on financial intermediaries to provide information and impose restrictions for omnibus accounts, its ability to monitor and deter excessive trading will be dependent upon the intermediaries’ timely performance of their responsibilities.

For shares that are held in a retirement plan, generally the 30-Day Purchase Block applies only to shares redeemed by a participant-directed exchange to another fund. However, the 30-Day Purchase Block may apply to transactions other than exchanges depending on how shares of the plan are held at T. Rowe Price or the excessive trading policy applied by your plan’s recordkeeper.

T. Rowe Price may allow a financial intermediary, including a retirement plan, to maintain restrictions on trading in the T. Rowe Price Funds that differ from the 30-Day Purchase Block. An alternative excessive trading policy would be acceptable to T. Rowe Price if it believes that the policy would provide sufficient protection to the T. Rowe Price Funds and their shareholders that is consistent with the excessive trading policy adopted by the funds’ Boards.

There is no guarantee that T. Rowe Price will be able to identify or prevent all excessive or short-term trades or trading practices.

Unclaimed Accounts and Uncashed Checks

If your account has no activity for a certain period of time and/or mail sent to you from T. Rowe Price is deemed undeliverable, T. Rowe Price may be required to transfer (i.e., escheat) your account assets, including any assets related to uncashed checks to the appropriate state under its abandoned property laws. For IRA accounts escheated to a state under these abandoned property laws, the escheatment will be treated as a taxable distribution to you and federal and any applicable state income tax will be withheld. This may also apply to your Roth IRA as well (see the T. Rowe Price Traditional and Roth IRA Disclosure and Custodial Agreement and/or the T. Rowe Price SIMPLE IRA Disclosure Statement and Custodial Agreement for more information). To avoid such action, it is important to keep your account address up to date and periodically communicate with T. Rowe Price by contacting us or logging in to your account at least once every two years.

Delivery of Shareholder Documents

If two or more accounts own the same fund, share the same address, and T. Rowe Price reasonably believes that the two accounts are part of the same household or institution, we may


   

INFORMATION ABOUT ACCOUNTS IN T. ROWE PRICE FUNDS

59

economize on fund expenses by mailing only one shareholder report and summary prospectus or prospectus, as applicable, for the fund. If you need additional copies or do not want your mailings to be “householded,” please call Shareholder Services.

T. Rowe Price can deliver account statements, transaction confirmations, prospectuses, tax forms, and shareholder reports electronically. If you are a registered user of troweprice.com, you can consent to the electronic delivery of these documents by logging in and changing your mailing preferences. You can revoke your consent at any time through troweprice.com, and we will begin to send paper copies of these documents within a reasonable time after receiving your revocation.

Signature Guarantees

A Medallion signature guarantee is designed to protect you and the T. Rowe Price Funds from fraud by verifying your signature.

A shareholder or financial intermediary may need to obtain a Medallion signature guarantee in certain situations, such as:

·   Requests to wire redemption proceeds when bank account information is not already authorized and on file for an account;

·   Remitting redemption proceeds to any person, address, or bank account not on file;

·   Establishing certain services after an account is opened; or

·   Changing the account registration or broker-dealer of record for an account.

Financial intermediaries should contact T. Rowe Price Financial Institution Services for specific requirements.

The signature guarantee must be obtained from a financial institution that is a participant in a Medallion signature guarantee program. You can obtain a Medallion signature guarantee from certain banks, savings institutions, broker-dealers, and other guarantors acceptable to T. Rowe Price. When obtaining a Medallion signature guarantee, please discuss with the guarantor the dollar amount of your proposed transaction. It is important that the level of coverage provided by the guarantor’s stamp covers the dollar amount of the transaction or it may be rejected. We cannot accept guarantees from notaries public or organizations that do not provide reimbursement in the case of fraud.

Fund Operations and Shareholder Services

T. Rowe Price and The Bank of New York Mellon, subject to the oversight of T. Rowe Price, each provide certain accounting services to the T. Rowe Price Funds. T. Rowe Price Services, Inc., acts as the transfer agent and dividend disbursing agent and provides shareholder and administrative services to the funds. T. Rowe Price Retirement Plan Services, Inc., provides recordkeeping, sub-transfer agency, and administrative services for certain types of retirement plans investing in the funds. These companies receive compensation from the funds for their services. The funds may also pay financial intermediaries for performing shareholder and administrative services for underlying shareholders in omnibus accounts. In addition, certain funds serve as an underlying fund in which some fund-of-funds products, the T. Rowe Price


   

T. ROWE PRICE

60

Spectrum and Retirement Funds, invest. Subject to approval by each applicable fund’s Board, each underlying fund bears its proportionate share of the direct operating expenses of the T. Rowe Price Spectrum and Retirement Funds. All of the fees previously discussed are included in a fund’s financial statements and, except for funds that have an all-inclusive management fee, are also reflected in the “Other expenses” line that appears in the table titled “Fees and Expenses of the Fund” in Section 1.

CONTACTING T. ROWE PRICE

If you hold shares of a fund through a financial intermediary, you must contact your financial intermediary to determine the requirements for opening a new account and placing transactions. Otherwise, please contact T. Rowe Price as follows:

   

Web

 

troweprice.com

For the most complete source of T. Rowe Price news
To open an account
For most account transactions

troweprice.com/paperless

To sign up for e-delivery of your statements, confirmations, prospectuses, reports, or proxies

Phone

 

Shareholder Services: 1-800-225-5132

To make a transaction, or for fund, account, and service information (for IRAs and nonretirement accounts)

Investor Services: 1-800-638-5660

To open an account (for IRAs and nonretirement accounts)

Financial Institution Services: 1-800-638-8790

For information and services for large institutional investors and financial intermediaries

Retirement Client Services: 1-800-492-7670

For information and services for small business retirement plans (or consult your plan administrator)

Select Client Services: 1-800-332-6161

Complimentary services and resources designed to help investors make informed investment decisions
Tiered client benefits based on asset level

Brokerage: 1-800-225-7720

If you hold your shares through a T. Rowe Price Brokerage account

Tele*Access®: 1-800-638-2587

To access information on fund performance, prices, account balances, and your latest transactions 24 hours a day
Please note that transactions cannot be placed through Tele*Access ®

Hearing Impaired

Call the applicable number with a relay operator; inquires may also be directed to info@troweprice.com


   

INFORMATION ABOUT ACCOUNTS IN T. ROWE PRICE FUNDS

61

T. Rowe Price Addresses

Please be sure to use the correct address to avoid a delay in opening your account or processing your transaction. These addresses are subject to change at any time, so please check troweprice.com/contactus or call the appropriate telephone number to ensure that you use the correct mailing address.

Investors (IRAs and nonretirement accounts) opening a new account or making additional purchases by check should use the following addresses:

   

via U.S. mail

T. Rowe Price Account Services
P.O. Box 17300
Baltimore, MD 21297-1300

via private carriers/overnight services

T. Rowe Price Account Services
Mail Code 17300
4515 Painters Mill Road
Owings Mills, MD 21117-4903

Investors (IRAs and nonretirement accounts) requesting an exchange or redemption should use the following addresses:

   

via U.S. mail

T. Rowe Price Account Services
P.O. Box 17468
Baltimore, MD 21298-8275

via private carriers/overnight services

T. Rowe Price Account Services
Mail Code 17468
4515 Painters Mill Road
Owings Mills, MD 21117-4903

Investors in a small business retirement plan opening a new account, making a purchase by check, or placing an exchange or redemption should use the following addresses:

   

via U.S. mail

T. Rowe Price Retirement Client Services
P.O. Box 17350
Baltimore, MD 21297-1350

via private carriers/overnight services

T. Rowe Price
Attn.: Retirement Operations
4515 Painters Mill Road
Owings Mills, MD 21117-4903

Institutional investors (including financial intermediaries) opening a new account, making a purchase by check, or placing an exchange or redemption should use the following addresses:

   

via U.S. mail

T. Rowe Price Financial Institution Services
P.O. Box 17300
Baltimore, MD 21297-1603

via private carriers/overnight services

T. Rowe Price Financial Institution Services
Mail Code: OM-4232
4515 Painters Mill Road
Owings Mills, MD 21117-4842

Note: Your transaction will receive the share price for the business day that the request is received by T. Rowe Price or its agent prior to the close of the NYSE (normally 4 p.m. ET), which could differ from the day that the request is received at the post office box.


   

T. ROWE PRICE

62

 
INFORMATION ON DISTRIBUTIONS AND TAXES

Each fund intends to qualify to be treated each year as a regulated investment company under Subchapter M of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended. In order to qualify, a fund must satisfy certain income, diversification, and distribution requirements. A regulated investment company is not subject to U.S. federal income tax at the portfolio level on income and gains from investments that are distributed to shareholders. However, if a fund were to fail to qualify as a regulated investment company and was ineligible to or otherwise did not cure such failure, the result would be fund-level taxation and, consequently, a reduction in income available for distribution to the fund’s shareholders.

To the extent possible, all net investment income and realized capital gains are distributed to shareholders.

Dividends and Other Distributions

Except for the Retirement Income 2020 Fund, dividend and capital gain distributions are reinvested in additional fund shares in your account unless you select another option. For the Retirement Income 2020 Fund, subject to certain exceptions, regularly scheduled monthly dividends may generally not be reinvested. Reinvesting distributions results in compounding, which allows you to receive dividends and capital gain distributions on an increasing number of shares.

Distributions not reinvested may be paid by check or transmitted to your bank account via Automated Clearing House or may be automatically invested into another fund account. For the Retirement Income 2020 Fund, regularly scheduled monthly dividends are generally not paid by check. If the U.S. Postal Service cannot deliver your check or if your check remains uncashed for six months, the fund reserves the right to reinvest your distribution check in your account at the net asset value on the day of the reinvestment and to reinvest all subsequent distributions in additional shares of the fund. Interest will not accrue on amounts represented by uncashed distributions or redemption checks.

The following table provides details on dividend payments:

   

Dividend Payment Schedule

Fund

Dividends

Money market funds

·   Shares purchased via wire that are received by T. Rowe Price by noon ET begin to earn dividends on that day. Shares purchased via a wire received after noon ET and through other methods normally begin to earn dividends on the business day after payment is received by T. Rowe Price.

·   Dividends are declared daily and paid on the first business day of each month.


   

INFORMATION ABOUT ACCOUNTS IN T. ROWE PRICE FUNDS

63

   

Dividend Payment Schedule

Fund

Dividends

Bond funds

·   Shares normally begin to earn dividends on the business day after payment is received by T. Rowe Price.

·   Dividends are declared daily and paid on the first business day of each month.

These stock funds only:

·   Balanced

·   Dividend Growth

·   Equity Income

·   Equity Index 500

·   Global Real Estate

·   Growth & Income

·   Spectrum Conservative Allocation

·   Spectrum Moderate Allocation

·   Real Estate

·   Dividends, if any, are declared and paid quarterly, in March, June, September, and December.

·   Must be a shareholder on the dividend record date.

Other stock funds

·   Dividends, if any, are declared and paid annually, generally in December.

·   Must be a shareholder on the dividend record date.

Retirement Income 2020

·   Dividends are declared and normally paid in the middle of each month.

Retirement Balanced, Retirement I Balanced—I Class, and
Spectrum Income

·   Shares normally begin to earn dividends on the business day after payment is received by T. Rowe Price.

·   Dividends are declared daily and paid on the first business day of each month.

All other Retirement, Retirement I, Spectrum, and Target Funds

·   Dividends, if any, are declared and paid annually, generally in December.

·   Must be a shareholder on the dividend record date.

For funds that declare dividends daily, shares earn dividends through the date of a redemption (for redemptions from money market funds where the request is received prior to noon ET and proceeds are sent via wire, shares only earn dividends through the calendar day prior to the date of redemption). Shares redeemed on a Friday or prior to a holiday will continue to earn dividends until the next business day. Generally, if you redeem all of your shares at any time during the month, you will also receive all dividends earned through the date of redemption in the same check. When you redeem only a portion of your shares, all dividends accrued on those shares will be reinvested, or paid in cash, on the next dividend payment date. The funds do not pay dividends in fractional cents. Any dividend amount earned for a particular day on all shares held that is one-half of one cent or greater (for example, $0.016) will be rounded up to the next whole cent ($0.02), and any amount that is less than one-half of one cent (for example, $0.014) will be rounded down to the nearest whole cent ($0.01). Please note that if the dividend payable on all shares held is less than one-half of one cent for a particular day, no dividend will be earned for that day.


   

T. ROWE PRICE

64

If you purchase and redeem your shares through a financial intermediary, consult your financial intermediary to determine when your shares begin and stop accruing dividends as the information previously described may vary.

Capital Gain Payments

A capital gain or loss is the difference between the purchase and sale price of a security. If a fund has net capital gains for the year (after subtracting any capital losses), they are usually declared and paid in December to shareholders of record on a specified date that month. If a second distribution is necessary, it is generally paid the following year. A fund may have to make additional capital gain distributions, if necessary, to comply with the applicable tax law. Capital gains are not expected from government or retail money market funds since they are managed to maintain a stable share price. However, if a money market fund unexpectedly has net capital gains for the year (after subtracting any capital losses), the capital gain may be declared and paid in December to shareholders of record.

Tax Information

In most cases, you will be provided information for your tax filing needs no later than mid-February.

If you invest in the fund through a tax-deferred account, such as an IRA or employer-sponsored retirement plan, you will not be subject to tax on dividends and distributions from the fund or the sale of fund shares if those amounts remain in the tax-deferred account. You may receive a Form 1099-R or other Internal Revenue Service forms, as applicable, if any portion of the account is distributed to you.

If you invest in the fund through a taxable account, you generally will be subject to tax when:

·   You sell fund shares, including an exchange from one fund to another.

·   The fund makes dividend or capital gain distributions.

Additional information about the taxation of dividends for certain T. Rowe Price Funds is listed below:

 

Tax-Free and Municipal Funds

·   Regular monthly dividends (including those from the state-specific tax-free funds) are expected to be exempt from federal income taxes.

·   Exemption is not guaranteed since the fund has the right under certain conditions to invest in nonexempt securities.

·   Tax-exempt dividends paid to Social Security recipients may increase the portion of benefits that is subject to tax.

·   For state-specific funds, the monthly dividends you receive are expected to be exempt from state and local income tax of that particular state. For other funds, a small portion of your income dividend may be exempt from state and local income taxes.

·   If a fund invests in certain “private activity” bonds that are not exempt from the alternative minimum tax, shareholders who are subject to the alternative minimum tax must include income generated by those bonds in their alternative minimum tax calculation. The portion of a fund’s income dividend that should be included in your alternative minimum tax calculation, if any, will be reported to you by mid-February on Form 1099-DIV.


   

INFORMATION ABOUT ACCOUNTS IN T. ROWE PRICE FUNDS

65

For individual shareholders, a portion of ordinary dividends representing “qualified dividend income” received by the fund may be subject to tax at the lower rates applicable to long-term capital gains rather than ordinary income. You may report it as “qualified dividend income” in computing your taxes, provided you have held the fund shares on which the dividend was paid for more than 60 days during the 121-day period beginning 60 days before the ex-dividend date. Ordinary dividends that do not qualify for this lower rate are generally taxable at the investor’s marginal income tax rate. This includes the portion of ordinary dividends derived from interest, short-term capital gains, income and gains from derivatives, distributions from nonqualified foreign corporations, distributions from real estate investment trusts, and dividends received by the fund from stocks that were on loan. For taxable years ending after December 31, 2017, and before January 1, 2026, you are generally allowed a deduction up to 20% on your qualified REIT dividends. You may not take this deduction for a dividend on shares of a fund that have been held for less than 46 days during the 91-day period beginning on the date 45 days before the ex-dividend date. Little, if any, of the ordinary dividends paid by the bond funds or money market funds is expected to qualify for treatment as qualified dividend income or qualified REIT dividends.

For corporate shareholders, a portion of ordinary dividends may be eligible for the deduction for dividends received by corporations to the extent the fund’s income consists of dividends paid by U.S. corporations. Little, if any, of the ordinary dividends paid by the international stock funds, bond funds, or money market funds is expected to qualify for this deduction.

A 3.8% net investment income tax is imposed on net investment income, including interest, dividends, and capital gains of U.S. individuals with income exceeding $200,000 (or $250,000 if married filing jointly) and of estates and trusts.

If you hold your fund through a financial intermediary, the financial intermediary is responsible for providing you with any necessary tax forms. You should contact your financial intermediary for the tax information that will be sent to you and reported to the Internal Revenue Service.

Taxes on Fund Redemptions

When you sell shares in any fund, you may realize a gain or loss. An exchange from one fund to another fund in a taxable account is also a sale for tax purposes. As long as a money market fund maintains a stable share price of $1.00, a redemption or exchange to another fund will not result in a gain or loss for tax purposes. However, an exchange from one fund into a money market fund may result in a gain or loss on the fund from which shares were redeemed.

All or a portion of the loss realized from a sale or exchange of your fund shares may be disallowed under the “wash sale” rule if you purchase substantially identical shares within a 61-day period beginning 30 days before and ending 30 days after the date on which the shares are sold or exchanged. Shares of the same fund you acquire through dividend reinvestment are shares purchased for the purpose of the wash sale rule and may trigger a disallowance of the loss for shares sold or exchanged within the 61-day period of the dividend reinvestment. Any loss disallowed under the wash sale rule is added to the cost basis of the purchased shares.


   

T. ROWE PRICE

66

T. Rowe Price (or your financial intermediary) will make available to you Form 1099-B, if applicable, no later than mid-February, providing certain information for each sale you made in the fund during the prior year. Unless otherwise indicated on your Form 1099-B, this information will also be reported to the Internal Revenue Service. For mutual fund shares acquired prior to 2012 in most accounts established or opened by exchange in 1984 or later, our Form 1099-B will provide you with the gain or loss on the shares you sold during the year based on the average cost single category method. This information on average cost and gain or loss from sale is not reported to the Internal Revenue Service. For these mutual fund shares acquired prior to 2012, you may calculate the cost basis using other methods acceptable to the Internal Revenue Service, such as specific identification.

For mutual fund shares acquired after 2011, federal income tax regulations require us to report the cost basis information on Form 1099-B using a cost basis method selected by the shareholder in compliance with such regulations or, in the absence of such selected method, our default method if you acquire your shares directly from T. Rowe Price. Our default method is average cost. For any fund shares acquired through a financial intermediary after 2011, you should check with your financial intermediary regarding the applicable cost basis method. You should note that the cost basis information reported to you may not always be the same as what you should report on your tax return because the rules applicable to the determination of cost basis on Form 1099-B may be different from the rules applicable to the determination of cost basis for reporting on your tax return. Therefore, you should save your transaction records to make sure the information reported on your tax return is accurate. T. Rowe Price and financial intermediaries are not required to issue a Form 1099-B to report sales of money market fund shares.

To help you maintain accurate records, T. Rowe Price will make available to you a confirmation promptly following each transaction you make (except for systematic purchases and systematic redemptions) and a year-end statement detailing all of your transactions in each fund account during the year. If you hold your fund through a financial intermediary, the financial intermediary is responsible for providing you with transaction confirmations and statements.

Taxes on Fund Distributions

T. Rowe Price (or your financial intermediary) will make available to you, as applicable, generally no later than mid-February, a Form 1099-DIV, or other Internal Revenue Service forms, as required, indicating the tax status of any income dividends, dividends exempt from federal income taxes, and capital gain distributions made to you. This information will be reported to the Internal Revenue Service. Taxable distributions are generally taxable to you in the year in which they are paid. A dividend declared in October, November, or December and paid in the following January is generally treated as taxable to you as if you received the distribution in December. Dividends from tax-free funds are generally expected to be tax-exempt for federal income tax purposes. Your bond fund and money market fund dividends for each calendar year will include dividends accrued up to the first business day of the next calendar year. Ordinary dividends and capital gain dividends may also be subject to state and


   

INFORMATION ABOUT ACCOUNTS IN T. ROWE PRICE FUNDS

67

local taxes. You will be sent any additional information you need to determine your taxes on fund distributions, such as the portion of your dividends, if any, that may be exempt from state and local income taxes.

Taxable distributions are subject to tax whether reinvested in additional shares or received in cash.

The tax treatment of a capital gain distribution is determined by how long the fund held the portfolio securities, not how long you held the shares in the fund. Short-term (one year or less) capital gain distributions are taxable at the same rate as ordinary income, and gains on securities held for more than one year are taxed at the lower rates applicable to long-term capital gains. If you realized a loss on the sale or exchange of fund shares that you held for six months or less, your short-term capital loss must be reclassified as a long-term capital loss to the extent of any long-term capital gain distributions received during the period you held the shares. For funds investing in foreign instruments, distributions resulting from the sale of certain foreign currencies, currency contracts, and the foreign currency portion of gains on debt instruments are taxed as ordinary income. Net foreign currency losses may cause monthly or quarterly dividends to be reclassified as returns of capital.

A fund’s distributions that have exceeded the fund’s earnings and profits for the relevant tax year may be treated as a return of capital to its shareholders. A return of capital distribution is generally nontaxable but reduces the shareholder’s cost basis in the fund, and any return of capital in excess of the cost basis will result in a capital gain.

The tax status of certain distributions may be recharacterized on year-end tax forms, such as your Form 1099-DIV. Distributions made by a fund may later be recharacterized for federal income tax purposes—for example, from taxable ordinary income dividends to returns of capital. A recharacterization of distributions may occur for a number of reasons, including the recharacterization of income received from underlying investments, such as REITs, and distributions that exceed taxable income due to losses from foreign currency transactions or other investment transactions. Certain funds, including international bond funds and funds that invest significantly in REITs, are more likely to recharacterize a portion of their distributions as a result of their investments. The Retirement Income 2020 Fund is also more likely to have some or all of its distributions recharacterized as returns of capital because of the predetermined monthly distribution amount.

If the fund qualifies and elects to pass through nonrefundable foreign income taxes paid to foreign governments during the year, your portion of such taxes will be reported to you as taxable income. However, you may be able to claim an offsetting credit or deduction on your tax return for those amounts. There can be no assurance that a fund will meet the requirements to pass through foreign income taxes paid.

If you are subject to backup withholding, we will have to withhold a 24% backup withholding tax on distributions and, in some cases, redemption payments. You may be subject to backup withholding if we are notified by the Internal Revenue Service to withhold, you have failed one or more tax certification requirements, or our records indicate that your tax identification


   

T. ROWE PRICE

68

number is missing or incorrect. Backup withholding is not an additional tax and is generally available to credit against your federal income tax liability with any excess refunded to you by the Internal Revenue Service.

The following table provides additional details on distributions for certain funds:

 

Taxes on Fund Distributions

Tax-Free and Municipal Funds

·   Gains realized on the sale of market discount bonds with maturities beyond one year may be treated as ordinary income and cannot be offset by other capital losses.

·   Payments received or gains realized on certain derivative transactions may result in taxable ordinary income or capital gains.

·   To the extent the fund makes such investments, the likelihood of a taxable distribution will be increased.

Limited Duration Inflation Focused Bond and Inflation Protected Bond Funds

·   Inflation adjustments on Treasury Inflation Protected Securities that exceed deflation adjustments for the year will be distributed as a short-term capital gain, resulting in ordinary income.

·   In computing the distribution amount, the funds cannot reduce inflation adjustments by short- or long-term capital losses from the sales of securities.

·   Net deflation adjustments for a year may result in all or a portion of dividends paid earlier in the year being treated as a return of capital. 

Retirement, Retirement I, Spectrum, and Target Funds

·   Distributions by the underlying funds and changes in asset allocations may result in taxable distributions of ordinary income or capital gains.

Tax Consequences of Liquidity Fees

It is currently anticipated that shareholders of retail money market funds that impose a liquidity fee may generally treat the liquidity fee as offsetting the shareholder’s amount realized on the redemption (thereby decreasing the shareholder’s gain, or increasing the shareholder’s loss, on the redeemed amount). A fund that imposes a liquidity fee anticipates using 100% of the fee to help repair a market-based net asset value per share that was below $1.00.

Because the retail money market funds use amortized cost to maintain a stable share price of $1.00, in the event that a liquidity fee is imposed, a fund may need to distribute to its remaining shareholders sufficient value to prevent the fund from breaking the buck on the upside (i.e., by rounding up to $1.01 in pricing its shares) if the imposition of a liquidity fee causes the fund’s market-based net asset value to reach $1.0050. To the extent that a fund has sufficient earnings and profits to support the distribution, the additional dividends would be taxable as ordinary income to shareholders and would be eligible for deduction by the fund. Any distribution in excess of the fund’s earnings and profits would be treated as a return of capital, which would reduce your cost basis in the fund shares.

Tax Consequences of Hedging

Entering into certain transactions involving options, futures, swaps, and forward currency exchange contracts may result in the application of the mark-to-market and straddle provisions of the Internal Revenue Code. These provisions could result in a fund being required to


   

INFORMATION ABOUT ACCOUNTS IN T. ROWE PRICE FUNDS

69

distribute gains on such transactions even though it did not close the contracts during the year or receive cash to pay such distributions. The fund may not be able to reduce its distributions for losses on such transactions to the extent of unrealized gains in offsetting positions.

Tax Effect of Buying Shares Before an Income Dividend or Capital Gain Distribution

If you buy shares shortly before or on the record date—the date that establishes you as the person to receive the upcoming distribution—you may receive a portion of the money you just invested in the form of a taxable distribution. Therefore, you may wish to find out a fund’s record date before investing. In addition, a fund’s share price may, at any time, reflect undistributed capital gains or income and unrealized appreciation, which may result in future taxable distributions. Such distributions can occur even in a year when the fund has a negative return.

RIGHTS RESERVED BY THE FUNDS

T. Rowe Price Funds and their agents, in their sole discretion, reserve the following rights: (1) to waive or lower investment minimums; (2) to accept initial purchases by telephone; (3) to refuse any purchase or exchange order; (4) to cancel or rescind any purchase or exchange order placed through a financial intermediary no later than the business day after the order is received by the financial intermediary (including, but not limited to, orders deemed to result in excessive trading, market timing, or 5% ownership); (5) to cease offering fund shares at any time to all or certain groups of investors; (6) to freeze any account and suspend account services when notice has been received of a dispute regarding the ownership of the account, or a legal claim against an account, upon initial notification to T. Rowe Price of a shareholder’s death until T. Rowe Price receives required documentation in correct form, or if there is reason to believe a fraudulent transaction may occur; (7) to otherwise modify the conditions of purchase and modify or terminate any services at any time; (8) to waive any wire, small account, maintenance, or fiduciary fees charged to a group of shareholders; (9) to act on instructions reasonably believed to be genuine; (10) to involuntarily redeem an account at the net asset value calculated the day the account is redeemed when permitted by law, including in cases of threatening conduct, or suspected fraudulent or illegal activity, or if the fund or its agent is unable, through its procedures, to verify the identity of the person(s) or entity opening an account; and (11) for money market funds, to suspend redemptions to facilitate an orderly liquidation.


The fund’s Statement of Additional Information, which contains a more detailed description of the fund’s operations, investment restrictions, policies and practices, has been filed with the SEC. The Statement of Additional Information is incorporated by reference into this prospectus, which means that it is legally part of this prospectus even if you do not request a copy. Further information about the fund’s investments, including a review of market conditions and the manager’s recent investment strategies and their impact on performance during the past fiscal year, is available in the annual and semiannual shareholder reports. These documents and updated performance information are available through troweprice.com. For inquiries about the fund and to obtain free copies of any of these documents, call 1-800-638-5660. If you invest in the fund through a financial intermediary, you should contact your financial intermediary for copies of these documents.

Fund reports and other fund information are available on the EDGAR Database on the SEC’s internet site at http://www.sec.gov. Copies of this information may be obtained, after paying a duplicating fee, by electronic request at publicinfo@sec.gov.

   

 

T. Rowe Price Associates, Inc.
100 East Pratt Street
Baltimore, MD 21202

 
   

1940 Act File No. 811-07173

F102-040 10/1/20